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Sample records for chemistry mtleb suurelt

  1. Biophysical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  2. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  3. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  4. Chemistry Dashboard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  5. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  6. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  7. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  8. Forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  9. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  10. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  11. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  12. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  13. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  14. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  15. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  16. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  18. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  19. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  20. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  1. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  2. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  3. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  4. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  5. Confectionary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  6. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  7. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  8. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  9. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  10. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  11. Microscale Chemistry and Green Chemistry: Complementary Pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the complementary nature of microscale chemistry and green chemistry. Green chemistry emphasizes the concepts of atom economy, source reduction, pathway modification, solvent substitution, and pollution prevention as means of improving the environmental impact of industrial chemistry. Microscale chemistry serves as a tool for incorporating green chemistry ideas across the curriculum in educational institutions. Examples are drawn from microscale laboratory experiments to illustrate the pedagogic connection between the two areas.

  12. Polynitrogen Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-24

    4N3, while As(C6H5)4N3 presents a borderline case.23 Theoretical Calculations High-level theoretical studies of nitrogen, oxygen, selenium and...Dixon, D. A.; Christe, K. O., "Thermochemical Properties of Selenium Fluorides, Oxides, and Oxofluorides," Inorganic Chemistry, p. 2472, vol. 51, (2012...34Thermochemical Properties of Selenium Fluorides, Oxides, and Oxofluorides," Inorg. Chem., p. 2472, vol. 51, (2012). 26. K. S. Thanthiriwatte, M. Vasiliu

  13. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  14. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  15. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  16. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  17. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  18. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  19. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  20. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  1. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  2. USSR Report, Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This chemistry Report from the USSR contains articles mainly on Adsorption, Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Catalysis, Chemical Industry, Coal ... Gasification , Electrochemistry, Fertilizers, Food Technology, Inorganic Compounds, Nitrogen Compounds and Organometallic Compounds.

  3. Chemistry for Potters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  4. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  5. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  6. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  7. School Chemistry vs. Chemistry in Research: An Exploratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habraken, Clarisse L.; Buijs, Wim; Borkent, Hens; Ligeon, Willy; Wender, Harry; Meijer, Marijn

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…

  8. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  9. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  10. Teaching School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, D. J., Ed.

    This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M.…

  11. Chemistry and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Martyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…

  12. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  13. Mechanisms in Photographic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahyun, M. R. V.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews current research interests in photographic chemistry, involving two proposed models for spectral sensitization of crystal defects and impurities in the photolysis reactivity and the mechanisms of development and complexation. Establishment of photographic chemistry in a chemistry curriculum is recommended. (CC)

  14. Chemistry as General Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    Science courses are common in most general education requirements. This paper addresses the role of chemistry classes in meeting these requirements. Chemistry professors have for many years questioned the appropriateness of the standard introductory chemistry course as general education, resulting in the growing popularity of specialized non-majors courses. I suggest that current non-major chemistry courses cover too much consumer chemistry and ignore some of the big contributions of chemistry to human knowledge. Majors chemistry courses, while they prepare students for majoring in science, do not address these issues either. Consequently, chemistry courses are often an ineffective and unpopular way to meet general education science requirements. Part of the reason for this dilemma is the lack of chemists who address the contributions of chemistry to human knowledge in general. I propose that faculty at liberal arts colleges engage in this important task and that non-majors chemistry textbooks incorporate questions and issues that relate chemistry to a broader view of human knowledge. If these things happen, perhaps chemistry courses will become more effective as general education.

  15. Principles of Environmental Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Ruth A.

    2007-07-01

    Roy M. Harrison, Editor RSC Publishing; ISBN 0854043713; × + 363 pp.; 2006; $69.95 Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes chemistry of the air, water, and soil. Although it may be confused with green chemistry, which deals with potential pollution reduction, environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical principles that occur in nature. Therefore, it is the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, water, and soil environments, and the effect of human activity on them. Environmental chemistry not only explores each of these environments, but also closely examines the interfaces and boundaries where the environments intersect.

  16. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  17. Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)

  18. USSR Report, Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Industry, Coal Gasification , Electrochemistry, Inorganic Compounds, Nitrogen Compounds, Organophosphorus Compounds, Petroleum Processing Technology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Polymers and Polymerization and, Radiation Chemistry.

  19. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  20. Bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Creus, Marc; Gademann, Karl; Giese, Bernd; Ward, Thomas R; Woggon, Wolf D; Chougnet, Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The interdisciplinary projects in bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry of the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel led to the preparation of new systems that mimic biologically important processes and to the discovery of compounds from natural sources which are very promising with respect to medical applications. The advances in these areas are reported here.

  1. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  2. Chemistry and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, D. W.

    1970-01-01

    In the second article of a series, the author discusses some of the interactions between chemistry and philosophy. Evaluates chemistry's role within the scientific enterprise. Traces the rise and fall of the logical atom and argues for a new way of looking at science as an educational instrument. (RR)

  3. Chemistry from Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

  4. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  5. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  6. Pre-Tech Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Junior Coll., Jacksonville.

    This course guide is designed to aid chemistry instructors in teaching the skills and knowledge needed by those students planning to take junior college chemistry and is composed of 11 terminal performance objectives, with intermediate performance objectives and sample criterion measures. Suggestions for related laboratory activities are also…

  7. Brushing Up on Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trantow, Ashley

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)

  8. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  9. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  10. Mathematics and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between mathematics and chemistry has been changing rapidly in recent years. Some chemistry teachers have experienced difficulties in their teaching with the introduction of modern mathematics in the schools. Some suggestions for reinforcing the concepts and language of modern mathematics are put forth. (Author/MA)

  11. Organic Chemistry Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradt, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Student-led workshops are helping undergraduate students learn from each other as they tackle organic chemistry. Each week, small groups brainstorm tough problems in sessions guided by upper-class students who have taken and passed the course. Debating and discussing chemistry problems with peers engages students with the material and boosts…

  12. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  13. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  14. Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on…

  15. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  16. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  17. Environmental chemistry. 5th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized around several major sections: aquatic Chemistry, atmospheric chemistry, the geosphere and hazardous wastes, toxicological chemistry, and resources and energy. Specific topics discussed in the book include a general introduction to environment chemistry, basic principles of aquatic chemistry, water pollution and water treatment, the essential role of microorganisms in aquatic chemical phenomena, atmospheric chemistry, a discussion of major threats to the global atmosphere (particularly greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting chemicals), the geosphere and hazardous substances, soil chemistry, and the nature and sources of hazardous wastes. The environmental chemistry of hazardous wastes, their treatment, minimization, and recycling, and the effects of these hazardous substances in also presented.

  18. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  19. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  20. Computational quantum chemistry website

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-22

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

  1. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  2. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  3. Chemistry in Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlings, J. M. C.; Williams, D. A.

    It is shown that the 5 μm excess, which is attributed to CO in the ejecta of novae, can be modelled chemically. The principle problems involved in the modelling are: (1) the high ejecta temperature (≡104K), (2) the extremely high UV flux, and (3) the marginal self-shielding capability of H2. The authors find that the condition of H2 self-shielding alone is sufficient to allow rapid chemistry to proceed. Time-dependent chemistry calculations indicate that the chemistry is steered by the physics of the system.

  4. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  5. Uncertainty in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Menger, Fredric M

    2010-09-01

    It might come as a disappointment to some chemists, but just as there are uncertainties in physics and mathematics, there are some chemistry questions we may never know the answer to either, suggests Fredric M. Menger.

  6. Frontiers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Robert M., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in chemical synthesis which depends on comparable advances in other areas of chemistry. Analysis and theories of chemical structure and reactions are determinants in progress in chemical synthesis and are described also. (Author/SA)

  7. Chemistry and Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program consisting of two courses. The first course deals with the chemistry of drugs and poisons; the second course focuses on fictional works in which these drugs and poisons are central to the plots. (SK)

  8. Environmental Bioinorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including interactions of organisms with metallic and nonmetallic elements and compounds. Indicates that many environmental problems are created by human exploitation of nature and technologies if studied from a bioinorganic chemical viewpoint. (CC)

  9. Chemistry for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  10. Magnetism in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

  11. Chemistry for Nonscientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)

  12. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  13. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  14. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  15. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  16. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  17. Impact of surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  18. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  19. Impact of surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Somorjai, Gabor A; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-18

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized.

  20. Technetium Chemistry in HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

    2005-06-06

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  1. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  2. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-07

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  3. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report contains foreign media information from the USSR concerning analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, environmental chemistry, inorganic compounds, organophosphorous compounds, polymers (rubber) and radiation chemistry.

  5. Chemistry in cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model.

  6. Chemistry of Transactinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, J. V.

    In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

  7. Chemistry WebBook

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  8. Chemistry of atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, R. P.

    Atmospheric chemistry has been the focus of much research activity in recent years. Like its predecessor, this new edition lays down the principles of atmospheric chemistry and provides the necessary background for more detailed study. New developments are covered, including the startling discovery of the "Antarctic ozone hole", and the increasingly rapid changes in the composition of the Earth's atmosphere, apparently a result of man's activities. Information gathered by the Voyager 2 and other space missions, which have provided a new understanding of the atmospheres of planets other than our own, is also discussed.

  9. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 1: Review of General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet is one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland. It provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  10. Connected Chemistry--Incorporating Interactive Simulations into the Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Wilensky, Uri

    2003-01-01

    Describes a novel modeling and simulation package and assesses its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected Chemistry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Using Connected Chemistry, students employed problem -solving techniques characterized by stronger attempts at conceptual understanding and logical…

  11. Chemistry: Experiments, Demonstrations and Other Activities Suggested for Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is a handbook used in conjunction with the course of study in chemistry developed through the New York State Education Department and The University of the State of New York. It contains experiments, demonstrations, and other activities for a chemistry course. Areas covered include the science of chemistry, the atomic structure of…

  12. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  13. Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the beliefs of Turkish prospective chemistry teachers about teaching chemistry, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 prospective teachers. Analysis of the interviews revealed that most of the prospective teachers held intermediate (transition between constructivist and traditional) beliefs about chemistry teaching.…

  14. Emphasizing Mineral Chemistry in an Analytical Chemistry Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jeffrey G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an analytical chemistry unit in the second year of the chemistry degree course at Curtin University that was designed to reflect the numerous employment opportunities for chemistry graduates in the mineral processing industries and private analytical laboratories. Presents the lecture syllabus, the laboratory course description, and…

  15. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  16. USSR Report, Chemistry, No. 98

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The report contains information on USSR Chemistry in generally in civil technology with particular attention to biochemistry, Catalysts, Coal ... gasification , combustion, Fertilizers, petroleum processing technology. The report also covers important issues related to polymerization, wood chemistry and Elastomer production.

  17. The Art of Teaching Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Baird W., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Contains descriptions of 11 college chemistry education programs that were awarded grants by the Pfizer Foundation because they make the introductory chemistry experience more positive and engaging for students, especially women and minorities. (LZ)

  18. The Lighter Side of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for using photochemistry to merge descriptive chemistry and molecular orbital theory in first-year chemistry courses. Includes procedures and safety information for various activities, demonstrations, and experiments involving photochemical reactions. (DH)

  19. Polymer Chemistry in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stucki, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses why polymer chemistry should be added to the general chemistry curriculum and what topics are appropriate (listing traditional with related polymer topics). Also discusses when and how these topics should be taught. (JN)

  20. The Mystery of Consumer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carol P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares processes used to investigate issues in consumer chemistry to the solving of a puzzle in a mystery story. Suggests using similar methods to teach problem solving in consumer chemistry classes. Describes how such a process might progress. (CW)

  1. The Birthday of Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benfey, Otto Theodor; Kaufman, George B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the synthesis of urea, 150 years ago, was a major factor in breaking the artificial barrier that existed between organic and inorganic chemistry, and this contributed to the rapid growth of organic chemistry. (GA)

  2. Special Report: Chemistry of Comets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A'Hearn, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the chemistry of comets. How comets provide clues to the birth of the solar system, photolytic reactions on comets involving water, chemical modeling, nuclear chemistry, and research findings are among the areas considered. (JN)

  3. Chemistry in a Nutshell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupnow, John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves making peanut butter in the laboratory as a way to teach students the chemistry concepts of emulsification, solubility, and formulation. Enables students to realize that they can actually create or modify the physical and sensory characteristics of peanut butter and taste the differences in their work. (JRH)

  4. Chemistry Between The Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammon, Richard H.

    This booklet is part of an American Astronomical Society curriculum project designed to provide teaching materials to teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth science. The following topics are covered: the physical conditions in interstellar space in comparison with those of the earth, particularly in regard to gas density,…

  5. General Chemistry, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Orson W.; Franke, Douglas C.

    This publication is a syllabus for a senior high school chemistry course designed for the average ability, nonscience major. The content of the syllabus is divided into three basic core areas: Area I: Similarities and Dissimilarities of Matter (9 weeks); Area II: Preparation and Separation of Substances (10 weeks); Area III: Structure and…

  6. The Chemistry of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, describes how basic chemistry and biochemistry research can spur a better understanding of human health. It reveals how networks of chemical reactions keep our bodies running smoothly. Some of the tools and technologies used to explore these reactions are…

  7. Chemistry "en Miniature"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesky, Herbert W.

    1997-04-01

    By using the video camera projector system we are improving the techniques which are employed in various schools. This is an important reason for employing "Chemistry en Miniature", as this method provides a new means of demonstrating chemical experiments in a lecture hall.

  8. Bringing chemistry to life

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Michael; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2011-01-01

    Bioorthogonal chemistry allows a wide variety of biomolecules to be specifically labeled and probed in living cells and whole organisms. Here we discuss the history of bioorthogonal reactions and some of the most interesting and important advances in the field. PMID:21799498

  9. Chemistry Is Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaniv, D; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Encouraging scientific thinking through open-ended experiments, allowing students access to common chemical instrumentation, and introduction to laboratory techniques are goals of a high school science laboratory program. Course content (general, inorganic, and organic chemistry), limitations, and course evaluation are discussed. (Author/JN)

  10. Epoxying Isoprene Chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    It seems that every few months we read about another missing aspect of atmospheric chemistry: missing products, missing reactivity, missing sources, missing understanding. Thus, it is with some relief that we read in this issue the paper of Paulot et al. The paper provides more...

  11. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  12. Chemistry in the Troposphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1982-01-01

    Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…

  13. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  14. The Lens of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  15. Chemistry by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1981-01-01

    Describes the features of various computer chemistry programs. Utilization of computer graphics, color, digital imaging, and other innovations are discussed in programs including those which aid in the identification of unknowns, predict whether chemical reactions are feasible, and predict the biological activity of xenobiotic compounds. (CS)

  16. Computational chemistry at Janssen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L.; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  17. The Chemistry of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Do people realize that chemistry plays a key role in helping solve some of the most serious problems facing the world today? Chemists want to find the building blocks of the chemical universe--the molecules that form materials, living cells and whole organisms. Many chemists are medical explorers looking for new ways to maintain and improve…

  18. Chemistry Cook-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  19. Computational chemistry at Janssen.

    PubMed

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-19

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  20. Using Computers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankuch, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of two interactive computer programs in a college chemistry course. The first is a commercially-available simulation program (for Apple microcomputers with game paddles) which demonstrates gas laws. The second is a teacher-developed molecular bonding simulation program. (JN)

  1. Chemistry of Meridiani Outcrops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A.; Gellert, R.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry and mineralogy of the sulfate-rich sandstone outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars, have been inferred from data obtained by the Opportunity rover of the MER mission and reported in recent publications [1-6]. Here, we provide an update on more recent samples and results derived from this extensive data set.

  2. Chemistry and Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  3. The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrows, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  5. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  6. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.

    2000-10-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J. Chemistry Comes Alive!, J. Chem. Educ. Software 2000, SP 18 2nd ed., SP 21 2nd ed., SP 23; SP 25; and additional video in press.
    2. Summerlin, L. R.; Borgford, C. F.; Ealy, J. B. Chemical Demonstrations, Volume 2; ACS: Washington, DC, 1987.

    3. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jenkins, David; And Others

      This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

    4. Getting Reactions to Chemistry.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Walter S.

      1983-01-01

      "COMETS on Careers" describes science-related careers, introduces activities illustrating a science concept being studied, and encourages use of professional persons as activity leaders. Several COMETS chemistry activities are described. These activities, which can be performed in school or at home, focus on colloids, acid/base…

    5. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

      EPA Science Inventory

      A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

    6. Chemistry: Curriculum Guide.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

      The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating the chemistry curriculum concepts to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and resource materials. Occupational information for 40 different occupations includes job duties, educational requirements, salary range, and…

    7. Microscale Gas Chemistry

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mattson, Bruce; Anderson, Michael P.

      2011-01-01

      The development of syringes having free movement while remaining gas-tight enabled methods in chemistry to be changed. Successfully containing and measuring volumes of gas without the need to trap them using liquids made it possible to work with smaller quantities. The invention of the LuerLok syringe cap also allowed the gas to be stored for a…

    8. USSR Report, Chemistry

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2007-11-02

      obtained from copyright owner» JPRS-UCH-85-009 24 July 19 85 USSR REPORT CHEMISTRY CONTENTS ADSORPTION Adsorption Thermoluminescence of Oxides of...541.183 ADSORPTION THERMOLUMINESCENCE OF OXIDES OF MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM IN OXYGEN Moscow KHIMICHESKAYA FIZIKA in Russian Vol 4, No 3, Mar 85

    9. Greener and Sustainable Chemistry

      EPA Science Inventory

      The special issue on Greener and Sustainable Chemistry highlights various strategies that can be adopted to address the pollution preventive measures promoting the use of energy efficient reactions that utilize benign and bio-renewable raw materials in a relatively safer reaction...

    10. Chemistry between the stars

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gammon, R. H.

      1976-01-01

      A unit is presented for the secondary school teacher of physics, chemistry, astronomy, or earth sciences. Included are a list of reference materials, teaching aids, and projects. Discussion questions and a glossary are also provided. Concepts developed are: the nature of interstellar space, spectroscopy, molecular signals from space and interstellar molecules and other areas of astronomy.

    11. Get Cooking with Chemistry!

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

      This book presents science activities investigating the chemical changes and reactions with powders that are used in baking. Activities include: (1) Mystery Powders; (2) Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder; and (3) A Feast for Yeast and Cheese: Behold the Power of Chemistry. (YDS)

    12. The Language of Chemistry.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Meinwald, Jerrold

      2002-01-01

      Describes a new curriculum called The Language of Chemistry designed to illustrate how problems of biological and/or medical importance can be understood on a molecular basis and to show that the logic, knowledge, and language needed are easily accessible. Among the case studies in the curriculum are the giant peacock moth, bacterial chemotaxis,…

    13. Online Organic Chemistry

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Janowicz, Philip A.

      2010-01-01

      This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

    14. Polyhedra in (inorganic) chemistry.

      PubMed

      Alvarez, Santiago

      2005-07-07

      A systematic description of polyhedra with varying degrees of regularity is illustrated with examples of chemical structures, mostly from different fields of Inorganic Chemistry. Also the geometrical relationships between different polyhedra are highlighted and their application to the analysis of complex structures is discussed.

    15. An Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wise, John H.

      The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program is a project designed to devise experiments to coordinate the use of instruments in the laboratory programs of physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, and inorganic chemistry at the advanced undergraduate level. It is intended that such experiments would incorporate an introduction to the instrument…

    16. Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mullins, Joseph J.

      2008-01-01

      This article describes an approach to teaching organic chemistry, which is to have students build their knowledge of organic chemistry upon a strong foundation of the fundamental concepts of the subject. Specifically, the article focuses upon a core set of concepts that I call "the six pillars of organic chemistry": electronegativity, polar…

  1. Chemistry 200, 300 Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide, developed for the chemistry 200, 300 program in Manitoba, is designed to articulate with previous science courses, provide concepts, processes, and skills which will enable students to continue in chemistry-related areas, and relate chemistry to practical applications in everyday life. It includes a program overview (with program goals…

  2. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  3. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Pannell, K.D.; Kirkland, O.L.

    1984-01-01

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO/sub 3//sup -/ + 2I/sup -/ + 3H/sup +/, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >10/sup 4/ has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  5. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  6. Evolution of hydroformylation chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Slaugh, L.H.

    1995-12-01

    A new generation of hydroformylation catalysts was discovered in 1960 at Shell Development Company which dramatically altered the chemistry of producing industrially important alcohols from synthesis gas (CO/H{sub 2}) and olefins. These new homogeneous catalysts were obtained via the use of auxiliary tertiary phosphine ligands with the conventional OXO cobalt carbonyl catalyst. This is believed to have been the first historical example illustrating the utility of phosphine ligands to modify the catalytic properties of homogenous catalysts. In contradistinction to the conventional OXO reaction, highly linear alcohols were obtained in a single-step operation with ease of catalyst recycle. Based on this discovery, an industrial process was developed to produce large volume, environmentally friendly detergent alcohols. The chemistry of this process and a comparison with other hydroformylation catalyst systems will be made. Recent results obtained with phosphine-modified cobalt catalysts for the hydroformylation of substrates other than olefins will be presented.

  7. Chemistry of silybin.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, D; Vavříková, E; Cvak, L; Křen, V

    2014-09-01

    Silybin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the seeds of the blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum) was discovered as the first member of a new family of natural compounds called flavonolignans in 1959. Over the years it has received the research attention of many organic chemists. This research has resulted in a number of semisynthetic derivatives prepared in an effort to modulate and better target the biological activities of silybin or to improve its physical properties, such as its solubility. A fundamental breakthrough in silybin chemistry was the determination of the absolute configurations of silybin A and silybin B, and the development of methods for their separation. This review covers articles dealing with silybin chemistry and also summarizes all the derivatives prepared.

  8. Turbine Chemistry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Wey, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Many of the engine exhaust species resulting in significant environmental impact exist in trace amounts. Recent research, e.g., conducted at MIT-AM, has pointed to the intra-engine environment as a possible site for important trace chemistry activity. In addition, the key processes affecting the trace species activity occurring downstream in the air passages of the turbine and exhaust nozzle are not well understood. Most recently, an effort has been initiated at NASA Glenn Research Center under the UEET Program to evaluate and further develop CFD-based technology for modeling and simulation of intra-engine trace chemical changes relevant to atmospheric effects of pollutant emissions from aircraft engines. This presentation will describe the current effort conducted at Glenn; some preliminary results relevant to the trace species chemistry in a turbine passage will also be presented to indicate the progress to date.

  9. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  10. [Gaubius and medical chemistry].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Hieronymus David Gaub (1705-1780) was the son of a protestant cloth merchant in Heidelberg. Disliking a pietistic boarding school in Halle, Germany, he came to stay with a paternal uncle who was a physician in Amsterdam. Hieronymus studied medicine in Harderwijk and in Leiden, under the guidance of Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738). In 1731 he was appointed reader (and in 1734 professor) in chemistry at the Leiden medical faculty. After Boerhaave's death he also taught medicine, but without access to hospital beds. Gaubius correctly envisaged that chemistry would become an important discipline in medicine, but was limited by the technical constraints of his time. In his textbook of general pathology (1758) he attributed disease to disturbances of not only fluids, but also solid parts, although symptoms remained the basis of his classification. The book would remain influential for several decades, until the advent of pathological anatomy.

  11. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  12. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  13. Chemistry of superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2006-01-09

    The number of chemical elements has increased considerably in the last few decades. Most excitingly, these heaviest, man-made elements at the far-end of the Periodic Table are located in the area of the long-awaited superheavy elements. While physical techniques currently play a leading role in these discoveries, the chemistry of superheavy elements is now beginning to be developed. Advanced and very sensitive techniques allow the chemical properties of these elusive elements to be probed. Often, less than ten short-lived atoms, chemically separated one-atom-at-a-time, provide crucial information on basic chemical properties. These results place the architecture of the far-end of the Periodic Table on the test bench and probe the increasingly strong relativistic effects that influence the chemical properties there. This review is focused mainly on the experimental work on superheavy element chemistry. It contains a short contribution on relativistic theory, and some important historical and nuclear aspects.

  14. Organic Chemistry in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  15. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  16. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  17. USSR Report, Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-17

    EKSPERIMENTALNAYA KHIMIYA, No 4, Jul-Aug 86) 5 Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of Cesite (0. A. Mulina, N. F. Meged, et al.; ZHURNAL FIZICHESKOY...Plenum of Central Committee of Chemical and Petrochemical Workers’ Trade Union (Yu. I. Vlasov; KAUCHUK I REZINA; No 10, Oct 86) 27 Synthesis and...al.; ZHURNAL NEORGANICHESKOY KHIMII, No 9, Sep 86) 34 Synthesis and Physical Chemistry Study of LiCrTeO^ (0. V. Sorokina, I. G. Chaban, et al

  18. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  19. General chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, Ashley N.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate first-semester general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. The first part of this study involves the collection of qualitative data from twenty-four first-semester general chemistry students from a large Midwestern research institution. The semi-structured interview protocol was developed based on alternative conceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) document which pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2003). The analysis and findings from the interviews indicate conceptual difficulties for students, both with basic climate literacy and underlying chemistry concepts. Students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer, and in terms of chemistry concepts, they lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases and their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Based on the findings from these interviews, a Chemistry of Climate Science Diagnostic Instrument (CCSI) was developed for use in courses that teach chemistry with a rich context such as climate science. The CCSI is designed for professors who want to teach general chemistry, while also addressing core climate literacy principles. It will help professors examine their students' prior knowledge and alternative conceptions of the chemistry concepts associated with climate science, which could then inform their teaching and instruction.

  20. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  1. Covalent Chemistry beyond Molecules.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juncong; Zhao, Yingbo; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-03-16

    Linking molecular building units by covalent bonds to make crystalline extended structures has given rise to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), thus bringing the precision and versatility of covalent chemistry beyond discrete molecules to extended structures. The key advance in this regard has been the development of strategies to overcome the "crystallization problem", which is usually encountered when attempting to link molecular building units into covalent solids. Currently, numerous MOFs and COFs are made as crystalline materials in which the large size of the constituent units provides for open frameworks. The molecular units thus reticulated become part of a new environment where they have (a) lower degrees of freedom because they are fixed into position within the framework; (b) well-defined spatial arrangements where their properties are influenced by the intricacies of the pores; and (c) ordered patterns onto which functional groups can be covalently attached to produce chemical complexity. The notion of covalent chemistry beyond molecules is further strengthened by the fact that covalent reactions can be carried out on such frameworks, with full retention of their crystallinity and porosity. MOFs are exemplars of how this chemistry has led to porosity with designed metrics and functionality, chemically-rich sequences of information within their frameworks, and well-defined mesoscopic constructs in which nanoMOFs enclose inorganic nanocrystals and give them new levels of spatial definition, stability, and functionality.

  2. Chemistry of sex attraction.

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, W L

    1995-01-01

    The chemical communication system used to attract mates involves not only the overt chemical signals but also indirectly a great deal of chemistry in the emitter and receiver. As an example, in emitting female moths, this includes enzymes (and cofactors, mRNA, genes) of the pheromone biosynthetic pathways, hormones (and genes) involved in controlling pheromone production, receptors and second messengers for the hormones, and host plant cues that control release of the hormone. In receiving male moths, this includes the chemistry of pheromone transportation in antennal olfactory hairs (binding proteins and sensillar esterases) and the chemistry of signal transduction, which includes specific dendritic pheromone receptors and a rapid inositol triphosphate second messenger signal. A fluctuating plume structure is an integral part of the signal since the antennal receptors need intermittent stimulation to sustain upwind flight. Input from the hundreds of thousands of sensory cells is processed and integrated with other modalities in the central nervous system, but many unknown factors modulate the information before it is fed to motor neurons for behavioral responses. An unknown brain control center for pheromone perception is discussed relative to data from behavioral-threshold studies showing modulation by biogenic amines, such as octopamine and serotonin, from genetic studies on pheromone discrimination, and from behavioral and electrophysiological studies with behavioral antagonists. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7816846

  3. Chemistry and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Black, John H

    2006-01-01

    The simplest elements, hydrogen and helium, offer a remarkably rich chemistry, which has controlled crucial features of the early evolution of the universe. Theoretical models of the origin of structure (stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc.) now incorporate this chemistry in some detail. In addition to the origin of structure, cosmologists are concerned with observational tests of competing world models. Primordial chemistry may give rise to some of the earliest departures from thermodynamic equilibrium in the universe. These effects may be observable as broad-band spectroscopic distortions of the cosmic background radiation, which otherwise exhibits a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum. The chemical history of the expanding universe is followed through a detailed calculation of the evolution of the abundances of H, H+, H-, H2, H2+, H3+, and other minor species. It is shown that continuous absorption by the small concentration of H- can produce a distortion in the cosmic background spectrum with a maximum at a frequency near nu/c = 9 cm-1 (wavelength 1.1 mm). The predicted effect lies only a factor of 5 below current limits. Its detection would provide an important test of our understanding of the recombination epoch of the universe.

  4. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.

  5. More Chemistry with Light! More Light in Chemistry!

    PubMed

    Bach, Thorsten

    2015-09-21

    "…︁ Why is chemistry overlooked when talking about light? Is the photon a physical particle per se? Are all important light-induced processes biological? Maybe the role of light for chemistry and the role of chemistry for light may be far less important than a few eccentric scientists would like to believe. From the perspective of a synthetically oriented photochemist, however, the facts are different …︁" Read more in the Editorial by Thorsten Bach.

  6. The role of transition metal ions chemistry on multiphase chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Monod, A.; Chaumerliac, N.

    2003-04-01

    A modelling study of the role of transition metal ions chemistry on cloud chemistry is presented. First, new developments of the Model of Multiphase Cloud Chemistry (M2C2) are described: the transition metal ions reactivity and variable photolysis in the aqueous phase. Secondly, three summertime scenarios describing urban, remote and marine conditions are simulated. First, comparisons between results from M2C2 and from CAPRAM2.3 models for the same scenarios (Herrmann et al., 2000) show a good agreement between the two models with respect to their different chemical mechanisms. Secondly, chemical regimes in cloud are analysed to understand the role of transition metal ions chemistry on cloud chemistry. This study focuses on HOx chemistry, which afterwards influences the sulphur and the VOCs chemistry in droplets. The ratio of Fe(II)/Fe(III) exhibits a diurnal variation with values in agreement with the few measurements of Fe speciation available. In the polluted case, sensitivity tests with and without TMI chemistry, show an enhancement of OH concentration in the aqueous phase when TMI chemistry is considered. This implies a more important oxidation of VOCs in droplets, which produces the HO2 radical, the hydrogen peroxide precursor. In fact, the HO2 radical is mainly converted into hydrogen peroxide by reactions between HO2/O2- radicals with Fe(II). This production of hydrogen peroxide leads to a rapid conversion of S(IV) into S(VI) at the beginning of the simulation.

  7. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing the main oxidants O3 and its photolysis product OH and directly, e.g., by reactions of the Cl radical with hydrocarbons (e.g., CH4).Already by the middle of the nineteenth century, Marchand (1852) reported the presence of bromine and iodine in rain and other natural waters. He also mentions the benefits of iodine in drinking water through the prevention of goitres and cretinism. In a prophetic monograph "Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology," Smith (1872) describes measurements of chloride in rain water, which he states to originate partly from the oceans by a process that he compares with the bursting of "soap bubbles" which produces "small vehicles" that transfer small spray droplets of seawater to the air. From deviations of the sulfate-to-chloride ratio in coastal rain compared to seawater, Smith concluded that chemical processes occur once the particles are airborne.For almost a century thereafter, however, atmospheric halogens received little attention. One exception was the work by Cauer (1939), who reported that iodine pollution has been significant in Western and Central Europe due to the inefficient burning of seaweed, causing mean gas phase atmospheric concentrations as high as or greater than 0.5 μg m-3. In his classical textbook Air Chemistry and Radioactivity, Junge (1963) devoted less than three pages to halogen gas phase chemistry, discussing chlorine and iodine. As reviewed by Eriksson (1959a, b), the main atmospheric source of halogens is sea salt, derived from the bursting of bubbles of air which are produced by ocean waves and other

  8. Green Chemistry: Progress and Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Sarah A.

    2016-10-01

    Green chemistry can advance both the health of the environment and the primary objectives of the chemical enterprise: to understand the behavior of chemical substances and to use that knowledge to make useful substances. We expect chemical research and manufacturing to be done in a manner that preserves the health and safety of workers; green chemistry extends that expectation to encompass the health and safety of the planet. While green chemistry may currently be treated as an independent branch of research, it should, like safety, eventually become integral to all chemistry activities. While enormous progress has been made in shifting from "brown" to green chemistry, much more effort is needed to effect a sustainable economy. Implementation of new, greener paradigms in chemistry is slow because of lack of knowledge, ends-justify-the-means thinking, systems inertia, and lack of financial or policy incentives.

  9. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. Progress for the first year MACE PIDDP is reported in two major areas of effort: (1) fluids handling concepts, definition, and breadboard fabrication and (2) aqueous chemistry ion sensing technology and test facility integration. A fluids handling breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested at Mars ambient pressure. The breadboard allows fluid manipulation scenarios to be tested under the reduced pressure conditions expected in the Martian atmosphere in order to validate valve operations, orchestrate analysis sequences, investigate sealing integrity, and to demonstrate efficacy of the fluid handling concept. Additional fluid manipulation concepts have also been developed based on updated MESUR spacecraft definition. The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) facility was designed as a test bed to develop a multifunction interface for measurements of chemical ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The interface allows acquisition of real time data concerning the kinetics and heats of salt dissolution, and transient response to calibration and solubility events. An array of ion selective electrodes has been interfaced and preliminary calibration studies performed.

  10. Chemistry and Science Fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Jack H.

    1998-11-01

    This lively collection looks at science as filtered through literature, film, and television. It discusses classic works in science fiction and provides an in-depth look at the chemistry depicted in popular culture, particularly in Start Trek , Star Wars , and Doctor Who . It includes an examination by Nebula Award winner Connie Willis of how science fiction authors use science, and reprints two tongue-in-cheek short stories by Isaac Asimov. The book also includes suggestions for using science fiction as an educational resource.

  11. Extended Wordsearches in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Simon

    1998-04-01

    Students can be encouraged to develop their factual knowledge by use of puzzles. One strategy described here is the extended wordsearch, where the wordsearch element generates a number of words or phrases from which the answers to a series of questions are selected. The wordsearch can be generated with the aid of computer programs, though in order to make them suitable for students with dyslexia or other learning difficulties, a simpler form is more appropriate. These problems can be employed in a variety of contexts, for example, as topic tests and classroom end-of-lesson fillers. An example is provided in the area of calcium chemistry. Sources of suitable software are listed.

  12. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Solvents and sustainable chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Solvents are widely recognized to be of great environmental concern. The reduction of their use is one of the most important aims of green chemistry. In addition to this, the appropriate selection of solvent for a process can greatly improve the sustainability of a chemical production process. There has also been extensive research into the application of so-called green solvents, such as ionic liquids and supercritical fluids. However, most examples of solvent technologies that give improved sustainability come from the application of well-established solvents. It is also apparent that the successful implementation of environmentally sustainable processes must be accompanied by improvements in commercial performance. PMID:26730217

  15. Sustainable chemistry metrics.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García

    2009-01-01

    Green chemistry has developed mathematical parameters to describe the sustainability of chemical reactions and processes, in order to quantify their environmental impact. These parameters are related to mass and energy magnitudes, and enable analyses and numerical diagnoses of chemical reactions. The environmental impact factor (E factor), atom economy, and reaction mass efficiency have been the most influential metrics, and they are interconnected by mathematical equations. The ecodesign concept must also be considered for complex industrial syntheses, as a part of the sustainability of manufacturing processes. The aim of this Concept article is to identify the main parameters for evaluating undesirable environmental consequences.

  16. USSR Report, Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    showing predominance of the P phase. Figures 1 ; references 4 (Western). [345-12172] UDC 541.71.28 CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF 1,1- DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE ON... dimethylhydrazine (I) on applied iridium catalyst Ir/Al20., (30% by wt.) was reported recently by the authors in reference 1 . Though the catalyst was...365006 JPRS-UCH-85-0 1 3 2 2 October 1985 USSR Report CHEMISTRY MBTmiraoirimSSff-jf DäfflMböäaa OBJira«««ä A9980729 070 FBIS JW1C

  17. USSR Report, Chemistry, No. 103

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-21

    The reports contains a variety of abstracts on research and development of USSR Chemistry with particular attention to coal gasification , fertilizers, organophosphorus compound synthesis, and polymerization.

  18. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  19. Inorganic Chemistry by Gary Wulfsberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Martin N.

    2000-11-01

    Inorganic Chemistry is an interesting new option for teachers of advanced inorganic courses and offers the possibility of serving an introductory course as well. Since PDIC first appeared, more authors have adopted the approach of developing descriptive inorganic chemistry around common principles instead of a group-by-group treatment, which makes this text less of a departure from the traditional than PDIC was. Still, Wulfsberg offers an original and engaging perspective on inorganic chemistry. Even if this text is not adopted for a course, it deserves a place on the shelf of every teacher of inorganic chemistry, where it will be a valuable resource.

  20. Complex Protostellar Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    Two decades ago, our understanding of the chemistry in protostars was simple-matter either fell into the central star or was trapped in planetary-scale objects. Some minor chemical changes might occur as the dust and gas fell inward, but such effects were overwhelmed by the much larger scale processes that occurred even in bodies as small as asteroids. The chemistry that did occur in the nebula was relatively easy to model because the fall from the cold molecular cloud into the growing star was a one-way trip down a well-known temperature-pressure gradient; the only free variable was time. However, just over 10 years ago it was suggested that some material could be processed in the inner nebula, flow outward, and become incorporated into comets (1, 2). This outward flow was confirmed when the Stardust mission returned crystalline mineral fragments (3) from Comet Wild 2 that must have been processed close to the Sun before they were incorporated into the comet. In this week's Science Express, Ciesla and Sandford (4) demonstrate that even the outermost regions of the solar nebula can be a chemically active environment. Their finding could have consequences for the rest of the nebula.

  1. Interstellar Grain Surface Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Chemistry on grain surfaces plays an Important role in the formation of interstellar Ices, It can also influence the composition of the gas phase through outgassing near luminous, newly formed stars. This paper reviews the chemical processes taking place on Interstellar grain surfaces with the emphasis on those transforming CO into other hydrocarbons. At low, molecular cloud temperatures (approximately equal to 10K), physisorption processes dominate interstellar grain surface chemistry and GO is largely hydrogenated through reactions with atomic H and oxidized through reactions with atomic O. The former will lead to the formation of H2CO and CH3OH ices, while the latter results in CO2 ice. The observational evidence for these ices in molecular clouds will be discussed. Very close to protostars, the gas and grain temperatures are much higher (approximately equal to 500K) and chemisorption processes, including catalytic surface reactions, becomes important. This will be illustrated based upon our studies of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of CH4 from CO on metallic surfaces. Likely, this process has played an important role in the early solar nebula. Observational consequences will be pointed out.

  2. Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology in Sophomore Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Aline M.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a series of lectures designed to illustrate the use of general organic chemical principles in molecular biology, introduce current research in interdisciplinary areas to the beginner, increase interest in organic chemistry, and bridge the gap between traditional organic chemistry, biology, and the consumer. An outline is presented.…

  3. A New Chemistry Course for Non-Chemistry Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Magda; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A two-semester basic chemistry course for nonchemistry engineering majors is described. First semester provides introductory chemistry for freshmen while second semester is "customer-oriented," based on a departmental choice of three out of six independent modules. For example, aeronautical engineering "customers" would select…

  4. Art in Chemistry: Chemistry in Art. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    This textbook integrates chemistry and art with hands-on activities and fascinating demonstrations that enable students to see and understand how the science of chemistry is involved in the creation of art. It investigates such topics as color integrated with electromagnetic radiation, atoms, and ions; paints integrated with classes of matter,…

  5. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  6. Introducing Chemistry Students to the "Real World" of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael E.; Cosser, Ronald C.; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Kaye, Perry T.; Klein, Rosalyn; Lamprecht, Emmanuel; Lobb, Kevin; Nyokong, Tebello; Sewry, Joyce D.; Tshentu, Zenixole R.; van der Zeyde, Tino; Watkins, Gareth M.

    2010-01-01

    A majority of chemistry graduates seek employment in a rapidly changing chemical industry. Our attempts to provide the graduates with skills in entrepreneurship and the ability to understand and communicate with their chemical engineering colleagues, in addition to their fundamental knowledge of chemistry, are described. This is done at…

  7. Influencing College Chemistry Success through High School Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Loehr, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The connection between high school chemistry pedagogical experiences and introductory college chemistry performance has been a topic researched in published science education literature since the 1920s. However, analysis techniques have limited the generalizability of these results. This review discusses the findings of a large-scale,…

  8. Clinical chemistry through Clinical Chemistry: a journal timeline.

    PubMed

    Rej, Robert

    2004-12-01

    The establishment of the modern discipline of clinical chemistry was concurrent with the foundation of the journal Clinical Chemistry and that of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To mark the 50th volume of this Journal, I chronicle and highlight scientific milestones, and those within the discipline, as documented in the pages of Clinical Chemistry. Amazing progress has been made in the field of laboratory diagnostics over these five decades, in many cases paralleling-as well as being bolstered by-the rapid pace in the development of computer technologies. Specific areas of laboratory medicine particularly well represented in Clinical Chemistry include lipids, endocrinology, protein markers, quality of laboratory measurements, molecular diagnostics, and general advances in methodology and instrumentation.

  9. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  10. Significant steps in the evolution of analytical chemistry--is the today's analytical chemistry only chemistry?

    PubMed

    Karayannis, Miltiades I; Efstathiou, Constantinos E

    2012-12-15

    In this review the history of chemistry and specifically the history and the significant steps of the evolution of analytical chemistry are presented. In chronological time spans, covering the ancient world, the middle ages, the period of the 19th century, and the three evolutional periods, from the verge of the 19th century to contemporary times, it is given information for the progress of chemistry and analytical chemistry. During this period, analytical chemistry moved gradually from its pure empirical nature to more rational scientific activities, transforming itself to an autonomous branch of chemistry and a separate discipline. It is also shown that analytical chemistry moved gradually from the status of exclusive serving the chemical science, towards serving, the environment, health, law, almost all areas of science and technology, and the overall society. Some recommendations are also directed to analytical chemistry educators concerning the indispensable nature of knowledge of classical analytical chemistry and the associated laboratory exercises and to analysts, in general, why it is important to use the chemical knowledge to make measurements on problems of everyday life.

  11. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  12. USSR Report, Chemistry, No. 105

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This USSR Report contains articles on Chemistry. Some of the topics covered are Alkaloids, Catalysis, Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Industry, Coal Gasification , Combustion, Electrochemistry, Fertilizers, Free Radials, Nitrogen Compounds, Organometallic Compounds, Organophosphorus Compounds, Pesticides, Petroleum Processing Technology, Polymers and Polymerization and Rubber and Elastomers.,

  13. Crocodile Chemistry. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This high school chemistry resource is an on-screen chemistry lab. In the program, students can experiment with a huge range of chemicals, choosing the form, quantity and concentrations. Dangerous or difficult experiments can be investigated safely and easily. A vast range of equipment can be set up, and complex simulations can be put together and…

  14. Plasma chemistry and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between discharge phenomena and plasma chemistry, as well as the equipment and mechanisms of plasma chemical reactions are described. Various areas in which plasma chemistry is applied are surveyed, such as: manufacturing of semiconductor integrated circuits; synthetic fibers; high polymer materials for medical uses; optical lenses; and membrane filters (reverse penetration films).

  15. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  16. Chemistry and the Liberal Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Laurence E.

    1971-01-01

    Argues that chemistry has major implications for our understanding of the nature of things including ourselves. Illustrations have been drawn from the chemical elements, chemical equilibria, and chemical entropy. Chemistry should not be presented as something justified only by its practical results while the other sciences raise the ultimate…

  17. Organic Chemistry Software from COMPress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Sister Isabel

    1982-01-01

    Reviews three organic chemistry computer programs for TRS-80 and Apple microcomputers. Programs include "Introduction to Organic Chemistry,""Qualitative Organic Analysis," and a game called "Chemrain." Indicates that all three produce a readable screen, require exact responses, use graphics in an appealingly and…

  18. The Great Ideas of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a list of six concepts that form the basis of modern chemistry and that should be included in introductory chemistry courses. Discusses atoms, molecules, and ions; the chemical bond; molecular shape and geometry; kinetic theory; the chemical reaction; and energy and entropy. (JRH)

  19. Organic Chemistry for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBeer, W. H. J.

    In response to a serious shortage of chemists in South Africa, gifted secondary school students are enrolled in an enrichment program in organic chemistry and encouraged to consider chemistry or one of its related fields as a career. The introductory portion of the program involves approximately 90 hours over a 3-year period while the advanced…

  20. Introducing Relativity into Quantum Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wai-Kee; Blinder, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    It is not often realized by chemists that the special theory of relativity is behind several aspects of quantum chemistry. The Schrdinger equation itself is based on relations between space-time and energy-momentum four vectors. Electron spin is, of course, the most obvious manifestation of relativity. The chemistry of some heavy elements is…

  1. Turbulent Mixing Chemistry in Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, D.; Wiebe, D.

    2006-11-01

    A gas-grain chemical model with surface reaction and 1D/2D turbulent mixing is available for protoplanetary disks and molecular clouds. Current version is based on the updated UMIST'95 database with gas-grain interactions (accretion, desorption, photoevaporation, etc.) and modified rate equation approach to surface chemistry (see also abstract for the static chemistry code).

  2. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  3. Rethinking Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    A summary of fundamental changes made to the undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in the Chemistry Department at Gustavus Adolphus College (beginning in the 2013-2014 academic year) is presented. The yearlong sequence now consists of an introductory semester covering both quantum mechanics and thermodynamics/kinetics, followed by a second…

  4. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  5. Chemistry Teachers' Views of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkanat, Çigdem; Gökdere, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine chemistry teachers' views of creativity. In this study, phenomenology method, one of the qualitative research patterns, was used. The participants of this study were 13 chemistry teachers working in Amasya. A semi-structured interview form was used for data collection. By using NVivo 9 qualitative…

  6. Local Evaluation of Chemistry Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Joseph R.; Hansen, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of local usage statistics of a specific set of chemistry journals at the University of Denver in Colorado, USA. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that commercial publishers in chemistry charge considerably more for their journals than those from the non-commercial sector. There are three variables…

  7. Stereochemical Control in Carbohydrate Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Rhys; Northcote, Peter T.; Harvey, Joanne E.; Dangerfield, Emma M.; Stocker, Bridget L.

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates, in the form of glycoconjugates, have recently been shown to control a wide range of cellular processes. Accordingly, students interested in the study of organic chemistry and biomedical sciences should be exposed to carbohydrate chemistry. To this end, we have developed a sequence of experiments that leads the student from the…

  8. Fundamentals of Aqueous Microwave Chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first chemical revolution changed modern life with a host of excellent amenities and services, but created serious problems related to environmental pollution. After 150 years of current chemistry principles and practices, we need a radical change to a new type of chemistry k...

  9. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  10. Dynamic imine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Belowich, Matthew E; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-03-21

    Formation of an imine--from an amine and an aldehyde--is a reversible reaction which operates under thermodynamic control such that the formation of kinetically competitive intermediates are, in the fullness of time, replaced by the thermodynamically most stable product(s). For this fundamental reason, the imine bond has emerged as an extraordinarily diverse and useful one in the hands of synthetic chemists. Imine bond formation is one of a handful of reactions which define a discipline known as dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC), which is now employed widely in the construction of exotic molecules and extended structures on account of the inherent 'proof-reading' and 'error-checking' associated with these reversible reactions. While both supramolecular chemistry and DCC operate under the regime of reversibility, DCC has the added advantage of constructing robust molecules on account of the formation of covalent bonds rather than fragile supermolecules resulting from noncovalent bonding interactions. On the other hand, these products tend to require more time to form--sometimes days or even months--but their formation can often be catalysed. In this manner, highly symmetrical molecules and extended structures can be prepared from relatively simple precursors. When DCC is utilised in conjunction with template-directed protocols--which rely on the use of noncovalent bonding interactions between molecular building blocks in order to preorganise them into certain relative geometries as a prelude to the formation of covalent bonds under equilibrium control--an additional level of control of structure and topology arises which offers a disarmingly simple way of constructing mechanically-interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes, catenanes, Borromean rings, and Solomon knots. This tutorial review focuses on the use of dynamic imine bonds in the construction of compounds and products formed with and without the aid of additional templates. While synthesis under thermodynamic

  11. Chemistry of Art and Color Sudoku Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Sudoku puzzle format was used to teach light science and chemistry terms to students of Chemistry of Art and Color. The puzzles were used to motivate and encourage students to learn chemistry in an easier and in friendly fashion.

  12. Lessons for Introductory Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John S.; Blackburn, Edward V.

    2000-07-01

    These twelve lessons, and an introductory lesson, are tutorials in basic topics of introductory chemistry. They are suitable for school use, individual study, or distance learning. They are particularly valuable as review material for students in more advanced courses who may have been away from the subject for some time. They contain a great variety of problems and exercises driven by random-number generators, so that the same problem never repeats exactly. The lessons are, for the most part, Socratic dialogues in which the student is required to answer questions and perform simulated experiments in order to discover chemical principles. They are organized in an intuitive chapter and page structure. One may move readily around each lesson. There are many on-screen facilities such as help, data tables, and a calculator.

  13. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  14. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  15. Clays in prebiological chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Oro, J.; Odom, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The ways in which clays have been utilized in studies of prebiological chemistry are reviewed, and an assessment is given of the possible role of clays in prebiological systems. The adsorption of organic molecules on clays has been demonstrated, as has the synthesis of bioorganic monomers in the presence of clays. For instance, amino acids, purines and pyrimidines have been obtained from carbon monoxide and nitric acid in the presence of clays at relatively high temperatures (250-325 C). The oligomerization of biochemical monomers, mediated by clays, has also been shown to result in the formation of polymer molecules basic to life. Clays have also been found to affect the condensation of mononucleotides to oligonucleotides.

  16. Biosensors in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Paul

    2003-08-01

    Biosensors are analytical devices composed of a recognition element of biological origin and a physico-chemical transducer. The biological element is capable of sensing the presence, activity or concentration of a chemical analyte in solution. The sensing takes place either as a binding event or a biocatalytical event. These interactions produce a measurable change in a solution property, which the transducer converts into a quantifiable electrical signal. Present-day applications of biosensors to clinical chemistry are reviewed, including basic and applied research, commercial applications and fabrication techniques. Recognition elements include enzymes as biocatalytic recognition elements and immunoagents and DNA segments as affinity ligand recognition elements, coupled to electrochemical and optical modes of transduction. The future will include biosensors based on synthetic recognition elements to allow broad applicability to different classes of analytes and modes of transduction extending lower limits of sensitivity. Microfabrication will permit biosensors to be constructed as arrays and incorporated into lab-on-a-chip devices.

  17. Ionospheric chemistry of NO(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, E. L.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is described of the behavior of NO(+) in the daytime F region, with basic ion concentration measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite. The data set was acquired along select orbits at low latitudes and exhibits substantial variations in the NO(+) concentration, both along and between nearby orbits. An excellent consistency is demonstrated between these observations and current chemical equilibrium theory, in contrast to differences that have been reported for the related N2(+) ion. Large variations in the concurrently observed electron temperature permit a relevant comparison between different laboratory determinations of the dissociative recombination rate coefficient. Contributions to the NO(+) production from several secondary sources are also evaluated. Results strengthen the basis for the current theoretical ionospheric chemistry of NO(+) and establish important constraints on resolution of the difficulties with N2(+).

  18. Nanoplasmonics tuned "click chemistry".

    PubMed

    Tijunelyte, I; Guenin, E; Lidgi-Guigui, N; Colas, F; Ibrahim, J; Toury, T; Lamy de la Chapelle, M

    2016-04-07

    Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised "click" reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the "click" chemistry.

  19. Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

  20. Bias in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Theodorsson, Elvar; Magnusson, Bertil; Leito, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Clinical chemistry uses automated measurement techniques and medical knowledge in the interest of patients and healthy subjects. Automation has reduced repeatability and day-to-day variation considerably. Bias has been reduced to a lesser extent by reference measurement systems. It is vital to minimize clinically important bias, in particular bias within conglomerates of laboratories that measure samples from the same patients. Small and variable bias components will over time show random error properties and conventional random-error based methods for calculating measurement uncertainty can then be applied. The present overview of bias presents the general principles of error and uncertainty concepts, terminology and analysis, and suggests methods to minimize bias and measurement uncertainty in the interest of healthcare.

  1. Chemistry of Aviation Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, Bryan; Hwang, Soon Muk; DeWitt, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Minimum ignition energies of various methanol/air mixtures were measured in a temperature controlled constant volume combustion vessel using a spark ignition method with a spark gap distance of 2 mm. The minimum ignition energies decrease rapidly as the mixture composition (equivalence ratio, Phi) changes from lean to stoichiometric, reach a minimum value, and then increase rather slowly with Phi. The minimum of the minimum ignition energy (MIE) and the corresponding mixture composition were determined to be 0.137 mJ and Phi = 1.16, a slightly rich mixture. The variation of minimum ignition energy with respect to the mixture composition is explained in terms of changes in reaction chemistry.

  2. Frontiers in polymer chemistry.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, A Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article shows how the initial concept of Staudinger on linear macromolecules was expanded topologically by increasing the cross-section diameter of polymer chains and by introducing sheet polymers with planar rather than the commonly known linear repeat units. The two concrete projects addressed are the synthesis of dendronized and of two-dimensional polymers. It is explained how these novel macromolecules were achieved and which obstacles had to be overcome but also where these frontiers in polymer chemistry might lead to new insights in polymer science in general and novel applications in particular. The article also provides insights into analytical issues because both target macromolecules are in an extraordinarily high molar mass range and contrast/sensitivity issues can turn rather serious in particular for the two-dimensional polymers.

  3. Ion chemistry in space.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M; Geppert, W D; Nyman, G

    2012-06-01

    We review the gas-phase chemistry in extraterrestrial space that is driven by reactions with atomic and molecular ions. Ions are ubiquitous in space and are potentially responsible for the formation of increasingly complex interstellar molecules. Until recently, positively charged atoms and molecules were the only ions known in space; however, this situation has changed with the discovery of various molecular anions. This review covers not only the observation, distribution and reactions of ions in space, but also laboratory-based experimental and theoretical methods for studying these ions. Recent results from space-based instruments, such as those on the Cassini-Huygens space mission and the Herschel Space Observatory, are highlighted.

  4. Chemistry in Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessis, S.; Carrasco, N.; Pernot, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling the chemical composition of Titan's ionosphere is a very challenging issue. Latest works perform either inversion of CASSINI's INMS mass spectra (neutral[1] or ion[2]), or design coupled ion-neutral chemistry models[3]. Coupling ionic and neutral chemistry has been reported to be an essential feature of accurate modelling[3]. Electron Dissociative Recombination (EDR), where free electrons recombine with positive ions to produce neutral species, is a key component of ion-neutral coupling. There is a major difficulty in EDR modelling: for heavy ions, the distribution of neutral products is incompletely characterized by experiments. For instance, for some hydrocarbon ions only the carbon repartition is measured, leaving the hydrogen repartition and thus the exact neutral species identity unknown[4]. This precludes reliable deterministic modelling of this process and of ion-neutral coupling. We propose a novel stochastic description of the EDR chemical reactions which enables efficient representation and simulation of the partial experimental knowledge. The description of products distribution in multi-pathways reactions is based on branching ratios, which should sum to unity. The keystone of our approach is the design of a probability density function accounting for all available informations and physical constrains. This is done by Dirichlet modelling which enables one to sample random variables whose sum is constant[5]. The specifics of EDR partial uncertainty call for a hierarchiral Dirichlet representation, which generalizes our previous work[5]. We present results on the importance of ion-neutral coupling based on our stochastic model. C repartition H repartition (measured) (unknown ) → C4H2 + 3H2 + H .. -→ C4 . → C4H2 + 7H → C3H8. + CH C4H+9 + e- -→ C3 + C .. → C3H3 + CH2 + 2H2 → C2H6 + C2H2 + H .. -→ C2 + C2 . → 2C2H2 + 2H2 + H (1) References [1] J. Cui, R.V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, J.H. Waite Jr., W.T. Kasprzak

  5. Atmospheric Pseudohalogen Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lary, David John

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is not usually considered in atmospheric chemical models. The paper presents three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. Firstly, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. Secondly, it is also likely that lightning is producing HCN, and as HCN is sparingly soluble it could be a useful long-lived "smoking gun" marker of lightning activity. Thirdly, the chemical decomposition of HCN leads to the production of small amounts of the cyanide (CN) and NCO radicals. The NCO radical can be photolyzed in the visible portion of the spectrum yielding nitrogen atoms (N). The production of nitrogen atoms is significant as it leads to the titration of total nitrogen from the atmosphere via N+N->N2, where N2 is molecular nitrogen.

  6. Getting Hooked on Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-04-01

    Other fun things in this issue include three Quote Boxes by Olney (3) that will allow your students to engage in deductive reasoning to solve the puzzles. Kelkar (4) presents a slightly more difficult but very clever mystery element game; it provides clues to element symbols that all fit into a single matrix. Ibanez's game (5) lists popular sayings or proverbs and the student's job is to match each with an analogous chemical phenomenon. As always, answers are provided. For the more sophisticated among us, there is Who Wants to Be a Chemist Extraordinaire? devised by Campbell and Muzyka (6), who describe their use of online chemistry game shows patterned on popular TV programs. Examples of the HTML files with sample questions are available through JCE Online. These are just some of the many suggestions that can be found in this issue of JCE. Try a few, you might like them!

  7. Organic chemistry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  8. Nanoplasmonics tuned ``click chemistry''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijunelyte, I.; Guenin, E.; Lidgi-Guigui, N.; Colas, F.; Ibrahim, J.; Toury, T.; Lamy de La Chapelle, M.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry.Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR study on reaction initiation, SERS spectra and temperature calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09018k

  9. Chemistry for whom? Gender awareness in teaching and learning chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Kristina

    2016-11-01

    Marie Ståhl and Anita Hussénius have defined what discourses dominate national tests in chemistry for Grade 9 in Sweden by using feminist, critical didactic perspectives. This response seeks to expand the results in Ståhl and Hussénius's article Chemistry inside an epistemological community box!—Discursive exclusions and inclusions in the Swedish national tests in chemistry, by using different facets of gender awareness. The first facet—Gender awareness in relations to the test designers' own conceptions—highlighted how the gender order where women are subordinated men becomes visible in the national tests as a consequence of the test designers internalized conceptions. The second facet—Gender awareness in relation to chemistry—discussed the hierarchy between discourses within chemistry. The third facet—Gender awareness in relation to students—problematized chemistry in relation to the students' identity formation. In summary, I suggest that the different discourses can open up new ways to interpret chemistry and perhaps dismantle the hegemonic chemistry discourse.

  10. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report contains foreign media information from the USSR concerning analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, environmental chemistry, inorganic compounds, organophosphorous compounds, petroleum coal processing and polymers.

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report contains foreign media information from the USSR concerning analytical chemistry, catalysis, electrochemistry, inorganic compounds, organometallic compounds, organophosphorous compounds, polymers and radiation chemistry.

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Partial Contents: Catalysis, Chemical Industry, Electrochemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Materials Research, Organophosphorous Compounds, Petroleum and Coal Processing, Polymers and Rubber, Radiation Chemistry.

  13. Two-Year Community College Chemistry: Joules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardole, Ellen, Ed.; Bardole, Jay, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a self-paced individualized general chemistry laboratory, the Doctor of Arts program, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system, and problems existing in chemistry education. (SL)

  14. Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Application of concepts presented in organic chemistry lecture using a virtual project involving the sythesis of medicinally important compounds is emphasized. The importance of reinforcing the concepts from lecture in lab, thus providing a powerful instructional means is discussed.

  15. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, V R; Marshall, J; Shen, T

    1991-01-01

    In the traditional concept for the origin of life as proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s, prebiotic reactants became slowly concentrated in the primordial oceans and life evolved slowly from a series of highly protracted chemical reactions during the first billion years of Earth's history. However, chemical evolution may not have occurred continuously because planetesimals and asteroids impacted the Earth many times during the first billion years, may have sterilized the Earth, and required the process to start over. A rapid process of chemical evolution may have been required in order that life appeared at or before 3.5 billion years ago. Thus, a setting favoring rapid chemical evolution may be required. A chemical evolution hypothesis set forth by Woese in 1979 accomplished prebiotic reactions rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns. However, in 1985 Scherer raised a number of objections to Woese's hypothesis and concluded that it was not valid. We propose a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that satisfies Scherer's concerns regarding the Woese hypothesis and includes advantageous droplet chemistry. Prebiotic reactants were supplied to the atmosphere by comets, meteorites, and interplanetary dust or synthesized in the atmosphere from simple compounds using energy sources such as ultraviolet light, corona discharge, or lightning. These prebiotic monomers would have first encountered moisture in cloud drops and precipitation. We propose that rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial Earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by , or synthesized during entry of, meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei. Polymerization would have occurred within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and

  16. Computational chemistry research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Task 41 is composed of two parts: (1) analysis and design studies related to the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Extended Operating Configuration (EOC) and (2) computational chemistry. During the first half of 1987, Dr. Levin served as a member of an advanced system planning team to establish the requirements, goals, and principal technical characteristics of the NAS EOC. A paper entitled 'Scaling of Data Communications for an Advanced Supercomputer Network' is included. The high temperature transport properties (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, etc.) of the major constituents of air (oxygen and nitrogen) were correctly determined. The results of prior ab initio computer solutions of the Schroedinger equation were combined with the best available experimental data to obtain complete interaction potentials for both neutral and ion-atom collision partners. These potentials were then used in a computer program to evaluate the collision cross-sections from which the transport properties could be determined. A paper entitled 'High Temperature Transport Properties of Air' is included.

  17. Computational Chemistry and Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

  18. Cometary MHD and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegmann, R.; Schmidt, H. U.; Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.

    1987-01-01

    An MHD and chemical comet-coma model was developed, applying the computer program of Huebner (1985) for the detailed chemical evolution of a spherically expanding coma and the program of Schmidt and Wegman (1982) and Wegman (1987) for the MHD flow of plasma and magnetic field in a comet to the Giotto-mission data on the ion abundances measured by the HIS ion mass spectrometer. The physics and chemistry of the coma are modeled in great detail, including photoprocesses, gas-phase chemical kinetics, energy balance with a separate electron temperature, multifluid hydrodynamics with a transition to free molecular flow, fast-streaming atomic and molecular hydrogen, counter and cross streaming of the ionized species relative to the neutral species in the coma-solar wind interaction region with momentum exchange by elastic collisions, mass-loading through ion pick-up, and Lorentz forces of the advected magnetic field. The results, both inside and outside of the contact surface, are discussed and compared with the relevant HIS ion mass spectra.

  19. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  20. Chemistry in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Loos, Pierre-François; Ball, Caleb J; Gill, Peter M W

    2015-02-07

    We report benchmark results for one-dimensional (1D) atomic and molecular systems interacting via the Coulomb operator |x|(-1). Using various wavefunction-type approaches, such as Hartree-Fock theory, second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and explicitly correlated calculations, we study the ground state of atoms with up to ten electrons as well as small diatomic and triatomic molecules containing up to two electrons. A detailed analysis of the 1D helium-like ions is given and the expression of the high-density correlation energy is reported. We report the total energies, ionization energies, electron affinities and other physical properties of the many-electron 1D atoms and, using these results, we construct the 1D analog of Mendeleev's periodic table. We find that the 1D periodic table contains only two groups: the alkali metals and the noble gases. We also calculate the dissociation curves of several 1D diatomics and study the chemical bond in H2(+), HeH(2+), He2(3+), H2, HeH(+) and He2(2+). We find that, unlike their 3D counterparts, 1D molecules are primarily bound by one-electron bonds. Finally, we study the chemistry of H3(+) and we discuss the stability of the 1D polymer resulting from an infinite chain of hydrogen atoms.

  1. Organic chemistry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of nonequilibrium phenomena on the Saturn satellite Titan indicate the occurrence of organic chemical evolution. Greenhouse and thermal inversion models of Titan's atmosphere provide environmental constraints within which various pathways for organic chemical synthesis are assessed. Experimental results and theoretical modeling studies suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite may be dominated by two atmospheric processes: energetic-particle bombardment and photochemistry. Reactions initiated in various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic ray, Saturn wind, and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4 - N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the C2-hydrocarbons, the UV-visible-absorbing stratospheric haze, and the reddish color of the satellite. Photochemical reactions of CH4 can also account for the presence of C2-hydrocarbons. In the lower Titan atmosphere, photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. Hot H-atom reactions initiated by photo-dissociation of NH3 can couple the chemical reactions of NH3 and CH4 and produce organic matter.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools appli

  3. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. The second year of the MACE project has shown significant progress in two major areas. MACE Instrument concept definition is a baseline design that has been generated for the complete MACE instrument, including definition of analysis modes, mass estimates and thermal model. The design includes multiple reagent reservoirs, 10 discrete analysis cells, sample manipulation capability, and thermal control. The MACE Measurement subsystems development progress is reported regarding measurement capabilities for aqueous ion sensing, evolved gas sensing, solution conductivity measurement, reagent addition (titration) capabilities, and optical sensing of suspended particles.

  4. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  5. Organometallic Chemistry. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-07-14

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Organometallic Chemistry was held at Salve Regina, Newport, Rhode Island, 7/21-26/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  6. Chemistry in the Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazdra, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The application of chemistry to the justice system is presented. The role of the forensic chemist, historical development of forensic laboratories, and tools of the criminalists are also discussed. (HM)

  7. Beginning Chemistry Can Be Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, James F.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews ways of applying laboratory work in general and analytical chemistry to supermarket products. Describes ways water and air pollution analysis can illustrate acid-base reactions, redox reactions, precipitimetry, and colorimetry. (PR)

  8. QDB: Validated Plasma Chemistries Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Sara; Hamilton, James; Hill, Christian; Tennyson, Jonathan; UCL Team

    2016-09-01

    One of most challenging recurring problems when modelling plasmas is the lack of data. This lack of complete and validated datasets hinders research on plasma processes and curbs development of industrial Applications. We will describe the QDB project which aims to fill this missing link by provide a platform for exchange and validation of chemistry datasets. The database will collate published data on both electron scattering and heavy particle reactions and also facilitates and encourages peer-to-peer data sharing by its users. This data platform is rigorously supported by the validation methodical validation of the datasetsan automated chemistry generator employed; this methodology identifies missing reactions in chemistries which although important are currently unreported in the literature and employs mathematical methods to analyze the importance of these chemistries. Gaps in the datasets are filled using in house theoretical methods.

  9. A Touch of Relevant Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Ernest I.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria documents as a source for special topics material in chemistry. Presents a list of selected NIOSH documents, ordering information, and reviews one document on formaldehyde in some detail. (SK)

  10. Organic Experiments for Introductory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1985-01-01

    Describes test-tube organic chemistry procedures (using comparatively safe reagents) for the beginning student. These procedures are used to: examine differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; compare structural isomers; and compare organic and inorganic acids and bases. (DH)

  11. One century of aryne chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Hans Henning; Winkler, Michael; Sander, Wolfram

    2003-02-03

    Arynes, which are formally derived from aromatic rings by abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, have been a focus of organic chemistry for 100 years. In contrast to ortho-benzyne, which is mentioned in almost every introductory textbook on organic reaction mechanisms as a reactive intermediate of nucleophilic aromatic substitution, the meta and para isomers were regarded as rather exotic until recently. This situation has changed dramatically with the discovery of the enediyne antibiotics, a promising new class of antitumor drugs, and has aroused the interest of research groups from all branches of chemistry. Nowadays, arynes and related compounds are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet. In this review we outline the historical developement with an emphasis on recent progress in this challenging field of research.

  12. Part 7: Environmental Chemistry, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douville, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses resources on applied/interdisciplinary areas of chemistry available as books and electronic materials that mostly target graduate students, faculty, and chemists in the industry. (Author/YDS)

  13. New Trends in Chemistry Teaching, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartmell, E.

    This second volume of UNESCO's series on New Trends in Chemistry Teaching presents papers originally published during 1966 and 1967 in leading chemistry-teaching periodicals of the world. The papers have been grouped in sections - structure, energetics and kinetics, acids and bases, organic chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry and industry,…

  14. The Place of Macromolecules in Freshman Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunderlich, Bernhard

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of knowledge on macromolecules into a freshman chemistry course which emphasizes topics in organic chemistry, polymer science and biochemistry, atoms, chemical thermodynamics, and inorganic chemistry. Indicates that the program is the only way to keep chemistry education up to date. (CC)

  15. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology....

  16. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology....

  17. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology....

  18. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology....

  19. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology....

  20. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  1. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

  2. Physical chemistry and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ``Physical Chemistry and the Environment`` was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community.

  3. Analytical Chemistry as an Information Science.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    AD-AIOS 433 WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE LAB OR CHEMOMETRICS /7/ ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE Ul NAb7/ .JUN 81 B A KO WALSKI NUUUIA 75C...AN INFORMATION SCIENCE by B. R. Kowalski Prepared for Publication in Trends in Analytical Chemistry University of Washington Department of Chemistry...S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Technical Report - Interim ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE , 2/1981 - 6/1981 6. PERFORMING ORG

  4. National Chemistry Week 2000: JCE Resources in Food Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2000-10-01

    November brings another National Chemistry Week, and this year's theme is food chemistry. I was asked to collect and evaluate JCE resources for use with this theme, a project that took me deep into past issues of JCE and yielded many treasures. Here we present the results of searches for food chemistry information and activities. While the selected articles are mainly at the high school and college levels, there are some excellent ones for the elementary school level and some that can be adapted for younger students. The focus of all articles is on the chemistry of food itself. Activities that only use food to demonstrate a principle other than food chemistry are not included. Articles that cover household products such as cleansers and pharmaceuticals are also not included. Each article has been characterized as a demonstration, experiment, calculation, activity, or informational item; several fit more than one classification. Also included are keywords and an evaluation as to which levels the article may serve.

  5. The Chemistry of Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberg, Karin I.

    2017-01-01

    Exo-planets are common, and they span a large range of compositions. The origins of the observed diversity of planetary compositions is largely unconstrained, but must be linked to the planet formation physics and chemistry. Among planets that are Earth-like, a second question is how often such planets form hospitable to life. A fraction of exo-planets are observed to be ‘physically habitable’, i.e. of the right temperature and bulk composition to sustain a water-based prebiotic chemistry, but this does not automatically imply that they are rich in the building blocks of life, in organic molecules of different sizes and kinds, i.e. that they are chemically habitable. In this talk I will argue that characterizing the chemistry of protoplanetary disks, the formation sites of planets, is key to address both the origins of planetary bulk compositions and the likelihood of finding organic matter on planets. The most direct path to constrain the chemistry in disks is to directly observe it. In the age of ALMA it is for the first time possible to image the chemistry of planet formation, to determine locations of disk snowlines, and to map the distributions of different organic molecules. Recent ALMA highlights include constraints on CO snowline locations, the discovery of spectacular chemical ring systems, and first detections of more complex organic molecules. Observations can only provide chemical snapshots, however, and even ALMA is blind to the majority of the chemistry that shapes planet formation. To interpret observations and address the full chemical complexity in disks requires models, both toy models and astrochemical simulations. These models in turn must be informed by laboratory experiments, some of which will be shown in this talk. It is thus only when we combine observational, theoretical and experimental constraints that we can hope to characterize the chemistry of disks, and further, the chemical compositions of nascent planets.

  6. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  7. Cycloadditions in modern polymer chemistry.

    PubMed

    Delaittre, Guillaume; Guimard, Nathalie K; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Synthetic polymer chemistry has undergone two major developments in the last two decades. About 20 years ago, reversible-deactivation radical polymerization processes started to give access to a wide range of polymeric architectures made from an almost infinite reservoir of functional building blocks. A few years later, the concept of click chemistry revolutionized the way polymer chemists approached synthetic routes. Among the few reactions that could qualify as click, the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) initially stood out. Soon, many old and new reactions, including cycloadditions, would further enrich the synthetic macromolecular chemistry toolbox. Whether click or not, cycloadditions are in any case powerful tools for designing polymeric materials in a modular fashion, with a high level of functionality and, sometimes, responsiveness. Here, we wish to describe cycloaddition methodologies that have been reported in the last 10 years in the context of macromolecular engineering, with a focus on those developed in our laboratories. The overarching structure of this Account is based on the three most commonly encountered cycloaddition subclasses in organic and macromolecular chemistry: 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, (hetero-)Diels-Alder cycloadditions ((H)DAC), and [2+2] cycloadditions. Our goal is to briefly describe the relevant reaction conditions, the advantages and disadvantages, and the realized polymer applications. Furthermore, the orthogonality of most of these reactions is highlighted because it has proven highly beneficial for generating unique, multifunctional polymers in a one-pot reaction. The overview on 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions is mostly centered on the application of CuAAC as the most travelled route, by far. Besides illustrating the capacity of CuAAC to generate complex polymeric architectures, alternative 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions operating without the need for a catalyst are described. In the area of (H)DA cycloadditions

  8. Teaching Chemistry in the New Century: Inorganic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorhout, Peter K.

    2001-09-01

    At the San Diego ACS meeting, members of the academic community came together to share their visions for teaching inorganic chemistry. They discussed new laboratory experiences, virtual textbooks, integration of computers in the laboratory, undergraduate research experiences, and new ways of classifying reactions to enable students to recognize and categorize reaction types. It was clear from the presentations that, while the toolbox of the inorganic chemist is not now as sophisticated as the organic chemist's, that toolbox must evolve (and is evolving) if we are to understand just a fraction of the unique chemistry that is inorganic.

  9. Towards Bildung-Oriented Chemistry Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-07-01

    This paper concerns Bildung-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. Bildung-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also knowledge about chemistry, both about the nature of chemistry and about its role in society. In 2004 Mahaffy suggested a tetrahedron model based on Johnstone's chemical triangle. The latter represents the formal aspects of chemistry teaching (macro, submicro, and symbolic) and the top of the tetrahedron represents a human element. In the present paper the following subdivision of the top is suggested (starting from the bottom): (1) applied chemistry, (2) socio-cultural context, and (3) critical-philosophic approach. The professional identity of the Bildung-oriented chemistry teacher differs from that of the chemist and is informed by research fields such as Philosophy of Chemistry, Science and Technology Studies, and Environmental Education. He/she takes a socio-critical approach to chemistry, emphasising both the benefits and risks of chemistry and its applications.

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  11. Atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S; Marley, Nancy A

    2003-04-07

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  12. Surface chemistries for antibody microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Rodland, Karin D.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2007-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarrays promise to be a powerful tool for the detection of disease biomarkers. The original technology for printing ELISA microarray chips and capturing antibodies on slides was derived from the DNA microarray field. However, due to the need to maintain antibody structure and function when immobilized, surface chemistries used for DNA microarrays are not always appropriate for ELISA microarrays. In order to identify better surface chemistries for antibody capture, a number of commercial companies and academic research groups have developed new slide types that could improve antibody function in microarray applications. In this review we compare and contrast the commercially available slide chemistries, as well as highlight some promising recent advances in the field.

  13. Understanding MAOS through computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Prieto, P; de la Hoz, A; Díaz-Ortiz, A; Rodríguez, A M

    2017-01-23

    The importance of microwave irradiation in organic synthesis today is unquestionable, but in many cases the nature of these improvements remains unknown. Exploiting the benefits that microwave irradiation has in chemistry is still hindered by a lack of understanding of the physical principles of the interaction of microwave irradiation with the components of a reaction. Moreover, dielectric properties vary with temperature and along the reaction coordinate and this makes the situation more complex. Experimental determinations employed to date in Microwave-Assisted Organic Chemistry (MAOS) are characterized by the importance of thermal heating. In this way the separation of thermal heating from any other effect of electromagnetic radiation is completely impossible. This review provides an overview of the use of Computational Chemistry in MAOS to provide a theoretical understanding of the factors that can be used to explain the improvements in MAOS and how computational calculations can be used as a predictive tool.

  14. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  15. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  16. An update on chemistry analyzers.

    PubMed

    Vap, L M; Mitzner, B

    1996-09-01

    This update of six chemistry analyzers available to the clinician discusses several points that should be considered prior to the purchase of equipment. General topics include how to best match an instrument to clinic needs and the indirect costs associated with instrument operation. Quality assurance recommendations are discussed and common terms are defined. Specific instrument features, principles of operation, performance, and costs are presented. The information provided offers potential purchasers an objective approach to the evaluation of a chemistry analyzer for the veterinary clinic.

  17. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The chemistry of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Daniel R; Park, Sungjin; Bielawski, Christopher W; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of graphene oxide is discussed in this critical review. Particular emphasis is directed toward the synthesis of graphene oxide, as well as its structure. Graphene oxide as a substrate for a variety of chemical transformations, including its reduction to graphene-like materials, is also discussed. This review will be of value to synthetic chemists interested in this emerging field of materials science, as well as those investigating applications of graphene who would find a more thorough treatment of the chemistry of graphene oxide useful in understanding the scope and limitations of current approaches which utilize this material (91 references).

  19. Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes.

  20. Perspectives on Computational Organic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Streitwieser, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The author reviews how his early love for theoretical organic chemistry led to experimental research and the extended search for quantitative correlations between experiment and quantum calculations. The experimental work led to ion pair acidities of alkali-organic compounds and most recently to equilibria and reactions of lithium and cesium enolates in THF. This chemistry is now being modeled by ab initio calculations. An important consideration is the treatment of solvation in which coordination of the alkali cation with the ether solvent plays a major role. PMID:19518150

  1. Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University.

    PubMed

    Park, Nam-Gyu

    2015-07-20

    Special Issue: Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University. Sustainable chemistry is key to the development of efficient renewable energies, which will become more and more important in order to combat global warming. In this Editorial, guest editor Prof. Nam-Gyu Park describes the context of this Special Issue on top-quality research towards sustainability performed at Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) in Korea. Scientists at SKKU work on, for example, photovoltaic solar cells to generate low-cost electricity, lithium batteries and capacitors to store electricity, piezoelectric nanogenerators, thermoelectric devices, hydrogen generation, and fuel cells.

  2. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  3. Knot theory in modern chemistry.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kate E; Miller, Mark A; Steed, Jonathan W; Sutcliffe, Paul M

    2016-11-21

    Knot theory is a branch of pure mathematics, but it is increasingly being applied in a variety of sciences. Knots appear in chemistry, not only in synthetic molecular design, but also in an array of materials and media, including some not traditionally associated with knots. Mathematics and chemistry can now be used synergistically to identify, characterise and create knots, as well as to understand and predict their physical properties. This tutorial review provides a brief introduction to the mathematics of knots and related topological concepts in the context of the chemical sciences. We then survey the broad range of applications of the theory to contemporary research in the field.

  4. Integrating Computational Chemistry into the Physical Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Engel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Relatively few undergraduate physical chemistry programs integrate molecular modeling into their quantum mechanics curriculum owing to concerns about limited access to computational facilities, the cost of software, and concerns about increasing the course material. However, modeling exercises can be integrated into an undergraduate course at a…

  5. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  6. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  7. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method…

  8. Chemistry on the Go: Review of Chemistry Apps on Smartphones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Diana; Huang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    touch-controlled computers such as smartphones and iPods are seeing dramatic growth with increasing adoption rates. This review covers about 30 popular and mostly free apps that can be used to learn chemistry and to serve as reference or research tools. The target…

  9. Chemistry for Artists and Art Buffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denio, Allen A.

    1979-01-01

    This course provides an attractive introduction to chemistry for a group of students who would normally avoid traditional chemistry courses. Topics include color, pigments, metals, ceramics, glass, paints, plastics, fibers, and dyes. (BB)

  10. Environmental Chemistry in the High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Carole

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the incorporation of environmental chemistry topics into the traditional high school chemistry curriculum. Describes and provides lesson plans for the sulfur cycle and acid rain, and radioactivity and nuclear energy. Considers possible laboratory experiments. (CW)

  11. Outlook Bright for Computers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the recent decision to close down the National Resource for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC), implications of that decision, and various alternatives in the field of computational chemistry. (CS)

  12. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  13. Process chemistry {ampersand} statistics quality assurance plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meznarich, H.K.

    1996-08-01

    This document provides quality assurance guidelines and quality control requirements for Process Chemistry and Statistics. This document is designed on the basis of Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) technical guidelines and is used for governing process chemistry activities.

  14. Halogen Chemistry in the CMAQ Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogens (iodine and bromine) emitted from oceans alter atmospheric chemistry and influence atmospheric ozone mixing ratio. We previously incorporated a representation of detailed halogen chemistry and emissions of organic and inorganic halogen species into the hemispheric Commun...

  15. EVALUATING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF GREEN CHEMISTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing a methodology for the evaluation of reaction chemistries. This methodology, called GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Objective Proc...

  16. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Sharon S.

    1988-01-01

    This review compares "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" with the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology," two prominent encyclopedias of chemical technology and industry. Cost, quantity of information, organization, illustrations, authorship, abbreviations, online availability, and content of articles are discussed. (MES)

  17. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has contracted with the Learning and Skills Network to support awareness and take-up of Triple Science GCSEs through the Triple Science Support Programme. This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Chemistry. It…

  18. Superheavy element chemistry at GARIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Hiromitsu

    2016-12-01

    A gas-jet transport system has been installed to the RIKEN GAs-filled Recoil Ion Separator, GARIS to start up SuperHeavy Element (SHE) chemistry. This system is a promising approach for exploring new frontiers in SHE chemistry: background radioactivities from unwanted by-products are suppressed, a high gas-jet transport yield is achieved, and new chemical reactions can be investigated. Useful radioisotopes of 261Rfa,b, 262Db, and 265Sga,b for chemical studies were produced in the reactions of 248Cm(18O,5n)261Rfa,b, 248Cm(19F,5n)262Db, and 248Cm(22Ne,5n)265Sga,b, respectively. They were successfully extracted to a chemistry laboratory by the gas-jet method. Production and decay properties of 261Rfa,b, 262Db, and 265Sga,b were investigated in detail with the rotating wheel apparatus for α- and spontaneous fission spectrometry. Present status and perspectives of the SHE chemistry at GARIS are also briefly presented.

  19. Astronomy Matters for Chemistry Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes basic misconceptions about the origin of elements and forms of matter found in chemistry texts that need modification in light of modern observational data and interpretations given in astronomy. Notes that there are forms of matter other than elements and compounds. Confounding examples from astronomy include white dwarfs, neutron…

  20. Synthesis: Click chemistry gets reversible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, David A.

    2016-10-01

    'Click' chemistry allows for the linking together of chemical modules, however, there are currently no methods that also allow for facile 'declicking' to unlink them. Now, a method has been developed to click together amines and thiols, and then allow a chemically triggered declick reaction to release the original molecular components.

  1. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  2. NSF Begins Chemistry Funding Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Janice R.

    1979-01-01

    The National Science Foundation's chemistry division has begun a year-long experiment to determine if the paperwork and red tape involved in research grants can be reduced, while at the same time increasing accountability for how the money is spent. (Author/BB)

  3. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-02

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology.

  4. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  5. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  6. Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

    1981-01-01

    Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)

  7. An Introduction to Air Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Samuel S.; Charlson, Robert J.

    Designed for those with no previous experience in the field, this book synthesizes the areas of chemistry and meteorology required to bring into focus some of the complex problems associated with the atmospheric environment. Subject matter moves from a review of the relevant chemical and meteorological principles to a discussion of the general…

  8. Organometallic chemistry: A new metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Elisabeth T.; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2016-08-01

    Carbonyls and alkenes, two of the most common functional groups in organic chemistry, generally do not react with one another. Now, a simple Lewis acid has been shown to catalyse metathesis between alkenes and ketones in a new carbonyl olefination reaction.

  9. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  10. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  11. Chemistry of the Burning Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-12

    control voltage of the Pt filament is highly terial. This chemistry cannot be extracted by slowly heat- sensitive to the thermochemistry of the thin...azines. the residues formed at teach iernperature ’)ascd ýucli as melon, arc known to be thcriaalLv -.) tile absorhanice value ot ouhgaseous prod

  12. Thirty years through vanadium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Costa Pessoa, J

    2015-06-01

    The relevance of vanadium in biological systems is known for many years and vanadium-based catalysts have important industrial applications, however, till the beginning of the 80s research on vanadium chemistry and biochemistry did not receive much attention from the scientific community. The understanding of the broad bioinorganic implications resulting from the similarities between phosphate and vanadate(V) and the discovery of vanadium dependent enzymes gave rise to an enormous increase in interest in the chemistry and biological relevance of vanadium. Thereupon the last 30years corresponded to a period of enormous research effort in these fields, as well as in medicinal applications of vanadium and in the development of catalysts for use in fine-chemical synthesis, some of these inspired by enzymatic active sites. Since the 80s my group in collaboration with others made contributions, described throughout this text, namely in the understanding of the speciation of vanadium compounds in aqueous solution and in biological fluids, and to the transport of vanadium compounds in blood plasma and their uptake by cells. Several new types of vanadium compounds were also synthesized and characterized, with applications either as prospective therapeutic drugs or as homogeneous or heterogenized catalysts for the production of fine chemicals. The developments made are described also considering the international context of the evolution of the knowledge in the chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry of vanadium compounds during the last 30years. This article was compiled based on the Vanadis Award presentation at the 9th International Vanadium Symposium.

  13. Chemistry Teaching: Science or Alchemy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that the development of good chemistry teaching and the pursuit of research have essentially the same structure. Similarities include the need for a clear focus, efficiency in time and effort, and a direction that is more often right than wrong. (DDR)

  14. The Chemistry of the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Introduces knowledge of planetary chemistry for possible use in teaching. Discusses the chemical composition of the planets; the atmosphere and clouds of Venus, Jupiter and its moons, and Titan. Includes diagrams of the greenhouse effects in the solar system, elemental abundances, and the chemical composition of Jupiter. (RT)

  15. Chemistry without borders: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As chemistry becomes more globalized, it is important for an organization to be interconnected and adaptable, and for an individual to keep up with changes and latest scientific findings and keep options open. Many of the challenges and the opportunities of globalization are in the areas of jobs, re...

  16. General Chemistry for Waste Handlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sixtus, Michael E.

    This manual is intended for use in presenting a course which provides the content-specific general chemistry education required for the safety awareness and job enhancement of persons employed as waste handlers. The course, which was designed to be delivered to technicians at job sites in a lecture/demonstration format with several hands-on…

  17. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  18. Textile Chemistry for the Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Sara; Malott, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on the chemistry of fibers commonly used by artists. Presents information regarding the reactions of these fibers to dyes, bleaches, solvents, and other selected agents of design. Tables provide a classification of natural and manufactured fibers, characteristics, chemical formulas and reactions of selected fibers, and characteristics of…

  19. Chemistry--The Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…

  20. Botany, Chemistry, and Tropical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role played by botany and chemistry in the development, exploitation, and later deterioration of tropical economies. Although near equals in 19th-century international trade, the development of synthetics by European scientists in the early 20th century crippled the tropical economies. Research, innovation, and investment protected…

  1. Individualizing Secondary School Chemistry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses a study comparing the effectiveness of the group studies approach recommended in the teacher's guide for CBA chemistry with an individualized approach utilizing CBA materials. The individualized group did a well as or better than the other group. Reviews students' attitudes toward individualized course. Twenty-four references. (PR)

  2. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  3. Visualizing Chemistry: Investigations for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.; Ealy, James L., Jr.

    This book contains 101 investigations for chemistry classrooms. Topics include: (1) Physical Properties; (2) Reactions of Some Elements; (3) Reactions Involving Gases; (4) Energy Changes; (5) Solutions and Solubility; (6) Transition Metals and Complex Ions; (7) Kinetics and Equilibrium; (8) Acids and Bases; (9) Oxidation-Reduction; (10)…

  4. Chemistry Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1660.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    This curriculum guide, developed to establish statewide curriculum standards for the Louisiana Competency-based Education Program, contains the minimum competencies and process skills that should be included in a chemistry course. It consists of: (1) a rationale for an effective science program; (2) a list and description of four major goals of…

  5. Text Editing in Chemistry Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Low, Renae; Sweller, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…

  6. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  7. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  8. Inquiry in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deters, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of almost 600 high school chemistry teachers, it was found that almost half of them did not use inquiry in their classroom. For the survey, inquiry was defined as any lab in which students write the procedure themselves--the question/purpose/problem could be of the students' own design or provided for them. Many teachers indicated that…

  9. Chemistry Perfumes Your Daily Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortineau, Anne-Dominique

    2004-01-01

    A synopsis on the history of perfumery is presented, along with the various processes accessible for obtaining natural perfume constituents, and creation of synthetic chemicals. The important contribution of organic chemists in the invention of perfumes, aspects of fragrance chemistry, and general information on the perfume industry are…

  10. Contemporary Issues Related to Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes papers presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Chemical Education in the areas of energy, recombinant DNA, public understanding of science, health and safety, inorganic chemistry, and environment. A bibliography of 21 presented papers in these areas is attached. (CS)

  11. Plasma chemistry and organic synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tezuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic features of chemical reactions using low temperature plasmas are described and differentiated from those seen in other reaction systems. A number of examples of applications of plasma chemistry to synthetic reactions are mentioned. The production of amino acids by discharge reactions in hydrocarbon-ammonia-water systems is discussed, and its implications for the origins of life are mentioned.

  12. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  13. Recent developments in nitride chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Niewa, R.; DiSalvo, F.J.

    1998-10-01

    The chemistry of ternary nitrides is reviewed with special focus on developments of the last two years (1996 and 1997). In particular, structures and properties of ternary and higher transition metal nitrides, main group nitrides, subnitrides, and nitride halides are compared, and a section on thermodynamics of ternary nitrides is included. Finally, methods for the preparation of gallium nitride single crystals are summarized.

  14. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  15. DanceChemistry: Helping Students Visualize Chemistry Concepts through Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Gidget C.; Edwards, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    A visual aid teaching tool, the DanceChemistry video series, has been developed to teach fundamental chemistry concepts through dance. These educational videos portray chemical interactions at the molecular level using dancers to represent chemical species. Students reported that the DanceChemistry videos helped them visualize chemistry ideas in a…

  16. The Philosophy of Chemistry as a New Resource for Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Olimpia; Labarca, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The philosophy of chemistry has offered new tools that can guide educators in deciding how to balance descriptive and theoretical chemistry. The philosophy of chemistry has positive effects on the way that chemistry is taught and learned and it also leads educators to reach a better understanding of their own scientific discipline.

  17. Moving Chemistry Education into 3D: A Tetrahedral Metaphor for Understanding Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffy, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A new conceptual metaphor is proposed to enrich the description of chemistry education and support the many existing efforts to help students make connections with the chemistry found in textbooks. A widely used metaphor for chemistry education takes the shape of a planar triangle that highlights three thinking levels in learning chemistry such as…

  18. The Journal of Kitchen Chemistry: A Tool for Instructing the Preparation of a Chemistry Journal Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Jonathan K.; LeBaron, Tyler W.; Collins, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Writing assignments are typically incorporated into chemistry courses in an attempt to enhance the learning of chemistry or to teach technical writing to chemistry majors. This work addresses the development of chemistry-major writing skills by focusing on the rigorous guidelines and conventions associated with the preparation of a journal…

  19. An Approach towards Teaching Green Chemistry Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Arnum, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    A useful metrics system for the assessment of the environmental impact of chemical processes is utilized to illustrate several of the principles of green chemistry. The use of this metrics system in conjunction with laboratory experiments in green chemistry would provide for reinforcement in both the theory and practice of green chemistry.

  20. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 13: Dienes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  1. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 12: Alkynes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  2. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  3. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 17: Arenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  4. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  5. Introducing Green Chemistry in Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terrence J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes key elements for the research and teaching components of green chemistry, an environmentally friendly approach to chemistry. Presents an outline of an introductory course to green chemistry and other efforts at Carnegie Mellon University to incorporate the environment in a fertile manner into teaching. (JRH)

  6. Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul

    This book is one in the series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

  7. General Chemistry in Liberal Arts Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finholt, Albert E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses some issues related to chemistry curricula in liberal arts colleges. Among these issues are the nature of a liberal arts curriculum, content of chemistry course, teaching methods, technological aids to teaching, use of the laboratory, and the future of general chemistry teaching in the liberal arts colleges. (HM)

  8. A Discovery Chemistry Experiment on Buffers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulevich, Suzanne E.; Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    The Holy Cross Chemistry Department has designed and implemented an experiment on buffers as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum. The pedagogical philosophy of Discovery Chemistry is to make the laboratory the focal point of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. We first pose questions in prelaboratory…

  9. 42 CFR 493.929 - Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemistry. 493.929 Section 493.929 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.929 Chemistry. The subspecialties under the specialty of chemistry for which a proficiency testing program may offer proficiency testing are...

  10. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  11. 42 CFR 493.929 - Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemistry. 493.929 Section 493.929 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.929 Chemistry. The subspecialties under the specialty of chemistry for which a proficiency testing program may offer proficiency testing are...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2210 - Product chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Product chemistry. 158.2210 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2210 Product chemistry. The product chemistry data requirements of subpart D of this part apply to antimicrobial products covered by...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2290 - Residue chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residue chemistry. 158.2290 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2290 Residue chemistry. (a) General... determine the residue chemistry data requirements for antimicrobial pesticide products. Notes that apply...

  14. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  15. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  16. 42 CFR 493.929 - Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemistry. 493.929 Section 493.929 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.929 Chemistry. The subspecialties under the specialty of chemistry for which a proficiency testing program may offer proficiency testing are...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2210 - Product chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Product chemistry. 158.2210 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2210 Product chemistry. The product chemistry data requirements of subpart D of this part apply to antimicrobial products covered by...

  18. Modern Analytical Chemistry in the Contemporary World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among…

  19. 42 CFR 493.929 - Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemistry. 493.929 Section 493.929 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.929 Chemistry. The subspecialties under the specialty of chemistry for which a proficiency testing program may offer proficiency testing are...

  20. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  1. 42 CFR 493.929 - Chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemistry. 493.929 Section 493.929 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.929 Chemistry. The subspecialties under the specialty of chemistry for which a proficiency testing program may offer proficiency testing are...

  2. Greener Approaches to Undergraduate Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Mary, Ed.; Ryan, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This laboratory manual introduces the idea of Green Chemistry, which is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Instructional samples are included to help teachers integrate green chemistry into the college chemistry curriculum. Each laboratory includes: (1) a…

  3. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  4. Chemistry, A Syllabus for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This is a 1971 reprint of the chemistry syllabus printed in 1966 for the state of New York. This course of study presents a modern view of chemistry suitable for pupils with a wide range of skills and abilities. The outline of topics provides the unifying principles of chemistry together with related facts. The principles included in the outline…

  5. Communities of Molecules: A Physical Chemistry Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Howard

    This book is one in the series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

  6. A Student Guide to Studying General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a guide for introductory college chemistry students who are new to the subject of chemistry and who have been exposed to linear and second-order algebra equations and the concept of slope. The guide presents directions on the following topics: (1) How to prepare for lectures and take notes; (2) How to study chemistry outside of class using…

  7. Undergraduate Chemistry Education: A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keegan; Alper, Joe

    2014-01-01

    "Undergraduate Chemistry Education" is the summary of a workshop convened in May 2013 by the Chemical Science Roundtable of the National Research Council to explore the current state of undergraduate chemistry education. Research and innovation in undergraduate chemistry education has been done for many years, and one goal of this…

  8. One-world chemistry and systems thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlin, Stephen A.; Mehta, Goverdhan; Hopf, Henning; Krief, Alain

    2016-05-01

    The practice and overarching mission of chemistry need a major overhaul in order to be fit for purpose in the twenty-first century and beyond. The concept of 'one-world' chemistry takes a systems approach that brings together many factors, including ethics and sustainability, that are critical to the future role of chemistry.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY CAREERS IN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Careers in chemistry and chemistry related fields can be very rewarding and enriching. Being an environmental chemist for a government agency requires a broad background in the field of chemistry. A knowledge of the operation of several analytical and preparatory instruments is...

  10. Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murov, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.

  11. The Coming Renaissance of Descriptive Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the field of inorganic chemistry is facing an identity crisis. Proposes that the current call for curriculum reform in inorganic chemistry is an opportunity to return to a stronger discipline. Presents a history of freshman chemical education and recommends a new program for inorganic chemistry. (TW)

  12. Honors and Advanced Placement Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes papers and minipapers on honors and advanced placement (AP) chemistry courses presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Advantages/disadvantages of AP chemistry, high school/college courses, and grouping all chemistry students in one class were among the topics discussed. (JN)

  13. Environmental Chemistry Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    111 pg, leading to a body fat concentration of about 40 ppt (12). Lithium Battery AdvancesRechargeable Power SourceRecent advances in lithium ion battery technology may allow these devices to become the rechargeable power source of choice in electric cars of the future. Due to their high voltage, they can store a large amount of energy per given mass or volume of battery. In the past, however, such batteries have been somewhat impractical because they had to be hermetically sealed and required nonaqueous electrolytes due to lithium's violent reaction with water. In the newly developed battery, the electrolyte is water that already contains a high concentration of Li+ ions; elemental lithium (present as LiMn2O4 in one electrode) is unreactive in this medium unless an external connection to the other electrode is made (13). Air-Pollution Control for Power PlantsA process called SNOX, which removes both NOx and SO2 from the flue gases produced by coal-fired power plants, has been developed and demonstrated. The nitrogen oxides are first reduced to N2. The resulting gas is then heated and catalytically oxidized to sulfur trioxide, which is then hydrated to sulfuric acid. More than 90% of the NOx and SO2 were removed from the flue gases in the demonstration held at an Ohio Edison plant (14). Literature Cited Williams, D. Nature 1994, 371, 556. Emsley, J. New Scientist 1994, (Oct 1), 14. McMichael, A. J. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994, 140, 489-499. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Oct 10), 5. Santee, M. L. Science 1995, 267, 849-852. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Nov 14). Solomon, S. Journal of Geophysical Research 1994, 99, 20491-20499. Wennberg, P. O. Science 1994, 266, 398-404. Viggiano, A. A. Science 1995, 267, 82-84. Summary in Chemistry and Engineering News 1995, (Jan 9), 23. Schottler, S. P.; Eisenreich, S. J. Environmental Science and Technology 1994, 28, 2228-2232. Lang, L. Environmental Health Perspectives 1993, 101, 578-583. Chemical and

  14. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  16. Radiation applications of physical chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talrose, V. L.

    1991-05-01

    Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In the USSR, the development in this field is associated with the name of N. N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems. The new Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences is dealing with some of them. An overview of the Institute's work on radiation applications is presented. Examples of the use of radiation in the power industry (e.g., in coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production, and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for extensive utilization is demonstrated.

  17. Chemistry Of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2015-05-27

    Organic carbon (OC) accounts for a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing. Molecular composition of the OC and its evolution during common processes of atmospheric aging have been a subject of extensive research over the last decade (see reviews of Ervens et al.,1 Hallquist et al.,2 Herckes et al.,3 Carlton et al.,4 Kroll and Seinfeld,5 Rudich et al.,6 and Kanakidou et al.7). Even though many fundamental advances have been reported in these studies, our understanding of the climate-related properties of atmospheric OC is still incomplete and the specific ways in which OC impacts atmospheric environment and climate forcing are just beginning to be understood. This review covers one topic of particular interest in this area –environmental chemistry of light-absorbing aerosol OC and its impact on radiative forcing.

  18. Combining supramolecular chemistry with biology.

    PubMed

    Uhlenheuer, Dana A; Petkau, Katja; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-08-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has primarily found its inspiration in biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids, and their interactions. Currently the supramolecular assembly of designed compounds can be controlled to great extent. This provides the opportunity to combine these synthetic supramolecular elements with biomolecules for the study of biological phenomena. This tutorial review focuses on the possibilities of the marriage of synthetic supramolecular architectures and biological systems. It highlights that synthetic supramolecular elements are for example ideal platforms for the recognition and modulation of proteins and cells. The unique features of synthetic supramolecular systems with control over size, shape, valency, and interaction strength allow the generation of structures fitting the demands to approach the biological problems at hand. Supramolecular chemistry has come full circle, studying the biology and its molecules which initially inspired its conception.

  19. Ideograms for Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Risueño, Pablo; Syropoulos, Apostolos; Vergés, Natàlia

    2016-12-01

    Ideograms (symbols that represent a word or idea) have great communicative value. They refer to concepts in a simple manner, easing the understanding of related ideas. Moreover, ideograms can simplify the often cumbersome notation used in the fields of Physics and physical Chemistry. Nonetheless only a few ideograms- like and - have been defined to date. In this work we propose that the scientific community follows the example of Mathematics—as well as that of oriental languages—and bestows a more important role upon ideograms. To support this thesis we propose ideograms for essential concepts in Physics and Chemistry. They are designed to be intuitive, and their goal is to make equations easier to read and understand. Our symbols are included in a publicly available [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]package ( svrsymbols).

  20. The chemistry of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Present knowledge concerning the chemistry of planetary atmospheres is reviewed along with the theories which attempt to explain observational data. The known gross atmospheric compositions of the terrestrial and giant planets are listed, differences between the atmospheres of earth and Venus are discussed, and the atmospheres of the giant planets are described. The origin and evolution of the atmospheres of earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus are outlined, and chemical processes in the atmospheres are examined, particularly cloud formation. The question of organic synthesis and evolution in the reducing atmospheres of the giant planets is considered. It is noted that laboratory work on the individual chemical processes and reactions involved in the evolution of organic compounds in planetary atmospheres, comets, and interstellar space points to the inevitability of organic-compound synthesis in all these situations and to the pervasiveness of organic chemistry throughout the universe.

  1. Theoretical Modeling of Interstellar Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The chemistry of complex interstellar organic molecules will be described. Gas phase processes that may build large carbon-chain species in cold molecular clouds will be summarized. Catalytic reactions on grain surfaces can lead to a large variety of organic species, and models of molecule formation by atom additions to multiply-bonded molecules will be presented. The subsequent desorption of these mixed molecular ices can initiate a distinctive organic chemistry in hot molecular cores. The general ion-molecule pathways leading to even larger organics will be outlined. The predictions of this theory will be compared with observations to show how possible organic formation pathways in the interstellar medium may be constrained. In particular, the success of the theory in explaining trends in the known interstellar organics, in predicting recently-detected interstellar molecules, and, just as importantly, non-detections, will be discussed.

  2. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  3. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  4. Quantum computation for quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Numerically exact simulation of quantum systems on classical computers is in general, an intractable computational problem. Computational chemists have made progress in the development of approximate methods to tackle complex chemical problems. The downside of these approximate methods is that their failure for certain important cases such as long-range charge transfer states in the case of traditional density functional theory. In 1982, Richard Feynman suggested that a quantum device should be able to simulate quantum systems (in our case, molecules) exactly using quantum computers in a tractable fashion. Our group has been working in the development of quantum chemistry algorithms for quantum devices. In this talk, I will describe how quantum computers can be employed to carry out numerically exact quantum chemistry and chemical reaction dynamics calculations, as well as molecular properties. Finally, I will describe our recent experimental quantum computation of the energy of the hydrogen molecule using an optical quantum computer.

  5. (Chemistry of the global atmosphere)

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1990-09-27

    The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

  6. Recent Advances in Azaborine Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Patrick G.; Marwitz, Adam J. V.

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of organoboron compounds has been primarily dominated by their use as powerful reagents in synthetic organic chemistry. Recently, the incorporation of boron as part of a functional target structure has emerged as a useful way to generate diversity in organic compounds. A commonly applied strategy is the replacement of a CC unit with its isoelectronic BN unit. In particular, the BN/CC isosterism of the ubiquitous arene motif has undergone a renaissance in the past decade. The parent molecule of the 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine family has now been isolated. New mono- and polycyclic BN heterocycles have been synthesized for potential use in biomedical and materials science applications. This review is a tribute to Dewar's first synthesis of a monocyclic 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine 50 years ago and discusses recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of carbon(C)-boron(B)-nitrogen(N)-containing heterocycles. PMID:22644658

  7. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Chemistry of ascorbic acid radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Bielski, B.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry of ascorbic acid free radicals is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on identification and characterization of ascorbate radicals by spectrophotometric and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques, the kinetics of formation and disappearance of ascorbate free radicals in enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions, the effect of pH upon the spectral and kinetic properties of ascorbate anion radical, and chemical reactivity of ascorbate free radicals.

  9. Destruction Chemistry of Mustard Simulants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-04

    Chemistry A, v 110, n 51, Dec 28, 2006, p 13979-13988 "Formation of a Criegee intermediate in the low-temperature oxidation of dimethyl sulfoxide...2006 (Poster). "Oxidation path of dimethyl sulfoxide results in direct exothermic formation of Criegee Intermediate ," Rubik Asatryan and Joseph Bozzelli...and heat capacity) for molecule, radical intermediates , and transition state structures. The pyrolysis submechanism of Version 1 of the mechanism

  10. Chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Various aspects were studied of past or present chemistry in the atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites using lab simulations. Three areas were studied: (1) organic chemistry induced by kinetically hot hydrogen atoms in the region of Jupiter's atmosphere containing the ammonia cirrus clouds; (2) the conversion of NH3 into N2 by plasmas associated with entry of meteors and other objects into the atmosphere of early Titan; and (3) the synthesis of simple hydrocarbons and HCN by lightning in mixtures containing N2, CH4, and NH3 representing the atmospheres of Titan and the outer planets. The results showed that: (1) hot H2 atoms formed from the photodissociation of NH3 in Jupiter's atmosphere could account for some of the atmospheric chemistry in the ammonia cirrus cloud region; (2) the thermalization of hot H2 atoms in atmospheres predominated by molecular H is not as rapid as predicted by elastic collision theory; (3) the net quantum loss of NH3 in the presence of a 200 fold excess of H2 is 0.02, much higher than was expected from the amount of H2 present; (4) the conversion of NH3 into N2 in plasmas associated with infalling meteors is very efficient and rapid, and could account for most of the N2 present on Titan; (5) the yields of C2H2 and HCN from lightning induced chemistry in mixtures of CH4 and N2 is consistent with quenched thermodynamic models of the discharge core; and (6) photolysis induced by the UV light emitted by the gases in the hot plasmas may account for some, if not most, of the excess production of C2H6 and the more complex hydrocarbons.

  11. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  12. Heterocyclic chemistry in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Lamberth, Clemens

    2013-10-01

    An overview is given of the significance of heterocycles in crop protection chemistry, which is enormous as more than two-thirds of all agrochemicals launched to the market within the last 20 years belong to this huge group of chemicals. This review focuses on two important aspects of heterocyclic agrochemistry: the different roles of heterocyclic scaffolds in crop protection agents and the major possibilities for their synthesis.

  13. Surface chemistry in photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplugues, G. B.; Cazaux, S.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The presence of dust can strongly affect the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. We model the chemistry in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using both gas-phase and dust-phase chemical reactions. Aims: Our aim is to determine the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium (gas/dust/ice) in regions with distinct (molecular) gas densities that are exposed to radiation fields with different intensities. Methods: We have significantly improved the Meijerink PDR code by including 3050 new gas-phase chemical reactions and also by implementing surface chemistry. In particular, we have included 117 chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces covering different processes, such as adsorption, thermal desorption, chemical desorption, two-body reactions, photo processes, and cosmic-ray processes on dust grains. Results: We obtain abundances for different gas and solid species as a function of visual extinction, depending on the density and radiation field. We also analyse the rates of the formation of CO2 and H2O ices in different environments. In addition, we study how chemistry is affected by the presence/absence of ice mantles (bare dust or icy dust) and the impact of considering different desorption probabilities. Conclusions: The type of substrate (bare dust or icy dust) and the probability of desorption can significantly alter the chemistry occurring on grain surfaces, leading to differences of several orders of magnitude in the abundances of gas-phase species, such as CO, H2CO, and CH3OH. The type of substrate, together with the density and intensity of the radiation field, also determine the threshold extinction to form ices of CO2 and H2O. We also conclude that H2CO and CH3OH are mainly released into the gas phase of low, far-ultraviolet illuminated PDRs through chemical desorption upon two-body surface reactions, rather than through photodesorption.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry in volcanic plumes.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland

    2010-04-13

    Recent field observations have shown that the atmospheric plumes of quiescently degassing volcanoes are chemically very active, pointing to the role of chemical cycles involving halogen species and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles that have previously been unexplored for this type of volcanic plumes. Key features of these measurements can be reproduced by numerical models such as the one employed in this study. The model shows sustained high levels of reactive bromine in the plume, leading to extensive ozone destruction, that, depending on plume dispersal, can be maintained for several days. The very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume reduces the lifetime of the OH radical drastically, so that it is virtually absent in the volcanic plume. This would imply an increased lifetime of methane in volcanic plumes, unless reactive chlorine chemistry in the plume is strong enough to offset the lack of OH chemistry. A further effect of bromine chemistry in addition to ozone destruction shown by the model studies presented here, is the oxidation of mercury. This relates to mercury that has been coemitted with bromine from the volcano but also to background atmospheric mercury. The rapid oxidation of mercury implies a drastically reduced atmospheric lifetime of mercury so that the contribution of volcanic mercury to the atmospheric background might be less than previously thought. However, the implications, especially health and environmental effects due to deposition, might be substantial and warrant further studies, especially field measurements to test this hypothesis.

  15. Astronomy Matters for Chemistry Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Jay S.; Vergenz, Robert A.; Smith, Terry L.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to encourage more chemistry teachers to become familiar with some of the basic ideas described in typical introductory astronomy courses (1 - 9), including those about the origin of elements and forms of matter. These ideas would enrich chemistry courses and help resolve some basic misconceptions that are expressed in many introductory texts (10 - 16) and journal articles for chemistry teachers (17, 18). These misconceptions are typified by statements such as "we can classify all substances as either elements or compounds," and "nature has provided 92 elements out of which all matter is composed." If students accept these misconceptions, they could be deprived of (i) an appreciation of the history of elements and knowing that the elemental composition of the universe continues to evolve, (ii) knowing that of the first 92 elements in the periodic table, technetium and promethium do not occur naturally on Earth, and (iii) understanding that there are forms of matter other than elements and compounds. This paper briefly explores these ideas.

  16. Materials Chemistry of Nanoultrasonic Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailin; Zheng, Yuanyi; Chen, Yu

    2017-03-01

    As a special cross-disciplinary research frontier, nanoultrasonic biomedicine refers to the design and synthesis of nanomaterials to solve some critical issues of ultrasound (US)-based biomedicine. The concept of nanoultrasonic biomedicine can also overcome the drawbacks of traditional microbubbles and promote the generation of novel US-based contrast agents or synergistic agents for US theranostics. Here, we discuss the recent developments of material chemistry in advancing the nanoultrasonic biomedicine for diverse US-based bio-applications. We initially introduce the design principles of novel nanoplatforms for serving the nanoultrasonic biomedicine, from the viewpoint of synthetic material chemistry. Based on these principles and diverse US-based bio-application backgrounds, the representative proof-of-concept paradigms on this topic are clarified in detail, including nanodroplet vaporization for intelligent/responsive US imaging, multifunctional nano-contrast agents for US-based multi-modality imaging, activatable synergistic agents for US-based therapy, US-triggered on-demand drug releasing, US-enhanced gene transfection, US-based synergistic therapy on combating the cancer and potential toxicity issue of screening various nanosystems suitable for nanoultrasonic biomedicine. It is highly expected that this novel nanoultrasonic biomedicine and corresponding high performance in US imaging and therapy can significantly promote the generation of new sub-discipline of US-based biomedicine by rationally integrating material chemistry and theranostic nanomedicine with clinical US-based biomedicine.

  17. Exploration of fluorine chemistry at the multidisciplinary interface of chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Iwao

    2013-07-05

    Over the last three decades, my engagement in "fluorine chemistry" has evolved substantially because of the multidisciplinary nature of the research programs. I began my research career as a synthetic chemist in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis directed toward organic synthesis. Then, I was brought into a very unique world of "fluorine chemistry" in the end of 1970s. I started exploring the interface of fluorine chemistry and transition metal homogeneous catalysis first, which was followed by amino acids, peptides, and peptidomimetics for medicinal chemistry. Since then, I have been exploring the interfaces of fluorine chemistry and multidisciplinary fields of research involving medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, cancer biology, and molecular imaging. This perspective intends to cover my fruitful endeavor in the exploration of fluorine chemistry at the multidisciplinary interface of chemistry and biology in a chronological order to show the evolution of my research interest and strategy.

  18. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  19. Computing protein infrared spectroscopy with quantum chemistry.

    PubMed

    Besley, Nicholas A

    2007-12-15

    Quantum chemistry is a field of science that has undergone unprecedented advances in the last 50 years. From the pioneering work of Boys in the 1950s, quantum chemistry has evolved from being regarded as a specialized and esoteric discipline to a widely used tool that underpins much of the current research in chemistry today. This achievement was recognized with the award of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to John Pople and Walter Kohn. As the new millennium unfolds, quantum chemistry stands at the forefront of an exciting new era. Quantitative calculations on systems of the magnitude of proteins are becoming a realistic possibility, an achievement that would have been unimaginable to the early pioneers of quantum chemistry. In this article we will describe ongoing work towards this goal, focusing on the calculation of protein infrared amide bands directly with quantum chemical methods.

  20. Copper Nanoparticles in Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    The challenges of the 21st century demand scientific and technological achievements that must be developed under sustainable and environmentally benign practices. In this vein, click chemistry and green chemistry walk hand in hand on a pathway of rigorous principles that help to safeguard the health of our planet against negligent and uncontrolled production. Copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), the paradigm of a click reaction, is one of the most reliable and widespread synthetic transformations in organic chemistry, with multidisciplinary applications. Nanocatalysis is a green chemistry tool that can increase the inherent effectiveness of CuAAC because of the enhanced catalytic activity of nanostructured metals and their plausible reutilization capability as heterogeneous catalysts. This Account describes our contribution to click chemistry using unsupported and supported copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) as catalysts prepared by chemical reduction. Cu(0)NPs (3.0 ± 1.5 nm) in tetrahydrofuran were found to catalyze the reaction of terminal alkynes and organic azides in the presence of triethylamine at rates comparable to those achieved under microwave heating (10-30 min in most cases). Unfortunately, the CuNPs underwent dissolution under the reaction conditions and consequently could not be recovered. Compelling experimental evidence on the in situ generation of highly reactive copper(I) chloride and the participation of copper(I) acetylides was provided. The supported CuNPs were found to be more robust and efficient catalyst than the unsupported counterpart in the following terms: (a) the multicomponent variant of CuAAC could be applied; (b) the metal loading could be substantially decreased; (c) reactions could be conducted in neat water; and (d) the catalyst could be recovered easily and reutilized. In particular, the catalyst composed of oxidized CuNPs (Cu2O/CuO, 6.0 ± 2.0 nm) supported on carbon (CuNPs/C) was shown to be highly versatile and very

  1. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps.

  2. Deep learning for computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Goh, Garrett B; Hodas, Nathan O; Vishnu, Abhinav

    2017-03-08

    The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties that distinguish them from traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including quantitative structure activity relationship, virtual screening, protein structure prediction, quantum chemistry, materials design, and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non-neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network-based models often exceeded the "glass ceiling" expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a valuable tool for computational chemistry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analytical Chemistry in Microenvironments: Single Nerve Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-16

    AD-A251 491 * - OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH GRANT or CONTRACT N00014-90-J-1161 R & T Code 4133030 Technical Report No. 012 Analytical Chemistry in...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave oldnk) 2. REPORT DATE 1. R EP O R T T Y P E AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Analytical Chemistry in...CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT unclassified unclassified unclassified ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY IN

  4. Teaching social responsibility in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, M; Christian, G D; Lucena, R

    2013-07-02

    Analytical chemistry is key to the functioning of a modern society. From early days, ethics in measurements have been a concern and that remains today, especially as we have come to rely more on the application of analytical science in many aspects of our lives. The main aim of this Feature is to suggest ways of introducing the topic of social responsibility and its relation to analytical chemistry in undergraduate or graduate chemistry courses.

  5. Photoredox Catalysis in Organic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, photoredox catalysis has come to the forefront in organic chemistry as a powerful strategy for the activation of small molecules. In a general sense, these approaches rely on the ability of metal complexes and organic dyes to convert visible light into chemical energy by engaging in single-electron transfer with organic substrates, thereby generating reactive intermediates. In this Perspective, we highlight the unique ability of photoredox catalysis to expedite the development of completely new reaction mechanisms, with particular emphasis placed on multicatalytic strategies that enable the construction of challenging carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bonds. PMID:27477076

  6. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  7. Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, O.

    1980-01-01

    Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

  8. Carbon chemistry of circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieging, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical composition of envelopes surrounding cool evolved stars, as determined from microwave spectroscopic observations, is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent observations with the new large mm-wavelength telescopes and interferometer arrays, and on new theoretical work, especially concerning ion-molecule chemistry of carbon-bearing in these envelopes. Thermal (as opposed to maser) emission lines are discussed. Much progress has been made in the past few years in the theoretical understanding of these objects. It is already clear, however, that observations with the new generation of mm-telescopes will require substantial improvements in the theoretical models to achieve a thorough understanding of the data now becoming available.

  9. Integrating Computational Chemistry into the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum: A Wet Lab/Dry Lab Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpen, Mary E.; Henderleiter, Julie; Schaertel, Stephanie A.

    2004-01-01

    The usage of computational chemistry in a pedagogically effective manner in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum is described. The changes instituted for an effective course structure and the assessment of the course efficacy are discussed.

  10. Introducing the Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry to Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jason K.

    2007-01-01

    Various efforts are being made to introduce the different physical aspects and uses of computational chemistry to the undergraduate chemistry students. A new laboratory approach that demonstrates all such aspects via experiments has been devised for the purpose.

  11. Chemistry Teacher Education Coalition: Extending the PhysTEC Model to Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mary

    2012-02-01

    The American Association of Employment in Education reports that chemistry, like physics, faces ``some shortage'' of educators. Inspired by the success of the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC), the American Chemical Society (ACS) is developing the Chemistry Teacher Education Coalition (CTEC) to actively engage chemistry departments in the preparation of future chemistry teachers. Engaging chemistry departments in teacher preparation would increase the number and diversity of well-prepared high school chemistry teachers while catalyzing cultural change within chemistry departments. Many features of PhysTEC, such as a grant competition to create model teacher preparation programs and regular conferences, are directly applicable to chemistry. This presentation will provide an overview of ACS efforts to launch a successful CTEC initiative.

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Measurements of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry and Long-Term Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris; Nassar, Ray

    2007-01-01

    We highlight chemistry and trend measurement results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) which is providing precise middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere measurements with a 0.02/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer covering 750-4400/cm

  13. Green analytical chemistry--theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Mechlińska, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review summarises the current state of green analytical chemistry with special emphasis on environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Green analytical chemistry is a part of the sustainable development concept; its history and origins are described. Miniaturisation of analytical devices and shortening the time elapsing between performing analysis and obtaining reliable analytical results are important aspects of green analytical chemistry. Solventless extraction techniques, the application of alternative solvents and assisted extractions are considered to be the main approaches complying with green analytical chemistry principles.

  14. Resource Paper: Organosilicon Chemistry, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Robert; Barton, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    Outlined are recent developments in the field of organosilicon chemistry. Discussed are processes for synthesizing organosilanes, chemical bonding in silicon compounds, silicone polymers, and catenated polysilanes. (CS)

  15. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  16. The carbon chemistry of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eglinton, G.; Maxwell, J. R.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis of lunar samples has shown that the carbon chemistry of the moon is entirely different from the carbon chemistry of the earth. Lunar carbon chemistry is more closely related to cosmic physics than to conventional organic chemistry. Sources of carbon on the moon are considered, giving attention to meteorites and the solar wind. The approaches used in the analysis of the samples are discussed, taking into account the method of gas chromatography employed and procedures used by bioscience investigators in the study of the lunar fines. The presence of indigenous methane and carbide in the lunar fines was established. Reactions and processes taking place on the lunar surface are discussed.

  17. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, developed Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization to make polymers with copper catalysts and environmentally friendly reducing agents.

  19. Crossing Levels and Representations: The Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Connected Chemistry (named CC1 to denote Connected Chemistry Chapter 1) is a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry. It views chemistry from an "emergent" perspective, how macroscopic phenomena result from the interaction of many submicroscopic particles. Connected Chemistry employs…

  20. Assessment of Chemistry Anxiety in a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Wanda C.; Widanski, Bozena Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry anxiety encompasses apprehension regarding learning chemistry, evaluation in chemistry courses, and fears about handling chemicals. Our goal was to ascertain the prevalence of these three types of anxiety in college students enrolled in a two-year college. In our sample, chemistry-evaluation provoked the most chemistry anxiety followed…

  1. The chemistry of Venus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sze, N. D.; Smith, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the Venus atmosphere involving photochemistry of oxygen, hydrogen, chlorine and sulfur species is presented. Sulfur reaction schemes and hydrogen and chlorine reaction schemes were included. The impact of sulfur on the oxygen budget and the subsequent production of H2SO4 molecules for the Venus cloud deck were explored. A major new reaction scheme for production of H2SO4 molecules involving sulfur and oxygen chemistry was established shown to dominate over the odd hydrogen scheme proposed earlier. The efficiency of the scheme in formation of H2SO4 is only about 50%, with the remaining sulfur residing in SO2 molecules. The calculated downward flux of H2SO4 may be sufficient to maintain a steady state sulfuric acid cloud if the resident time of H2SO4 droplets in the cloud is as long as a few years. If however, the resident time is half a year or shorter, additional chemistry capable of more efficient conversion of SO2 to SO3 is required.

  2. Mass spectrometry in combinatorial chemistry.

    PubMed

    Enjalbal, C; Martinez, J; Aubagnac, J L

    2000-01-01

    In the fast expanding field of combinatorial chemistry, profiling libraries has always been a matter of concern--as illustrated by the buoyant literature over the past seven years. Spectroscopic methods, including especially mass spectrometry and to a lesser extent IR and NMR, have been applied at different levels of combinatorial library synthesis: in the rehearsal phase to optimize the chemistry prior to library generation, to confirm library composition, and to characterize after screening each structure that exhibits positive response. Most of the efforts have been concentrated on library composition assessment. The difficulties of such analyses have evolved from the infancy of the combinatorial concept, where large mixtures were prepared, to the recent parallel syntheses of collections of discrete compounds. Whereas the complexity of the analyses has diminished, an increased degree of automation was simultaneously required to achieve efficient library component identification and quantification. In this respect, mass spectrometry has been found to be the method of choice, providing rapid, sensitive, and informative analyses, especially when coupled to chromatographic separation. Fully automated workstations able to cope with several hundreds of compounds per day have been designed. After a brief introduction to describe the combinatorial approach, library characterization will be discussed in detail, considering first the solution-based methodologies and secondly the support-bound material analyses.

  3. Noninvasive vital body chemistry sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Winston; Gasca, Rebecca; Spariosu, Kalin; Low, Peter W.

    2000-08-01

    There is a need for real-time unobtrusive monitoring of the vital body chemistry and general health status of military personnel during training and in hostile battlefield environments. Monitoring the health of a soldier who is an integral part of a military mission is important, because a compromise in his/her ability to act at a certain moment could jeopardize the operation. The most accessible measure of a person's health at any given instant is his/her anaerobic metabolism rate (O2 debt), which is indicative of the changes in skeletal muscle and cerebral oxygenation. Anaerobic metabolism data can be used by paramedics to save lives. Lactate levels are important measure of oxygen debt. Lactate is a weak acid that is produced by cells when they break down glucose to produce energy by anaerobic metabolism (a chemical process that does not require oxygen). In this project we developed, constructed, and tested a compact personal optical sensor for monitoring lactate via sweat metabolite analysis. The sensor quantifies the change of the optical properties caused by lactate chemistry. Our miniaturized noninvasive lactate sensor measures minute changes of the lactate between 0-130 mM in near real time.

  4. Cannabinoids: occurrence and medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Appendino, G; Chianese, G; Taglialatela-Scafati, O

    2011-01-01

    With an inventory of several hundreds secondary metabolites identified, Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) is one of the phytochemically best characterized plant species. The biomedical relevance of hemp undoubtedly underlies the wealth of data on its constituents and their biological activities, and cannabinoids, a class of unique meroterpenoids derived from the alkylation of an olivetollike alkyl resorcinol with a monoterpene unit, are the most typical constituents of Cannabis. In addition to the well-known psychotropic properties of Δ(9)-THC, cannabinoids have been reported to show potential in various fields of medicine, with the capacity to address unmet needs like the relief of chemotherapy-derived nausea and anorexia, and symptomatic mitigation of multiple sclerosis. Many of the potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoids are related to the interaction with (at least) two cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2). However, a number of activities, like the antibacterial or the antitumor properties are non totally dependent or fully independent from the interaction with these proteins. These pharmacological activities are particularly interesting since, in principle, they could be easily dissociated by the unwanted psychotropic effects. This review aims at giving readers a survey of the more recent advances in both phytochemistry of C. sativa, the medicinal chemistry of cannabinoids, and their distribution in plants, highlighting the impact that research in these hot fields could have for modern medicinal chemistry and pharmacology.

  5. Tropospheric chemistry - A global perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. A.; Prather, M. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1981-01-01

    Processes that affect the concentration of tropospheric OH are considered, taking into account linkages between the chemistry of OH and the chemistry of H, HO2, and H2O2. A review is presented of observational data of special relevance to OH, notably the distributions of CO, CH4, O3, H2O, HNO3, NO, and NO2. Most of the results presented in connection with the description of the model were obtained by solving time-dependent continuity equations. Rates for photolytic processes were allowed to vary diurnally with insolation. It is found that a well-calibrated and reliable model for OH places important constraints on global budgets for a variety of gases including CH4, H2, and CH3Cl in addition to CO. Accurate measurements of species such as CH3CCl3 can provide valuable checks on global models that must integrate over a variety of atmospheric conditions. However, emission rates for the relevant gases must be adequately quantified.

  6. Dynamic chemistry of anion recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu

    2012-01-01

    In the past 40 years, anion recognition by synthetic receptors has grown into a rich and vibrant research topic, developing into a distinct branch of Supramolecular Chemistry. Traditional anion receptors comprise organic scaffolds functionalized with complementary binding groups that are assembled by multistep organic synthesis. Recently, a new approach to anion receptors has emerged, in which the host is dynamically self-assembled in the presence of the anionic guest, via reversible bond formation between functional building units. While coordination bonds were initially employed for the self-assembly of the anion hosts, more recent studies demonstrated that reversible covalent bonds can serve the same purpose. In both cases, due to their labile connections, the molecular constituents have the ability to assemble, dissociate, and recombine continuously, thereby creating a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) of receptors. The anionic guests, through specific molecular recognition, may then amplify (express) the formation of a particular structure among all possible combinations (real or virtual) by shifting the equilibria involved towards the most optimal receptor. This approach is not limited to solution self-assembly, but is equally applicable to crystallization, where the fittest anion-binding crystal may be selected. Finally, the pros and cons of employing dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) vs molecular design for developing anion receptors, and the implications of both approaches to selective anion separations, will be discussed.

  7. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  8. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 16: Aromatic Chemistry Effect of Substituents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  9. The Status of Chemistry in Two-Year Colleges: Results from a Survey of Chemistry Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mary Ann; Wesemann, Jodi L.; Boese, Janet M.; Neuschatz, Michael

    In the fall of 2001, the American Chemical Society (ACS) conducted a survey of two-year college chemistry departments to obtain basic data on chemistry faculty and chemistry courses taught at college. A questionnaire sent to appropriate representatives (department chairs, program heads, or deans) from 1195 campuses generated a 77% response rate.…

  10. Using Art-Based Chemistry Activities to Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danipog, Dennis L.; Ferido, Marlene B.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of art-based chemistry activities (ABCA) on high school students' conceptual understanding in chemistry. The study used the pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 64 third-year high school students from two different chemistry classes participated in the study. One class was exposed to art-based…

  11. Chemistry, Poetry, and Artistic Illustration: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching and Promoting Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlan, Ping Y.; Kitson, Herbert; Andes, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful interdisciplinary collaboration among chemistry, humanities and English faculty members, who utilized poetry and artistic illustration to help students learn, appreciate, and enjoy chemistry. Students taking general chemistry classes were introduced to poetry writing and museum-type poster preparation during one…

  12. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  13. Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

  14. Turkish Chemistry Teachers' Views about Secondary School Chemistry Curriculum: A Perspective from Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Icoz, Omer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' views about environmental education (EE) have been regarded as one of the most important concerns in education for sustainability. In secondary school chemistry curriculum, there are several subjects about EE embedded in the chemistry subjects in Turkey. This study explores three chemistry teachers' views about to what extent the…

  15. Promoting Chemistry Learning through Undergraduate Work Experience in the Chemistry Lab: A Practical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Hiring undergraduate lab assistants in chemistry departments is common in college. However, few studies have focused on promoting undergraduate chemistry learning and thinking skills through this work experience in chemistry teaching laboratories. This article discusses the strategy we implemented in the lab assistant program. The…

  16. How to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Science and Chemistry through a New Chemistry Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi

    In an effort to improve students' interests in science and science courses, a study was conducted in Israel to evaluate students' attitudes towards science relative to two chemistry curricula. These curricula were Chemistry for High Schools (CFH), and Chemistry--A Challenge (CAC). The CFH program was mainly designed for science-oriented students…

  17. Metalloporphyrins as Oxidation Catalysts: Moving toward "Greener" Chemistry in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rose A.; Stock, Anne E.; Zovinka, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    Training future chemists to be aware of the environmental impact of their work is of fundamental importance to global society. To convince chemists to embrace sustainability, the integration of green chemistry across the entire chemistry curriculum is a necessary step. This experiment expands the reach of green chemistry techniques into the…

  18. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  19. Understanding the Impact of a General Chemistry Course on Students' Transition to Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Webb, Alexandra; Jeffery, Kathleen A.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from general chemistry to organic chemistry can be a challenge for students as it often involves a transition from quantitatively-oriented to mechanistically-oriented thinking. This study found that the design of the general chemistry course can change the student experience of this transition as assessed by a reflective survey. The…

  20. High School Chemistry Content Background of Introductory College Chemistry Students and Its Association with College Chemistry Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Ward, R. Bruce; Sadler, Philip M.

    2006-01-01

    Do students who focus on some content areas in high school chemistry have an advantage over others in college chemistry? Published research on high school preparation for college science dates back as far as the 1920s, but results have been mixed. This manuscript seeks to answer this question through the use of a broad-based survey of 3521…

  1. Hydrogen chemistry - Perspective on experiment and theory. [atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, F.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of the advantages and limitations of various experimental methods for the investigation of the kinetics of hydrogen chemistry, including classic thermal and photochemical methods and the crossed molecular beam method. Special attention is given to the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence apparatus developed by Braun et al, in which repetitive vacuum UV flashes result in the photolytic generation of the desired species, and to the discharge-flow technique. The use of various theoretical methods for the selection or elimination of kinetic data is considered in a brief discussion of the rate theory of two-body encounters and recombination-dissociation processes in neutral reactions. Recent kinetic studies of a series of OH reactions and of a major loss process for odd H in the stratosphere are summarized.

  2. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  3. College Chemistry: how a textbook can reveal the values embedded in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2007-12-01

    This paper explores the norms, values and ethical attitudes that Linus Pauling wanted to convey to his students in his famous textbook College Chemistry. In this classic textbook, Pauling aimed to introduce beginners into the world of chemistry by presenting chemistry as a systematic science based on a collection of empirical data and a recent theoretical framework. In doing so, he expressed his epistemic and didactic choices clearly. College Chemistry therefore offers an ideal opportunity to examine some of the norms at the core of chemistry's 'moral economy'.

  4. Chemistry: Coping with Change...Creatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Marcelline A.

    Developed for mathematics-shy high school chemistry students, this laboratory manual is suitable for use with any chemistry textbook. Seventy-three experiments, based on a theme of change, are grouped into 5 general areas: (1) 9 experiments focusing on skills needed in observing reality; (2) 19 experiments interpreting how reality changes,…

  5. Elementary and brief introduction of hadronic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangde, Vijay M.

    2013-10-01

    The discipline, today known as Quantum Chemistry for atomic and subatomic level interactions has no doubt made a significant historical contributions to the society. Despite of its significant achievements, quantum chemistry is also known for its widespread denial of insufficiencies it inherits. An Italian-American Scientist Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli during his more than five decades of dedicated and sustained research has denounced the fact that quantum chemistry is mostly based on mere nomenclatures without any quantitative scientific contents. Professor R M Santilli first formulated the iso-, geno- and hyper-mathematics [1-4] that helped in understanding numerous diversified problems and removing inadequacies in most of the established and celebrated theories of 20th century physics and chemistry. This involves the isotopic, genotopic, etc. lifting of Lie algebra that generated Lie admissible mathematics to properly describe irreversible processes. The studies on Hadronic Mechanics in general and chemistry in particular based on Santilli's mathematics[3-5] for the first time has removed the very fundamental limitations of quantum chemistry [2, 6-8]. In the present discussion, we have briefly reviewed the conceptual foundations of Hadronic Chemistry that imparts the completeness to the Quantum Chemistry via an addition of effects at distances of the order of 1 fm (only) which are assumed to be Non-linear, Non-local, Non-potential, Non-hamiltonian and thus Non-unitary and its application in development of a new chemical species called Magnecules.

  6. Contextualized Chemistry Education: The American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, A. Truman

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a survey of context-based chemistry education in the United States. It begins with a very brief overview of twentieth-century chemistry texts and teaching methods, followed by a short description of a pioneering secondary school text. The major emphasis is on post-secondary instruction and the central case study is provided by…

  7. MICROWAVES IN GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, we have outlined roles of microwave chemistry in the establishment of green and sustainable chemistry. Many examples, mostly from the authors' laboratories, have been presented of green microwave processes under solvent-free conditions or with solvents, including...

  8. JCE Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    Many simple actions such as eating or reaching for a pain reliever, which we perform without thinking, are tied to chemistry. The American Chemical Society has capitalized on this ubiquitousness with their chosen theme for National Chemistry Week (NCW) 2004: "Health and Wellness."

  9. Science and Technology Text Mining: Analytical Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    mainly) from analytical chemistry, will be presented. KEYWORDS: text mining; information retrieval; bibliometrics ; computational linguistics; information...analytical chemistry, will be presented. 15. SUBJECT TERMS text mining; information retrieval; bibliometrics ; computational linguistics; information...records. Our definition includes three components: 1) Bibliometrics ; 2) Computational Linguistics; 3) Clustering. For multi-field structured records

  10. Teaching Chemistry Using the Movie "Apollo 13."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goll, James G.; Woods, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers suggestions for incorporating topics that relate to the Apollo 13 space mission into a chemistry course. Discusses connections between the study of chemistry and space exploration, including fuels and oxidants used, reasons for an oxygen tank rupture, and lithium hydroxide-containing carbon dioxide filters. Contains 11 references. (WRM)

  11. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  12. Organometallic chemistry in non-classical environments.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    A summary of our on-going research on organometallic chemistry is provided with an emphasis on the function, reactivity and mechanisms of organometallic compounds in water, ionic liquids and in living systems. The role of organometallic compounds in both catalysis and medicinal chemistry are briefly described.

  13. School Chemistry: The Need for Transgression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the philosophy of chemistry over the past 15 years suggest that chemistry is a hybrid science which mixes scientific pursuits with technological applications. Dominant universal characterizations of the nature of science thus fail to capture the essence of the discipline. The central goal of this position paper is to encourage…

  14. Collection Development: Celebrating Chemistry, February 1, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Susannah

    2011-01-01

    A hundred years after Marie Curie received her Nobel Prize in Chemistry, this arm of science is pointing the way to a more sustainable future. Growing movements like green chemistry, which strives to create alternative and new chemical reactions that produce no harmful waste products, and molecular engineering hold great potential for industry,…

  15. Environmental Chemistry in the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Thomas J.; Austin, Rachel N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of environmental chemistry and the use of laboratory exercises in analytical and general chemistry courses. Notes the importance of lab work in heightening student interest in coursework including problem-based learning in undergraduate curricula, ready adaptability of environmental coursework to existing curricula, and…

  16. The Chemistry of Modern Dental Filling Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John W.; Anstice, H. Mary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses materials used by dentists to restore teeth after decay has been removed. Shows how dental-material science is an interdisciplinary field in which chemistry plays a major part. Reviews the many developments polymer chemistry has contributed to the field of dental fillings. (CCM)

  17. New Guidelines for Undergraduate Chemistry Curricula Examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1989-01-01

    Reviews current biochemistry, education, and polymer course options found in chemistry programs. Proposes a new core curriculum with 28 semester hours with courses in inorganic, chemical, and instrumental analysis, organic, bioorganic, and physical chemistry. Notes that the new curriculum would better prepare students for the existing employment…

  18. What's Difficult about Chemistry? An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Peter E.; Sheehan, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This semi-longitudinal investigation identified the chemistry topics that the majority of Irish chemistry pupils/students find difficult, from Junior Certificate level (age 15/16 years) right the way through to University level (age 18+). Pupils/students completed a five point, Likert-type questionnaire listing the topics covered in the different…

  19. An Industrially Developed Basic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, L. W.; Haws, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a practical, job-related, 3 1/2 month long, basic chemistry course developed by Monsanto Research Corporation to train laboratory technicians and service employees. The course, centered around 31 chemistry topics, is designed to supplement university courses and stresses application of concepts. (BT)

  20. Eighth international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Eckelman, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Eighth International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry was held on June 25--29, in Princeton, New Jersey. Topics covered in the meeting include: Technetium Chemistry; Perfusion Agents; Radionuclide Production; Synthetic Precursors; Analysis/Automation; Antibodies; Receptors; Metabolism, DOPA FDG; Receptors, D2 D1; Metabolism; and Metabolism, Cancer. Individual papers in each of these areas are abstracted separately. (MHB)

  1. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  2. Plug Pulled on Chemistry Computer Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the controversy surrounding the initial decision to establish, and the current decision to phase out, the National Resource for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC), a computational chemistry center jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. (CS)

  3. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  4. How sonochemistry contributes to green chemistry?

    PubMed

    Chatel, Gregory

    2017-03-15

    Based on the analyses of papers from the literature, and especially those published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry journal, the contribution of sonochemistry to green chemistry area has been discussed here. Important reminders and insights on the good practices and considerations have been made to understand and demonstrate how sonochemistry can continue to efficiently contribute to green chemistry area in the further studies.

  5. Pilot Project for Chemistry Teaching in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

    The major portion of this publication is devoted to the presentation of 20 chemistry experiments dealing with corrosion of metals. The experiments are intended for high school level students or for chemistry teachers for demonstration purposes. Diagrams and illustrations accompany the written directions. Also included in this publication are…

  6. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  7. Female Chemistry Faculty Numbers Remain Low.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylin, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Notes that women have earned 20 percent of chemistry Ph.D. degrees in recent years but hold only 4.9 percent of tenure track faculty positions in graduate chemistry departments. Lists faculties with three or more women and with none. Reviews a survey by the American Chemical Society's Women Chemists Committee. (MVL)

  8. "CHEM"opera for Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yong Hee

    2013-01-01

    "CHEM"opera is an opera blended with demonstrations of chemical reactions. It has been produced and performed twice by chemistry undergraduate students at Hallym University in South Korea. It aims to demonstrate interesting chemical reactions to chemistry students, children and the public and to facilitate their understanding of the role…

  9. Asymmetric Translation between Multiple Representations in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-01-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests…

  10. Challenges and opportunities for chemistry in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegaz, Berhanu

    2016-06-01

    Chemistry education and research in Africa is challenging -- a fact that is clearly reflected by publication metrics. Yet this is far from the full story on a continent that has youth on its side, a cultural link to chemistry through its strong interest in plants and indigenous medicine, and an increasing number of ways forward.

  11. Chemistry, A Syllabus for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Presented is a modern view of chemistry suitable for pupils with a wide range of skills and abilities. The outline of topics provides the unifying principles of chemistry together with related facts. The principles included in the outline are basic to man's understanding of his environment. The topical outline is divided into nine major units:…

  12. A COURSE OF STUDY IN CHEMISTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HELWIG, G. ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    AN ELECTIVE CHEMISTRY COURSE IS DESIGNED TO BE EQUALLY VALUABLE TO BOTH FUTURE SCIENTISTS AND NONSCIENTISTS. THE EMPHASIS IS PLACED ON FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND RELATIONSHIPS RATHER THAN ON DESCRIPTIVE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY. MAJOR OBJECTIVES ARE--TO SURVEY THE PRESENT STATE OF CHEMICAL KNOWLEDGE, TO EXAMINE IN SOME DEPTH CENTRAL CHEMICAL CONCEPTS…

  13. Chemistry. Teacher's Guide. Investigations in Natural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John W.; And Others

    Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This teaching guide is designed for use with the 19 chemistry investigations found in the student manual. These investigations focus on concepts related to:…

  14. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  15. The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The study of chemistry involved in the maintenance of a swimming pool provides a lot of chemical education to the students, including the demonstration of the importance of pH in water chemistry. The various chemical aspects hidden in the maintenance of the pool are being described.

  16. To Form a Favorable Idea of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2010-01-01

    "To confess the truth, Mrs. B., I am not disposed to form a very favorable idea of chemistry, nor do I expect to derive much entertainment from it." That 200-year-old statement by Caroline to Mrs. Bryan, her teacher, appeared on the first page of Jane Marcet's pioneering secondary school textbook, "Conversations on Chemistry". It was published 17…

  17. Throwing the Book at Elementary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    1983-01-01

    Several examples of misinformation and advanced topics included in current chemistry textbooks are provided. Suggests that since these books tend to be too long, too advanced, and too heavy, revisions should be shorter and less costly, with confusing aspects of chemistry (such as molecular-orbital theory) left out completely. (JN)

  18. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Chemistry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Shah, Priti

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of visuospatial cognition in chemistry learning. We review three related kinds of literature: correlational studies of spatial abilities and chemistry learning, students' conceptual errors and difficulties understanding visual representations, and visualization tools that have been designed to help overcome…

  19. The Chemistry of Fitness. Active Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergandine, David R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The outline for a unit on the chemistry of fitness and nutrition is presented. Topics discussed include the organic basis of life, functional groups, kitchen experiments, micronutrients, energetics, fitness vs. fatness, current topics, and evaluation. This unit reviews the basic concepts of chemical bonding, acid-base chemistry, stoichiometry, and…

  20. New Trends in Chemistry Teaching, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartmell, E.

    In this third volume of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) series on "New Trends in Chemistry Teaching," a total of 29 papers originally published during the period from 1969 to 1971 in leading chemistry-teaching periodicals of the world is compiled for the purpose of promoting information exchange. The…