Science.gov

Sample records for chemical wood pulp

  1. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but is not limited...

  2. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but...

  3. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but...

  4. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but...

  5. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but is not limited...

  6. Coagulation of wood extractives in chemical pulp bleaching filtrate by cationic polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, T; Rämö, J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of short-chain cationic polyelectrolytes of different molecular weights and charge densities in reducing turbidity and selectively removing toxic wood extractives from chemical birch pulp filtrate. The effects of chemical type, dosage and temperature were of interest. An effective performance was achieved with a copolymer of acrylamide and methacrylate of medium molecular weight and medium charge density at 72 degrees C and pH 5-6. The dosage range optimum for reducing the turbidity was 102-142 mg/L. Up to 92% of the wood extractives was selectively removed.

  7. Raman spectroscopic characterization of wood and pulp fibers

    Treesearch

    Umesh Prasad Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews applications of Raman spectroscopy in the field of wood and pulp fibers. Most of the literature examined was published between 1998 and 2006. In addition to introduction, this chapter contains sections on wood and components, mechanical pulp, chemical pulp, modified/treated wood, cellulose I crystallinity of wood fibers, and the self-absorption...

  8. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  9. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  10. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  11. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  12. Structural differences between the lignin-carbohydrate complexes present in wood and in chemical pulps.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, Martin; Henriksson, Gunnar; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2005-01-01

    Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) were prepared in quantitative yield from spruce wood and from the corresponding kraft and oxygen-delignified pulps and were separated into different fractions on the basis of their carbohydrate composition. To obtain an understanding of the differences in lignin structure and reactivity within the various LCC fractions, thioacidolysis in combination with gas chromatography was used to quantify the content of beta-O-4 structures in the lignin. Periodate oxidation followed by determination of methanol was used to quantify the phenolic hydroxyl groups. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the thioacidolysis fractions was used to monitor any differences between the original molecular size distribution and that after the delignification processes. Characteristic differences between the various LCC fractions were observed, clearly indicating that two different forms of lignin are present in the wood fiber wall. These forms are linked to glucomannan and xylan, respectively. On pulping, the different LCCs have different reactivities. The xylan-linked lignin is to a large extent degraded, whereas the glucomannan-linked lignin undergoes a partial condensation to form more high molecular mass material. The latter seems to be rather unchanged during a subsequent oxygen-delignification stage. On the basis of these findings, a modified arrangement of the fiber wall polymers is suggested.

  13. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Treesearch

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  14. Polyoxometalates in oxidative delignification of chemical pulps: effect on lignin

    Treesearch

    Biljana Bujanovic; Sally Ralph; Richard Reiner; Kolby Hirth; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pulps are produced by chemical delignification of lignocelluloses such as wood or annual non-woody plants. After pulping (e.g., kraft pulping), the remaining lignin is removed by bleaching to produce a high quality, bright paper. The goal of bleaching is to remove lignin from the pulp without a negative effect on the cellulose; for this reason, delignification...

  15. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  16. Chemical composition and pulping of date palm rachis and Posidonia oceanica--a comparison with other wood and non-wood fibre sources.

    PubMed

    Khiari, R; Mhenni, M F; Belgacem, M N; Mauret, E

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the valorisation of two residues: Posidonia oceanica and date palm rachis was investigated. First, their chemical composition was studied and showed that they present amounts of holocellulose, lignin and cellulose similar to those encountered in softwood and hardwood. Extractives in different solvents and ash contents are relatively high. Moreover, ash composition assessment showed that silicon is the major component (17.7%) for P. oceanica. The high ash quantity and the low DP (about 370) may be considered as serious disadvantages of P. oceanica, in the pulping and papermaking context. Oppositely, the properties of rachis date palm and those of the ensuing pulp, obtained from a classical soda-anthraquinone cooking, demonstrated the suitability of this agricultural by-product for papermaking. Preliminary tests conducted on unrefined pulp suspensions and handsheets from date palm rachis in terms of freeness, Water Retention Value and mechanical properties allowed confirming the good quality of date palm rachis fibres.

  17. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  18. Method for Improving Separation of Carbohydrates from Wood Pulping Liquors and Wood or Biomass Hydrolysis Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Marcoccia, B S; Elliott, J

    2012-08-31

    Work with industrial partners to perform the studies needed to commercialize U.S. patent 7,699,958 for separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping liquors and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors. These include: 1) selection of the best pulp mill liquor withdrawal sites, 2) additional purification or enzyme hydrolysis required to obtain acceptable sugar feedstocks, 3) and work with partners to optimize the stream and purification methods to provide acceptable feedstocks for algal fuels and industrial chemicals production, and 4) preparation of samples large enough for testing by downstream partners.

  19. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic studies of a novel wood pulp bleaching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, Ira A.; Atalla, Rajai H.; Agarwal, Umesh P.; Minor, James L.; Petty, Chris

    1993-06-01

    The use of near-infrared (NIR) Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy for the study of lignocellulosic materials is discussed. An application utilizing NIR FT-Raman spectroscopy to study a novel chlorine-free process for the bleaching of wood pulps is presented in detail. The new process, still under development, entails the oxidation of residual lignin in wood pulps by vanadium-substituted polyoxometalates, and reoxidation of the reduced polyoxometalates by chlorine-free oxidants such as air, dioxygen, peroxides or ozone. Results from FT-Raman measurements of polyoxometalate-treated pulps are compared with those from chemical, spectroscopic and optical techniques commonly used in the pulp and paper industry.

  20. The effect of chemical composition on microfibrillar cellulose films from wood pulps: mechanical processing and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Spence, Kelley L; Venditti, Richard A; Habibi, Youssef; Rojas, Orlando J; Pawlak, Joel J

    2010-08-01

    Films of microfibrillated celluloses (MFCs) from pulps of different yields, containing varying amounts of extractives, lignin, and hemicelluloses, were produced by combining refining and high-pressure homogenization techniques. MFC films were produced using a casting-evaporation technique and the physical and mechanical properties (including density, roughness, fold endurance and tensile properties) were determined. Homogenization of bleached and unbleached Kraft pulps gave rise to highly individualized MFCs, but not for thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). The resulting MFC films had a roughness equivalent to the surface upon which the films were cast. Interestingly, after homogenization, the presence of lignin significantly increased film toughness, tensile index, and elastic modulus. The hornification of fibers through a drying and rewetting cycle prior to refining and homogenization did not produce any significant effect compared to films from never-dried fibers, indicating that MFC films can potentially be made from low-cost recycled cellulosic materials.

  1. Chemical modification of wood

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  2. Biological bleaching of chemical pulps.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Pratima

    2004-01-01

    Use of biotechnology in pulp bleaching has attracted considerable attention and achieved interesting results in recent years. Enzymes of the hemicellulolytic type, particularly xylan-attacking enzymes, xylanases are now used commercially in the mills for pulp treatment and subsequent incorporation into bleach sequences. The aims of the enzymatic treatment depend on the actual mill conditions and may be related to environmental demands, reduction of chemical costs or maintenance or even improvement of product quality. The use of oxidative enzymes from white-rot fungi, that can directly attack lignin, is a second-generation approach, which could produce larger chemical savings than xylanase but has not yet been developed to the full scale. It is being studied in several laboratories in Canada, Japan, the U.S.A. and Europe. Certain white-rot fungi can delignify kraft pulps increasing their brightness and their responsiveness to brightening with chemicals. The fungal treatments are too slow but the enzyme manganese peroxidase and laccase can also delignify pulps and enzymatic processes are likely to be easier to optimize and apply than the fungal treatments. Development work on laccase and manganese peroxidase continues. This article presents an overview of developments in the application of hemicellulase enzymes, lignin-oxidizing enzymes and white-rot fungi in bleaching of chemical pulps. The basic enzymology involved and the present knowledge of the mechanisms of the action of enzymes as well as the practical results and advantages obtained on the laboratory and industrial scale are discussed.

  3. Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry -- Background information for promulgated air emission standards: Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, semi-chemical, mechanical, and secondary and non-wood fiber mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being promulgated for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the promulgated pulp and paper NESHAP, and contains responses to comments from the proposed rule. This document covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills (i.e., mills that combine on-site production of both pulp and paper).

  4. Harvesting and utilizing wood and wood by-products for chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Wood has been a source of chemicals since the beginning of recorded history. Naval Stores, chestnut for tannic acid, and hardwood chemical wood for destructive distillation producing charcoal, methanol and acetic acid are a few examples. In recent years, wood for the production of pulp, paper and chemical cellulose is now the largest chemical feedstock component. Current awareness of the limitations on the supply of natural gas and petroleum available to us brings to mind the fact that many of the products derived from petroleum can also be derived from wood.

  5. Polyoxometalates in Oxidative Delignification of Chemical Pulps: Effect on Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Bujanovic, Biljana; Ralph, Sally; Reiner, Richard; Hirth, Kolby; Atalla, Rajai

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pulps are produced by chemical delignification of lignocelluloses such as wood or annual non-woody plants. After pulping (e.g., kraft pulping), the remaining lignin is removed by bleaching to produce a high quality, bright paper. The goal of bleaching is to remove lignin from the pulp without a negative effect on the cellulose; for this reason, delignification should be performed in a highly selective manner. New environmentally-friendly alternatives to conventional chlorine-based bleaching technologies (e.g., oxygen, ozone, or peroxide bleaching) have been suggested or implemented. In an attempt to find inorganic agents that mimic the action of highly selective lignin-degrading enzymes and that can be applicable in industrial conditions, the researchers have focused on polyoxometalates (POMs), used either as regenerable redox reagents (in anaerobic conditions) or as catalysts (in aerobic conditions) of oxidative delignification. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of POM delignification in these two processes.

  6. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  7. Delignification of wood and kraft pulp with polyoxometalates

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Springer; Richard S. Reiner; Ira A. Weinstock; Rajai H. Atalla; Michael W. Wemple; Elena M. G. Barbuzzi

    1998-01-01

    Finely divided aspen and spruce woods and a high lignin pine kraft pulp have been selectively delignified to low lignin levels using aqueous solutions of polyoxometalates under anaerobic conditions. The reduced polyoxometalates in the solutions can be reoxidized with oxygen and act as wet oxidation catalysts for the mineralization of the solubilized lignin and...

  8. Wood pulp characterization by a novel photoacoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Jan; Löfqvist, Torbjörn

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel photoacoustic sensing technique that captures a photoacoustic signal excited by a laser light pulse after the light has propagated through a turbid medium. Simultaneously, the ultrasonic sound wave is captured after it has propagated through the same turbid medium. By combining the two signals, more information on the investigated medium can be obtained. Applications can be found in the pulp and paper industry where monitoring wood pulp compositions is of interest. Depending on its origin, pulp suspension contains different compositions of fibres and fibre fragments (fines). Poor control of the pulp composition leads to an unstable process that compromises the production, quality and energy efficiency in the pulp mill. The result shows the feasibility of the photoacoustic sensor in monitoring the mass fractions of fibres and fines in a pulp suspension. The first received echo, corresponding to the light interaction with the sample, showed a stronger correlation to the fines mass fraction compared to fibre mass fraction. The second echo, corresponding to the sound wave interaction with the sample, showed a much stronger correlation to fibre mass fraction than to fines mass fraction. Hence, it is proposed that by combining these two echoes, more information about the pulp suspension could be extracted than from any other sensor built on a single sensing principle.

  9. Thermomechanical pulping of loblolly pine juvenile wood

    Treesearch

    Gary C. Myers

    2002-01-01

    Intensive forest management, with a heavy emphasis on ecosystem management and restoring or maintaining forest health, will result in the removal of smaller diameter materials from the forest. This increases the probability of higher juvenile wood content in the harvested materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of loblolly pine juvenile and...

  10. Fate of wood extractives in wastewater treatment plants at kraft pulp mills and mechanical pulp mills.

    PubMed

    Kostamo, A; Holmbom, B; Kukkonen, J V K

    2004-02-01

    Extensive environmental effects of the forest industry led to implementation of activated sludge treatment of effluents in the 1980s. Although the existence of chlorinated compounds in the effluents has decreased, a discussion about the possible environmental effects of elemental-chlorine-free (ECF) and total-chlorine-free (TCF) bleached pulp mill effluents has arisen, and chronic effects on aquatic organisms have still been found. Recently, studies have mainly focussed on wood extractives and their role in the effects of effluents. Resin acids and unsaturated fatty acids are found to be toxic, and plant sterols are reported to have adverse endocrine effects on water organisms already at low concentrations. In this study, Finnish wastewater treatment plants of an ECF kraft pulp mill, a paper mill, and an integrated TCF kraft pulp and paper mill were sampled in order to ascertain how wastewater treatment plants, and especially activated sludge treatments, remove wood extractives. Concentrations of extractives in discharged wastewaters varied between 0.4 and 11 g/t kraft or mechanical pulp, and the concentrations decreased over 95% during the treatment processes. Of the wood extractives, 1.1-64% were adsorbed to biosludge and 35-99% were degraded or transformed to other forms during the activated sludge treatment. A major part of these compounds were discharged in particles (74-99%). The removal of extractives was efficient even in the effluent treatment plant, which was highly loaded during the sampling period.

  11. Possibility of Using Wood Pulp in the Preparation of Cement Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidalova, Lucia; Stevulova, Nadezda; Geffert, Anton

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable building materials are based on the use of renewable materials instead of non-renewable. Large group of renewable materials composes of plant fibres having high tensile strength are used as fillers into building material with reinforcement function of composite. This study aimed to establish the mechanical and physical properties of cement composites with organic fillers, such as wood pulp. Wood pulp cellulose is very interesting material as reinforcement in cement which contributes to a reduction of pollutants. Varying the producing technology (wood pulp and cement ratio in mixture) it is possible to obtain composites with density from 940 to 1260 kgm-3 and with compressive strength from 1.02 to 5.44 MPa after 28 days of hardening. Based on the experimental results, cement composites with using unbleached wood pulp reach higher values than composites based on bleached wood pulp. Volume ratio of unbleached wood pulp in composites influences water absorbability of cement composites

  12. Chemical modification of wood

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The properties of any resource are, in general, a result of the chemistry of the components of that resource. In the case of wood, the cell wall polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) are the components that, if modified, would change the properties of the resource. If the properties of the wood are modified, the performance of the modified wood would be...

  13. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2.

    Treesearch

    Ted Bilek; Carl Houtman; Peter Ince

    2011-01-01

    Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) is a novel biorefining concept for pulp mills that includes hydrolysis extraction of hemicellulose wood sugars and acetic acid from pulpwood prior to pulping. The concept involves conversion of wood sugars via fermentation to fuel ethanol or other chemicals and the use of remaining solid wood material in the pulping process. This paper...

  14. Pulping of holm oak wood. Influence of the operating conditions.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco; Alaejos, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports on the influence of independent variables in the pulping of holm oak wood (Quercus ilex L.) [viz. temperature (135-195 degrees C), cooking time (30-90min) and soda concentration (10-20%)] on the yield, holocellulose content, alpha-cellulose content, brightness and viscosity of the resulting pulp. By using a central composite factorial design, equations relating each dependent variable to the different independent variables were derived that reproduced the experimental results for the dependent variables with errors less than 5-15% in all cases. The highest pulp yield (56.9%) was obtained with the lowest values of the operating variables. However, obtaining the optimum holocellulose content, alpha-cellulose content and viscosity (viz. 94.5%, 78.5% and 1395ml/g, respectively) entailed using values of the independent variables above their mean levels. Also, ensuring optimal brightness (viz. 24.3%) required using higher temperatures and soda concentrations. A compromise that saves equipment immobilized capital and about 25% of soda is using a soda concentration of 15% at 195 degrees C for 30min. The yield thus obtained differs by less than 29.5% from the highest level; also, the resulting holocellulose content, alpha-cellulose content and brightness differ by less than 12% from their respective optimum values.

  15. Wood-plastic composites using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid-pretreated red pine chips

    Treesearch

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; E. Horn

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and properties of wood fiber is one of many factors of critical importance to the performance of wood-plastic composites. In commercial thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) of wood chips to produce fibers, high temperatures (>100°C) are used to separate the fibers during TMP refining. These mechanical pressures and temperatures are usually modulated...

  16. Potential of thermo and alkali stable xylanases from Thielaviopsis basicola (MTCC-1467) in biobleaching of wood kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Goluguri, Baby Rani; Thulluri, Chiranjeevi; Cherupally, Madhu; Nidadavolu, Nagaraju; Achuthananda, Das; Mangamuri, Lakshmi Narasu; Addepally, Uma

    2012-08-01

    Thermo- and alkali-stable xylanases produced from Thielaviopsis basicola (MTCC-1467) on low-cost carbon source like rice straw were evaluated for their potential application in biobleaching of wood kraft pulp. Enzyme treatment at retention time of 240 min with 20 IU/gm of dried pulp resulted in ~85.2 % of reduction in kappa number. When compared to control, 110.8, 93, and 72.2 % of enhancement in brightness (percent International Organization of Standardization), whiteness, and fluorescence, respectively, were observed for enzyme-treated pulp. Spectroscopic analysis showed significant release of chromophoric compounds from enzyme-treated pulp. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope studies of unbleached and enzyme bleached pulp revealed the effectiveness of enzymatic treatment. The enzyme-treated pulp subjected to later stages of chemical bleaching resulted in 16 % decrease in chlorine consumption along with considerable reduction in chemical oxygen demand percentage (14.5 %) level of effluent. Various pulp properties like fiber length, fiber width, burst strength, burst index, tear strength, tear index, tensile strength, and breaking length were also significantly improved after enzyme treatment when compared to control.

  17. Hexeneuronic acid content of chemical pulp

    Treesearch

    Junyong Zhu; X.S. Chai

    2007-01-01

    This method describes a procedure to determine hexeneuronic acid groups (HexA) in chemical pulps. HexA affects the kappa number determination by reaction with permanganate, and can react with certain bleaching chemicals, e.g. chlorine dioxide and ozone, but not with some others such as oxygen and peroxide. The method is based on the highly selective hydrolysis of HexA...

  18. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes for biokraft pulping of softwood chips.

    PubMed

    Wolfaardt, F; Taljaard, J L; Jacobs, A; Male, J R; Rabie, C J

    2004-10-01

    Wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes have been screened for various applications in the pulp and paper industry and it is evident that different fungi need to be used to suit the specific requirements of each application. This study assessed the suitability of 278 strains of South African wood-decay fungi for the pre-treatment of softwood chips for kraft pulping. The influence of these fungi on kappa number, yield and strength properties of pulp was evaluated. A number of these strains were more efficient in reducing kappa number than the frequently used strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Six strains of Stereum hirsutum and a strain of an unidentified species were able to reduce the kappa number significantly without a significant influence on the pulp yield. Treatment of wood with two strains of S. hirsutum, one strain of Peniophora sp. and a strain of an unidentified species resulted in paper with improved strength properties.

  20. New technology in pulping and bleaching

    Treesearch

    R. H. Atalla; R. S. Reiner; C. J. Houtman; E. L. Springer

    2004-01-01

    Innovation in advancing technoogies for production of pulp and paper has been driven, by and large, by the needs to reduce the environmental impact of pulp mills or to enhance the yield in processes of conversion of wood to fibers. "Fiberization" of wood chips is carred out in two categores of processes. One, chemical pulping relies on removing the lignin...

  1. Electrochemical delignification of wood pulp using polyoxometalate mediators

    Treesearch

    R.S. Reiner; E.L. Springer; R.H. Atalla

    2003-01-01

    It has been found that polyoxometalates (POMs) can act as mediators in the electrochemical oxidation of lignin in pulps. An electrochemical cell, with a Nafion® membrane separating the anode and cathode compartments, was used in the delignification experiments. A softwood kraft pulp was placed in the anode compartment with a buffered 0.01M solution of the...

  2. Potential for Converting Wood into Plastics: Chemicals from wood may regain importance as the cost of petroleum continues to rise.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, I S

    1975-09-12

    The conversion of wood into chemicals for the production of most of our synthetic plastics, fibers, and rubbers is technically feasible. With refinements in technology a large integrated plant utilizing all components of the wood for production of ethanol (to be further processed to ethylene and butadiene), phenols and furfural would be approaching economic feasibility as well at current petrochemical prices. If crude oil prices continue to climb at a faster rate than wood costs, the economic feasibility of chemicals for polymers from wood would become certain. Although technical feasibility has not been established, synthetic oils from liquefaction of wood might serve as feedstocks for cracking to chemicals in the same way that crude oil is presently used. The fulfillment of all our polymer needs from wood as a raw material should not place an impossible burden on our wood supply, but might actually improve the availability of wood for lumber, plywood and pulp by providing a use for less valuable wood which would allow reforestation and improved forest management.

  3. Chemical modification of wood : a short review

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    For most markets for wood, it is used without any treatments or modifications. When wood is used in adverse environments, it may be treated with chemicals to help prevent decay, improve water resistance, reduce the effects of ultraviolet radiation or increase fire retardancy. Many of these treatments involve the use of toxic or corrosive chemicals that can harm the...

  4. Organosolv pulping: a versatile approach to wood refining

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, J.H.; Aziz, S.

    1985-08-01

    The fractionation of hardwoods into pulp, lignin, and hemicellulose has been studied in a multi-stage alcohol extraction pilot plant. By adjusting processing conditions, pulps of different properties were obtained. They have been found to be suitable to furnish components for writing, printing, and high-absorbency papers and as dissolving grades. By-product lignin and hemicelluloses are recovered in separate, high-yield fractions for which several potential commercial applications have been identified. The process is a low-capital-cost, low-environmental-impact alternative to kraft and sulfite pulping.

  5. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, Richard; Callis, James B; Mathews, Jeffrey D; Robinson, John; Bruckner, Carsten A; Suvamakich, Kuntinee

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  6. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  7. A technique to measure strain distributions in single wood pulp fibers

    Treesearch

    Laurence Mott; Stephen M. Shaler; Leslie H. Groom

    1996-01-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used to measure microstrain distributions on the surface of wood pulp fibers. A loading stage incorporating a fiber gripping system was designed and built by the authors. Fitted to the tensile substage of an ESEM or a Polymer Laboratories MINIMAT tester, it provided a reliable...

  8. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  9. Vapor-phase diethyl oxalate pretreatment of wood chips. Part 1, Energy savings and improved pulps

    Treesearch

    William Kenealy; Eric Horn; Carl Houtman

    2007-01-01

    Diethyl oxalate (DEO) was injected into a digester containing wood chips (pine, spruce, or aspen) preheated to 130–1408C and held for 30 min at the same temperature. When mechanical pulps were produced from these pretreated chips, savings in electrical refiner energy could be achieved. For southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda), the electrical refiner energy required to...

  10. Resin in bisulfite pulp from Pinus radiata wood and its relationship to pitch troubles

    Treesearch

    P.J. Nelson; Richard W. Hemingway

    1971-01-01

    The resin content of bisulfite pulp from Pinus radiata D. Don was determined at various stages in its manufacture and the changes in the composition of the resin studied. About 50% of the resin present in the wood was removed during cooking, an additional 11% by blowpit washing, and a further 8% by screening. Resin acids and fatty acids were...

  11. Potassium methyl siliconate-treated pulp fibers and their effects on wood plastic composites: Water sorption and dimensional stability

    Treesearch

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Monlezun

    2013-01-01

    Potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) was investigated as a new nano modifier of wood fiber and wood flour to improve the compatibility between the fiber/flour and the plastic matrix in fiber reinforced plastic composites. Before injection molding, bleached and brown pulp fibers and mixed species wood flour were pretreated in PMS solutions. The morphology of the treated...

  12. [Study on dioxin emission for typical non-wood pulp making in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Fang; Ding, Qiong; Wang, Kai-Xiang; Wu, Chang-Min; Qu, Yun-Huan; Zhao, Xiao-Dong

    2012-02-01

    Based on the requirement of National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (NIP), six industries including pulp and paper industry have been set as the priority key sectors to implement the best available technology and best environmental practice (BAT/BEP) within a specific time for UPOPs reduction. Non-wood pulping has always played important role in virgin pulp production in China, its elemental chlorinated bleaching process has been confirmed as main source of Dioxin emission for the sector. As the signature party of Stockholm Convention and long time existing country of non-wood pulping, identification of Dioxin emission situation is significant importance to China to committee the obligation of Stockholm Convention. The Dioxin concentrations in outflow water of bamboo, straw, reed, and bagasse pulping processes (chlorination alkaline extraction hypochlorite, CEH) are 41.8 pg x L(-1), 72.7 pg x L(-1), 7.46 pg x L(-1), and 19.7 pg x L(-1) respectively, which are all around the national waste water discharge standard (30 pg x L(-1)). But relevant data will easily exceed national standard while the limitation of unit water consumption for pulp making is decreased. So the application of best available techniques/best environmental practices (BAT/BEP) is very necessary to improve relevant mills up to the above standard, and proceed the sector meeting the national and international requirements for Dioxin emission. At the same time, the text calculates emission factors on bamboo, straw, reed and bagasse pulp making process through whole process monitoring, which will provide meaningful reference for increasing relevant factors in UNEP Toolkit.

  13. Renewable Wood Pulp Paper Reactor with Hierarchical Micro/Nanopores for Continuous-Flow Nanocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hirotaka; Namba, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Nogi, Masaya; Nishina, Yuta

    2017-06-22

    Continuous-flow nanocatalysis based on metal nanoparticle catalyst-anchored flow reactors has recently provided an excellent platform for effective chemical manufacturing. However, there has been limited progress in porous structure design and recycling systems for metal nanoparticle-anchored flow reactors to create more efficient and sustainable catalytic processes. In this study, traditional paper is used for a highly efficient, recyclable, and even renewable flow reactor by tailoring the ultrastructures of wood pulp. The "paper reactor" offers hierarchically interconnected micro- and nanoscale pores, which can act as convective-flow and rapid-diffusion channels, respectively, for efficient access of reactants to metal nanoparticle catalysts. In continuous-flow, aqueous, room-temperature catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-anchored paper reactor with hierarchical micro/nanopores provided higher reaction efficiency than state-of-the-art AuNP-anchored flow reactors. Inspired by traditional paper materials, successful recycling and renewal of AuNP-anchored paper reactors were also demonstrated while high reaction efficiency was maintained. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Renewable Wood Pulp Paper Reactor with Hierarchical Micro/Nanopores for Continuous‐Flow Nanocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Nogi, Masaya; Nishina, Yuta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Continuous‐flow nanocatalysis based on metal nanoparticle catalyst‐anchored flow reactors has recently provided an excellent platform for effective chemical manufacturing. However, there has been limited progress in porous structure design and recycling systems for metal nanoparticle‐anchored flow reactors to create more efficient and sustainable catalytic processes. In this study, traditional paper is used for a highly efficient, recyclable, and even renewable flow reactor by tailoring the ultrastructures of wood pulp. The “paper reactor” offers hierarchically interconnected micro‐ and nanoscale pores, which can act as convective‐flow and rapid‐diffusion channels, respectively, for efficient access of reactants to metal nanoparticle catalysts. In continuous‐flow, aqueous, room‐temperature catalytic reduction of 4‐nitrophenol to 4‐aminophenol, a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)‐anchored paper reactor with hierarchical micro/nanopores provided higher reaction efficiency than state‐of‐the‐art AuNP‐anchored flow reactors. Inspired by traditional paper materials, successful recycling and renewal of AuNP‐anchored paper reactors were also demonstrated while high reaction efficiency was maintained. PMID:28394501

  15. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  16. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Jeffers, Larry A.; Malito, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  17. Formation and emission of PCDD/Fs in Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueli; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Xueping; Chen, Jiping

    2012-11-06

    Chlorine bleaching is still practiced by non-wood pulp and paper mills in China, resulting in considerable formation and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). We investigate the distribution of PCDD/Fs in different papermaking processes and dioxin emissions at six typical Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills. Raw materials for papermaking included reed, wheat straw, bamboo, and sugar cane bagasse. The formation and emission of PCDD/Fs varied strikingly according to bleaching processes and raw materials. Elemental chlorine bleaching promoted the formation of tetra- to octa-CDDs and 2,3,7,8-TCDF, while hypochlorite bleaching only gave rise to a significant increase of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Bleaching with elemental chlorine and hypochlorite increased 2,3,7,8-TCDF 0.9-42.5 and 0.3-4.1 times, respectively. Most of the 2,3,7,8-TCDF formed at hypochlorite bleaching stage was partitioned into the effluent, which indicated that hypochlorite bleaching was also an important emission source of dioxins. The removal of PCDD/Fs occurred visibly during alkaline digestion, alkaline extraction, and hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Furthermore, the annual emission of PCDD/Fs from Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills was evaluated.

  18. The water footprint of wood for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector related to roundwood production for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood. For the period 1961-2010, we estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to various forest products, including ecosystem services. Global water consumption for roundwood production increased by 25% over 50 years to 961 × 109 m3/y (96% green; 4% blue) in 2001-2010. The water footprint per m3 of wood is significantly smaller in (sub)tropical forests compared to temperate/boreal forests, because (sub)tropical forests host relatively more value next to wood production in the form of other ecosystem services. In terms of economic water productivity and energy yield from bio-ethanol per unit of water, roundwood is rather comparable with major food, feed and energy crops. Recycling of wood products could effectively reduce the water footprint of the forestry sector, thereby leaving more water available for the generation of other ecosystem services. Intensification of wood production can only reduce the water footprint per unit of wood if the additional wood value per ha outweighs the loss of value of other ecosystem services, which is often not the case in (sub)tropical forests. The results of this study contribute to a more complete picture of the human appropriation of water, thus feeding the debate on water for food or feed versus energy and wood.

  19. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  20. Novel bleaching of thermomechanical pulp for improved paper properties

    Treesearch

    Marguerite S. Sykes; John H. Klungness; Freya. Tan

    2002-01-01

    Production of mechanical pulp is expected to increase significantly to meet the growing global demand for paper. Mechanical pulping uses wood resources more efficiently with less negative impact on the environment than does chemical pulping. However, several problems related to mechanical pulping need to be resolved: high energy consumption, low paper strength...

  1. Correlation of wood-based components and dewatering properties of waste activated sludge from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Kyllönen, H; Lehto, J; Pirkonen, P; Grönroos, A; Pakkanen, H; Alén, R

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of wet sludge are produced annually in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Already in pulp and paper industry, more than ten million tons of primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and de-inking sludge is generated. Waste activated sludge contains large quantities of bound water, which is difficult to dewater. Low water content would be a matter of high calorific value in incineration but it also has effects on the volume and the quality of the matter to be handled in sludge disposal. In this research waste activated sludges from different pulp and paper mills were chemically characterised and dewatered. Correlations of chemical composition and dewatering properties were determined using multivariate analysis. Chemical characterisation included basic sludge analysis, elementary analysis and analysis of wood-based components, such as hemicelluloses and lignin-derived material. Dewatering properties were determined using measurements of dry solids content, flux and flocculant dosage. The effects of different variables varied according to the response concerned. The variables which were significant regarding cake DS increase in filtration or centrifugation and flocculant dosage needed in filtration were different from those which were significant regarding flux.

  2. Transformation and removal of wood extractives from pulp mill sludge using wet oxidation and thermal hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Baroutian, Saeid; Robinson, Murray; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; Gapes, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    In order to remove wood extractive compounds from pulp mill sludge and thereby enhancing anaerobic digestibility, samples were subjected to either oxidative hydrothermal treatment (wet oxidation) or non-oxidative hydrothermal treatment (thermal hydrolysis). Treatments were carried out at 220 °C with initial pressure of 20 bar. More than 90% destruction of extractive compounds was observed after 20 min of wet oxidation. Wet oxidation eliminated 95.7% of phenolics, 98.6% fatty acids, 99.8% resin acids and 100% of phytosterols in 120 min. Acetic acid concentration increased by approximately 2 g/l after 120 min of wet oxidation. This has potential for rendering sludge more amenable to anaerobic digestion. In contrast thermal hydrolysis was found to be ineffective in degrading extractive compounds. Wet oxidation is considered to be an effective process for removal of recalcitrant and inhibitive compounds through hydrothermal pre-treatment of pulp mill sludge.

  3. Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernanda Machado; Martins, Joaniel Munhoz; Ferracin, Luiz Carlos; da Cunha, Carlos Jorge

    2007-08-17

    Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

  4. Effects of chemically modified wood on bond durability

    Treesearch

    Rishawn Brandon; Rebecca E. Ibach; Charles R. Frihart

    2005-01-01

    Chemical modification of wood can improve its dimensional stability and resistance to biological degradation and moisture, but modification can also create a new surface for bonding. Acetylation of wood results in the loss of hydroxyl groups, making the wood more hydrophobic and reduces its ability to hydrogen-bond with the adhesive. In contrast, reacting wood with...

  5. Effectiveness of algae in the treatment of a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tarlan, Esra; Dilek, Filiz B; Yetis, Ulku

    2002-08-01

    In this study, the ability of algae to treat a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in batch reactors seeded with a mixed culture of algae. Under different lighting and initial wastewater strength conditions, changes in COD, AOX and color contents of reactors were followed with time. Algae were found to remove up to 58% of COD, 84% of color and 80% of AOX from pulp and paper industry wastewaters. No remarkable differences were observed in COD and color when light intensity and wastewater strength were changed, while AOX removals were strongly affected. Algal species identification studies revealed that some green algae (Chlorella) and diatom species were dominant in the treatment. The study also showed that algae grew mixotrophically, while the main mechanism of color and organics removal from pulping effluents was partly metabolism and partly metabolic conversion of colored and chlorinated molecules to non-colored and non-chlorinated molecules. Adsorption onto algal biomass was not so effective.

  6. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  7. POZONE technology to bleach pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Shi, Y.; Le, L.; Wang, S.M.; Wei, J.; Chang, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    Currently, there has been a move in the pulp and paper industry to reduce or eliminate chlorine-based bleaching due to environmental concerns. The POZONE process, a chemical means of ozone production, has been used to bleach wood pulp. The brightness, Kappa number, and viscosity of wood pulp subjected to POZONE treatment have been determined. Brightness increases of up to 44 points and Kappa number decreases of as much as 22 points have been achieved. Promise for effective industrial application has been demonstrated.

  8. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  9. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  10. A benthic survey of Aliwal Shoal and assessment of the effects of a wood pulp effluent on the reef.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Michael H; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Risk, Michael J

    2006-05-01

    Aliwal Shoal lies south of Durban in South Africa and has been the subject of recent bathymetric, seafloor and benthic surveys. ANOVA of the biological data revealed that the biota were uniformly distributed on the reef with the exception of encrusting sponges and algae on rock. The variations in distribution of these biota were significant and, in the case of the encrusting sponges, appeared to be related to the discharge of a wood pulp effluent. Further evidence of this was suggested by stable isotope analyses of representative organisms. The encrusting sponges were recommended as good candidates for further monitoring of the effects of the wood pulp effluent on Aliwal Shoal as the effluent pipeline has been extended.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize Eucalyptus globulus pulps and predict their ethanol yield for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosario Del P; Baeza, Jaime; Rubilar, Joselyn; Rivera, Alvaro; Freer, Juanita

    2012-12-01

    Bioethanol can be obtained from wood by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation step (SSF). However, for enzymatic process to be effective, a pretreatment is needed to break the wood structure and to remove lignin to expose the carbohydrates components. Evaluation of these processes requires characterization of the materials generated in the different stages. The traditional analytical methods of wood, pretreated materials (pulps), monosaccharides in the hydrolyzated pulps, and ethanol involve laborious and destructive methodologies. This, together with the high cost of enzymes and the possibility to obtain low ethanol yields from some pulps, makes it suitable to have rapid, nondestructive, less expensive, and quantitative methods to monitoring the processes to obtain ethanol from wood. In this work, infrared spectroscopy (IR) accompanied with multivariate analysis is used to characterize chemically organosolv pretreated Eucalyptus globulus pulps (glucans, lignin, and hemicellulosic sugars), as well as to predict the ethanol yield after a SSF process. Mid (4,000-400 cm(-1)) and near-infrared (12,500-4,000 cm(-1)) spectra of pulps were used in order to obtain calibration models through of partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained multivariate models were validated by cross validation and by external validation. Mid-infrared (mid-IR)/NIR PLS models to quantify ethanol concentration were also compared with a mathematical approach to predict ethanol yield estimated from the chemical composition of the pulps determined by wet chemical methods (discrete chemical data). Results show the high ability of the infrared spectra in both regions, mid-IR and NIR, to calibrate and predict the ethanol yield and the chemical components of pulps, with low values of standard calibration and validation errors (root mean square error of calibration, root mean square error of validation (RMSEV), and root mean square error of prediction), high correlation

  12. Fractionation and characterization of saccharides and lignin components in wood prehydrolysis liquor from dissolving pulp production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jungang; Fu, Yingjuan; Qin, Menghua

    2015-08-01

    Saccharides and lignin components in prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) from kraft-based dissolving pulp production was characterized after being fractionated using membrane filtration. The results showed that the membrane filtration provided a method for organics fractionation with considerable recovery rate, but exhibited some disadvantages. Besides the limited ability in purifying oligosaccharides (OS) due to the overlaps of molecular weight distribution with lignin components, the membrane filtration could not improve the homogeneity of OS as indicated by the analysis of chemical compositions and the degree of polymerization (DP), which may be ascribed to the linear conformation of OS. The characterization of lignin components indicated a great potential for polymer industry because of the remarkable content of phenolic hydroxyl groups (PhOH), especially for low molecular weight (LMW) fraction. It was concluded the organics in PHL provided streams of value-added chemicals. However, the practical significance thereof can be realized and maximized only when they are successfully and completely fractionated.

  13. Chemical modification : a non-toxic approach to wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    Reaction of wood with anhydrides, isocyanates, and epoxides reduces the moisture content of the cell wall and increases the resistance of the modified wood to attack by fungi. As the level of bonded chemical increases. the cell wall equilibrium moisture content decreases and the resistance to attack by white-and brown-rot fungi increases. There is a direct relationship...

  14. Pretreatments for converting wood into paper and chemicals

    Treesearch

    William R. Kenealy; Carl J. Houtman; Jose Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries; Eric G. Horn

    2007-01-01

    Biorefining wood into paper and chemicals is not as easy as making a single traditional paper product. Paper is made from the cellulose- containing fractions of wood and processing may remove lignin and hemicellulose components. The yield and composition of the product depend upon the type of paper being produced. The paper process often alters the noncellulose...

  15. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Congcong; Dong, Jie; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The pyrolytic degradation of wood-derived lignin from pulping process.

    PubMed

    Shen, D K; Gu, S; Luo, K H; Wang, S R; Fang, M X

    2010-08-01

    Lignin is a key component in the biomass with a complex polymeric structure of the phenyl-C(3) alkyl units. The kraft lignin from the wood pulping process is tested in TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS. The samples are pyrolyzed in TGA coupled with FTIR from 30 to 900 degrees C at the heating rate of 20 and 40K/min. The evolution of phenolic compounds in the initial pyrolysis stage of lignin is determined by FTIR, while the second stage is mainly attributed to the production of the low molecular weight species. A bench-scale fast pyrolysis unit is employed to investigate the effect of temperature on the product yield and composition. It is found that the guaiacol-type and syringol-type compounds as the primary products of lignin pyrolysis are predominant in bio-oil, acting as the significant precursors for the formation of the derivatives such as the phenol-, cresol- and catechol-types. A series of free-radical chain-reactions, concerning the cracking of different side-chain structures and the methoxy groups on aromatic ring, are proposed to demonstrate the formation pathways for the typical compounds in bio-oil by closely relating lignin structure to the pyrolytic mechanisms. The methoxy group (-OCH(3)) is suggested to work as an important source for the formation of the small volatile species (CO, CO(2) and CH(4)) through the relevant free radical coupling reactions.

  18. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Annica; Treu, Andreas; van Zeeland, Albert N T; Gosselink, Richard J A; Westin, Mats

    2010-09-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be

  19. Measuring the wetting angle and perimeter of single wood pulp fibers : a modified method

    Treesearch

    John H. Klungness

    1981-01-01

    In pulp processing development it is often necessary to measure the effect of a process variable on individual pulp fiber wettability. Such processes would include drying of market pulps, recycling of secondary fibers, and surface modification of fibers as in sizing. However, if wettability is measured on a fiber sheet surface, the results are confounded by...

  20. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects of wood extractives present in pulp and paper mill effluents on rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Krause, Rachelle; Holdway, Douglas

    2010-08-15

    Wood extractives present in pulp and paper mill effluents may cause reproductive disturbances in fish. A chronic-exposure toxicity experiment using immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was conducted in order to assess the endocrine disrupting effects of two Chilean pulp and paper mill specific extracts (solid phase extraction, SPE) obtained from primary and secondary treated effluents. The (anti)estrogenic potencies and toxicity of the wood extractives regularly present in pulp mill effluent such as dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), beta-sitosterol (BS), and model estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) were evaluated by analysis of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels, gonadal somatic index (GSI) and liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, respectively. The protocol involved the use of multiple intra-peritoneal injections (1 injection every 7 days for a total exposure period of 28 days). Analysis of variance/covariance, demonstrated no differences associated with fish gender other than GSI. The phytosterol BS, E2 and both pulp mill effluent extracts showed significant inductions of EROD and increased VTG levels after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of exposure. While fish injected with secondary treated effluent extract showed a delayed induction in VTG levels compared to primary effluent injected fish, no effects on VTG and EROD levels were observed in DHAA injected fish. Moreover simultaneous injection of DHAA+E2 reduced the VTG levels found in E2 injected fish, indicating a potential indirect anti-estrogenic effect of this resin acid. The results of this study indicate that Chilean pulp and paper mill effluent extracts are estrogenic in rainbow trout males and females.

  1. Calcium silicate/calcium phosphate biphasic cements for vital pulp therapy: chemical-physical properties and human pulp cells response.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, M G; Spagnuolo, G; Siboni, F; Procino, A; Rivieccio, V; Pelliccioni, G A; Prati, C; Rengo, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to test the properties of experimental calcium silicate/calcium phosphate biphasic cements with hydraulic properties designed for vital pulp therapy as direct pulp cap and pulpotomy. CaSi-αTCP and CaSi-DCDP were tested for ion-releasing ability, solubility, water sorption, porosity, ability to nucleate calcium phosphates, and odontoblastic differentiation—alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) upregulation—of primary human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The materials showed high Ca and OH release, high open pore volume and apparent porosity, and a pronounced ability to nucleate calcium phosphates on their surface. HDPCs treated with CaSi-αTCP showed a strong upregulation of ALP and OCN genes, namely a tenfold increase for OCN and a threefold increase for ALP compared to the control cells. Conversely, CaSi-DCDP induced a pronounced OCN gene upregulation but had no effect on ALP gene regulation. Both cements showed high biointeractivity (release of Ca and OH ions) correlated with their marked ability to nucleate calcium phosphates. CaSi-αTCP cement proved to be a potent inducer of ALP and OCN genes as characteristic markers of mineralization processes normally poorly expressed by HDPCs. Calcium silicate/calcium phosphate cements appear to be attractive new materials for vital pulp therapy as they may provide odontogenic/dentinogenic chemical signals for pulp regeneration and healing, and dentin formation in regenerative endodontics.

  2. Reduction of heat transfer fouling by the addition of wood pulp fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Middis, J.; Paul, S.T.; Duffy, G.G.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.M.

    1998-04-01

    Heat transfer experiments with a saturated CaSO{sub 4} solution were carried out in a closed-loop test rig containing an externally heated test section. Reproducible fouling curves were measured for the solution without fibers. The buildup of deposit was asymptotic, which implied that the fouling process was a combination of crystallization and particulate fouling. The addition of a small quantity (less than 0.05 mass percent) of softwood chemical pulp fiber to the bulk reduced the rate of fouling significantly. At 0.05 mass percent fiber addition, no fouling was measured in the test rig during 7 days of continuous running. The addition of fibers reduced the rate of deposit buildup and potentially offers a new method of fouling mitigation. Only a low concentration of fibers is needed, and the nontoxic fibers are easily removed.

  3. Catalysis: A Potential Alternative to Kraft Pulping

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2014-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the kraft pulping process makes it obvious why it has dominated for over a century as an industrial process with no replacement in sight. It uses low cost raw materials, collects and regenerates over 90% of the chemicals needed in the process, is indifferent to wood raw material and good at preserving the cellulose portion of the wood which is...

  4. Electro-coagulation treatment efficiency of graphite, iron and aluminum electrodes using alum and wood ash electrolytes on a Kraft pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Orori, O B; Etiégni, L; Senelwa, K; Mwamburi, M M; Balozi, K B; Barisa, G K; Omutange, E S

    2010-01-01

    Specific power consumption and reduction of BOD, COD, TS, pH, and chemical elements were used to determine the treatment efficiency of Fe, graphite and Al electrodes with alum and wood ash as supporting electrolytes on the effluent from a Kraft pulp and paper mill in Kenya. Five sampling points were selected along mill's effluent treatment system: primary settling tank (SP1), first aerated lagoon (SP2), second aerated lagoon (SP3), stabilization pond (SP4), and at discharge point (SP5). Operating costs were also compared between treatments. Graphite electrodes combined with alum showed the lowest power consumption (0.5 to 3.9 mWh/m³), followed by Al and Fe. All the electrodes reduced color from a maximum of 3,200°H to the minimum local standard of 15°H. However Al electrode with alum was the most effective method for BOD and COD reduction by over 60% and 58.8% respectively and generated less sludge at all sampling points. The cost of treatment was lowest with graphite electrode (US$0.006 to 0.0008 per m³ of effluent), but highest with Al electrodes combined with wood ash (US$31.74 to 8.34 per m³). Further study is required for the effectiveness of increasing the concentration of wood ash leachate at higher concentration and current density.

  5. Photochromic paper from wood pulp modification via layer-by-layer assembly of pulp fiber/chitosan/spiropyran.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Zeng, Jinsong; Chen, Kefu

    2017-02-10

    Cellulosic fiber introducing with photochromic properties can be used in many fields such as security packaging, printing paper, and rewritable paper. To introduce photochromic property to individual fiber, a polyelectrolyte composite layer composed of cationic chitosan (CS) and anionic carboxyl-containing spiropyran (SPCOOH) on pulp fibers was designed using layer-by-layer assembly technique. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the SPCOOH was successfully absorbed onto the surface of fiber. The photochromic characteristic of LbL-treated fiber could be triggered by UV-vis absorption spectrum and the LbL-treated fibers had a good compatibility with pulp fibers. This study gives a highly effective method to impart the photochromic characteristic to paper.

  6. Delignification of Wood Chips and Pulps by Using Natural and Synthetic Porphyrins: Models of Fungal Decay †

    PubMed Central

    Paszczyński, Andrzej; Crawford, Ronald L.; Blanchette, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Kraft pulps, prepared from softwoods, and small chips of birch wood were treated with heme and tert-butyl hydroperoxide in aqueous solutions at reflux temperature. Analyses of treated pulps showed decreases in kappa number (a measure of lignin content) from about 36 to less than 2, with concomitant increases in brightness (80% increase in the better samples). Analyses of treated wood chips revealed selective delignification and removal of hemicelluloses. After 48 h of treatment, lignin losses from the wood chips approached 40%, and xylose/mannose (hemicellulose) losses approached 70%, while glucose (cellulose) losses were less than 10%. Examination of delignified chips by transmission electron microscopy showed that the removal of lignin occurred in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that seen after decay by white rot fungi. Various metalloporphyrins, which act as biomimetic catalysts, were compared to horseradish peroxidase and fungal manganese peroxidase in their abilities to oxidize syringaldazine in an organic solvent, dioxane. The metalloporphyrins and peroxidases behaved similarly, and it appeared that the activities of the peroxidases resulted from the extraction of heme into the organic phase, rather than from the activities of the enzymes themselves. We concluded that heme-tert-butyl hydroperoxide systems in the absence of a protein carrier mimic the decay of lignified tissues by white rot fungi. Images PMID:16347540

  7. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of plantation Acacia mangium wood.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula C; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pascoal Neto, Carlos

    2005-10-05

    The wood of Acacia mangium, a prominent fast-growing plantation species used in the pulp-and-paper industry and, so far, poorly investigated for its chemical structure, was submitted to a detailed characterization of its main macromolecular components. Lignin (28% wood weight) isolated by mild acidolysis and characterized by permanganate oxidation, 1H and 13C NMR, and GPC, showed a very low content of syringylpropane-derived units (S:G:H of 48:49:3), a high degree of condensation, a low content of beta-O-4 ( approximately 0.40-0.43 per C6) structures, and a Mw of 2230. Glucuronoxylan (14% wood weight) isolated by alkaline (KOH) or by dimethyl sulfoxide extraction was characterized by methylation analysis, 1H NMR, and GPC. About 10% of the xylopyranose (Xylp) units constituting the linear backbone were substituted at O-2 with 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. Almost half of the Xylp units (45%) were O-2 (18%), O-3 (24%) or O-2,3 (3%) acetylated. X-ray diffraction analysis of cellulose (46% wood weight), isolated according to the Kürschner-Hoffer method, showed a degree of crystallinity of 67.6%.

  8. On the micromechanics of fatigue damage accumulation in wood-pulp fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamad, W.Y.

    1995-12-31

    Wood-pulp fibers are recognized as concentrically-layered, laminated composite tubes of structural reinforcing material, the cellulose microfibrils, embedded in a cementing matrix of hemicellulose and lignin. When the single fibers are subjected to cyclic mechanical action, their morphological behavior is characterized by the fatigue growth of micro-voids and surface damage which individually and collectively give rise to stress concentration- and eventually crack development. This structural breakdown is believed to effect the fibrillation and flexibilization of the fibers. Insight is further gained into the micromechanisms of damage accumulation, matrix cracking and microfibrillar bridging. To explicate these morphological forms, one must essentially examine the causes of material damage accumulation at the level of crack formation, and where possible, in terms of the known atomic structure of the cellulosic microfibrils and characteristic interaction between the amorphous hemicellulose-and-lignin matrix, on the one hand, and the microfibrillar framework, on the other. Methodical treatment of the framework-matrix interaction necessitates adopting an appropriate theoretical approach, namely the law of mixtures: the matrix, the {open_quote}softer{close_quote} component of the composite, filamentary tube, serves to stop the propagation of inchoate microcracks and distributes stresses to the reinforcement. This can be accomplished by a plastic or elastic-plastic deformation of the matrix that causes a well-distributed elastic deformation in the hard phase (the cellulosic microfibrils) because of the adhesion of the two phases. Slip planes, micro-compressions, dislocations and (natural or induced) deformities, which we shall group together under the term strain bands, develop in the laminated fiber cell wall under periodic deformation; failure subsequently occurs along these bands.

  9. Chemical imaging of wood-polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Harper, David P; Wolcott, Michael P

    2006-08-01

    Recent investigations of wood plastic composites have revealed a detrimental effect of using lubricant systems in production. This includes nullifying part or all of the mechanical benefit of using a polar compatibilizer, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP), in the composite formulation. This investigation utilizes lubricants labeled with deuterium in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to allow for the separation of individual lubricants from all other material constituents. All of the deuterium labeled lubricants, used without MAPP, revealed their expulsion from the wood interface during crystallization. MAPP coupling agent was found to exist near the wood, but it is unclear if any covalent bonding with the hydroxyl functionality on the wood surface occurred. The addition of zinc stearate lubricants appears to nullify the activity of the anhydride functionality near the wood surface as evidenced by a shift in the FT-IR spectra to the hydrolyzed form of the coupling agent. Most of the additives collect at the edges of the spherulites in mostly amorphous regions of the material. The consequence of this morphology may be a weak interface between crystallites.

  10. Quality of refiner groundwood pulp as related to handsheet properties and gross wood characteristics

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin

    1969-01-01

    Pulp quality, in terms of a fiber shape factor S and a fiber length factor L, was determiend for 96 pulps disk-refined from chips of varying characteristics. S was evaluated in terms of the Canadian Standard Freeness of the 48/100 fiber length fraction and is a parameter inversely proportional to specific surface. L is the percentage, by weight, of pulp retained on a...

  11. POM-assisted electrochemical delignification and bleaching of chemical pulp

    Treesearch

    Helene Laroche; Mohini Sain; Carl Houtman; Claude Daneault

    2001-01-01

    A polyoxometalate-catalyzed electrochemical process has shown good selectivity in delignifying pulp. This breakthrough in redox catalysis shows promise for the development of a new environmentally benign technology for pulp bleaching. The electrochemical process, applied with a mildly alkaline electrolyte solution containing trace amounts of a vanadium-based...

  12. Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood

    PubMed Central

    Stackpole, Desmond J.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25–0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (QST = 0.34–0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R2 = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

  13. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Chemical modification : a non-toxic approach to wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    Wood can be chemically modified to reduce the moisture content of the cell wall and increases decay resistance. As the level of bonded chemical increases, the cell wall equilibrium moisture content decreases and the resistance to attack by white-and brown-rot fungi increases. There is a direct relationship between the decrease in cell wall moisture Content and...

  15. Changes in accessibility of cellulose during kraft pulping of wood in deuterium oxide.

    PubMed

    Pönni, Raili; Galvis, Leonardo; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2014-01-30

    Fresh birch chips were treated with different concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide in deuterium oxide in typical kraft pulping conditions and the extent of irreversible deuteration of the chips/pulps was followed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Water retention values (WRV) of pulps were measured to evaluate accessibility of cellulose. The kraft pulping with deuterium oxide led to significant proton-deuterium exchange that was not reversed when the chips/pulps were washed with water. The deuteration followed a first order dynamics with a maximum obtained in the beginning of delignification stage. Higher dosages of effective alkali resulted in a higher degree of deuteration and lower WRV. An inverse relationship between the extent of deuteration and WRV suggests that both were induced by cellulose microfibril aggregation. Results also indicate that hemicellulose dissolution plays an important role in the induction of cellulose microfibril aggregation, while lignin dissolution has less influence.

  16. Obtaining value prior to pulping with diethyl oxalate and oxalic acid

    Treesearch

    W.R. Kenealy; E. Horn; C.J. Houtman; J. Laplaza; T.W. Jeffries

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper are converted to paper products with yields of paper dependent on the wood and the process used. Even with high yield pulps there are conversion losses and with chemical pulps the yields approach 50%. The portions of the wood that do not provide product are either combusted to generate power and steam or incur a cost in waste water treatment. Value prior...

  17. Evaluating chemical-, mechanical-, and bio-pulping processes and their sustainability characterization using life cycle assessment

    Treesearch

    Tapas K. Das; Carl Houtman

    2004-01-01

    Pulp and paper manufacturing constitutes one of the largest industry segments in the United States in term of water and energy usage and total discharges to the environment. More than many other industries, however, this industry plays an important role in sustainable development because its chief raw material— wood fiber—is renewable. This industry provides an example...

  18. Chemical and physical characterization of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, Emma; Kristensson, Adam; Ohlsson, Michael; Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke; Swietlicki, Erik; Vesely, Vaclav; Wideqvist, Ulla; Westerholm, Roger

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the emissions of a large number of chemical compounds emitted from birch wood combustion in a wood stove. Birch wood is widely used as fuel in Swedish household appliances. The fuel load was held constant during six experiments. Particles <2.5 μm in diameter were collected and the size distribution of the particles was measured. The results were compared to the size distribution in road traffic emissions. It could be seen that the number distribution differed between the sources. In traffic exhaust, the number of particles maximized at 20 nm, while the number distribution from wood burning ranged from 20 to 300 nm. The ratio K/Ca on particles was found to be significantly different in wood burning compared to road dust, range 30-330 for the former and 0.8±0.15 for the latter. The source profile of common elements emitted from wood burning differed from that found on particles at a street-level site or in long-distance transported particles. The ratio toluene/benzene in this study was found to be in the range 0.2-0.7, which is much lower than the ratio 3.6±0.5 in traffic exhaust emissions. Formaldehyde and acetone were the most abundant compounds among the volatile ketones and aldehydes. The emission factor varied between 180-710 mg/kg wood for formaldehyde and 5-1300 mg/kg wood for acetone. Of the organic acids analyzed (3,4,5)-trimethoxy benzoic acid was the most abundant compound. Of the PAHs reported, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contribute to more than 70% of the mass of PAH. Of the elements analyzed, K and Si were the most abundant elements, having emission factors of 27 and 9 mg/kg wood, respectively. Although fluoranthene has a toxic equivalence factor of 5% of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), it can be seen that the toxic potency of fluoranthene in wood burning emissions is of the same size as B(a)P. This indicates that the relative carcinogenic potency contribution of fluoranthene in

  19. Chemical mechanism of fire retardance of boric acid on wood

    Treesearch

    Qingwen Wang; Jian Li; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the fire retardant mechanism of boric acid is a physical mechanism achieved by the formation of a coating or protective layer on the wood surface at high temperature. Although a char-forming catalytic mechanism has been proposed by some researchers, little direct experimental support has been provided for such a chemical mechanism. In this...

  20. 25. Wood quench tower, chemical tank on right, hot gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Wood quench tower, chemical tank on right, hot gas pipes between coke ovens and compressor building XX), coal conveyor to pulverizer building on right, water tank to left of quench tower. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  1. Through drying of paper from mechanical and chemical pulp blends: Transport phenomena behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemi, S.J.; Douglas, W.J.M.

    1999-11-01

    Printing and heavier grades of paper, often made from pulp blends, are dried by a mature process, cylinder drying, which has a much lower drying rate than through air drying. Analysis of the possible extension of through drying to such semipermeable sheets requires knowledge of the basic characteristics of this process when applied to such grades. Both momentum transport and drying rate aspects of transport phenomena in through air drying were investigated for sheets made from mechanical pulp--chemical pulp blends. The first determination of air permeability for moist paper from TMP and blends of TMP and kraft pulp is reported. The porosity, bulk and specific surface of paper from such blends are also reported. For paper from such blends the mechanical pulp exerts a disproportionate influence through control of the macrostructure by the stiff mechanical pulp fibers and control of the microstructure by its high fines content. Changes in sheet structure affect the momentum transport sensitively but the heat and mass transfer behavior determining drying rate is much less affected. Progress was made on the fundamental Re-{integral}-d{sub p} basis of analysis of through drying. The highly nonlinear dependence of momentum transport properties on pulp blend composition and on moisture content was related to the corresponding changes in the macro-and micro-pore structure available for air through flow.

  2. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  3. Unexpected promotion of PCDD/F formation by enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching in non-wood pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liping; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Liu, Wenbin; Huang, Linyan; Guo, Li

    2017-02-01

    Enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching is widely considered as promising replacements for conventional Cl2 bleaching in wood pulp and paper mills. However, the effects of using enzyme-aided bleaching on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the non-wood pulp and paper mills are unclear. A field study was performed to investigate PCDD/F formation when enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching was used to replace conventional Cl2 bleaching in non-wood pulp and paper mills. Unexpectedly, the PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQs) in solid samples were higher when using enzyme-aided bleaching (0.49-5.4 pg TEQ/g) than that using conventional Cl2 bleaching (0.15-2.44 pg TEQ/g). Large amounts of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were formed during the enzyme-aided bleaching process. This could have been because enzyme strongly promoted the release of organic molecules bound to lignin and thus accelerated the formation of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin through organic molecular precursors. Although enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching was previously considered to be efficient for reducing PCDD/F releases and to be the best available technologies and best environmental practices for wood pulp and paper mills, the results obtained in this study suggested the necessity and urgency to evaluate the suitability of enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching for non-wood pulp and paper mills that intensively practiced in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In situ SEM micro-indentation of single wood pulp fibres in transverse direction.

    PubMed

    Adusumalli, Ramesh-Babu; Raghavan, Rejin; Schwaller, Patrick; Zimmermann, Tanja; Michler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    Fibre deformations such as kinks and micro-compressions are significant parameters in determining the quality of industrial pulps. Undoubtedly, very little information has been obtained so far on fibre deformation because it is very tedious to handle the specimens. In this study, a novel in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) micro-indentation technique was adopted for the first time to study the deformation of single industrial pulp fibres in the transverse direction. A one-to-one correspondence between load drops in load-displacement curve and cell wall deformation was obtained by using the SEM video sequence recorded during micro-indentation. The cell wall deformation occurred by 'elastic' sinking-in and lateral bulging of the microfibrils. Finally, the critical load (stress) required to initiate a crack in the cell wall was measured for different unbleached pulp fibres.

  5. Enhanced understanding of the relationship between chemical modification and mechanical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Robert J. Moon; Donald S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes

    2008-01-01

    Chemical additions to wood often change its bulk properties, which can be determined using conventional macroscopic mechanical tests. However, the controlling interactions between chemicals and wood take place at and below the scale of individual cells and cell walls. To better understand the effects of chemical additions to wood, we have adapted and extended two...

  6. LCA Study for Pilot Scale Production of Cellulose Nano Crystals (CNC) from Wood Pulp

    Treesearch

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Reiner; Richard Bergman; Alan Rudie

    2015-01-01

    Interest in cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) made from woody biomass has been growing rapidly with close attention from pulp and paper industry, governments, universities, and research institutes. Many new products development with CNCs have been studied intensively. However, little life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been conducted for the...

  7. Identification of lipolytic enzymes isolated from bacteria indigenous to Eucalyptus wood species for application in the pulping industry.

    PubMed

    Ramnath, L; Sithole, B; Govinden, R

    2017-09-01

    This study highlights the importance of determining substrate specificity at variable experimental conditions. Lipases and esterases were isolated from microorganisms cultivated from Eucalyptus wood species and then concentrated (cellulases removed) and characterized. Phenol red agar plates supplemented with 1% olive oil or tributyrin was ascertained to be the most favourable method of screening for lipolytic activity. Lipolytic activity of the various enzymes were highest at 45-61 U/ml at the optimum temperature and pH of between at 30-35 °C and pH 4-5, respectively. Change in pH influenced the substrate specificity of the enzymes tested. The majority of enzymes tested displayed a propensity for longer aliphatic acyl chains such as dodecanoate (C12), myristate (C14), palmitate (C16) and stearate (C18) indicating that they could be characterised as potential lipases. Prospective esterases were also detected with specificity towards acetate (C2), butyrate (C4) and valerate (C5). Enzymes maintained up to 95% activity at the optimal pH and temperature for 2-3 h. It is essential to test substrates at various pH and temperature when determining optimum activity of lipolytic enzymes, a method rarely employed. The stability of the enzymes at acidic pH and moderate temperatures makes them excellent candidates for application in the treatment of pitch during acid bi-sulphite pulping, which would greatly benefit the pulp and paper industry.

  8. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  9. Wastewater from wood and pulp industry treated by combination of coagulation, adsorption on modified clinoptilolite tuff and membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Yasmina; Kosutić, Kresimir; Drazević, Emil; Rozeć, Mirela

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater from the wood and pulp industry is of environmental concern. It contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter. In this work a combined method of coagulation, adsorption and nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (NF/RO) was investigated in the purification of biologically treated wastewater from wood processing. Coagulation with 0.8 g dm(-3) AlCl3 x 6H2O and adsorption on 2.5 g m(-3) modified clinoptilolite tuff resulted in removal efficiencies of total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC) up to 67.1%, 77.4% and 49.5%, respectively. Almost complete removal of solutes was achieved after NF/RO treatment. The TOC removal efficiency with RO membrane (CPA-3, LFC-1, XLE) and tight NF membrane (NF90) was 98% and with highly porous NF membrane (DK), 88%. After the proposed treatment the purified water stream can be recycled into the process or safely disposed to the river.

  10. Spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry: real-time measurement of single, intact wood pulp fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Chun

    2006-12-01

    A nondestructive method based on spectroscopic ellipsometry has been developed and demonstrated for the real-time measurement of a single pulp fiber's microfibril angle and phase retardation, with the latter proportional to the cell wall thickness. The method uses an optical arrangement insensitive to the sample's orientation in combination with a proper spectral analysis of the sample's image. The optical arrangement and the measurement principle of the method are described. To test the new method, equipment functioning as a spectroscopic imaging ellipsometer was constructed according to the arrangement, and measurements were carried out in which single pulp fibers and ordinary wave plates were measured. The test measurements and results are described and presented.

  11. Chemical markers of occupational exposure to teak wood dust.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Lee, Taekhee; Barbero, Ana; Harper, Martin

    2014-06-01

    A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different sources, where the percentages (wt/wt) of the chemicals ranged from 0.006 to 0.261 for LP and from 0.038 to 0.497 for DLP, respectively. Although the LP and DLP components of teak varied according to source, a very high correlation coefficient (r (2) > 0.98 always) was found between the content of the two markers in the bulk specimens and in bulk dust derived from them. The method was then applied to teak dust collected on polyvinylchloride filters from aerosol in an exposure chamber in the range of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65 mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703 mg m(-3) for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP in the bulk wood. LP and DLP have also been proposed as the agents responsible for allergic reaction to teak dust. Therefore, it would be useful to evaluate the exposure to these two substances even without a relationship to teak dust exposure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  12. Chemical Markers of Occupational Exposure to Teak Wood Dust

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Lee, Taekhee; Barbero, Ana; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different sources, where the percentages (wt/wt) of the chemicals ranged from 0.006 to 0.261 for LP and from 0.038 to 0.497 for DLP, respectively. Although the LP and DLP components of teak varied according to source, a very high correlation coefficient (r 2 > 0.98 always) was found between the content of the two markers in the bulk specimens and in bulk dust derived from them. The method was then applied to teak dust collected on polyvinylchloride filters from aerosol in an exposure chamber in the range of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703mg m−3 for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP in the bulk wood. LP and DLP have also been proposed as the agents responsible for allergic reaction to teak dust. Therefore, it would be useful to evaluate the exposure to these two substances even without a relationship to teak dust exposure. PMID:24671613

  13. An XPS round robin investigation on analysis of wood pulp fibres and filter paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Campbell, J. M.; Fardim, Pedro; Hultén, Anette Heijnesson; Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Ernstsson, Marie

    2005-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to pulp and paper research for decades. However, there has been no attempt to standardise or even systematically compare experimental and analysis procedures, even though it is known that fibrous, nature-derived and insulating fibre materials pose remarkable challenges to reliable surface analysis. The experimental problems are mainly linked with neutralisation, energy resolution, contamination and X-ray induced degradation. We have tested applicability, reliability and reproducibility of XPS analysis on real pulp samples with varying lignin and extractives contents in a small round robin investigation. We also tested the instrumental set-ups with an acetone-extracted filter paper, used as a reference sample. The data, collected at four different laboratories with state-of-the-art instruments indicate that reproducible results can be obtained, despite minor differences in experimental and analysis procedures. However, we found that a specified sample handling procedure and limited X-ray exposure are crucial for reproducible, reliable data. Based on the round robin data we recommend dose restricted monochromatic measurements, a cellulosic in situ reference and a consistent sample handling procedure. The data confirms that a paper-based reference material and the correlation of high-resolution C 1s data with O/C atomic ratios can be used in testing instruments and experimental set-ups for pulp and paper materials.

  14. Kinetics of PCDD/Fs formation from non-wood pulp bleaching with chlorine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueli; Zhang, Haijun; Ni, Yuwen; Du, Qinqin; Zhang, Xueping; Chen, Jiping

    2014-04-15

    Chlorine bleaching is still practiced by most of nonwood pulp and paper mills, resulting in a considerable amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) formation and emission. In this study, the effects of primary chlorination conditions on the formation of PCDD/Fs from nonwood pulp bleaching with elemental chlorine were investigated. It was found that low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs were usually formed and then underwent further chlorination to form highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs with increasing chlorination time. Higher available chlorine dosages and lower system pH values greatly accelerated dioxin formation, and pH 3 was the threshold for the formation of tetra- to octa-CDD/Fs. Higher temperatures promoted the formation of lower-chlorinated PCDD/Fs, while caused significant reduction of tetra- to hepta-CDDs and penta- to octa-OCDFs. PCDFs were formed much faster than PCDDs. A first-order kinetic model showed a good fit to the data for tetra- to oct-CDFs formation under different chlorination conditions, indicating that chlorine substitution was the rate determining step for their formation. Finally, the optimum chlorination conditions for minimizing and eliminating the formation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD/TCDF in nonwood pulp bleaching with elemental chlorine were established.

  15. Impact of drying on wood ultrastructure: similarities in cell wall alteration between native wood and isolated wood-based fibers.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Miro; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2010-08-09

    Ultrastructural alterations of fresh wood caused by initial drying were compared to changes incurred during drying of never-dried wood pulp fibers of different macromolecular composition. Drying induced inaccessibility of a native wood sample exhibited remarkable similarity to wood pulp samples of different lignin contents. The results suggest that the supramolecular rearrangements in native wood matrix upon dehydration are qualitatively identical to the well-known changes occurring in pulp fibers after drying, although the changes are considerably different in quantity. The alterations were observed and quantified by monitoring the conversion of accessible deuterium exchanged OH groups in fresh wood and wood pulp fibers to inaccessible, reprotonation resistant OD groups during drying. The deuteration/FT-IR measurements correlated well with the water retention measurement of the pulp samples. Irreversible reduction of water retention due to the supramolecular changes implies reduced accessibility of wood polymers in various chemical and mechanical treatments, such as enzymatic conversion of biomass or preparation of cellulosic nano-objects for diverse applications.

  16. The effect on biological and moisture resistance of epichlorohydrin chemically modified wood

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Beom-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Southern pine solid wood and fiber were chemically modified with epichlorohydrin to help in understanding the role of moisture in the mechanism of biological effectiveness of chemically modified wood. The solid wood had weight gains from 11% to 34%, while the fiber had weight gains from 9% to 75%. After modification, part of the specimens were water leached for 2 weeks...

  17. Significant increases in pulping efficiency in C4H-F5H-transformed poplars: improved chemical savings and reduced environmental toxins.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Shannon K; Ellis, Dave; Gilbert, Margarita; Chapple, Clint; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2003-10-08

    The gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) was overexpressed in poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) using the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) promoter to drive expression specifically in cells involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway and was shown to significantly alter the mole percentage of syringyl subunits in the lignin, as determined by thioacidolysis. Analysis of poplar transformed with a C4H-F5H construct demonstrated significant increases in chemical (kraft) pulping efficiency from greenhouse-grown trees. Compared to wild-type wood, decreases of 23 kappa units and increases of >20 ISO brightness units were observed in trees exhibiting high syringyl monomer concentrations. These changes were associated with no significant modification in total lignin content and no observed phenotypic differences. C4H-F5H-transformed trees could increase pulp throughputs at mills by >60% while concurrently decreasing chemicals employed during processing (chemical pulping and bleaching) and, consequently, the amount of deleterious byproducts released into the environment.

  18. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  19. Controlling biological deterioration of wood with volatile chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.; Corden, M.E.

    1980-08-01

    Volatile fungicides placed in holes in pressure-treated Douglas-fir transmission poles with internal decay diffuse as vapors for about 2.4 m above and below the groundline to control decay for at least 10 y. The presence of fungitoxic vapors of chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) in these poles suggests added years of control. Vapam (sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) was less effective, but both of these chemicals are used nationwide. Methylisotiocyanate (MS), which appears especially promising in both laboratory wood-block screening tests and in poles 2 years after treatment, may prove outstanding as a control for internal decay of poles. Successfully formulated as a solid, MS could increase the safety and versatility of fumigant use. A comparison of devices for inspecting Douglas-fir poles for decay emphasized the importance of having well-trained inspectors who know the limitations of the tools and methods they use. A manual for the maintenance of Douglas-fir and western redcedar poles was published to aid inspectors and managers of wood pole systems. Fumigants varied in their residual protection against invasion by decay fungi with chloropicrin having the highest residual fungitoxicity. Fumigants had no adverse effect on vegetation around poles, nor on the strength properties of wood. Of the 8 decay fungi isolated from over 15,600 pressure-treated Douglas-fir poles, Poria carbonica and Poria placenta were by far the most prevalent. Of the five most prevalent nondecay fungi isolated from these poles, a Scytalidium species can produce an environment unsuitable for reinvasion of the wood by decay fungi. The resistance of the Scytalidium species to chloropicrin raises the possibility of a combined chemical-biological control of internal decay.

  20. Catalysis: A Potential Alternative to Kraft Pulping

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2014-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the kraft pulping process makes it obvious why it has dominated for over a century as an industrial process with no replacement in sight. It uses low-cost raw materials; collects and regenerates over 90% of the chemicals needed in the process; and is indifferent to wood raw material and good at preserving the cellulose portion of the wood, the...

  1. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-07-21

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  2. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-09-01

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  3. Pollution prevention in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    Probably no other industry has made as much progress as the kraft pulp and paper industry in reclaiming waste products. About half of the wood used in making pulp is cellulose; the reclamation of the other ingredients in the wood constitutes a continuing evolution of pollution prevention and economic success. The by-products of chemical pulping include turpentine used in the paint industry, lignosulfonates used as surfactants and dispersants, ``tall oil`` used in chemical manufacturing, yeast, vanillin, acetic acid, activated carbon, and alcohol. Sulfamic turpentine recovered in the kraft process is used to manufacture pine oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and other useful chemical products. In addition, the noncellulose portion of the wood is used to provide energy for the pulping process through the combustion of concentrated black liquor. Over 75% of the pulp produced in the US is manufactured using the kraft process. Because of the predominance of the kraft process, the remainder of this section will address pollution prevention methods for kraft pulp and paper mills. Some of these techniques may be applicable or adaptable to other pulping processes, especially sulfite mills. The major steps in the kraft process are described, followed by a discussion of major wastestreams, and proven pollution prevention methods for each of these steps.

  4. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  5. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  6. Microstructural and chemical effects of wet/dry cycling on pulp fiber-cement composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, B.J. . E-mail: bmohr@tntech.edu; Biernacki, J.J.; Kurtis, K.E.

    2006-07-15

    The microstructural and chemical mechanisms responsible for pulp fiber-cement composite degradation during wet/dry cycling are being investigated through environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and mechanical testing. Based on these results, a three-part progressive degradation mechanism for cast-in-place kraft pulp fiber-cement composites is proposed, which involves: (1) initial fiber-cement or fiber interlayer debonding (2) reprecipitation of needle-like or sheath-like ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface or between the S1 and S2 fiber layers, and (3) fiber mineralization due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. This investigation also revealed that kraft pulp fibers exhibit poor resistance to degradation due to their inferior dimensional stability, as compared to thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers. TMP fibers contain significant amounts of lignin, which is alkali sensitive. Despite this, TMP fiber-cement composite exhibit improved resistance to degradation during wet/dry cycling. It is proposed that this improvement in durability may be attributed to the presence of lignin in the cell wall restricting fiber dimensional changes during wetting and drying, and hence, minimizing fiber-cement debonding. Additionally, it is proposed that lignin acts as physical barrier to calcium hydroxide formation within the fiber cell wall, minimizing fiber mineralization of TMP fibers.

  7. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    PubMed

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  8. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Ana; Gominho, Jorge; Marques, António Velez; Pereira, Helena

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus sapwood and heartwood showed no differences in lignin content (23.0% vs. 23.7%) and composition: syringyl-lignin (17.9% vs. 18.0%) and guaiacyl-lignin (4.8% vs. 5.2%). Delignification kinetics of S- and G-units in heartwood and sapwood was investigated by Py-GC-MS/FID at 130, 150 and 170°C and modeled as double first-order reactions. Reactivity differences between S and G-units were small during the main pulping phase and the higher reactivity of S over G units was better expressed in the later pulping stage. The residual lignin composition in pulps was different from wood or from samples in the initial delignification stages, with more G and H-units. S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%.

  9. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  10. Size fractionation of wood extractives, lignin and trace elements in pulp and paper mill wastewater before and after biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, Tiina; Rämö, Jaakko; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Kuokkanen, Toivo

    2009-07-01

    Integrated kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater was characterized before (influent) and after (effluent) the activated sludge process by microfiltration (8, 3, 0.45 and 0.22 microm) and ultrafiltration (100, 50, 30 and 3 kDa) into different size fractions. Wood extractives, lignin, suspended solids and certain trace elements were determined in each fraction. Forty four percent of the resin and fatty acids in the influent (12.8 mg/L) occurred in particles (>0.45 microm), 20% as colloids (0.45 microm-3 kDa) and 36% in the <3 kDa fraction. The corresponding values for sterols (1.5 mg/L) were 5, 46 and 49%. In the effluent, resin and fatty acids (1.45 mg/L) and sterols (0.26 mg/L) were mainly present in the <3 kDa fraction, as well as a small proportion in particles. beta-sitosterol was present in particles in the effluent (88+/-50 microg/L). Lignin in the influent was mainly in the colloidal and <3 kDa fractions, whereas in the effluent it was mainly in the <3 kDa fraction. Thus the decrease of lignin in the biological treatment was concentrated on the colloidal fraction. In the influent, Mn, Zn and Si were mainly present in the <3 kDa fraction, whereas a significant proportion of Fe and Al were found also in the particle and colloidal fractions. In the effluent, Fe and Al were mainly present in the colloidal fraction; in contrast, Mn, Zn and Si were mainly in the <3 kDa fraction. The results indicated that the release of certain compounds and elements into the environment could be significantly decreased or even prevented simply by employing microfiltration as a final treatment step or by enhancing particle removal in the secondary clarifier.

  11. Use of laccase in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Virk, Antar Puneet; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Laccase, through its versatile mode of action, has the potential to revolutionize the pulping and paper making industry. It not only plays a role in the delignification and brightening of the pulp but has also been described for the removal of the lipophilic extractives responsible for pitch deposition from both wood and nonwood paper pulps. Laccases are capable of improving physical, chemical, as well as mechanical properties of pulp either by forming reactive radicals with lignin or by functionalizing lignocellulosic fibers. Laccases can also target the colored and toxic compounds released as effluents from various industries and render them nontoxic through its polymerization and depolymerization reactions. This article reviews the use of both fungal and bacterial laccases in improving pulp properties and bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluents.

  12. Heat-induced chemical and color changes of extractive-free Black Locust (Rosinia Pseudoacacia) wood

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    To investigate chemical and color changes of the polymeric constituents of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment, extractive-free wood flour was conditioned to 30% initial moisture content (MC) and heated for 24 h at 120 °C in either an oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The color change was measured using the CIELAB color system. Chemical changes...

  13. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-07-01

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH4/gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH4/gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of persistent bioaccumulative toxic chemicals from pulp and paper mill effluent streams

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Several organizations have called for the reduction of PBTs or Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics because of this class of chemicals potential environmental consequences when released into the environment. PBTs are persistent because of their resistance to biological contamination, because they bioaccumulate in the fatty tissue of organisms, and are toxic to aquatic species at relatively low levels. PBTs may be produced commercially such as for use as a pesticide or herbicide or inadvertently as byproducts, such as from diesel engines, incinerators, and during pulp bleaching using chlorine or chlorine derivatives. This paper will show how the pulp and paper industry has utilized the pollution prevention technique of process change to remove the levels of PBTs from its waste stream and how this process change relates to decreasing levels of specific PBTs in the environment. Chlorinated phenolic compounds and dioxin will be used as examples.

  15. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    PubMed

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  16. Nanoscale chemical surface characterization of four different types of dental pulp-capping materials.

    PubMed

    Gong, Victor; França, Rodrigo

    2017-03-01

    The surface of any dental pulp-capping material has important implications for its clinical success because it is in direct contact with dental tissue, which influences its cytotoxicity. The aim was to determine the chemical composition of the first atomic layers of four pulp-protection agents because these atoms can initiate the pulp healing process. Biodentine (Septodont), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply), Dycal (Caulk) and TheraCal (Bisco) were prepared (n=5) according to manufacturer recommendations. The chemical surface composition was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the bulk composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Both survey and high resolution XPS spectra of the elements detected were obtained, with element-dependent probe depths of 4-5nm; the binding energy scale was normalized to the C1s adventitious carbon peak at 285eV. There was a significant difference between bulk and surface compositions for all the pulp-capping materials. The calcium surface concentrations at 0nm and 70nm were Dycal 7.9% and 15.1%; ProRoot MTA 14.1% and 17%; TheraCal 0% and 3.6%; and Biodentine 17.6% and 33.7%, respectively. Trace amounts of the following elements (<1%) were also found: Ti, S and Zr in Biodentine; Bi in ProRoot MTA and TheraCal; Na, P, Zn and N in Dycal. The XPS results showed that Ca in the surface layer could vary from 0 to 18%, depending on the material. Aliphatic carbons, from the polymerization reactions, especially in Dycal and TheraCal, were found to mask the other components. This study compares, for the first time, the chemical composition of the first atomic layers of four pulp-capping materials. This information is relevant because the interaction between pulpar cells and the material's outermost atomic layer is an important factor for leading the pulpal response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing the properties of wood through chemical modification with palmitoyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Gowdra K.; Mahadevan, Kittappa M.

    2008-01-01

    Hevea brassiliensis (rubber wood) was esterified with palmitoyl chloride, prepared from the reaction of palmitic acid with thionyl chloride. The weight gain of the wood increased with increasing reaction time and temperature, the esterified wood were evaluated for their photostability and dimensional stability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS 13C NMR) were used to elucidate the characteristics of wood after esterification. The dimensional stability and photostability of the wood was improved by esterification. This is an important observation since chemical modification of wood with fatty acid chlorides has been found to induce thermo-plasticity into wood.

  18. Alkaline peroxide pulping of oil palm empty fruit bunch by variation of chemical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermawan, Yunita Megasari; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    Papers produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) via Alkaline Peroxide Pulping (APP) was preceded by three main steps; dewaxing of EFB, alkaline peroxide (AP) impregnation into EFB and refining of biomass to generate pulp. The experiment was carried by varying chemical level and number of impregnation stages. For 2:2.5% AP level, two-stage impregnation improved hand sheets tear index by 45%, 164% boost in tensile index, 26% enhancement in zero span index and more than 5% in burst index. By applying 8:10% AP level, significant improvements were gained at the third and fourth stages of AP impregnation. Although there was no significant change in hand sheet strength with multiple impregnation for 4:5% AP level, improvement in brightness of hand sheets was apparent, analogous to the effect of increasing AP level. The found paper properties development show that alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB could be adapted to various targeted properties by adjustment of AP level and impregnation stages.

  19. Identification of the need for research on chemical tracers to detect pulp mill effluent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, N.; Humphrey, S.; Van Coillie, R.

    1995-12-31

    A critical factor in the assessment of the effects of effluent exposure on sampled biota is the verification of exposure in nearfield and farfield zones and verification of the lack of exposure in the reference areas. At mills with rapid dilution of effluent, or where physical barriers to fish movement between exposure and reference areas do not exist, an appropriate fish tracer must be used. In Canada, because of multiple industrial and municipal discharges at certain pulp mill sites, it is difficult to assess the effects of the mill effluent in isolation from those of neighboring influences unless tracers specific to the different effluents are used. Examples of substances proposed as tracers for pulp mill effluent include resin acids, chloroguaiacols, chlorophenols, dioxin, and furan congeners. This paper gives a summary of tracer substances used to date and the problems encountered in selecting and measuring suitable chemical tracers for regulated environmental effects monitoring studies at Canadian mills. Based on their experience, there is urgent need for research into appropriate tracer substances for pulp mill as well as other industrial and municipal effluents.

  20. Nondestructive chemical imaging of wood at the micro-scale: advanced technology to complement macro-scale evaluations

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Illman; Julia Sedlmair; Miriam Unger; Carol Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    Chemical images help understanding of wood properties, durability, and cell wall deconstruction for conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels, nanocellulose and other value added chemicals in forest biorefineries. We describe here a new method for nondestructive chemical imaging of wood and wood-based materials at the micro-scale to complement macro-scale methods based...

  1. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  2. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  3. Nondestructive estimation of wood chemical composition of sections of radial wood strips by diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    P. David Jones; Laurence R. Schimleck; Gary F. Peter; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark

    2006-01-01

    The use of calibrated near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for predicting the chemical composition of Pirus taeda L. (loblolly pine) wood samples is investigated. Seventeen P. taeda radial strips, representing seven different sites were selected and NlR spectra were obtained from the radial longitudinal face of each strip. The spectra...

  4. Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2017-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) have slower moisture sorption than solid wood, but over time moisture can impact the strength, stiffness, and decay of the composite. These changes will become increasingly important if WPCs are used in more challenging environments such as in ground-contact applications. There are several options for mitigating the moisture sorption of...

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars.

    PubMed

    Yargicoglu, Erin N; Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R; Spokas, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties. Favorable properties of biochar include its high surface area and porosity, and ability to adsorb a variety of compounds, including nutrients, organic contaminants, and some gases. Physical and chemical properties of biochars are dictated by the feedstock and production processes (pyrolysis or gasification temperature, conversion technology and pre- and post-treatment processes, if any), which vary widely across commercially produced biochars. In this study, several commercially available biochars derived from waste wood are characterized for physical and chemical properties that can signify their relevant environmental applications. Parameters characterized include: physical properties (particle size distribution, specific gravity, density, porosity, surface area), hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity), and chemical and electrochemical properties (organic matter and organic carbon contents, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity, zeta potential, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CHN) elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and leachable PAHs and heavy metals). A wide range of fixed carbon (0-47.8%), volatile matter (28-74.1%), and ash contents (1.5-65.7%) were observed among tested biochars. A high variability in surface area (0.1-155.1g/m(2)) and PAH and heavy metal contents of the solid phase among commercially available biochars was also observed (0.7-83 mg kg(-1)), underscoring the importance of pre-screening biochars prior to application. Production conditions appear to dictate PAH content--with the highest PAHs observed in biochar produced via fast pyrolysis and lowest among the gasification

  6. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. (1) At existing affected sources, the total HAP...

  7. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section. (1) At existing affected sources, the total HAP...

  8. Chemical remediation of wood treated with micronised, nano or soluble copper preservatives

    Treesearch

    Saip Nami Kartal; Evren Terzi; Bessie Woodward; Carol A. Clausen; Stan T. Lebow

    2013-01-01

    The potential for extraction of copper from wood treated with micronised, nano or soluble forms of copper has been evaluated in view of chemical remediation. In focus were EDTA, oxalic acid, bioxalate, and D-gluconic acid for extraction of Cu from treated wood. Bioxalate extractions for 24 h resulted in Cu removal over 95% for all tested...

  9. Chemical yields from low-temperature pyrolysis of CCA-treated wood

    Treesearch

    Qirong Fu; Dimitris Argyropolous; Lucian Lucia; David Tilotta; Stan Lebow

    2009-01-01

    Low-temperature pyrolysis offers a feasible option for wood-waste management and the recovery of a variety of useful chemicals. The effect of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative on the yield and composition of various pyrolysis products was investigated in the present research. A novel quantitative 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (...

  10. The role of chemical transport in the brown-rot decay resistance of modified wood

    Treesearch

    Samuel Zelinka; R. Ringman; A. Pilgard; E. E. Thybring; Joseph Jakes; K. Richter

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modification of wood increases decay resistance but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, Ringman and coauthors examined established theories addressing why modified wood has increased decay resistance and concluded that the most probable cause of inhibition and/or delay of initiation of brown-rot decay is lowering the equilibrium moisture...

  11. The role of water repellents and chemicals in controlling mildew on wood exposed outdoors

    Treesearch

    W. C. Feist

    1984-01-01

    The natural look of wood siding, and the retention of that look, has become increasingly popular over the past several years. Many new commercial formulations are being offered for use as clear natural wood finishes. A successful finish will retain color, control mold and mildew, and minimize weathering. Some of these formulations contain a chemical as a mildewcide (...

  12. Chemical and mechanical aspects of HMR primer in relationship to wood bonding

    Treesearch

    Alfred W. Christiansen

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism by which hydroxymethylated resorcinol (HMR) primer improves the durability of various adhesives to wood has been hypothesized as covalent chemical links between the adhesive and primer and possibly between the primer and wood. The present work presents experiments to test this hypothesis. In the first test, some resorcinol was displaced by 2- methylres-...

  13. Rapid screening of wood chemical component variations using transmittance near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Capanema, Ewellyn; Chang, Hou-Min; Chiang, Vincent; Kadla, John F

    2005-05-04

    A rapid transmittance near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method was developed to predict the variation in chemical composition of solid wood. The effect of sample preparation, sample quantity (single versus stacked multiple wood wafers), and NIR acquisition time on the quantification of alpha-cellulose and lignin content was investigated. Strong correlations were obtained between laboratory wet chemistry values and the NIR-predicted values. In addition to the experimental protocol and method development, improvements in calibration error associated with utilizing stacked multiple wood wafers as opposed to single wood wafers are also discussed.

  14. Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from small residential stoves burning wood and charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdahl, T.; Alfheim, I.; Rustad, S.; Olsen, T.

    1982-01-01

    Emissions from a small residential wood stove and a newly developed residential stove burning charcoal have been characterized by chemical analysis and mutagenicity testing (Ames Salmonella test). For wood burning the samples were taken under normal and starved air conditions burning birch and spruce separately. The burning conditions in the stove seemed to influence the emissions to a larger extent than the type of wood. The emissions of aldehydes, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the charcoal-burning stove are lower by a factor of 25-1000 as compared to the wood stove. The mutagenicity of the emissions showed a similar trend.

  15. Spectral characterization of eucalyptus wood.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Singurel, Ghita; Vasile, Cornelia; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S; Willfor, Stefan

    2007-11-01

    The main difficulties in wood and pulp analyses arise principally from their numerous components with different chemical structures. Therefore, the basic problem in a specific analytical procedure may be the selective separation of the main carbohydrate-derived components from lignin due to their chemical association and structural coexistence. The processing of the wood determines some structural modification in its components depending on the type of wood and the applied procedure. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction have been applied to analyze Eucalyptus g. wood chips and unbleached and chlorite-bleached pulp. The differences between samples have been established by examination of the spectra of the fractions obtained by successive extraction (acetone extractives, acetone free extractive samples, hemicelluloses, and lignins) by evaluating the derivative spectra, band deconvolution, etc. The energy and the hydrogen bonding distance have been evaluated. The relationship between spectral characteristics and sample composition has been established, as well as the variation of the degree of crystallinity after pulping and bleaching. The integral absorption and lignin/carbohydrate ratios calculated from FT-IR spectra of the IR bands assigned to different bending or stretching in lignin groups are stronger in the spectrum of eucalyptus chips than those from brown stock (BS) pulp spectra because of the smaller total amount of lignin in the latter. FT-IR spectra clearly show that after chlorite bleaching the structure of the wood components is partially modified or removed. Along with FT-IR data, the X-ray results confirmed the low content of lignin in the pulp samples by increasing the calculated values of the crystalline parameters. It was concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a quick method to differentiate Eucalyptus globulus samples.

  16. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand in pulping effluent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yuancai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2011-04-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in pulping effluent using chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry. Two calibration models were established by inducing UV-visible spectroscopy (model 1) and derivative spectroscopy (model 2), combined with the chemometrics software Smica-P. Correlation coefficients of the two models are 0.9954 (model 1) and 0.9963 (model 2) when COD of samples is in the range of 0 to 405 mg/L. Sensitivities of the two models are 0.0061 (model 1) and 0.0056 (model 2) and method detection limits are 2.02-2.45 mg/L (model 1) and 2.13-2.51 mg/L (model 2). Validation experiment showed that the average standard deviation of model 2 was 1.11 and that of model 1 was 1.54. Similarly, average relative error of model 2 (4.25%) was lower than model 1 (5.00%), which indicated that the predictability of model 2 was better than that of model 1. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method did not need chemical reagents and digestion which were required in the conventional methods, and the testing time of the new method was significantly shorter than the conventional ones. The proposed method can be used to measure COD in pulping effluent as an environmentally friendly approach with satisfactory results.

  17. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  18. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%. PMID:26046652

  19. Current work in ontario on compression wood in black spruce in relation to pulp yield and quality

    Treesearch

    J.L. Ladell; A.J. Carmichael; G.H.S. Thomas

    1968-01-01

    In 1959 and 1960, during a series of symposia on wood quality organized jointly by the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Toronto, and the Ontario Research Foundation (ORF), it became clear that there was a serious lack of information regarding the structure and variability of the wood of the commercially important...

  20. Effect of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Wood Properties and Pulp Yield of Young, Fast Growing Southern Pine

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust; Alexander Clark; Charles E. Courchene; Barry D. Shiver; Monique L. Belli

    1999-01-01

    The demand for southern pine fiber is increasing. However, the land resources to produce wood fiber are decreasing. The wood industry is now using intensive cultural treatments, such as competition control, fertilization, and short rotations, to increase fiber production. The impact of these intensive environmental treatments on increased growth is positive and...

  1. A comparative evaluation of explosion hazards in chemical and mechanical pulp bleaching systems

    Treesearch

    P.W. Hart; Alan Rudie

    2010-01-01

    Three pulp mills in North America using 50% hydrogen peroxide have suffered explosions of pumps, mixers, and tanks. In two instances, alkali-catalyzed decomposition of peroxide is implicated in the explosion. Although many mechanical pulping facilities use hydrogen peroxide to bleach pulp, no &-catalyzed explosions have been reported. This research uses a kinetic...

  2. Wood chemical composition as related to properties of handsheets made from loblolly pine refiner groundwood

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin

    1969-01-01

    Burst and tear strengths of handsheets made from 48 pulps disk-refined from chips of varying chemical composition decreased with incressing extractive content after the independent effects of fiber morphology were specified. This result was attributed to lessened bond strength caused by reduced surface tension forces and blocking of reactive sites on the fiber surfaces...

  3. Wood

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  4. Analytical pyrolysis vs. classical wet chemical analysis to assess the decay of archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Lucejko, Jeannette J; Zborowska, Magdalena; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria P; Prądzyński, Włodzimierz

    2012-10-01

    The macromolecular complexity of wood limits the possibility of obtaining complete chemical information on its alteration in archaeological objects. This paper compares the results obtained in the characterisation of the components of archaeological wood by a classical wet chemical method and by an instrumental method based on pyrolysis in presence of hexamethyldisilazane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Py(HMDS)-GC/MS. We compare the results obtained with the two methods quantitatively. This enables us to evaluate the efficiency of Py(HMDS)-GC/MS in assessing the chemical composition and the state of conservation of degraded wood. The material analysed consisted of reference sound wood and waterlogged wood from the Żółte historical site, located on a small island on Lake Zarańskie in Poland. The samples are from the remains of settlements dating to a period between the 9th and the 12th centuries AD. The results obtained by Py(HMDS)-GC/MS analysis are consistent in the determination of the level of degradation of archaeological wood with the results obtained using traditional techniques. The pyrolysis method is faster, reproducible, and reveals not only the amount but also the quality of the wood constituents, needing a much smaller sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from wood preserving operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in wood preserving operations may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist facilities engaged in wood preserving operations in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  6. Chemical alterations of pine wood saccharides during heat sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Kačík, František; Šmíra, Pavel; Kačíková, Danica; Veľková, Veronika; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Vacek, Vladimír

    2015-03-06

    Alterations in saccharides during heat sterilisation of pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) were investigated. The mass loss, extractives, lignin, cellulose, holocellulose and hemicelluloses were determined. Changes in saccharides were evaluated by the determination of monosaccharides in wood, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. During heat sterilisation of pine wood the slight mass loss, an increase in extractives and a decrease in lignin and polysaccharides were observed. Hemicelluloses are degraded approximately twice as fast as cellulose. The degree of polymerisation of cellulose decreases approximately by 10% and it increases in holocellulose (by approx. 8%) as a result of a faster degradation of shorter hemicellulose chains. FTIR spectroscopy shows that sterilisation results in the deacetylation of cellulose and the formation of new carbonyl groups, an increase in the total crystallinity index (TCI) and a decrease in the lateral order index (LOI) and the hydrogen-bond intensity (HBI).

  7. Ion exchange of H+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and Ba2+, on wood pulp

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie; Alan Ball; Narendra Patel

    2006-01-01

    Ion exchange selectivity coefficients were measured for the partition of metals between solution and pulp fibers. The method accurately models the ion exchange isotherms for all cation pairs evaluated and is accurate up to approximately 0.05 molar concentrations. Selectivity coefficients were determined for calcium and magnesium with each other and with hydrogen....

  8. Chemical characterisation of the whole plant cell wall of archaeological wood: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Zoia, Luca; Tamburini, Diego; Orlandi, Marco; Łucejko, Jeannette Jacqueline; Salanti, Anika; Tolppa, Eeva-Liisa; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2017-07-01

    Wood artefacts undergo complex alteration and degradation during ageing, and gaining information on the chemical composition of wood in archaeological artefacts is fundamental to plan conservation strategies. In this work, an integrated analytical approach based on innovative NMR spectroscopy procedures, gel permeation chromatography and analytical pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was applied for the first time on archaeological wood from the Oseberg collection (Norway), in order to evaluate the chemical state of preservation of the wood components, without separating them. We adopted ionic liquids (ILs) as non-derivatising solvents, thus obtaining an efficient dissolution of the wood, allowing us to overcome the difficulty of dissolving wood in its native form in conventional molecular solvents. Highly substituted lignocellulosic esters were therefore obtained under mild conditions by reacting the solubilised wood with either acetyl chloride or benzoyl chloride. A phosphytilation reaction was also performed using 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholan. As a result, the functionalised wood developed an enhanced solubility in molecular solvents, thus enabling information about modifications of lignin, depolymerisation of cellulose and structure of lignin-carbohydrate complexes to be obtained by means of spectroscopic (2D-HSQC-NMR and (31)P-NMR) and chromatographic (gel permeation chromatography) techniques. Py-GC-MS was used to investigate the degradation undergone by the lignocellulosic components on the basis of their pyrolysis products, without any pre-treatment of the samples. The application of all these combined techniques enabled a comprehensive characterisation of the whole cell wall of archaeological wood and the evaluation of its state of preservation. High depletion of carbohydrates and high extent of lignin oxidation were highlighted in the alum-treated objects, whereas a good preservation state was found

  9. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen; Sun, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C1/C2 ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood.

  10. Bacteria alone establish the chemical basis of the wood-fall chemosynthetic ecosystem in the deep-sea.

    PubMed

    Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Le Bris, Nadine; Dadaglio, Laetitia; Peru, Erwan; Besserer, Arnaud; Galand, Pierre E

    2017-10-06

    Wood-fall ecosystems host chemosynthetic bacteria that use hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor. The production of hydrogen sulfide from decaying wood in the deep-sea has long been suspected to rely on the activity of wood-boring bivalves, Xylophaga spp. However, recent mesocosm experiments have shown hydrogen sulfide production in the absence of wood borers. Here, we combined in situ chemical measurements, amplicon sequencing and metagenomics to test whether the presence of Xylophaga spp.-affected hydrogen sulfide production and wood microbial community assemblages. During a short-term experiment conducted in a deep-sea canyon, we found that wood-fall microbial communities could produce hydrogen sulfide in the absence of Xylophaga spp. The presence of wood borers had a strong impact on the microbial community composition on the wood surface but not in the wood centre, where communities were observed to be homogeneous among different samples. When wood borers were excluded, the wood centre community did not have the genetic potential to degrade cellulose or hemicellulose but could use shorter carbohydrates such as sucrose. We conclude that wood centre communities produce fermentation products that can be used by the sulfate-reducing bacteria detected near the wood surface. We thus demonstrate that microorganisms alone could establish the chemical basis essential for the recruitment of chemolithotrophic organisms in deep-sea wood falls.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 6 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.163.

  11. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea) genotypes and commercial pulps.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Vânia; Ferreira Ferreira da Silveira, Tayse; Mattietto, Rafaella de Andrade; Padilha de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2017-03-01

    Açaí has been reported to contain many bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins. This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of pulps of three different açaí genotypes from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Eastern Amazon and three commercial açaí pulps from Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Anthocyanin 3-rutinoside was the major anthocyanin present in freeze-dried açaí pulp samples. The commercial sample C showed the greatest amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside (18 942 and 34 397 µg g(-1) respectively). The content of phenolic compounds varied significantly among the commercial and genotype samples, and vanillic acid was found in the highest concentration in the samples studied. All açaí samples showed high DPPH, ORAC and TEAC values, confirming the exceptionally high radical-scavenging capacity of açaí pulp previously reported by other researchers. The commercial samples showed higher antioxidant capacity and higher levels of anthocyanins and non-anthocyanic compounds than those of the genotype samples. Among the genotypes studied, L4P16 stood out for its higher contents of fibre and bioactive compounds and higher antioxidant capacity, indicating that this genotype has great potential for use in plant breeding programs that should be further explored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  13. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  14. Several vapor phase chemical treatments for dimensional stabilization of wood

    Treesearch

    H.M. Barnes; E.T. Choong; R.C. Mcllhenny

    1969-01-01

    A bench-scale system for the impregnation of wood with volatile compounds was constructed for the purpose of testing the system concept and evaluating various polymeric bulking materials as dimensional stabilizing agents. Provisions were incorporated for recycling the treating material, introduction of two separate materials alternately or simultaneously, timed-cycle...

  15. Impact of hemicellulose pre-extraction for bioconversion on birch Kraft pulp properties.

    PubMed

    Helmerius, Jonas; von Walter, Jonas Vinblad; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A; Hodge, David B

    2010-08-01

    The combination of hemicellulose extraction with chemical pulping processes is one approach to generate a sugar feedstock amenable to biochemical transformation to fuels and chemicals. Extractions of hemicellulose from silver birch (Betula pendula) wood chips using either water or Kraft white liquor (NaOH, Na(2)S, and Na(2)CO(3)) were performed under conditions compatible with Kraft pulping, using times ranging between 20 and 90 min, temperatures of 130-160 degrees C, and effective alkali (EA) charges of 0-7%. The chips from select extractions were subjected to subsequent Kraft pulping and the refined pulps were made into handsheets. Several metrics for handsheet strength properties were compared with a reference pulp made without an extraction step. This study demonstrated that white liquor can be utilized to extract xylan from birch wood chips prior to Kraft cooking without decreasing the pulp yield and paper strength properties, while simultaneously impregnating cooking alkali into the wood chips. However, for the alkaline conditions tested extractions above pH 10 resulted in low concentrations of xylan. Water extractions resulted in the highest final concentrations of xylan; yielding a liquor without the presence of toxic or inhibitory inorganics and minimal soluble aromatics that we demonstrate can be successfully enzymatically hydrolyzed to monomeric xylose and fermented to succinic acid. However, water extractions were found to negatively impact some pulp properties including decreases in compression strength, bursting strength, tensile strength, and tensile stiffness while exhibiting minimal impact on elongation and slight improvement in tearing strength index.

  16. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  17. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

  18. Use of near infared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood

    Treesearch

    Stephen S. Kelley; Timothy G. Rials; Rebecca Snell; Leslie H. Groom; Amie Sluiter

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (500 nm-2400 nm), coupled with multivariate analytic (MVA) statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical and mechanical properties of solid loblolly pine wood. The samples were selected from different radial locations and heights of three loblolly pine trees grown in Arkansas. The chemical composition and mechanical...

  19. Use of near infrared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood

    Treesearch

    Stephen S. Kelley; Timothy G. Rials; Rebecca Snell; Leslie H. Groom; Amie Sluiter

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (500 nm-2400 nm), coupled with multivariate analytic (MVA) statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical and mechanical properties of solid loblolly pine wood. The samples were selected from different radial locations and heights of three loblolly pine trees grown in Arkansas. The chemical composition and mechanical...

  20. Chemical structure of wood charcoal by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Treesearch

    Nicole Labbe; David Harper; Timothy Rials; Thomas Elder

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the effect of temperature on charcoal structure and chemical composition is investigated for four tree species. Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures is analyzed by mid infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis and by thermogravimetric analysis to characterize the chemical composition during the carbonization process. The...

  1. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  2. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    When wood is exposed to various environmental conditions, many degradation reactions (biological, ultraviolet, mechanical, moisture, and chemical) can occur. To protect wood from biological degradation, chemical preservatives are applied by nonpressure or pressure treatment. Penetration and retention of a chemical depend upon the wood species and the amount of...

  3. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood. PMID:26986200

  4. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood.

    PubMed

    Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Calonego, Fred Willians; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; Bond, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood.

  5. Chemical composition and protein enrichment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp after fermentation by two Trichoderma species.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, F; Zamiri, M J; Khorvash, M; Banihashemi, Z; Bayat, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment aimed at increasing orange peel and sugar beet pulp protein content through solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride. In vitro digestibility and changes in the chemical composition of the fermented products were determined after seven days of fungal cultivation using gas production tests. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on orange peels decreased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and increased cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents (P<0.01). Changes in fiber fractions were found to be more pronounced with T. viride. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on sugar beet pulp increased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and decreased cellulose and hemicellulose contents (P<0.01). These changes were more pronounced with T. reesei. The cultivation of T. reesei or T. viride on orange peels or sugar beet pulp increased crude protein content (P<0.01) compared with the unfermented materials; however, the increase was more pronounced for orange peels fermented with T. viride when corrected for weight loss (P<0.05). After 24 and 48 h of incubation, significant decreases in cumulative gas production (P<0.01) were observed in fermented sugar beet pulp and orange peels compared with the unfermented materials. Fungal treatment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp reduced the digestibility of in vitro organic matter, metabolizable energy and average fermentation and gas production rates (P<0.01). The data showed that seven days of solid-state fermentation of orange peels and sugar beet pulp by T. reesei or T. viride can increase their crude protein content.

  6. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    PubMed

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Digestion coefficient of organic matter in dry matter and metabolisable energy were also decreased in treated lemon pulp (p < 0.05). Compared with untreated lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p < 0.05), but digestibility of crude fat was lower (p < 0.05). In general, processing of lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Chemical composition and protein enrichment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp after fermentation by two Trichoderma species

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, F; Zamiri, M. J.; Khorvash, M; Banihashemi, Z; Bayat, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment aimed at increasing orange peel and sugar beet pulp protein content through solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride. In vitro digestibility and changes in the chemical composition of the fermented products were determined after seven days of fungal cultivation using gas production tests. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on orange peels decreased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and increased cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents (P<0.01). Changes in fiber fractions were found to be more pronounced with T. viride. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on sugar beet pulp increased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and decreased cellulose and hemicellulose contents (P<0.01). These changes were more pronounced with T. reesei. The cultivation of T. reesei or T. viride on orange peels or sugar beet pulp increased crude protein content (P<0.01) compared with the unfermented materials; however, the increase was more pronounced for orange peels fermented with T. viride when corrected for weight loss (P<0.05). After 24 and 48 h of incubation, significant decreases in cumulative gas production (P<0.01) were observed in fermented sugar beet pulp and orange peels compared with the unfermented materials. Fungal treatment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp reduced the digestibility of in vitro organic matter, metabolizable energy and average fermentation and gas production rates (P<0.01). The data showed that seven days of solid-state fermentation of orange peels and sugar beet pulp by T. reesei or T. viride can increase their crude protein content. PMID:27175146

  8. Size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits: a comparison of neotropical saplings and large trees

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam R.; Thomas, Sean C.; Zhao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Wood anatomical traits are important correlates of life-history strategies among tree species, yet little is known about wood chemical traits. Additionally, size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits have been rarely examined, although these changes may represent an important aspect of tree ontogeny. Owing to selection for pathogen resistance and biomechanical stability, we predicted that saplings would show higher lignin (L) and wood carbon (Cconv), and lower holocellulose (H) concentrations, compared with conspecific large trees. To test these expectations, we quantified H, L and Cconv in co-occurring Panamanian tree species at the large tree vs. sapling size classes. We also examined inter- and intraspecific patterns using multivariate and phylogenetic analyses. In 15 of 16 species, sapling L concentration was higher than that in conspecific large trees, and in all 16 species, sapling H was lower than that in conspecific large trees. In 16 of 24 species, Cconv was higher in saplings than conspecific large trees. All large-tree traits were unrelated to sapling values and were unrelated to four life-history variables. Wood chemical traits did not show a phylogenetic signal in saplings, instead showing similar values across distantly related taxa; in large trees, only H showed a significant phylogenetic signal. Size-dependent changes in wood chemistry show consistent and predictable patterns, suggesting that ontogenetic changes in wood chemical traits are an important aspect of tree functional biology. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that at early ontogenetic stages, trees are selected for greater L to defend against cellulose-decaying pathogens, or possibly to confer biomechanical stability.

  9. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used wood species can deteriorate if exposed to conditions that support growth of wood-degrading organisms (see Chap. 14). Wood products can be protected from the attack of decay fungi, harmful insects, or marine borers by applying chemical preservatives. Preservative treatments greatly increase the life of wood structures, thus reducing replacement costs...

  10. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  11. From hazardous waste to valuable raw material: hydrolysis of CCA-treated wood for the production of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hakola, Maija; Kallioinen, Anne; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Solid wood, metal finnish: Instead of burning waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenite (CCA) or disposing of it in landfills, the CCA-treated wood can be used as a raw material for the production of chemicals. Catalytic or alkaline oxidation together with very mild sulfuric acid extraction produces an easily enzymatically hydrolyzable material. Usage as a raw material for the chemical industry in this manner demonstrates a sustainable and value-added waste management process.

  12. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operated at a minimum temperature of 871 °C (1600 °F) and a minimum residence time of 0.75 seconds; or (4... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a...)(ii)(C) of this section. (A) Each knotter system with emissions of 0.05 kilograms or more of total...

  13. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  14. Physical and chemical properties of some imported woods and their degradation by termites.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R; Sundararaj, R

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood.

  15. A spectrocolorimetric and chemical study on color modification of heat-treated wood during artificial weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Pichette, Andre

    2012-05-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the wood surface color modifications of three North American species (jack pine, aspen, and birch) heat-treated under different temperatures was studied by spectrocolorimetric colormeter (datacolor, CHECK TM). Data was analyzed using the reflectance spectra (400-700 nm) as well as the CIE-L*a*b* system and ΔE. Kubelka-Munk (K-M) spectra of samples were recorded as a function of artificial weathering time to obtain the absorption maxima of the chromophore woods formed during artificial weathering. The results were compared with those of the respective untreated (Kiln-dried) species. Analysis of chemical components shows that the lignin percent of jack pine, aspen, and birch increased after heat treatment (28.66-35.9%, 20.27-26.41%, and 19.04-22.71% respectively) which might be due to smaller influence of heat treatment on lignin content than hemicelluloses. This improves the resistance of heat-treated wood to photo-degradation. This is also supported by the smaller change observed in K-M spectra and total color parameters in CIE-L*a*b* system of heat-treated wood samples compared to those of untreated wood when weathered for72 h. However, the lignin percent of heat-treated woods reduce to maximum 2.5% after artificial weathering of 1512 h. This suggests that the weathering degrades most lignin matrix; consequently, both the colors of heat-treated woods and untreated woods are lighter and very similar after a long period of artificial weathering.

  16. Manipulation of wood chemical traits for energy: An assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ranney, J.W.; Turhollow, A.F. ); Dinus, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the biological potential to modify wood for improved conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels identifies specific gravity, lignin and hemicellulose qualities, bark quantity, and hemicellulose content as priority research targets. However, the difference in priorities of 10 characteristics is minimal. When biological opportunities are compared to biofuel conversion priorities, bark quantity and specific gravity fall in priority and concern for lignin content rises. The major conclusion of the comparison is that an assortment of many minor changes hold the greatest and most practical promise. The economic benefit of these potential improvements needs evaluation. The qualities of productivity (growth) and disease/pest tolerance and resistance continue to exist as a major concerns against which energy trait modifications must have little negative effect. 34 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Sorption of copper by chemically modified aspen wood fibers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liyuan; Ou, Zhaoyang; Boving, Thomas B; Tyson, Julian; Xing, Baoshan

    2009-08-01

    Sorption of copper (Cu(2+)) by untreated and treated (bleaching and hydrolysis) aspen wood fibers, cellulose and lignin was examined to understand the Cu(2+) sorption behavior by these natural sorbents. All sorbents were characterized by solid-state (13)C NMR and FTIR. Bleaching broke up aromatic structures and increased hydrophilicity of the fibers, whereas hydrolysis decreased carbohydrate content, producing a more hydrophobic structure. Copper sorption was a function of pH; the percentage of Cu(2+) sorption steadily increased from pH 1.5 to 4.5 with a maximum sorption amount at around pH 5.5 for all the materials. All isotherms fitted well to the Langmuir equation. Bleached sample (BL) had a highest sorption capacity, followed by untreated (UTR), cellulose (CEL), and hydrolyzed (HHY), while lignin (LIG) had little Cu(2+) sorption under the studied conditions. The results suggested that carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-CHOH) in carbohydrates are mainly responsible for Cu(2+) sorption, and that ion exchange may be a main sorption mechanism for the studied sorbents. Additionally, the sorption capacity for Cu(2+) on all sorbents decreased with the increase of the initial concentrations of Ca(2+), Na(+) or Al(3+). Copper sorption decreased rapidly at low initial concentrations of Ca(2+), Na(+) or Al(3+). However, the decline of Cu(2+) sorption slowed down when initial Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentration was higher than 0.05M or initial Al(3+) concentration was greater than 0.005M, indicating that specific adsorption may be taking place. Therefore, the majority of sorbed Cu(2+) to aspen wood fibers could be through ion exchange (especially, for UTR, BL and CEL), while a faction of sorbed Cu(2+) via inner-sphere complex (or specific adsorption).

  18. Chemical compositions, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry study on brown-rotted woods

    Treesearch

    Gai-Yun Li; Luo-Hua Huang; Chung Hse; Te-Fu Qin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of brown-rot decay on the chemical composition and crystallinity of Masson pine was studied by exposing it to Wolfiporia cocos (Schwein.) Ryvarden and Gilbn. for durations of up to 15 weeks in the field. The holocellulose content, α-cellulose content, and wood crystallinity decreased slowly in the initial stage, followed by a significant reduction...

  19. Not just lumber--Using wood in the sustainable future of materials, chemicals, and fuels

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Jakes; Xavier Arzola; Richard Bergman; Peter Ciesielski; Christopher G. Hunt; Nima Rahbar; Mandla Tshabalala; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2016-01-01

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of...

  20. Efficiency of log wood combustion affects the toxicological and chemical properties of emission particles.

    PubMed

    Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been identified as a major environmental pollutant causing severe health problems. Large amounts of the harmful particulate matter (PM) are emitted from residential wood combustion, but the toxicological properties of wood combustion particles are poorly known. To investigate chemical and consequent toxicological characteristics of PM(1) emitted from different phases of batch combustion in four heating appliances. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and human BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were exposed for 24 h to different doses (15-300 µg/mL) of wood combustion particles. After the exposure, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, production of the inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and MIP-2) and effects on the cell cycle were assessed. Furthermore, the detected toxicological responses were compared with the chemical composition of PM(1) samples including PAHs, metals and ions. All the wood combustion samples exerted high cytotoxicity, but only moderate inflammatory activity. The particles emitted from the inefficient phase of batch combustion in the sauna stove (SS) induced the most extensive cytotoxic and genotoxic responses in mammalian cells. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic compounds in PM(1) samples might have contributed to these effects. Instead, water-soluble metals seemed to participate in the cytotoxic responses triggered by the particles from more efficient batch combustion in the masonry heaters. Overall, the toxicological responses were decreased when the combustion phase was more efficient. Efficiency of batch combustion plays a significant role in the harmfulness of PM even under incomplete wood combustion processes.

  1. Effects of thermal treatment on chemical, mechanical and colour traits in Norway spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Kačíková, Danica; Kačík, František; Cabalová, Iveta; Durkovič, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    In several different branches of the wood industry heat treatment is a growing application as it changes the chemical, mechanical, physical and biological properties of wood. Investigations using wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and CIELab colour system have been conducted to study the changes in Norway spruce wood subjected to temperature up to 270°C over a 30 min time period. The results showed that mass loss (ML), total crystallinity index (TCI) of cellulose, total colour difference (ΔE*), and the content of lignin and extractives increased with the temperature, whereas degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), lightness difference (ΔL*), and the content of holocellulose, cellulose and hemicelluloses all decreased with the thermal treatment. Relationships between temperature and the examined wood traits were all fitted by exponential curves. Power law relationships were found to fit the trends for DP of cellulose with ΔE*, ΔL*, and TCI of cellulose. Also found were power law regressions for the content of hemicelluloses with MOE, MOR, ΔL*, and ML. Temperatures ranging from 20 to 187°C formed a compact cluster, clearly separated from the higher examined temperatures in the multivariate wood trait space.

  2. Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.

    PubMed

    El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60

  3. A new technique for screening chemical toxicity to the pulp from dental restorative materials and procedures.

    PubMed

    Hume, W R

    1985-11-01

    An in vitro test system is described which allows for quick and relatively inexpensive examination of the potential for chemical toxicity to the pulp of materials and procedures used in the restoration of single teeth. The test system consisted of two sequential steps. First, a restorative procedure was carried out on a freshly-extracted human tooth crown, to the pulpal surface of which had been attached a chamber filled with sterile tissue-culture medium. The preparation was kept at 37 degrees C. The culture medium was removed at day one and replaced with fresh medium, which was removed at day 3. In the second step, we used a standard tissue-culture toxicity assessment technique to examine both culture medium samples for the presence of chemical toxins. In use, this system gave results which correlated well with the known clinical potential for pulpal toxicity of various dental materials and techniques. For example, zinc oxide-eugenol used as temporary filling or base had no apparent potential for toxicity. Sealing a cotton pellet containing phenol into a cavity was of high apparent potential toxicity. Acrylic resin as intracoronal or extracoronal fillings showed potential for toxicity; this potential was decreased by lining with calcium hydroxide cement. Composite resin placed onto etched dentin had apparent toxic potential, but had less such potential when placed onto unetched dentin. The technique had some advantages over previously described in vitro toxicity test for restorative materials, because it included a step requiring diffusion of potential toxins into and through human dentin, and because it allowed for examination of variations in technique which mimic clinical behavior, and of materials used in sequence or in combination.

  4. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  5. Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-01-15

    The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of silicone oil heat treatment on the chemical composition, cellulose crystalline structure and contact angle of Chinese parasol wood.

    PubMed

    Okon, Kufre Edet; Lin, Fengcai; Chen, Yandan; Huang, Biao

    2017-05-15

    The effect of silicone oil heat treatment (SOTH) on the chemical composition, cellulose crystalline structure, thermal degradation and contact angle of Chinese parasol wood were examined in this study. Samples were heated at 150°C, 180°C and 210°C for 2h and 8h, after SOHT chemical composition, fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the treated samples were evaluated. Results showed that the chemical components of the wood were affected after SOHT particularly when treated at 210°C for 8h. Changes in the chemical components was due to the degradation of biopolymer components of the wood during SOHT. The crystallinity index of cellulose and contact angle of the SOHT samples was increased. The findings demonstrate the potential of SOHT for modification of wood. Thus an economical and eco-friendly approach to thermally modified wood was achieved in this study.

  7. Lignin from rice straw Kraft pulping: effects on soil aggregation and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Xiao, C; Bolton, R; Pan, W L

    2007-05-01

    Lignin contained in pulping liquor that is generated during the pulping process for papermaking is a disposal problem for the pulp and paper industry. Separating lignin and other organic components from pulping liquor with inorganic acids may improve its applicability to fields as a beneficial soil amendment while offering a potential disposal alternative. Sulfuric acid-precipitated lignin from rice straw pulping liquor applied at rates of 1.67 and 3.34 g C kg(-1) soil was incubated to evaluate its effects on soil properties over 8 weeks of incubation. Addition of this acid-precipitated lignin at these rates decreased soil pH by 0.24-0.53 units over 8 weeks of incubation, suggesting that this sulfuric acid-precipitated lignin from pulping liquor may have potential as a soil acidifying agent. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) only increased by up to 0.36 d Sm(-1), but highest EC levels were less than 4 d Sm(-1), indicating that lignin applied at both rates would not cause salinity problems. Application of this lignin increased soil organic C by 1.46 and 3.13 g C kg(-1), and total soil N by 0.07 and 0.17 g N kg(-1) over the incubation period. Lignin improved the macroaggregation of >2mm size fraction, and increased wet microaggregate stability of >2mm and 0.5-0.25 mm aggregates compared to a nonamended control. The results of this study suggest that this acid-precipitated lignin from pulping liquor may have potential as a beneficial soil amendment.

  8. Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps.

    PubMed

    del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2006-06-28

    The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2% of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise from p-coumaric acid by pyrolysis of abaca fibers in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which released high amounts of p-coumaric acid (as the methyl derivative). Products from p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) propanoid units, with a predominance of the latter (H:G:S molar ratio of 1.5:1:4.9), were also released after Py-GC/MS of abaca fibers. Sinapyl and coniferyl acetates, which are thought to be lignin monomer precursors, were also found in abaca. The extractives content of the abaca fiber (0.4%) was low, and the most predominant compounds were free sterols (24% of total extract) and fatty acids (24% of total extract). Additionally, significant amounts of steroid ketones (10%), triglycerides (6%), omega-hydroxyfatty acids (6%), monoglycerides (4%), fatty alcohols (4%), and a series of p-hydroxycinnamyl (p-coumaric and ferulic acids) esterified with long chain alcohols and omega-hydroxyfatty acids were also found, together with minor amounts of steroid hydrocarbons, diglycerides, alpha-hydroxyfatty acids, sterol esters, and sterol glycosides.

  9. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.

    PubMed

    Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura

    2009-12-23

    Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed.

  10. Enzymatic removal of free and conjugated sterols forming pitch deposits in environmentally sound bleaching of eucalypt paper pulp.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Rio, José C; Ibarra, David; Rencoret, Jorge; Romero, Javier; Speranza, Mariela; Camarero, Susana; Martínez, María Jesus; Martínez, Angel T

    2006-05-15

    Free and conjugated sterols are among the main compounds responsible for pitch deposition in the manufacture of wood chemical pulps, making difficult the implementation of totally chlorine free bleaching (TCF) and closure of bleach plant circuits. In this work, the suitability of oxidative enzymes in efficiently removing sterols from eucalypt pulps is revealed. The enzymatic treatment was applied as an additional stage of an industrial-type TCF sequence for bleaching eucalypt kraft pulp. The pulp obtained after oxygen delignification was treated with a high-redox potential and thermostable fungal laccase using 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as an enzyme mediator. This pulp was further submitted to chelation and peroxide stages and compared with a control TCF pulp obtained using chemical reagents. The composition of the lipophilic extractives in the pulps and the corresponding liquids after the different stages was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. Free sitosterol and sitosterol esters and glucosides, the major lipophilic compounds in eucalypt pulps, were completely removed during the laccase-mediator treatment. Only some intermediate products from sitosterol oxidation remained after the laccase stage, as well as in the final pulp. Pulp brightness was also improved due to the simultaneous removal of lignin by the laccase-mediator treatment.

  11. Chemical evolution of Miocene wood: Example from the Belchatow brown coal deposit, central Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drobniak, A.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Miocene conifer wood samples from the Belchatow brown coal deposit in Poland were studied in order to discuss a range of chemical variations that occur as a result of biochemical coalification. Petrographic analysis, ultimate analysis, electron microprobe technique, and FTIR spectroscopy were used in this study. Our data show several progressive trends in functional groups distribution that take place during the wood transformation from group 1 to group 4, such as an overall increase in aromaticity, an increase in lignin/cellulose ratio, and an increase in oxygen functionalities. Other observations include an increase in aliphatic stretching and bending functionalities from groups 1 to 3; followed by a decrease in the wood of group 4; appearance of aliphatic out-of-plane bands in group 3 and increase in group 4; an increase in CH2/CH3 in group 4 compared to the other groups; and decrease in O-H groups in group 4 compared to other groups. These observations, together with other chemical and petrological observations, indicate that the progressive elimination of cellulose and modification of lignin are dominant processes of the wood transformation. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An HPLC method for the quantitative determination of hexeneuronic acid groups in chemical pulps.

    PubMed

    Gellerstedt, G; Li, J

    1996-11-20

    It has recently been demonstrated that 4-deoxy-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranosyluronic acid ("hexeneuronic acid") is present in kraft pulps and linked to the xylan backbone. An analytical method for the quantitative determination of hexeneuronic acid groups has now been developed. The procedure involves a selective hydrolysis with mercuric acetate of the glucosidic linkage between the hexeneuronic acid group and the xylan chain, followed by oxidation with periodate to form beta-formyl pyruvic acid. The latter is reacted with thiobarbituric acid, and the red-coloured adduct formed is separated by reverse phase HPLC and quantified by measuring the absorbance at 549 nm. Some kraft pulps have been analysed to illustrate the contribution of hexeneuronic acid groups to the total amount of oxidizable structures present in such pulps.

  13. Residential and biological exposure assessment of chemicals from a wood treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, James; Takhar, Harpreet; Schecter, Arnold; Schmidt, Reynold; Horsak, Randy; Paepke, Olaf; Warshaw, Raphael; Lee, Alexander; Anderson-Mahoney, Pamela

    2007-04-01

    This paper evaluates the results of contamination of residents and residential homes located in close proximity to a Wood Treatment Plant. The plant has produced treated wood products continuously since 1904. The principle chemicals used to treat the wood, which is primarily used for railroad ties (oblong objects laid perpendicular to the rails to act as a base for the tracks), are creosote and pentachlorophenol. For a number of years, the plant burned treated waste wood products containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. First the plant pressure impregnates the wood with creosote and pentachlorophenol, and then the wood is stacked on open ground to allow it to air dry. Chemicals from recently treated wood ties are allowed to evaporate into the air or drip onto the ground surrounding the stacked wood. Small drainage ditches carry the liquid wastes into larger water channels where eventually the waste streams are discharged into a river adjacent to the plant. The river serves as a source of drinking water for the nearby community. Prevailing wind patterns favor a drift of air emissions from the plant's boiler stack over the nearby community and its residents. Over the past few years, the town's residents have become increasingly concerned about their health status and have voiced concerns regarding multiple health problems (including cancer), possibly associated with plant discharges. The intention of this study is to examine a representative sample of the potentially affected residents and to evaluate their residential environment for the presence of dioxin and/or its congeners. Data obtained from EPA's Toxic Release Information (TRI) database revealed the plant routinely discharged creosote, pentachlorophenol, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds into the ambient air via fugitive air emissions and surface waste waters. Sampling of household dust and water sediment within and outside of residences within a 2-mile radius of the plant revealed the presence of

  14. Wood as an adherend

    Treesearch

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  15. Assessment of exposure to oak wood dust using gallic acid as a chemical marker.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Mariella; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Salamon, Fabiola; Gori, Giampaolo; Trevisan, Andrea; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2016-01-01

    The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has classified oak dust as a human carcinogen (A1), based on increased sinus and nasal cancer rates among exposed workers. The aims of this study were to investigate the use of gallic acid (GA) as a chemical marker of occupational exposure to oak dusts, to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method to quantify GA and to apply the method in the analysis of oak dust samples collected in several factories. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to detect GA in oak wood dust. The method was tested in the field, and GA was extracted from inhalable oak wood dust collected using the Institute of Occupational Medicine inhalable dust sampler in the air of five woodworking plants where only oak wood is used. A total of 57 samples with dust concentrations in the range of 0.27-11.14 mg/m(3) were collected. Five of these samples exceeded the Italian threshold limit value of 5 mg/m(3), and 30 samples exceeded the ACGIH TLV of 1 mg/m(3). The GA concentrations were in the range 0.02-4.18 µg/m(3). The total oak dust sampled was correlated with the GA content with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.95. The GA in the tannic extracts of oak wood may be considered a good marker for this type of wood, and its concentration in wood dust sampled in the work environment is useful in assessing the true exposure to carcinogenic oak dust.

  16. Chemical methods in the development of eco-efficient wood-based pellet production and technology.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Matti; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Stoor, Tuomas; Niinimäki, Jouko; Pohjonen, Veli

    2009-09-01

    Up to 20 million tons of waste wood biomass per year is left unused in Finland, mainly in the forests during forestry operations, because supply and demand does not meet. As a consequence of high heat energy prices, the looming threat of climate change, the greenhouse effect, and due to global as well as national demands to considerably increase the proportion of renewable energy, there is currently tremendous enthusiasm in Finland to substantially increase pellet production. As part of this European objective to increase the eco- and cost-efficient utilization of bio-energy from the European forest belt, the aim of our research group is - by means of multidisciplinary research, especially through chemical methods - to promote the development of Nordic wood-based pellet production in both the qualitative and the quantitative sense. Wood-based pellets are classified as an emission-neutral fuel, which means that they are free from emission trading in the European Union. The main fields of pellet research and the chemical toolbox that has been developed for these studies, which includes a new specific staining and optical microscope method designed to determine the cross-linking of pellets in the presence of various binding compounds, are described in this paper. As model examples illustrating the benefits of this toolbox, experimental data is presented concerning Finnish wood pellets and corresponding wood-based pellets that include the use of starch-containing waste potato peel residue and commercial lignosulfonate as binding materials. The initial results concerning the use of the developed and optimized specific staining and microscopic method using starch-containing potato peel residue as binding material are presented.

  17. Optical resilience of the Paraíba do Sul River (Brazil) during a toxic spill of a wood-pulping factory: the Cataguazes accident.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Paulo

    2007-06-01

    This study investigates the inherent optical properties (IOP) of a Brazilian river during a non-natural, anthropogenically mediated, toxic spill of a wood-pulping factory (the 'Cataguazes accident'). The results indicated an outstanding transformation in the river water chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) pools. For instance, increases in CDOM absorption coefficients, a(CDOM)(lambda), which were averaged at specific spectral intervals, [see text], ranged from 58-fold at the UV-B and UV-A ranges to 95-fold at the PAR range. As a result, the water color expressed as CDOM absorption at 440 nm, a(CDOM (440), varied from 4.16 to 365.03 m(-1). For S-coefficient, the variations ranged from approximately 1.1 to 5.6-fold, respectively, at the 300-650 nm and UV-B range. The variability of S as a proxy of dissolved chromophores was thus clearly influenced by the spectral range used. Optical proportions were also investigated through the use of [see text] and S ratios at the UV-B, UV-A, and PAR ranges and, in the case of [see text], also at the NIR range. This approach also showed clear variations between the water samples, likely reflecting changes in the composition of optically active substances in the river system. As a whole, the findings obtained here indicated that both the quantity and quality of the chromophoric material dissolved in the river water were greatly altered by the toxic spill. The changes in the optical properties of the river water, although extreme and likely with no parallel in the literature, were quite rapid as indicated by the optical resilience of the system. Overall, this study indicates that IOP might be thought, and possibly used, as a metric tool for monitoring the state of waters and aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Physico-chemical characterization of protein associated polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 67 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We have solubilized and separated polysaccharides from SBP into three fractions with steam assisted flash extraction (SAFE) employed to solubilize the first and second fractions. Pectin, the first fract...

  19. Converting waste gases from pulp mills into value-added chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineering, Miami University, 64 J Engineering Building, Oxford, OH, 45056 The pulp and paper industry generates large amounts of HAPs, VOCs and total reduced sulfur compounds (TRSs) of the various sources. As the industry is moving to a sustainable future, the U.S. EPA and Mia...

  20. A comparative evaluation of explosion hazards in chemical and mechanical pulp bleaching systems

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, at least three pulp mills in North America have experienced catastrophic events that resulted in the explosion of pumps, mixers, and tanks. All these mills were using 50% concentration hydrogen peroxide at the site of the explosions. In at least two instances, alkali catalyzed decomposition of peroxide is implicated in the explosion....

  1. Converting waste gases from pulp mills into value-added chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineering, Miami University, 64 J Engineering Building, Oxford, OH, 45056 The pulp and paper industry generates large amounts of HAPs, VOCs and total reduced sulfur compounds (TRSs) of the various sources. As the industry is moving to a sustainable future, the U.S. EPA and Mia...

  2. Physico-chemical characterization of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have studied the global structure of microwave-assisted alkaline soluble polysaccharides (ASP) isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp. The objective was to minimize the disassembly and possibly the degradation of these polysaccharides during extraction. Prior to ASP microwave assisted-extraction (...

  3. Physico-chemical characterization of a cellulosic fraction from sugar beet pulp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The residue of sugar beet pulp from which pectin and alkaline soluble polysaccharides have been removed by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) or conventional heat was treated with sodium monochloroacetate under alkaline pH to convert the residual cellulose present to carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)....

  4. Effects of thermal processing and pulp filtration on physical, chemical and sensory properties of winter melon juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A; Duan, Yongping; Bai, Jinhe

    2017-01-01

    Winter melon (Benincasa hispida) is a widely consumed crop in Asia, and believed to impart special benefits to human health. The nutritional composition and sensory properties of four juice types, resulting from a combination of pulp levels (low/high pulp, LP/HP) and thermal processing (with/without boiling, B/NB), LPNB, HPNB, LPB and HPB, were compared. The juices had low sugars (< 20 g kg(-1) ) and low titratable acidity (about 2 g kg(-1) ). The insoluble solids, glucose, fructose and citric acid content in LP juice were significantly lower than in HP juice. The phenolic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan were detected at 10-45 mg L(-1) levels, and the antioxidant activity ranged from 36 to 49 mg gallic acid L(-1) . C6 and C9 aldehydes were mainly found in HP juice, and boiling induced the accumulation of sulfur compounds and C5 aldehydes. The LPNB juice showed the highest acceptability in the sensory panel. The frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) reconstituted with LPNB was preferable to regular FCOJ for 31% of panelists and not different for 20% of panelists. The low sugar/low acid LPNB juice with 'fresh' flavor could be developed to replace water for reconstituting FCOJ with enhanced nutritional value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Adsorption of cationized eucalyptus heteropolysaccharides onto chemical and mechanical pulp fibers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guichun; Fu, Shiyu; Liu, Hao; Lucia, Lucian A

    2015-06-05

    Adsorption of native eucalyptus heteropolysaccharides onto bleached softwood and hardwood kraft pulps and bleached CTMP was explored in this work to potentially improve the mechanical properties of the final furnish. It was found that adsorption of native heteropolysaccharides onto softwood kraft pulp was slightly higher than hardwood; however, heteropolysaccharides with low arabinose content were preferentially adsorbed onto the hardwood fibers. Adsorption onto CTMP was the lowest, although the general phenomenon of native absorption was rather low under the applied conditions. A strategy to increase the absorption required cationizing the heteropolysaccharides with 2,3-epoxy propyltrimethylamonium chloride that in general significantly increased the overall phenomenon, again with the same general tendencies as observed for the native adsorption.

  6. Biological modification of loblolly pine chips with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora prior to kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba, Laura L.

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to selectively degrade lignin in loblolly pine chips and the effect on kraft pulps was investigated. The effect of fungal treatment was assessed by comparing changes in untreated wood chips with chips incubated for two and four weeks. The kraft pulping step included two different cooking times and two levels of chemical dosage as the variables, 16 and 22% for the effective alkali and 60 and 90 min at 170°C. The other cooking variables were kept constant for all the experiments and were: sulfidity, 22%; liquor/wood ratio 4:1; time to Tmax 90 min.; Tmax 170°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the colonization introduced significant chemical and physical changes. Pore size distribution analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in the average pore size as fungal treatment progressed. Significant reduction in the extractives content (23%) was found in the first 2 weeks, after which the reduction leveled off. Lignin losses reached 2% in the first 2 weeks of incubation, followed by an 11% loss after 4 weeks of treatment. Lignin phenolic hydroxyl groups increased 14% after 4 weeks of incubation. Fungal treatment caused 4 and 6% carbohydrate loss in 2 and 4 weeks-treated chips, respectively. The selectivity of the fungal treatment was emphasized in the subsequent kraft pulping. The best response regarding improved delignification was found in kraft pulps processed at the mildest pulping conditions without affecting pulp viscosity. Benefits of fungal treatment regarding freeness of kraft pulps were evidenced after 4 weeks of incubation with a maximum of 35% freeness reduction in kraft pulps refined at 12,000 rev in a PFI mill. Strength properties of kraft pulps of fungal treated chips were superior to those of the control. This method involves chemical and physical modification of wood chips using fungi. The approach improved chip impregnation, which in turn, led to more uniform

  7. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from presswood and laminated wood products manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Facilities engaged in the manufacture of presswood and laminated wood products may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist those who manufacture presswood and laminated wood products in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  8. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts

    Treesearch

    T.H. Wegner; C.J. Houtman; A.W. Rudie; B.L. Illman; P.J. Ince; E.M. Bilek; T.W. Jeffries

    2013-01-01

    Although the term “integrateed biorefinery” is new, the concept has long been familiar to the pulp and paper industry, where processes include biomass boilers providing combined heat and power, and byproducts of pulping include turpentine, fatty acids and resin acids. In the dominant kraft (or sulfate) pulping process, dissolved lignin and chemicals from the pulp...

  9. Chemical-physical properties of TheraCal, a novel light-curable MTA-like material for pulp capping.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, M G; Siboni, F; Prati, C

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the chemical-physical properties of TheraCal, a new light-curable pulp-capping material composed of resin and calcium silicate (Portland cement), compared with reference pulp-capping materials (ProRoot MTA and Dycal). Calcium (Ca) and hydroxyl (OH) ion release over 28 days, solubility and water uptake (weight percentage variation, Δ%) at 24 h, cure depth and radiopacity of TheraCal, ProRoot MTA and Dycal were evaluated. Statistical analysis (P < 0.05) of release of ion was carried out by two-way repeated measures anova with Tukey, whilst one-way anova with Tukey test was used for the other tests. TheraCal released significantly more calcium than ProRoot MTA and Dycal throughout the test period. TheraCal was able to alkalinize the surrounding fluid initially to pH 10-11 (3 h-3 days) and subsequently to pH 8-8.5 (7-14 days). TheraCal had a cure depth of 1.7 mm. The solubility of TheraCal (Δ-1.58%) was low and significantly less than that of Dycal (Δ-4.58%) and ProRoot MTA (Δ-18.34%). The amount of water absorbed by TheraCal (Δ +10.42%) was significantly higher than Dycal (Δ +4.87%) and significantly lower than ProRoot MTA (Δ +13.96%). TheraCal displayed higher calcium-releasing ability and lower solubility than either ProRoot MTA or Dycal. The capability of TheraCal to be cured to a depth of 1.7 mm may avoid the risk of untimely dissolution. These properties offer major advantages in direct pulp-capping treatments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  11. Polyoxometalate (POM) catalyst systems : chemical principles and reactions with lignin and oxygen

    Treesearch

    I.A. Weinstock; R.H. Atalla; J.S. Bond; E.M.G. Barbuzzi; V.A. Grigoriev; Y. Gueletii; J.J. Cowan; D.M. Sonnen; R.S. Reiner; S.E. Reichel; R.A. Heintz; C.J. Houtman; A.J. Bailey; C.L. Hill

    2000-01-01

    Chemical data pertinent to most-recently developed POM delignification systems will be presented. These data will be used to demonstrate the fundamental basis for the stability, self-buffering properties, versatility and high selectivity of these systems when used in combination with oxygen to convert native or residual lignin in wood or wood-pulp fibers to CO2 and H2O...

  12. Isolation and chemical identification of lipid derivatives from avocado (Persea americana) pulp with antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Dariana Graciela; Flores-García, Mirthala; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rizzo, Sheryl; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; De la Peña-Diaz, Aurora; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in physiological hemostasis. However, in coronary arteries damaged by atherosclerosis, enhanced platelet aggregation, with subsequent thrombus formation, is a precipitating factor in acute ischemic events. Avocado pulp (Persea americana) is a good source of bioactive compounds, and its inclusion in the diet as a source of fatty acid has been related to reduced platelet aggregability. Nevertheless, constituents of avocado pulp with antiplatelet activity remain unknown. The present study aims to characterize the chemical nature of avocado constituents with inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was used as a fractionation and purification tool, guided by an in vitro adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid or collagen-platelet aggregation assay. Antiplatelet activity was initially linked to seven acetogenins that were further purified, and their dose-dependent effects in the presence of various agonists were contrasted. This process led to the identification of Persenone-C (3) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC₅₀=3.4 mM) among the evaluated compounds. In vivo evaluations with Persenone A (4) demonstrated potential protective effects against arterial thrombosis (25 mg kg⁻¹ of body weight), as coagulation times increased (2-fold with respect to the vehicle) and thrombus formation was attenuated (71% versus vehicle). From these results, avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a potential preventive effect on thrombus formation, such as those that occur in ischaemic diseases.

  13. Enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal and flux reduction in pulp and paper wastewater treatment using laccase-polymerized membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun-Han; Fan, Chihhao

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this present study is to investigate the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pulp and paper wastewater using laccase-polymerized membrane filtration process. The membranes with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 5000 and 10,000, 30,000 and 54,000 were used in a cross-flow module to treat the pulp and paper wastewater containing high phenolic constituents and COD. With 2.98 IU/L of activated laccase applied at room temperature for 180 min, the contaminants in raw wastewater and second effluent were polymerized to form larger molecules with average molecular weight of 1300 and 900 Da (Dalton), respectively. With laccase polymerization prior to filtration, over 60% removals of COD by the four investigated membranes were observed, compared with low COD removal without laccase polymerization. Moreover, the addition of laccase resulted in 4-14% reduction of membrane permeability during the first 180 min filtration operation due to gel layer formation by the polymerization. No further flux decline was observed afterwards indicating the steady state was reached and the membranes could be used to remove the polymerized pollutants without significant fouling. The maximum apparent resistance occurrence for raw wastewater treated with laccase also supported the effectiveness for COD removal with laccase polymerization before membrane filtration. Additionally, pretreatment by inactivated laccase only caused further flux reduction without additional removal of COD.

  14. Particle size characterization of oak wood leachate: chemical oxygen demand and toxicity distribution within different fractions.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Henric; Jani, Yahya; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Oak wood leachate obtained from two storage facilities (storage pound and ditch) in a wood-based industry, and leachate generated by a laboratory leaching test, were characterized in seven categories regarding particle size distribution (PSD) (raw leachate, ≤ 20 μm, ≤ 10 μm, ≤ 1.2 μm, ≤ 13 nm, ≤ 5 nm and ≤ 2 nm). The PSD followed a normal distribution model with a correlation coefficient (r) varying from 82 to 88. Each fraction was analysed regarding chemical oxygen demand, polyphenols and acute toxicity in toxicity assays with Artemia salina, Vibrio fischeri and Lactuca sativa. Fractions with particles >1.2 μm were more toxic to A. salina and V. fisheri than fractions with particles ≤ 1.2 μm. No toxic effect was observed for L. sativa. The results suggest that polyphenols are the main toxic compounds in oak wood leachate. A conspicuous difference was found between field and laboratory samples.

  15. Colour and chemical changes of the lime wood surface due to CO2 laser thermal modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubovský, Ivan; Kačík, František

    2014-12-01

    We studied colour and main wood components changes of lime wood caused by CO2 laser beam irradiation. The dry surface of lime wood (Tilia vulgaris L.) was irradiated with the CO2 laser beam (wavelength of 10.6 μm) at different exposures (expressed as the irradiation dose). Colour changes were monitored by the spectrophotometer, chemical changes were observed by the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and carbohydrates were analysed by the HPLC method. With the growth of the irradiation dose (from 8.1 to 28.7 J cm-2) lightness (ΔL*) decrease and increase of the total colour difference (ΔE*) were observed. Higher values of the input energy lead to accelerating the mutual reaction of the functional groups resulting in the subsequent condensation of lignin. The total decrease in saccharides at the highest irradiation dose reaches 27.39% of the initial amount of saccharides in the reference sample. We have observed degradation and loss of hemicelluloses.

  16. Determination of chemical changes in heat-treated wood using ATR-FTIR and FT Raman spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Özgenç, Özlem; Durmaz, Sefa; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Eksi-Kocak, Haslet

    2017-01-15

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine changes in the chemical structure of heat-treated woods. For this purpose, scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) wood species were heat-treated at different temperatures. The effect of chemical changes on the FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR bands or ratios of heat-treated wood was related with the OH association of cellulose, functional groups, and the aromatic system of lignin. The effects of heat treatment on the carbohydrate and lignin peaks varied depending on the wood species. The spectral changes that occurred after heat treatment reflected the progress of the condensation reaction of lignin. Degradation of hemicelluloses led to a decrease in free hydroxyl groups. High temperature caused crystalline cellulose to increase due to the degradation of amorphous cellulose.

  17. Determination of chemical changes in heat-treated wood using ATR-FTIR and FT Raman spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgenç, Özlem; Durmaz, Sefa; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Eksi-Kocak, Haslet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine changes in the chemical structure of heat-treated woods. For this purpose, scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) wood species were heat-treated at different temperatures. The effect of chemical changes on the FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR bands or ratios of heat-treated wood was related with the OH association of cellulose, functional groups, and the aromatic system of lignin. The effects of heat treatment on the carbohydrate and lignin peaks varied depending on the wood species. The spectral changes that occurred after heat treatment reflected the progress of the condensation reaction of lignin. Degradation of hemicelluloses led to a decrease in free hydroxyl groups. High temperature caused crystalline cellulose to increase due to the degradation of amorphous cellulose.

  18. Water requirements of the pulp and paper industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussey, Orville D.

    1955-01-01

    Water, of varied qualities, is used for several purposes in the manufacture of pulp and paper, as a vehicle for transporting the constituents of paper in the paper machines; as process water for cooking wood chips to make pulp; as a medium for heat transfer; and for washing the pulpwood, the woodpulp, and the machines that handle the pulp. About 3,200 million gallons of water was withdrawn from surface- and ground-water sources each day during 1950 for the use of the pulp and paper industry. This is about 4 percent of the total estimated industrial withdrawal of water in the Nation The paper industry in the United States has been growing at a rapid rate. It has increased about tenfold in the last 50 years and has doubled every 15 years. The 1950 production of paper was about 24 million tons, which amounts to about 85 percent of the domestic consumption. In 1950, the pulp mills of the country produced more than 14 million tons of woodpulp, which supplied about 85 percent of the demand by the paper mills and other industries. The remainder of the fiber for paper manufacture was obtained from imported woodpulp, from reclaimed wastepaper, and from other fibers including rags and straw. The nationwide paper consumption for 1955 has been estimated at 31,700,000 tons. Woodpulp is classified according to the process by which it is made. Every woodpulp has characteristics that are carried over into the many and diverse grades of paper. Groundwood pulp is manufactured by simply grinding up wood and refining the resulting product. Soda, sulfite, and sulfate pulps are manufactured by chemically breaking down the lignin that cements the cellulose of the wood together and removing, cleaning, and sometimes bleaching the resulting fibers. Some woodpulp is produced by other methods. Sulfate-pulp mills are increasing in number and in rated daily capacity and are manufacturing more than half of the present domestic production of woodpulp. Most of the newer and larger woodpulp mills

  19. The Effect of Heat Treatment on the chemical and color change of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia) wood flour

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen and moisture content (MC) on the chemical and color changes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment. The wood flour was conditioned to different initial MCs and heated for 24 h at a constant temperature of 120°C in either oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The pH values and...

  20. Soda-anthraquinone pulping of palm oil empty fruit bunches and beating of the resulting pulp.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, L; Serrano, L; Rodríguez, A; Sánchez, R

    2009-02-01

    The influence of soda-anthraquinone pulping variables (temperature, time and soda concentration) and beating (number of PFI beating revolution) of palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) on the resulting paper sheets was studied, with a view to identifying the optimum operating conditions. Equations were derived that reproduced the properties of the paper sheets with errors less than 10-12% in 90-95% of cases. An optimum compromise was found as regards operating conditions (15% soda, 170 degrees C, 70 min and 2400 number of PFI beating revolutions) that provided paper properties departing by less than 12% from their optimum values (59.63 Nm/g tensile index, 4.48% stretch, 4.17 kN/g burst index and 7.20 m Nm(2)/g tear index), and a beating grade of 47.5 degrees SR, acceptable to obtain paper sheets. Because these conditions involve a lower soda, temperature, time and beating than those required to maximize the studied paper properties, they can save chemical reagents, energy and immobilized capital for industrial facilities. On the other hand, the stretch properties of these pulp beaten are higher than those of others non-wood pulps, as wheat straw and olive wood.

  1. Removal of COD and color loads in bleached kraft pulp effluents by bottom ashes from boilers.

    PubMed

    Van Tran, A

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the bottom ashes from biomass and coal-fired boilers in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colorloads in effluents of a kraft pulp bleachery plant is investigated. The effluents tested are those of the sulfuric acid treatment (A stage) of a hardwood kraft pulp, and of the first acidic (chlorine or chlorine dioxide) and second alkaline (extraction) stages in the chlorine and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching lines of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps. The coal-fired boiler's bottom ashes are unable to remove either COD or color load in the bleached kraft pulp effluents. However, the bottom ashes of the biomass boiler are effective in removing COD and color loads of the acidic and alkaline effluents irrespective of the bleaching process or wood species. In particular, these ashes increase the pH of all the effluents examined.

  2. Improved paper pulp from plants with suppressed cinnamoyl-CoA reductase or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Ann; Holt, Karen; Piquemal, Joël; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Boudet, Alain; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Petit-Conil, Michel; Schuch, Wolfgang; Halpin, Claire

    2002-10-01

    Transgenic plants severely suppressed in the activity of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were produced by introduction of a partial sense CCR transgene into tobacco. Five transgenic lines with CCR activities ranging from 2 to 48% of wild-type values were selected for further study. Some lines showed a range of aberrant phenotypes including reduced growth, and all had changes to lignin structure making the polymer more susceptible to alkali extraction. The most severely CCR-suppressed line also had significantly decreased lignin content and an increased proportion of free phenolic groups in non-condensed lignin. These changes are likely to make the lignin easier to extract during chemical pulping. Direct Kraft pulping trials confirmed this. More lignin could be removed from the transgenic wood than from wild-type wood at the same alkali charge. A similar improvement in pulping efficiency was recently shown for poplar trees expressing an antisense cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Pulping experiments performed here on CAD-antisense tobacco plants produced near-identical results--the modified lignin was more easily removed during pulping without any adverse effects on the quality of the pulp or paper produced. These results suggest that pulping experiments performed in tobacco can be predictive of the results that will be obtained in trees such as poplar, extending the utility of the tobacco model. On the basis of our results on CCR manipulation in tobacco, we predict that CCR-suppressed trees may show pulping benefits. However, it is likely that CCR-suppression will not be the optimal target for genetic manipulation of pulping character due to the potential associated growth defects.

  3. Agricultural land application of pulp and paper mill sludges in the Donnacona area, Quebec: Chemical evaluation and crop response

    SciTech Connect

    Veillette, A.X.; Tanguay, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    Primary paper mill sludges from a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) mill were land applied at the rate of 20 metric ton per hectare (t/ha) for agricultural purposes in the Donnacona area, Quebec, in May 1994 and May 1995. Eleven agricultural sites featuring various crops were tested over two seasons to measure the impact of TMP primary paper mill sludges on soil, plant tissue and crop yield. Cereal and potato crops showed a significant increase in yield. TMP Primary sludges were also applied at the rate of 225 t/ha for land reclamation purposes of one site at the end of 1994. Soils were tested every second month. Chemical crop analyses were also performed. The first year crop response was satisfactory. Combined (primary and secondary) TMP sludges were added at the rate of 200 t/ha in the beginning of 1996. Soil, vadose zone water and crop analysis are being investigated. Impressive crop responses were obtained in the 1996 season.

  4. Chemical characterization of lignin and lipid fractions in industrial hemp bast fibers used for manufacturing high-quality paper pulps.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Rodríguez, Isabel M; del Río, José C

    2006-03-22

    The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H:G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, were found in only trace amounts. Among the lipids, the main compounds identified by GC/MS of the hemp fibers extracts were series of n-alkanes, free and esterified sterols and triterpenols, waxes, and long-chain n-fatty acids. Other compounds such as n-aldehydes, n-fatty alcohols, steroid hydrocarbons, and steroid and triterpenoid ketones as well as steryl glycosides were also found.

  5. Effect of lime and wood ash on the nixtamalization of maize and tortilla chemical and nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pappa, María Renée; de Palomo, Patricia Palacios; Bressani, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain information on the chemical composition, functional properties, sensory quality and protein value of tortillas made from the nixtamalization of maize using either lime or wood ashes. The Ca, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn content of lime and wood ashes showed lime to be high in Ca content while wood ash contained more K and about 71% of the Ca content of lime. Both contained relatively high levels of Mg, Fe and Zn, but more so in the wood ashes. The level of reagent for nixtamalization was set at 0.8% of the maize weight. All other processing conditions were kept constant. The pH of the cooking solution was 12.0 for lime and 10.9 for wood ash. The moisture content of maize at 60 min of cooking was 45.8% for both treatments, however after 12 h of soaking, moisture level was 51.0% for the lime treatment and only 46.8% for the ash treatment. Solids (2.4%) in the lime cooking liquor were higher than in the wood ash liquor (1.0%). Chemical composition changes were similar between treatments in masa and tortilla; however, both masa and tortillas absorbed relatively high levels of all minerals including Fe and Zn from the wood ash treatment. The different treatment influenced functional properties particularly hardness and color. Tortilla characteristics were also similar. Protein quality of both alkali cooked products was lower than that of raw corn, more so the product from the wood ash treatment. Although some differences were observed in the sensory studies, human subjects did not dislike the wood ash made tortillas.

  6. Timber Bamboo Pulp

    Treesearch

    Troy Runge; Carl Houtman; Alberto Negri; Jackie Heinricher

    2013-01-01

    Fast-growing biomass, such as bamboo, has the potential to serve an important future role in the pulp and paper industry with potential to both lower resource costs and improve a product’s sustainability. Moso bamboo is particularly interesting due to its fast growth and size, which allows it to be handled and chipped similarly to wood resources. In this study, we will...

  7. Chemical characterization of lignin from kraft pulping black liquor of Acacia mangium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermiati, Euis; Risanto, Lucky; Lubis, M. Adly Rahandi; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Dewi, Aniva Rizkia

    2017-01-01

    In order to know the proper use of lignin derived from pulping process of A. mangium, it is important to study the characteristics of lignin obtained from this species. The objective of this research was to study the characteristics of lignin isolated from kraft pulping black liquor of A. mangium. Lignin was isolated from the black liquor by single step and two step acid precipitation. The lignins were characterized for their moisture, ash, acid soluble lignin (ASL), and acid insoluble lignin (AIL) contents. Elemental composition, FTIR spectra, UV spectra, and microscopic structure using SEM were also analyzed. The yield of lignin obtained through one step precipitation of black liquor (45.76%) was much higher than that through two step precipitation (7.38%), while ash contents of lignin from one step and two step precipitations were almost the same. Ultimate analysis shows that carbon content in lignin from one step precipitation was lower than that from two step precipitation, while hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur content were relatively the same. Two step precipitation could increase the AIL and decrease the ASL content of the lignin isolate. Results of UV analysis show that in neutral medium (dioxane-water) the two lignin isolates had strong absorbance at 240 nm, while in alkaline medium (NaOH pH 12) there were strong absorption at 210 nm, and weak absorption at 280 nm. The FT-IR spectra reveal that the two lignin isolates had similar functional groups. This means that the removal of sugar from lignin did not change the lignin structure. The SEM analysis shows that both lignin isolates still contain some dirts.

  8. Effect of compression combined with steam treatment on the porosity, chemical compositon and cellulose crystalline structure of wood cell walls.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiangping; Yuan, Tongqi; Lu, Yun; Song, Kunlin; Li, Hanyin; Zhao, Guangjie; Yin, Yafang

    2017-01-02

    The changes of porosity, chemical composition and cellulose crystalline structure of Spruce (Picea abies Karst.) wood cell walls due to compression combined with steam treatment (CS-treatment) were investigated by nitrogen adsorption, confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. A number of slit-shaped mesopores with a diameter of 3.7nm was formed for the CS-treated wood, and more mesopores were found in the steam-treated wood. CRM results revealed cellulose structure was affected by treatment and β-aryl-ether links associated to guaiacyl units of lignin was depolymerized followed by re-condensation reactions. The crystallinity index (CrI) and crystallite thickness (D200) of cellulose for CS-treated wood were largely increased due to crystallization in the semicrystalline region. Higher degree of increase in both CrI and D200 was observed in both the earlywood and latewood of steam-treated wood, ascribing to the greater amount of mesopores in steam-treated wood than CS-treated wood.

  9. Identification of compounds associated with testosterone depressions in fish exposed to bleached kraft pulp and paper mill chemical recovery condensates.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Andrew M; Solomon, Keith R; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Dubé, Monique G; Hewitt, L Mark

    2006-09-01

    In previous experiments, bleached kraft chemical recovery condensates generated during softwood pulp production have been identified as a primary source of substances causing testosterone depressions in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Recent toxicity identification evaluations have encountered inconsistencies in the potential of condensates and fractions to reduce steroid concentrations between three repeated exposures. To assess the sources of these inconsistencies, temporal assessments of condensate extractives and analytical methodologies were evaluated. Condensates were collected during a six-month period, extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame photometric detection. All unique extractives were cataloged by mass spectra, peak area, and gas chromatographic retention time, and nine were confirmed and quantified against authentic standards. Confirmed components included phenolic guaiacyl-based lignin degradation products, sulfur (S9), three diterpenoids, and a dimethoxy stilbene. Concentrations of confirmed condensate extractives were consistent in all samples collected. Spiking experiments of confirmed extractives revealed substantial losses following high-pressure liquid chromatographic fractionation and three different methods of fraction preparation. In an effort to propose chemical classes associated with biological activity, all unique condensate extractives in previously established bioactive and inactive fractions were classified based on their potential to depress testosterone in mummichog. Of 39 unique components in bioactive SPE extracts of condensates, six were associated with hormonal activity. Mass spectral interpretation indicated hydroxylated diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and a lignin-derived stilbene as classes of chemicals associated with steroid depressions.

  10. Chemical Speciation and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic and Chromiumin Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood and Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter S.; Ruby, Michael V.; Lowney, Yvette W.; Holm,Stewart E.

    2005-10-12

    This research compares the As and Cr chemistry ofdislodgeable residues from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-treated woodcollected by two different techniques (directly from the board surfaceeither by rubbing with a soft bristle brush or from human hands aftercontact with CCA-treated wood), and demonstrates that these materials areequivalent in terms of the chemical form and bonding of As and Cr and interms of the As leaching behavior. This finding links the extensivechemical characterization and bioavailability testing that has been donepreviously on the brush-removed residue to a material that is derivedfrom human skin contact with CCA-treated wood. Additionally, thisresearch characterizes the arsenic present in biological fluids (sweatand simulated gastric fluid) following contact with these residues. Thedata demonstrate that in biological fluids, the arsenic is presentprimarily as free arsenate ions.Arsenic-containing soils were alsoextracted into human sweat to evaluate the potential for arsenicdissolution from soils at the skin surface. For soils from field sites,only a small fraction of the total arsenic is soluble in sweat. Based oncomparisons to reference materials that have been used in in vivo dermalabsorption studies, these findings suggest that the actual relativebioavailability via dermal absorption of As from CCA-residues and soilmay be well below the current default value of 3 percent used by U.S.EPA.

  11. Interaction between chitosan-based clay nanocomposites and cellulose in a chemical pulp suspension.

    PubMed

    Lai, Minghua; Liu, Pai; Lin, Huanbin; Luo, Yuqiong; Li, Houbin; Wang, Xiaoying; Sun, Runcang

    2016-02-10

    Quaternized chitosan/organic montmorillonite (QCS/OMMT) nanocomposites were synthesized under microwave irradiation. XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that QCS intercalated into the interlayer of OMMT and clay layers distributed uniformly in QCS matrix. QCS/OMMT nanocomposites were used as retention and drainage-aid agents in pulp suspension, during which the interface behavior of positively charged QCS/OMMT nanocomposites on negatively charged cellulosic substrate and CaCO3 substrate was investigated. With the addition of QCS/OMMT nanocomposites, the particle size of cellulosic substrate increased, while the beating degree and the total residual carbohydrate concentration decreased. The results indicated that QCS/OMMT nanocomposite made a difference in paper making process through the charge patch interaction. Moreover, QCS/OMMT nanocomposites had a strong interaction with CaCO3, which was significant in fiber fines retention and paper production. When the mass ratio of QCS to OMMT was 8:1, the QCS/OMMT nanocomposite demonstrated the strongest retention and drainage-aid effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2013-12-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 × 2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decreases in ash (3.48-2.92%), protein (21.63-17.62%) and fat (55.21-50.40%) content of the beans while carbohydrate content increased from 15.47% to 24.93% with both treatments. As well, increasing pod storage and fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the copper content of the beans from while reductions in Mg and K occurred. Amongst the minerals studied, potassium was the most abundant mineral followed by magnesium, phosphorus and calcium in the fermented cocoa beans. Proportion of cocoa nibs also increased from with increasing pod storage and fermentation whiles reductions in shell content and no appreciable changes in germ proportions were noted.

  13. Impact of drying on wood ultrastructure observed by deuterium exchange and photoacoustic FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Miro; Virtanen, Jenni; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2010-02-08

    The impact of drying on the ultrastructure of fresh wood was studied by deuterium exchange coupled with FT-IR analysis. This fundamental investigation demonstrated that water removal leads to irreversible alterations of the wood structure, namely, supramolecular rearrangements between wood polymers. The deuteration of fresh wood was shown to be fully reversible by a subsequent exposure of the deuterated sample to water (reprotonation). Therefore, the presence of any OD groups in deuterated and then dried wood samples after reprotonation is a clear indicator of reduced accessibility. The extent of changes was affected by drying temperature and relative humidity. Application of this methodology for the evaluation of chemical pulp sample (reference material) resulted in similar response, only more pronounced. Two hypothetical alternatives were proposed for accessibility reduction in dried wood: (i) irreversible aggregation of cellulose microfibrils and (ii) irreversible stiffening of the hemicellulose/lignin matrix that extensively swells when exposed to water.

  14. EDTA soluble chemical components and the conditioned medium from mobilized dental pulp stem cells contain an inductive microenvironment, promoting cell proliferation, migration, and odontoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Rei; Hayashi, Yuki; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Misako

    2016-05-25

    The critical challenge in tissue engineering is to establish an optimal combination of stem cells, signaling morphogenetic molecules, and extracellular matrix scaffold/microenvironment. The extracellular matrix components of teeth may be reconstituted as an inductive microenvironment in an ectopic tooth transplantation bioassay. Thus, the isolation and identification of the chemical components of the inductive microenvironment in pulp/dentin regeneration will accelerate progress towards the goal of tissue engineering of the tooth. The teeth demineralized in 0.6 M hydrochloric acid were sequentially extracted by 4.0 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), pH 7.4, and 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), pH 7.4. The extracted teeth were transplanted into an ectopic site in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs). The unextracted tooth served as a positive control. Furthermore, the soluble components for the inductive microenvironment, the GdnHCl extracts, or the EDTA extracts together with or without MDPSC conditioned medium (CM) were reconstituted systematically with autoclaved teeth in which the chemical components were completely inactivated and only the physical microenvironment was preserved. Their pulp/dentin regenerative potential and angiogenic potential were compared 28 days after ectopic tooth transplantation by histomorphometry and real-time RT-PCR analysis. Expression of an odontoblastic marker, enamelysin, and a pulp marker, thyrotropin-releasing hormone degrading enzyme (TRH-DE), was lower, and expression of a periodontal cell marker, anti-asporin/periodontal ligament-associated protein 1 (PLAP-1), was higher in the transplant of the EDTA-extracted teeth compared with the GdnHCl-extracted teeth. The autoclaved teeth reconstituted with the GdnHCl extracts or the EDTA extracts have weak regenerative potential and minimal angiogenic potential, and the CM significantly increased this potential

  15. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances.

    PubMed

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-08-31

    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of protein-associated polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Marshall L; Chau, Hoa K; Qi, Phoebe X; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Yadav, Madhav P

    2013-02-15

    We have solubilized and separated polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp (SBP) into three fractions with steam assisted flash extraction (SAFE). For pectin, recovery ranged from 8 to 14%, degree of methy-esterification 66-73%, crude protein 1.3-1.7%, M(w) 262-318 kDa, η(w) 0.22-0.23 dL/g, Rg(z) 36-39 nm and Rh(z) 41-42 nm. For alkaline soluble polysaccharides, (ASP I) recovery ranged from 4.0 to 6.5%, crude protein 1.2-4.8%, weight average molar mass (M(w)) 66-68 kDa, weight average intrinsic viscosity (η(w)) 0.27-0.30 dL/g, z-average radius of gyration (Rg(z)) 25-29 nm and z-average hydrated radius (Rh(z)) 10-11 nm. ASP II recovery ranged from 2.0 to 8.6%, crude protein 1.2-4.8%, M(w) 299-339 kDa, η(w) 0.22-0.33 dL/g, Rg(z) 33-34 nm and Rh(z) 30-34 nm. Recovery of the residue mainly cellulose, ranged from 20.3 to 22.3%. The cellulose in this fraction was converted to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The CMC fraction contained 0.33-0.43 crude protein and had an M(w) ranging from 127 to 263 kDa, η(w) 3.6-8.0 dL/g, Rg(z) 35-45 nm and Rh(z) 27-40 nm.

  17. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  18. Health hazards of natural and introduced chemical components of boatbuilding woods.

    PubMed

    Jagels, R

    1985-01-01

    The major components of untreated wood--cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin--have not been implicated as toxicants, but extractive substances, especially in heartwood, can be toxic. Decay-resistant woods are more likely to contain irritants or sensitizers than nondurable woods. Short-term exposures to certain wood dusts may result in asthma, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, or allergic dermatitis, but long-term effects may include nasal cancer and Hodgkin's disease. Some thermophilic microorganisms found in wood are human pathogens, and septic splinters (chromomycosis) and inhalation of ascomycete spores from stored wood chips have been implicated in human illnesses. Reconstituted wood can contain formaldehyde resins, which pose health risks in enclosed humid areas. Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood is particularly toxic--short-term exposures to PCP-treating solutions can lead to aplastic anemia and mortality, while diseases such as Hodgkin's disease are associated with long-term exposures. Since much commercial lumber is dipped in PCP, the separation of the chronic effects of wood dust from PCP exposure is difficult. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)- and ammoniacal copper arsenite (ACA)-treated wood may leach arsenic. CCA-treated wood is potentially safer, since it contains the pentavalent arsenic, which is a common constituent in the environment. ACA contains the trivalent arsenic, which is more toxic.

  19. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report and Appendices (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    The main report on this CD assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performace and efficiency improvements. The Appendices on this CD provide supporting information for the analyses and provides and recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Energy BestPractices Steam Program.

  20. Natural populations of shipworm larvae are attracted to wood by waterborne chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gunilla B; Larsson, Ann I; Jonsson, Per R; Appelqvist, Christin

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths) from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next encounter with a solid

  1. Natural Populations of Shipworm Larvae Are Attracted to Wood by Waterborne Chemical Cues

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Gunilla B.; Larsson, Ann I.; Jonsson, Per R.; Appelqvist, Christin

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths) from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next encounter with a solid

  2. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mensah, John Kenneth; Adei, Evans; Adei, Dina; Owusu Ansah, Gwendolyn

    2012-12-18

    Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers', manufacturers', retailers' and consumers' (end-users') preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Suppliers', manufacturers' and retailers' preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy development on improvement in quality of available

  3. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’) preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy

  4. Effects of six chemical deicers on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Harless, Meagan L; Huckins, Casey J; Grant, Jacqualine B; Pypker, Thomas G

    2011-07-01

    Widespread and intensive application of road deicers, primarily road salt (NaCl), in North America threatens water quality and the health of freshwater ecosystems. Intensive use of NaCl can be harmful to sensitive members of freshwater ecosystems such as amphibians. Detection of negative effects of NaCl application has prompted the search for alternative chemical deicers with lower environmental impacts. We conducted a series of 96-h acute toxicity tests to determine the negative sensitivity of larval wood frogs (Rana [Lithobates] sylvatica) to six deicing chemicals: urea (CH(4) N(2) O), sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl(2) ), potassium acetate (CH(3) COOK), calcium chloride (CaCl(2) ), and calcium magnesium acetate (C(8) H(12) CaMgO(8) ). Acetates are sometimes touted as environmentally friendly alternatives to NaCl but have not been examined in enough detail to warrant this designation. When exposed to a range of environmentally realistic concentrations of these chemicals, larvae were least sensitive (i.e., had the lowest mortality rate) to CH(4) N(2) O, NaCl, and MgCl(2) and most sensitive to acetates (C(8) H(12) CaMgO(8) , CH(3) COOK) and CaCl(2) . Our observed median lethal concentration estimates (LC50(96-h) ) for NaCl were over two times higher than values presented in previous studies, which suggests variability in tolerance among R. sylvatica populations. The deicers varied greatly in their toxicity, and further research is warranted to examine the differential effects of this suite of deicers on other species.

  5. Characterization and evaluation of golpata fronds as pulping raw materials.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, D A Nasima; Islam, M Khalidul

    2006-02-01

    The chemical, morphological and anatomical studies of golpata fronds have been discussed. The lignin, pentosan and alpha-cellulose in golpata fronds were comparable to some common nonwood and hardwood raw materials. The alkali, water and dichloromethane solubility were higher than wood and common nonwood. The fiber length 1.73 mm was observed, which is little bit shorter than softwood and longer than hardwood but fiber diameter was very short. The pulpability of golpata fronds has also been studied. The pulp yield was very low and Kappa number was high. The strength properties were better than that of some common nonwood pulps. FT-IR spectrum and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation products showed that golpata fronds lignin mainly consist of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl units (V).

  6. Pulp Chip Quality from In-woods Chippers Coupled with Chain Flail Delimbers-Debarkers: Does it Match Conventional Woodyard Quality?

    Treesearch

    W.F. Watson; A.A. Twaddle; B.J. Stokes

    1991-01-01

    Chain flail delimber-debarkers have gained a degree of acceptance in the Southern USA, especially for processing thinnings from pine plantations. TIzis Technical Release compares the quality of chips produced by in-woods chippers teamed with chain flail delimber-debarkers, with chips produced in conventional large-scale woodyards, to be a guideline as to what may occur...

  7. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  8. Chemical modification of nanocellulose with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester

    Treesearch

    Liqing Wei; Umesh P. Agarwal; Kolby C. Hirth; Laurent M. Matuana; Ronald C. Sabo; Nicole M. Stark

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), produced from dissolving wood pulp, were chemically functionalized by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester (CME). CME performs as both the reaction reagent and solvent. Transesterified CNC (CNCFE) was characterized for their chemical structure, morphology, crystalline structure, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity...

  9. Association genetics of chemical wood properties in black poplar (Populus nigra).

    PubMed

    Guerra, Fernando P; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark F; Stanton, Brian J; Neale, David B

    2013-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra) is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, although breeding for this specific end use is required. Our goal was to identify associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within candidate genes encoding cellulose and lignin biosynthetic enzymes, with chemical wood property phenotypic traits, toward the aim of developing genomics-based breeding technologies for bioethanol production. Pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry was used to determine contents of five- and six-carbon sugars, lignin, and syringyl : guaiacyl ratio. The association population included 599 clones from 17 half-sib families, which were successfully genotyped using 433 SNPs from 39 candidate genes. Statistical analyses were performed to estimate genetic parameters, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and single marker and haplotype-based associations. A moderate to high heritability was observed for all traits. The LD, across all candidate genes, showed a rapid decay with physical distance. Analysis of single marker-phenotype associations identified six significant marker-trait pairs, whereas nearly 280 haplotypes were associated with phenotypic traits, in both an individual and multiple trait-specific manner. The rapid decay of LD within candidate genes in this population and the genetic associations identified suggest a close relationship between the associated SNPs and the causative polymorphisms underlying the genetic variation of lignocellulosic traits in black poplar.

  10. Remediation of soil contaminated with organic and inorganic wood impregnation chemicals by soil washing.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Nordmark, Désirée; Carabante, Ivan; Sužiedelytė-Visockienė, Jūratė; Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas Česlovas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a large scale washing/wet sieving technique for a soil contaminated with wood impregnation chemicals by 1) defining the final distribution of trace elements (As, Cu, Cr, Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in separated soil particle size fractions; and 2) defining the leaching behavior of the contaminants in these soil fractions. A soil washing experiment was implemented at waste management facility in Sweden using a full scale soil sorting and washing equipment. Five tons of soil was loaded to the equipment and wet-sieved into the following fractions: >16 mm, 8-16 mm, 2-8 mm, 0.2-2 mm, <0.2 mm and a fraction that floated on top of the slurry before the final separation phase, composed of organic matter (OM). Analysis of total concentrations of contaminants in all soil fractions indicated that wet sieving/soil washing was not efficient to reduce the total volume of soil that needs further treatment. Even the coarsest soil fractions (>8 mm) contained elevated concentrations of total As and PAH. Leaching of As from all washed soil fractions was so high, that none of the particle size fractions could be disposed of without additional treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical, ultrastructural and supramolecular analysis of tension wood in Populus tremula x alba as a model substrate for reduced recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect

    Foston, Marcus B; Hubbell, Christopher A; Samuel, Reichel; Jung, Seung-Yong; Ding, Shi-You; Zeng, Yining; Jawdy, Sara; Sykes, Virginia R; Tuskan, Gerald A; Kalluri, Udaya C; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant potential sustainable sources for fuel and material production, however to fully realize this potential an improved understanding of lignocellulosic recalcitrance must be developed. In an effort to appreciate the underlying phenotypic, biochemical and morphological properties associated with the reduced recalcitrance observed in tension stress-induced reaction wood, we report the increased enzymatic sugar yield and corresponding chemical and ultrastructural properties of Populus tension wood. Populus tremula x alba (PTA) was grown under tension and stem segments containing three different wood types: normal wood (NW), tension wood (TW) from the elongated stem side and opposite wood (OW) from the compressed stem side were collected. A variety of analytical techniques were used to describe changes occurring as a result of the tension stress-induced formation of a gelatinous cell wall layer (G-layer). For example, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the molecular weight and crystallinity of cellulose in TW is greater than that of cellulose acquired from NW. Whole cell ionic liquid and other solid-state NMR analysis detailed the structure of lignin and hemicellulose in the samples, detecting the presence of variations in lignin and hemicellulose sub-units, linkages and semi-quantitatively estimating the relative amounts of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) monolignol units. It was confirmed that TW displayed an increase in PB or H-like lignin and S to G ratio from 1.25 to 1.50 when compared to the NW sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) were also used to evaluate the morphology and corresponding spatial distribution of the major lignocellulosic components. We found changes in a combination of cell wall properties appear to influence recalcitrance more than any single factor alone.

  12. An integrated biorefinery concept for conversion of sugar beet pulp into value-added chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Bawn, Maria; Hamley-Bennett, Charlotte; Bharat, Penumathsa K V; Subrizi, Fabiana; Suhaili, Nurashikin; Ward, David P; Bourdin, Sarah; Dalby, Paul A; Hailes, Helen C; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Leak, David J; Shah, Nilay; Sheppard, Tom D; Ward, John M; Lye, Gary J

    2017-09-21

    Over 8 million tonnes of sugar beet are grown annually in the UK. Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the main by-product of sugar beet processing which is currently dried and sold as a low value animal feed. SBP is a rich source of carbohydrates, mainly in the form of cellulose and pectin, including d-glucose (Glu), l-arabinose (Ara) and d-galacturonic acid (GalAc). This work describes the technical feasibility of an integrated biorefinery concept for the fractionation of SBP and conversion of these monosaccharides into value-added products. SBP fractionation is initially carried out by steam explosion under mild conditions to yield soluble pectin and insoluble cellulose fractions. The cellulose is readily hydrolysed by cellulases to release Glu that can then be fermented by a commercial yeast strain to produce bioethanol at a high yield. The pectin fraction can be either fully hydrolysed, using physico-chemical methods, or selectively hydrolysed, using cloned arabinases and galacturonases, to yield Ara-rich and GalAc-rich streams. These monomers can be separated using either Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) or ultrafiltration into streams suitable for subsequent enzymatic upgrading. Building on our previous experience with transketolase (TK) and transaminase (TAm) enzymes, the conversion of Ara and GalAc into higher value products was explored. In particular the conversion of Ara into l-gluco-heptulose (GluHep), that has potential therapeutic applications in hypoglycaemia and cancer, using a mutant TK is described. Preliminary studies with TAm also suggest GluHep can be selectively aminated to the corresponding chiral aminopolyol. The current work is addressing the upgrading of the remaining SBP monomer, GalAc, and the modelling of the biorefinery concept to enable economic and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA).

  13. Fungal Degradation of Lipophilic Extractives in Eucalyptus globulus Wood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C.; Martínez, María Jesús; Martínez, Angel T.

    1999-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of eucalypt wood with several fungal strains was investigated as a possible biological pretreatment for decreasing the content of compounds responsible for pitch deposition during Cl2-free manufacture of paper pulp. First, different pitch deposits were characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The chemical species identified arose from lipophilic wood extractives that survived the pulping and bleaching processes. Second, a detailed GC-MS analysis of the lipophilic fraction after fungal treatment of wood was carried out, and different degradation patterns were observed. The results showed that some basidiomycetes that decreased the lipophilic fraction also released significant amounts of polar extractives, which were identified by thermochemolysis as originating from lignin depolymerization. Therefore, the abilities of fungi to control pitch should be evaluated after analysis of compounds involved in deposit formation and not simply by estimating the decrease in the total extractive content. In this way, Phlebia radiata, Funalia trogii, Bjerkandera adusta, and Poria subvermispora strains were identified as the most promising organisms for pitch biocontrol, since they degraded 75 to 100% of both free and esterified sterols, as well as other lipophilic components of the eucalypt wood extractives. Ophiostoma piliferum, a fungus used commercially for pitch control, hydrolyzed the sterol esters and triglycerides, but it did not appear to be suitable for eucalypt wood treatment because it increased the content of free sitosterol, a major compound in pitch deposits. PMID:10103223

  14. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Soil under Decaying Wood in a Tropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Marcela Zalamea; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge

    2016-01-01

    Decaying wood is related to nutrient cycling through its role as either a sink or source of nutrients. However, at micro scales, what is the effect of decaying logs on the physical, chemical,and biotic characteristics of the soil underneath? We took samples from a 0 to 5 cm depth under and a 50 cm distance away from decaying logs (Dacryodes excelsa and Swietenia...

  15. Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study.

  16. Changes in structural and chemical components of wood delignified by fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, R.A.; Otjen, L.; Effland, M.J.; Eslyn, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Cerrena unicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Ischnoderma resinosum and Poria medulla-panis were associated with birch (Betula papyrifera) wood that had been selectively delignified in the forest. Preferential lignin degradation was not uniformly distributed throughout the decayed wood. A typical white rot causing a simultaneous removal of all cell wall components was also present. In the delignified wood, 95 to 98% of the lignin was removed as well as substantial amounts of hemicelluloses. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the micromorphological and ultrastructural changes that occurred in the cells during degradation. In delignified areas the compound middle lamella was extensively degraded causing a defibration of cells. The secondary wall, especially the S2 layer, remained relatively unaltered. In simultaneously white-rotted wood all cell wall layers were progressively removed from the lumen toward the middle lamella causing erosion troughs or holes to form. Large voids filled with fungal mycelia resulted from a coalition of degraded areas. Birch wood decayed in laboratory soil-block tests was also intermittently delignified, selective delignification, sparsely distributed throughout the wood, and a simultaneous rot resulting in the removal of all cell wall components were evident. SEM appears to be an appropriate technique for examining selectively delignified decayed wood. 30 references.

  17. Can wood-inhabiting fungi remove extractives and decrease pitch problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Breuil, C.

    1996-10-01

    Biological treatments with lipases or esterases, and with microorganism such as Cartapip, have been tested with some success in laboratory and mill trials as new methods for reducing pitch problems in pulp and paper production. Usually pitch problems originate with the wood species pulped and depend on the pulping process. Although most wood species contain similar lipid classes (triglycerides, fatty acids, steryl esters, sterols and other non-saponifiables), the proportion of the different classes varies between sapwood and heartwood and between species. Consequently, the behavior of extractives from different wood supplies is difficult to predict. Similarly, the efficiency of a biological treatment can be significantly affected by physical and chemical conditions in the wood being treated. The beneficial effect of such a treatment can be significantly reduced by high extractive concentrations, low levels or unavailability of nutrients required to support microbial growth (especially nitrogen). The effects of some of these factors on biotreatments can be reduced by modifying wood, or the overall treatment. Handling other factors may require finding or perhaps improving new types of microorganisms.

  18. Effect of temperature-controlled fermentation on physico-chemical properties and lactic acid bacterial count of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Wasnin, Ramdiah M; Karim, Muhammad Shahrim Abdul; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-11-01

    Effects of controlled-temperature fermentation on several physico-chemical properties, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts and aroma of durian pulp were examined by storing fresh durian pulp was mixed with 2 % (w/w) salt and stored at 15 °C, 27 °C and 40 °C for 10 days. Storage at 15 °C did not affect the properties of the pulp much. However, at 27 °C and 40 °C, pH and total soluble solids decreased up to 60 % and 52 %, respectively, with greater losses at 27 °C. Titratable acidity, which increased at 27 °C, was due to lactic and acetic acids formation. Loss of sucrose and increases in glucose were greater at 27 °C. LAB population increased up to Day 3 of storage, and then decreased slightly. Principal component analysis based on aroma examination using a zNose(TM) showed better retention of aroma profile at 27 °C. Overall, durian fermented at 27 °C was more acceptable than the one prepared at 40 °C, and it is ready to be consumed between Day 4 and 6.

  19. Chemical characterization of pitch deposits produced in the manufacturing of high-quality paper pulps from hemp fibers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C

    2005-09-01

    The composition of pitch deposits occurring in pulp sheets and mill circuits during soda/anthraquinone pulping and elemental chlorine-free pulp bleaching of bast fibers of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) was studied. Pitch deposits were extracted with acetone, and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acetone extracts (15-25% of pitch deposits) were constituted by the defoamers used at the mill and by lipophilic extractives from hemp fibers. Acetone-insoluble residues (75-85% of pitch deposits) were analyzed by pyrolysis-GC/MS in the presence and absence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. These residues were constituted by salts of fatty acids (arising from hemp fibers) with calcium, magnesium, aluminum and other cations that were identified in the deposits. It was concluded that inappropriate use of defoamer together with the presence of multivalent ions seemed to be among the causes of hemp extractives deposition in the pitch problems reported here.

  20. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  1. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  2. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  3. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  4. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  5. Relationship of wood surface energy to surface composition

    Treesearch

    Feipeng P. Liu; Timothy G. Rials; John Simonsen

    1998-01-01

    The wood cell wall is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and extractives. Thus, the surface energy of the wood material must be some combination of the surface energies of these components. The influence of extractives on wood surface chemistry can be important in diverse industrial applications, such as coating, pulping, and wood-based composites. In this...

  6. Interaction of copper wood preservatives and adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2003-01-01

    Compared to other substrates, wood is generally easy to bond. However, adhesion is diminished when the wood surface is covered by chemicals, whether natural oils and resins or added chemicals. Among the chemicals added to wood are fire retardants and wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to protect wood against rot and termites, but...

  7. The effects of early diagenesis on the chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of wood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of modern and ancient buried wood show that there is a linear correlation between carbohydrate content and the stable carbon isotope composition as carbohydrates are preferentially degraded during early diagenesis. As the carbohydrate content decreases, the ??13C value of the degraded wood decreases 1 to 2 per mil, approaching the value of the residual lignin. These results indicate that carbohydrate degradation products are lost and not incorporated into the aromatic structure as lignin is selectively preserved during early diagenesis of wood. These results also indicate that attempts to quantify terrestrial inputs to modern sedimentary organic matter based on ??13C values should consider the possibility of a 1 to 2 per mil decrease in the ??13C value of degraded wood. ?? 1987.

  8. Wood : adhesives

    Treesearch

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  9. Conversion of Japanese red pine wood (Pinus densiflora) into valuable chemicals under subcritical water conditions.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Feridoun Salak; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-11

    A comparative study on the decomposition of Japanese red pine wood under subcritical water conditions in the presence and absence of phosphate buffer was investigated in a batch-type reaction vessel. Since cellulose makes up more than 40-45% of the components found in most wood species, a series of experiments were also carried out using pure cellulose as a model for woody biomass. Several parameters such as temperature and residence time, as well as pH effects, were investigated in detail. The best temperature for decomposition and hydrolysis of pure cellulose was found around 270 degrees C. The effects of the initial pH of the solution which ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 were studied. It was found that the pH has a considerable effect on the hydrolysis and decomposition of the cellulose. Several products in the aqueous phase were identified and quantified. The conditions obtained from the subcritical water treatment of pure cellulose were applied for the Japanese red pine wood chips. As a result, even in the absence of acid catalyst, a large amount of wood sample was hydrolyzed in water; however, by using phosphate buffer at pH 2, there was an increase in the hydrolysis and dissolution of the wood chips. In addition to the water-soluble phase, acetone-soluble and water-acetone-insoluble phases were also isolated after subcritical water treatment (which can be attributed mainly to the degraded lignin, tar, and unreacted wood chips, respectively). The initial wood:acid ratio in the case of reactions catalyzed by phosphate buffer was also investigated. The results showed that this weight ratio can be as high as 3:1 without changing the catalytic activity. The size of the wood chips as one of the most important experimental parameters was also investigated.

  10. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  11. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata

  12. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis).

  13. A biorefinery scheme to fractionate bamboo into high-grade dissolving pulp and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella; Beatson, Rodger; Mark Martinez, D

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo is a highly abundant source of biomass which is underutilized despite having a chemical composition and fiber structure similar as wood. The main challenge for the industrial processing of bamboo is the high level of silica, which forms water-insoluble precipitates negetively affecting the process systems. A cost-competitive and eco-friendly scheme for the production of high-purity dissolving grade pulp from bamboo not only requires a process for silica removal, but also needs to fully utilize all of the materials dissolved in the process which includes lignin, and cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars as well as the silica. Many investigations have been carried out to resolve the silica issue, but none of them has led to a commercial process. In this work, alkaline pretreatment of bamboo was conducted to extract silica prior to pulping process. The silica-free substrate was used to produce high-grade dissolving pulp. The dissolved silica, lignin, hemicellulosic sugars, and degraded cellulose in the spent liquors obtained from alkaline pretreatment and pulping process were recovered for providing high-value bio-based chemicals and fuel. An integrated process which combines dissolving pulp production with the recovery of excellent sustainable biofuel and biochemical feedstocks is presented in this work. Pretreatment at 95 °C with 12% NaOH charge for 150 min extracted all the silica and about 30% of the hemicellulose from bamboo. After kraft pulping, xylanase treatment and cold caustic extraction, pulp with hemicellulose content of about 3.5% was obtained. This pulp, after bleaching, provided a cellulose acetate grade dissolving pulp with α-cellulose content higher than 97% and hemicellulose content less than 2%. The amount of silica and lignin that could be recovered from the process corresponded to 95 and 77.86% of the two components in the original chips, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the concentrated and detoxified sugar mixture

  14. Flash methanolysis of wood for the production of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass in the form of less than 1000 micron oven dried fir wood particles was flash pyrolyzed in the presence of methane (methanolysis) in a downflow 1 in. I.D. tubular reactor at pressures of 20 to 200 psi and temperatures between 800/sup 0/ and 1050/sup 0/C. The major products were benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), a heavy oily liquid (greater than or equal to C/sub 9/), ethylene and carbon monoxide. As much as 12% of the available carbon in the wood was converted to BTX, 21% to ethylene and 48% to carbon monoxide at 50 psi and 1000/sup 0/C. The maximum heavier oil yield of 11% was observed at 50 psi and 800/sup 0/C. Wood particle residence times for all experiments were calculated to be less than 1 second at 20 and 50 psi and up to 2.8 sec at 200 psi. The yelds were found to be greatly influenced by the methane to wood feed ratio. Experiments were conducted to insure the results to be that produced from the wood and methane and not a catalytic effect of the reactor wall of foreign matter. Material balance, including char analyses, indicate approximately 75 to 80% of the available carbon in the feed wood reacted. Methane balances were within the margin of error of the measuring equipment showing that there is no significant net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary economic evaluation of a 2000 ton/day wood processing plant producing ethylene, benzene and methanol showed a reasonably cmpetitive plant investment of $29,000/barrel fuel oil equivalent/day assuming 15% return on investment and present market values for the products.

  15. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  16. Chemical, colloidal and mechanical contributions to the state of water in wood cell walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertinetti, L.; Fratzl, P.; Zemb, T.

    2016-08-01

    The properties of wood depend strongly on its water content, but the physicochemical basis for the interaction of water with cell wall components is poorly understood. Due to the importance of the problem both in the context of wood technology and the biological function of swelling and dehydration for growth stresses and seed dispersal, a wealth of descriptive data has been accumulated but a microscopic theory of water-biomolecular interactions is missing. We develop here, at a primitive level, a minimal parameter-free, coarse-grained, model of wood secondary cell walls to predict water absorption, in the form of an equation of state. It includes for the first time all three—mechanical, colloidal and chemical—contributions, taking into account the cell walls microstructure. The hydration force around the elongated cellulose crystals and entropy of mixing of the matrix polymers (hemicelluloses and lignin) are the dominant contributions driving the swelling. The elastic energy needed to swell the composite is the main term opposing water uptake. Hysteresis is not predicted but water uptake versus humidity, is reproduced in a large temperature range. Within this framework, the origin of wood dissolution and different effects of wood treatments on water sorption can be understood at the molecular level.

  17. Bacterial associations with decaying wood : a review

    Treesearch

    C. A. Clausen

    1996-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting bacteria are associated with wood decay and may have an indirect influence on the decay process. Bacteria are able to affect wood permeability, attack wood structure, or work synergistically with other bacteria and soft-rot fungi to predispose wood to fungal attack. Bacteria that can inhabit chemically treated wood are recognized. The natural ability of...

  18. Iron Stain on Wood

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  19. Wood preservative testing

    Treesearch

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  20. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  1. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Plywood Treated with a new Wood Preservative (CEB) Chemical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalawate, Aparna; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Das, Himadri Sekhar

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the physical and mechanical properties of the plywood made with phenolic glue and rubber wood as core veneer with CEB as a wood preservative. The studied properties were glue shear strength in dry, wet mycological, modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength in parallel to grain direction as per IS:1734 part-4, 11 and 9 (1983) respectively. Results of the above mentioned tests were compared with the prescribed values given in IS 710-2010 and results revealed that samples conformed the prescribed values.

  2. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Plywood Treated with a new Wood Preservative (CEB) Chemical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalawate, Aparna; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Das, Himadri Sekhar

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the physical and mechanical properties of the plywood made with phenolic glue and rubber wood as core veneer with CEB as a wood preservative. The studied properties were glue shear strength in dry, wet mycological, modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength in parallel to grain direction as per IS:1734 part-4, 11 and 9 (1983) respectively. Results of the above mentioned tests were compared with the prescribed values given in IS 710-2010 and results revealed that samples conformed the prescribed values.

  3. Synthesis of pulping processes with fiber loading methods for lightweight papers

    Treesearch

    John H. Klungness; Roland Gleisner; Masood Akhtar; Eric G. Horn; Mike Lentz

    2003-01-01

    Pulping technologies can be synthesized with fiber loading with simultaneous alkaline peroxide bleaching to produce lightweight high-opacity printing papers. We compared the results of recent experiments on combining oxalic acid pretreated wood chips used for thermomechanical pulp (TMP) with fiber loading and previous experiments on combining similar pulps treated with...

  4. Incorporating biopulping technology into wood yard operations

    Treesearch

    Gary M. Scott; Eric. Horn; Masood. Akhtar; Ross E. Swaney; Michael J. Lentz; David F. Shipley

    1998-01-01

    Biopulping is the treatment of wood chips and other lignocellulosic materials with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Ten years of industry-sponsored research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the technology for mechanical pulping at a laboratory scale. Two 50-ton outdoor chip pile trials recently conducted at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products...

  5. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  6. Effect of sucrose and pectin addition on physical, chemical, thermal and rheological properties of frozen/thawed pineapple pulps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; Prado, Mônica Elisabeth Torres; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Pectin (0-1.0 g/100 mL) and sucrose (0-20 g/100 mL) were added to pineapple pulp to improve their rheological properties, thermal properties and stability after freezing and thawing processes. The properties of the mixes were characterized before and after freezing and thawing. Samples were frozen at -20°C, and the freeze concentration was evaluated every 60 min. The thawing rate was evaluated at 19°C and quantified by photographic editing and image analysis software. The thawing rates and values for the freeze concentration were leveled out at pectin concentrations above 0.5 g/100 mL pectin, which indicated that pectin functions to maintain structural homogeneity during freezing. In the thawed samples, the plastic viscosity values were leveled out from pectin concentrations (0.25-0.75 g/100 mL) as the sucrose concentration increased when compared to unfrozen samples. The differences between the rheological parameters of the unfrozen and frozen/thawed pulps, the higher yield stress values after thawing were attributed to the size of suspended particles in the pulp. Applications can specify formulations of frozen products containing pectin, where these properties can be handled after thawing the product.

  7. Chemical characterization of organic microcontaminant sources and biological effects in riverine sediments impacted by urban sewage and pulp mill discharges.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Hernández, V; Matamoros, V; Domínguez, C; Becerra, J; Vidal, G; Piña, B; Bayona, J M

    2013-01-01

    The Biobío River basin is highly impacted by a variety of anthropogenic activities such as pulp mills and urban wastewaters subjected to different treatment processes. This work assesses for the first time, the contamination source and biological effects (estrogenic and dioxin-like activities) in the river basin by the determination of 45 organic microcontaminants in seven sediment samples. Pressurized solvent extraction combined with two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry was employed for this purpose. The organic microcontaminants identified comprise monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, ionones, lineal alkyl benzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, musk fragrances, sterols and phathalate esters. The presence of pine and eucalyptus pulp mill effluents increased the abundance of resin-derived neutral compounds and monoterpenes respectively. A principal component analysis showed that the Biobío River basin was impacted by domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), pine or eucalyptus Kraft pulp mills and pyrolytic and pyrogenic processes. Finally, the recombinant yeast assays showed that the presence of estrogenic and dioxin-like activity was mostly located in sediments impacted by domestic WWTP effluents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater. PMID:26904681

  9. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  10. Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Pio, C.; Rzaca, M.; Schmidl, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain the combustion phase and conditions, continuous emission monitors measured O2, CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, temperature and pressure, during each burning cycle. Woodsmoke samples have been collected and analysed to estimate the contribution of plant debris and biomass smoke to atmospheric aerosols. At this stage of work, cellulose, anhydrosugars and humic-like substances (HULIS) have been measured. Cellulose was determined photometrically after its conversion to D-Glucose. The determination of levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars, including mannosan and galactosan, was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. HULIS determination was made with a total organic carbon analyser and an infrared non dispersive detector, after the isolation of substances. Cellulose was present in PM10 at mass fractions (w/w) of 0.13%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.08% for Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major anhydrosugar present in the samples, representing mass fractions of 14.71%, 3.80%, 6.78% and 1.91%, concerning the above mentioned wood species, respectively. The levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio, usually used to evaluate the proportion of hardwood or softwood smoke in PM10, gave average values of 34.9 (Eucalyptus globulos), 3.40 (Pinus pinaster), 24.8 (Quercus suber) and 10.4 (Acacia longifolia). HULIS were present at mass fractions of 2.35%, 2.99%, 1.52% and 1.72% for the four wood species listed in the same order as before.

  11. The Role of Chemical Transport in the Decay Resistance of Modified Wood. In: M

    Treesearch

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Rebecka Ringman; Annica Pulgard; Emil Engelund Thybring; Joseph E. Jakes; Klaus Richter

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 review by Ringman et al. examined established theories addressing why modified wood has increased decay resistance and concluded that the most probable cause of inhibition and/or delay of the initiation of brown rot decay is lowering the equilibrium moisture content for given environmental conditions. A 2013 paper by Jakes et al...

  12. Application of hemicelluloses precipitated via ethanol treatment of pre-hydrolysis liquor in high-yield pulp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zehua; Fatehi, Pedram; Sadeghi, Soroosh; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-10-01

    Hemicelluloses in industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) were precipitated with ethanol. These PHL-derived hemicelluloses (PHL-EH) and a commercial, pure birch wood xylan sample (powder form) (BWX) were bleached using chlorine dioxide (D(0) and D(1)) and hydrogen peroxide (Ep) in the D(0)EpD(1) sequence, and the chemical compositions, molecular weights and charge densities of the treated samples were assessed. When applied to high-yield pulp (HYP) at 50 mg/g, 26 and 20 mg/g of the bleached PHL-EH and BWX, respectively, were adsorbed without significantly affecting paper properties. These results suggest that semi-bleached hemicelluloses could be used to increase the basis weight of paper products. Furthermore, an integrated process was proposed that converts the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process into a biorefinery unit with dissolving pulp, bleached hemicelluloses and lignin as main products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  14. Recalcitrant organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand sources) in biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents: Their fate and environmental impact in receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, F.; Roy-Arcand, L.; Methot, M.; Valeanu, L.

    1998-11-01

    Most North American pulp and paper mills now biologically treat (biotreat) their liquid effluent. However, treated water still contains effluent-derived recalcitrant organic material (EROM), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), for which emission limits exist in Europe and are being considered in the US. Production of microbially resistant, dissolved natural organic material (NOM) typically found in Canadian stream and lake waters occurs slowly under gentle conditions, while mill EROM is generated from lignocellulosics by faster and harsher processes. Similarity of the environmental effects of NOM and pulp and paper mill EROM are examined. Changes occurring over 4 months in biologically treated effluent from two modern Canadian mills and lake NOM when sealed in gas- and light-permeable bags and placed in a pristine Quebec lake are reported. Addition of microbial co-metabolites significantly improved the dark mineralization of organochlorines surviving mill biological treatment. Mill EROM was light sensitive, nonacutely toxic in the Microtox assay, and similar to NOM in the surrounding lake in most bulk properties. There was no evidence to suggest that placing specific limits on mill EROM (COD) emissions would be environmentally beneficial.

  15. Microbial reduction by two chemical-mechanical protocols in primary teeth with pulp necrosis and periradicular lesion - an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Triches, Thaisa Cezária; de Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Feres, Magda; de Freitas, Sérgio Fernando Torres; Zimmermann, Gláucia Santos; Cordeiro, Mabel Mariela Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of chemical-mechanical procedures of two endodontic protocols for septic content reduction of root canals from primary teeth with pulp necrosis and periradicular lesion. Twenty-four primary root canals with pulp necrosis and periradicular lesion were divided into two treatment groups (n=12): multiple-visit and single-visit protocols. Samples were collected using sterile paper points before and after endodontic cleaning followed by microbiological identification through checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Statistical analysis was performed using Proportion Test for score=0 comparing the findings before and after treatment for each group (Wilcoxon's test) as well as the differences in scores between protocols (Mann-Whitney's test) (p<0.05). Data were expressed as prevalence (presence or absence) and estimate of the average count (x10(5) cells) of each species. Differences in proportions of score=0 prior to treatment were non-significant (p=0.415), demonstrating equivalence between groups. A significant increase in score=0 was detected after treatment for both groups (p<0.0001). Single-visit protocol achieved a significantly greater reduction in mean scoring following endodontic treatment (p=0.024). Both protocols were capable of significantly reducing septic content in root canals of primary teeth with periradicular lesion. Moreover, single-visit protocol showed greater efficacy in reducing endodontic infection.

  16. Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels--A case study ranging over nine years.

    PubMed

    Edo, Mar; Björn, Erik; Persson, Per-Erik; Jansson, Stina

    2016-03-01

    The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels.

  17. Chemical constituent influence on ionizing radiation treatment of a wood-plastic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Andrew; Smith, Jennifer; Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Leonard; Scott Larsen, L.

    2016-07-01

    A dose range of 0-200 kGy was used to irradiate polyethylene-based wood plastic composite (WPC) specimens. An evaluation of mechanical properties in bending resulted in an increase in ultimate strength, but little effect to stiffness. The bending test results were compared to previous testing in order to examine reproducibility. Hardness tests were also conducted, revealing an increase at a dose range of 0-250 kGy.

  18. Chemically Crushed Wood Cellulose Fiber towards High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Wan, Jiayu; Zhou, Lihui; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhao, Bin; Han, Xiaogang; Fu, Kun; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-10-21

    Carbon materials have attracted great interest as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to their high performance and low cost. Here, we studied natural wood fiber derived hard carbon anodes for SIBs considering the abundance and low cost of wood. We discovered that a thermal carbonization of wood fiber led to a porous carbon with a high specific surface area of 586 m(2) g(-1), while a pretreatment with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) could effectively decrease it to 126 m(2) g(-1). When evaluating them as anodes for SIBs, we observed that the low surface area carbon resulted in a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 72% compared to 25% of the high surface area carbon. More importantly, the low surface area carbon exhibits an excellent cycling stability that a desodiation capacity of 196 mAh g(-1) can be delivered over 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), indicating a promising anode for low-cost SIBs.

  19. Chemically Crushed Wood Cellulose Fiber towards High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Fei; Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Wan, Jiayu; Zhou, Lihui; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhao, Bin; Han, Xiaogang; Fu, Kun; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-10-21

    Carbon materials have attracted great interest as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to their high performance and low cost. Here, we studied natural wood fiber derived hard carbon anodes for SIBs considering the abundance and low cost of wood. We discovered that a thermal carbonization of wood fiber led to a porous carbon with a high specific surface area of 586 m2 g–1, while a pretreatment with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) could effectively decrease it to 126 m2 g–1. When evaluating them as anodes for SIBs, we observed that the low surface area carbon resulted in a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 72% compared to 25% of the high surface area carbon. More importantly, the low surface area carbon exhibits an excellent cycling stability that a desodiation capacity of 196 mAh g–1 can be delivered over 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g–1, indicating a promising anode for low-cost SIBs.

  20. Exposure of wood in floodplains affects its chemical quality and its subsequent breakdown in streams.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Rubén; Gómez, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    In stream ecosystems, coarse organic matter from the riparian vegetation, a key food resource, is often retained in the floodplains before reaching the channel. During floodplain exposure, organic matter can be affected by abiotic and biotic processes ("preconditioning"), which alter its quality and affect its subsequent decomposition in streams. We analyzed the effect of floodplain preconditioning on wood quality (lignin, C, N, P, K, among others), and its subsequent aquatic breakdown, paying special attention to microbial activity. We simulated preconditioned standard wooden sticks on one arid stream floodplain for 3 and 4 months, and then monitored their breakdown in three different streams, together with control (non-preconditioned) sticks. Preconditioning reduced lignin mass and C:N and lignin:N ratios, caused the leaching of soluble nutrients such as P and K, as well as N immobilization by microbes. These changes enhanced the breakdown of wood in the first week of immersion, but had no effect on breakdown rates after 4 months of incubation in the streams, although N immobilization was diminished. Our results suggest that terrestrial preconditioning could alter the role of wood as a long-lasting nutrients and energy source for freshwater ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface Chemical and Color Characterization of Juvenile TECTONA GRANDIS Wood Subjected to Steam-Drying Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocal, Alexander; Moya, Róger; Rodriguez-Solis, María; Starbird, Ricardo; Muñoz, Freddy

    2016-11-01

    The color of Tectona grandis wood is an attribute that favors its commercialization, however, wood color from fast-growth plantation trees is clear and lacks uniformity. The aim of this work is to characterize steamed teak wood by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and L∗a∗b∗ color systems. Two moisture conditions (green and 50%) and two grain patterns (flat and quarter) of boards were analyzed through the application of different steaming times (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18h). The FTIR results showed that the bands at 1158, 1231, 1373 and 1419cm-1 did not show any change with steaming, whereas the bands at 1053, 1108, 1453, 1506, 1536, 1558, 1595, 1652, 1683, 1700 and 1733cm-1 presented a decrease in the intensity with the steaming time. The band at 1318cm-1 was the only one that increased. Lightness (L∗) was the most affected parameter, followed by yellowness (b∗), while redness (a∗) showed the smallest change. Surface color change (ΔE∗) presented the lowest value between 3h and 6h of steam-drying in the boards with flat grain, whereas for boards with quarter grain, the smallest ΔE∗ value was obtained after 18h of steaming.

  2. Determination of molecular weight distributions in native and pretreated wood.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Timo; Kelley, Stephen S; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2015-03-30

    The analysis of native wood components by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is challenging. Isolation, derivatization and solubilization of wood polymers is required prior to the analysis. The present approach allowed the determination of molecular weight distributions of the carbohydrates and of lignin in native and processed woods, without preparative component isolation steps. For the first time a component selective SEC analysis of sawdust preparations was made possible by the combination of two selective derivatization methods, namely; ionic liquid assisted benzoylation of the carbohydrate fraction and acetobromination of the lignin in acetic acid media. These were optimized for wood samples. The developed method was thus used to examine changes in softwood samples after degradative mechanical and/or chemical treatments, such as ball milling, steam explosion, green liquor pulping, and chemical oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). The methodology can also be applied to examine changes in molecular weight and lignin-carbohydrate linkages that occur during wood-based biorefinery operations, such as pretreatments, and enzymatic saccharification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods for Facilitating Microbial Growth on Pulp Mill Waste Streams and Characterization of the Biodegradation Potential of Cultured Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L.; Ayoub, Ali S.; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  4. Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

    2013-12-12

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor.

  5. [New cellulases efficiently hydrolyzing lignocellulose pulp].

    PubMed

    Skomarovskiĭ, A A; Markov, A V; Gusakov, A V; Kondrat'eva, E G; Okunev, O N; Bekkerevich, A O; Matys, V Iu; Sinitsyn, A P

    2006-01-01

    Commercial and pilot enzyme preparations from fungi of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma have been compared with regard to their action on conifer wood pretreated with acidified aqueous ethanol (organosolve). In most experiments, enzymes from the genus Penicillium allowed higher yields of reducing sugars and glucose than those from Trichoderma. High beta-glucosidase activity is essential for deep pulp hydrolysis.

  6. Possible mechanism for anthraquinone species diffusion in alkaline pulping

    Treesearch

    X.-S. Chai; J. Samp; Q.X. Hou; S.-H Yoon; J.Y. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of anthraquinone (AQ) in kraft-AQ pulping in terms of its mechanism of transport has been conducted. Our previous work showed that caustic solutions of wood lignin can decrease the membrane exclusion for anthraquinones, i.e., the presence of wood lignin enhances the ability of AQ to pass through a membrane when a reducing agent is...

  7. Composts with and without wood ash admixture for the management of tropical acid soils: chemical, physical and microbiological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougnom, B. P.; Insam, H.; Etoa, F. X.

    2009-04-01

    Acid soils generally found in the tropics have a low pH, are poor in organic matter, deficient in Ca2+, Mg+, P, or Mo ; limited in mineralization, nitrification, nodulation, and mycorrhizal infection , suffer from Al or Mn toxicity. Within the framework aiming at using organic wastes and wood ash to overcome soil infertility in tropical acidic soils, a green house experiment was conducted with two acid soils collected from Cameroon (Ferralsol and Acrisol) and amended with three types of compost 3:1(W/W) containing 0 (K0), 8(K8) and 16% (K16) wood ash admixture respectively for two consecutive cycles of 100 days, during which soybean (Glycine max) was grown on the first, the second cycle was left as fallow. Generally the same trends of variation of the physico-chemical parameters were observed in both soils. Addition of organic wastes increased the pH electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, water holding capacity, total Carbone and total nitrogen as compared to the controls. The rate of nitrification highly increased posing the problem of possible leaching of nitrates in the ground water. The cations and micronutrients content followed the same trends. These changes leaded to an increase of the P availability and a decrease of Al toxicity. At the end of the second cycle, generally most of the different parameters slightly decreased except for the electrical conductivity. All composts passed a toxicity test, and the amended soils had significant better fresh and dried plant biomass, the Total nitrogen also significantly increased. Amended soils with K0 generally performed better than those amended with K8 and K16, thinking that their pH (closer to the neutrality) was responsible of these performances, all the parameters were significantly correlated to the pH. K8 and K16 performances could be performed by reducing the added quantities. The study of PCR-DGGE have shown a shift in the fungal and bacterial communities, Ammonia oxidizing bacteria community were

  8. Effect of harvest time on physico-chemical properties and bioactive compounds of pulp and seeds of grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Gülcü, Mehmet; Uslu, Nurhan; Geçgel, Ümit; Ghafoor, Kashif; Dursun, Nesim

    2017-07-01

    In this study, physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of three grape varieties (Cardinal, Müşküle and Razaki) harvested at the three different harvest times (on time, one and two weeks earlier) were investigated. The highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in Razaki pulp and these were 82.854%, 127.422 mg/100 g, 3.873 mg/g, respectively. The contents of bioactive compounds in grape seeds were found higher than those in pulps. Similarly, seed of Razaki had higher antioxidant activity (91.267%) and total phenolic content (477.500 mg/100 g) when compared to results of other varieties. The key phenolic compounds of all grape variety and seeds were gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, (+)-catechin ve 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. The oil content of grape seeds ranged from 8.50% (Razaki harvested one week ago) to 19.024% (Müşküle harvested one week ago). The main fatty acids of grapeseed oils were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. In addition, the oil of Razaki seeds was rich in tocopherols when compared to the other varieties.

  9. Citrus pulp for cattle.

    PubMed

    Arthington, John D; Kunkle, William E; Martin, Amy M

    2002-07-01

    Citrus pulp is classified as an energy concentrate by-product feed. Citrus by-products fed to beef cattle include citrus molasses, citrus meal, wet citrus pulp, dried citrus pulp, and pelleted citrus pulp; however, in current production systems, pulp (wet, dry, and pelleted) is the only by-product commonly used. Citrus pulp production in the United States is limited to specific subtropical regions, of which south central Florida remains the largest with additional production in California and Texas.

  10. The Influence of Process Conditions on the Chemical Composition of Pine Wood Catalytic Pyrolysis Oils

    DOE PAGES

    Pereira, J.; Agblevor, F. A.; Beis, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Pine wood samples were used as model feedstock to study the properties of catalytic fast pyrolysis oils. The influence of two commercial zeolite catalysts (BASF and SudChem) and pretreatment of the pine wood with sodium hydroxide on pyrolysis products were investigated. The pyrolysis oils were first fractionated using column chromatography and characterized using GC-MS. Long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, levoglucosan, aldehydes and ketones, guaiacols/syringols, and benzenediols were the major compounds identified in the pyrolysis oils. The catalytic pyrolysis increased the polycyclic hydrocarbons fraction. Significant decreases in phthalate derivatives using SudChem and long chain aliphatics using BASF catalyst were observed. Significant amountsmore » of aromatic heterocyclic hydrocarbons and benzene derivatives were formed, respectively, using BASF and SudChem catalysts. Guaiacyl/syringyl and benzenediols derivatives were partly suppressed by the zeolite catalysts, while the sodium hydroxide treatment enriched phenolic derivatives. Zeolite catalyst and sodium hydroxide were employed together; they showed different results for each catalyst.« less

  11. Determination of hot and cool burning residential wood combustion source strengths using chemical mass balance modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, J.A.; Huntzicker, J.J.; Khalil, M.A.K. )

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares CMB results using separate hot and cool RWC source composition profiles, a composite of hot and cool composition profiles weighted according reported stove usage patterns, and the conventional EPA RWC source composition profile. These profiles are shown. Since the composition of hot and cool burn particles is dramatically different, hot and cool burn composition profiles can be used as separate sources in the same CMB model. Hot burning RWC particles are black, have a mild acrid smell and contain from 20 to 60% carbon (up to 80% of the carbon can be in the form of elemental carbon) and high levels of trace elements (5-25%K, 2-5% S and 2-4% Cl). In contrast, cool or smoldering burn smoke particles are tan, have a strong pleasant wood smoke smell, and contain 55-60% carbon which is mostly in the form of organic carbon with only a few percent of elemental carbon. The concentrations of trace elements in cool burning emissions are generally less than 0.1%. During hot burning the RWC smoke plume is practically invisible, while during cool burning the plume is very visible and has the typical blue-gray color associated with wood burning. For similar amounts of fuel burning in a stove, emission levels for cool burning are an average of 4.8 times higher than for hot burning.

  12. Biomechanical pulping: A mill-scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Scott, G.M.; Swaney, R.E.; Shipley, D.F.

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory scale. In an effort to scale-up biomechanical pulping to an industrial level, fifty tons of spruce wood chips were inoculated with the best biopulping fungus in a continuous operation and stored in the form of an outdoor chip pile for two weeks. The pile was ventilated with conditioned air to maintain the optimum growth temperature and moisture throughout the pile. The control and fungus-treated chips were refined through a thermomechanical pulp mill (TMP) producing lightweight coated paper. The fungal pretreatment saved 33% electrical energy and improved paper strength properties significantly compared to the control. Since biofibers were stronger than the conventional TMP fibers, the authors were able to reduce the amount of bleached softwood kraft pulp by at least 5% in the final product. Fungal pretreatment reduced brightness, but brightness was restored to the level of bleached control with 60% more hydrogen peroxide. The economics of biomechanical pulping look attractive.

  13. Genetic and environmental modification of the mechanical properties of wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederoff, R.; Allona, I.; Whetten, R.

    1996-02-01

    Wood is one of the nation's leading raw materials and is used for a wide variety of products, either directly as wood, or as derived materials in pulp and paper. Wood is a biological material and evolved to provide mechanical support and water transport to the early plants that conquered the land. Wood is a tissue that results from the differentiation and programmed cell death of cells that derive from a tissue known as the vascular cambium. The vascular cambium is a thin cylinder of undifferentiated tissue in plant stems and roots that gives rise to several different cell types. Cells that differentiate on the internal side of the cambium form xylem, a tissue composed in major part, of long thin cells that die leaving a network of interconnected cell walls that serve to transport water and to provide mechanical support for the woody plant. The shape and chemical composition of the cells in xylem are well suited for these functions. The structure of cells in xylem determines the mechanical properties of the wood because of the strength derived from the reinforced matrix of the wall. The hydrophobic phenolic surface of the inside of the cell walls is essential to maintain surface tension upon which water transport is based and to resist decay caused by microorganisms. The properties of wood derived from the function of xylem also determine its structural and chemical properties as wood and paper products. Therefore, the physical and chemical properties of wood and paper products also depend on the morphology and composition of the cells from which they are derived. Wood (xylem cell walls) is an anisotropic material, a composite of lignocellulose. It is a matrix of cellulose microfibrils, complexed with hemicelluloses, (carbohydrate polymers which contain sugars other than glucose, both pentoses and hexoses), embedded together in a phenolic matrix of lignin. The high tensile strength of wood in the longitudinal direction, is due to the structure of cellulose and the

  14. Investigation of chemical and electrochemical reactions mechanisms in a direct carbon fuel cell using olive wood charcoal as sustainable fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elleuch, Amal; Halouani, Kamel; Li, Yongdan

    2015-05-01

    Direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is a high temperature fuel cell using solid carbon as fuel. The use of environmentally friendly carbon material constitutes a promising option for the DCFC future. In this context, this paper focuses on the use of biomass-derived charcoal renewable fuel. A practical investigation of Tunisian olive wood charcoal (OW-C) in planar DCFCs is conducted and good power density (105 mW cm-2) and higher current density (550 mA cm-2) are obtained at 700 °C. Analytical and predictive techniques are performed to explore the relationships between fuel properties and DCFC chemical and electrochemical mechanisms. High carbon content, carbon-oxygen groups and disordered structure, are the key parameters allowing the achieved good performance. Relatively complex chain reactions are predicted to explain the gas evolution within the anode. CO, H2 and CH4 participation in the anodic reaction is proved.

  15. Estimation of wood density and chemical composition by means of diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT-MIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, Mari H; Birch, Gillian M; Sykes, Rob J; Lee, Steve J; Stewart, Derek

    2006-01-11

    Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) samples (491) from 50 different clones as well as 24 different tropical hardwoods and 20 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) samples were used to construct diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT-MIR) based partial least squares (PLS) calibrations on lignin, cellulose, and wood resin contents and densities. Calibrations for density, lignin, and cellulose were established for all wood species combined into one data set as well as for the separate Sitka spruce data set. Relationships between wood resin and MIR data were constructed for the Sitka spruce data set as well as the combined Scots pine and Sitka spruce data sets. Calibrations containing only five wavenumbers instead of spectral ranges 4000-2800 and 1800-700 cm(-1) were also established. In addition, chemical factors contributing to wood density were studied. Chemical composition and density assessed from DRIFT-MIR calibrations had R2 and Q2 values in the ranges of 0.6-0.9 and 0.6-0.8, respectively. The PLS models gave residual mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.6-1.9, 2.8-3.7, and 0.4 for lignin, cellulose, and wood resin contents, respectively. Density test sets had RMSEP values ranging from 50 to 56. Reduced amount of wavenumbers can be utilized to predict the chemical composition and density of a wood, which should allow measurements of these properties using a hand-held device. MIR spectral data indicated that low-density samples had somewhat higher lignin contents than high-density samples. Correspondingly, high-density samples contained slightly more polysaccharides than low-density samples. This observation was consistent with the wet chemical data.

  16. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  17. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    PubMed

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  18. Migration of wood-preserving chemicals in contaminated groundwater in a sand aquifer at Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerlitz, D.F.; Troutman, D.E.; Godsy, E.M.; Franks, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a wood-preserving facility for nearly 80 years at Pensacola, FL, contaminated the near-surface groundwater with creosote and pentachlorophenol. The major source of aquifer contamination was unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the groundwater. Episodes of overtopping the impoundments and overland flow of treatment liquor and waste were also significant to the migration and contamination of the groundwater. Solutes contaminating the ground-water are mainly naphthalene and substituted phenols. Sorption did not influence retardation of solutes in transport in the groundwater. Phenol and the mono substituted methylphenols appear to be undergoing bio-transformation. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was not found in significant concentrations in the groundwater possibly because the solubility of PCP is approximately 5 mg/L at pH 6, near the average acidity for the groundwater.

  19. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  20. Outlook for U.S. paper and paperboard sector and wood fiber supply in North America

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    Consumption of wood fiber in pulp, paper and paperboard increased in the United States over the past century and is projected to increase well into the next century at a decelerating rate of growth. Harvest of pulpwood on forest land is the single largest source of wood fiber, followed by recycled paper and wood residues. In the past decade, wood residues declined in...

  1. Alkaline polyol pulping and enzymatic hydrolysis of hardwood: effect of pulping severity and pulp composition on cellulase activity and overall sugar yield.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Martin; Schnitzlein, Klaus; Schnitzlein, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    The saccharification of beech wood using alkaline polyol pulping (AlkaPolP) and enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It will be demonstrated that the AlkaPolP process yields high quality pulps which can easily be hydrolyzed by cellulases. In order to find optimum reaction conditions chips of Fagus sylvatica were pretreated by alkaline glycerol at temperatures between 190 and 230 °C for 15, 20, and 25 min. The impacts of temperature and time were expressed using a severity factor R0. The dependencies of the conversion during enzymatic hydrolysis on severity, pulp yield, delignification and pulp composition are shown. In further experiments it was investigated if the sugar yields can be increased by the application of ultrasound or surfactants before enzyme addition. Up to 95% of the initial cellulose in wood were converted into glucose using cellulases from Trichoderma reesei and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films.

  3. Bioelectrochemical treatment of paper and pulp wastewater in comparison with anaerobic process: integrating chemical coagulation with simultaneous power production.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K Vamshi; Sarkar, Omprakash; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of a bioelectrochemical treatment system (BET) to treat complex paper and pulp wastewater at two different pH conditions (6 and 7) in comparison with conventional anaerobic treatment process (AnT) was evaluated. Among the operating conditions, BET showed good treatment efficiency at pH 7 in terms of COD (BET/AnT: 55%/51%), nitrates (33.5%/19.1%), phosphates (33%/19%) and sulfates (58%/41%) in removal. The effluent obtained from BET system was subjected to coagulation for further treatment which showed good COD removal (BET/AnT, 95%/69%) and color (100%/68%). Bioelectrochemical analysis revealed higher catalytic currents in BET than AnT specific to oxidation and reduction. Besides, derivative of cyclic voltammetric scans (DCV) also supported the involvement of various membrane bound electron transferring complexes like FAD(H) bound enzymes, ubiquinone, NADH(+)/H(+) bound enzymes, etc. Experimental results demonstrated that BET system can be a viable platform to treat complex wastewaters with simultaneous energy recovery in integrated approach.

  4. Combination of steam explosion and laccase-mediator treatments prior to Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Eugenio, M E; Carbajo, J M; Villar, J C

    2011-07-01

    The effect of a pretreatment consisting of steam explosion (SE) followed by a laccase mediator system (LMS) stage on Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping has been evaluated and compared with fungal pretreatments. Pretreatment with SE and LMS was more efficient than pretreatments using Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes sp. I-62. Steam explosion not only improved the enzyme penetration into the wood chips and shortened the pulping process by 60%, but also extracted around 50% of the hemicelluloses which could be converted into value-added products. The optimal conditions for the LMS treatment were 3h, 3UA/g and 40°C. Compared to SE, the SE/LMS treatment yielded an increase in delignification of 13.9% without affecting pulp properties, provided a similar screened kraft yield, and reduced consumption of chemical reagents Na(2)S and NaOH by 11.5% and 6.3%, respectively. Therefore, SE/LMS is a promising pretreatment for converting the pulp mill into a forest bio-refinery.

  5. The potential in bioethanol production from waste fiber sludges in pulp mill-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2007-04-01

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  6. Effect of steam explosion and enzymatic pre-treatments on pulping and bleaching of Hesperaloe funifera.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Eugenio, M E; Villar, J C

    2012-05-01

    A non-wood raw material with high potential for pulp and paper applications (Hesperaloe funifera) was subjected to a steam explosion pre-treatment, and the subsequent effect of this pretreatment on biopulping and biobleaching was studied. An increase in the delignification rate, bigger than that reported for autohydrolysis and acid hydrolysis pre-treatments, and a reduction in chemical consumption were found during kraft pulping of the exploded samples. However, biopulping with the laccase-mediator system (LMS) did not lead to a reduction in the kappa number in either non-exploded or exploded unbleached pulps. On the other hand, the steam explosion pretreatment boosted the advantages of the LMS pre-treatment (decrease in kappa number and increase in brightness) favored biobleaching, with a 53.1% delignification rate and a final brightness of 67% ISO. Finally, the steam explosion pre-treatment also improved the color properties of the bleached pulp and reduced the hydrogen peroxide consumption by 24.6%.

  7. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  8. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  9. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  10. Chemically coupled microwave and ultrasonic pre-hydrolysis of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge: effect on sludge solubilisation and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Lo, Shang-Lien; Rajpal, Ankur

    2014-05-01

    The effects of alkali-enhanced microwave (MW; 50-175 °C) and ultrasonic (US) (0.75 W/mL, 15-60 min) pretreatments, on solubilisation and subsequent anaerobic digestion efficiency of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge, were investigated. Improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilisation were limited to 33 and 39 % in MW pretreatment only (175 °C). It reached 78 and 66 % in combined MW-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 175 °C), respectively. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand and VSS solubilisation were 58 and 37 % in US pretreatment alone (60 min) and it improved by 66 and 49 % after US-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 60 min), respectively. The biogas yield for US 60 min-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was significantly improved by 47 and 20 % over the control and US 60 reactors, respectively. The biogas generation for MW (150 °C)-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was only 6.3 % higher than control; however, it was 8.3 % lower than the MW (150 °C) reactor, which was due to the inhibition of anaerobic activity under harsh thermal-alkali treatment condition.

  11. Evaluation of processed green and ripe mango peel and pulp flours (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant compounds and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Wong, Lee Min; Bhat, Rajeev; Cheng, Lai Hoong

    2012-02-01

    Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption. In the present study, the chemical composition, bioactive/antioxidant compounds and functional properties of green and ripe mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) peel and pulp flours were evaluated. Compared to commercial wheat flour, mango flours were significantly low in moisture and protein, but were high in crude fiber, fat and ash content. Mango flour showed a balance between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber proportions, with total dietary fiber content ranging from 3.2 to 5.94 g kg⁻¹. Mango flours exhibited high values for bioactive/antioxidant compounds compared to wheat flour. The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity of mango flours ranged from 0.36 to 0.87 g kg⁻¹ and from 0.18 to 0.22 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Results of this study showed mango peel flour to be a rich source of dietary fiber with good antioxidant and functional properties, which could be a useful ingredient for new functional food formulations. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Chemical responses to modified lignin composition in tension wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba).

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Jameel M; Kang, Kyu-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D; Telewski, Frank W

    2013-04-01

    The effect of altering the expression level of the F5H gene was investigated in three wood tissues (normal, opposite and tension wood) in 1-year-old hybrid poplar clone 717 (Populus tremula × Populus alba L.), containing the F5H gene under the control of the C4H promoter. Elevated expression of the F5H gene in poplar has been previously reported to increase the percent syringyl content of lignin. The wild-type and three transgenic lines were inclined 45° for 3 months to induce tension wood formation. Tension and opposite wood from inclined trees, along with normal wood from control trees, were analyzed separately for carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose crystallinity and microfibril angle (MFA). In the wild-type poplar, the lignin in tension wood contained a significantly higher percentage of syringyl than normal wood or opposite wood. However, there was no significant difference in the percent syringyl content of the three wood types within each of the transgenic lines. Increasing the F5H gene expression caused an increase in the percent syringyl content and a slight decrease in the total lignin in normal wood. In tension wood, the addition of a gelatinous layer in the fiber walls resulted in a consistently lower percentage of total lignin in the tissue. Acid-soluble lignin was observed to increase by up to 2.3-fold in the transgenic lines. Compared with normal wood and opposite wood, cell wall crystallinity in tension wood was higher and the MFA was smaller, as expected, with no evidence of an effect from modifying the syringyl monomer ratio. Tension wood in all the lines contained consistently higher total sugar and glucose percentages when compared with normal wood within the respective lines. However, both sugar and glucose percentages were lower in the tension wood of transgenic lines when compared with the tension wood of wild-type trees. Evaluating the response of trees with altered syringyl content to gravity will improve our understanding of the changes

  13. Combination of alkaline and enzymatic treatments as a process for upgrading sisal paper-grade pulp to dissolving-grade pulp.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, David; Köpcke, Viviana; Larsson, Per Tomas; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Ek, Monica

    2010-10-01

    A sequence of treatments consisting of an initial xylanase treatment followed by cold alkaline extraction and a final endoglucanase treatment was investigated as a process for upgrading non-wood paper-grade pulps to dissolving-grade pulps for viscose production. Five commercial dried bleached non-wood soda/AQ paper pulps, from flax, hemp, sisal, abaca, and jute, were studied for this purpose. Commercial dried bleached eucalyptus dissolving pulp was used as reference sample. Sisal pulp showed the highest improvement in Fock's reactivity, reaching levels nearly as high or even higher than that of eucalyptus dissolving pulp (65%), and a low hemicellulose content (3-4%) when was subjected to this sequence of treatments. The viscosity, however, decreased considerably. A uniform and narrow molecular weight distribution was observed by size exclusion chromatography. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy revealed that the cellulose structure consisted of cellulose I. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  15. Chemical variability of the wood essential oil of Cedrus atlantica Manetti from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Mathieu; Nam, Anne-Marie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2011-02-01

    The composition of 48 samples of essential oil isolated from the wood of Cedrus atlantica growing in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR. Twenty-three compounds accounting for 73.9-96.0% of the oil composition were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons and sesquiterpenes, in particular α-pinene (5; up to 79.4%), himachalol (4; up to 66.2%), β-pinene (up to 21.4%), β-himachalene (2; up to 19.3%), γ-himachalene (3; up to 11.0%), and α-himachalene (1; up to 10.9%). The 48 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal-component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of Group I (44% of the samples) was dominated by 5, while the samples of Group II (56% of the samples) contained mainly 4.

  16. The chemical composition of ultrafine particles and associated biological effects at an alpine town impacted by wood burning.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Emanuela; Vecchi, Roberta; Marabini, Laura; Fermo, Paola; Becagli, Silvia; Bernardoni, Vera; Caruso, Donatella; Corbella, Lorenza; Dell'Acqua, Manuela; Galli, Corrado L; Lonati, Giovanni; Ozgen, Senem; Papale, Angela; Signorini, Stefano; Tardivo, Ruggero; Valli, Gianluigi; Marinovich, Marina

    2017-02-25

    This work is part of the TOBICUP (TOxicity of BIomass Combustion generated Ultrafine Particles) project which aimed at providing the composition of ultrafine particles (UFPs, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameter, dae, lower than 100nm) emitted by wood combustion and elucidating the related toxicity. Results here reported are from two ambient monitoring campaigns carried out at an alpine town in Northern Italy, where wood burning is largely diffused for domestic heating in winter. Wintertime and summertime UFP samples were analyzed to assess their chemical composition (i.e. elements, ions, total carbon, anhydrosugars, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and biological activity. The induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by UFPs was investigated in two human cells lines (A549 and THP-1) and in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In addition, UFP-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity were investigated in A549 cells. Ambient UFP-related effects were compared to those induced by traffic-emitted particles (DEP) taken from the NIES reference material "vehicle exhaust particulates". Ambient air UFPs induced a dose-related IL-8 release in both A549 and THP-1 cells; the effect was more relevant on summer samples and in general THP-1 cells were more sensitive than A549 cells. On a weight basis our data did not support a higher biological activity of ambient UFPs compared to DEP. The production of IL-8 in the whole blood assay indicated that UFPs reached systemic circulation and activated blood leukocytes. Comet assay and γ-H2AX evaluation showed a significant DNA damage especially in winter UFPs samples compared to control samples. Our study showed that ambient UFPs can evoke a pulmonary inflammatory response by inducing a dose-related IL-8 production and DNA damage, with different responses to UFP samples collected in the summer and winter periods.

  17. Selective fractionation of Sugar Beet Pulp for release of fermentation and chemical feedstocks; optimisation of thermo-chemical pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Hamley-Bennett, C; Lye, G J; Leak, D J

    2016-06-01

    The effect of time and pressure on the selective extraction of sugar beet pectin using steam pre-treatment on unprocessed Sugar Beet Pulp was evaluated using a design of experiments approach. This process gave the highest solubilisation of pectin oligomers at a relatively low pressure and longer time (5Bar, 24min), whilst leaving the majority of the cellulose fraction intact. This method of steam pre-treatment fits into the concept of a sugar beet biorefinery as it valorises an existing waste stream without requiring any further physical processing such as milling or dilution with water. The residual cellulose fraction was enriched in cellulose and could be effectively fermented into ethanol by yeast after enzymatic digestion, producing 0.48g ethanol per gram of glucose.

  18. Effects of different ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast mixed with cassava pulp on chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Angthong, Wanna; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Bureenok, Smerjai

    2016-06-11

    This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal fermentation of various ratios and storage periods of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) mixed with cassava pulp (CVP). Four mixtures of fresh LBY and CVP were made (LBY0, LBY10, LBY20 and LBY30 for LBY:CVP at 0:100, 10:90, 20:80 and 30:70, respectively) on a fresh matter basis, in 500 g in plastic bags and stored at 30 to 32 °C. After storage, the bags were opened weekly from weeks 0 to 4. Fermentation quality and in vitro gas production (IVGP) were determined, as well as the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin contents. The contents of CP and EE increased, whereas all other components decreased, in proportion to LBY inclusion (p<0.01). The DM and OM contents gradually decreased in weeks 3 and 4 (p<0.05), while EE contents were lowest in week 0. The pH, ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH3-N/TN) and V-score in each mixture and storage period demonstrated superior fermentation quality (pH≤4.2, NH3-N/TN ≤12.5% and V-score >90%). The pH increased and NH3-N/TN decreased, with proportionate increases of LBY, whereas the pH decreased and NH3-N/TN increased, as the storage periods were extended (p<0.01). Although IVGP decreased in proportion to the amount of LBY inclusion (p<0.01), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was unaffected by the mixture ratios. The highest IVGP and IVOMD were observed in week 0 (p<0.01). We have found that the inclusion of LBY (as high as 30%) into CVP improves the chemical composition of the mixture, thereby increasing the CP content, while decreasing IVGP, without decreasing fermentation quality and IVOMD. In addition, a preservation period of up to four weeks can guarantee superior fermentation quality in all types of mixtures. Therefore, we recommend limiting the use of cassava pulp as a feed ingredient, given its low

  19. Alkaline polyol pulping and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood: effect of pulping severity and pulp properties on cellulase activity and overall sugar yield.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Martin; Schnitzlein, Klaus; Schnitzlein, Michael G

    2013-04-01

    The saccharification of softwood using alkaline polyol pulping (AlkaPolP) and enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It will be demonstrated that the AlkaPolP process yields high quality pulps which can easily be hydrolyzed by cellulases. Temperature (180-230°C) and duration (15-60 min) of the alkaline glycerol pulping, expressed as pulping severity R0, were varied to find optimum reaction conditions. The obtained pulps were characterized regarding their residual lignin content, kappa number and crystallinity index. Thus, the dependencies of the conversion during enzymatic hydrolysis on severity, pulp composition and pulp characteristics could be observed. In further experiments it was investigated how the enzymatic hydrolysis is affected by pulp drying or by a reduction of enzyme loading. Up to 83% of the initial cellulose in wood and almost 97% of the cellulose in pulp were converted into glucose using cellulases from Trichoderma reesei and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  1. Mass balance on green liquor pre-pulping extraction of northeast mixed hardwood.

    PubMed

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2010-08-01

    A forest biorefinery configuration employing a hemicellulose pre-pulping extraction is being investigated that will retain pulp yields, reduce the organic and inorganic load for liquor recovery, and create a hemicellulose feed stream for the generation of biofuels and biomaterials. Current efforts are focused on developing extract production and conditioning processes that will result in fermentable sugars suitable for conversion to fuel alcohols or organic acid chemical products. As efforts move the process closer to commercial demonstration, it is apparent that a high level of confidence is needed in the analysis of the partitioning of fresh wood into its extracted wood and liquid extract fractions. Of particular interest is the partitioning of the carbohydrates, as these constitute the feedstock for bioconversion to fuels and chemicals. The extraction method employed utilizes green liquor derived from the kraft pulping process for pretreatment of the woodchips. To enable analysis, green liquor extraction was followed by 4% sulfuric acid hydrolysis to complete hydrolysis of the oligomers that were still present. High performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC-PAD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to analyze the carbohydrates in northern hardwood and its extract fractions. The Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column did not separate mannose, xylose, and galactose, but the area of the collective peak corresponds well to the sum of these components as measured by HPAEC. In addition to sugars, standard methods were employed for quantification of the individual components (e.g., lignin, ash, nitrogen, carbon, extractives, uronic and acetic acid). The analytical mass balance closure was 102.2% and 103.6% for raw wood, 99.3% and 102.3% for extracted wood, and 94.7% and 95.6% for hemicellulose extract from the HPAEC and HPLC, respectively. The extraction mass balance was 96.9% and 98.2% for HPAEC and HPLC, respectively. The data generated

  2. Comparison Study of Manometric Respirometric Test and Common Chemical Methods in the Determination of BOD bold7 in a Pulp and Paper Mill's Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Roppola, Katri; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Rämö, Jaakko; Pöykiö, Risto; Prokkola, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    The biological oxygen demand (BOD) test is widely used in many wastewater treatment plants. The conventional BOD tests are usually time-consuming and the results are often out of date for process control purposes. The aim of this research was to compare the manometric respirometric test with common chemical methods in the determination of BOD of wastewater from a pulp and paper mills as well as to evaluate the BOD 7 values of both wastewaters from the short-term respirometric measurements. The results showed that there were differences in the BOD7 values of paper mill samples measured by conventional and respirometric methods. The main cause was found to be the dilution solution used in the conventional BOD tests. Using the same mineral solution in the respirometric measurements diminished the difference remarkably. Evaluation of the BOD7 value after two or three days incubation was proved to work very well and the estimated results were close to measured values (deviations 1%–12%). PMID:17671628

  3. Wood flour

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  4. Wood flour

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  5. Advanced treatment by chemical oxidation of pulp and paper effluent from a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper.

    PubMed

    Tünay, O; Erdeml, E; Kabdaşli, I; Olmez, T

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the applicability of chemical oxidation processes to polish biologically treated effluent of a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper to comply with the discharge limit of 120 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the first step, a chemically assisted settling was applied. The optimum results were obtained with alum plus lime with the alum dose of 200 mg l(-1). In the second step, chemically assisted settling effluent was fed into an activated sludge system and over 80% COD removal was achieved. In the last step of the experimental study, a series of ozone oxidation and Fenton oxidation methods were tested to remove residual COD. Ozone oxidation provided 80% COD removal. An ozone dose of 40 mg min(-1) with a reaction time of two hours was found to be optimum. Catalytic ozonation by using ferric iron, as well as high pH ozonation, Fenton process and H2O2/O3 oxidation did not prove to be more efficient than plain ozonation under these study conditions.

  6. Prediction of wood mechanical and chemical properties in the presence and absence of blue stain using two near infrared instruments

    Treesearch

    Brian K. Via; Chi-Leung So; Todd F. Shupe; Lori G. Eckhardt; Michael Stine; Leslie H. Groom

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to (a) determine if blue stain in solid wood influenced calibration equations developed from a nonstained wood population, (b) assess the bias introduced when scanning was performed by the slave instrument without calibration transfer from the master instrument and (c) partition absorbance-based variation by instrument, stain and...

  7. Biological approach for pulping and bleaching of non-woody plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, H.S.; Young, R.A.; Blanchette, R.A.

    1996-10-01

    In recent years the pulp and paper industry has expressed serious concerns regarding energy reduction and pollution abatement. These concerns are being vigorously addressed in a variety of ways including the use of biological approaches for pulping and bleaching of wood. We are also evaluating the substitution of wood with non-woody plants for the conservation of forests. Our initial investigation on biomechanical pulping of bast fibers has given very promising results with respect to saving in energy consumption and enhancement of pulp strength properties. Preliminary studies on a biomimetic approach for delignification of non-woody plant pulps using natural bovine heme and synthetic tetraphenyl-porphyrin iron (III) chloride in combination with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) have also been conducted with some promise. The paper also briefly reviews the advancements made in biological approach for pulping and bleaching of non-woody plants.

  8. Effects of lignin structure on hydrodeoxygenation reactivity of pine wood lignin to valuable chemicals

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hongliang; Ben, Haoxi; Southeast Univ., Nanjing; ...

    2017-01-05

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of two dilute acid flow through pretreated softwood lignin samples, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL) and recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), with apparent different physical and chemical structures, was comprehensively studied. A combination of catalysts (HY zeolite and Ru/Al2O3) was employed to investigate the effects of lignin structures, especially condensed structures, on the HDO upgrading process. Results indicated that the condensed structure and short side chains in lignin hindered its HDO conversion under different reaction conditions, including catalyst loading and composition, hydrogen pressure, and reaction time. In addition to lignin structure, HY zeolitemore » was found crucial for lignin depolymerization, while Ru/Al2O3 and relatively high hydrogen pressure (4 MPa) were necessary for upgrading unstable oxy-compounds to cyclohexanes at high selectivity (>95 wt %). Since the lignin structure essentially affects its reactivity during HDO conversion, the yield and selectivity of HDO products can be predicted by detailed characterization of the lignin structure. Furthermore, the insights gained from this study in the fundamental reaction mechanisms based on the lignin structure will facilitate upgrading of lignin to high-value products for applications in the production of both fuels and chemicals.« less

  9. Wastes from paper and pulp mills

    PubMed Central

    Makkonen, Osmo A. P.

    1956-01-01

    The disposal of wastes from paper and pulp mills—a problem of particular importance in the northern European countries of Norway, Sweden and Denmark, where wood-processing is one of the main industries—is discussed. The various types of waste produced are described, and their pollution potential is assessed, in terms of population equivalents, with special reference to the present position in Finland. The methods available for the treatment of these wastes are briefly outlined. PMID:13374536

  10. Potential sulfur-free pulping methods

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Springer; Rajai H. Atalla; Richard S. Reiner

    2002-01-01

    Lodgepole pine chips were pulped to Kappa numbers of about 70 using soda–AQ, soda–ODiMAQ, and kraft methods. At a catalyst level of 0.20% (oven-dry wood basis), cooking times for the soda cooks were significantly shorter than that for the kraft cook. The ODiMAQ catalyzed cooking time was much shorter than that of the AQ cook. It might be possible to replace the kraft...

  11. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills.

    PubMed

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the current waste management system at the pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland. This paper covers examples of case studies carried out at the mill and describes how the wastes and by-products are utilized as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewaters (i.e., green liquor dregs from the causticizing process), as a hardener in filling mine cavities (i.e., ash from the fluidized bed boiler), as a landscaping agent (i.e., ash as well as the fibre clay from chemical wastewater treatment plant), as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills (i.e., fibre clay), and as a soil enrichment agent (i.e., calcium carbonate from the precipitated calcium carbonate plant). In addition, the wood waste from the wood-handling plant, sawmill, packaging pallet plant and from the groundwood mill, as well as the biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant, are all incinerated in the fluidized bed boiler for energy production. Due to effective utilization of the solid wastes generated at the mills, the annual amount of waste to be disposed of in the landfill has decreased between 1994 and 2004 from 42,990 to 6083 tonn (expressed as wet weight). The paper also gives an overview of the relevant European Union legislation on the forest industry and on waste management, as well as of the pulping process and of the generation of major solid wastes in the pulp and paper mills.

  12. Using short-rotation hardwood plantations as “green” inventory for southeastern pulp mills

    Treesearch

    Thomas Gallagher; Robert Shaffer

    2003-01-01

    As a routine wood source for a pulp mill, recent past studies have shown that intensively-managed, short-rotation hardwood plantations are not cost effective. The objective of this study was to determine if these plantations may be cost effective as "green" inventory, replacing some portion of high cost remote woodyard inventory. Three southeastern pulp mills...

  13. Treatments that enhance physical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; Peggy Konkol

    1987-01-01

    This paper was prepared for anyone who wants to know more about enhancing wood’s physical properties, from the amateur wood carver to the president of a forest products company. The authors describe chemical and physical treatments of wood that enhance the strength, stiffness, water repellency, and stability of wood. Five types of treatments are described: 1. water-...

  14. Remediation of lignin and its derivatives from pulp and paper industry wastewater by the combination of chemical precipitation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    De los Santos Ramos, W; Poznyak, T; Chairez, I; Córdova R, I

    2009-09-30

    In the present work the degradation of the lignin and its derivatives in the residual water of a paper industry by simple ozonation was investigated. The remediation of lignin was realized using the combination of the pre-treatment with chemical precipitation, using concentrated sulfuric acid (97.1%) at the pH 1 and 3, and of the simple ozonation of the filtered residual water at the pH 1, 3, 8 and 12. Since the high residues content (the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 70,000 mg/L) in the experiments the diluted samples (1:10) were used. The previous precipitation has showed a significant effect on the reduction of the COD (77%) and color (96.1%). The sludge precipitated contents sulfolignin, which in the reaction with sulfuric acid was formed. In ozonation of the filtered residual water during 25 min at the pH 1, 3, 8 and 12 the follows by-products were formed: fumaric, maleic, malonic and formic acids. The biodegradability of the treated water in ozonation increases up 0.067-0.29. The effect of the precipitation and the ozonation conditions on the decolorization kinetics was evaluated.

  15. Fermentation inhibitors and their recovery from acid wood hydrolyzates as chemicals of value

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Hao Cao.

    1986-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of fermentation inhibition removal from acid hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic materials and recovery of the by-products of acid hydrolysis as chemicals of value. The acid hydrolyzates of mixed hardwoods were produced from the continuous flow demonstration unit (CFDU) at the University of California Forest Products Laboratory. Two separate liquid product streams were the prehydrolyzate (S1H) and the second stage hydrolyzate (S2H). Candida utilis NRRL Y-900 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL 2034 were used to monitor the fermentability of these two product streams, respectively. Two pretreatment methods were investigated in detail: flashing and solvent extraction. For the S1H, flashing was adequate to enable cell production with Candida utilis. The S2H rehired solvent extraction to ensure ethanolic fermentation at high concentrations of glucose (12% or higher). A solvent was selected for the extraction process and process flow designs were proposed to recycle the solvent and isolate commercial by-products, including furfural, methanol, acetic acid and, potentially, formic acid, levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

  16. Analysis of exposed cellulose surfaces in pretreated wood biomass using carbohydrate-binding module (CBM)-cyan fluorescent protein (CFP).

    PubMed

    Kawakubo, Takeshi; Karita, Shuichi; Araki, Yuko; Watanabe, Shota; Oyadomari, Masafumi; Takada, Rie; Tanaka, Fumio; Abe, Kentaro; Watanabe, Takahito; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-02-15

    In enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosics, the access of the enzymes to exposed cellulose surfaces is a key initial step in triggering hydrolysis. However, knowledge of the structure-hydrolyzability relationship of the pretreated biomass is still limited. Here we used fluorescent-labeled recombinant carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) from Clostridium josui as specific markers for crystalline cellulose (CjCBM3) and non-crystalline cellulose (CjCBM28) to analyze the complex surfaces of wood tissues pretreated with NaOH, NaOH-Na(2)S (kraft pulping), hydrothermolysis, ball-milling, and organosolvolysis. Japanese cedar wood, one of the most recalcitrant softwood species was selected for the analysis. The binding analysis clarified the linear dependency of the exposure of crystalline and non-crystalline cellulose surfaces for enzymatic saccharification yield by the organosolv and kraft delignification processes. Ball-milling for 5-30 min increased saccharification yield up to 77%, but adsorption by the CjCBM-cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) was below 5%. Adsorption of CjCBM-CFPs on the hydrothermolysis pulp were less than half of those for organosolvolysis pulp, in coincidence with low saccharification yields. For all the pretreated wood, crystallinity index was not directly correlated with the overall saccharification yield. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that CjCBM3-CFP and CjCBM28-CFP were site-specifically adsorbed on external fibrous structures and ruptured or distorted fiber surfaces. The assay system with CBM-CFPs is a powerful measure to estimate the initiation sites of hydrolysis and saccharification yields from chemically delignified wood pulps.

  17. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    PubMed

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented.

  18. Trace elements in bivalves from the Rio Cruces, Chile, trace watershed evolution after a major earthquake and challenge a postulated chemical spill from a pulp plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risk, M.; Burchell, M.; Nairn, R.; Tubrett, M.; Forsterra, G.

    2009-05-01

    In May, 1960, the largest recorded earthquake in the history of the planet hit southern Chile, dropping part of the course of the Rio Cruces by 2m and creating an extensive wetland. The Brazilian Waterweed Egeria densa colonised the area, and became a primary food source for large populations of the Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus. In 2004, a large pulp mill commenced operations upstream on the river. According to local reports, immediately after the opening of the plant, the weed died and the swans left. There was public outcry, and a search for a cause or a culprit. It was postulated that some sort of chemical spill from the plant caused the weed to die, resulting in departure of the swans. In 2008, we collected specimens of the bivalve Diplodon chilensis from several locations downstream from the Plant and towards the wetland to see if there was evidence of a chemical spill recorded in the shells. We prepared thin-sections of the shells to observe growth line development and patterns. Additionally, shell samples were analysed for stable oxygen isotopes and trace elements, using LA-ICP/MS. Based on annual growth lines, some of the bivalves were long-lived, with an age of more than 50 years. These individuals settled in the river shortly after the earthquake, and have lived there continuously ever since. Annual and sub-annual banding was clear, and the annual cyclicity of the major bands was verified with oxygen isotope analysis. There are no changes in growth corresponding to 2004. Trace element scans provided a wealth of information on the evolution of this earthquake-impacted wetland. Barium, Strontium and Manganese all showed strong annual cyclicity. From the analysis of older specimens, we interpret the high peaks of the Ba signal as reflecting soil erosion-Ba peaks are large immediately after the earthquake, then they diminish through time. Sr is likely a temperature signal, and Mn reflects runoff. Minor peaks in Cu, As and Pb probably reflect

  19. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  20. Determining the minimum conditions for soda-anthraquinone pulping of kenaf bast, core, and whole stalk fibers

    Treesearch

    James S. Han; Thomas A. Rymsza

    1999-01-01

    Chemical pulping of kenaf fiber is comparatively new. In this study, bast, core, and whole stalk kenaf fibers were pulped using a soda-AQ pulping process and various pulping conditions. Handsheets were evaluated for density, Canadian standard freeness, brightness, opacity, smoothness, and tensile, burst, and tear indexes and strength. The results indicate that...

  1. Impact of ultrasounds and high voltage electrical discharges on physico-chemical properties of rapeseed straw's lignin and pulps.

    PubMed

    Brahim, M; Checa Fernandez, B L; Regnier, O; Boussetta, N; Grimi, N; Sarazin, C; Husson, E; Vorobiev, E; Brosse, N

    2017-08-01

    In this study, ultrasound (US) and high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) were combined with chemical treatments (soda or organosolv) for rapeseed straw delignification. Delignification was improved by both physical pretreatments. US increased the extractability of hemicelluloses and HVED induced a partial degradation of cellulose. Best synergies were observed for HVED-soda and US-organosolv treatments. The obtained lignin fractions were characterized with (13)C NMR and 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC. It was observed that the physical treatments affected the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratios. The values of S/G were ≈1.19, 1.31 and 1.75 for organosolv, HVED-organosolv and US-organosolv processes, suggesting recondensation reactions. The lignin fractions obtained from HVED-organosolv treatment contained less quantity of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid as compared to those extracted by US-organosolv. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed a better heat resistance of physically extracted lignins as compared to the control. The enzymatic digestibility increased by 24.92% when applying HVED to mild organosolv treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of zinc chloride addition on the chemical structure of bio-oil obtained during co-pyrolysis of wood/synthetic polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Piotr

    2009-12-01

    The chemical structure of liquid products of the pinewood sawdust (W) co-pyrolysis with polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) with and without the zinc chloride as an additive was investigated. The pyrolysis process was carried out at 450 degrees C with the heating rate of 5 degrees C/min. The yield of liquid products of pyrolysis was in the range of 37-91 wt% and their form was liquid or semi-solid depending on the composition of the wood/polymer blend. The zinc chloride addition to wood/polymer blends has influenced the range of samples decomposition as well as the chemical structure of resulted bio-oils. All bio-oils from wood/polypropylene blends were two-phase (liquid and solid). Contrarily, all bio-oils obtained from biopolymer/polypropylene blends with zinc chloride added were yellow liquids. All analyses proved that the structure and the quality of bio-oil strongly depend on both the composition of the blend and the presence of ZnCl(2) as an additive. The FT-IR analyses of oils showed that oxygen-containing groups and hydrocarbons content highly depend on the composition of biomass/synthetic polymer mixture. The fractionation of bio-oils by column chromatography with four different solvents was followed by GC-MS analysis. Results confirmed the significant removal and/or transformation of oxygen-containing organic compounds due to the zinc chloride presence during pyrolysis process.

  3. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-07-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which burns the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  4. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  5. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

  6. Evaluating the effect of wood ultrastructural changes from mechanical treatment on kinetics of monomeric sugars and chemicals production in acid bisulfite treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yalan; Wang, Jinwu; Wolcott, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Currently, various chemical-mechanical treatments were widely used in biofuel production to achieve high total sugar yields. However, the interaction between two treatments was scarcely investigated. In this study, we employed a ball milling process to create ultrastructural changes for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) micronized wood powders. The 0, 30, and 60min ball milled wood powders resulted in a crystallinity index of 0.41, 0.21, and 0.10 respectively. It was found that the ultrastructural changes accelerate monomeric sugars production without influencing the yield of sugar degradation products. The optimal acid bisulfite treatment time was substantially decreased from 120min to 40min as the cellulose crystallinity decreased. Meanwhile, total sugar yield increased from 65% to 92% and had a linear relation with a decrease of the cellulose crystallinity.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of individual pulp fiber bonds quantifies the mechanisms of fiber bonding in paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, Ulrich; Schennach, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs. In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance. Here we show the first approach to quantify the bonding energies contributed by the individual bonding mechanisms. We calculated the impact of the following mechanisms necessary for paper formation: mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion, capillary bridges, hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and Coulomb forces on the bonding energy. Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding. Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. Capillary bridges also contribute to the bond. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds. In contrast to general believe which favors hydrogen bonding Van der Waals bonds play the most important role according to our model. Comparison with experimentally derived bond energies support the presented model. This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of individual pulp fiber bonds quantifies the mechanisms of fiber bonding in paper

    PubMed Central

    Hirn, Ulrich; Schennach, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs. In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance. Here we show the first approach to quantify the bonding energies contributed by the individual bonding mechanisms. We calculated the impact of the following mechanisms necessary for paper formation: mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion, capillary bridges, hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and Coulomb forces on the bonding energy. Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding. Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. Capillary bridges also contribute to the bond. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds. In contrast to general believe which favors hydrogen bonding Van der Waals bonds play the most important role according to our model. Comparison with experimentally derived bond energies support the presented model. This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption. PMID:26000898

  9. Longitudial variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine in the southern United States

    Treesearch

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark

    2012-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is the most important plantation species grown in the southern United States, having more than half of the standing pine volume. Wood from loblolly pine is a principal source of raw material for the pulp and paper industry and is desirable for the production of lumber and composite wood products. The quality of wood...

  10. Anaerobic degradation of adsorbable organic halides (AOX) from pulp and paper industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Savant, D V; Abdul-Rahman, R; Ranade, D R

    2006-06-01

    Adsorbable organic halides (AOX) are generated in the pulp and paper industry during the bleaching process. These compounds are formed as a result of reaction between residual lignin from wood fibres and chlorine/chlorine compounds used for bleaching. Many of these compounds are recalcitrant and have long half-life periods. Some of them show a tendency to bioaccumulate while some are proven carcinogens and mutagens. Hence, it is necessary to remove or degrade these compounds from wastewater. Physical, chemical and electrochemical methods reported to remove AOX compounds are not economically viable. Different types of aerobic, anaerobic and combined biological treatment processes have been developed for treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewater. Maximum dechlorination is found to occur under anaerobic conditions. However, as these processes are designed specifically for reducing COD and BOD of wastewater, they do not ensure complete removal of AOX. This paper reviews the anaerobic biological treatments developed for pulp and paper industry wastewater and also reviews the specific micro-organisms reported to degrade AOX compounds under anaerobic conditions, their nutritional and biochemical requirements. It is imperative to consider these specific micro-organisms while designing an anaerobic treatment for efficient removal of AOX.

  11. Improved Process control of wood waste fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Process Control Solutions, Inc.

    2004-01-30

    This project's principal aim was the conceptual and feasibility stage development of improved process control methods for wood-waste-fired water-tube boilers operating in industrial manufacturing applications (primarily pulp and paper). The specific objectives put forth in the original project proposal were as follows: (1) fully characterize the wood-waste boiler control inter-relationships and constraints through data collection and analysis; (2) design an improved control architecture; (3) develop and test an appropriate control and optimization algorithm; and (4) develop and test a procedure for reproducing the approach and deriving the benefits on similar pulp and paper wood-waste boilers. Detailed tasks were developed supporting these objectives.

  12. Understanding wood chemistry changes during biopulping

    Treesearch

    Chris Hunt; William Kenealy; Carl Houtman

    2003-01-01

    Biopulping is the process of pretreating chips with fungus before mechanical pulping, resulting in significant energy savings and sheet strength improvements. This work presents sugar analysis, methylene blue adsorption, and titration data suggesting an increase in acid group content in wood is common with biopulping treatment. Some discussion of possible mechanisms of...

  13. Can melamine-based wood primers help in understanding bonded wood durability?

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; Jermal G. Chandler

    2006-01-01

    Melamine–formaldehyde adhesives form wood bonds with exterior durability, and the melamine is more easily studied because of its significant nitrogen content (compared with the lack of nitrogen in wood components). In addition, some melamine–formaldehyde chemicals reduce wood swelling [6], enter into wood cell walls [7], and strengthen them [8]. This information led to...

  14. Chemical and sensory characterization of orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp,a by-product of orange juice processing using gas-chromatography-olfactometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile composition of commercial orange pulp (from Brazil and Florida, U.S.A.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-Olfactometry (GC-O). In both samples 72 volatiles were detected, of which 58 were identified. Odor-active compounds with high frequency of detection (...

  15. Survey of receiving-water environmental impacts associated with discharges from pulp mills; 1: Mill characteristics, receiving-water chemical profiles and lab toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.D. . Dept. of Environmental Biology); Carey, J.H. . Rivers Research Branch); Solomon, K.R. ); Smith, I.R. . Water Resources Branch); Servos, M.R.; Munkittrick, K.R. . Great Lakes Lab. for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    This survey examined the relationship between environmental responses at pulp mill sites and the pulping process, effluent treatment, and bleaching technology used by pulp mills. This manuscript is the first in a series of four; it reviews the location and operating characteristics of mills included in the survey and provides background information on water chemistry that is relevant to the other components of the survey. In addition, lab 7-d toxicity tests of receiving water were conducted using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia with water samples collected upstream and downstream of effluent discharges at 11 Canadian pulp and paper mills; these samples were collected at the same time as fish surveys were conducted. Survival of fathead minnow larvae was significantly reduced at four of the 11 downstream sites. Ceriodaphnia reproduction was significantly higher at six of the 11 downstream sites and significantly lower at two downstream sites. There were no significant effects on fathead minnow larva growth or adult Ceriodaphnia survival at any of the examined downstream sites. Negative effects in the toxicity tests were generally associated with the low dilution discharge of primary treated effluent with a previous history of acute toxicity. Fathead minnow and Ceriodaphnia tests were generally correlated with historical data on benthic macroinvertebrate community responses. Neither toxicity test predicted the physiological changes in wild fish that are presented in accompanying papers.

  16. Applying of the optical time-of-flight spectroscopy for the paper and pulp characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluciński, Jerzy

    2006-02-01

    The paper presents benefits of optical time-of-flight spectroscopy for the pulp and paper characterization. A semiconductor pulse laser and a streak camera as the photodetector were utilized in experimental part of research described in this paper. Distribution of the time of flight of photons through various kinds of wood pulp (e.g. pulp after mechanical treatment coming both fi-om tree species giving hard and soft wood and pulp after thermo-mechanical treatment) was measured. The pulp samples used in the measurements had consistency ranging from 0 to 5% of dry mass in the suspension. The influence of additives (kaolin, talc and calcium carbonate) present in the suspension on the time of flight distribution of photons was studied as well. Finally, dependence of the time of flight of photons through various kinds of the paper (i.e. newspaper, copy paper, and tissue) on the thickness of the sample was investigated.

  17. Optical Approach To The Measurement Of Delignification In Kraft Pulping: Part B: Using Infrared Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, E.; Sugden, N.

    1986-10-01

    A study of the infrared (IR) absorption characteristics of dried kraft pulp sheets was made. This was done in order to assess the potential of using this approach as the basis for determining residual lignin, or Kappa number, in pulp after cooking. Strong positive linear correlations were obtained between Kappa number and IR absorbance at 1509 cm-for pulps made from different wood species, produced in different mills and having a Kappa number range of 13-37. For pulps from some mills, made from the same wood furnish and having a small Kappa number range, the degree of correlation was seriously reduced. The method requires the use of moisture-free pulp specimens in the measurement of absorbance. It is suggested that it would be more suitable as the basis for a laboratory instrument than for an on-line, process Kappa number sensor.

  18. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  19. Visual versus chemical evaluation: Effects of pruning wood decomposition on soil quality in a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Renee; Germer, Sonja; Kern, Jürgen; Stoorvogel, Jetse

    2016-04-01

    Returning crop residues to the soil is a well-known practice to keep a sustainable soil quality in agriculture. In an orchard, pruning material could be returned for soil and water conservation or could be removed for energy production. Pruning wood decomposition rates and their impact on soil quality and greenhouse-gas emissions depend on climate, soil type, land management and water availability. Changing the soil management from leaving wood prunings on soil to removing them from the orchard is expected to result in a slow but lasting change of soil quality. Therefore a quick and cost-effective technique for soil quality evaluation is needed. This study aims to compare pruning wood decomposition effects on soil quality determined by soil chemistry (pH, C/N-ratio) or by Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSEE). In addition, treatments effects on soil quality were compared for sampling positions in tree rows versus interrows. In a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany) six plots were established spreading over two planting rows. At each plot, three subplots with 1x (0.55 kg/m2), 2x (1.10 kg/m2) and 10x (5.50 kg/m2) the average pruning wood rates were installed in both tree and interrows. 5 months later the soils were sampled and a Visual Soil Evaluation and Examination (VSEE) was applied. To relate wood decomposition to impacts on soil quality, wood bags were placed in each plot and were sampled in time intervals of 5 weeks (till a maximum of 20 weeks). Wood decomposition was characterized by decomposition rates and changes in carbon and nitrogen contents. To assess environmental effects, CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions or uptake from soils with different pruning rates were determined with the closed chamber method. There were no significant differences in pH and C/N-ratio between the 3 pruning rates. However, pH was significant higher in the tree row compared to the interrow for the 10-fold pruning rate. The 10-fold pruning rate had significant higher VSEE

  20. Ethanol determination in frozen fruit pulps: an application of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    da Silva Nunes, Wilian; de Oliveira, Caroline Silva; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of five types of industrial frozen fruit pulps (acerola, cashew, grape, passion fruit and pineapple fruit pulps) and compares them with homemade pulps at two different stages of ripening. The fruit pulps were characterized by analyzing their metabolic profiles and determining their ethanol content using quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR). In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract more information from the NMR data. We detected ethanol in all industrial and homemade pulps; and acetic acid in cashew, grape and passion fruit industrial and homemade pulps. The ethanol content in some industrial pulps is above the level recommended by regulatory agencies and is near the levels of some post-ripened homemade pulps. This study demonstrates that qNMR can be used to rapidly detect ethanol content in frozen fruit pulps and food derivatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Pulp stones: a review.

    PubMed

    Goga, R; Chandler, N P; Oginni, A O

    2008-06-01

    Pulp stones are a frequent finding on bitewing and periapical radiographs but receive relatively little attention in textbooks. A review of the literature was therefore performed, initially using the PubMed database and beginning the search with 'pulp calcifications' and 'pulp stones'. Each term provided more than 400 references, many of which related to pulp calcification in general rather than pulp stones, and focussed largely on the problems these changes presented to clinicians. A manual search using references from this source was carried out. Contemporary textbooks in endodontology were also consulted, and an historic perspective gained from a number of older books and references. The factors involved in the development of the pulp stones are largely unknown. Further research may determine the reasons for their formation, but with current endodontic instruments and techniques this is unlikely to alter their relevance to clinicians.

  2. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  3. FT-Raman investigation of milled-wood lignins : softwood, hardwood, and chemically modified black spruce lignins

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; James D. McSweeny; Sally A. Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is being increasingly applied to study wood and other lignin-containing biomass/biomaterials. Lignin’s contribution to the Raman spectra of such materials needs to be understood in the context of various lignin structures, substructures, and functional groups so that lignin-specific features could be identified and the spectral information could be...

  4. Wood-plastic composites with reduced moisture : effects of chemical modification on durability in the laboratory and field

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca L. Schumann

    2007-01-01

    Although laboratory evaluations of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are helpful in predicting long-term durability, field studies are needed to verify overall long-term durability. Field exposure can encompass numerous degradations i.e., fungal, ultraviolet light, moisture, wind, temperature, freeze/thaw, wet/ dry cycling, termites, mold, etc. that traditionally are...

  5. Kraft pulp from budworm-infested jack pine

    Treesearch

    J. Y. Zhu; Gary C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of kraft pulp from bud-worm-infested jack pine. The logs were classified as merchantable live, suspect, or merchantable dead. Raw materials were evaluated through visual inspection, analysis of the chemical composition, SilviScan measurement of the density, and measurement of the tracheid length. Unbleached pulps were then refined using...

  6. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood.

  7. Anthraquinone-A review of the rise and fall of a pulping catalyst

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2014-01-01

    The application of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst has been well documented in scientific studies and mill applications. AQ is known to increase the rate of delignification, enabling a reduction in pulping time, temperature, or chemical charge and an increase in pulp yield. This review does not focus extensively on specific details of AQ use but rather on...

  8. Anthraquinone-A Review of the Rise and Fall of a Pulping Catalyst

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2014-01-01

    The application of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst has been well documented in scientific studies and mill applications. AQ is known to increase the rate of delignification, enabling a reduction in pulping time, temperature, or chemical charge and an increase in pulp yield. Specific details of AQ use are not extensively reviewed in this work. The review...

  9. Healing process of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and pulp covering with mineral trioxide aggregate or Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Holland, R; de Souza, V; Murata, S S; Nery, M J; Bernabé, P F; Otoboni Filho, J A; Dezan Júnior, E

    2001-01-01

    Considering several reports about the similarity between the chemical compositions of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC), the subject of this investigation was to analyze the behavior of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and direct pulp protection with these materials. After pulpotomy, the pulp stumps of 26 roots of dog teeth were protected with MTA or PC. Sixty days after treatment, the animal was sacrificed and the specimens removed and prepared for histomorphological analysis. There was a complete tubular hard tissue bridge in almost all specimens. In conclusion, MTA and PC show similar comparative results when used in direct pulp protection after pulpotomy.

  10. Chemical modification

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Wood is a hygroscopic resource that was designed to perform, in nature, in a wet environment. Nature is programmed to recycle wood in a timely way through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradations. In simple terms, nature builds wood from carbon dioxide and water and has all the tools to recycle it back to the starting chemicals...

  11. Main lipophilic extractives in different paper pulp types can be removed using the laccase-mediator system.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A; del Río, J C; Rencoret, J; Ibarra, D; Martínez, A T

    2006-10-01

    Lipophilic extractives in wood and other lignocellulosic materials exert a negative impact in pulp and paper manufacturing causing the so-called pitch problems. In this work, the appropriateness of an enzymatic treatment using the laccase-mediator system for pitch biocontrol is evaluated. With this purpose, three pulp types representative for different raw materials and pulping processes-eucalypt kraft pulping, spruce thermomechanical pulping, and flax soda-anthraquinone pulping-were treated with a high-redox-potential laccase from the basidiomycete Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as a redox mediator. The gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the lipophilic extractives from the enzymatically treated pulps revealed that the laccase-mediator treatment completely or greatly removed most of the pitch-causing lipophilic compounds present in the different pulps including: (1) free and conjugated sitosterol in eucalypt paper pulp; (2) resin acids, sterol esters, and triglycerides in spruce pulp; and (3) sterols and fatty alcohols in the flax pulp. Different amounts of free and conjugated 7-oxosterols were found as intermediate products in the oxidation of pulp sterols. Therefore, the laccase-mediator treatment is reported as an efficient method for removing pitch-causing lipophilic compounds from paper pulps obtained from hardwood, softwood, and nonwoody plants.

  12. Application of Tradescantia micronucleus assay for in-situ evaluation of potential genetic hazards from exposure to chemicals at a wood-preserving site

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Gill, B.S.; Casto, B.C.; Rice, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In situ evaluation of biological hazards from wood preserving chemicals at a hazardous waste site using the Tradescantia micronucleus assay (Trad-MCN) is reported in the study. The chemical analysis of soil samples from the site showed high contamination with arsenic (1,292 mg/kg), chromium (1,444 mg/kg) and copper (924 mg/kg) on the surface of the drip area where wood was allowed to dry after the treatment. Exposure of Tradescantia plants grown within or adjacent to the drip area showed significantly (P=0.05) higher frequencies of micronuclei when compared to plants grown in nearby control plots. After remediation, the levels of arsenic, chromium, and copper were substantially reduced and concomitantly no genotoxic activity was observed in plants grown on-site or in plants exposed in the laboratory to a slurry of soil samples from the site. The results from the pilot study show that simple plant assays such as Trad-MCN can be used as a sentinel for environmental contamination and to assess the efficacy of clean-up efforts.

  13. An in vitro investigation of the mechanical-chemical and biological properties of calcium phosphate/calcium silicate/bismutite cement for dental pulp capping.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingyi; Sun, Jiao; Wu, Jie; Liu, Changsheng; Chen, Fangping

    2010-07-01

    The properties of new calcium phosphate/calcium silicate/bismutite (CPCSBi) cement were compared with those of calcium hydroxide (CH) and Dycal cements in dental pulp-capping applications. CPCSBi is composed of hydroxyapatite, tetracalcium phosphate, bismutite, and calcium silicate, which was analyzed by SEM, FTIR, and XRD. The results of ion release from CPCSBi showed that the concentrations of Bi(3+), Ca(2+), PO4(2-), and Si(4+) increased with time in deionized water solutions. The setting time of CPCSBi and Dycal was 13 min 50 s and 2 min 25 s, respectively. There were no statistical differences in compressive strength and solubility between CPCSBi and Dycal (p > 0.05). The pH of CPCSBi (10.9) was lower than that of CH (11.6) and Dycal (12.5) after immersion for 24 h. Only slight cytotoxicity appeared for CPCSBi, whereas both CH and Dycal produced moderate discoloration and lysis. In antimicrobial tests against Sm, Av, La, and Sa, the antimicrobial potency of the CPCSBi was approximately 5-10 times greater than that of Dycal and CH groups. The dissoluble dentin matrix components (DDMCs) extracted from CPCSBi exposed to dentin powder demonstrated increased expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and soteocalcin (OCN) dramatically in human pulp cells by RT-PCR. These results suggest that CPCSBi will be a good candidate for use as a dental pulp-capping agent in future. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Management of nonprocess elements in low-effluent bleached kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing environmental regulation for the discharge of chlorinated organics in bleach plant effluents has required most manufacturers in the pulp and paper industry to reduce the charge of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The best long term solution for reducing effluent pollutants from bleached kraft pulp mills is to move towards low-effluent (closed-cycle) bleaching. Closure of operating bleach plants would dramatically reduce both the volume and the pollutant concentration of pulp mill effluents. However, closing the mill creates many operational problems including a concentration build-up of nonprocess elements (NPE`s) in process streams. NPE`s usually enter the pulp process as trace constituents of wood. Recent studies have lead to a fundamental understanding of how NPE`s partition between the solid cellulose phase and the liquid aqueous phase in pulp mill process streams. This knowledge will help in the design, operation and optimization of future low-effluent bleach plants.

  15. Paper Pulp Panoply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marque, Margo E.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating paper-pulp bowls is designed to acquaint students with the beginning vocabulary and finger dexterity needed to sculpt clay. Describes the process of making paper-pulp bowls and identifies important vocabulary words. Provides directions for making paper bowl forms and lists the materials. (CMK)

  16. Paper Pulp Panoply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marque, Margo E.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating paper-pulp bowls is designed to acquaint students with the beginning vocabulary and finger dexterity needed to sculpt clay. Describes the process of making paper-pulp bowls and identifies important vocabulary words. Provides directions for making paper bowl forms and lists the materials. (CMK)

  17. Holistic approach to wood protection

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and water. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) energy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degradation chemistries as individual...

  18. Integrated control of emission reductions, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying

    2015-03-17

    Reduction of water pollutant emissions and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission reductions and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) emission reductions, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking emission reductions, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended.

  19. Wood composites

    Treesearch

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  20. Reducing sugar production of sweet sorghum bagasse kraft pulp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solihat, Nissa Nurfajrin; Fajriutami, Triyani; Adi, Deddy Triyono Nugroho; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis

    2017-01-01

    Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass. Pulp delignified by 17% active alkali and 20% sulfidity has demonstrated the maximum reducing sugar yield per biomass of 45.57% resulted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. These results indicated that kraft pulping was success to degrade more lignin and hemicellulose content to facilitate the enzyme for breaking down the cellulose into its sugar monomer. A high loss of lignin and hemicellulose are not single factor to improve digestibility of SSB. This sugar has potential for yeast fermented into bioethanol.

  1. Arundo donax L. reed: new perspectives for pulping and bleaching. 5. Ozone-based TCF bleaching of organosolv pulps.

    PubMed

    Shatalov, A A; Pereira, H

    2008-02-01

    Three selected alkali-based organosolv pulps (alkali-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol (ASAM), alkali-anthraquinone-methanol (organocell) and ethanol-soda) from agrofibre crop giant reed (Arundo donax L.) were bleached by an ozone-based TCF (totally chlorine- free) bleaching sequence AZE(R)QP (where A is an acidic pulp pre-treatment, Z is an ozone stage, (E(R)) is an alkaline extraction in the presence of reducing agent, Q is a pulp chelating, P is a hydrogen peroxide stage) without oxygen pre-bleaching, and compared with a conventional kraft pulp used as a reference. The different response on bleaching conditions within each bleaching stage was noted for all tested pulps. The pulp bleachability, in terms of brightness improvement or lignin removal per unit of applied chemicals, was found higher for the organocell pulp. The ASAM and ethanol-soda pulps showed the highest bleaching selectivity, expressed by viscosity loss per unit of lignin removed or brightness improved. The overall bleaching results of organosolv pulps were superior to kraft.

  2. Ability of near infrared spectroscopy to monitor air-dry density distribution and variation of wood

    Treesearch

    Brian K. Via; Chi-Leung So; Todd F. Shupe; Michael Stine; Leslie H. Groom

    2005-01-01

    Process control of wood density with near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) would be useful for pulp mills that need to maximize pulp yield without compromising paper strength properties. If models developed from the absorbance at wavelengths in the NIR region could provide density histograms, fiber supply personnel could monitor chip density variation as the chips enter the...

  3. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  4. Removal of basic (Methylene Blue) and acid (Egacid Orange) dyes from waters by sorption on chemically treated wood shavings.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Coskun, Sezen; Pilarová, Vera; Rejnek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    Spruce wood shavings from Picea abies were used for an adsorptive removal of both basic as well as acid dyes from waters. The sorption properties of the sorbents were modified with HCl, Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)HPO(4). The treatment of the wood sorbents with alkaline carbonate solution as well as with phosphate solution increased the sorption ability for the basic dye (Methylene Blue), whereas the treatment with mineral acid decreased the sorption ability for Methylene Blue to some extent. The opposite is true for the sorption of the acid dye--Egacid Orange. The maximum sorption capacities estimated from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms ranged from 0.060 to 0.165 mmol g(-1) for Methylene Blue, and from 0.045 to 0.513 mmol g(-1) for Egacid Orange. The basic dye sorption decreased at low pH values in accordance with a presupposed ion-exchange mechanism of the sorption. The sorption of acid dye, on the other hand, decreased with increasing pH. The presence of inorganic salts as well as surfactants exhibited only minor effects on the dye sorption.

  5. Chemistry of wood strength

    Treesearch

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents a theoretical model to explain the relationship between the mechanical properties and the chemical components of wood. This model is then used to describe the effects of altered composition on those mechanical properties. Many of the theories presented are only partially proven and just beginning to be understood. These theories should be...

  6. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  7. Environmental friendly alkaline sulfite anthra quinone-methonal (ASAM) pulping with Rumex crispus plant extract of woody materials.

    PubMed

    Mertoglu-Elmas, Gulnur; Gunaydin, Keriman; Ozden, Oznur

    2012-09-01

    ASAM with Rumex crispus extract organosolv pulping was developed by using 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methyl-anthraquinone from Rumex crispus root, instead of anthraquinone. ASAM was also produced as a control pulping. Both pulps were made by handsheets from fast growing P. deltoides clone (Samsun p. clone), Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus pinaster grown in Turkey for wood fibrous raw materials. The mechanical consisting tensile, bursting and tear values and optical values of ASAM handsheets yellowness, brightness and whiteness were compared to ASAM with Rumex crispus L. extracted. It is concluded that ASAM with Rumex crispus extract pulping suits well in the manufacturing of special papers.

  8. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  9. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  10. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  11. [Determination of degree of polymerization of natural cellulose pulp using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yi, Ying; Song, Chun-Feng; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Xie, Jin-Chun; Du, Jun-Qi; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2014-09-01

    A new method of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is proposed to rapidly determine the degree of polymerization (DP) of natural cellulose (cotton and wood) pulp produced by a new clean pulping process. One hundred and ninety five samples were collected and their DP data were determined by standard method GB/T 9107-1999. The spectroscopy measurement method of the samples was studied and their near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra were collected. The quantitative DP calibration models of one mixed cotton & wood and two separate cotton and wood pulps were established by partial least squares (PLS). The optimum models were developed using the spectra pretreated by derivative, autoscaling and mean-centering, and their performance is as follows: correlation coefficient of 0.980, 0.993 and 0.886, and RMSEP of 147, 143 and 53, respectively. The accuracy of NIR method was also studied. The results show that the accuracy of the two separate models of cotton and wood is better than that of the mixed model, and the precision of the two separate models is better than that of GB/T9107-1999. The identification model of cotton and wood was also established using principal component analysis (PCA). The result shows that the spectra of cotton and wood pulp have obvious difference, and the model can identify successfully the two kinds of pulp. The result indicates that the new NIR method is feasible to realize the on-line analysis of polymerization degree of natural cellulose pulp with its advantage of rapidness and easy operation.

  12. Assessment of electrochemical and chemical coagulation as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from exploratory experiments to test the technical feasibility of electrolytic treatment and coagulation followed by flocculation and sedimentation as post-treatment for the effluent of an UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached Kraft pulp mill. The electrolytic treatment provided up to 67% removal of the remaining COD and 98% of color removal. To achieve these efficiencies the energy consumption ranged from 14 Wh x l(-1) to 20 Wh x l(-1). The coagulation-flocculation treatment followed by settling required 350-400 mg x l(-1) of aluminium sulfate. The addition of a high molecular weight cationic polymer enhanced both COD and color removal. Both post-treatment processes are technically feasible.

  13. Modeling strength loss in wood by chemical composition. Part I, An individual component model for southern pine

    Treesearch

    J. E. Winandy; P. K. Lebow

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we develop models for predicting loss in bending strength of clear, straight-grained pine from changes in chemical composition. Although significant work needs to be done before truly universal predictive models are developed, a quantitative fundamental relationship between changes in chemical composition and strength loss for pine was demonstrated. In...

  14. Preparation of clinker from paper pulp industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Buruberri, Leire H; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2015-04-09

    The production of paper pulp by the Kraft method generates considerable amounts of wastes. Namely, lime mud generated in the recovery circuit of chemical reagents, biological sludge from the wastewater treatment of wood digestion process and fly ash collected in the fluidized bed combustor used to generate electricity from biomass burning. The final destination of such wastes is an important concern, since environmental regulations are becoming stricter regarding their landfill. Driven by this fact, industries are looking for more sustainable solutions, such as the recycling in distinct products. This work tested these wastes as secondary raw materials to produce clinker/cement that was then experienced in mortar formulations. The first step involved the residues detailed characterization and a generated amounts survey. Then, specific but simple steps were suggested, aiming to facilitate transport and manipulation. Distinct blends were prepared and fired in order to get belitic and Portland clinkers. The Portland clinkers were processed at lower temperatures than the normally used in the industry due to the presence of mineralizing impurities in some wastes. Belite-based cements were used to produce mortars that developed satisfactory mechanical strength and did not reveal signs of deterioration or durability weaknesses.

  15. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.; Barale, P. J.; Fong, C. G.; Luft, P. A.; Reimer, J. A.; Yahnke, M. S.

    2002-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that use a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have been studied include 1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, 2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and 3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  16. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Luft, P.A.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.S.

    2001-05-05

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  17. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migneault, Sébastien; Koubaa, Ahmed; Perré, Patrick; Riedl, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Because wood-plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same conclusions were found with FTIR where WPC strength decreases as lignin peaks intensity increases. Esterification reaction of fibers with MAPE occurs on polar sites of carbohydrates, such as hydroxyls (Osbnd H). Thus, fibers with carbohydrates-rich surface, such as cellulose pulp, produced stronger WPC samples. Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfered with the effects of fiber surface chemistry.

  18. Vertical distribution of AhR-activating compounds in sediments contaminated by modernized pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ratia, H; Oikari, A

    2014-03-01

    Increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity is a sensitive biomarker of exposure to the chemicals which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce the cytochrome P450 system, such as many polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pulp bleaching was one of the main sources of PCDDs and PCDFs until elemental chlorine free (ECF) and total chlorine free bleaching processes since 1990s have remarkably decreased but not completely eliminate discharges of these chemicals. In addition, historically contaminated sediments may act as a source of these persistent contaminants. In this study, the contamination history and recovery of a watercourse heavily loaded by the chemical wood industry were studied by analyzing PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs from vertical sediment samples and by measuring hepatic EROD activity from rainbow trout intraperitoneally dosed with the sediment extracts. No PCDDs or PCDFs were found above the chromatographic limit of detection from the study area and only small amounts of PCB congeners 101, 138, 153, and 180 were present. No increased EROD activity was observed in fish indicating the absence of any AhR-activating compounds in the surface sediment, to about 15 cm depth, representing about the last 20 years when kraft pulping and ECF bleaching with activated wastewater treatment have been used. It can be concluded that nowadays organochlorines and other AhR-ligands do not harm the previously heavily polluted watercourse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL.

  20. Wood stains

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...

  1. High Numbers of Prosthecate Bacteria in Pulp Mill Waste Aeration Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Patricia M.; Ordal, Erling J.; Staley, James T.

    1979-01-01

    Prosthecate bacteria comprised 0.6 to 10.5% of the bacterial community in samples from 11 pulp mill waste aeration lagoons. Because of their distinct morphology, the genera Ancalomicrobium, Caulobacter, Prosthecobacter, Prosthecomicrobium, Stella, and Hyphomicrobium or Hyphomonas could be identified and enumerated by direct microscopic examination. Monthly samples from one lagoon showed that several genera varied from undetectable to predominant among the appendaged organisms. Temperature (season), type of wood pulped, and pulping process did not significantly affect the density of prosthecate bacteria. Images PMID:16345371

  2. Using Ultrasound to Characterize Pulp Slurries with Entrained Air

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.

    2006-08-06

    The development of fast and practical methods for inspecting fiber suspensions is of great interest in the paper making industry. For process control and paper quality prediction, several elements of the refining process during paper making must be accurately monitored, including specific fiber properties, weight percent fiber (composition), degree of refining, amount of solids, and entrained air content. The results of previous ultrasonic studies applied to wood pulp provide guidance that ultrasound attenuation is information rich, and it does potentially provide a tool for consistency measurement. Ultrasound has the ability to penetrate dense suspensions such as wood pulp slurries. It is has been shown, in some studies, that ultrasound is sensitive to degree of refining. The effects of entrained air, additives, the origin and treatment of the fibers do however all influence the measured data. A series of measurements were made with hardwood and softwood slurries to evaluate the ability of measuring pulp consistency, solids, and entrained air. The attenuation through the slurry was measured as the ultrasound travels from one transducer through the slurry to the other. The measurements identified the presence of entrained air in the pulp samples. To better understand the effects of air, measurements were made at increasing pressures to show how increased pressure reduced the amount of air observed in the spectrum.

  3. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from Tree Species with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks. PMID:23300786

  4. Structural and chemical characterization of hardwood from tree species with applications as bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Cetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Holmes, Bradley M

    2012-01-01

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks.

  5. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from Tree Species with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2012-12-28

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks.

  6. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  7. Gross wood characteristics affecting properties of handsheets made from loblolly pine refiner groundwood

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin

    1968-01-01

    Specific refining energy and gross wood properties accounted for as much as 90% of the total variation in strength of handsheets made from 96 pulps disk-refined from chips of varying characteristics. Burst, tear, and breaking length were increased by applying high specific refining energy and using fast-grown wood of high latewood content but of relatively low density...

  8. Walking in the woods with quantum chemistry--applications of quantum chemical calculations in natural products research.

    PubMed

    Tantillo, Dean J

    2013-08-01

    This Highlight describes applications of quantum chemical calculations to problems in natural products chemistry, including the elucidation of natural product structures (distinguishing between constitutional isomers, distinguishing between diastereomers, and assigning absolute configuration) and determination of reasonable mechanisms for their formation.

  9. Fate and movement of azaarenes and their anaerobic biotransformation products in an aquifer contaminated by wood-treatment chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Updegraff, D.M.; Bennett, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Infiltration of wastes containing creosote and pentachlorophenol from surface impoundments at an abandoned wood-treatment facility near Pensacola, Florida, resulted in contamination of the underlying sand and gravel aquifer. Pond sludges and sediments near the source were contaminated with 2- to 5-ring azaarenes having log Kow values of from 2.0 to 5.6. However, the ground water contained only azaarenes and their oxygenated and methylated derivatives having log Kow values of less than 3.5. These compounds also were present in coal tar-contaminated ground water at a site near St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Laboratory anaerobic degradation studies and on-site observations indicated that oxygenated azaarenes probably were biotransformation products of reactions mediated by indigenous microbial populations. Microbial N-methylation, C-methylation and O-methylation reactions are reported here for the first time. In the presence of nutrients and carbon sources such as acetate and propionate, all azaarenes studied were either partially or completely degraded. Evidence for the microbial degradation of azaarenes in ground water from anaerobic zones is presented. Oxygenated azaarenes were relatively more water-soluble, mobile and persistent in hydrogeologic environments. ?? 1987.

  10. Degradation of pulp-mill effluent by oxygen and Na{sub 5}[PV{sub 2}Mo{sub 10}O{sub 40}], a multipurpose delignification and wet air oxidation catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnen, D.M.; Reiner, R.S.; Atalla, R.H.; Weinstock, I.A.

    1997-10-01

    Water-soluble salts of polyoxometalate (POM) anions can be used as (net) catalysts for selective, effluent-free oxygen delignification (bleaching) of unbleached kraft wood-pulps. Essential to this process is the use of the POM anions as catalysts for the wet oxidation of the lignin removed from the pulp fibers. In anaerobic bleaching, a 0.5 M solution of {alpha}-Na{sub 5}[PV{sub 2}Mo{sub 10}O{sub 40}] (POM{sub ox}) is combined with wood pulp and the mixture heated to 125 C. This treatment dissolves certain organic compounds (some lignin and polysaccharide fragments) with a combined chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1,500--2,000 mg of O{sub 2}L. Before the solution can be used again for bleaching, the POM anions (POM{sub red}) must be reoxidized and the dissolved organic compounds removed. Here, a second function of the POM anions is realized. They are used under mild conditions (150 C, 0.7 MPa of O{sub 2}) to catalyze the wet air oxidation of the dissolved organic compounds. After several cycles of anaerobic bleaching and wet oxidation, a steady-state condition in COD (at ca. 550 mg of O{sub 2}/L) is achieved.

  11. Dissolution of resin acids, retene and wood sterols from contaminated lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Meriläinen, Päivi; Lahdelma, Ilpo; Oikari, Laura; Hyötyläinen, Tarja; Oikari, Aimo

    2006-10-01

    The dissolution potency of hydrophobic resin acids (RAs), retene and wood sterols from sediments was studied. These wood extractives and their metabolites are sorbed from pulp and paper mill effluents to downstream sediments. With harmful components like these, sediments can pose a hazard to the aquatic environment. Therefore, sediment elutriates with water were produced under variable conditions (agitation rate and efficiency, time), and concentrations of the dissoluted compounds were analyzed. Both naturally contaminated field sediments and artificially spiked sediments were studied. By vigorous agitation RAs can be released fast from the sediment matrix and equilibrium reached within 3 days. Compared to RAs, desorption of retene from lake sediment was slower and did not completely reach equilibrium in 23 days. Sterols spiked to pristine sediment with a 33-day contact time desorbed faster than those associated authentically with industrial sediment of from a contaminated lake. Simulating the water turbulence adjacent to a sediment surface by low and high rate of agitation in the laboratory, an increase in the mixing rate after 43-day elutriation suddenly released a high amount of wood sterols. The results indicate wide variation between hazardous chemicals in their tendency to dissolution from sediment solids. Erosion and hydrology adjacent to the sediment surface, as well as risks from dredging activities of sediments, may expose lake biota to bioactive chemicals.

  12. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  13. Influence of kraft pulping on carboxylate content of softwood kraft pulps

    Treesearch

    Zheng Dang; Thomas Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-01-01

    This study characterizes changes in fiber charge, which is the carboxylate content of fibers, for two sets of kraft pulps: (1) conventional laboratory cooked loblolly pine kraft pulps and (2) conventional pulping (CK) versus low solids pulping (LS) pulps. Laboratory kraft pulping of loblolly pine was carried out to study the influence of pulping conditions, including...

  14. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eugene; Abbott, Paul V.

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry are examples of vitality tests. Whilst the prospect is promising, there are still many practical issues that need to be addressed before vitality tests can replace sensibility tests as the standard clinical pulp diagnostic test. With all pulp tests, the results need to be carefully interpreted and closely scrutinised as false results can lead to misdiagnosis which can then lead to incorrect, inappropriate, or unnecessary treatment. PMID:20339575

  15. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  16. Inter-laboratory comparisons of hexenuronic acid measurements in kraft eucalyptus pulps using a UV-Vis spectroscopic method

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; H.F Zhou; Chai X.S.; Donna Johannes; Richard Pope; Cristina Valls; M. Blanca Roncero

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison of a UV-Vis spectroscopic method (TAPPI T 282 om-13 “Hexeneuronic acid content of chemical pulp”) for hexeneuronic acid measurements was conducted using three eucalyptus kraft pulps. The pulp samples were produced in a laboratory at kappa numbers of approximately 14, 20, and 35. The hexeneuronic acid contents of the three pulps were...

  17. Inference of chemicals that cause biological effects in treated pulp and paper mill effluent using gene expression in caged fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical chemistry techniques can identify chemicals present in the waters of the Great Lakes areas of concern, however it remains a challenge to identify those chemicals or classes of chemicals that actually cause adverse effects. Use of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales prome...

  18. Inference of chemicals that cause biological effects in treated pulp and paper mill effluent using gene expression in caged fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical chemistry techniques can identify chemicals present in the waters of the Great Lakes areas of concern, however it remains a challenge to identify those chemicals or classes of chemicals that actually cause adverse effects. Use of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales prome...

  19. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  20. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  1. Attraction and electroantennogram responses of male Mediterranean fruit fly to volatile chemicals from Persea, Litchi and Ficus wood.

    PubMed

    Niogret, Jerome; Montgomery, Wayne S; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R; Epsky, Nancy D

    2011-05-01

    Trimedlure is the most effective male-targeted lure for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). A similar response is elicited by plant substances that contain α-copaene, a naturally-occurring sesquiterpene. α-Copaene is a complex, highly-volatile, widely-distributed plant compound, and male C. capitata respond to material from both hosts (e.g., Litchi chinensis) and non-hosts (e.g., Ficus benjamina) that contain α-copaene. Avocado, Persea americana, recently was found to contain varying amounts of α-copaene in the bark and underlying cambial tissue. Short-range attraction bioassays and electroantennography (EAG) were used to quantify responses of sterile male C. capitata to samples of rasped wood from four avocado genotypes, L. chinensis, and F. benjamina. Gas chromatography-mass spectral (GC-MS) analysis was used to identify and quantify the major sesquiterpenes. Attraction and EAG amplitude were correlated, with L. chinensis eliciting the highest and F. benjamina the lowest responses. Responses to the avocado genotypes were intermediate, but varied among the four types. GC-MS identified 13 sesquiterpenes, including α-copaene, from all samples. Amounts of α-copaene in volatile collections from samples (3 g) ranged from 11.8 μg in L. chinensis to 0.09 μg in F. benjamina, which correlated with short-range attraction and EAG response. α-Copaene ranged from 8.0 to 0.8 μg in the avocado genotypes, but attraction and EAG responses were not correlated with the amount of α-copaene. Differences in enantiomeric structure of the α-copaene in the different genotypes and/or presence of additional sesquiterpenes may be responsible for the variation in male response. EAG responses were correlated with the amount of several other sesquiterpenes including α-humulene, and this compound elicited a strong antennal response when tested alone.

  2. Compression of non-sterile green wood chips as an aid to fungal pretreatment (biopulping)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.L.; Olsen, K.K.

    1996-10-01

    Wood chips colonized by white rot fungi provide pulps with higher strength properties and reduced energy inputs. Compression of fresh wood chips causes changes which enhance the growth of biopulping; fungi without the need for wood heating, nutrient addition, or specialized bioreactor conditions. Hardwood (aspen) chips inoculated at compression and baled had a 16% reduction in acid lignin and provided kraft pulp with up to 80% higher burst strength as well as a 33% reduction in beating time to desired freeness. Compression and inoculation of green jack pine chips reduced refiner energy requirements and improved colonization by two biopulping fungi. Compression benefit to paper strength was also noted for presteamed pine chips.

  3. [Application of enzymes in pulp and paper industry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The application of enzymes has a high potential in the pulp and paper industry to improve the economics of the paper production process and to achieve, at the same time, a reduced environmental burden. Specific enzymes contribute to reduce the amount of chemicals, water and energy in various processes. This review is aimed at presenting the latest progresses of applying enzymes in bio-pulping, bio-bleaching, bio-deinking, enzymatic control of pitch and enzymatic modification of fibers.

  4. Mechanism of Transport Through Wood Cell Wall Polymers

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Jakes; Nayomi Plaza; Donald S. Stone; Christopher G. Hunt; Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    The movement of chemicals through wood is necessary for decay and fastener corrosion to occur in forest products. However, the mechanism responsible for the onset of fastener corrosion and decay in wood is not known. The onset occurs before the formation of free water in wood cavities and aqueous chemical transport would be possible. Here, we propose that the onset...

  5. Nanoindentation methods for wood-adhesive bond lines

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Jakes; Donald S. Stone; Charles R. Frihart

    2008-01-01

    As an adherend, wood is structurally, chemically, and mechanically more complex than metals or plastics, and the largest source of this complexity is wood’s chemical and mechanical inhomogeneities. Understanding and predicting the performance of adhesively bonded wood requires knowledge of the interactions occurring at length scales ranging from the macro down to the...

  6. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  7. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars produced from coppiced wood of thirteen tree species for use in horticultural substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven-year-old coppiced shoots from thirteen species of native and non-native trees and shrubs were harvested, dried, and were pyrolyzed to produce biochars for potential use in horticultural substrates. Several chemical and physical characteristics of the biochars were determined. There were slight...

  8. [Coffee hulls and pulp. XII. Effect of storage of coffee pulp on its nutritive value for calves].

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M T; Estrada, E; Murillo, B; González, J M; Bressani, R

    1976-06-01

    Coffee pulp, dehydrated and stored for 7, 13 and 17 months or ensiled for 4, 10 and 14 months, was studied in calves with a rapid growing rate. Storage of dehydrated coffee pulp did not affect its chemical composition, but ensiling reduced crude fiber and increased its nitrogen free extract content after 10 and 14 months. Three growth trials were carried out with Holstein calves averaging 95 kg in the first and second trials, and 130 kg in the third. Eighteen calves were used in the first trial and 24 in each of the other two. In each trial the animals were divided into three equal groups and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: control, which contained 48% cottonseed hulls, and the other two, with 30% dehydrated coffee pulp or 30% ensiled coffee pulp. Basically, the difference between trials consisted in the time of storage or ensiling of coffee pulp. In all trials, weight gains of calves fed coffee pulp (1.00, 0.90 and 0.98 kg/day, and 1.06, 0.94 and 1.08 kg/day, respectively) were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the weight gains induced by the control ration (1.21, 1.08 and 1.19 kg/day). Feed intake was also lower, but feed conversion ratio was higher for those rations containing coffee pulp. Calf performance was better with ensiled than with deydrated coffee pulp, particularly in the third trial, where the differences in weight gains were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that storage time does not change nutritive value of coffee pulp; and the ensiling is an adequate process for storing pulp during coffee harvesting, and, possibly also, for improving its nutritive value.

  9. Lignin modification during Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping followed by totally chlorine-free bleaching: a two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, David; Chávez, María Isabel; Rencoret, Jorge; Del Río, José Carlos; Gutiérrez, Ana; Romero, Javier; Camarero, Susana; Martínez, María Jesús; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Martínez, Angel T

    2007-05-02

    Chemical modification of eucalypt lignin was investigated during kraft pulping and chlorine-free bleaching by comparing milled wood lignin, kraft lignin, and pulp enzymatic residual lignins. The syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio (S/G) from analytical pyrolysis slightly changed during pulping and bleaching (S/G, 3-4) but was higher in the kraft lignin. Semiquantitative heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that the relative amount of beta-O-4' (around 80% side chains) and resinol type substructures (15%) was slightly modified during pulping and oxygen delignification. However, a decrease of resinol substructures (to only 6%) was found after alkaline peroxide bleaching. The relative amount of surviving linkages in the highly phenolic kraft lignin was dramatically modified; resinols were predominant. Oxygen delignification did not change interunit linkages, but a relative increase of oxidized units was found in the HSQC aromatic region, in agreement with the small increase of pyrolysis markers with oxidized side chains. NMR heteronuclear multiple bond correlations showed that the oxidized units after oxygen delignification bore conjugated ketone groups.

  10. The effect of aspen wood characteristics and properties on utilization

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Mackes; Dennis L. Lynch

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews characteristics and properties of aspen wood, including anatomical structure and characteristics, moisture and shrinkage properties, weight and specific gravity, mechanical properties, and processing characteristics. Uses of aspen are evaluated: sawn and veneer products, composite panels, pulp, excelsior, post and poles, animal bedding, animal food...

  11. Efficiency in wood and fiber utilization in OECD countries

    Treesearch

    Hiroko Kando; Joseph Buongiorno

    2009-01-01

    Utilization efficiency has been defined as the ratio of the amount of industrial roundwood (or wood pulp) consumed in a country and year to the amount that would have been consumed to produce the same output with a reference technology.  The reference technology was described by the average input-output relationships in countries of the Organization for Economic...

  12. Indirect pulp capping in young patients: immunohistological study of pulp-dentin complex.

    PubMed

    Ţuculină, Mihaela Jana; Răescu, Mihaela; Dascălu, Ionela Teodora; Popescu, Mihaela; Andreescu, Claudia Florina; Dăguci, C; Cumpătă, C N; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2013-01-01

    Indirect capping is a complex therapy exclusively needed in deep cavities that provides, using biomaterials, a disinfection of the dentinary sore and seals the dentinary tubules, protects the pulp of physical mechanisms and chemical agents and stimulates the mechanisms that produce new dentin. Following this idea, we studied the histological changes in the dental pulp tissue and also the specific immunohistochemical response in various structures when an indirect capping technique was used. We used special histological techniques followed by classical staining or by immunohistochemical reaction in order to assess the odontoblastic, and the vascular reaction. The immunohistochemical study allows us to evaluate the changes in the pulp-dentin complex, as the result of the changes in the dentinal tubules permeability and the biological reactions at this level.

  13. Manganese peroxidase, produced by Trametes versicolor during pulp bleaching, demethylates and delignifies kraft pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Paice, M.G.; Reid, I.D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F.S.; Jurasek, L. )

    1993-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor delignifies and bleaches kraft pulp. However, the process is slow compared with chemical bleaching and the cellulose is also attacked. This study attempts to determine the enzymology of fungal delignification and then applies the relevant enzymes directly to the pulp. Lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have both been implicated in lignin biodegradations. However, the researchers show that MnP is the critical enzyme. It is produced by bleaching cultures of T. versicolor; its peak production occurs at the same time as the maximum rate of fungal culture bleaching, and the manganese-and peroxide-dependent demethylation and delignification of kraft pulp occurs in vitro. 50 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Chemical, physical, and environmental properties of pelleted newspaper compared to wheat straw and wood shavings as bedding for horses.

    PubMed

    Ward, P L; Wohlt, J E; Katz, S E

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted comparing pelleted recycled newspaper (PN) to wheat straw (S) and kiln-dried pine wood shavings (WS) as an animal bedding material. Adult horses housed 20 to 21 h/d in boxstalls served as the animal model for comparisons. In Exp. 1 eight boxstalls, each housing one horse, were each bedded with two types of PN (0.32 and 0.64 x 2.54 cm), S, and WS over four 5-d periods (replicated 4 x 4 Latin square). Initial amounts of bedding materials surpassed most commercial conditions, but stalls were cleaned daily of feces only and additional clean bedding was added as needed to maintain animal cleanliness, thus challenging the bedding properties of each material. In Exp. 2 nine boxstalls were bedded with PN (0.32 x 2.54 cm), S, and WS over three 14-d periods (three 3 x 3 Latin squares) during summer and autumn. Feces and wet spots were removed daily and clean bedding was added to reestablish working volume and simulate commercial conditions. In Exp. 1 and 2 daily additions of clean bedding varied (P < 0.05) with material (S > WS > PN). The higher water-holding capacity of PN and WS contributed to fewer bedding replacements. Usage of each material was greater (P < 0.05) during the autumn; PN had the greatest increase. Type of material and season also influenced bedding environment. Bedding pH increased (P < 0.05) with use and was highest in PN and lowest in S. Higher concentrations of breathable NH3 N were present in stalls bedded with PN and during autumn. Higher pH of used PN and decreased ventilation due to closed doors and windows during autumn were contributing factors. Season, type of bedding, and duration of its use affected (P < 0.05) numbers as well as species of microorganisms present in the breathing zone, nasal cavity, and on the leg of the horse. Clean and used WS contained greater (P < 0.05) quantities of particle fines, but with 5 d of use, particle fines in PN also increased. Quantities of breathable dust during cleaning of stalls

  15. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers.

  16. In vitro androgenicity in pulp and paper mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Svenson, Anders; Allard, Ann-Sofie

    2004-10-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents were examined for in vitro androgenicity using a recombinant yeast-based androgen receptor assay. Low levels of androgenic effects were detected in extracts of some effluents after activated sludge treatment. Yeast cell growth cell was inhibited in some samples, and this interfered with the androgenic response. Solid-phase fractionation revealed androgenicity after partial separation of components in the effluents. Comparison of levels in untreated effluent and in effluent treated in an aerated lagoon showed that this treatment had only a marginal effect on androgenicity. An assay of the fractions eluted with increasing concentrations of methanol showed that androgenic compounds were low to moderately lipophilic. In an attempt to identify these compounds, a number of wood-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, beta-sitosterol, betulin, pinosylvin-O-methyl ether, and a wood extract enriched in lignans) were examined but were found not to be androgenic. Raw process water was not androgenic, but water from a highly humified lake and process water from the production of pulp from partly decayed wood had low androgenicity. It therefore can be plausibly suggested that the androgens originated in decaying wood. An assay of androgenicity in the bile of juvenile rainbow trout exposed to effluents for 3 weeks showed increased dose-dependent levels of androgens after enzymatic hydrolysis of hormone conjugates. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. GELIFICATION OF WOOD DURING COALIFICATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Romankiw, Lisa A.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Coalified wood was examined by SEM and CPMAS**1**3C NMR to delineate chemical and physical alterations responsible for gelification. Early coalification selectively degrades cellulosic components, preserving lignin-like components that are eventually transformed to coal. Cellular morphology persists until the chemical composition becomes uniform, at which point the cells coalesce under compaction and gelify.

  18. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

  19. Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of wheat straw with enzyme treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Xuezhi; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) of wheat straw with enzyme treatment was studied. Instead of direct enzyme pretreatment on wheat straw, an alternative treatment method was used, in which coarse pulps from refiner defibrated wheat straw rather than wheat straw were pretreated with a crude enzyme containing mainly xylanase, then impregnated with alkaline H2O2 solution and further refined. The optimum conditions of enzyme treatment were xylanase dosage of 10-15 IU/g of oven-dried wheat straw, 90 min, 50-60 degrees C, pulp consistency of 5-10%, and initial pH of 5.0, and those for chemical impregnation were 6% NaOH, 70-80 degrees C, 60-90 min, and 4 to 5% H2O2. Enzyme treatment improved pulpability of wheat straw by the APMP process, and final pulp quality such as brightness, breaking length, and burst index of pulp. Pulp from the APMP process with enzyme treatment could be bleached to a brightness of 70.5% ISO by two-stage H2O2 bleaching sequence with only 4% H2O2, and breaking length of the bleach pulp reached 4470 m

  20. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Treesearch

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  1. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  2. Xylanase Treatment Suppresses Light- and Heat-Induced Yellowing of Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daolei; Li, Xuezhi; Wang, Meimei; Ye, Yanxin; Du, Jian; Lu, Xianqin; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Xylanase is commonly applied in pulp and paper industries to ease cost-related and environmental pressures. The effect of xylanase treatment on pulp bleaching is well-established, however, few studies were conducted on the effects of xylanase treatment in pulp yellowing, especially the mechanism of pulp yellowing inhibition by xylanase treatment. In this study, pure xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) was applied to treat wheat straw chemical pulp (CP) and poplar chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) to determine their effects on pulp brightness and on light- and heat-induced yellowing. The xylanase treatment decreased the post-color number of the pulps during light- and heat-induced yellowing. However, differences were observed in the yellowing inhibition between the wheat straw CP and poplar CTMP. The changes in chemical components of pulps after the xylanase treatment, for example, lignin, hemicellulose, and HexA contents, and analysis of UV–vis absorption spectra and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectrum were used to explore the pulp yellowing inhibition causes by the xylanase treatment. PMID:27917912

  3. Role of angiogenesis in endodontics: contributions of stem cells and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to dental pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-06-01

    Dental pulp regeneration is a part of regenerative endodontics, which includes isolation, propagation, and re-transplantation of stem cells inside the prepared root canal space. The formation of new blood vessels through angiogenesis is mandatory to increase the survival rate of re-transplanted tissues. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting capillaries, which has great importance in pulp regeneration and homeostasis. Here the contribution of human dental pulp stem cells and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to angiogenesis process and regeneration of dental pulp is reviewed. A search was performed on the role of angiogenesis in dental pulp regeneration from January 2005 through April 2014. The recent aspects of the relationship between angiogenesis, human dental pulp stem cells, and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in regeneration of dental pulp were assessed. Many studies have indicated an intimate relationship between angiogenesis and dental pulp regeneration. The contribution of stem cells and mechanical and chemical factors to dental pulp regeneration has been previously discussed. Angiogenesis is an indispensable process during dental pulp regeneration. The survival of inflamed vital pulp and engineered transplanted pulp tissue are closely linked to the process of angiogenesis at sites of application. However, the detailed regulatory mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of angiogenesis in pulp tissue require investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Role of Angiogenesis in Endodontics: Contributions of Stem Cells and Proangiogenic and Antiangiogenic Factors to Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M.; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental pulp regeneration is a part of regenerative endodontics, which includes isolation, propagation, and re-transplantation of stem cells inside the prepared root canal space. The formation of new blood vessels through angiogenesis is mandatory to increase the survival rate of re-transplanted tissues. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting capillaries, which has great importance in pulp regeneration and homeostasis. Here the contribution of human dental pulp stem cells and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to angiogenesis process and regeneration of dental pulp is reviewed. Methods A search was performed on the role of angiogenesis in dental pulp regeneration from January 2005 through April 2014. The recent aspects of the relationship between angiogenesis, human dental pulp stem cells, and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in regeneration of dental pulp were assessed. Results Many studies have indicated an intimate relationship between angiogenesis and dental pulp regeneration. The contribution of stem cells and mechanical and chemical factors to dental pulp regeneration has been previously discussed. Conclusions Angiogenesis is an indispensable process during dental pulp regeneration. The survival of inflamed vital pulp and engineered transplanted pulp tissue are closely linked to the process of angiogenesis at sites of application. However, the detailed regulatory mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of angiogenesis in pulp tissue require investigation. PMID:25649306

  5. [Wood dust as inhalative noxious agent].

    PubMed

    Kirsten, D; Liebetrau, G; Meister, W

    1985-01-01

    Wood dust is known as a cause of asthma and chronic bronchitis. From 1979 to 1983 we observed 115 patients with chronic lung diseases, who were exposed to wood dust during many years. We found an irritative pathogenesis in 101 patients with asthma or bronchitis. Twenty nine patients had got a positive skin test, especially with makoré, beech, koto, ash, pine. The inhalation test was positive in 7 of them. The occupational etiology was verified in 5 patients. Besides wood dust itself chemicals for wood protection or wood adhesives can have importance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fourteen patients had got alveolitis or lung fibrosis after wood-dust exposition. In each case we found precipitating antibodies against moulds, which could be cultivated from wood dust to which the patients were exposed.

  6. Identification of cooling tower wood attack and methods of control

    SciTech Connect

    Song, P.; Trulear, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Biological and chemical attack can greatly accelerate the deterioration of cooling tower wood. The damage, once inflicted, is irreversible and often results in premature and costly wood replacement. Biological attack is more serious than chemical, and is difficult to detect. Control of both types is essential for good tower maintenance A review of wood structures, types of attack and methods of control are presented. Effects of alkaline cooling water operation on wood deterioration are also discussed.

  7. Understanding the Nature and Reactivity of Residual Lignin for Improved Pulping and Bleaching Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan-Zong Lai

    2001-11-30

    One of the most formidable challenges in kraft pulping to produce bleached chemical pulps is how to effectively remove the last 5-10% of lignin while maintaining the fiber quality. To avoid a severe fiber degradation, kraft pulping is usually terminated in the 25-30 kappa number range and then followed by an elementally chlorine free (ECF) or a totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence to reduce the environmental impacts.

  8. Chemical Analysis and Study of Phenolics, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Effect of the Wood and Bark of Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud.

    PubMed

    Lamounier, K C; Cunha, L C S; de Morais, S A L; de Aquino, F J T; Chang, R; do Nascimento, E A; de Souza, M G M; Martins, C H G; Cunha, W R

    2012-01-01

    Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud. has one of the highest qualities among the coefficients for Brazilian woods (up to 9.6) and resistance rates equivalent to Indian teak (Tectona grandis). In this study, the macromolecular constituents and total phenols compounds as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this wood were evaluated. Total phenols and proanthocyanidin levels were higher in wood when compared with bark levels. The antioxidant activity of wood extracts (IC(50) = 18.7 μg/mL) was more effective than that of bark extracts (IC(50) = 20.9 μg/mL). Wood and bark extracts revealed a high potential for inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bark extracts were the most active (MIC from 20 to 60 μg/mL). Both antioxidant activity and high potential for bacteria inhibition turn these extracts promising for drug formulations, especially as antibacterial agent.

  9. Chemical Analysis and Study of Phenolics, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Effect of the Wood and Bark of Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud.

    PubMed Central

    Lamounier, K. C.; Cunha, L. C. S.; de Morais, S. A. L.; de Aquino, F. J. T.; Chang, R.; do Nascimento, E. A.; de Souza, M. G. M.; Martins, C. H. G.; Cunha, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud. has one of the highest qualities among the coefficients for Brazilian woods (up to 9.6) and resistance rates equivalent to Indian teak (Tectona grandis). In this study, the macromolecular constituents and total phenols compounds as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this wood were evaluated. Total phenols and proanthocyanidin levels were higher in wood when compared with bark levels. The antioxidant activity of wood extracts (IC50 = 18.7 μg/mL) was more effective than that of bark extracts (IC50 = 20.9 μg/mL). Wood and bark extracts revealed a high potential for inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bark extracts were the most active (MIC from 20 to 60 μg/mL). Both antioxidant activity and high potential for bacteria inhibition turn these extracts promising for drug formulations, especially as antibacterial agent. PMID:22454666

  10. Morphology and Chemical Composition of soot particles emitted by Wood-burning Cook-Stoves: a HRTEM, XPS and Elastic backscattering Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabali-Sandoval, G. A., Sr.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; De la Cruz, W.; Días, J.; Amelines, O.; Rivera-Hernández, M.; Varela, A.; Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Policroniades, R.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.

    2014-12-01

    The morphology, microstructure and the chemical composition on surface of soot particles were studied by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic backscattering spectrometry. In order to obtain freshly soot particles emitted by home-made wood-burning cook stoves, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot particles. The XPS survey spectra show a large carbon peak around 285 eV and the oxygen signal at 533 eV. Some differences observed in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles probably depend on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The C-1s XPS spectra show an asymmetric broad peak and other with low intensity that corresponds to sp2 and sp3hybridization, which were fitted with a convolution using Gaussian functions. Elastic backscattering technique allows a chemical elemental analysis of samples and confirms the presence of C, O and Si observed by XPS. Additionally, the morphological properties of soot aggregates were analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df. Also, real-time absorption (σabs) and scattering (σsct) coefficients of fine (with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm) soot particles were measured. The trend in σabs and σsct indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.

  11. New views on antidiarrheal effect of wood creosote: is wood creosote really a gastrointestinal antiseptic?

    PubMed

    Ataka, Koji; Ito, Masafumi; Shibata, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    Wood creosote, the principal ingredient in Seirogan, has a long history as a known gastrointestinal microbicidal agent. When administered orally, the intraluminal concentration of wood creosote is not sufficiently high to achieve this microbicidal effect. Through further animal tests, we have shown that antimotility and antisecretory actions are the principal antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote. Wood creosote inhibits intestinal secretion induced by enterotoxins by blocking the Cl(-) channel on the intestinal epithelium. Wood creosote also decreases intestinal motility accelerated by mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulus by the inhibition of the Ca(2+) influx into the smooth muscle cells. In this overview, the antimotility and antisecretory effects of wood creosote are compared with those of loperamide. Wood creosote was observed to inhibit stimulated colonic motility, but not normal jejunal motility. Loperamide inhibits normal jejunal motility, but not stimulated colonic motility. Both wood creosote and loperamide inhibit intestinal secretion accelerated by acetylcholine. Wood creosote was found to have greater antisecretory effects in the colon than loperamide. Based upon these findings, we conclude that the antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote are due to both antisecretory activity in the intestine and antimotility in the colon, but not due to the microbicidal activity as previously thought. Wood creosote was found to have no effects on normal intestinal activity. These conclusions are supported by the results of a recent clinical study comparing wood creosote and loperamide, which concluded that wood creosote was more efficacious in relieving abdominal pain and comparable to loperamide in relieving diarrhea.

  12. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    PubMed

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Pilot trials of hemicelluloses extraction prior to thermomechanical pulp production: Part 1

    Treesearch

    Carl Houtman; Eric Horn

    2011-01-01

    Pilot data indicate that wood chip pretreatment with oxalic acid reduced the specific energy required to make thermomechanical pulp. A combined oxalic acid/bisulfite treatment resulted in 21% refiner energy savings and 13% increase in brightness for aspen. A low level of oxalic acid treatment was effective for spruce. Energy savings of 30% was observed with no...

  14. Biomechanical pulping with Phlebiopsis gigantea reduced energy consumption and increased paper strength : [summary

    Treesearch

    Chad J. Behrendt; Robert A. Blanchette; Masood. Akhtar; Scott. Enebak; Sara. Iverson; Diane. Williams

    2000-01-01

    Biomechanical pulping of whole logs pretreated with Phlebiopsis gigantea was investigated in several studies using loblolly and red pine. Results from these studies showed P. gigantea was able to colonize 90 to 100% of the freshly cut logs after 8 weeks, with little variation between replicate treatments. Up to a 59% decrease in resinous wood extractives was observed...

  15. Mill demonstration of TMP production from forest thinnings: pulp quality, refining energy, and handsheet properties

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; C. Tim Scott; Roland Gleisner; Doreen Mann; D.P. Dykstra; G. Holton Quinn; Louis L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    High-value, large-volume utilization of forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests is a potentially important contributor to sustainable forest health. This study demonstrated the utilization of wood chips produced from thinnings for the production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP). Both whole-log chips (primarily from small-diameter logs, tops, and reject logs...

  16. Mill demonstration of TMP production from forest thinnings : pulp quality, refining energy, and handsheet properties

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; C. Tim Scott; Roland Gleisner; Doreen Mann; D.P. Dykstra; G. Holton Quinn; Louis L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    High-value, large-volume utilization of forest thinning materials from U.S. National Forests is a potentially important contributor to sustainable forest health. This study demonstrated the utilization of wood chips produced from thinnings for the production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP). Both whole-log chips (primarily from small-diameter logs, tops, and reject logs...

  17. Conversion of henequen pulp to microbial biomass by submerged fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Blancas, A.; Alpizar, L.; Larios, G.; Saval, S.; Huitron, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico has cellulosic by-products that could be developed as renewable food sources for animal consumption. Sugarcane bagasse and henequen pulp are the most important of these materials because they are abundant, cheap, renewable, and nontoxic, in addition to being underutilized. A significant research and development effort has centered on the production of single-cell protein from sugarcane begasse. Nevertheless, there are no large-scale processes that utilize this substrate as a source of carbon, probably because of the extensive physical or chemical pretreatment that is needed. Henequen pulp is a by-product which is obtained in large amounts in southeastern Mexico in the process of removing fibers from the leaves of agave (sisal). A group has been working on a fermentative process that will increase the protein content of the henequen pulp by microbial conversion. The primary aim is to carry out the conversion without chemical pretreatment of the substrate and without a separation step for cells and residual substrate. A gram-negative cellulolytic bacteria has been isolated which grows well on microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and xylane and it is able to convert an appreciable fraction of henequen pulp to microbial biomass. In this article, some results on the effect of substrate and nitrogen source concentration, on the protein enrichment of the henequen pulp, as well as the content of essential amino acids of fermented henequen pulp are presented. 4 figures.

  18. Effects of bacterial treatments on wood extractives.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Vaari, Anu; Rättö, Marjaana; Konn, Jonas; Siika-aho, Matti; Viikari, Liisa

    2003-06-12

    Bacterial strains were isolated from spruce wood chips and their ability to reduce the content of wood extractives was studied. Strains were screened by cultivation on liquid media containing wood extractives as the major nutrient. Some bacterial species could decrease remarkably the amount of extractives in the liquid media and reduced the amount of triglycerides, steryl esters and total extractives by 100, 20 and 39%, respectively. Spruce wood chips were treated in controlled conditions with selected bacteria to test their effects on the chips. All the bacteria grew well on wood chips. The effect of bacterial metabolism on wood extractives was significant. Bacterial treatments reduced the amount of lipophilic extractives by 16-38% in 1 week of treatment and up to 67% in 2 weeks. The most efficient strain removed 90, 66 and 50% of triglycerides, steryl esters and resin acids, respectively, in 2 weeks. These results indicate that bacteria may be promising agents for the removal of extractives for improved pulping and papermaking processes.

  19. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    This factsheet describes a research project to replacing the more chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin with the less resistant hardwood guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) lignin genes. Achieving this genetic change would reduce the energy, chemical, and bleaching required in Kraft pulp production of softwoods.

  20. Chemical sequential extraction of heavy metals and sulphur in bottom ash and in fly ash from a pulp and paper mill complex.

    PubMed

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Rämö, Jaakko

    2008-08-01

    A five-stage sequential extraction procedure was used to determine the distribution of 11 metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Zn, As, Co, V, Ni, Ba), and sulphur (S) in bottom ash and in fly ash from a fluidized bed co-combustion (i.e. wood and peat) boiler of Stora Enso Oyj Oulu Mill at Oulu, Northern Finland, into the following fractions: (1) water-soluble fraction (H2O); (2) exchangeable fraction (CH3COOH); (3) easily reduced fraction (NH2OH-HCl); (4) oxidizable fraction (H2O2 + CH3COONH4); and (5) residual fraction (HF + HNO3 + HCl). Although metals were extractable in all fractions, the highest concentrations of most of the metals occurred in the residual fraction. From the environmental point of view, this fraction is the non-mobile fraction and is potentially the least harmful. The Ca concentrations of 29.3 g kg(-1) (dry weight) in bottom ash and of 68.5 g kg(-1) (dry weight) in fly ash were correspondingly approximately 18 and 43 times higher than the average value of 1.6 g kg(-1) (dry weight) in arable land in Central Finland. The ashes were strongly alkaline pH (approximately 12) and had a liming effects of 9.3% (bottom ash) and 13% (fly ash) expressed as Ca equivalents (dry weight). The elevated Ca concentrations indicate that the ashes are potential agents for soil remediation and for improving soil fertility. The pH and liming effect values indicate that the ashes also have a pH buffering capacity. From the environmental point of view, it is notable that the heavy metal concentrations in both types of ash were lower than the Finnish criteria for ash utilization.