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Sample records for chemistry pharmaceutical

  1. Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, Graham S.; Pendri, Yadagiri; Snyder, Lawrence B.; Yevich, Joseph P.; Deshpande, Milind

    This chapter will discuss the role of chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry. Although the focus will be upon the industry within the United States, much of the discussion is equally relevant to pharmaceutical companies based in other first world nations such as Japan and those in Europe. The major objective of the pharmaceutical industry is the discovery, development, and marketing of efficacious and safe drugs for the treatment of human disease. Of course drug companies do not exist as altruistic, charitable organizations but like other share-holder owned corporations within our capitalistic society must achieve profits in order to remain viable and competitive. Thus, there exists a conundrum between the dual goals of enhancing the quality and duration of human life and that of increasing stock-holder equity. Much has been written and spoken in the lay media about the high prices of prescription drugs and the hardships this places upon the elderly and others of limited income.

  2. [Pharmaceutical chemistry in a pharmacy practice].

    PubMed

    Hankó, B; Takácsné, N K

    2001-10-01

    The authors examine the utility and application of pharmaceutical chemistry is taught at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Semmelweis University, in the everyday pharmacy practice. Selected examples of the professional chemical knowledge necessary in different activities of pharmacists (as in drug quality control, storage of medicines, preparation of drugs in pharmacy and their issue (expenditure) to the patient etc.) are reviewed. Their experimental work on determination of expiry of an "ex tempore" prepared medicine demonstrates that it is possible to meet the principles of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP). The paper is based on certain chapters of diploma work of H. B., tutor T. N. K.

  3. Anisotropic surface chemistry of crystalline pharmaceutical solids.

    PubMed

    Heng, Jerry Y Y; Bismarck, Alexander; Williams, Daryl R

    2006-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to establish the link between the wetting behavior of crystalline pharmaceutical solids and the localized surface chemistry. A range of conventional wetting techniques were evaluated and compared with a novel experimental approach: sessile drop contact angle measurements on the individual facets of macroscopic (>1 cm) single crystals. Conventional measurement techniques for determining surface energetics such as capillary rise and sessile drops on powder compacts were found not to provide reliable results. When the macroscopic crystal approach was used, major differences for advancing contact angles, theta(a), of water were observed-as low as 16 degrees on facet (001) and as high as 68 degrees on facet (010) of form I paracetamol. theta(a) trends were in excellent agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface composition and known crystallographic structures, suggesting a direct relationship to the local surface chemistry. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was further used to probe the surface properties of milled and unmilled samples, as a function of particle size. IGC experiments confirmed that milling exposes the weakest attachment energy facet, with increasing dominance as particle size is reduced. The weakest attachment energy facet was also found to exhibit the highest theta(a) for water and to be the most hydrophobic facet. This anisotropic wetting behavior was established for a range of crystalline systems: paracetamol polymorphs, aspirin, and ibuprofen racemates. theta(a) was found to be very sensitive to the local surface chemistry. It is proposed that the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of facets reflects the presence of functional groups at surfaces to form hydrogen bonds with external molecules.

  4. Click Chemistry, a Powerful Tool for Pharmaceutical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Christopher D.; Liu, Xin-Ming; Wang, Dong

    2008-01-01

    Click chemistry refers to a group of reactions that are fast, simple to use, easy to purify, versatile, regiospecific, and give high product yields. While there are a number of reactions that fulfill the criteria, the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes has emerged as the frontrunner. It has found applications in a wide variety of research areas, including materials sciences, polymer chemistry, and pharmaceutical sciences. In this manuscript, important aspects of the Huisgen cycloaddition will be reviewed, along with some of its many pharmaceutical applications. Bioconjugation, nanoparticle surface modification, and pharmaceutical-related polymer chemistry will all be covered. Limitations of the reaction will also be discussed. PMID:18509602

  5. Computational Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry: From Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hillisch, Alexander; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Wild, Hanno

    2015-12-01

    Computational chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a field that proactively contributes to many aspects of drug design, including target selection and lead identification and optimization. While methodological advancements have been key to this development, organizational developments have been crucial to our success as well. In particular, the interaction between computational and medicinal chemistry and the integration of computational chemistry into the entire drug discovery process have been invaluable. Over the past ten years we have shaped and developed a highly efficient computational chemistry group for small-molecule drug discovery at Bayer HealthCare that has significantly impacted the clinical development pipeline. In this article we describe the setup and tasks of the computational group and discuss external collaborations. We explain what we have found to be the most valuable and productive methods and discuss future directions for computational chemistry method development. We share this information with the hope of igniting interesting discussions around this topic.

  6. [On teaching the chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliary substances within the framework of pharmaceutical education in the Czech and Slovak Republics].

    PubMed

    Jan, Subert

    2011-02-01

    The paper emphasizes the need of the introduction of the subject Chemistry of Pharmaceutical Auxiliaries into the Pharmacy study programme at more colleges in the Czech and Slovak Republics. It also introduces and discusses some topics for possible extension of the content of the courses of the subject (the presented examples are taken form the field of analytical chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliaries).

  7. The pharmaceutical biochemistry group: where pharmaceutical chemistry meets biology and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Perozzo, Remo; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Successful drug discovery and development of new therapeutics is a long, expensive multidisciplinary process needing innovation and the integration of smart cutting edge science and technology to overcome the challenges in taking a drug from the bench to the bedside. The research activities of the Pharmaceutical Biochemistry group span the drug discovery and development process, providing an interface that brings together pharmaceutical chemistry, biochemistry, structural biology, computational chemistry and biopharmaceutics. Formulation and drug delivery are brought into play at an earlier stage when facing the perennial challenge of transforming a potent molecule in vitro into a therapeutic agent in vivo. Concomitantly, drug delivery results can be understood at a molecular level. This broad range of interdisciplinary research activities and competences enables us to address key challenges in modern drug discovery and development, provides a powerful collaborative platform for other universities and the pharmaceutical industry and an excellent training platform for pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists who will later be involved in drug discovery and development.

  8. TRI as a Tool to Measure Green Chemistry Progress: A Pharmaceutical Case Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation of research using TRI data to investigate whether the pharmaceutical industry's implementation of green chemistry practices in manufacturing processes have significantly reduced the quantities of toxic chemicals it uses and releases.

  9. Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry--Bridging Disciplines and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert V.

    1977-01-01

    Because of their interest and expertise in the analysis of drugs in biological fluids, analytical pharmaceutical chemists can contribute significantly to interdisciplinary research and teaching efforts. Suggestions for such efforts are described. (Author/LBH)

  10. Radiation chemistry of salicylic and methyl substituted salicylic acids: Models for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceutical compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahi, Shakiba; Kalnina, Daina; Song, Weihua; Turks, Maris; Cooper, William J.

    2013-11-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivatives are components of many medications and moieties found in numerous pharmaceutical compounds. They have been used as models for various pharmaceutical compounds in pharmacological studies, for the treatment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and, reactions with natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, the radiation chemistry of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and four methyl substituted salicylic acids (MSA) is reported. The absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants for hydroxyl radical reaction with benzoic and salicylic acids as well as 3-methyl-, 4-methyl-, 5-methyl-, and 6-methyl-salicylic acid were determined (5.86±0.54)×109, (1.07±0.07)×1010, (7.48±0.17)×109, (7.31±0.29)×109, (5.47±0.25)×109, (6.94±0.10)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The hydrated electron reaction rate constants were measured (3.02±0.10)×109, (8.98±0.27)×109, (5.39±0.21)×109, (4.33±0.17)×109, (4.72±0.15)×109, (1.42±0.02)×109 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The transient absorption spectra for the six model compounds were examined and their role as model compounds for the radiation chemistry of pharmaceuticals investigated.

  11. Early drug discovery and the rise of pharmaceutical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne

    2011-06-01

    Studies in the field of forensic pharmacology and toxicology would not be complete without some knowledge of the history of drug discovery, the various personalities involved, and the events leading to the development and introduction of new therapeutic agents. The first medicinal drugs came from natural sources and existed in the form of herbs, plants, roots, vines and fungi. Until the mid-nineteenth century nature's pharmaceuticals were all that were available to relieve man's pain and suffering. The first synthetic drug, chloral hydrate, was discovered in 1869 and introduced as a sedative-hypnotic; it is still available today in some countries. The first pharmaceutical companies were spin-offs from the textiles and synthetic dye industry and owe much to the rich source of organic chemicals derived from the distillation of coal (coal-tar). The first analgesics and antipyretics, exemplified by phenacetin and acetanilide, were simple chemical derivatives of aniline and p-nitrophenol, both of which were byproducts from coal-tar. An extract from the bark of the white willow tree had been used for centuries to treat various fevers and inflammation. The active principle in white willow, salicin or salicylic acid, had a bitter taste and irritated the gastric mucosa, but a simple chemical modification was much more palatable. This was acetylsalicylic acid, better known as Aspirin®, the first blockbuster drug. At the start of the twentieth century, the first of the barbiturate family of drugs entered the pharmacopoeia and the rest, as they say, is history.

  12. Linking a Pharmaceutical Chemistry Workshop to Pharmacy Practice.

    PubMed

    Morral, Jordi; Culshaw, Margaret; Morral, Kim; Conway, Barbara; Adams, Sylvia; Adams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a workshop to enhance pharmacy students' appreciation of the importance of chemistry for pharmacy practice. The workshop was designed to form part of the practical work of two modules taught in the second year of the MPharm degree. In this mandatory workshop, second year pharmacy students were required to spot in the dispensary drugs based on their chemical properties like chirality, their origin and chemical structure. The lecturers involved in the workshop showed examples of the application of chemistry in the day to day work of the dispensary (e.g. calculating the dose for a patient in millimoles or how small modifications from a natural product can change its ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier). Feedback from participating students was collected via two survey instruments to examine the impact of the intervention. The survey results showed a clear shift towards a more positive perception by students of the chemistry taught in the MPharm curriculum.

  13. Computational chemistry in pharmaceutical research: at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Computational approaches are an integral part of pharmaceutical research. However, there are many of unsolved key questions that limit the scientific progress in the still evolving computational field and its impact on drug discovery. Importantly, a number of these questions are not new but date back many years. Hence, it might be difficult to conclusively answer them in the foreseeable future. Moreover, the computational field as a whole is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity and so is, unfortunately, the quality of its scientific output. In light of this situation, it is proposed that changes in scientific standards and culture should be seriously considered now in order to lay a foundation for future progress in computational research.

  14. The synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using continuous flow chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The implementation of continuous flow processing as a key enabling technology has transformed the way we conduct chemistry and has expanded our synthetic capabilities. As a result many new preparative routes have been designed towards commercially relevant drug compounds achieving more efficient and reproducible manufacture. This review article aims to illustrate the holistic systems approach and diverse applications of flow chemistry to the preparation of pharmaceutically active molecules, demonstrating the value of this strategy towards every aspect ranging from synthesis, in-line analysis and purification to final formulation and tableting. Although this review will primarily concentrate on large scale continuous processing, additional selected syntheses using micro or meso-scaled flow reactors will be exemplified for key transformations and process control. It is hoped that the reader will gain an appreciation of the innovative technology and transformational nature that flow chemistry can leverage to an overall process. PMID:26425178

  15. Pharmaceutical process chemistry: evolution of a contemporary data-rich laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Caron, Stéphane; Thomson, Nicholas M

    2015-03-20

    Over the past 20 years, the industrial laboratory environment has gone through a major transformation in the industrial process chemistry setting. In order to discover and develop robust and efficient syntheses and processes for a pharmaceutical portfolio with growing synthetic complexity and increased regulatory expectations, the round-bottom flask and other conventional equipment familiar to a traditional organic chemistry laboratory are being replaced. The new process chemistry laboratory fosters multidisciplinary collaborations by providing a suite of tools capable of delivering deeper process understanding through mechanistic insights and detailed kinetics translating to greater predictability at scale. This transformation is essential to the field of organic synthesis in order to promote excellence in quality, safety, speed, and cost efficiency in synthesis.

  16. 1980 Survey of Faculty Teaching in Departments of Medicinal/Pharmaceutical Chemistry at American Colleges of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuszak, Alice Jean; Sarnoff, Darwin

    1981-01-01

    An American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy survey of medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry faculty is reported. Data, including academic and experience backgrounds of faculty and their teaching load, are presented. Differences in training are noted in comparing the average chemistry professor to the average assistant professor. (Author/MLW)

  17. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology--strategies for drug delivery to the brain.

    PubMed

    Denora, Nunzio; Trapani, Adriana; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopedota, Angela; Trapani, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of some recent approaches for the treatment of brain pathologies examining both medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology contributions. Medicinal chemistry-based strategies are essentially aimed at the chemical modification of low molecular weight drugs in order to increase their lipophilicity or the design of appropriate prodrugs, although this review will focus primarily on the use of prodrugs and not analog development. Recently, interest has been focused on the design and evaluation of prodrugs that are capable of exploiting one or more of the various endogenous transport systems at the level of the blood brain barrier (BBB). The technological strategies are essentially non-invasive methods of drug delivery to malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) and are based on the use of nanosystems (colloidal carriers) such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric micelles and dendrimers. The biodistribution of these nanocarriers can be manipulated by modifying their surface physico-chemical properties or by coating them with surfactants and polyethylene-glycols (PEGs). Liposomes, surfactant coated polymeric nanoparticles, and solid lipid nanoparticles are promising systems for delivery of drugs to tumors of the CNS. This mini-review discusses issues concerning the scope and limitations of both the medicinal chemistry and technological approaches. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that crossing of the BBB and drug delivery to CNS is extremely complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach such as a close collaboration and common efforts among researchers of several scientific areas, particularly medicinal chemists, biologists and pharmaceutical technologists.

  18. Protein Chemistry: A Graduate Course in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at the University of Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Mark C.; Mitchell, James W.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Kansas course in pharmaceutical biotechnology aims at providing students with an understanding of the basic chemical and structural characteristics making protein pharmaceuticals unique and distinct. In addition, stability and analysis of proteins are emphasized. Attention given to molecular biology, drug delivery, and…

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS: THE SEPARATIONS FOCUS TURNS TO POLAR ANALYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosyst...

  20. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry 2015: Meet the Experts of MedChem near the Cradle of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wegscheid-Gerlach, Christof; Gerber, Hans-Dieter; Diederich, Wibke E

    2015-07-01

    Pioneering inspiration: Right next to the former laboratories of Johannes Hartmann, the first so-called "Professor of Chymiatrie", the 2015 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry meeting was held last March at Philipps University in Marburg, Germany. Herein we give readers an idea of what it was like to attend the conference, which was organized jointly by the DPhG, GDCh, and SCS. Along with the lectures, we also describe the poster sessions, social program, and awards.

  1. Mechanochemistry of magnesium oxide revisited: facile derivatisation of pharmaceuticals using coordination and supramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ernest H H; Strobridge, Fiona C; Friscić, Tomislav

    2010-09-14

    Liquid-assisted grinding allows the rapid, waste-free and one-pot synthesis of a variety of magnesium drug derivatives directly from the excipient MgO; such reactivity is relevant for the behaviour of ibuprofen formulations involving MgO and can be used for oxide-based mechanosynthesis of metal-organic salts, discrete complexes and carboxylate clusters involving magnesium and pharmaceutically active ingredients.

  2. Chromatographic resolution of closely related species in pharmaceutical chemistry: dehalogenation impurities and mixtures of halogen isomers.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Erik L; Zhuang, Ping; Chen, Yadan; Makarov, Alexey A; Schafer, Wes A; McGachy, Neil; Welch, Christopher J

    2014-01-07

    In recent years, the use of halogen-containing molecules has proliferated in the pharmaceutical industry, where the incorporation of halogens, especially fluorine, has become vitally important for blocking metabolism and enhancing the biological activity of pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals from associated isomers or dehalogenation impurities can sometimes be quite difficult. In an attempt to identify the best current tools available for addressing this important problem, a survey of the suitability of four chromatographic method development platforms (ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), core shell HPLC, achiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and chiral SFC) for separating closely related mixtures of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals and their dehalogenated isosteres is described. Of the 132 column and mobile phase combinations examined for each mixture, a small subset of conditions were found to afford the best overall performance, with a single UHPLC method (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing either phosphoric or perchloric acid with 150 mM sodium perchlorate) affording excellent separation for all samples. Similarly, a survey of several families of closely related halogen-containing small molecules representing the diversity of impurities that can sometimes be found in purchased starting materials for synthesis revealed chiral SFC (Chiralcel OJ-3 and Chiralpak IB, isopropanol or ethanol with 25 mM isobutylamine/carbon dioxide) as well as the UHPLC (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 and the Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing phosphoric acid) as preferred methods.

  3. "EMERGING" POLLUTANTS, AND COMMUNICATING THE SCIENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY: PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper weaves a rnulti-dimensioned perspective of mass spectrometry as a career against the backdrop of mass spectrometry's key role in the past and future of environmental chemistry. Along the way, some insights are offered for better focusing the spotlight on the discipline...

  4. Evaluation of flash supercritical fluid chromatography and alternate sample loading techniques for pharmaceutical medicinal chemistry purifications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry; Mahoney, Max

    2012-08-10

    Flash chromatography is the preferred approach for small molecule purification in pharmaceutical discovery. This paper will discuss the potential for flash supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) as an alternative technology for these purifications. It was shown that the high sample loadings seen with flash LC could also be achieved using flash SFC. The dry load injection technique greatly increases the amount of sample that can be applied to a flash SFC column while still achieving separation. Flash SFC has much lower solvent usage and higher purification productivities relative to flash LC. Product concentrations post purification were higher for flash SFC vs. flash LC, reducing the time required to isolate dry product. There still exist a number of technical details to be worked out with flash SFC, mainly around the equipment and column/cartridge technology.

  5. Understanding the solution phase chemistry and solid state thermodynamic behavior of pharmaceutical cocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Chinmay

    Cocrystals have drawn a lot of research interest in the last decade due to their potential to favorably alter the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. This dissertation focuses on the thermodynamic stability and solubility of pharmaceutical cocrystals. Specifically, the objectives are to; (i) investigate the influence of coformer properties such as solubility and ionization characteristics on cocrystal solubility and stability as a function of pH, (ii) to measure the thermodynamic solubility of metastable cocrystals, and study the solubility differences measured by kinetic and equilibrium methods, (iii) investigate the role of surfactants on the solubility and synthesis of cocrystals, (iv) investigate the solid state phase transformation of reactants to cocrystals and the factors that influence the reaction kinetics and, (v) provide models that enable the prediction of cocrystal formation by calculating the free energy of formation for a solid to solid transformation of reactants to cocrystals. Cocrystal solubilities were measured directly when cocrystals were thermodynamically stable, while solubilities were calculated from eutectic concentration measurements when cocrystals were of higher solubility than its components. Cocrystal solubility was highly dependent on coformer solubilities for gabapentin-lactam and lamotrigine cocrystals. It was found that melting point is not a good indicator of cocrystal solubility as solute-solvent interactions quantified by the activity coefficient play a huge role in the observed solubility. Similar to salts, cocrystals also exhibit pHmax, however the salts and cocrystals have different dependencies on the parameters that govern the value of pHmax. It is also shown that cocrystals could provide solubility advantage over salts as lamotrigine-nicotinamide cocrystal hydrate has about 6 fold higher solubility relative to lamotrigine-saccharin salt. In the case of mixtures of solid

  6. HPLC method development for evolving applications in the pharmaceutical industry and nanoscale chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiglione, Steven Louis

    As scientific research trends towards trace levels and smaller architectures, the analytical chemist is often faced with the challenge of quantitating said species in a variety of matricies. The challenge is heightened when the analytes prove to be potentially toxic or possess physical or chemical properties that make traditional analytical methods problematic. In such cases, the successful development of an acceptable quantitative method plays a critical role in the ability to further develop the species under study. This is particularly true for pharmaceutical impurities and nanoparticles (NP). The first portion of the research focuses on the development of a part-per-billion level HPLC method for a substituted phenazine-class pharmaceutical impurity. The development of this method was required due to the need for a rapid methodology to quantitatively determine levels of a potentially toxic phenazine moiety in order to ensure patient safety. As the synthetic pathway for the active ingredient was continuously refined to produce progressively lower amounts of the phenazine impurity, the approach for increasingly sensitive quantitative methods was required. The approaches evolved across four discrete methods, each employing a unique scheme for analyte detection. All developed methods were evaluated with regards to accuracy, precision and linear adherence as well as ancillary benefits and detriments -- e.g., one method in this evolution demonstrated the ability to resolve and detect other species from the phenazine class. The second portion of the research focuses on the development of an HPLC method for the quantitative determination of NP size distributions. The current methodology for the determination of NP sizes employs tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), which requires sample drying without particle size alteration and which, in many cases, may prove infeasible due to cost or availability. The feasibility of an HPLC method for NP size characterizations evolved

  7. The properties and the use of substituted benzofuroxans in pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Jovené, Cyril; Chugunova, Elena A; Goumont, Régis

    2013-06-01

    Since the synthesis of 4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxan in 1899 by Drost, benzofuroxans have attracted particular attention. This peculiar series of compounds exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activity including antibacterial, antifungal, antileukemic, acaricide and immunodepressive properties. These works embrace a period of more than 50 years since the pioneering paper of Gosh and Whitehouse and papers in this major field of the heterocyclic chemistry are still published in 2013. The review has been built in two independent parts. The first one is directly dedicated to the structure of substituted benzofuroxans and will show many medicinal applications of these compounds such as nitric oxide-releasing abilities, induction of oxidative stress, potent anti-cancer agents, anti-chagas agent, target for antiamoebic agent, Ca2+ channel blockers or cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic agent… The second part of this review will be in close connection with the use of benzofuroxans as synthetic precursors in the preparation of new biological compounds such as quinoxaline dioxide, benzimidazole and phenazine derivatives. The interaction of substituted benzofuroxans with electron rich heterocycles or carbanions is the key step in the synthesis of these new biological active compounds. These derivatives can be used as cytotoxic drugs, antimycobacterial agent and display anti-malarial, antileishmanial and antituberculosis activity. The nature of the substituent linked to the carbocyclic ring of benzofuroxan is of primary importance to understand the medicinal properties of this family of compounds. For example, when benzofuroxans are substituted by electron-releasing substituents, the chemical reactivity is transferred from the carbocyclic ring to the furoxan ring.

  8. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH NEEDS FOR MAPPING TRENDS OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCT POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The consensus among environmental scientists and risk assessors is that the fate and effects of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment are poorly understood. Many classes of PPCPs have yet to be investigated. Acquisition of trends data for a suite of...

  9. Purity Analysis of the Pharmaceuticals Naproxen and Propranolol: A Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiment in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakayode, Sayo O.

    2015-01-01

    Counterfeiting and adulteration of prescription drugs, herbal products, and food supplements are a global challenge, causing serious economic loss to drug marketers and health implications for humans. Accordingly, accurate determination of the purity of pharmaceuticals is critical for the quality assurance of prescription drugs. Herein, the first…

  10. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product.

  11. Advantages of cocrystallization in the field of solid-state pharmaceutical chemistry: L-Proline and MnCl(2).

    PubMed

    Tilborg, Anaëlle; Michaux, Catherine; Norberg, Bernadette; Wouters, Johan

    2010-08-01

    Cocrystallization (formation of a "cocrystal") is an emerging method to optimize physico-chemical properties of pharmaceutically active compounds. One elegant technique used to obtain such cocrystals is grinding the components together, either alone or in the presence of a small amount of solvent (so called solvent-drop grinding). Dry grinding has been used here to obtain cocrystals (actually a hydrated salt) of L-Proline and MnCl(2). In that context, a new crystalline structure of a multicomponent molecular complex composed of L-Proline and MnCl(2) is here reported. The complex was characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. This study underlines the interest of grinding as a method to synthesize original solid-state complexes. It also emphasizes the advantage of combining calorimetric and X-ray diffraction to characterize the newly formed solids. Finally, our work provides structural basis for the role that L-Proline can play within multicomponent solid-state molecular complexes, in particular as a potential cocrystal former acting by both ionic and H-bond interactions when combined to molecules of pharmaceutical interest.

  12. Influences of solution chemistry and polymeric natural organic matter on the removal of aquatic pharmaceutical residuals by nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Susanto, Heru; Nasseri, Simin; Ulbricht, Mathias

    2009-07-01

    This study demonstrates the removal efficiency and the permeate flux behavior during cross-flow nanofiltration (NF) of aqueous solutions of five pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). Cephalexin, tetracycline, acetaminophen, indomethacin and amoxicillin were used as models of PhACs, and alginate was selected as model of natural organic matter (NOM). Two commercial composite NF membranes (SR2 and SR3) with different characteristics were used. The highest rejection was observed for tetracycline, i.e., 75-95% for membrane SR 2 and 95-100% for membrane SR 3, while the rejection was least for acetaminophen (32-36% for SR2 and 52-59% for SR3). As the pH of acetaminophen solution was increased (from 6 to 9) the rejection would increase. Changes of ionic content (from 10 to 20mM) lead to increase (from 89 to 93% for SR 3) or decrease (from 100 to 91% for SR2) of cephalexin rejection depending on the membrane used. The permeate flux would decrease with decreasing the pH solution and increasing ionic strength. The addition of alginate in the feed stream decreased the permeate flux, with lower reduction for SR3, and increased the PhAC rejection except for acetaminophen and amoxicillin. Both size and Donnan exclusions seemed to occur, and the effect of Donnan exclusion was more pronounced for the NF membrane having larger effective pore size (SR2).

  13. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  14. [Fourcroy and pharmaceutical journals].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2011-04-01

    Cadet de Gassicourt wrote a brief Eloge of Fourcroy in January 1810 as he died in December of 1809. Fourcroy had a major role concerning the new ideas on the place of pharmacy at the beginning of the 19th century. Fourcroy has had a key influence for the start of several pharmaceutical journals that wanted to emphasize the link between the new chemistry and pharmacy. None of these journals created with him will survive and one has to wait for 1909 to see the creation, without Fourcroy, of a new pharmaceutical journal, the "Journal de Pharmacie" that will become "Journal de Pharmacie et des Sciences accessoires", then "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie", before taking the name of"Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises", the present official journal of the French Academy of Pharmacy. In spite of the essential role of Fourcroy at the start of pharmaceutical journals, Cadet did not even mention it in his Eloge of 1810.

  15. Does Your Drug Expertise Include Clinical Pharmaceutics?

    PubMed

    Newton, David W

    2016-01-01

    Whose job is it to protect patients from harm from drug instabilities and incompatibilities and other aspects of clinical pharmaceutics? Pharmacists are better educated via multiple required general and organic chemistry prerequisite and professional curricula medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics courses. Therefore, no healthcare professional other than pharmacists are nicknamed drug experts or are better formally educated to master drug chemistry in the bottle (i.e., injection stability and compatibility/incompatibility clinical pharmaceutics) as a prerequisite for drug administration to cause safe and effective drug chemistry in the body (i.e., clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacology). To be a patient's last chance for safe and effective drug therapy requires terminal control by pharmacists over identification, retrieval, preparation, labeling, and counseling or instruction of drug therapy.

  16. Pharmaceutical virtue.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily

    2006-06-01

    In the early history of psychopharmacology, the prospect of developing technologically sophisticated drugs to alleviate human ills was surrounded with a fervor that could be described as religious. This paper explores the subsequent history of the development of psychopharmacological agents, focusing on the ambivalent position of both the industry and its employees. Based on interviews with retired pharmaceutical employees who were active in the industry in the 1950s and 1960s when the major breakthroughs were made in the development of MAOIs and SSRIs, the paper explores the initial development of educational materials for use in sales campaigns. In addition, based on interviews with current employees in pharmaceutical sales and marketing, the paper describes the complex perspective of contemporary pharmaceutical employees who must live surrounded by the growing public vilification of the industry as rapacious and profit hungry and yet find ways to make their jobs meaningful and dignified. The paper will contribute to the understudied problem of how individuals function in positions that require them to be part of processes that on one description constitute a social evil, but on another, constitute a social good.

  17. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  18. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  19. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: Regulatory and Strategic Aspects, Design and Development.

    PubMed

    Gadade, Dipak Dilip; Pekamwar, Sanjay Sudhakar

    2016-12-01

    Cocrystal is a concept of the supramolecular chemistry which is gaining the extensive interest of researchers from pharmaceutical and chemical sciences and of drug regulatory agencies. The prominent reason of which is its ability to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. During the development of the pharmaceutical product, formulators have to optimize the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can be employed to improve vital physicochemical characteristics of a drug, including solubility, dissolution, bioavailability and stability of pharmaceutical compounds while maintaining its therapeutic activity. It is advantageous being a green synthesis approach for production of pharmaceutical compounds. The formation polymorphic forms, solvates, hydrates and salts of cocrystals during the synthesis reported in the literature which can be a potential issue in the development of pharmaceutical cocrystals. The approaches like hydrogen bonding rules, solubility parameters, screening through the CSD database or thermodynamic characteristics can be utilized for the rational design of cocrystals and selection of coformers for synthesis multi-component cocrystals. Considering the significance of pharmaceutical cocrystals pharmaceutical regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe issued guidance documents which may be helpful for pharmaceutical product registration in these regions. In this article, we deal with the design, synthesis, strategic aspects and characteristics of cocrystals along perspectives on its regulatory and intellectual property considerations.

  20. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: Regulatory and Strategic Aspects, Design and Development

    PubMed Central

    Gadade, Dipak Dilip; Pekamwar, Sanjay Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Cocrystal is a concept of the supramolecular chemistry which is gaining the extensive interest of researchers from pharmaceutical and chemical sciences and of drug regulatory agencies. The prominent reason of which is its ability to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. During the development of the pharmaceutical product, formulators have to optimize the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can be employed to improve vital physicochemical characteristics of a drug, including solubility, dissolution, bioavailability and stability of pharmaceutical compounds while maintaining its therapeutic activity. It is advantageous being a green synthesis approach for production of pharmaceutical compounds. The formation polymorphic forms, solvates, hydrates and salts of cocrystals during the synthesis reported in the literature which can be a potential issue in the development of pharmaceutical cocrystals. The approaches like hydrogen bonding rules, solubility parameters, screening through the CSD database or thermodynamic characteristics can be utilized for the rational design of cocrystals and selection of coformers for synthesis multi-component cocrystals. Considering the significance of pharmaceutical cocrystals pharmaceutical regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe issued guidance documents which may be helpful for pharmaceutical product registration in these regions. In this article, we deal with the design, synthesis, strategic aspects and characteristics of cocrystals along perspectives on its regulatory and intellectual property considerations. PMID:28101455

  1. Vendor qualification for pharmaceutical excipients--GMP requirements and approach.

    PubMed

    Patel, K T; Chotal, N P

    2010-11-01

    Excipients are, in the large majority of cases, not made specifically for pharmaceutical use. Most pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers supply less than 10% of the total production of that particular material for pharmaceutical use. Excipient product portfolio consists of hundreds of products differing in chemistry, origin and functionality and they are used in many different applications. The days of treating excipients like commodities and buying them without fully qualifying the source and the entire distribution chain have gone by as GMP regulations demands to ensure quality of other materials used in the manufacturing process. The paradigm that exists in some pharmaceutical companies today where excipients are sourced from distributors without knowing the actual manufacturer, manufacturing site and full distribution lifecycle chain to be changed. The present contribution gives an overview about the current moves on GMP requirements for pharmaceutical excipient and approach for qualification of pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers.

  2. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: an overview.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ning; Li, Mingzhong; Schlindwein, Walkiria; Malek, Nazneen; Davies, Angela; Trappitt, Gary

    2011-10-31

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are emerging as a new class of solid drugs with improved physicochemical properties, which has attracted increased interests from both industrial and academic researchers. In this paper a brief and systematic overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals is provided, with particular focus on cocrystal design strategies, formation methods, physicochemical property studies, characterisation techniques, and recent theoretical developments in cocrystal screening and mechanisms of cocrystal formations. Examples of pharmaceutical cocrystals are also summarised in this paper.

  3. Pharmaceuticals Exposed to the Space Environment: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Health Countermeasures Element maintains ongoing efforts to inform detailed risks, gaps, and further questions associated with the use of pharmaceuticals in space. Most recently, the Pharmacology Risk Report, released in 2010, illustrates the problems associated with maintaining pharmaceutical efficacy. Since the report, one key publication includes evaluation of pharmaceutical products stored on the International Space Station (ISS). This study shows that selected pharmaceuticals on ISS have a shorter shelf-life in space than corresponding terrestrial controls. The HRP Human Research Roadmap for planetary exploration identifies the risk of ineffective or toxic medications due to long-term storage during missions to Mars. The roadmap also identifies the need to understand and predict how pharmaceuticals will behave when exposed to radiation for long durations. Terrestrial studies of returned samples offer a start for predictive modeling. This paper shows that pharmaceuticals returned to Earth for post-flight analyses are amenable to a Weibull distribution analysis in order to support probabilistic risk assessment modeling. The paper also considers the prospect of passive payloads of key pharmaceuticals on sample return missions outside of Earth's magnetic field to gather additional statistics. Ongoing work in radiation chemistry suggests possible mitigation strategies where future work could be done at cryogenic temperatures to explore methods for preserving the strength of pharmaceuticals in the space radiation environment, perhaps one day leading to an architecture where pharmaceuticals are cached on the Martian surface and preserved cryogenically.

  4. Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development.

    PubMed

    Kinter, Lewis B; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2016-12-01

    Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations. While each transformation resulted in more effective and/or safer pharmaceuticals, overall attrition, cycle time, cost, numbers of animals used, and low probability of success for new products remain concerns, and pharmaceutical development remains a very high risk business proposition. In this manuscript we review pharmaceutical development since ancient times, describe its coevolution with animal experimentation, and attempt to predict the characteristics of future transformations.

  5. Pharmaceutical Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyegbile, F. Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Nigeria has six pharmacy schools, most offering graduate programs. The undergraduate program is being expanded from four to five years. Although behavioral and clinical sciences are offered, emphasis is on the pharmaceutical sciences. Overall, pharmaceutical education is oriented toward hospice practice. (Author/MSE)

  6. Radiation treatment of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dám, A. M.; Gazsó, L. G.; Kaewpila, S.; Maschek, I.

    1996-03-01

    Product specific doses were calculated for pharmaceuticals to be radiation treated. Radio-pasteurization dose were determined for some heat sensitive pharmaceutical basic materials (pancreaton, neopancreatin, neopancreatin USP, duodenum extract). Using the new recommendation (ISO standards, Method 1) dose calculations were performed and radiation sterilization doses were determined for aprotinine and heparine Na.

  7. Sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Marian C; Dillon, Barry; Hamann, Lawrence G; Hughes, Gregory J; Kopach, Michael E; Peterson, Emily A; Pourashraf, Mehrnaz; Raheem, Izzat; Richardson, Paul; Richter, Daniel; Sneddon, Helen F

    2013-08-08

    The medicinal chemistry subgroup of the American Chemical Society's Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable (ACS GCI PR) offers a perspective on the current state of environmentally sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry with the aim of sharing best practices more widely and highlighting some potential future developments.

  8. FDA pharmaceutical quality oversight.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lawrence X; Woodcock, Janet

    2015-08-01

    The launch of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Office of Pharmaceutical Quality (OPQ) is a milestone in FDA's efforts to assure that quality medicines are available to the American public. As a new super-office within CDER, OPQ is strategically organized to streamline regulatory processes, advance regulatory standards, align areas of expertise, and originate surveillance of drug quality. Supporting these objectives will be an innovative and systematic approach to product quality knowledge management and informatics. Concerted strategies will bring parity to the oversight of innovator and generic drugs as well as domestic and international facilities. OPQ will promote and encourage the adoption of emerging pharmaceutical technology to enhance pharmaceutical quality and potentially reinvigorate the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector in the United States. With a motto of "One Quality Voice," OPQ embodies the closer integration of review, inspection, surveillance, policy, and research for the purpose of strengthening pharmaceutical quality on a global scale.

  9. "Molecules-in-Medicine": Peer-Evaluated Presentations in a Fast-Paced Organic Chemistry Course for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadnikova, Ekaterina N.

    2013-01-01

    To accentuate the importance of organic chemistry in development of contemporary pharmaceuticals, a three-week unit entitled "Molecules-in-Medicine" was included in the curriculum of a comprehensive one-semester four-credit organic chemistry course. After a lecture on medicinal chemistry concepts and pharmaceutical practices, students…

  10. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED GREENER SYNTHESIS OF PHARMACEUTICALLY ACTIVE HETEROCYCLES UNDER BENIGN CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapidly developing new field that provides us a proactive avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. Environmentally benign protocols have been developed for the synthesis of various pharmaceutically active heterocycles namely ...

  11. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that can occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/images/drawing.pdf). Concerted research that began in Europe about two decades ago, and in the u.s. in the late 1990s, has begun escalating in the last few years. Investigation that was originally limited to studying the sources, origins, and occurrence of PPCPs primarily in waters has now expanded to encompass occurrence in other matrices and to consider the complexities involved with the range of unanticipated and subtle effects that might occur from low-dose. chronic exposure of non-target organisms. Risk management options designed around the principles of pollution prevention and environmental stewardship are also under discussion in the healthcare community. This paper will focus on the efforts being coordinated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, much of which is captured on the PPCPs web site: http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth co

  12. Amorphous pharmaceutical solids.

    PubMed

    Vranić, Edina

    2004-07-01

    Amorphous forms are, by definition, non-crystalline materials which possess no long-range order. Their structure can be thought of as being similar to that of a frozen liquid with the thermal fluctuations present in a liquid frozen out, leaving only "static" structural disorder. The amorphous solids have always been an essential part of pharmaceutical research, but the current interest has been raised by two developments: a growing attention to pharmaceutical solids in general, especially polymorphs and solvates and a revived interest in the science of glasses and the glass transition. Amorphous substances may be formed both intentionally and unintentionally during normal pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The properties of amorphous materials can be exploited to improve the performance of pharmaceutical dosage forms, but these properties can also give rise to unwanted effects that need to be understood and managed in order for the systems to perform as required.

  13. Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Fent, Karl; Weston, Anna A; Caminada, Daniel

    2006-02-10

    Low levels of human medicines (pharmaceuticals) have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents, surface waters, seawaters, groundwater and some drinking waters. For some pharmaceuticals effects on aquatic organisms have been investigated in acute toxicity assays. The chronic toxicity and potential subtle effects are only marginally known, however. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about human pharmaceuticals in the environment and address several key questions. What kind of pharmaceuticals and what concentrations occur in the aquatic environment? What is the fate in surface water and in STP? What are the modes of action of these compounds in humans and are there similar targets in lower animals? What acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects may be elicited by pharmaceuticals and by mixtures? What are the effect concentrations and how do they relate to environmental levels? Our review shows that only very little is known about long-term effects of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms, in particular with respect to biological targets. For most human medicines analyzed, acute effects to aquatic organisms are unlikely, except for spills. For investigated pharmaceuticals chronic lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) in standard laboratory organisms are about two orders of magnitude higher than maximal concentrations in STP effluents. For diclofenac, the LOEC for fish toxicity was in the range of wastewater concentrations, whereas the LOEC of propranolol and fluoxetine for zooplankton and benthic organisms were near to maximal measured STP effluent concentrations. In surface water, concentrations are lower and so are the environmental risks. However, targeted ecotoxicological studies are lacking almost entirely and such investigations are needed focusing on subtle environmental effects. This will allow better and comprehensive risk assessments of pharmaceuticals in the future.

  14. Problem Solving Strategies for Pharmaceutical/Chemical Technology College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, George F.; Alexander, William E.

    Teaching problem solving strategies and steps to first year college students enrolled in the pharmaceutical/chemical technology program as a part of their first year chemistry course focused on teaching the students the basic steps in problem solving and encouraging them to plan carefully and focus on the problem solving process rather than to…

  15. Upon Further Review: A Commodity Chemist on Green Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F.

    2016-09-01

    Green chemistry is most often thought of in the context of specialty or pharmaceutical chemicals where many synthetic chemistry approaches are in play. However, principles similar to those of green chemistry and engineering were employed over the years in reducing cost and increasing volume of chemicals that became commodities. This paper considers some of those principles, their impact, and some perspectives on the potential and limits associated with green chemistry for commodity chemicals.

  16. Combinatorial nanodiamond in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dae Gon; Prim, Racelly Ena; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Park, Kinam; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-11-30

    One of the newly emerging carbon materials, nanodiamond (ND), has been exploited for use in traditional electric materials and this has extended into biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently, NDs have attained significant interests as a multifunctional and combinational drug delivery system. ND studies have provided insights into granting new potentials with their wide ranging surface chemistry, complex formation with biopolymers, and combination with biomolecules. The studies that have proved ND inertness, biocompatibility, and low toxicity have made NDs much more feasible for use in real in vivo applications. This review gives an understanding of NDs in biomedical engineering and pharmaceuticals, focusing on the classified introduction of ND/drug complexes. In addition, the diverse potential applications that can be obtained with chemical modification are presented.

  17. Connecting Acids and Bases with Encapsulation... and Chemistry with Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criswell, Brett

    2007-01-01

    The features and the development of various new acids and bases activity sets that combines chemistry with nanotechnology are being described. These sets lead to the generation of many nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals for the treatment of various diseases.

  18. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  19. Consumer Chemistry in the Classroom. Science from the Supermarket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Brown, Fred W.

    1991-01-01

    Activities that show students a practical use for chemistry using common items such as food products, pharmaceuticals, and household products as sources of chemical compounds are presented. The importance of having adequate resource materials available for students is emphasized. (KR)

  20. Biophysical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  1. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  2. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  3. Chemistry Dashboard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  4. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  5. Reflections on Pharmaceutical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of the implications of adopting a new example for pharmaceutical education focuses on the need to develop a new pharmacy college culture and on the faculty's role in addressing stated educational goals. Anticipated changes in staffing and faculty development and difficulties in reorganizing curricula are examined. (MSE)

  6. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In contrast to other types of pollutants, PPCPs owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but aggregate/cumulative usage and disposal by multitudes of individuals. An overview of this multi-faceted issue can be found at a U.S. EPA web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdl/chemistry/pharma/index.htm), which also provides a reprint of a review article published in Environmental Health Perspectives. PPCPs can enter the environment following their ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPS in landfills and to domestic sewage are additional routes to the environment. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS; the efficiencies with which they are removed from sewage vary from nearly complete to ineffective. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for most PPCPS. Little is known with respect to actual or even potential adverse effects on non-target species; human exposure via drinking water is poorly defined. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated

  7. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In contrast to other types of pollutants, PPCPs owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but aggregate/cumulative usage and disposal by multitudes of individuals. An overview of this multi-faceted issue can be found at a U.S. EPA web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdl/chemistry/pharma/index.htm), which also provides a reprint of an Environmental Health Perspectives review article. PPCPs can enter the environment via excreta or wash water following their ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Direct disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and domestic sewage is an additional route to the environment. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS; removal efficiencies vary from nearly complete to ineffective. The aquatic and groundwater environments serve as the major, ultimate receptacles for most PPCPS. Little is known with respect to actual or even potential adverse effects on non-target species; human exposure via drinking water is poorly defined. While PPCPs in the environment (or drinking water) are not regulated, and even t

  8. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In contrast to other types of pollutants, PPCPs owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but aggregate/cumulative usage and disposal by multitudes of individuals. An overview of this multi-faceted issue can be found at a U.S. EPA web site (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdl/chemistry/pharma/index.htm), which also provides a reprint of a review article published in Environmental Health Perspectives as well as many other resources including several chapters from a new American Chemical Society book. PPCPs can enter the environment following their ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and to domestic sewage are additional routes to the environment. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS; the efficiencies with which they are removed from sewage vary from nearly complete to ineffective. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for most PPCPS. Little is known with respect to actual or even potential adverse effects on non-target species; human exposure via drinking wate

  9. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  10. Old Yet New--Pharmaceuticals from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Peter J.

    2001-02-01

    Plants or their crude extracts have been used since prehistory to treat human ailments. Plants are still used in this way in many parts of the world, but Western scientific medicine has tended to isolate active compounds, or make derivatives of them, for use as drugs. Compounds produced by the plant have been important pharmaceuticals since the isolation of morphine almost two hundred years ago and new naturally occurring compounds such as paclitaxel are continually being introduced commercially. Bioactive molecules may also be produced from chemicals found in plants by chemical modification using synthetic chemistry or microorganisms (as in the production of steroids). A third major contribution of plant chemicals to drugs is their utilization as templates for the design of new compounds made by synthesis (e.g. the discovery of aspirin and related compounds from substances in willow bark). New pharmaceuticals from plants are being discovered by examining traditional medicines and by large-scale bioassay screening processes. In addition, the chemical survival systems of plants that exist in hostile environments are receiving increasing attention as leads to discover active compounds. The knowledge of botanical relationships helps find new sources of known compounds of interest and novel compounds with similar structures from related species. Future prospects for the discovery of new compounds from plants are broadened by the new technologies of gene manipulation, tissue culture, and combinatorial chemistry, so it is very likely that natural products from plants will continue to play an important role in the fight against disease.

  11. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  12. Forensic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  13. Recent advances in the chemistry and biology of pyridopyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Buron, F; Mérour, J Y; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Routier, S

    2015-05-05

    The interest in pyridopyrimidine cores for pharmaceutical products makes this scaffold a highly useful building block for organic chemistry. These derivatives have found applications in various areas of medicine such as anticancer, CNS, fungicidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial therapies. This review mainly focuses on the progress achieved since 2004 in the chemistry and biological activity of pyridopyrimidines.

  14. Inkjet printing for pharmaceutics - A review of research and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Harrington, Tomás S; Martin, Graham D; Hutchings, Ian M

    2015-10-30

    Global regulatory, manufacturing and consumer trends are driving a need for change in current pharmaceutical sector business models, with a specific focus on the inherently expensive research costs, high-risk capital-intensive scale-up and the traditional centralised batch manufacturing paradigm. New technologies, such as inkjet printing, are being explored to radically transform pharmaceutical production processing and the end-to-end supply chain. This review provides a brief summary of inkjet printing technologies and their current applications in manufacturing before examining the business context driving the exploration of inkjet printing in the pharmaceutical sector. We then examine the trends reported in the literature for pharmaceutical printing, followed by the scientific considerations and challenges facing the adoption of this technology. We demonstrate that research activities are highly diverse, targeting a broad range of pharmaceutical types and printing systems. To mitigate this complexity we show that by categorising findings in terms of targeted business models and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) chemistry we have a more coherent approach to comparing research findings and can drive efficient translation of a chosen drug to inkjet manufacturing.

  15. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Method In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012–2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (−€9,367 million), France

  16. Chemistry in the Time of the Pharaohs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Egyptians were known in the ancient world as experts in many applied chemistry fields such as metallurgy, wine and beer making, glass making, paper manufacture, paint pigments, dyes, cosmetics, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals. They made significant developments in the extraction of metals from their ores, especially copper and gold. The…

  17. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  18. Gray marketing of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, P E; Walsh, M G

    1995-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketers in the European Union are constrained by regulated prices, opening up opportunities for gray marketers. The authors investigate the legal framework that regulates gray markets by summarizing and analyzing relevant European Court of Justice decisions that favor gray marketers and actually foster parallel trade. Before marketing managers can develop effective strategies in this marketplace, they must first understand the precedents of the legal system in which they will be operating.

  19. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  20. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  1. A Market for Pharmaceuticals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murton, K. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes a valuable exercise in industrial liason and in the education of undergraduates in an interdisciplinary course in chemistry and business studies. It enables students to consider both technical and commercial constraints in formulating decisions on a future research and development program. (Author/HM)

  2. Bolaamphiphiles: A Pharmaceutical Review

    PubMed Central

    Fariya, Mayur; Jain, Ankitkumar; Dhawan, Vivek; Shah, Sanket; Nagarsenker, Mangal S.

    2014-01-01

    The field of drug discovery is ever growing and excipients play a major role in it. A novel class of amphiphiles has been discussed in the review. The review focuses on natural as well as synthetic bolaamphiphiles, their chemical structures and importantly, their ability to self assemble rendering them of great use to pharmaceutical industry. Recent reports on their ability to be used in fabrication of suitable nanosized carriers for drug as well as genes to target site, has been discussed substantially to understand the potential of bolaamphiphiles in field of drug delivery. PMID:25671179

  3. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  4. Pharmaceutical Education and the Translation of Pharmaceutical Care into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Gail D.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach to reform of pharmaceutical education is seen as necessary to link intended outcomes of reform to a progressive and generally accepted mission of professional practice. Cooperation between pharmaceutical education, professional organizations, and regulatory agencies is viewed as necessary and refinement of professional…

  5. Deliquescence of pharmaceutical systems.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Lisa J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2010-12-01

    Deliquescence is a first order phase transition from solid to solution that occurs at a relative humidity (RH) that is characteristic to the crystalline compound. Such dissolution of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients can lead to detrimental physical and chemical instabilities. Furthermore, in systems containing more than one deliquescent component, the RH of the solid-solution transition will be lowered, leading to some level of dissolution at unexpectedly low RH conditions. Deliquescence lowering is independent of the ratio of the deliquescent components and therefore is of concern for any formulation containing two or more deliquescent compounds. Because chemical reactions occur much more readily in solution, deliquescence will enhance the degradation of labile APIs. RH fluctuations will lead to cycles of deliquescence and efflorescence (crystallization), which will contribute to particle agglomeration and caking. This review will address the phenomenon of deliquescence, the significance of deliquescence to pharmaceutical systems, measurement techniques, the kinetics and thermodynamics of deliquescence, the behavior of mixtures of deliquescent compounds (including phase diagrams and thermodynamics of binary systems), and consequences of deliquescence on chemical and physical stability.

  6. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    PubMed Central

    Lezaun, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures. PMID:25866425

  7. National Chemistry Week 2000: JCE Resources in Food Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2000-10-01

    November brings another National Chemistry Week, and this year's theme is food chemistry. I was asked to collect and evaluate JCE resources for use with this theme, a project that took me deep into past issues of JCE and yielded many treasures. Here we present the results of searches for food chemistry information and activities. While the selected articles are mainly at the high school and college levels, there are some excellent ones for the elementary school level and some that can be adapted for younger students. The focus of all articles is on the chemistry of food itself. Activities that only use food to demonstrate a principle other than food chemistry are not included. Articles that cover household products such as cleansers and pharmaceuticals are also not included. Each article has been characterized as a demonstration, experiment, calculation, activity, or informational item; several fit more than one classification. Also included are keywords and an evaluation as to which levels the article may serve.

  8. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  9. Designing a Pharmaceutical Care Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrier, Donald G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for developing a pharmacy school curriculum based on the principle of pharmaceutical care and professional responsibility are offered, beginning with mission statements for profession, practice, and pharmaceutical education in general. The University of Toronto experience in designing such a curriculum is chronicled as an illustration…

  10. UPLC: a preeminent technique in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Saini, Gautam; Nair, Anroop; Sharma, Rishbha

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical companies today are driven to create novel and more efficient tools to discover, develop, deliver and monitor the drugs. In this contest the development of rapid chromatographic method is crucial for the analytical laboratories. In precedent decade, substantial technological advances have been done in enhancing particle chemistry performance, improving detector design and in optimizing the system, data processors and various controls of chromatographic techniques. When all was blended together, it resulted in the outstanding performance via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), which holds back the principle of HPLC technique. UPLC shows a dramatic enhancement in speed, resolution as well as the sensitivity of analysis by using particle size less than 2 pm and the system is operational at higher pressure, while the mobile phase could be able to run at greater linear velocities as compared to HPLC. This technique is considered as a new focal point in field of liquid chromatographic studies. This review focuses on the basic principle, instrumentation of UPLC and its advantages over HPLC, furthermore, this article emphasizes various pharmaceutical applications of this technique.

  11. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  12. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  13. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  14. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  15. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  16. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  17. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  18. [Pharmaceutical logistic in turnover of pharmaceutical products of Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Dzhalilova, K I

    2009-11-01

    Development of pharmaceutical logistic system model promotes optimal strategy for pharmaceutical functioning. The goal of such systems is organization of pharmaceutical product's turnover in required quantity and assortment, at preset time and place, at a highest possible degree of consumption readiness with minimal expenses and qualitative service. Organization of the optimal turnover chain in the region is offered to start from approximate classification of medicaments by logistic characteristics. Supplier selection was performed by evaluation of timeliness of delivery, quality of delivered products (according to the minimum acceptable level of quality) and time-keeping of time spending for orders delivery.

  19. [Pharmaceuticals: a strategic national industry].

    PubMed

    Hollender, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Asked by Mme Nicole Fontaine, Delegate Minister of Industry, to help the government with its ongoing reflections on pharmaceutical industrial strategy, and the necessary autonomy of our country in the face of major commercial threats, a working group of the French National Academy of Medicine consulted representatives of five French and two foreign major drug companies. Their statements can be classified in four categories:--the first concerns new medications, which must be approved successively by three commissions, whose opinions are often delayed and influenced by economic considerations;--second, public and private research are both insufficient and are sometimes hindered by procedural restrictions,--third, the pharmaceutical industry is unable to deal with frequent and unforseeable political upheavals,--France does not adequately recognize the strategic importance of the pharmaceutical industry in the national economy. The Academy makes several recommendations: the French pharmaceutical industry should be considered as a national priority, the strategic importance of national pharmaceutical companies should be recognized, a multi-annual contract should be signed with manufacturers, clinical trials should be facilitated in France, relationships between the national pharmaceutical industry and public research structures should be reinforced, and an inter-ministerial Council on Pharmaceuticals should be created. This study was supplemented by a survey of veterinary medications, the results and conclusions of which are very similar to those outlined above for human medicines.

  20. Radiation applications of physical chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talrose, V. L.

    1991-05-01

    Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In the USSR, the development in this field is associated with the name of N. N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems. The new Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences is dealing with some of them. An overview of the Institute's work on radiation applications is presented. Examples of the use of radiation in the power industry (e.g., in coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production, and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for extensive utilization is demonstrated.

  1. GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals).

    PubMed

    Knutson, Keith L

    2002-01-01

    Progenics Pharmaceuticals is developing GMK vaccine (a ganglioside conjugate vaccine coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and formulated with the adjuvant QS-21), licensed from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, for the potential treatment of melanoma and other cancers [194258], [325284]. It was previously under co-development with Bristol-Myers Squibb, but in May 2001, all rights to the GMK vaccine were returned to Progenics [409168]. It was the first of a new class of ganglioside conjugate vaccine evaluated by Progenics [194258]. GMK vaccination induces antibodies against GM2 ganglioside capable of specifically killing melanoma cells. Melanoma patients with antibodies against GM2 ganglioside have significantly improved disease-free and overall survival compared to antibody-negative subjects. The vaccine is undergoing two phase III trials, the first comparing GMK to high-dose IFNalpha in melanoma patients with more serious disease and at a high risk of relapse, and the second, in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, comparing GMK (14 doses of GMK over three years) to no treatment other than close monitoring of malignant melanoma patients at immediate risk of relapse [409168]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted that the vaccine had a 50% probability of reaching market, with an estimated first launch date in 2002. The analysts predicted potential peak sales in 2008 of $150 million in the US and $100 million in the rest of the world at that time [319225]. In January 2000, Lehman Brothers expected that an NDA filing would take place in 2002, with possible launch of the vaccine in 2003. In addition, Lehman Brothers estimated potential peak sales at $500 million [357788]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of GMK and PRO-542 in 2002 [390063]. In July 2001, Ladenburg Thalmann predicted a $257 million

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/m

  4. Biricodar. Vertex Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Dey, Saibal

    2002-05-01

    Vertex is developing biricodar as a chemosensitizing agent designed to restore the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor multidrug resistance. By November 1998, phase II trials had commenced for biricodar, in combination with chemotherapy, for five common cancer indications: breast, ovarian, soft-tissue sarcomas, small cell lung cancer and prostate cancer. Phase II trials were ongoing in January 2002. By March 2000, Vertex was the sole developer of biricodar, as an agreement made in 1996 with BioChem Pharma (now Shire Pharmaceuticals), for the development and marketing of biricodar in Canada was terminated. Biricodar is the free base compound, which also has a citrate salt analog known as VX-710-3. Vertex has published three patents, WO-09615101, WO-09636630 and WO-09736869, disclosing derivatives of biricodar that are claimed for the treatment of multidrug resistant protein and P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistant tumors. In January 2002, a Banc of America analyst report forecast that biricodar had a 30% chance of reaching the market with a launch date in the second half of 2005, with peak sales estimated at $250 million.

  5. OSI-774 OSI Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Norman, P

    2001-02-01

    OSI-774 (formerly CP-358774), a quinazoline derivative, is an orally active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor which was originally under joint development by Pfizer and OSI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Oncogene Science) for the potential treatment of cancer (eg, ovarian, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck). It is being evaluated in phase II trials [304305], [372201]. On 8 January 2001, OSI announced that it had signed an agreement with Roche and Genentech for the global co-development and marketing of OSI-774. The agreement with Genentech covers the United States, that with Roche the rest of the world [395371], [395526]. In June 2000, OSI gained all development and marketing rights for OSI-774 following Pfizer's merger with Warner-Lambert [371439]. In September 2000, Pfizer transferred the IND dossierfor OSI-774 to OSI ahead of the timeline agreed in the June 2000 development and marketing rights agreement [383786]. The phase II trials will assess OSI-774 both as a single agent and in combination with existing chemotherapy regimens [347783]. Phase III trials are expected to be initiated in 2001 [347783]. In October 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted that OSI-774 would move into pivotal trials in thefirst half of 2001 and that the drug would be launched in 2003. The analysts also estimated worldwide sales of US $66 million, $285 million and $461 million in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and peak sales in excess of US $500 million [395189].

  6. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  7. PHARMACEUTICALS AS UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be minuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP rarely ever exceeds the sub-ppm level (if present in drinking water, concentrations of individual PPCPs are generally less than the ppt-ppb level), evidence is accumulating that these trace-Ievel pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environmental half-lives ( e.g., where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commercial use). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-ar

  8. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  9. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences.

  10. [PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].

    PubMed

    Morénas, J

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  12. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  13. On being green: can flow chemistry help?

    PubMed

    Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-01

    The principles of Green Chemistry are important but challenging drivers for most modern synthesis programs. To meet these challenges new flow chemistry tools are proving to be very effective by providing improved heat/mass transfer opportunities, lower solvent usage, less waste generation, hazardous compound containment, and the possibility of a 24/7 working regime. This machine-assisted approach can be used to effect repetitive or routine scale-up steps or when combined with reagent and scavenger cartridges, to achieve multi-step synthesis of complex natural products and pharmaceutical agents.

  14. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M. Abu; Charoo, Naseem A.; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development. PMID:27606256

  15. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M Abu; Charoo, Naseem A; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development.

  16. High-Resolution Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Polymorphism in Cimetidine, a Pharmaceutical Compound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacilio, Julia E.; Tokarski, John T.; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Iuliucci, Robbie J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has many advantages as a tool to characterize solid-phase material that finds applications in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, biomolecular structure determination, and others, including the pharmaceutical industry. The technology associated with achieving high resolution…

  17. A Laboratory Experiment in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Analysis of Diazepam Tablets by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    The experiment described was developed for the third-year course in inorganic and analytical pharmaceutical chemistry to provide students with "hands-on" experience with high pressure liquid chromatography. Assay procedures are given along with experimental parameters and student results. (LBH)

  18. Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Schoneker, Dave; Ulman, Katherine L; Sturm, Jason J; Thackery, Lisa M; Kauffman, John F

    2015-12-01

    Control of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical materials is currently undergoing a transition from control based on concentrations in components of drug products to control based on permitted daily exposures in drug products. Within the pharmaceutical community, there is uncertainty regarding the impact of these changes on manufactures of drug products. This uncertainty is fueled in part by a lack of publically available information on elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients. This paper summarizes a recent survey of elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients as well as some drug substances. A widely applicable analytical procedure was developed and was shown to be suitable for analysis of elements that are subject to United States Pharmacopoeia Chapter <232> and International Conference on Harmonization's Q3D Guideline on Elemental Impurities. The procedure utilizes microwave-assisted digestion of pharmaceutical materials and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of these elements. The procedure was applied to 190 samples from 31 different excipients and 15 samples from eight drug substances provided through the International Pharmaceutical Excipient Council of the Americas. The results of the survey indicate that, for the materials included in the study, relatively low levels of elemental impurities are present.

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  20. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  1. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  2. Confectionary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  3. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  4. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  5. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  6. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  7. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  8. Microscale Chemistry and Green Chemistry: Complementary Pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the complementary nature of microscale chemistry and green chemistry. Green chemistry emphasizes the concepts of atom economy, source reduction, pathway modification, solvent substitution, and pollution prevention as means of improving the environmental impact of industrial chemistry. Microscale chemistry serves as a tool for incorporating green chemistry ideas across the curriculum in educational institutions. Examples are drawn from microscale laboratory experiments to illustrate the pedagogic connection between the two areas.

  9. Molecular Medicine - CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference: Mastering Medicinal Chemistry - CHI's Seventh Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Terrett, Nick

    2010-04-01

    CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference on Molecular Medicine, held in San Francisco, included topics covering new developments in the field of medicinal chemistry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on fragment-based drug discovery, quantum mechanical energy decomposition for the analysis of SARs, medicinal chemistry strategies and the role of imaging in drug discovery. Investigational drugs discussed include MLN-4924 (Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc), GDC-0449 (Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd/Curis Inc/F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd/Genentech Inc/NCI), RDEA-119 (Ardea Biosciences Inc/Bayer HealthCare AG) and tafamidis (Fx-1006A; FoldRx Pharmaceuticals Inc).

  10. Recent trends on the future of graduate education in the pharmaceutical sciences and research.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Kss; Kushwaha, N; Rai, Ak

    2010-04-01

    Harmonization of pharmacy education has to be made a global agenda that will encompass the developments that have taken place in basic, medical, pharmaceutical sciences in serving the needs and expectations of the society. The professional pharmacy curriculum is designed to produce pharmacists who have the abilities and skills to provide drug information, education, and pharmaceutical care to patients; manage the pharmacy and its medication distribution and control systems; and promote public health. Required coursework for all pharmacy students includes pharmaceutical chemistry; pharmaceutics (drug dosage forms, delivery, and disposition in the human body) pharmacology; therapeutics (the clinical use of drugs and dietary supplements in patients); drug information and analysis; pharmacy administration (including pharmacy law, bioethics, health systems, pharmacoeconomics, medical informatics); clinical skills (physical assessment, patient counseling, drug therapy monitoring for appropriate selection, dose, effect, interactions, use); and clinical pharmacy practice in pharmacies, industry, health maintenance organizations, hospital wards, and ambulatory care clinics.

  11. New insights into liquid chromatography for more eco-friendly analysis of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Heba

    2016-10-01

    Greening the analytical methods used for analysis of pharmaceuticals has been receiving great interest aimed at eliminating or minimizing the amount of organic solvents consumed daily worldwide without loss in chromatographic performance. Traditional analytical LC techniques employed in pharmaceutical analysis consume tremendous amounts of hazardous solvents and consequently generate large amounts of waste. The monetary and ecological impact of using large amounts of solvents and waste disposal motivated the analytical community to search for alternatives to replace polluting analytical methodologies with clean ones. In this context, implementing the principles of green analytical chemistry (GAC) in analytical laboratories is highly desired. This review gives a comprehensive overview on different green LC pathways for implementing GAC principles in analytical laboratories and focuses on evaluating the greenness of LC analytical procedures. This review presents green LC approaches for eco-friendly analysis of pharmaceuticals in industrial, biological, and environmental matrices. Graphical Abstract Green pathways of liquid chromatography for more eco-friendly analysis of pharmaceuticals.

  12. [Bioequivalence studies of pharmaceutical preparations].

    PubMed

    Vetchý, D; Frýbortová, K; Rabisková, M; Danecková, H

    2007-01-01

    Bioequivalence studies are very important for the development of a pharmaceutical preparation in the pharmaceutical industry. Their rationale is the monitoring of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters after the administration of tested drugs. The target of such study is to evaluate the therapeutic compatibility of tested drugs (pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives). The importance of bioequivalence studies is increasing also due to the large growth of the production and consumption of generic products. Generic products represent approximately 50 % of the whole consumption in many European countries and USA. The search output of bioequivalence study is together with the pharmaceutical quality data of medical product one of the main part of the registration file submitted to a national regulatory authorities. The registration of generic products does not demand complicated and expensive clinical study contrary to original product. The comparison of the original and the generic product via bioequivalence study is suggested as sufficient. The aim of this article is to provide to a medical public a summary about the types of bioequivalence studies, their range, rules of their practise and let them gain their own attitude to this question.

  13. 'Big data' in pharmaceutical science: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Dossetter, Al G; Ecker, Gerhard; Laverty, Hugh; Overington, John

    2014-05-01

    Future Medicinal Chemistry invited a selection of experts to express their views on the current impact of big data in drug discovery and design, as well as speculate on future developments in the field. The topics discussed include the challenges of implementing big data technologies, maintaining the quality and privacy of data sets, and how the industry will need to adapt to welcome the big data era. Their enlightening responses provide a snapshot of the many and varied contributions being made by big data to the advancement of pharmaceutical science.

  14. Polynitrogen Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-24

    4N3, while As(C6H5)4N3 presents a borderline case.23 Theoretical Calculations High-level theoretical studies of nitrogen, oxygen, selenium and...Dixon, D. A.; Christe, K. O., "Thermochemical Properties of Selenium Fluorides, Oxides, and Oxofluorides," Inorganic Chemistry, p. 2472, vol. 51, (2012...34Thermochemical Properties of Selenium Fluorides, Oxides, and Oxofluorides," Inorg. Chem., p. 2472, vol. 51, (2012). 26. K. S. Thanthiriwatte, M. Vasiliu

  15. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  16. Macro trends in pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Fredric J

    2005-04-01

    Extract: A lately recycled criticism of the pharmaceutical industry is that it is failing in its mission to innovate. In particular, critics question the industry's incentives to innovate, and they deride those innovations the industry makes as imitative. Industry advocates contend the opposite. The truth is that there are no generally accepted measures of innovation that would conclusively prove either side's point. However, I have found trends in several measures that support both sides of the innovation debate. Overall, the bulk of evidence suggests that the pharmaceutical industry continues to regard pioneering innovations as important (evidenced by the motivation, effort and ability of the industry to create such innovations). However, like other mature manufacturing industries, the pharmaceutical industry relies heavily on incremental innovations (what critics call "me-too" drugs) to sustain its profits. To a large extent, these incremental innovations are themselves medically beneficial and should be encouraged rather than dismissed as merely imitative.

  17. Planning and coordinating pharmaceutical purchasing.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, E C

    1984-09-01

    The planning and coordination of the pharmaceutical purchasing process are discussed. Planning for pharmaceutical purchasing should begin with decisions regarding why a purchasing policy is needed, what the institution's purchasing policy will be, and what departments will be involved in purchasing. General goals of purchasing and procedures for revising purchasing functions are presented, and the role of the pharmacy department, materials management, and other hospital departments in purchasing is discussed. Coordinating input on purchasing decisions from medical staff, administration, and clinical and technical pharmacy personnel to achieve purchasing goals and objectives is discussed. A well-designed pharmaceutical purchasing system provides for planned and scheduled purchases, competitive bidding, product standardization, group purchasing, information sharing, internal accountability, and quality assurance.

  18. Second International Electronic Conference on Medicinal Chemistry (ECMC-2)

    PubMed Central

    Mayence, Annie; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The second International Electronic Conference on Medicinal Chemistry, organized and sponsored by the publisher MDPI AG and the Journal Pharmaceuticals, took place in November 2016 on the SciForum website (www.sciforum.net/conference/ecmc-12). More than 150 authors from 22 countries participated in the event. Selected works presented during the scientific meeting are disclosed in this report. PMID:28146112

  19. Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry graduate education is under considerable pressure. Pharmaceutical companies, long a major employer of synthetic organic chemists, are drastically paring back their research divisions to reduce costs. Chemical companies are opening new research and development facilities in Asia rather than in the United States to take advantage of…

  20. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Chemistry in Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, James G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Applications of biotechnology to the pharmaceutical industry are examined, and its impact on the research and practical domains of medicinal and natural products chemistry is discussed. Specific curricular implications for undergraduate and graduate study in pharmacy are outlined, and suggestions for faculty development in biotechnology are made.…

  1. No Denying It: Medicinal Chemistry Training Is in Big Trouble.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Michael F

    2016-12-22

    There has been little consensus between the pharmaceutical industry and academic communities concerning the best approach to train medicinal chemists for drug discovery. For decades the pharmaceutical industry has shown preference for synthetic organic graduates over candidates with degrees from medicinal chemistry programs on the assumption that medicinal chemistry expertise will be acquired on the job. However, ongoing changes to pharmaceutical drug discovery organizations and practices threaten to undermine this training model. There is a compelling argument to be made for establishment of a strong industry-academic partnership to train new candidates with sophisticated knowledge of contemporary drug design concepts and techniques to ensure that the future needs of both industry and academic drug discovery research can be served.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools appli

  3. The 2016 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry Conference in Bonn.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christa E; Thimm, Dominik; Baringhaus, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-05

    Pushing the frontiers of medicinal chemistry: Christa Müller, Dominik Thimm, and Karl-Heinz Baringhaus look back at the events of the 2016 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry (FiMC) Conference held in Bonn, Germany. The report highlights the themes & talks in the annual conference hosted by the Joint Division of Medicinal Chemistry of the German Pharmaceutical Society (DPhG) and German Chemical Society (GDCh). It is also an invitation to the 2017 conference in Bern, Switzerland this February 12-15.

  4. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  5. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  6. Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 3254)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector, including essential uses of CFCs, NESHAP for pharmaceutical production, effluent guidelines for wastewater and management of hazardous waste.

  7. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... The New Era of Medicine SHARE THIS The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, PhRMA, represents the ... PhRMA Privacy Policy Terms of Service Site Map Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America® 950 F Street, ...

  8. Modeling picking on pharmaceutical tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Shrikant

    Tablets are the most popular solid dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry because they are cheap to manufacture, chemically and mechanically stable and easy to transport and fairly easy to control dosage. Pharmaceutical tableting operations have been around for decades however the process is still not well understood. One of the common problems faced during the production of pharmaceutical tablets by powder compaction is sticking of powder to the punch face, This is known as 'sticking'. A more specialized case of sticking is picking when the powder is pulled away form the compact in the vicinity of debossed features. In the pharmaceutical industry, picking is solved by trial and error which is an expensive, labor intensive and time consuming affair. The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and implement a modeling framework for predicting picking in powder compacts. The model was developed in Abaqus a commercially available finite element package. The resulting model was used to investigate the influence of debossed feature geometry viz. the stroke angle and degree of pre-pick, and, influence of lubricant on picking. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  9. Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.

  10. Bioremediation of industrial pharmaceutical drugs.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hedi Ben; Mosrati, Ridha; Barillier, Daniel; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2012-07-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn toward the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. In recent years, many reports have been made on the occurrence of the large, differentiated group of pharmaceuticals in wastewater (PW), surface water, ground water, and in soil. The pharmaceutical sector is currently expanding in Tunisia, with more than 34 industries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 to treat PW. P. putida was very efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and turbidity of solution (85.5, 89.1, and 81.5%, respectively). Genotoxicity of effluent, before and after biodegradation, was evaluated in vivo in mouse bone marrow by assessing the percentage of cells bearing different chromosome aberrations. Results indicated that PW showed a significant ability to induce DNA damage. In addition, PW induced a remarkable lipid peroxidation (LPO) effect, however, activities of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were unchanged when treated with PW, compared to nontreated PW. This toxicity was imputed to the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater. However, chromosome aberration, as well as LPO of PW, were significantly reduced after bioremediation. Thus, the use of this strain for testing on the industrial scale seems possible and advantageous.

  11. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  12. Immunotoxicology in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed Central

    Norbury, K C

    1982-01-01

    Development of an immunotoxicology program within the pharmaceutical industry is described. With few guidelines in the area and a multitude of factors to consider, a basic screen for evaluating immune competence in species routinely used in toxicologic studies has been proposed. The future of immunotoxicology depends upon the ability of the selected immune function tests to be predictive of human risk. PMID:7037389

  13. Patrick Couvreur: inspiring pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Stanwix, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    Patrick Couvreur speaks to Hannah Stanwix, Managing Comissioning Editor: Professor Patrick Couvreur received his pharmacy degree from the Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) in 1972. He holds a PhD in pharmaceutical technology from the same university and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Zürich, Switzerland). Since 1984, Professor Couvreur has been Full Professor of Pharmacy at the Paris-Sud University (Paris, France) and was holder of the Chair of Innovation Technologique at the prestigious Collège de France (Paris, France). He has published more than 450 peer-reviewed articles and has an H-index of 73, with over 19,000 citations. Professor Coureur has been recognized by numerous national and international awards, including the 2004 Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress Award, the prestigious Host Madsen Medal, the Prix Galien, the European Pharmaceutical Scientist Award 2011 from the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Médaille de l'Innovation from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and recently the European Inventor Award 2013 from the European Patent Office.

  14. Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Renyuan Pony; Hesk, David; Rivera, Nelo; Pelczer, István; Chirik, Paul J

    2016-01-14

    A thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in animal models is a critical component of drug discovery and development. Such studies are performed in vivo and in vitro at various stages of the development process--ranging from preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies to late-stage human clinical trials--to elucidate a drug molecule's metabolic profile and to assess its toxicity. Radiolabelled compounds, typically those that contain (14)C or (3)H isotopes, are one of the most powerful and widely deployed diagnostics for these studies. The introduction of radiolabels using synthetic chemistry enables the direct tracing of the drug molecule without substantially altering its structure or function. The ubiquity of C-H bonds in drugs and the relative ease and low cost associated with tritium ((3)H) make it an ideal radioisotope with which to conduct ADME studies early in the drug development process. Here we describe an iron-catalysed method for the direct (3)H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange, using tritium gas as the source of the radioisotope. The site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules, providing a new diagnostic tool in drug development.

  15. Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pony Yu, Renyuan; Hesk, David; Rivera, Nelo; Pelczer, István; Chirik, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in animal models is a critical component of drug discovery and development. Such studies are performed in vivo and in vitro at various stages of the development process—ranging from preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies to late-stage human clinical trials—to elucidate a drug molecule’s metabolic profile and to assess its toxicity. Radiolabelled compounds, typically those that contain 14C or 3H isotopes, are one of the most powerful and widely deployed diagnostics for these studies. The introduction of radiolabels using synthetic chemistry enables the direct tracing of the drug molecule without substantially altering its structure or function. The ubiquity of C-H bonds in drugs and the relative ease and low cost associated with tritium (3H) make it an ideal radioisotope with which to conduct ADME studies early in the drug development process. Here we describe an iron-catalysed method for the direct 3H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange, using tritium gas as the source of the radioisotope. The site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules, providing a new diagnostic tool in drug development.

  16. PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS AS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In contrast to other types of pollutants, PPCPs owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but aggregate/cumulative usage and disposal by multitudes of individuals. An overview of this multi-faceted issue can be found at a U.S. EPA web site (http://www.epa.gov/neriesdl/chemistry/phanna/index.htm), which also provides a reprint of a review article published in Environmental Health Perspectives as well as many other resources including several chapters from a new American Chemical Society book. PPCPs can enter the environment following their ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and to domestic sewage are additional routes to the environment. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS; the efficiencies with which they are removed from sewage vary from nearly complete to ineffective. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for most PPCPS. Little is known with respect to actual or even potential adverse effects on non-target species; human exposure via drinking wate

  17. Pharmaceuticals: pharmaceutical cost controls--2005. End of Year Issue Brief.

    PubMed

    Seay, Melicia; Varma, Priya

    2005-12-31

    The enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA '90) gave states the option of offering pharmaceutical benefits within their Medicaid programs. But the law placed restrictions on states' flexibility to control what prescriptions they would cover and required the states to reimburse outpatient prescription drugs from manufacturers that signed rebate agreements with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Forty-nine states--Arizona is excluded, based on its program structure--and the District of Columbia currently offer prescription drug coverage under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. During the past four years, states all over the country have been plagued with revenue shortfalls in their state Medicaid budgets. While the fiscal situation improved for most states in the 2004 legislative session, many states still face budget pressures in 2005. Compounding existing budget pressures are threats from the Bush Administration to shift increased costs of the Medicaid program on to the states. All things considered, the economic pressure of funding Medicaid is at the top of legislative agendas in 2005. As in previous years, states are attempting to reduce costs to their Medicaid programs by seeking savings in their pharmaceutical programs. Prescription drug costs are highly attributed as a contributing factor to the fiscal climate of state Medicaid programs. Currently, prescription drug spending outpaces that of every other category of health care and drug prices are rising faster than inflation. In response, states are instituting a variety of pharmaceutical cost control measures such as creating preferred drug lists (PDLs), negotiating supplemental rebates, forming bulk purchasing pools, promoting generic drug substitution and implementing price controls. As prescription drug cost containment tools have gained acceptance and momentum, they continue to be controversial. This issue brief explores the debate, history, methodology, utilization

  18. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  19. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  20. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 4). Post World War II 50 years].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    A short history of the pharmaceutical science and technology, postwar 50 years is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. Japan's postwar rehabilitation, Japanese pharmaceutical industries and newly developed pharmaceutical sciences and technologies. In 1945, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry was reconstructed. Production of penicillin was carried out with the strong support of the U.S. Occupation Forces. New sciences in pharmacy (biochemistry, biopharmacy, pharmacology, microbiology, physical chemistry, etc.) were introduced in this period. 2. Introduction age of foreign new drugs and technology (1951 to 1960s). Japan gained independence in 1951. Japanese pharmaceutical companies imported many new drugs and new pharmaceutical technologies from the U.S.A. and European countries in this period. Then, these companies were reconstruction rapidly. However, consequently Japanese pharmaceutical companies were formed as an imitation industry. 3. Rapid economic growth period for pharmaceutical companies (1956 to 1970s). In this period, many Japanese pharmaceutical companies grew rapidly at an annual rate of 15-20% over a period of 15 years, especially with regard to the production of active vitamin B1 analog drugs and some OTC (public health drugs). Some major companies made large profits, which were used to construct research facilities. 4. Problems for the harmful effects of medicines and its ethical responsibility. In the 1970s, many public toxic and harmful effects of medicines were caused, especially SMON's disease. In this time, many pharmaceutical companies changed to its security got development of ethical drugs. 5. Self development of new drugs and administration of pharmaceutical rules (1970s). During the 1970s, many pharmaceutical laws (GLP, GCP, GMP, GPMSP etc.) were enacted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In 1976, the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law was revised, which set forth standards regarding the efficacy and safety of

  1. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  2. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  3. Public policy and pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, H G

    1982-09-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures.

  4. Public Policy and Pharmaceutical Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Henry G.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures. PMID:10309721

  5. Biosafe Nanoscale Pharmaceutical Adjuvant Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubin; Li, Shengliang; Wang, Chongxi; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to developments in the field of nanotechnology over the past decades, more and more biosafe nanoscale materials have become available for use as pharmaceutical adjuvants in medical research. Nanomaterials possess unique properties which could be employed to develop drug carriers with longer circulation time, higher loading capacity, better stability in physiological conditions, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. In this review article, we will review recent progress in the application of representative organic, inorganic and hybrid biosafe nanoscale materials in pharmaceutical research, especially focusing on nanomaterial-based novel drug delivery systems. In addition, we briefly discuss the advantages and notable functions that make these nanomaterials suitable for the design of new medicines; the biosafety of each material discussed in this article is also highlighted to provide a comprehensive understanding of their adjuvant attributes. PMID:25429253

  6. Examining pharmaceuticals using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulovská, Kateřina; Křesálek, Vojtěch

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical trafficking is common issue in countries where they are under stricter dispensing regime with monitoring of users. Most commonly smuggled pharmaceuticals include trade names Paralen Plus, Modafen, Clarinase repetabs, Aspirin complex, etc. These are transported mainly from Eastern Europe (e.g. Poland, Ukraine, Russia) to countries like Czech Republic, which is said to have one of the highest number of methamphetamine producers in Europe. The aim of this paper is to describe the possibility of terahertz spectroscopy utilization as an examining tool to distinguish between pharmaceuticals containing pseudoephedrine compounds and those without it. Selected medicaments for experimental part contain as an active ingredient pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or pseudoephedrine sulphate. Results show a possibility to find a pseudoephedrine compound spectra in samples according to previously computed and experimentally found ones, and point out that spectra of same brand names pills may vary according to their expiration date, batch, and amount of absorbed water vapours from ambience. Mislead spectrum also occurs during experimental work in a sample without chosen active ingredient, which shows persistent minor inconveniences of terahertz spectroscopy. All measurement were done on the TPS Spectra 3000 instrument.

  7. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.

  8. Understanding pharmaceutical quality by design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lawrence X; Amidon, Gregory; Khan, Mansoor A; Hoag, Stephen W; Polli, James; Raju, G K; Woodcock, Janet

    2014-07-01

    This review further clarifies the concept of pharmaceutical quality by design (QbD) and describes its objectives. QbD elements include the following: (1) a quality target product profile (QTPP) that identifies the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the drug product; (2) product design and understanding including identification of critical material attributes (CMAs); (3) process design and understanding including identification of critical process parameters (CPPs), linking CMAs and CPPs to CQAs; (4) a control strategy that includes specifications for the drug substance(s), excipient(s), and drug product as well as controls for each step of the manufacturing process; and (5) process capability and continual improvement. QbD tools and studies include prior knowledge, risk assessment, mechanistic models, design of experiments (DoE) and data analysis, and process analytical technology (PAT). As the pharmaceutical industry moves toward the implementation of pharmaceutical QbD, a common terminology, understanding of concepts and expectations are necessary. This understanding will facilitate better communication between those involved in risk-based drug development and drug application review.

  9. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  10. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In recognition of the growing use of sewage sludges as a fertilizers and as soilamendments, and the scarcity of current data regarding the chemical constituents in sewage sludges, the United States National Research Council (NRC) in 2002 produced a report on sewage sludges. Among the NRC's recommendations was the need for investigating the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage sludges. PPCPsare a diverse array of non-regulated contaminants that had not been studied in previous sewage sludges surveys but which are likely to be present. The focus of this paper will be to review the current analytical methodologies available for investigating whether pharmaceuticals are present in WWTP-produced sewage sludges, to summarize current regulatory practices regarding sewage sludges, and to report on the presence of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludges. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subta

  11. Effects of soil properties on the uptake of pharmaceuticals into earthworms.

    PubMed

    Carter, Laura J; Ryan, Jim J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals can enter the soil environment when animal slurries and sewage sludge are applied to land as a fertiliser or during irrigation with contaminated water. These pharmaceuticals may then be taken up by soil organisms possibly resulting in toxic effects and/or exposure of organisms higher up the food chain. This study investigated the influence of soil properties on the uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine and orlistat) in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The uptake and accumulation of pharmaceuticals into E. fetida changed depending on soil type. Orlistat exhibited the highest pore water based bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and displayed the largest differences between soil types with BCFs ranging between 30.5 and 115.9. For carbamazepine, diclofenac and fluoxetine BCFs ranged between 1.1 and 1.6, 7.0 and 69.6 and 14.1 and 20.4 respectively. Additional analysis demonstrated that in certain treatments the presence of these chemicals in the soil matrices changed the soil pH over time, with a statistically significant pH difference to control samples. The internal pH of E. fetida also changed as a result of incubation in pharmaceutically spiked soil, in comparison to the control earthworms. These results demonstrate that a combination of soil properties and pharmaceutical physico-chemical properties are important in terms of predicting pharmaceutical uptake in terrestrial systems and that pharmaceuticals can modify soil and internal earthworm chemistry which may hold wider implications for risk assessment.

  12. A Laboratory Experiment in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Human Urine by Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Leonard C.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is described that was developed for a course in Inorganic and Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry at Rutgers University to provide pharmacy students with practical experience in the thin-layer chromatography used for the analysis of urine to monitor patient compliance with drug abuse treatment programs. (JMD)

  13. [Investigation of biologically active compounds at the Department of Organic Chemistry of University of Debrecen 1992-2009. Part III].

    PubMed

    Antus, Sándor

    2010-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the beginning of the carbohydrate chemistry in Hungary with special regard to the results achieved at the Department of Organic Chemistry of University of Debrecen and summarizes the most important synthetic and pharmaceutical results obtained in this field between 1992-2009, part III.

  14. Pharmaceutical cocrystals, salts and multicomponent systems; intermolecular interactions and property based design.

    PubMed

    Berry, David J; Steed, Jonathan W

    2017-03-23

    As small molecule drugs become harder to develop and less cost effective for patient use, efficient strategies for their property improvement become increasingly important to global health initiatives. Improvements in the physical properties of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), without changes in the covalent chemistry, have long been possible through the application of binary component solids. This was first achieved through the use of pharmaceutical salts, within the last 10-15years with cocrystals and more recently coamorphous systems have also been consciously applied to this problem. In order to rationally discover the best multicomponent phase for drug development, intermolecular interactions need to be considered at all stages of the process. This review highlights the current thinking in this area and the state of the art in: pharmaceutical multicomponent phase design, the intermolecular interactions in these phases, the implications of these interactions on the material properties and the pharmacokinetics in a patient.

  15. Implementation of analytical technologies in a pharmaceutical development organization looking into the next millennium

    PubMed Central

    North, Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Managing the implementation of new technology in a pharmaceutical development environment has provided challenges and opportunities to obtain benefits from technologies, e.g. laboratory automation. Successful application of new techniques requires a dedicated resource. Within Pharmaceutical Technologies, this was initially a single person, who has since evolved into a team dedicated to the investigation and development of robotics and non-invasive analytical techniques. Pharmaceutical development is an important interface between research and commercial manufacturing. In research, the success of genomics and combinatorial chemistry will result in a significant increase in the number of development compounds, and this, combined with the desire of commercial manufacturing to move towards parametric release, puts an emphasis on the need for rapid analytical methods. Some ideas on the techniques that will be required to meet these goals will be described together with their impact on automation. PMID:18924857

  16. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  17. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations.

  18. Sulfonimidamides in Medicinal and Agricultural Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Praveen K; Naicker, Tricia; Thota, Niranjan; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Arvidsson, Per I

    2016-12-13

    The synthesis and evaluation of structural analogues and isosteres are of central importance in medicinal and agricultural chemistry. The sulfonamide functional group represents one of the most important amide isosteres in contemporary drug design, and about 500 such compounds have overcome both the pharmacological and regulatory hurdles that precede studies in humans. The mono aza analogues of sulfonamides, that is, sulfonimidamides, are rapidly gaining popularity as a novel functional group among synthetic chemists involved in the design of biologically active compounds for both pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Herein, we review these recent developments to showcase the promise of this functional group.

  19. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-02-22

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  20. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty Pharmaceutical Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have stru...

  1. Pharmaceuticals and Controlled Substances and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and controlled substances found during residential demolition, such as prescription medications or illegal drugs, may require special treatment for disposal or recycling before demolition.

  2. Agenda for an anthropology of pharmaceutical practice.

    PubMed

    Nichter, M; Vuckovic, N

    1994-12-01

    Over the last two decades, patterns of pharmaceutical-related behavior and the cultural interpretation of medicines have been examined by anthropologists in several cultural settings. In this paper the authors identify additional issues warranting study so as to broaden the scope of pharmaceutical anthropology, utilizing as a unifying focus the examination of pharmaceutical use in the context of social transformation. Ten interactive themes are presented which bridge micro-level and macro-level investigations of pharmaceutical use. The discussion moves from the discourse on 'rational drug use' to the rationales which underscore drug prescription, manufacture, and demand.

  3. New chemistry from natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Catherine B; Barry, Sarah M

    2016-06-15

    Catalysts are a vital part of synthetic chemistry. However, there are still many important reactions for which catalysts have not been developed. The use of enzymes as biocatalysts for synthetic chemistry is growing in importance due to the drive towards sustainable methods for producing both bulk chemicals and high value compounds such as pharmaceuticals, and due to the ability of enzymes to catalyse chemical reactions with excellent stereoselectivity and regioselectivity. Such challenging transformations are a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways. In this mini-review, we discuss the potential to use biosynthetic pathways as a starting point for biocatalyst discovery. We introduce the reader to natural product assembly and tailoring, then focus on four classes of enzyme that catalyse C─H bond activation reactions to functionalize biosynthetic precursors. Finally, we briefly discuss the challenges involved in novel enzyme discovery.

  4. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  5. Development of Taiwan's strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiun-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hsiau-Wen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan's regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may be initiated as the starting point for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in Taiwan.

  6. Plant cells as pharmaceutical factories.

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Häkkinen, Suvi T; Ritala, Anneli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Miralpeix, Bruna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2013-01-01

    Molecules derived from plants make up a sizeable proportion of the drugs currently available on the market. These include a number of secondary metabolite compounds the monetary value of which is very high. New pharmaceuticals often originate in nature. Approximately 50% of new drug entities against cancer or microbial infections are derived from plants or micro-organisms. However, these compounds are structurally often too complex to be economically manufactured by chemical synthesis, and frequently isolation from naturally grown or cultivated plants is not a sustainable option. Therefore the biotechnological production of high-value plant secondary metabolites in cultivated cells is potentially an attractive alternative. Compared to microbial systems eukaryotic organisms such as plants are far more complex, and our understanding of the metabolic pathways in plants and their regulation at the systems level has been rather poor until recently. However, metabolic engineering including advanced multigene transformation techniques and state-of-art metabolomics platforms has given us entirely new tools to exploit plants as Green Factories. Single step engineering may be successful on occasion but in complex pathways, intermediate gene interventions most often do not affect the end product accumulation. In this review we discuss recent developments towards elucidation of complex plant biosynthetic pathways and the production of a number of highvalue pharmaceuticals including paclitaxel, tropane, morphine and terpenoid indole alkaloids in plants and cell cultures.

  7. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: SOURCES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An issue that began to receive more attention by environmental scientists in the late 1990s was the conveyancy of pharmaceuticals in the environment by way of their use in human and veterinary medical practices and personal care The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, intervi

  8. ABSTRACT PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals comprise a large and diverse array of contaminants that can occur in the environmentfrom the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary andagricultural use. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for med

  9. Marine-Derived Pharmaceuticals – Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lindequist, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Marine biosphere is the largest one of the earth and harbors an enormous number of different organisms. Living conditions differ fundamentally from those in terrestrial environment. The production of specific secondary metabolites is an important adaption mechanism of marine organisms to survive in the sea. These metabolites possess biological activities which make them interesting as possible drugs for human. The review presents sources, chemistry, production and pharmacology of FDA approved marine derived pharmaceuticals arranged according to their therapeutic indication. Four of the presently seven approved drugs are used for the treatment of cancer. Each another one is applicated for treatment of viral diseases, chronic pain and to lower triglyceride level in blood. Some other products are of interest in diagnostic and as experimental tools. Besides, this article describes challenges in drug development from marine sources, especially the supply problem. PMID:27795450

  10. Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Armin; Brönstrup, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2013. In addition to their prominent role in basic biological and chemical research, natural products are a rich source of commercial products for the pharmaceutical and other industries. Industrial natural product chemistry is of fundamental importance for successful product development, as the vast majority (ca. 80%) of commercial drugs derived from natural products require synthetic efforts, either to enable economical access to bulk material, and/or to optimize drug properties through structural modifications. This review aims to illustrate issues on the pathway from lead to product, and how they have been successfully addressed by modern natural product chemistry. It is focused on natural products of current relevance that are, or are intended to be, used as pharmaceuticals.

  11. Medicinal chemistry of drugs with active metabolites following conjugation.

    PubMed

    Kalász, Huba; Petroianu, Georg; Hosztafi, Sándor; Darvas, Ferenc; Csermely, Tamás; Adeghate, Ernest; Siddiq, Afshan; Tekes, Kornélia

    2013-10-01

    Authorities of Drug Administration in the United States of America approved about 5000 drugs for use in the therapy or management of several diseases. About two hundred of these drugs have active metabolites and the knowledge of their medicinal chemistry is important both in medical practice and pharmaceutical research. This review gives a detailed description of the medicinal chemistry of drugs with active metabolites generated after conjugation. This review focused on glucuronide-, acetyl-, sulphate- and phosphate-conjugation of drugs, converting the drug into an active metabolite. This conversion essentially changed the lipophilicity of the drug.

  12. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  13. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  14. Potential bias in ophthalmic pharmaceutical clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Paul

    2008-01-01

    To make clinicians aware of potential sources of error in ophthalmic pharmaceutical clinical trials that can lead to erroneous interpretation of results, a critical review of the study design of various pharmaceutical ophthalmic clinical trials was completed. Discrepancies as a result of study shortcomings may explain observed differences between reported ophthalmic trial data and observed clinical results. PMID:19668731

  15. Nanostructured materials in electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rahi, A; Karimian, K; Heli, H

    2016-03-15

    Basic strategies and recent developments for the enhancement of the sensory performance of nanostructures in the electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals are reviewed. A discussion of the properties of nanostructures and their application as modified electrodes for drug assays is presented. The electrocatalytic effect of nanostructured materials and their application in determining low levels of drugs in pharmaceutical forms and biofluids are discussed.

  16. Pharmaceutical experiment aboard STS-67 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour during the STS-67 mission. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical, but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids, and crystal growth investigation

  17. The Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmaceutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of bioactive peptides and proteins as new drug species poses formidable problems for the pharmaceutical scientist. Implications for revision or change in undergraduate and graduate pharmaceutics curricula derive from the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and physiochemical aspects of the new drug species, which differ from…

  18. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems.

  19. Impurities in Drug Products and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Kątny, M; Frankowski, M

    2016-09-29

    Analytical methods should be selective and fast. In modern times, scientists strive to meet the criteria of green chemistry, so they choose analytical procedures that are as short as possible and use the least toxic solvents. It is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption should be characterized as completely as possible. The safety of a drug is dependent mainly on the impurities that it contains. High pressure liquid chromatography and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography have been proposed as the main techniques for forced degradation and impurity profiling. The aim of this article was to characterize the relevant classification of drug impurities and to review the methods of impurities determination for atorvastatin (ATV) and duloxetine (DLX) (both in active pharmaceutical ingredients and in different dosage forms). These drugs have an impact on two systems of the human body: cardiac and nervous. Simple characteristics of ATV and DLX, their properties and specificity of action on the human body, are also included in this review. The analyzed pharmaceuticals-ATV (brand name Lipiron) and DLX (brand name Cymbalta)-were selected for this study based on annual rankings prepared by Information Medical Statistics.

  20. Pharmaceutical counterfeiting and the RFID technology intervention.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Arvidson, Cody; Rutsohn, Phil

    2010-07-01

    Both nationally and internationally, pharmaceutical counterfeiting has become a problem that is threatening economic stability and public health. The purpose of the present research study review was to analyze the scope and severity of pharmaceutical counterfeiting and to establish if the implantation of the Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) model can more efficiently be used within the pharmaceutical supply chain to reduce the problem counterfeit drugs impose on public health and international economic stability. Results indicated that implementing the RFID model for tracking drugs at the item level in the pharmaceutical supply chain has potential to alleviate the scope of the counterfeit drug problem. Recommendations for how the pharmaceutical industry may sooner adopt the RFID model are made.

  1. First International Electronic Conference on Medicinal Chemistry (ECMC-1)

    PubMed Central

    Mayence, Annie; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The first International Electronic Conference on Medicinal Chemistry, organized and sponsored by MDPI AG, publisher, and the Journal Pharmaceuticals, took place in November 2015 on the SciForum website. More than 200 authors from 18 countries participated in the event and was attended by 25,000 visitors who had the opportunity to browse among 55 presentations, keynotes, and videos. A short description of some works presented during that scientific meeting is disclosed in this report.

  2. USSR Report, Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This chemistry Report from the USSR contains articles mainly on Adsorption, Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Catalysis, Chemical Industry, Coal ... Gasification , Electrochemistry, Fertilizers, Food Technology, Inorganic Compounds, Nitrogen Compounds and Organometallic Compounds.

  3. Chemistry for Potters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  4. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  5. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  6. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  7. School Chemistry vs. Chemistry in Research: An Exploratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habraken, Clarisse L.; Buijs, Wim; Borkent, Hens; Ligeon, Willy; Wender, Harry; Meijer, Marijn

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…

  8. High-Throughput Synthetic Chemistry Enabled by Organic Solvent Disintegrating Tablet.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Lei; Xing, Yanjun; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-17

    Synthetic chemistry remains a time- and labor-intensive process of inherent hazardous nature. Our organic solvent disintegrating tablet (O-Tab) technology has shown potential to make industrial/synthetic chemistry more efficient. As is the case with pharmaceutical tablets, our reagent-containing O-Tabs are mechanically strong, but disintegrate rapidly when in contact with reaction media (organic solvents). For O-Tabs containing sensitive chemicals, they can be further coated to insulate them from air and moisture.

  9. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  10. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  11. Teaching School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, D. J., Ed.

    This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M.…

  12. Chemistry and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Martyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…

  13. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  14. Mechanisms in Photographic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahyun, M. R. V.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews current research interests in photographic chemistry, involving two proposed models for spectral sensitization of crystal defects and impurities in the photolysis reactivity and the mechanisms of development and complexation. Establishment of photographic chemistry in a chemistry curriculum is recommended. (CC)

  15. Chemistry as General Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    Science courses are common in most general education requirements. This paper addresses the role of chemistry classes in meeting these requirements. Chemistry professors have for many years questioned the appropriateness of the standard introductory chemistry course as general education, resulting in the growing popularity of specialized non-majors courses. I suggest that current non-major chemistry courses cover too much consumer chemistry and ignore some of the big contributions of chemistry to human knowledge. Majors chemistry courses, while they prepare students for majoring in science, do not address these issues either. Consequently, chemistry courses are often an ineffective and unpopular way to meet general education science requirements. Part of the reason for this dilemma is the lack of chemists who address the contributions of chemistry to human knowledge in general. I propose that faculty at liberal arts colleges engage in this important task and that non-majors chemistry textbooks incorporate questions and issues that relate chemistry to a broader view of human knowledge. If these things happen, perhaps chemistry courses will become more effective as general education.

  16. Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, David R.; Penney, Claire A.; Majumder, Amrita; Walmsley, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The science and policy of pharmaceuticals produced and/or delivered by plants has evolved over the past twenty-one years from a backyard remedy to regulated, purified products. After seemingly frozen at Phase I human clinical trials with six orally delivered plant-made vaccines not progressing past this stage over seven years, plant-made pharmaceuticals have made a breakthrough with several purified plant-based products advancing to Phase II trials and beyond. Though fraught with the usual difficulties of pharmaceutical development, pharmaceuticals made by plants have achieved pertinent milestones albeit slowly compared to other pharmaceutical production systems and are now at the cusp of reaching the consumer. Though the current economic climate begs for cautious investment as opposed to trail blazing, it is perhaps a good time to look to the future of plant-made pharmaceutical technology to assist in planning for future developments in order not to slow this technology’s momentum. To encourage continued progress, we highlight the advances made so far by this technology, particularly the change in paradigms, comparing developmental timelines, and summarizing the current status and future possibilities of plant-made pharmaceuticals. PMID:21686181

  17. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-05-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain.

  18. Principles of Environmental Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Ruth A.

    2007-07-01

    Roy M. Harrison, Editor RSC Publishing; ISBN 0854043713; × + 363 pp.; 2006; $69.95 Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes chemistry of the air, water, and soil. Although it may be confused with green chemistry, which deals with potential pollution reduction, environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical principles that occur in nature. Therefore, it is the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, water, and soil environments, and the effect of human activity on them. Environmental chemistry not only explores each of these environments, but also closely examines the interfaces and boundaries where the environments intersect.

  19. Perception of the Relevance of Organic Chemistry in a German Pharmacy Students' Course.

    PubMed

    Wehle, Sarah; Decker, Michael

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students' attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students' attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU's pharmacy program.

  20. Predicted and observed therapeutic dose exceedances of ionizable pharmaceuticals in fish plasma from urban coastal systems.

    PubMed

    Scott, W Casan; Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P; Breed, Christopher S; Saari, Gavin N; Kelly, Martin; Broach, Linda; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2016-04-01

    Instream flows of the rapidly urbanizing watersheds and estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico in Texas (USA) are increasingly dominated by reclaimed waters. Though ionizable pharmaceuticals have received increasing attention in freshwaters, many research questions remain unanswered, particularly in tidally influenced urban coastal systems, which experience significant spatiotemporal variability in pH that influences bioavailability and bioaccumulation. The authors coupled fish plasma modeling of therapeutic hazard values with field monitoring of water chemistry variability and pharmaceutical occurrence to examine whether therapeutic hazards to fish existed within these urban coastal ecosystems and whether therapeutic hazards differed within and among coastal locations and seasons. Spatial and temporal fluctuations in pH within study sites altered the probability of encountering pharmaceutical hazards to fish. Significant water quality differences were consistently observed among traditional parameters and pharmaceuticals collected from surface and bottom waters, which are rarely sampled during routine surface water quality assessments. The authors then compared modeling predictions of fish plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals to measured plasma levels from various field-collected fish species. Diphenhydramine and diltiazem were observed in plasma of multiple species, and diltiazem exceeded human therapeutic doses in largemouth bass, catfish, and mullet inhabiting these urban estuaries. Though the present study only examined a small number of target analytes, which represent a microcosm of the exposome of these fish, coastal systems are anticipated to be more strongly influenced by continued urbanization, altered instream flows, and population growth in the future. Unfortunately, aquatic toxicology information for diltiazem and many other pharmaceuticals is not available for marine and estuarine organisms, but such field observations suggest that potential adverse

  1. Pharmaceutical research involving the homeless.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Jennings, Bruce; Kinney, Eleanor D; Levine, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Discussions of research involving vulnerable populations have left the homeless comparatively ignored. Participation by these subjects in drug studies has the potential to be upsetting, inconvenient, or unpleasant. Participation occasionally produces injury, health emergencies, and chronic health problems. Nonetheless, no ethical justification exists for the categorical exclusion of homeless persons from research. The appropriate framework for informed consent for these subjects of pharmaceutical research is not a single event of oral or written consent, but a multi-staged arrangement of disclosure, dialogue, and permission-giving. Payments and other rewards in biomedical research raise issues of whether it is ethical to offer inducements to the homeless in exchange for participation in drug studies. Such inducements can influence desperate persons who are seriously lacking in resources. The key is to strike a balance between a rate of payment high enough that it does not exploit subjects by underpayment and low enough that it does not create an irresistible inducement. This proposal does not underestimate the risks of research, which are often overestimated and need to be appraised in light of the relevant empirical literature.

  2. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  3. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPs, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals ? as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high-volume synthetic chemicals.Many PPCPs can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPs, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L- g/L), the consequences of exposure over multiple generations to multiple compounds having different as well as similar modes

  4. OVERVIEW OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  5. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  6. PHARMACEUTICALS IN SOURCE WATER - OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  7. INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. Subtask 3: T

  8. WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates f

  9. PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  10. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals. Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not specifically engineered to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-ug/L), the consequences of exposure over multiple generations to

  11. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals. Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not designed to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-@Lg/L), the consequences of exposure to multiple compounds having different as w

  12. PREFACE TO: "PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Often overlooked in our daily lives are the inescapable, intimate, and immediate connections between our personal activities and the environment in which we live. This is especially true with regard to the use and disposal of consumer chemicals. A significant aspect of our global society that illustrates the potential impact of our lives on the environment is the widespread and escalating use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products - simply referred to as PPCPS. Many of these chemicals are specifically designed to elicit potent pharmacological or toxicological effects. In distinct contrast to nearly all agro/industrial chemicals, which are often used on large, relatively confined scales, the end use for PPCPs is highly dispersed and centered around the activities and actions of the individual. PPCPs enjoy worldwide usage and attendant discharge or inadvertent release to the environment. Their introduction to the environment has no geographic boundaries or climatic-use limitations as do many other synthetic chemicals - they are discharged to the environment wherever people live or visit, regardless of the time of year. It is difficult for the individual to perceive their small-scale activities as having any measurable impact on the larger environment - personal actions are often deemed minuscule or inconsequential in the larger scheme. Yet it is the combined actions and activities of individuals that indeed can significantly impact the environment in a myri

  13. PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: OVERVIEW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise large, diverse arrays of chemicals that can occur in the environment as unregulated pollutants. They originate largely from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use; the wide spectrum of sources and origins of PPCPs. Concerted research that began in Europe about two decades ago, and in the U.S. in the late 1990s, has been rapidly expanding in the last few years, as reflected by an escalation in publications. Investigations that were originally limited to studying the sources, origins, and occurrence of PPCPs (mainly in waters) were led primarily by analytical chemists. The scope of this research has expanded, now accommodating more dimensions of the risk assessment paradigm. The scope has widened to encompass not just occurrence over a wider spectrum of environmental matrices but also to address the complexities involved with assessing the range of unanticipated and subtle effects that might occur from chronic, low-dose exposure of non-target organisms (Daughton 2003a; Daughton and Ternes 1999). Risk management options designed around the principles of pollution prevention and environmental stewardship are also under discussion in the many sectors of the healthcare community and by various state and local legislatures The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet

  14. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the

  15. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the documented or potential hazards associated with trace exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive and perpetually present in many aquatic locales. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized.Of the many facets involved in this complex issue, that of sources/origins and environmental occurrence is the better understood end of the larger spectrum. The potential for adverse ecological or human health effects (especially from long-term, combined exposure to multiple xenobiotics at low concentrations) is the l

  16. Using a Thematic Laboratory-Centered Curriculum to Teach General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Todd A.; Samide, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an approach to general chemistry that involves teaching chemical concepts in the context of two thematic laboratory modules: environmental remediation and the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. These modules were designed based on active-learning pedagogies and involve multiple-week projects that dictate what…

  17. Student Perceptions of the Benefits of a Learner-Based Writing Assignment in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ablin, Lois

    2008-01-01

    A writing assignment to increase student understanding of and interest in practical applications of organic chemistry is described. Students were required to study a pharmaceutical or other organic compound and perform a qualitative risk assessment on the chemical. Student perceptions of the benefits of the paper were generally positive. (Contains…

  18. Structurally Based Therapeutic Evaluation: A Therapeutic and Practical Approach to Teaching Medicinal Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Explains structurally based therapeutic evaluation of drugs, which uses seven therapeutic criteria in translating chemical and structural knowledge into therapeutic decision making in pharmaceutical care. In a Creighton University (Nebraska) medicinal chemistry course, students apply the approach to solve patient-related therapeutic problems in…

  19. 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

  20. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2007-05-15

    Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue.

  1. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  2. Mergers and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Comanor, William S; Scherer, F M

    2013-01-01

    Conflicting trends confound the pharmaceutical industry. The productivity of pharmaceutical innovation has declined in recent years. At the same time, the cohort of large companies who are the leading engines of pharmaceutical R&D has become increasingly concentrated. The concurrent presence of these trends is not sufficient to determine causation. In response to lagging innovation prospects, some companies have sought refuge in mergers and acquisitions to disguise their dwindling prospects or gain R&D synergies. On the other hand, the increased concentration brought on by recent mergers may have contributed to the declining rate of innovation. In this paper, we consider the second of these causal relationships: the likely impact of the recent merger wave among the largest pharmaceutical companies on the rate of innovation. In other words, have recent mergers, which may have been taken in response to lagging innovation, represented a self-defeating strategy that only made industry outcomes worse?

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE GREEN PHARMACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  4. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets. For payers to adopt use of a new pharmaceutical, they would require objective third-party evaluation and pharmaceutical manufacturer accountability for projected outcomes efficacy of their treatments on population health. The pay for outcomes underpinning of this approach falls within the wider aspirations of health reform. PMID:26945298

  5. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  6. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    PubMed

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  7. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  8. Pharmaceutical applications of non-linear imaging.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Clare J; Windbergs, Maike; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2011-09-30

    Non-linear optics encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including two- and three-photon fluorescence, second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), difference frequency generation (DFG), third harmonic generation (THG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The combined advantages of using these phenomena for imaging complex pharmaceutical systems include chemical and structural specificities, high optical spatial and temporal resolutions, no requirement for labels, and the ability to image in an aqueous environment. These features make such imaging well suited for a wide range of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical investigations, including material and dosage form characterisation, dosage form digestion and drug release, and drug and nanoparticle distribution in tissues and within live cells. In this review, non-linear optical phenomena used in imaging will be introduced, together with their advantages and disadvantages in the pharmaceutical context. Research on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical applications is discussed, and potential future applications of the technology are considered.

  9. Agreements at the Pharmaceutical/University Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Katherine

    1987-01-01

    Specific agreements that arise at the interface between universities and pharmaceutical companies are described including sponsored research agreements, license agreements, clinical study agreements, material transfer agreements, and patient consent forms with respect to commercialization rights. (Author/MLW)

  10. Pharmaceutical Formulation Facilities as Sources of Opioids and Other Pharmaceuticals to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Facilities involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are an under-investigated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Between 2004 and 2009, 35 to 38 effluent samples were collected from each of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals including opioids and muscle relaxants. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial flows (>20% of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally <1 μg/L. Four pharmaceuticals (methadone, oxycodone, butalbital, and metaxalone) in samples of NY3 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 3.4 to >400 μg/L. Maximum concentrations of oxycodone (1700 μg/L) and metaxalone (3800 μg/L) in samples from NY3 effluent exceeded 1000 μg/L. Three pharmaceuticals (butalbital, carisoprodol, and oxycodone) in samples of NY2 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 2 to 11 μg/L. These findings suggest that current manufacturing practices at these PFFs can result in pharmaceuticals concentrations from 10 to 1000 times higher than those typically found in WWTP effluents. PMID:20521847

  11. Why are pharmaceutical companies gradually abandoning vaccines?

    PubMed

    Offit, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    During the past fifty years, the number of pharmaceutical companies making vaccines has decreased dramatically, and those that still make vaccines have reduced resources to make new ones. Pharmaceutical companies are gradually abandoning vaccines because the research, development, testing, and manufacture of vaccines are expensive and because the market to sell vaccines is much smaller than the market for other drug products. Congressional action could assure both a steady supply of existing vaccines and the promise of vaccines for the future.

  12. Production of Plasmid DNA as Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Marco; Schleef, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical applications of plasmid DNA require certain quality standards, depending on the intended use of the plasmids. That is, for direct gene transfer into human, GMP Grade is mandatory, however, for GMP production of for example viral vectors (AAV or mRNA etc.), the plasmid DNA used has not to be produced under GMP necessarily. Here we summarize important features of producing plasmid DNA, ensuring the required quality for the intended (pharmaceutical) application.

  13. Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.

    PubMed

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.

  14. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices.

  15. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals.

  16. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  17. Engineering and manufacturing of pharmaceutical co-crystals: a review of solvent-free manufacturing technologies.

    PubMed

    Ross, S A; Lamprou, D A; Douroumis, D

    2016-07-07

    Design and synthesis of pharmaceutical cocrystals have received great interest in recent years. Cocrystallization of drug substances offers a tremendous opportunity for the development of new drug products with superior physical and pharmacological properties such as solubility, stability, hydroscopicity, dissolution rates and bioavailability. It is now possible to engineer and develop cocrystals via 'green chemistry' and environmentally friendly approaches such as solid-state synthesis in the absence of organic solvents. In addition, significant efforts have been directed towards computational screening, cocrystal manufacturing in a continuous manner and real-time monitoring for quality purposes by using various analytical tools. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are not fully exploited yet and there is a lot of ground to cover before they can be successfully utilized as medical products.

  18. [Drugs and pharmaceutical episodes in "Sazae-San": Japanese comic strips in 1940s-1970s].

    PubMed

    Goino, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    This is a report on episodes with references to drugs and pharmaceuticals in one of the most famous Japanese comic strips, "Sazae-san", in the period from 1945 to 1974. There were 111 episodes of "Sazae-san" including references to drugs and pharmaceuticals in this period. In the period from 1945 to 1954, there were some references to pharmacists and pharmacies but only a small number of references in the period from 1965 to 1974. In the period from 1945 to 1954, there were references to disinfectants and insecticides in the hygienic chemistry field. However, in the period from 1965 to 1974, there were references to environmental problems, food additives and agricultural chemicals. As drug development has progressed, the number of references to practical drugs in "Sazae-san" has decreased over the period from 1945-1974.

  19. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  20. Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)

  1. USSR Report, Chemistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Industry, Coal Gasification , Electrochemistry, Inorganic Compounds, Nitrogen Compounds, Organophosphorus Compounds, Petroleum Processing Technology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Polymers and Polymerization and, Radiation Chemistry.

  2. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  3. Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2007-03-01

    Solid pharmaceuticals are multi-component systems consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inactive ingredients (excipients). Excipients may include inorganic salts (e.g., NaCl), carbohydrates (e.g., lactose), and polymers, to name a few, whereas APIs range from relatively simple molecules (e.g., aspirin) to proteins and olygonucleotides. Pharmaceutical solids could exist either as single-phase or heterophase systems. They also may have different extent of order, such as highly ordered crystalline phases, amorphous solids that are thermodynamically unstable but might be kinetically stable under the time frame of observation, and crystalline mesophases including liquid crystals. With all this diversity, there are common features for such systems, and two of them will be discussed in the presentation. (i) Requirements for chemical stability of pharmaceuticals are very strict. A very limited (e.g., less than 0.1%) extent of conversion is allowed in these materials over the shelf life, i.e., during several years of storage at ambient and (sometimes) not fully controlled (e.g., a medicine cabinet in one's bathroom) conditions. (ii) All pharmaceutical solids contain some water, although its amount and physical state are highly variable and may change during manufacturing and shelf life. There are many challenging questions and issues associated with the ``Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids'' subject; some of them will be considered in the presentation: (i) What are the features of chemical reactivity of crystalline vs disordered systems? (ii) What is the role of water in solid state chemical reactivity of amorphous solids, e.g., water as plasticizer vs reactant vs reaction media? (iii) How homogeneous are pharmaceutical amorphous solid solutions, e.g., carbohydrate-water systems? (iv) What is the optimal water content? With water being the most common destabilizing factor, is ``the drier - the better'' always the case?

  4. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation.

  5. The UK pharmaceutical market. An overview.

    PubMed

    Towse, A

    1996-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) accounts for more than 98% of the UK prescription medicines market, which is the sixth largest pharmaceutical market in the world. Most of this market is driven by the UK's approximately 35,000 general practitioners (GPs). It is an open market, with most leading foreign pharmaceutical companies having a strong presence. While the growth rate of this market has been decelerating, it remains one of the fastest growing components of NHS expenditure. The NHS does not operate any kind of national reimbursement list, but the UK government has adopted several means to keep medicines expenditure under control. These include cash incentives and constraints for GPs relating to expenditure on medicines, individual quarterly updates on GP prescribing, the publication of a list of medicines that cannot be prescribed by GPs, the switching of some prescription-only medicines to over-the-counter medicines, and a co-payment system. The main form of economic regulation in the UK, however, remains the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS). This limits the rate-of-return on capital attributable to medicines sales to the NHS, with the intended rate-of-return being equal to that of UK industry overall. The pharmaceutical industry has generally performed relatively well in the UK market, managing to preserve incentives to innovation. This reflects the fact that UK GPs have been able to maintain their clinical freedom, as well as government recognition of the economic contribution made by the pharmaceutical industry. Current issues of interest in the UK pharmaceutical market context include the future of the PPRS, the debates over the imposition of a national formulary and generic substitution, and over parallel trade, the potential impact of managed-care protocols and computer-based prescribing on pharmaceutical expenditures, and possible political changes.

  6. AN INFORMATIC APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECOLOGICAL RISKS POSED BY PHARMACEUTICAL USE: HUMAN PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals are often excreted from patients as the parent compound or as active metabolites. Some of these compounds have been found in the environment. However, the environmental concentrations of the majority of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are not known. The re...

  7. Pharmaceutical and biomedical potential of surface engineered dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Satija, Jitendra; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Dendrimers are hyperbranched, globular, monodisperse, nanometric polymeric architecture, having definite molecular weight, shape, and size (which make these an inimitable and optimum carrier molecule in pharmaceutical field). Dendritic architecture is having immense potential over the other carrier systems, particularly in the field of drug delivery because of their unique properties, such as structural uniformity, high purity, efficient membrane transport, high drug pay load, targeting potential, and good colloidal, biological, and shelf stability. Despite their enormous applicability in different areas, the inherent cytotoxicity, reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake, drug leakage, immunogenicity, and hemolytic toxicity restricted their use in clinical applications, which is primarily associated with cationic charge present on the periphery due to amine groups. To overcome this toxic nature of dendrimers, some new types of nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable dendrimers have been developed (e.g., polyester dendrimer, citric acid dendrimer, arginine dendrimer, carbohydrate dendrimers, etc.). The surface engineering of parent dendrimers is graceful and convenient strategy, which not only shields the positive charge to make this carrier more biomimetic but also improves the physicochemical and biological behavior of parent dendrimers. Thus, surface modification chemistry of parent dendrimers holds promise in pharmaceutical applications (such as solubilization, improved drug encapsulation, enhanced gene transfection, sustained and controlled drug release, intracellular targeting) and in the diagnostic field. Development of multifunctional dendrimer holds greater promise toward the biomedical applications because a number of targeting ligands determine specificity in the same manner as another type of group would secure stability in biological milieu and prolonged circulation, whereas others facilitate their transport through cell membranes. Therefore, as a

  8. Metabolic engineering: the ultimate paradigm for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vikramaditya G; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    Research and development (R&D) expenditures by pharmaceutical companies doubled over the past decade, yet candidate attrition rates and development times rose markedly during this period. Understandably, companies have begun downsizing their pipelines and diverting investments away from R&D in favor of manufacturing. It is estimated that transitioning to continuous manufacturing could enable companies to compete for a share in emerging markets. Accordingly, the model for continuous manufacturing that has emerged commences with the conversion of late-stage intermediates into the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a series of continuous flow reactors, followed by continuous solid processing to form finished tablets. The use of flow reactions for API synthesis will certainly generate purer products at higher yields in shorter times compared to equivalent batch reactions. However, transitioning from batch to flow configuration simply alleviates transport limitations within the reaction milieu. As the catalogue of reactions used in flow syntheses is a subset of batch-based chemistries, molecules such as natural products will continue to evade drug prospectors. Also, it is uncertain whether flow synthesis can deliver improvements in the atom and energy economies of API production at the scales that would achieve the levels of revenue growth targeted by companies. Instead, it is argued that implementing metabolic engineering for the production of oxidized scaffolds as gateway molecules for flow-based addition of electrophiles is a more effective and scalable strategy for accessing natural product chemical space. This new paradigm for manufacturing, with metabolic engineering as its engine, would also permit rapid optimization of production variables and allow facile scale-up from gram to ton scale to meet material requirements for clinical trials, thus recasting manufacturing as a tool for discovery.

  9. New pharmaceuticals reduce cost of illness.

    PubMed

    Hansen, R W

    1986-06-01

    The cost of illness includes not only the funds required to treat illness, but also the effect on the patient's quality of life. Recent concern about rising health costs have focused on the direct expenditures without noting that the cost of illness in terms of mortality and morbidity has declined significantly. Pharmaceuticals have played a major role in reducing the total cost of illness. Several studies of the cost-effectiveness of past introductions of vaccines and pharmaceuticals reveal large cost savings. Although the focus of most studies has been on major advances, the continuing process of less dramatic therapeutic improvements has significantly trimmed the cost of illness. Cost-benefit studies of new drugs or changes in drug use, while more difficult to perform, make it possible to influence the selection of therapy. Since pharmaceuticals represent less than 10% of total treatment costs, reduction in the cost of pharmaceutical products can only have a minor impact on the total cost of illness. Pharmaceuticals can reduce the cost of illness by providing alternative therapies that reduce direct treatment cost or improve the public health.

  10. Characterization and Quality Control of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Tatsuo; Takata, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Ono, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Fukami, Toshiro; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2016-10-01

    Recent active research and new regulatory guidance on pharmaceutical cocrystals have increased the rate of their development as promising approaches to improve handling, storage stability, and bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, their complex structure and the limited amount of available information related to their performance may require development strategies that differ from those of single-component crystals to ensure their clinical safety and efficacy. This article highlights current methods of characterizing pharmaceutical cocrystals and approaches to controlling their quality. Different cocrystal regulatory approaches between regions are also discussed. The physical characterization of cocrystals should include elucidating the structure of their objective crystal form as well as their possible variations (e.g., polymorphs, hydrates). Some solids may also contain crystals of individual components. Multiple processes to prepare pharmaceutical cocrystals (e.g., crystallization from solutions, grinding) vary in their applicable ingredients, scalability, and characteristics of resulting solids. The choice of the manufacturing method affects the quality control of particular cocrystals and their formulations. In vitro evaluation of the properties that govern clinical performance is attracting increasing attention in the development of pharmaceutical cocrystals. Understanding and mitigating possible factors perturbing the dissolution and/or dissolved states, including solution-mediated phase transformation (SMPT) and precipitation from supersaturated solutions, are important to ensure the bioavailability of orally administrated lower-solubility APIs. The effect of polymer excipients on the performance of APIs emphasizes the relevance of formulation design for appropriate use.

  11. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  12. Environmental presence and persistence of pharmaceuticals: An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Koplin, Dana W.; Furlong, Edward T.; Focazio, M.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) in the environment – that is, chemicals with domestic, municipal, industrial, or agricultural sources that are not commonly monitored but may have the potential for adverse environmental effects – is a rapidly growing field of research. The use of “emerging” is not intended to infer that the presence of these compounds in the environment is new. These chemicals have been released into the environment as long as they have been in production or, in the case of hormones and other endogenous compounds, since the rise of animal life. What is emerging is the interest by the scientific and lay communities in the presence of these chemicals in the environment, the analytical capabilities required for detection, and the subtle effects that very small concentrations of these chemicals appear to have on aquatic biota. In December 2006, Environmental Science & Technology devoted an entire special issue (volume 40, number 23) to the topic of ECs, illustrating the increased interest in the subject. Within the EGs, one particular class that has seen a substantial increase in research over the past 10 years is pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs). This increased research interest can be demonstrated by several means, including requests for proposals from funding agencies, but the clearest indication of a focused effort to understand the introduction, transformation, and potential health and environmental effects of PPCPs and ECs, in general, is the number of published reports. This increase can be shown by examining six environmental journals that regularly publish PPCP-related papers – Chemosphere, Environmental Science & Technology, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Science of the Total Environment, Water Research, and Water Science and Technology. In 1998 there were 22 papers published on pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, or drugs in these 6 journals; by 2006, this number increased sixfold to 132 papers (Figure 1.1).This

  13. Bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Creus, Marc; Gademann, Karl; Giese, Bernd; Ward, Thomas R; Woggon, Wolf D; Chougnet, Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The interdisciplinary projects in bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry of the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel led to the preparation of new systems that mimic biologically important processes and to the discovery of compounds from natural sources which are very promising with respect to medical applications. The advances in these areas are reported here.

  14. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  15. Chemistry and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, D. W.

    1970-01-01

    In the second article of a series, the author discusses some of the interactions between chemistry and philosophy. Evaluates chemistry's role within the scientific enterprise. Traces the rise and fall of the logical atom and argues for a new way of looking at science as an educational instrument. (RR)

  16. Chemistry from Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

  17. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  18. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  19. Pre-Tech Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Junior Coll., Jacksonville.

    This course guide is designed to aid chemistry instructors in teaching the skills and knowledge needed by those students planning to take junior college chemistry and is composed of 11 terminal performance objectives, with intermediate performance objectives and sample criterion measures. Suggestions for related laboratory activities are also…

  20. Brushing Up on Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trantow, Ashley

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)

  1. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  2. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  3. Mathematics and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between mathematics and chemistry has been changing rapidly in recent years. Some chemistry teachers have experienced difficulties in their teaching with the introduction of modern mathematics in the schools. Some suggestions for reinforcing the concepts and language of modern mathematics are put forth. (Author/MA)

  4. Organic Chemistry Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradt, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Student-led workshops are helping undergraduate students learn from each other as they tackle organic chemistry. Each week, small groups brainstorm tough problems in sessions guided by upper-class students who have taken and passed the course. Debating and discussing chemistry problems with peers engages students with the material and boosts…

  5. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  6. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  7. Click chemistry patents and their impact on drug discovery and chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Jones, Lyn H

    2015-01-01

    First introduced by K Barry Sharpless in 2001, the term 'click chemistry' soon became a widely used description of chemical reactions that proceed rapidly, cleanly and in a manner that is often compatible with aqueous solutions. Click chemistry is frequently employed throughout the process of drug discovery, and greatly helps advance research programs in the pharmaceutical industry. It facilitates library synthesis to support medicinal chemistry optimization, helps identify the targets and off-targets of drug candidates, and can facilitate the determination of drug efficacy in clinical trials. In the last decade, a large number of patent applications covering the various types and utilities of click chemistry have been filed. In this review, we provide the first analysis of click chemistry applications.

  8. Pharmaceutical impurities and degradation products: uses and applications of NMR techniques.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Rubén M; Calvo, Natalia L; Vignaduzzo, Silvana E; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2014-12-01

    Current standards and regulations demand the pharmaceutical industry not only to produce highly pure drug substances, but to achieve a thorough understanding of the impurities accompanying their manufactured drug substances and products. These challenges have become important goals of process chemistry and have steadily stimulated the search of impurities after accelerated or forced degradation procedures. As a result, impurity profiling is one of the most attractive, active and relevant fields of modern pharmaceutical analysis. This activity includes the identification, structural elucidation and quantitative determination of impurities and degradation products in bulk drugs and their pharmaceutical formulations. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has evolved into an irreplaceable approach for pharmaceutical quality assessment, currently playing a critical role in unequivocal structure identification as well as structural confirmation (qualitative detection), enabling the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the formation of process and/or degradation impurities. NMR is able to provide qualitative information without the need of standards of the unknown compounds and multiple components can be quantified in a complex sample without previous separation. When coupled to separative techniques, the resulting hyphenated methodologies enhance the analytical power of this spectroscopy to previously unknown levels. As a result, and by enabling the implementation of rational decisions regarding the identity and level of impurities, NMR contributes to the goal of making better and safer medicines. Herein are discussed the applications of NMR spectroscopy and its hyphenated derivate techniques to the study of a wide range pharmaceutical impurities. Details on the advantages and disadvantages of the methodology and well as specific challenges with regards to the different analytical problems are also presented.

  9. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    PubMed

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.

  10. Glycans in Medicinal Chemistry: An Underexploited Resource.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2015-08-01

    The biological relevance of glycans as mediators of key physiological processes, including disease-related mechanisms, makes them attractive targets for a wide range of medical applications. Despite their important biological roles, especially as molecular recognition elements, carbohydrates have not been fully exploited as therapeutics mainly due to the scarcity of structure-activity correlations and their non-drug-like properties. A more detailed understanding of the complex carbohydrate structures and their associated functions should contribute to the development of new glycan-based pharmaceuticals. Recent significant progress in oligosaccharide synthesis and chemical glycobiology has renewed the interest of the medicinal chemistry community in carbohydrates. This promises to increase our possibilities to harness them in drug discovery efforts for the development of new and more effective, synthetic glycan-based therapeutics and vaccines.

  11. Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on…

  12. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  13. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  14. Thermal properties of food and pharmaceutical powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiad, Mohamad Ghassan

    Foods and pharmaceuticals are complex systems usually exposed to various environmental conditions during processing and thus storage, stability, functionality and quality are key attributes that deserve careful attention. The quality and stability of foods and pharmaceuticals are mainly affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, time, and processing conditions (e.g. shear, pressure) under which they may undergo physical and/or chemical transformations. Glass transition as well as other thermal properties is a key to understand how external conditions affect physical changes of such materials. Development of new materials and understanding the physico-chemical behavior of existing ones require a scientific foundation that translates into safe and high quality foods, improved quality of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals with lower risk to patients and functional efficacy of polymers used in food and medicinal products. This research provides an overview of the glass transition and other thermal properties and introduces novel methods developed to characterize such properties.

  15. Pharmaceutical strategy and innovation: an academics perspective.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Ian R; Hayward, John J; Ley, Steven V; Tranmer, Geoffrey K

    2007-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences.

  16. Modeling choice behavior for new pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Bingham, M F; Johnson, F R; Miller, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic generalization of a model often used to aid marketing decisions relating to conventional products. The model uses stated-preference data in a random-utility framework to predict adoption rates for new pharmaceutical products. In addition, this paper employs a Markov model of patient learning in drug selection. While the simple learning rule presented here is only a rough approximation to reality, this model nevertheless systematically incorporates important features including learning and the influence of shifting preferences on market share. Despite its simplifications, the integrated framework of random-utility and product attribute updating presented here is capable of accommodating a variety of pharmaceutical marketing and development problems. This research demonstrates both the strengths of stated-preference market research and some of its shortcomings for pharmaceutical applications.

  17. Agglomeration tendency in dry pharmaceutical granular systems.

    PubMed

    Lachiver, Emilie DesRosiers; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Cartilier, Louis; Simard, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-10-01

    The agglomeration tendency of dry pharmaceutical mixtures containing various concentrations of Xylitab 100 (Xylitol), calcium carbonate precipitated (CCP) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) was evaluated statistically as a function of mixing time. A Ro-Tap tester was employed to mix the three pharmaceutical components, and the agglomerates formed were measured with respect to their weight and size. An experimental design was devised and applied to structure and then statistically analyze the results. Xylitab was found not to be influential in the formation of agglomerates, but aided in deagglomeration when mixed with other components. CCP and MgSt formed agglomerates over time and showed positive interactions favouring agglomeration. The agglomerates started to fracture when they reached a critical size, at which stage the particles' attraction forces (cohesion forces) were weaker than both gravity and inertia. It has been shown and quantitatively demonstrated that the mixing time and ingredient concentrations of a three-component pharmaceutical mixture can affect agglomeration tendency.

  18. Marketing concepts for pharmaceutical service development.

    PubMed

    Grauer, D W

    1981-02-01

    Marketing concepts as a mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers are discussed. Pharmacy as a profession must define itself broadly to take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values. New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i.e., patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance. Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time. A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers.

  19. Globalization and the pharmaceutical industry revisited.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Joan

    2003-01-01

    This survey of the pharmaceutical industry at the beginning of the 21st century updates some of the information provided in Claudio Tarabusi and Graham Vickery's survey, "Globalization in the Pharmaceutical Industry," published in the International Journal of Health Services in 1998, which was largely based on data up to 1993. However, the purpose of the present article differs from that of Tarabusi and Vickery, which covered a wide range of aspects of the industry relevant to globalization but did not explicitly address the question of the extent to which the industry could be described as globalized. After looking at the industry in some detail, the author directly confronts the question of the appropriateness of the use of the term "globalization" for characterizing the directions in which the pharmaceutical industry has been moving.

  20. WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new standards and guidelines were adopted and recommended for use: the current list of available International Chemical Reference Substances and International Infrared Reference Spectra; guidelines on stability testing of active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished pharmaceutical products; procedure for prequalification of pharmaceutical products; and the procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of active pharmaceutical ingredients for use in pharmaceutical products.

  1. WHO Expert Committee on specifications for pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use: good practices for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories; supplementary guidelines for active pharmaceutical ingredients; good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products containing hazardous substances; good manufacturing practices for sterile pharmaceutical products; good distribution practices for pharmaceutical products; guidelines on the requalification of prequalified dossiers: and guidelines for the preparation of a contract research organization master file.

  2. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, M; Schuster, B; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present in many pharmaceutical products and are one of many excipients and additives that have been reported to cause severe adverse reactions. The provided list should be a useful aid for health care practitioners when prescribing pharmaceutical products for sulfite-sensitive patients. PMID:1483237

  3. Environmental chemistry. 5th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized around several major sections: aquatic Chemistry, atmospheric chemistry, the geosphere and hazardous wastes, toxicological chemistry, and resources and energy. Specific topics discussed in the book include a general introduction to environment chemistry, basic principles of aquatic chemistry, water pollution and water treatment, the essential role of microorganisms in aquatic chemical phenomena, atmospheric chemistry, a discussion of major threats to the global atmosphere (particularly greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting chemicals), the geosphere and hazardous substances, soil chemistry, and the nature and sources of hazardous wastes. The environmental chemistry of hazardous wastes, their treatment, minimization, and recycling, and the effects of these hazardous substances in also presented.

  4. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  5. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  6. The pharmaceutical sciences in 2020--report of a conference organized by the Board of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP).

    PubMed

    Shah, Vinod P; Besançon, Luc J R; Stolk, Pieter; Tucker, Geoffrey; Crommelin, Daan J A

    2009-12-08

    In accordance with its missions, the Board of Pharmaceutical Sciences (BPS) of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) has developed a view on the future of pharmaceutical sciences in 2020. This followed an international conference with invited participants from various fields (scientists, academicians, regulators, industrialists, venture capitalists...) who shared their views on the forces that might determine how the pharmaceutical sciences will look in 2020. The participants of the conference identified major research activities which will drive drug discovery and development, the enabling technologies, as well as likely paradigm shifts in drug discovery, development, regulation and usage. In addition, they discussed the translation of these changes into the education of pharmaceutical scientists and the potential role of FIP. The outcome of this exercise could serve as a starting point for a scenario analysis of the future of pharmaceutical sciences and the challenges that await the pharmaceutical scientist.

  7. Factors affecting the chemical durability of glass used in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Iacocca, Ronald G; Toltl, Nick; Allgeier, M; Bustard, B; Dong, Xia; Foubert, M; Hofer, J; Peoples, S; Shelbourn, T

    2010-09-01

    Delamination, or the generation of glass flakes in vials used to contain parenteral drug products, continues to be a persistent problem in the pharmaceutical industry. To understand all of the factors that might contribute to delamination, a statistical design of experiments was implemented to describe this loss of chemical integrity for glass vials. Phase I of this study focused on the effects of thermal exposure (prior to product filling) on the surface chemistry of glass vials. Even though such temperatures are below the glass transition temperature for the glass, and parenteral compounds are injected directly into the body, data must be collected to show that the glass was not phase separating. Phase II of these studies examined the combined effects of thermal exposure, glass chemistry, and exposure to pharmaceutically relevant molecules on glass delamination. A variety of tools was used to examine the glass and the solution contained in the vial including: scanning electron microscopy and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy for the glass; and visual examination, pH measurements, laser particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for the analysis of the solution. The combined results of phase I and II showed depyrogenation does not play a significant role in delamination. Terminal sterilization, glass chemistry, and solution chemistry are the key factors in the generation of glass flakes. Dissolution of silica may be an effective indicator that delamination will occur with a given liquid stored in glass. Finally, delamination should not be defined by the appearance of visible glass particulates. There is a mechanical component in the delamination process whereby the flakes must break away from the interior vial surface. Delamination should be defined by the observation of flakes on the interior surface of the vial, which can be detected by several other analytical techniques.

  8. Computational quantum chemistry website

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-22

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

  9. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  10. Chemistry in Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlings, J. M. C.; Williams, D. A.

    It is shown that the 5 μm excess, which is attributed to CO in the ejecta of novae, can be modelled chemically. The principle problems involved in the modelling are: (1) the high ejecta temperature (≡104K), (2) the extremely high UV flux, and (3) the marginal self-shielding capability of H2. The authors find that the condition of H2 self-shielding alone is sufficient to allow rapid chemistry to proceed. Time-dependent chemistry calculations indicate that the chemistry is steered by the physics of the system.

  11. NON-TRADITIONAL RESPONSES TO PHARMACEUTICALS IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitation of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in environmental matrices has resulted in pharmaceuticals in the environment receiving unprecedented attention from the scientific community. Aquatic hazard assessments often use quantitative structure activity relationships an...

  12. Risks to aquatic organisms posed by human pharmaceutical use

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to help prioritize future research efforts within the US, risks associated with exposure to human prescription pharmaceutical residues in wastewater were estimated from marketing and pharmacological data. Masses of 371 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) dispensed ...

  13. Predicting variability of aquatic concentrations of human pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aquatic environment is a subject of ongoing concern. We recently estimated maximum likely potency-normalized exposure rates at the national level for several hundred commonly used human prescription pharmaceut...

  14. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  15. The Pharmaceutical Care Movement: Opportunities for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Thomas R.

    1996-01-01

    Areas in which pharmacy educators and practitioners can collaborate to hasten pharmacy curriculum development are outlined, including: state and regional centers for operationalizing the pharmaceutical care concept; training, formal resource programs for pharmacists; research advisory boards; public education; links with medical community;…

  16. Who Dispenses Pharmaceuticals to Children at School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Elaine Esielionis; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study examined how pharmaceuticals were dispensed in one Florida county's public elementary, middle, and high schools and in six private schools. Surveys indicated that of 28,134 children surveyed, 1,016 received 5,411 doses of medication from school personnel, who were not necessarily health care personnel. Methylphenidate was the most…

  17. New pharmaceuticals in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Łodyga, Michał; Eder, Piotr; Bartnik, Witold; Gonciarz, Maciej; Kłopocka, Maria; Linke, Krzysztof; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Radwan, Piotr; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    This paper complements the previously published Guidelines of the Working Group of the Polish Society of Gastroenterology and former National Consultant in Gastroenterology regarding the management of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Attention was focused on the new pharmaceutical recently registered for inflammatory bowel disease treatment.

  18. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  19. Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the earliest initial reports from Europe and the United States demonstrated that a variety of pharmaceuticals and hormones could be found in surface waters, source waters, drinking water, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It is unknown...

  20. [Alternatives to pharmaceutical distribution and reimbursement].

    PubMed

    Meneu, R

    2002-01-01

    In Spain pharmaceutical distribution is carried out mainly thorugh the 20,000 independent pharmacies located throughout the country. This situation contrasts with that in other countries where other health care providers play a major role in drug dispensation or where pharmacies form part of industrial conglomerates or commercial chains. We describe the pharmaceutical distribution chain in Spain wholesale and through the pharmacies and place particular emphasis on five aspects of relevance when considering alternatives: ownership of the pharmacy and norms of professional service, criteria for setting up a pharmacy, monopoly on dispensing, automatic ageement with the Spanish national health system and reimbursement system. Several alternatives found in comparable countries are described: mail order and on-line distribution, sale of over-the counter pharmaceutical products in establishments other than pharmacies, the estabilishment of pharmaceutical chains, dispensing by providers, the repercussions of electronic prescribing and the possibilities of the still-emerging Pharmacuetical Care. The characteristics of pharmacy reimbursement systems are also reviewed. We recommend modification of limitations on ownership of pharmacies, the establishment of optional agreements between pharmacies and the Spanish national health system and the authorization of alternative or complementary channels of distribution for some products. We propose a mixed model of reimbursement that would include: a) a ficed price for dispensing; b) almost total return of the cost of the product; c) reimbursement for services explicity defined by the financer, and d) the possibility of a selective fixed payment for certain situations depending on the agreed services or a guaranteed minimum income.

  1. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, David

    2005-01-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  3. Pharmaceutical Education. Bulletin, 1921, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Wortley F.

    1921-01-01

    Any history of pharmaceutical education during the two years 1918 to 1920 would be wholly incomplete without a review of the influences, which have brought about the conditions during the period under consideration. In pharmacy, as in medicine and law, the preceptorial system largely prevailed for the first century of pharmacy in the United…

  4. An Interdisciplinary Course in Pharmaceutical Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshaber, Larry D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A course in pharmaceutical product merchandising offered at the St. Louis College of Pharmacy incorporated as its three major components the development of a one-page print advertisement, a recorded radio commercial, and a videotape commercial series. Student evaluations were based on performance rather than effort. (MSE)

  5. Pharmaceutical drugs chatter on Online Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Matthew T; Jin, Canghong; Hristidis, Vagelis; Esterling, Kevin M

    2014-06-01

    The ubiquity of Online Social Networks (OSNs) is creating new sources for healthcare information, particularly in the context of pharmaceutical drugs. We aimed to examine the impact of a given OSN's characteristics on the content of pharmaceutical drug discussions from that OSN. We compared the effect of four distinguishing characteristics from ten different OSNs on the content of their pharmaceutical drug discussions: (1) General versus Health OSN; (2) OSN moderation; (3) OSN registration requirements; and (4) OSNs with a question and answer format. The effects of these characteristics were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show that an OSN's characteristics indeed affect the content of its discussions. Based on their information needs, healthcare providers may use our findings to pick the right OSNs or to advise patients regarding their needs. Our results may also guide the creation of new and more effective domain-specific health OSNs. Further, future researchers of online healthcare content in OSNs may find our results informative while choosing OSNs as data sources. We reported several findings about the impact of OSN characteristics on the content of pharmaceutical drug discussion, and synthesized these findings into actionable items for both healthcare providers and future researchers of healthcare discussions on OSNs. Future research on the impact of OSN characteristics could include user demographics, quality and safety of information, and efficacy of OSN usage.

  6. Pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataramani, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    A clear understanding of the process, reaction pathways, process equipment, operational requirements, and waste stream characteristics are critical for the evaluation, selection, and implementation of pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry. Although pollution prevention opportunities are always preferred over treatment and disposal techniques, consideration of a full range of options--including at-source treatments and disposal--is a practical necessity to ensure protection of the environment using best available technology. General housekeeping can also play a major role in waste minimization. Waste minimization and pollution prevention are not new concepts for the pharmaceutical industry. But the confidential and highly competitive nature of the business stands in the way of disseminating information regarding specific activities in this area. The pharmaceutical industry could probably do much better in this respect. Successful implementation of waste minimization in the pharmaceutical industry requires that a process modification not have a negative impact on product quality. Recovered and recycled materials must meet quality specifications that are similar to those for virgin raw materials.

  7. An Innovative Pharmaceutical Care Practical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulatova, N. R.; Aburuz, S.; Yousef, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    The innovative practical course was developed to improve the students' ability to acquire pharmaceutical care skills. The primary components of the course were in-school training using small group discussions and hospital experience including identification, analysis, prevention and resolution of drug-therapy problems, patient counseling on their…

  8. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  9. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  10. Uncertainty in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Menger, Fredric M

    2010-09-01

    It might come as a disappointment to some chemists, but just as there are uncertainties in physics and mathematics, there are some chemistry questions we may never know the answer to either, suggests Fredric M. Menger.

  11. Frontiers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Robert M., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in chemical synthesis which depends on comparable advances in other areas of chemistry. Analysis and theories of chemical structure and reactions are determinants in progress in chemical synthesis and are described also. (Author/SA)

  12. Chemistry and Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program consisting of two courses. The first course deals with the chemistry of drugs and poisons; the second course focuses on fictional works in which these drugs and poisons are central to the plots. (SK)

  13. Environmental Bioinorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including interactions of organisms with metallic and nonmetallic elements and compounds. Indicates that many environmental problems are created by human exploitation of nature and technologies if studied from a bioinorganic chemical viewpoint. (CC)

  14. Chemistry for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  15. Magnetism in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

  16. Chemistry for Nonscientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)

  17. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  18. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  19. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  20. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  1. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  2. Pharmaceuticals as Groundwater Tracers - Applications and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheytt, T. J.; Mersmann, P.; Heberer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Pharmaceutically active substances and metabolites are found at concentrations up to the microgram/L-level in groundwater samples from the Berlin (Germany) area and from several other places world wide. Among the compounds detected in groundwater are clofibric acid, propyphenazone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine. Clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate and etofibrate (blood lipid regulators) is detected in groundwater at maximum concentrations of 7300 ng/L. Among the most important input paths of drugs are excretion and disposal into the sewage system. Groundwater contamination is likely to be due to leaky sewage systems, influent streams, bank filtration, and irrigation with effluent water from sewage treatment plants. There are no known natural sources of the above mentioned pharmaceuticals. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers may include: (a) Quantification of infiltration from underground septic tanks (b) Detection of leaky sewage systems / leaky sewage pipes (c) Estimation of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (d) Identification of transport pathways of other organic compounds (e) Quantification of surface water / groundwater interaction (f) Characterization of the biodegradation potential. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers is limited by variations in input. These variations depend on the amount of drugs prescribed and used in the study area, the social structure of the community, the amount of hospital discharge, and temporal concentration variations. Furthermore, the analysis of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals is sophisticated and expensive and may therefore limit the applicability of pharmaceuticals as tracers. Finally, the transport and degradation behavior of pharmaceuticals is not fully understood. Preliminary experiments in the laboratory were conducted using sediment material and groundwater from the Berlin area to evaluate the transport and sorption behavior of selected drugs. Results of the column experiments

  3. An overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals as intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Trask, Andrew V

    2007-01-01

    This review article focuses on the interaction among certain scientific, legal, and regulatory aspects of pharmaceutical crystal forms. The article offers an analysis of pharmaceutical cocrystals as patentable inventions by drawing upon recent scientific developments in the field. Several potential commercial advantages of pharmaceutical cocrystals are highlighted, and a number of recent court decisions involving salient issues are summarized. The article provides an outlook on how the developing field of cocrystallization may impact the pharmaceutical intellectual property landscape.

  4. Impact of surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  5. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  6. Impact of surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Somorjai, Gabor A; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-18

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized.

  7. Is the pharmaceutical market in Bulgaria innovative?

    PubMed

    Stoimenova, A; Stankova, M; Samev, K; Petrova, G

    2003-09-01

    After the turn to market oriented economy a lot of drugs were authorized for sale in the East European countries. Because of the limited resources of these countries, mainly generic or brand generic products were licensed. The number of the patented drugs on the market could be used as measure of the market attractiveness to the R&D producers. The study shows the analysis of the innovativeness of the Bulgarian drug market comparing the registration and the patient activity of the producers. The number of the authorized products for five years period (1990-2000) and share of the patented products were investigated. During the observed period the number of newly authorized pharmaceuticals increased almost seven times from 800 (650 INN) to 6000 (2000 INN) dosage forms. The prevailing part of the newly registered drugs was found to be brand generics and possess only trade name protection. The share of drugs that are patented is less than five percent of all newly registered medicines, and among the fifty most commonly prescribed and sold medicines between 1996-2000, only 0.5 percent of drugs were patented. Obviously the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market is very competitive but not that attractive for most of the R&D producers. In general the registration of the patent protected products is increasing during the years and especially after harmonization of the related legislation with the EU requirements. The patent activity of the pharmaceutical companies regarding newly authorized drugs is influenced by the structure of morbidity and population. During the last two years the patent activity is increasing and is oriented mainly towards the protection of newly authorized drugs or pharmaceutical forms and obligatory registration of trademarks for the privatized Bulgarian pharmaceutical manufacturers.

  8. Effective executive management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoang; Kleiner, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    Along with the boom in information technology and vast development in genomic and proteomic discoveries, the pharmaceutical and biotech industries have been provided the means and tools to create a new page in medicinal history. They are now able to alter the classic ways to cure complex diseases thanks to the completion of the human genome project. To be able to compete in this industry, pharmaceutical management has to be effective not only internally but also externally in socially acceptable conduct. The first department that requires focus is marketing and sales. As the main driving force to increase revenues and profits, marketing and sales employees should be highly motivated by compensation. Also, customer relationships should be maintained for long-term gain. As important as marketing, research and development requires the financial support as well as the critical decision making to further expand the product pipeline. Similarly, finance and technologies should be adequately monitored and invested to provide support as well as prepare for future expansion. On top of that, manufacturing processes and operations are operated per quality systems and FDA guidelines to ensure high quality. Human Resources, on the other hand, should carry the managing and motivation from upper management through systematic recruitment, adequate training, and fair compensation. Moreover, effective management in a pharmaceutical would also require the social welfare and charity to help patients who cannot afford the treatment as well as improving the organization's image. Last but not least, the management should also prepare for the globalization of the industry. Inevitably, large pharmaceutical companies are merging with each other or acquiring smaller companies to enhance the competitive advantages as well as expand their product mix. For effectiveness in a pharmaceutical industry, management should focus more than just the daily routine tasks and short-term goals. Rather, they

  9. 42 CFR 482.25 - Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services... Hospital Functions § 482.25 Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services. The hospital must have pharmaceutical services that meet the needs of the patients. The institution must have a pharmacy directed by...

  10. 42 CFR 482.25 - Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services... Hospital Functions § 482.25 Condition of participation: Pharmaceutical services. The hospital must have pharmaceutical services that meet the needs of the patients. The institution must have a pharmacy directed by...

  11. Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption: current status and unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Christel A S; Holm, René; Jørgensen, Søren Astrup; Andersson, Sara B E; Artursson, Per; Beato, Stefania; Borde, Anders; Box, Karl; Brewster, Marcus; Dressman, Jennifer; Feng, Kung-I; Halbert, Gavin; Kostewicz, Edmund; McAllister, Mark; Muenster, Uwe; Thinnes, Julian; Taylor, Robert; Mullertz, Anette

    2014-06-16

    Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary of the pharmaceutical profiling methods available, with focus on in silico and in vitro models typically used to forecast active pharmaceutical ingredient's (APIs) in vivo performance after oral administration. An overview of the composition of human, animal and simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids is provided and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed. Assays performed during early development, i.e. physicochemical characterization, dissolution profiles under physiological conditions, permeability assays and the impact of excipients on these properties are discussed in detail and future demands on pharmaceutical profiling are identified. It is expected that innovative computational and experimental methods that better describe molecular processes involved in vivo during dissolution and absorption of APIs will be developed in the OrBiTo. These methods will provide early insights into successful pathways (medicinal chemistry or formulation strategy) and are anticipated to increase the number of new APIs with good oral absorption being discovered.

  12. Nanoparticles through the skin: managing conflicting results of inorganic and organic particles in cosmetics and pharmaceutics.

    PubMed

    Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Briançon, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles is a current scientific issue because of the enhanced reactivity of nanomaterials and their possible easy penetration into the body arising from their small size. Because inorganic particles are present in sunscreen cosmetic products, attention has been focused on cutaneous penetration. But organic particles of various sizes are also used in pharmaceutical applications such as skin care and transdermal drug delivery. It appears that organic and inorganic particles penetrate the skin quite differently. The apparent discrepancy is addressed in this review focusing on skin penetration of inorganic sunscreen particles and organic particles for drug delivery. After a short description of the physicochemical properties of these particles, the skin penetration of both types is reviewed with emphasis on the mechanistic issues and the differences that could account for such conflicting results. It appears that investigations by cosmetic and pharmaceutical communities focused on the main issue, i.e., no toxicity in cosmetics and maximum activity of the drug in pharmaceutics. This leaves several fundamental issues as open questions and this does not allow a rigorous comparison between both types of material. While it is claimed that inorganic nanoparticles can only penetrate the outer layer of the skin, it appears that organic submicron particles and even microparticles reach the dermis in an in vitro cell. Besides particle size, the surface chemistry of the particles and the presence of other excipients in the formulations contribute to skin absorption.

  13. Biological Activity of Ionic Liquids and Their Application in Pharmaceutics and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Ksenia S; Gordeev, Evgeniy G; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2017-01-26

    Ionic liquids are remarkable chemical compounds, which find applications in many areas of modern science. Because of their highly tunable nature and exceptional properties, ionic liquids have become essential players in the fields of synthesis and catalysis, extraction, electrochemistry, analytics, biotechnology, etc. Apart from physical and chemical features of ionic liquids, their high biological activity has been attracting significant attention from biochemists, ecologists, and medical scientists. This Review is dedicated to biological activities of ionic liquids, with a special emphasis on their potential employment in pharmaceutics and medicine. The accumulated data on the biological activity of ionic liquids, including their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, are discussed in view of possible applications in drug synthesis and drug delivery systems. Dedicated attention is given to a novel active pharmaceutical ingredient-ionic liquid (API-IL) concept, which suggests using traditional drugs in the form of ionic liquid species. The main aim of this Review is to attract a broad audience of chemical, biological, and medical scientists to study advantages of ionic liquid pharmaceutics. Overall, the discussed data highlight the importance of the research direction defined as "Ioliomics", studies of ions in liquids in modern chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  14. Drug Synthesis and Analysis on a Dime: A Capstone Medicinal Chemistry Experience for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streu, Craig N.; Reif, Randall D.; Neiles, Kelly Y.; Schech, Amanda J.; Mertz, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative, research-based experiences have shown tremendous potential as effective pedagogical approaches. Pharmaceutical development is an exciting field that draws heavily on organic chemistry and biochemistry techniques. A capstone drug synthesis/analysis laboratory is described where biochemistry students synthesize azo-stilbenoid compounds…

  15. Strengthening High School Chemistry Education through Teacher Outreach Programs: A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A strong chemical workforce in the United States will be essential to the ability to address many issues of societal concern in the future, including demand for renewable energy, more advanced materials, and more sophisticated pharmaceuticals. High school chemistry teachers have a critical role to play in engaging and supporting the chemical…

  16. Dimethyl sulfoxide: history, chemistry, and clinical utility in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Kara; Capriotti, Joseph A

    2012-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colorless liquid derived as a by-product from wood pulp in the production of paper. This colorless liquid found immediate application as a polar, aprotic solvent miscible with water and able to dissolve an enormous catalog of polar and nonpolar small molecules. It is presently scarcely used in dermatology, but given its useful properties as a penetration-enhancing solvent excipient and active anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical agent, dimethyl sulfoxide has the potential to be used in a much broader capacity. The authors review the history, chemistry, and clinical utility of dimethyl sulfoxide as it pertains to dermatology.

  17. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  18. Behavior of selected pharmaceuticals in topsoil of Greyic Phaeozem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Klement, Ales; Kocarek, Martin; Fer, Miroslav; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Jaksik, Ondrej

    2014-05-01

    It has been documented in several studies that soil may be contaminated by human or veterinary pharmaceuticals. Some of pharmaceutical ingredient may be retained in soils. The rest can be transported to the surface and groundwater through surface runoff and infiltration. Mobility of contaminants in soils is dependent on many soil and pharmaceutical properties (e.g. pharmaceutical adsorption on soil particles and pharmaceutical degradation). The goals of this study were: (1) to measure adsorption isotherms of selected pharmaceuticals in one soil; (2) to evaluate degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in this soil, and (3) to evaluate impact of applied pharmaceuticals on biological activity in soil, which influences pharmaceutical decomposition. Batch sorption tests were performed for 7 selected pharmaceuticals (beta blockers Atenolol and Metoprolol, anticonvulsant Carbamazepin, and antibiotics Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, Trimetoprim and Sulfamethoxazol) and one soil (topsoil of Greyic Phaeozem from Čáslav). The same concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/l) were used for almost all pharmaceuticals except Clarithromycin (0.033, 0.08, 0.165, 0.25, 0.33 mg/l). The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. Degradation of all 7 pharmaceuticals was also studied. Solutes of different pharmaceuticals (concentration of 8.3 mg/l) were added into the plastic bottles (one pharmaceutical per bottle) with soil. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals remaining in soil 1, 2, 5, 12, 23, 40 and 61 days after the pharmaceutical application were analyzed. Colony forming unites were evaluated to describe microbial activity in time affected by different pharmaceuticals. Adsorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles decreasing as follows: Clarithromycin, Trimetoprim, Metoprolol, Clindamycin, Atenolol, Carbamazepin, Sulfamethoxazol. Degradation rates in some degree reflected adsorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles and increased with

  19. Jordanian pharmaceutical companies: are their marketing efforts paying off?

    PubMed

    Al-Shaikh, Mustafa S; Torres, Ivonne M; Zuniga, Miguel A; Ghunaim, Ayman

    2011-04-01

    The pharmaceuticals industry is one of the main industries in Jordan. Jordanian pharmaceuticals rank third in the export industry of this country. This study aims to examine the strengths that Jordanian pharmaceutical companies have, which, in turn, form their competitiveness base. In addition, this study aims to identify their weaknesses and the effects of marketing their products in the local market. What is the relationship between Jordanian pharmaceutical product quality, price and value, and the competitiveness of pharmaceutical companies in the local market? Our study aims to answer this and other questions. Our results and practical implications are discussed.

  20. The effect of pharmaceutical benefits managers: is it being evaluated?

    PubMed

    Schulman, K A; Rubenstein, L E; Abernethy, D R; Seils, D M; Sulmasy, D P

    1996-05-15

    Over the last decade, the number of pharmaceutical benefits managers has increased, and their influence has expanded rapidly. These managers now provide prescription drug coverage to more than 100 million Americans. The effect of pharmaceutical benefits managers on health care delivery remains unclear. We review the development of these organizations, their current role in the delivery of pharmaceutical therapies to patients, and their relationship with pharmaceutical manufacturers. We discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of pharmaceutical benefits manager practices and suggest ways in which these organizations can be made more accountable to the employer groups that hire them.

  1. Natural products and combinatorial chemistry: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Ortholand, Jean-Yves; Ganesan, A

    2004-06-01

    The introduction of high-throughput synthesis and combinatorial chemistry has precipitated a global decline in the screening of natural products by the pharmaceutical industry. Some companies terminated their natural products program, despite the unproven success of the new technologies. This was a premature decision, as natural products have a long history of providing important medicinal agents. Furthermore, they occupy a complementary region of chemical space compared with the typical synthetic compound library. For these reasons, the interest in natural products has been rekindled. Various approaches have evolved that combine the power of natural products and organic chemistry, ranging from the combinatorial total synthesis of analogues to the exploration of natural product scaffolds and the design of completely unnatural molecules that resemble natural products in their molecular characteristics.

  2. Recent applications of microwave irradiation to medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Jesús; Oehlrich, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The demands made on the pharmaceutical industry are changing at an unprecedented pace, making modern drug discovery dependent on high speed organic synthesis. Over the last few years, different technologies have been introduced in medicinal chemistry laboratories in order to improve their productivity. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is proving to be instrumental in the rapid synthesis of compounds with new and improved biological activities. This review highlights the application of this approach as a way to explore analogue synthesis in medicinal chemistry over the last 3 years. We describe a number of examples taken from the literature that are related to various targets within different therapeutic areas. Clearly microwave irradiation is becoming a fundamental tool for optimizing key steps in the synthesis of target compounds within the field of drug discovery.

  3. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market.

  4. Technetium Chemistry in HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

    2005-06-06

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  5. Application of Emerging Pharmaceutical Technologies for Therapeutic Challenges of Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    An important requirement of therapeutics for extended duration exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will be the development of pharmaceutical technologies suitable for sustained and preventive health care in remote and adverse environmental conditions. Availability of sustained, stable and targeted delivery pharmaceuticals for preventive health of major organ systems including gastrointestinal, hepato-renal, musculo-skeletal and immune function are essential to offset adverse effects of space environment beyond low Earth orbit. Specifically, medical needs may include multi-drug combinations for hormone replacement, radiation protection, immune enhancement and organ function restoration. Additionally, extended stability of pharmaceuticals dispensed in space must be also considered in future drug development. Emerging technologies that can deliver stable and multi-therapy pharmaceutical preparations and delivery systems include nanotechnology based drug delivery platforms, targeted-delivery systems in non-oral and non-parenteral formulation matrices. Synthetic nanomaterials designed with molecular precision offer defined structures, electronics, and chemistries to be efficient drug carriers with clear advantages over conventional materials of drug delivery matricies. Nano-carrier materials like the bottle brush polymers may be suitable for systemic delivery of drug cocktails while Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles or (SPIONS) have great potential to serve as carriers for targeted drug delivery to a specific site. These and other emerging concepts of drug delivery and extended shelf-life technologies will be reviewed in light of their application to address health-care challenges of exploration missions. Innovations in alternate treatments for sustained immune enhancement and infection control will be also discussed.

  6. External referencing and pharmaceutical price negotiation.

    PubMed

    Garcia Mariñoso, Begoña; Jelovac, Izabela; Olivella, Pau

    2011-06-01

    External referencing (ER) imposes a price cap for pharmaceuticals, based on prices of identical or comparable products in foreign countries. Suppose a foreign country (F) negotiates prices with a pharmaceutical firm, whereas a home country (H) can either negotiate prices independently or implement ER, based on the foreign price. We show that country H prefers ER if copayments in H are relatively high. This preference is reinforced when H's population is small. Irrespective of relative country sizes, ER by country H harms country F. Our model is inspired by the wide European experience with this cost-containment policy. Namely, in Europe, drug authorization and price negotiations are carried out by separate agencies. We confirm our main results in two extensions. The first one allows for therapeutic competition between drugs. In the second one, drug authorization and price negotiation take place in a single agency.

  7. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2016-12-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an innovative process. We analyze physician prescription choices and the optimal pricing decision of an innovative firm. We also characterize the incentives of the innovative firm to conduct R&D activities, disentangling the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations.

  8. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiali; Xia, Wenshui; Liu, Ping; Cheng, Qinyuan; Tahirou, Talba; Gu, Wenxiu; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1) enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy. PMID:20714418

  9. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelling capacity, reactivity to acids and inconsiderable toxicity. Of course, these are highly cost effectual. This special report on clay minerals provides a bird's eye view of the chemical composition and structure of these minerals and their influence on the release properties of active medicinal agents. Endeavor has been made to rope in myriad applications depicting the wide acceptability of these clay minerals. PMID:28031881

  10. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-07-15

    Almost 100 years after the discovery of the Raman scattering phenomenon, related analytical techniques have emerged as important tools in biomedical sciences. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are frontier, non-invasive analytical techniques amenable for diverse biomedical areas, ranging from molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed.

  11. Rosmarinic Acid--Pharmaceutical and Clinical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Amoah, Solomon K S; Sandjo, Louis P; Kratz, Jadel M; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-03-01

    The biosynthesis and biotechnological production of Rosmarinic acid, a phenolic ester that is widespread in the plant kingdom, has been widely investigated. This compound has shown many remarkable biological and pharmacological activities, which have led to its pharmaceutical and analytical development, as well as clinical studies, which are summarized and analyzed here for the first time. This review compiles data from the Pubmed, Scopus, Scifinder, Web Of Science, and Science Direct databases published between 1990 and 2015, restricting the search to works with the keywords "Rosmarinic acid" in the title. The initial search identified more than 800 articles; after an initial screening and removal of duplicate works, the search was further refined, resulting in approximately 300 articles that were scrutinized and comprise this review. The articles were organized to describe extraction and isolation, analytical methods, pharmaceutical development, and biological and pharmacological activities [divided into nonclinical (in vitro, in vivo) and clinical studies], pharmacokinetic studies, and stability studies.

  12. The Maillard reaction--illicite (bio)chemistry in tissues and food.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Robert, A-M; Labat-Robert, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a review of our early work on the Maillard reaction, at the interface of food chemistry and tissue biochemistry, as well as the reinterpretation of our early findings in the light of recent advances in the chemistry of the involved reactions. These concern specifically the role of lower aldehydes, produced during the glycolytic pathways and especially acetaldehyde. We also review some of our recent findings on the cytotoxic and genotoxic aspect of these "illicit" organic reactions, taking place in tissues (and also in food products) besides the genetically "programmed" metabolic pathways. Some recent results in organic-pharmaceutical chemistry confirm the potential importance of the reviewed reactions both in food chemistry and in tissues as well as the pathological importance of reactions taking place in tissues.

  13. Bioceramics and pharmaceuticals: A remarkable synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet-Regí, María; Balas, Francisco; Colilla, Montserrat; Manzano, Miguel

    2007-09-01

    The research on controlled drug delivery systems using bioceramics as host matrices presents two distinct sides; one route aims at embedding pharmaceuticals in biomaterials designed for the reconstruction or regeneration of living tissues, in order to counteract inflammatory responses, infections, bone carcinomas and so forth, while the other route deals with the more traditional drug introduction systems, i.e. oral administration. The incorporation of pharmaceuticals to bioceramic matrices could be very interesting in clinical practice. It is rather common in these days for an orthopedic surgeon working in bone reconstruction to use bioceramics. An added value to the production of these ceramics would be the optional addition of pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, anti-carcinogens, etc. In this sense, if we take into account the infections statistics at hip joint prostheses, the incidence varies between 2 and 4%, reaching up to a 45% in bolts used as external fixation. One of the main problems in these situations is the access to the infected area of the bone, in order to deliver the adequate antibiotic. If the pharmaceutical could be included within the implant itself, the added value would be straightforward. And if the bioceramic is bioactive, and therefore precursor of new bone tissue, the capability to introduce peptides, proteins or growth factors at its pores could accelerate the bone regeneration processes. We are facing a fine example of multidisciplinary research, where the so-called transversal supply of knowledge from and between the domains of materials science, biology and medicine will empower the know-how and applications that shall, undoubtedly, give rise to new advances in science and technology.

  14. An overview of the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Stave, G M; Joines, R

    1997-01-01

    The research-based pharmaceutical industry is a large and diverse worldwide employer. Rapid changes in the health care marketplace have resulted in many changes for the industry, including a need to streamline the drug discovery and development process. To address this challenge, new technologies have been rapidly adapted. Another result of the changing marketplace has been a rapid consolidation with many recent mergers and acquisitions as well as internal reorganizations to better support new and varied customers.

  15. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken J

    2005-01-12

    The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) grew by 8% in 2003-04; a slower rate than the 12.0% pa average growth over the last decade. Nevertheless, the sustainability of the Scheme remained an ongoing concern given an aging population and the continued introduction of useful (but increasingly expensive) new medicines. There was also concern that the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement could place further pressure on the Scheme. In 2003, as in 2002, the government proposed a 27% increase in PBS patient co-payments and safety-net thresholds in order to transfer more of the cost of the PBS from the government to consumers. While this measure was initially blocked by the Senate, the forthcoming election resulted in the Labor Party eventually supporting this policy. Recommendations of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee to list, not list or defer a decision to list a medicine on the PBS were made publicly available for the first time and the full cost of PBS medicines appeared on medicine labels if the price was greater than the co-payment. Pharmaceutical reform in Victorian public hospitals designed to minimise PBS cost-shifting was evaluated and extended to other States and Territories. Programs promoting the quality use of medicines were further developed coordinated by the National Prescribing Service, Australian Divisions of General Practice and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The extensive uptake of computerised prescribing software by GPs produced benefits but also problems. The latter included pharmaceutical promotion occurring at the time of prescribing, failure to incorporate key sources of objective therapeutic information in the software and gross variation in the ability of various programs to detect important drug-drug interactions. These issues remain to be tackled.

  16. Cubanes: Super explosives and potential pharmaceutical intermediates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The cubane molecule, in which eight carbon atoms are locked in a cubic framework, shows great potential for both military and pharmaceutical applications. Octanitrocubane, with a predicted density of 2.1 g/cc and strain energy of more than 165 kcal/mol, is considered to be the 'super-explosive', while cubane derivatives submitted to the National Institutes of Health for preliminary biological activity screening have displayed promising anti-cancer and anti-HIV activity.

  17. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  18. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-07

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  19. Photo-pharmaceutical therapy: features and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Potapenko, Alexander Y.; Minenkov, Alexander A.

    2001-07-01

    This article is an attempt to analyze the concept, distinguishing features and possible application of photo- pharmaceutical therapy (PPT). Besides photopheresis, PUVA, and photodynamic therapy, PPT also embraces a broad spectrum of various combinations of light and drugs. PPT techniques can be classified according to the role of light in drug therapy into several groups: 1) Light activation of drugs before, during or after their administration, 2) light activation of cells of biotissue to potentiate the pharmaceutical effect of drugs, 3) light assisted drug delivery, 4) optical sensing of drug action at cellular and subcellular levels, and 5) selective photochemistry of drugs during their manufacturing. PPT seeks to describe the mechanisms of light-drug interaction, to time and sequence light-drug action, and to verify their synergetic effect. This article yields the results of developing new PPT modifications created in collaboration with some Russian scientific institutes and medical centers. The developed modifications are as follows: 1) drug pre-administration photoactivation, 2) antibody-photoconformation photoimmunotherapy, 3) photophonophoresis with a blend of photosensitizers and antibiotics, 4) photoelectrophoresis, 5) drug effect enhancement due to laser-induced blood circulation activation, 6) photoimmunization with alpha- fetoprotein, 7) photo-pharmaceutical dosimetry, and 8) a rapid drug toxicity photoassay.

  20. Improving environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ågerstrand, Marlene; Berg, Cecilia; Björlenius, Berndt; Breitholtz, Magnus; Brunström, Björn; Fick, Jerker; Gunnarsson, Lina; Larsson, D G Joakim; Sumpter, John P; Tysklind, Mats; Rudén, Christina

    2015-05-05

    This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency's guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.

  1. Pharmaceutical policy reform in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, Caroline; Vandoros, Sotiris; Antoun, Joseph George

    2014-06-01

    Of Russia's 142 million citizens, fewer than 20 million are enrolled in outpatient drug coverage plans. The current government aims to establish universal health insurance including outpatient medicines. Based on the current political and regulatory environment, this report explores pharmaceutical pricing options for Russia that balance greater access to medicines with achieving government plans of boosting local pharmaceutical production. To match innovative medicine prices with their health benefits, in the long run, we suggest that Russia consider adopting value-based pricing, and in the short term, that it introduce direct price negotiations and price drugs according to reference countries that use health technology assessment. Although generic market shares are high, generic medicine prices are higher than they should be. We propose tenders at the manufacturer level for the pricing of high-selling generics, and free pricing for products with sufficient market competition. These policy recommendations are a jumping-off point for further discussion about how pharmaceutical policy could aid this major economy to achieve its population health and health service goals.

  2. New Medium for Pharmaceutical Grade Arthrospira

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Amro A.; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a pharmaceutical grade single cell product of Arthrospira from a mixed culture. We have designed a medium derived from a combination between George's and Zarrouk's media. Our new medium has the ability to inhibit different forms of cyanobacterium and microalgae except the Chlorella. The medium and the cultivation conditions have been investigated to map the points where only Arthrospira could survive. For that, a mixed culture of pure Chlorella and Arthrospira (~90 : 10) has been used to develop the best medium composition that can lead to the enrichment of the Arthrospira growth and the inhibition of the Chlorella growth. To enable better control and to study its growth, an 80 l photobioreactor has been used. We have used high saline (2xA-St) medium which has been followed by in fermentor reducing its concentration to 1.5x. The investigation proves that Chlorella has completely disappeared. A method and a new saline medium have been established using a photobioreactor for in fermentor production of single cell Arthrospira. Such method enables the production of pure pharmaceutical grade Arthrospira for medicinal and pharmaceutical applications or as a single cell protein. PMID:26904724

  3. Defining Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A

    2016-09-01

    The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved.

  4. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report contains foreign media information from the USSR concerning analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, environmental chemistry, inorganic compounds, organophosphorous compounds, polymers (rubber) and radiation chemistry.

  6. Chemistry in cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model.

  7. Chemistry of Transactinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, J. V.

    In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

  8. Chemistry WebBook

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  9. Chemistry of atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, R. P.

    Atmospheric chemistry has been the focus of much research activity in recent years. Like its predecessor, this new edition lays down the principles of atmospheric chemistry and provides the necessary background for more detailed study. New developments are covered, including the startling discovery of the "Antarctic ozone hole", and the increasingly rapid changes in the composition of the Earth's atmosphere, apparently a result of man's activities. Information gathered by the Voyager 2 and other space missions, which have provided a new understanding of the atmospheres of planets other than our own, is also discussed.

  10. Kent and Riegel's Handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. 11th ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, James A.

    2007-07-01

    This handbook provides extensive information on plastics, rubber, adhesives, textile fibers, pharmaceutical chemistry, synthetic organic chemicals, soaps and detergents, as well as various other major classes of industrial chemistry. There is detailed coverage of coal utilization technology, dyes and dye intermediates, chlor-alkali and heavy chemicals, paints and pigments, chemical explosives, propellants, petroleum and petrochemicals, natural gas, industrial gases, synthetic nitrogen products, fats and oils, sulfur and sulfuric acid, phosphorous and phosphates, wood products, and sweeteners. The chapter on coal is entitled: coal technology for power, liquid fuels and chemicals. 100 ills.

  11. Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-02-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Yves Chauvin of the Institut Français du Pétrole, Robert H. Grubbs of CalTech, and Richard R. Schrock of MIT "for development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction now used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other products. This article tells the story of how olefin metathesis became a truly useful synthetic transformation and a triumph for mechanistic chemistry, and illustrates the importance of fundamental research. See JCE Featured Molecules .

  12. Novel methodology for pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The value appreciation of new drugs across countries today features a disruption that is making the historical data that are used for forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure poorly reliable. Forecasting methods rarely addressed uncertainty. The objective of this project was to propose a methodology to perform pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting that integrates expected policy changes and uncertainty (developed for the European Commission as the ‘EU Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Methods 1) Identification of all pharmaceuticals going off-patent and new branded medicinal products over a 5-year forecasting period in seven European Union (EU) Member States. 2) Development of a model to estimate direct and indirect impacts (based on health policies and clinical experts) on savings of generics and biosimilars. Inputs were originator sales value, patent expiry date, time to launch after marketing authorization, price discount, penetration rate, time to peak sales, and impact on brand price. 3) Development of a model for new drugs, which estimated sales progression in a competitive environment. Clinical expected benefits as well as commercial potential were assessed for each product by clinical experts. Inputs were development phase, marketing authorization dates, orphan condition, market size, and competitors. 4) Separate analysis of the budget impact of products going off-patent and new drugs according to several perspectives, distribution chains, and outcomes. 5) Addressing uncertainty surrounding estimations via deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results This methodology has proven to be effective by 1) identifying the main parameters impacting the variations in pharmaceutical expenditure forecasting across countries: generics discounts and penetration, brand price after patent loss, reimbursement rate, the penetration of biosimilars and

  13. [The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s].

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The market for

  14. [History of pharmaceutical packaging in modern Japan. II--Package size of pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira

    2014-01-01

    When planning pharmaceutical packaging, the package size for the product is important for determining the basic package concept. Initially, the sales unit for herbal medicines was the weight; however in 1868, around the early part of the Meiji era, Japanese and Western units were being used and the sales unit was confusing. Since the Edo era, the packing size for OTC medicines was adopted using weight, numbers, dosage or treatment period. These were devised in various ways in consideration of convenience for the consumer, but the concept was not simple. In 1887, from the time that the first edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia came out, use of the metric system began to spread in Japan. Its use spread gradually for use in the package size of pharmaceutical products. At the time, the number of pharmaceutical units (i.e., tablets), became the sales unit, which is easy to understand by the purchaser.

  15. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    PubMed

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  16. Pharmaceutical applications of confocal laser scanning microscopy: the physical characterisation of pharmaceutical systems.

    PubMed

    Pygall, Samuel R; Whetstone, Joanne; Timmins, Peter; Melia, Colin D

    2007-12-10

    The application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to the physicochemical characterisation of pharmaceutical systems is not as widespread as its application within the field of cell biology. However, methods have been developed to exploit the imaging capabilities of CLSM to study a wide range of pharmaceutical systems, including phase-separated polymers, colloidal systems, microspheres, pellets, tablets, film coatings, hydrophilic matrices, and chromatographic stationary phases. Additionally, methods to measure diffusion in gels, bioadhesives, and for monitoring microenvironmental pH change within dosage forms have been utilised. CLSM has also been used in the study of the physical interaction of dosage forms with biological barriers such as the eye, skin and intestinal epithelia, and in particular, to determine the effectiveness of a plethora of pharmaceutical systems to deliver drugs through these barriers. In the future, there is continuing scope for wider exploitation of existing techniques, and continuing advancements in instrumentation.

  17. Human pharmaceutical products in the environment - the "problem" in perspective.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David; Senac, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Concerns about the potential for significant environmental impact from residues of human pharmaceuticals emerged at the beginning of the 21st century. Since then there has been an exponential rise in the number of publications and conferences on this "problem". However, this intense focus on human pharmaceuticals is misplaced. Pharmaceuticals do not consist of a coherent group of substances with similar chemical, structural, biological or toxicological properties. Pharmaceuticals are only identifiable from their use: in other words substances can be divided into two classes, those that are used as pharmaceuticals and those for which a possible pharmaceutical use has not yet been discovered. For example, nitro-glycerine, Warfarin and dimethyl fumarate, initially sold respectively as an explosive, a rodenticide and a mould inhibitor have subsequently all been used as pharmaceuticals. As analytical science advances, an increasing range of environmental contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, is being identified at sub μgL(-1) concentrations. Although, human and environmental exposure to these contaminants will be low, all of them need to be subjected to risk assessment on a case by case basis. Many of these substances, including human pharmaceuticals, may have little, if any, impact on human health or the environment, however for some substances there may be a significant risk and in these cases appropriate action should be taken. However considering all human pharmaceuticals as a special case, isolated from the wider range of emerging contaminants, is scientifically unjustifiable and diverts resources away from the consideration of other substances that may be of considerably more significance.

  18. First report on interspecies quantitative correlation of ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Kunal

    2010-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals being extensively and progressively used in human and veterinary medicine are emerging as significant environmental contaminants. Pharmaceuticals are designed to have a specific mode of action and many of them are persistent in the body. These features among others make pharmaceuticals to be evaluated for potential effects on aquatic flora and fauna. Low levels of pharmaceuticals have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant effluents, surface waters, groundwater and drinking waters. In contrast, there is a general scarcity of publicly available ecotoxicological data concerning pharmaceuticals. Interspecies toxicity correlations provide a tool for estimating contaminant sensitivity with known levels of uncertainty for a diversity of wildlife species. In this context, we have developed interspecies toxicity correlation between Daphnia magna (zooplankton) and fish (species according to OECD guidelines) assessing the ecotoxicological hazard potential of diverse 77 pharmaceuticals. The developed models are validated and consensus models are presented to predict toxicity of the individual compounds for any one species when the data for the other species are available. Informative illustrations of the contributing structural fragments which are responsible for the greater toxicity of the diverse pharmaceuticals are identified by the developed models. Developed models are also used to predict fish toxicities of 59 pharmaceuticals (for which Daphnia toxicities are present) and Daphnia toxicities of 30 pharmaceuticals (for which fish toxicities are present). This study will allow a better and comprehensive risk assessment of pharmaceuticals for which toxicity data is missing for a particular endpoint.

  19. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 1: Review of General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet is one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland. It provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  20. Connected Chemistry--Incorporating Interactive Simulations into the Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Wilensky, Uri

    2003-01-01

    Describes a novel modeling and simulation package and assesses its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected Chemistry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Using Connected Chemistry, students employed problem -solving techniques characterized by stronger attempts at conceptual understanding and logical…

  1. Chemistry: Experiments, Demonstrations and Other Activities Suggested for Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is a handbook used in conjunction with the course of study in chemistry developed through the New York State Education Department and The University of the State of New York. It contains experiments, demonstrations, and other activities for a chemistry course. Areas covered include the science of chemistry, the atomic structure of…

  2. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  3. Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the beliefs of Turkish prospective chemistry teachers about teaching chemistry, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 prospective teachers. Analysis of the interviews revealed that most of the prospective teachers held intermediate (transition between constructivist and traditional) beliefs about chemistry teaching.…

  4. Emphasizing Mineral Chemistry in an Analytical Chemistry Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jeffrey G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an analytical chemistry unit in the second year of the chemistry degree course at Curtin University that was designed to reflect the numerous employment opportunities for chemistry graduates in the mineral processing industries and private analytical laboratories. Presents the lecture syllabus, the laboratory course description, and…

  5. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  6. Ecological risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in the receiving environment of pharmaceutical wastewater in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Nawaz Khan, Khujasta; Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Faizan Nazar, Muhammad; Sun, Qian; Iqbal, Javed; Mulla, Sikandar I; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan is growing with an annual growth rate of 10%. Besides this growth, this industry is not complying with environmental standards, and discharging its effluent into domestic wastewater network. Only limited information is available about the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) in the environmental matrices of Pakistan that has motivated us to aim at the occurrence and ecological risk assessment of 11 PCs of different therapeutic classes in the wastewater of pharmaceutical industry and in its receiving environmental matrices such as sludge, solid waste and soil samples near the pharmaceutical formulation units along Shiekhupura road, Lahore, Pakistan. Target PCs (paracetamol, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, amlodipine, rosuvastatin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin and gemifloxacin) were quantified using in-house developed HPLC-UV. Ibuprofen (1673µg/L, 6046µg/kg, 1229µg/kg and 610µg/kg), diclofenac (836µg/L, 4968µg/kg, 6632µg/kg and 257µg/kg) and naproxen (464µg/L, 7273µg/kg, 4819µg/kg and 199µg/kg) showed the highest concentrations among 11 target PCs in wastewater, sludge, solid waste and soil samples, respectively. Ecological risk assessment, in terms of risk quotient (RQ), was also carried out based on the maximum measured concentration of PCs in wastewater. The maximum RQ values obtained were with paracetamol (64 against daphnia), naproxen (177 against fish), diclofenac (12,600 against Oncorhynchus mykiss), ibuprofen (167,300 against Oryzias latipes), ofloxacin (81,000 against Pseudomonas putida) and ciprofloxacin (440 against Microcystis aeruginosa). These results show a high level of ecological risk due to the discharge of untreated wastewater from pharmaceutical units. This risk may further lead to food web contamination and drug resistance in pathogens. Thus, further studies are needed to detect the PCs in crops as well as the government should strictly enforce environmental

  7. USSR Report, Chemistry, No. 98

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The report contains information on USSR Chemistry in generally in civil technology with particular attention to biochemistry, Catalysts, Coal ... gasification , combustion, Fertilizers, petroleum processing technology. The report also covers important issues related to polymerization, wood chemistry and Elastomer production.

  8. The Art of Teaching Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Baird W., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Contains descriptions of 11 college chemistry education programs that were awarded grants by the Pfizer Foundation because they make the introductory chemistry experience more positive and engaging for students, especially women and minorities. (LZ)

  9. The Lighter Side of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for using photochemistry to merge descriptive chemistry and molecular orbital theory in first-year chemistry courses. Includes procedures and safety information for various activities, demonstrations, and experiments involving photochemical reactions. (DH)

  10. Polymer Chemistry in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stucki, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses why polymer chemistry should be added to the general chemistry curriculum and what topics are appropriate (listing traditional with related polymer topics). Also discusses when and how these topics should be taught. (JN)

  11. The Mystery of Consumer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carol P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares processes used to investigate issues in consumer chemistry to the solving of a puzzle in a mystery story. Suggests using similar methods to teach problem solving in consumer chemistry classes. Describes how such a process might progress. (CW)

  12. The Birthday of Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benfey, Otto Theodor; Kaufman, George B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the synthesis of urea, 150 years ago, was a major factor in breaking the artificial barrier that existed between organic and inorganic chemistry, and this contributed to the rapid growth of organic chemistry. (GA)

  13. Special Report: Chemistry of Comets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A'Hearn, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the chemistry of comets. How comets provide clues to the birth of the solar system, photolytic reactions on comets involving water, chemical modeling, nuclear chemistry, and research findings are among the areas considered. (JN)

  14. Chemistry in a Nutshell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupnow, John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves making peanut butter in the laboratory as a way to teach students the chemistry concepts of emulsification, solubility, and formulation. Enables students to realize that they can actually create or modify the physical and sensory characteristics of peanut butter and taste the differences in their work. (JRH)

  15. Chemistry Between The Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammon, Richard H.

    This booklet is part of an American Astronomical Society curriculum project designed to provide teaching materials to teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth science. The following topics are covered: the physical conditions in interstellar space in comparison with those of the earth, particularly in regard to gas density,…

  16. General Chemistry, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Orson W.; Franke, Douglas C.

    This publication is a syllabus for a senior high school chemistry course designed for the average ability, nonscience major. The content of the syllabus is divided into three basic core areas: Area I: Similarities and Dissimilarities of Matter (9 weeks); Area II: Preparation and Separation of Substances (10 weeks); Area III: Structure and…

  17. The Chemistry of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, describes how basic chemistry and biochemistry research can spur a better understanding of human health. It reveals how networks of chemical reactions keep our bodies running smoothly. Some of the tools and technologies used to explore these reactions are…

  18. Chemistry "en Miniature"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesky, Herbert W.

    1997-04-01

    By using the video camera projector system we are improving the techniques which are employed in various schools. This is an important reason for employing "Chemistry en Miniature", as this method provides a new means of demonstrating chemical experiments in a lecture hall.

  19. Bringing chemistry to life

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Michael; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2011-01-01

    Bioorthogonal chemistry allows a wide variety of biomolecules to be specifically labeled and probed in living cells and whole organisms. Here we discuss the history of bioorthogonal reactions and some of the most interesting and important advances in the field. PMID:21799498

  20. Chemistry Is Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaniv, D; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Encouraging scientific thinking through open-ended experiments, allowing students access to common chemical instrumentation, and introduction to laboratory techniques are goals of a high school science laboratory program. Course content (general, inorganic, and organic chemistry), limitations, and course evaluation are discussed. (Author/JN)

  1. Epoxying Isoprene Chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    It seems that every few months we read about another missing aspect of atmospheric chemistry: missing products, missing reactivity, missing sources, missing understanding. Thus, it is with some relief that we read in this issue the paper of Paulot et al. The paper provides more...

  2. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  3. Chemistry in the Troposphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1982-01-01

    Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…

  4. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  5. The Lens of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  6. Chemistry by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1981-01-01

    Describes the features of various computer chemistry programs. Utilization of computer graphics, color, digital imaging, and other innovations are discussed in programs including those which aid in the identification of unknowns, predict whether chemical reactions are feasible, and predict the biological activity of xenobiotic compounds. (CS)

  7. Computational chemistry at Janssen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L.; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  8. The Chemistry of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Do people realize that chemistry plays a key role in helping solve some of the most serious problems facing the world today? Chemists want to find the building blocks of the chemical universe--the molecules that form materials, living cells and whole organisms. Many chemists are medical explorers looking for new ways to maintain and improve…

  9. Chemistry Cook-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  10. Computational chemistry at Janssen.

    PubMed

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-19

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  11. Using Computers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankuch, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of two interactive computer programs in a college chemistry course. The first is a commercially-available simulation program (for Apple microcomputers with game paddles) which demonstrates gas laws. The second is a teacher-developed molecular bonding simulation program. (JN)

  12. Chemistry of Meridiani Outcrops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A.; Gellert, R.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry and mineralogy of the sulfate-rich sandstone outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars, have been inferred from data obtained by the Opportunity rover of the MER mission and reported in recent publications [1-6]. Here, we provide an update on more recent samples and results derived from this extensive data set.

  13. Chemistry and Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  14. The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrows, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  16. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  17. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.

    2000-10-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J. Chemistry Comes Alive!, J. Chem. Educ. Software 2000, SP 18 2nd ed., SP 21 2nd ed., SP 23; SP 25; and additional video in press.
    2. Summerlin, L. R.; Borgford, C. F.; Ealy, J. B. Chemical Demonstrations, Volume 2; ACS: Washington, DC, 1987.

    3. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jenkins, David; And Others

      This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

    4. Getting Reactions to Chemistry.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Walter S.

      1983-01-01

      "COMETS on Careers" describes science-related careers, introduces activities illustrating a science concept being studied, and encourages use of professional persons as activity leaders. Several COMETS chemistry activities are described. These activities, which can be performed in school or at home, focus on colloids, acid/base…

    5. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

      EPA Science Inventory

      A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  1. Chemistry: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

    The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating the chemistry curriculum concepts to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and resource materials. Occupational information for 40 different occupations includes job duties, educational requirements, salary range, and…

  2. Microscale Gas Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Bruce; Anderson, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of syringes having free movement while remaining gas-tight enabled methods in chemistry to be changed. Successfully containing and measuring volumes of gas without the need to trap them using liquids made it possible to work with smaller quantities. The invention of the LuerLok syringe cap also allowed the gas to be stored for a…

  3. USSR Report, Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    obtained from copyright owner» JPRS-UCH-85-009 24 July 19 85 USSR REPORT CHEMISTRY CONTENTS ADSORPTION Adsorption Thermoluminescence of Oxides of...541.183 ADSORPTION THERMOLUMINESCENCE OF OXIDES OF MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM IN OXYGEN Moscow KHIMICHESKAYA FIZIKA in Russian Vol 4, No 3, Mar 85

  4. Greener and Sustainable Chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The special issue on Greener and Sustainable Chemistry highlights various strategies that can be adopted to address the pollution preventive measures promoting the use of energy efficient reactions that utilize benign and bio-renewable raw materials in a relatively safer reaction...

  5. Chemistry between the stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A unit is presented for the secondary school teacher of physics, chemistry, astronomy, or earth sciences. Included are a list of reference materials, teaching aids, and projects. Discussion questions and a glossary are also provided. Concepts developed are: the nature of interstellar space, spectroscopy, molecular signals from space and interstellar molecules and other areas of astronomy.

  6. Get Cooking with Chemistry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book presents science activities investigating the chemical changes and reactions with powders that are used in baking. Activities include: (1) Mystery Powders; (2) Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder; and (3) A Feast for Yeast and Cheese: Behold the Power of Chemistry. (YDS)

  7. The Language of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2002-01-01

    Describes a new curriculum called The Language of Chemistry designed to illustrate how problems of biological and/or medical importance can be understood on a molecular basis and to show that the logic, knowledge, and language needed are easily accessible. Among the case studies in the curriculum are the giant peacock moth, bacterial chemotaxis,…

  8. Online Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  9. Polyhedra in (inorganic) chemistry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Santiago

    2005-07-07

    A systematic description of polyhedra with varying degrees of regularity is illustrated with examples of chemical structures, mostly from different fields of Inorganic Chemistry. Also the geometrical relationships between different polyhedra are highlighted and their application to the analysis of complex structures is discussed.

  10. Chemical ecology: a view from the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed Central

    Caporale, L H

    1995-01-01

    Biological diversity reflects an underlying molecular diversity. The molecules found in nature may be regarded as solutions to challenges that have been confronted and overcome during molecular evolution. As our understanding of these solutions deepens, the efficiency with which we can discover and/or design new treatments for human disease grows. Nature assists our drug discovery efforts in a variety of ways. Some compounds synthesized by microorganisms and plants are used directly as drugs. Human genetic variations that predispose to (or protect against) certain diseases may point to important drug targets. Organisms that manipulate molecules within us to their benefit also may help us to recognize key biochemical control points. Drug design efforts are expedited by knowledge of the biochemistry of a target. To supplement this knowledge, we screen compounds from sources selected to maximize molecular diversity. Organisms known to manipulate biochemical pathways of other organisms can be sources of particular interest. By using high throughput assays, pharmaceutical companies can rapidly scan the contents of tens of thousands of extracts of microorganisms, plants, and insects. A screen may be designed to search for compounds that affect the activity of an individual targeted human receptor, enzyme, or ion channel, or the screen might be designed to capture compounds that affect any step in a targeted metabolic or biochemical signaling pathway. While a natural product discovered by such a screen will itself only rarely become a drug (its potency, selectivity, bioavailability, and/or stability may be inadequate), it may suggest a type of structure that would interact with the target, serving as a point of departure for a medicinal chemistry effort--i.e., it may be a "lead." It is still beyond our capability to design, routinely, such lead structures, based simply upon knowledge of the structure of our target. However, if a drug discovery target contains regions of

  11. Highly selective deuteration of pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen-containing heterocycles: a flow chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Mándity, István M; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    A simple and efficient flow-based technique is reported for the catalytic deuteration of several model nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds which are important building blocks of pharmacologically active materials. A continuous flow reactor was used in combination with on-demand pressure-controlled electrolytic D(2) production. The D(2) source was D(2)O, the consumption of which was very low. The experimental set-up allows the fine-tuning of pressure, temperature, and flow rate so as to determine the optimal conditions for the deuteration reactions. The described procedure lacks most of the drawbacks of the conventional batch deuteration techniques, and additionally is highly selective and reproducible.

  12. An Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John H.

    The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program is a project designed to devise experiments to coordinate the use of instruments in the laboratory programs of physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, and inorganic chemistry at the advanced undergraduate level. It is intended that such experiments would incorporate an introduction to the instrument…

  13. Six Pillars of Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an approach to teaching organic chemistry, which is to have students build their knowledge of organic chemistry upon a strong foundation of the fundamental concepts of the subject. Specifically, the article focuses upon a core set of concepts that I call "the six pillars of organic chemistry": electronegativity, polar…

  14. Chemistry 200, 300 Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide, developed for the chemistry 200, 300 program in Manitoba, is designed to articulate with previous science courses, provide concepts, processes, and skills which will enable students to continue in chemistry-related areas, and relate chemistry to practical applications in everyday life. It includes a program overview (with program goals…

  15. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the korean liberation: focusing on regulating the pharmaceutical affairs law(yaksabeop) in 1953.

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    The pharmaceutical administration under U.S Military Government in Korea and government of the Republic of Korea aimed at cleaning up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism which the pharmaceutical administration attached police administration and preparing with legal and systemic basis after the Korean liberation. The pharmaceutical bureau under U.S Military Government in Korea was reorganized as the independent division. The pharmaceutical bureau focused on preserving order, narcotics control and the distribution of relief drug. U.S Military Government proceeded supply side pharmaceutical policy for the distribution of relief drug without constructing human and material infrastructure. After the Korean War, Korean society asked the construction of system for nation building. Korean national assembly regulated National Medical Law(Gukmin uiryobeop) for promotion of public health in 1951. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop) was regulated in 1953, and it prescribed the job requirement of pharmacist, apothecary, and drug maker and seller, and presented the frame of managing medical supplies. The Pharmaceutical Law originally planned the ideal pharmaceutical administration, but it rather secured the status of traditional apothecary, and drug maker and seller. On the contrary, though the Pharmaceutical Law guaranteed the traditional druggists, it did not materialize reproduction system such as educational and license system. It means that the traditional druggists would be degenerated in the near future. After the armistice agreement in 1953, Korean was in medical difficulties. Korean government was suffered from the deficiency of medical resources. Because of destruction of pharmaceutical facilities, Korean had to depend on United States and international aid. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law did not cleaned up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism, and compromised with reality lacked human and material infrastructure. As a result, the law became the origin of

  16. New in situ crosslinking chemistries for hydrogelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Meredith Colleen

    Over the last half century, hydrogels have found immense value as biomaterials in a vast number of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. One subset of hydrogels receiving increased attention is in situ forming gels. Gelling by either bioresponsive self-assembly or mixing of binary crosslinking systems, these technologies are useful in minimally invasive applications as well as drug delivery systems in which the sol-to-gel transition aids the formulation's performance. Thus far, the field of in situ crosslinking hydrogels has received limited attention in the development of new crosslinking chemistries. Moreover, not only does the chemical nature of the crosslinking moieties allow these systems to perform in situ, but they contribute dramatically to the mechanical properties of the hydrogel networks. For example, reversible crosslinks with finite lifetimes generate dynamic viscoelastic gels with time-dependent properties, whereas irreversible crosslinks form highly elastic networks. The aim of this dissertation is to explore two new covalent chemistries for their ability to crosslink hydrogels in situ under physiological conditions. First, reversible phenylboronate-salicylhydroxamate crosslinking was implemented in a binary, multivalent polymeric system. These gels formed rapidly and generated hydrogel networks with frequency-dependent dynamic rheological properties. Analysis of the composition-structure-property relationships of these hydrogels---specifically considering the effects of pH, degree of polymer functionality, charge of the polymer backbone and polymer concentration on dynamic theological properties---was performed. These gels demonstrate diverse mechanical properties, due to adjustments in the binding equilibrium of the pH-sensitive crosslinks, and thus have the potential to perform in a range of dynamic or bioresponsive applications. Second, irreversible catalyst-free "click" chemistry was employed in the hydrogelation of multivalent azide

  17. Pharmaceutical industry exposure in our hospitals: the final frontier.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jessica; Loh, Erwin; Coleman, Justin J

    2016-01-18

    Despite recent changes in attitudes, most hospitals continue to experience pharmaceutical industry presence. Pharmaceutical industry presence may be necessary and beneficial in the context of sponsorship of clinical trials with appropriate governance. Doctors continue to hold positive attitudes towards market-oriented activities of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. Despite evidence to the contrary, doctors believe they are able to effectively manage pharmaceutical sales representative interactions such that their own prescribing is not adversely impacted. Doctors also share a belief that small gifts and benefits are harmless. There may be significant financial burden associated with divestment of such sponsorship by hospitals. Change requires education and effective policies to manage pharmaceutical industry relationships and conflicts of interest. We discuss case studies involving students and public hospital doctors to show that divestment is possible without significant financial detriment. Health services need to be proactive in transitioning financial and cultural reliance on pharmaceutical industry sponsorship to other potentially less harmful sources.

  18. Invisible pollution: the impact of pharmaceuticals in the water supply.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Kimberly A

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, interest in the public and environmental health effects of trace levels of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the water supply has evolved. Although most pharmaceuticals are tested for human safety and efficacy prior to marketing and distribution, the potential for adverse effects in nontarget populations exposed to minute environmental medication doses has not been established. Several recent studies have demonstrated adverse effects from longstanding, low-dose exposures in both aquatic and terrestrial wildlife, although human toxicity related to trace levels of pharmaceuticals in the water supply remains unknown. This article provides a brief overview of the routes through which pharmaceuticals are introduced into the environment; a description of the effects of longstanding, low-dose exposures in aquatic and terrestrial animals, including human health effects; an update on the current regulations and solutions regarding pharmaceutical disposal practices; and a discussion of implications for reducing pharmaceuticals in the environment for occupational health nurses and other allied health professionals.

  19. WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use: Development of monographs for The International Pharmacopoeia; WHO good manufacturing practices: water for pharmaceutical use; Pharmaceutical development of multisource (generic) pharmaceutical products--points to consider; Guidelines on submission of documentation for a multisource (generic) finished pharmaceutical product for the WHO Prequalification of Medicines Programme: quality part; Development of paediatric medicines: points to consider in formulation; Recommendations for quality requirements for artemisinin as a starting material in the production of antimalarial active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  20. Spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in pharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-02-01

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of FQ with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 9.0 to yield a yellow product. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 23.5-500 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 28.5-700 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 29.5-800 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 33.5-1000 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin using NBD-Cl reagent, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 7.0 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 8.5 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 9.2 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 9.98 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative mean error values at three different concentrations were determined. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The method is highly sensitive and specific. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reference method. The results presented in this report show that the applied spectrofluorimetric method is acceptable for the determination of the four FQ in the pharmaceutical preparations. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere with the proposed method.

  1. Identification of gliadin presence in pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Miletic, I D; Miletic, V D; Sattely-Miller, E A; Schiffman, S S

    1994-07-01

    Celiac disease is characterized by hypersensitivity to the alcohol-soluble wheat proteins called gliadins. Total avoidance of gliadin is the lifelong treatment for such patients. However, wheat gliadins are often present as impurities in industrial starch commonly used in the preparation of different pharmaceutical products. Therefore, some drugs might contain gliadin, which can be dangerous for sensitive patients if taken in large amounts or used permanently. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive, reliable assay that is specific for the detection of gliadins in pharmaceutical products. Gliadins were extracted here using sodium dodecyl sulfate rather than 70% ethyl alcohol, which has been the traditional solvent. This gliadin extract was utilized in a dot-blot assay that incorporated an antigliadin antibody developed in rabbit and labeled with peroxidase. 4-Chloro-1-naphthol was used as a peroxidase-specific substrate. Isolated wheat gliadin was used as the positive control. Dilution experiments showed that the lower level of sensitivity for the assay was in the range of 0.0045 mg/ml of gliadin, which is a concentration level lower than that suggested for a gluten-free diet. The assay developed here revealed that 71.2% of 59 prescription and nonprescription drugs tested contained gliadin in the amount detected by our dot-blot assay. The prescription drugs tested were among the top 50 most frequently dispensed in U.S. community pharmacies. The nonprescription drugs were among those that constitute the largest sales in the United States. The results showed that the simple dot-blot assay developed here can be used for pharmaceutical testing performed either by hospital laboratories or by patients themselves.

  2. Academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Ban, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    In the second half of the 19th century new drugs introduced by the pharmaceutical industry helped lead to the establishment of academic departments in psychiatry. Causal treatment of cerebral pellagra by nicotinic acid and cerebral syphilis by penicillin in the first half of the 20th century led to major changes in the diagnostic distribution of psychiatric patients. In the second half of the 20th century with the introduction of a rapidly growing number of psychotropic drugs, pharmacotherapy became the primary form of treatment in mental illness. Psychiatrists today perceive neuropharmacology as one of the basic sciences of psychiatry and psychopharmacology as the bridge between the mode of action and the clinical indications of psychotropic drugs. Pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs focused attention on the differential responsiveness to the same drug within the same diagnostic category. Yet, instead of re-evaluating psychiatric nosology and conducting research in psychopathology, a statistical methodology was adopted for the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness in pharmacologically heterogeneous populations. Employment of consensus-based classifications and psychiatric rating scales in the clinical development of psychotropic drugs led to semi-finished products, which are prescribed indiscriminately. Replacement of single-center clinical trials by multi-center centrally coordinated clinical investigations led to the control of education in pharmacotherapy by the pharmaceutical industry. To separate education from marketing, the identification of the treatment-responsive forms of illness and the delineation of the therapeutic profile of psychotropic drugs are proposed with the employment of a new methodology, the "Composite Diagnostic Evaluation System." It is postulated that development of a pharmacologically valid psychiatric nosology with the employment of a "nosologic matrix" would provide the pharmaceutical industry with the necessary feedback to

  3. Spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-02-01

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of FQ with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 9.0 to yield a yellow product. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 23.5-500 ng mL(-1) for ciprofloxacin, 28.5-700 ng mL(-1) for enoxacin, 29.5-800 ng mL(-1) for norfloxacin and 33.5-1000 ng mL(-1) for moxifloxacin using NBD-Cl reagent, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 7.0 ng mL(-1) for ciprofloxacin, 8.5 ng mL(-1) for enoxacin, 9.2 ng mL(-1) for norfloxacin and 9.98 ng mL(-1) for moxifloxacin, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative mean error values at three different concentrations were determined. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The method is highly sensitive and specific. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reference method. The results presented in this report show that the applied spectrofluorimetric method is acceptable for the determination of the four FQ in the pharmaceutical preparations. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere with the proposed method.

  4. The pharmaceutical sector inquiry: 'Hamlet' in a nutshell.

    PubMed

    den Exter, André

    2010-03-01

    In July 2009, the European Commission (DG Competition) published a Communication on the pharmaceutical sector. This inquiry was launched because there were some indications that competition in the pharmaceutical market in the European Union might not be working well. The report examines the reasons for the observed delay. This article analyses the outcomes from a critical standpoint, arguing in favour of enhanced 'soft law' accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical sector, defending conditional patenting and the introduction of a Community patent.

  5. Laser irradiation to produce amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Titapiwatanakun, Varin; Tankul, Junlathip; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-11-30

    Using a high-power CO2 laser to irradiate powder beds, it was possible to induce phase transformation to the amorphous state. Irradiation of a model drug, indometacin, resulted in formation of a glass. Varying the settings of the laser (power and raster speed) was shown to change the physicochemical properties of the glasses produced and all irradiated glasses were found to be more stable than a reference glass produced by melt-quenching. Irradiation of a powder blend of paracetamol and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 was found to produce a solid amorphous dispersion. The results suggest that laser-irradiation might be a useful method for making amorphous pharmaceuticals.

  6. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G.

    2009-12-15

    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  7. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    PubMed

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  8. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part I.

    PubMed

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This report on the pharmaceutical industry will be published in two parts. Part I begins with a summary of the study and its conclusions. The authors then provide an overview of the characteristics of the industry and current trends in its growth and structure: production and consumption, employment, research and development, capital investment, firm and product concentration and product competition, and pricing. A discussion of international trade follows, covering intra- and inter-regional, intra-firm, and intra-industry trade. The report will continue in the next issue of the Journal (Part II) with a look at foreign direct investment, inter-firm networks, and governmental policies.

  9. [Pharmaceutical marketers: professional and informative aspects].

    PubMed

    Hevia, A; López-Valpuesta, F J; Vázquez, J A; Castellanos, A

    1993-10-01

    This study tries to know the opinion of pharmaceutical detailers about their profession, as well as their pharmacological knowledge. 75 questionnaires were distributed to an equal number of detailers. The questionnaires were composed of two parts. In the first one, several questions about their profession were posed. In the second one, the questions were about Pharmacology. The main results were that most of them have got only lower degrees; however, they all have carried out training courses in their companies. With regard to pharmacological questions, percentage of success was 61%.

  10. Technology evaluation: ISIS-2503, Isis Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Morse, M A

    2001-12-01

    ISIS-2503, a 20-mer antisense oligonucleotide that inhibits Ha-Ras expression, is being developed by Isis Pharmaceuticals Inc as a potential treatmentfor cancer, particularly tumors that commonly have abnormalities of Ras function. It is in phase II trials. According to an April 2001 report by Bear Stearns & Co, Elan Corp plc had an unspecified collaboration with Isis for the development of ISIS-2503 [419357], but Isis later clarified that there was no agreement between the two companies and that ISIS-2503 had merely been used for the 'OraSense' joint venture that explores the use of antisense oligonucleotidesfor oral administration [419673].

  11. Financial Times Global Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Conference 2009.

    PubMed

    Scattereggia, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Financial Times Global Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology conference, held in London, included topics covering the current and future challenges confronting the pharma and biotech industry, and presented possible solutions to those challenges. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the industry challenges for big pharma companies, diversification as a solution to industry problems, overcoming challenges with collaborations and M&As, and the role of emerging markets in the pharma industry. Other subjects discussed included the expected impact of personalized medicine on the industry, the entry of big pharma into the generics market and the problems that are confronting the small pharma and biotech industry.

  12. [Review of effervescent technique in pharmaceutics research].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Jian; Xin, Hong-Liang; Rao, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Li-Li; Sun, Ting-Ting; Guo, Qi-Li

    2008-04-01

    Effervescent technique, which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of pharmaceutical technique and theory, effervescent technique is used more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets, stomach floating forms, osmotic pump tablets and pulsatile drug delivery systems, adding to the critical common technique of effervescent forms in drug research. This will be benefit for the further research and development of effervescent technique.

  13. Method for microbiological testing of nonsterile pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bühlmann, X

    1968-12-01

    A method for testing nonsterile pharmaceutical preparations for their microbial content is described. As far as possible, only solid culture media were used to obtain quantitative results. Aqueous and water-soluble products were tested with membrane-filter techniques. Nonfilterable products were first emulsified or suspended and the homogenate was used for examination. In both procedures, the total number of colonies is determined for aerobic bacteria and fungi. Tests for certain undesirable microbial groups were conducted with selected media. The method described is applicable for finished products, bulk products, raw materials, and active ingredients.

  14. How the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme began.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Martyn S

    2014-07-07

    Seventy years ago, the Curtin wartime government introduced legislation for a Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). It was a response to the need to provide access to a wave of antibiotic drugs - sulfonamides, streptomycin, penicillin - to the whole population, not only to the minority able to afford them. The scheme was immediately and successfully opposed by doctors and the conservative opposition, which saw in universal health care an underhand plan to nationalise medicine. There were two High Court challenges, two referendums and a constitutional amendment; but it was not until 1960 that Australians had the comprehensive PBS envisaged by Curtin in 1944.

  15. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  16. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  17. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity.

  18. WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations works towards clear, independent and practical standards and guidelines for the quality assurance of medicines. Standards are developed by the Committee through worldwide consultation and an international consensus-building process. The following new guidelines were adopted and recommended for use: procedure for adoption of International Chemical Reference Substances; WHO good practices for pharmaceutical microbiology laboratories; good manufacturing practices: main principles for pharmaceutical products; good manufacturing practices for blood establishments (jointly with the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization); guidelines on good manufacturing practices for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems for non-sterile pharmaceutical dosage forms; good manufacturing practices for sterile pharmaceutical products; guidelines on transfer of technology in pharmaceutical manufacturing; good pharmacy practice: standards for quality of pharmacy services (joint FIP/WHO); model guidance for the storage and transport of time- and temperature-sensitive pharmaceutical products (jointly with the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization); procedure for prequalification of pharmaceutical products; guide on submission of documentation for prequalification of innovator finished pharmaceutical products approved by stringent regulatory authorities; prequalification of quality control laboratories: procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of quality control laboratories for use by United Nations agencies; guidelines for preparing a laboratory information file; guidelines for drafting a site master file; guidelines on submission of documentation for a multisource (generic) finished product: general format: preparation of product dossiers in common technical document format.

  19. Diffuse pollution of surface water by pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Derksen, J G M; Rijs, G B J; Jongbloed, R H

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products for humans or animals, as well as their related metabolites (degradation products) end up in the aquatic environment after use. Recent investigations from abroad show that low concentrations of pharmaceuticals are detectable in municipal waste water, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water. Little is known about the effects, and with that the risk, of long term exposure to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals for aquatic organisms. On the basis of the current knowledge, further attention to map the presence and effects of pharmaceutical residues on aquatic organisms is justified. To map the Dutch situation, recently a monitoring program has started.

  20. Price and welfare effects of a pharmaceutical substitution reform.

    PubMed

    Granlund, David

    2010-12-01

    The price effects of the Swedish pharmaceutical substitution reform are analyzed using data for a panel of all pharmaceutical product sold in Sweden in 1997-2007. The price reduction due to the reform was estimated to average 10% and was found to be significantly larger for brand-name pharmaceuticals than for generics. The results also imply that the reform amplified the effect that generic entry has on brand-name prices by a factor of 10. Results of a demand estimation imply that the price reductions increased total pharmaceutical consumption by 8% and consumer welfare by SEK 2.7 billion annually.

  1. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Pannell, K.D.; Kirkland, O.L.

    1984-01-01

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO/sub 3//sup -/ + 2I/sup -/ + 3H/sup +/, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >10/sup 4/ has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  3. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  4. Evolution of hydroformylation chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Slaugh, L.H.

    1995-12-01

    A new generation of hydroformylation catalysts was discovered in 1960 at Shell Development Company which dramatically altered the chemistry of producing industrially important alcohols from synthesis gas (CO/H{sub 2}) and olefins. These new homogeneous catalysts were obtained via the use of auxiliary tertiary phosphine ligands with the conventional OXO cobalt carbonyl catalyst. This is believed to have been the first historical example illustrating the utility of phosphine ligands to modify the catalytic properties of homogenous catalysts. In contradistinction to the conventional OXO reaction, highly linear alcohols were obtained in a single-step operation with ease of catalyst recycle. Based on this discovery, an industrial process was developed to produce large volume, environmentally friendly detergent alcohols. The chemistry of this process and a comparison with other hydroformylation catalyst systems will be made. Recent results obtained with phosphine-modified cobalt catalysts for the hydroformylation of substrates other than olefins will be presented.

  5. Chemistry of silybin.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, D; Vavříková, E; Cvak, L; Křen, V

    2014-09-01

    Silybin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the seeds of the blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum) was discovered as the first member of a new family of natural compounds called flavonolignans in 1959. Over the years it has received the research attention of many organic chemists. This research has resulted in a number of semisynthetic derivatives prepared in an effort to modulate and better target the biological activities of silybin or to improve its physical properties, such as its solubility. A fundamental breakthrough in silybin chemistry was the determination of the absolute configurations of silybin A and silybin B, and the development of methods for their separation. This review covers articles dealing with silybin chemistry and also summarizes all the derivatives prepared.

  6. Turbine Chemistry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Wey, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Many of the engine exhaust species resulting in significant environmental impact exist in trace amounts. Recent research, e.g., conducted at MIT-AM, has pointed to the intra-engine environment as a possible site for important trace chemistry activity. In addition, the key processes affecting the trace species activity occurring downstream in the air passages of the turbine and exhaust nozzle are not well understood. Most recently, an effort has been initiated at NASA Glenn Research Center under the UEET Program to evaluate and further develop CFD-based technology for modeling and simulation of intra-engine trace chemical changes relevant to atmospheric effects of pollutant emissions from aircraft engines. This presentation will describe the current effort conducted at Glenn; some preliminary results relevant to the trace species chemistry in a turbine passage will also be presented to indicate the progress to date.

  7. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  8. [Gaubius and medical chemistry].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Hieronymus David Gaub (1705-1780) was the son of a protestant cloth merchant in Heidelberg. Disliking a pietistic boarding school in Halle, Germany, he came to stay with a paternal uncle who was a physician in Amsterdam. Hieronymus studied medicine in Harderwijk and in Leiden, under the guidance of Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738). In 1731 he was appointed reader (and in 1734 professor) in chemistry at the Leiden medical faculty. After Boerhaave's death he also taught medicine, but without access to hospital beds. Gaubius correctly envisaged that chemistry would become an important discipline in medicine, but was limited by the technical constraints of his time. In his textbook of general pathology (1758) he attributed disease to disturbances of not only fluids, but also solid parts, although symptoms remained the basis of his classification. The book would remain influential for several decades, until the advent of pathological anatomy.

  9. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  10. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  11. Chemistry of superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2006-01-09

    The number of chemical elements has increased considerably in the last few decades. Most excitingly, these heaviest, man-made elements at the far-end of the Periodic Table are located in the area of the long-awaited superheavy elements. While physical techniques currently play a leading role in these discoveries, the chemistry of superheavy elements is now beginning to be developed. Advanced and very sensitive techniques allow the chemical properties of these elusive elements to be probed. Often, less than ten short-lived atoms, chemically separated one-atom-at-a-time, provide crucial information on basic chemical properties. These results place the architecture of the far-end of the Periodic Table on the test bench and probe the increasingly strong relativistic effects that influence the chemical properties there. This review is focused mainly on the experimental work on superheavy element chemistry. It contains a short contribution on relativistic theory, and some important historical and nuclear aspects.

  12. Organic Chemistry in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  13. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  14. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  15. USSR Report, Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-17

    EKSPERIMENTALNAYA KHIMIYA, No 4, Jul-Aug 86) 5 Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of Cesite (0. A. Mulina, N. F. Meged, et al.; ZHURNAL FIZICHESKOY...Plenum of Central Committee of Chemical and Petrochemical Workers’ Trade Union (Yu. I. Vlasov; KAUCHUK I REZINA; No 10, Oct 86) 27 Synthesis and...al.; ZHURNAL NEORGANICHESKOY KHIMII, No 9, Sep 86) 34 Synthesis and Physical Chemistry Study of LiCrTeO^ (0. V. Sorokina, I. G. Chaban, et al

  16. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  17. TDR collaboration with the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Gutteridge, W E

    2006-12-01

    TDR's research programme was initiated in 1976 at the same time that the pharmaceutical industry began to withdraw from the discovery and development of new drugs for tropical diseases. TDR collaborated with the industry right from the start, its prime objective initially being to ensure that candidate drugs already in the development pipeline, such as praziquantel, mefloquine, ivermectin, halofantrine and atovaquone/proguanil, were not shelved. It became clear during the 1980s that once candidate drugs in these existing pipelines had been processed, that would be it. TDR therefore developed a number of other ways for collaboration, including testing compounds already in development in companies for other therapeutic areas. One candidate identified in this way was an oral formulation of miltefosine, in development in Asta Medica for an antitumour indication. A joint Asta Medica (later Zentaris)/TDR development project was agreed, and despite its fair share of traumas during the development process, miltefosine is now registered for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India, Germany and Colombia. This example of a successful TDR/pharmaceutical industry collaboration lives on in the various Public Private Partnerships such as the new Medicines for Malaria Venture that TDR helped to spawn.

  18. The pharmaceutical heritage of the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bosman-Jelgersma, H A

    1995-01-01

    For the last 40 years the 'Kring voor de Geschiedenis van de Pharmacie in Benelux' (Society for the History of Pharmacy in Benelux) has been studying the pharmaceutical past, in which the pharmacist, the preparer of medicines from way back, occupies an important place. This historical study supplies some unexpected views of the past and the future. Sarton also pointed this out to us in his 'new humanism' (28). In his own words: "The present without its past is insipid and meaningless; the past without the present is obscure. The life of science, like the life of art, is eternal." His new humanism did not result in narrow specialism, but in what he refers to as a 'double Renaissance', which also incorporates nature, culture and man. In this way an inspiring influence emanates from the past and thus our common pharmaceutical heritage can form a link between our nations. In turn this can contribute to the process of evolution which is necessary to realize harmonization within the framework of the European community.

  19. Metaphors and myths in pharmaceutical advertising.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, Marjorie

    2013-04-01

    It should come as no surprise that the ancient Greek word for drug, pharmakon, meant remedy. But this same word also meant poison as well as magical charm. We speak of heart attacks and of a long road to recovery. These meanings and phrases are reflective of how society conceives of illness and medical therapies. Metaphors and myths of magic, sports and journey are prevalent in medical terminology and they permeate pharmaceutical advertising. This research investigates the conceptual metaphors that are present in advertisements for pharmaceuticals, both those directed to consumers as well as those directed to physicians, for a broad range of drugs and medical conditions. This research employed a content analysis of advertisements appearing in popular consumer magazines as well as in physician journals and an analysis of online consumer drug reviews. The research concludes with a discussion of the similarities and differences among the conceptual metaphors in consumer versus physician ads, across different medical conditions, and the impact of specific metaphors on consumers' understanding of illness and drug therapies.

  20. Potentiometric determination of famotidine in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Magda M; Shalaby, Abdalla; Abdellatef, Hisham E; Elsaid, Heba M

    2002-06-20

    Two new potentiometric methods for determination of famotidine in pure form and in its pharmaceutical tablet form are developed. In the first method, the construction of plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix-type famotidine ion-selective membrane electrode and its use in the potentiometric determination of famotidine in pharmaceutical preparations are described. It is based on the use of the ion-associate species, formed by famotidine cation and tetraphenyl borate (TPB) counterion. The electrode exhibited a linear response for 1 x 10(-3)-1 x 10(-5) M of famotidine solutions over the pH range 1-5 with an average recovery of 99.26% and mean standard deviation of 1.12%. Common organic and inorganic cations showed negligible interference. In the second method, the conditions for the oxidimetric titration of famotidine have been studied. The method depends on using lead(IV) acetate for oxidation of the thioether contained in famotidine. The titration takes place in presence of catalytic quantities of potassium bromide (KBr). Direct potentiometric determination of 1.75 x 10(-2) M famotidine solution showed an average recovery of 100.51% with a mean standard deviation of 1.26%. The two methods have been applied successfully to commercial tablet. The results obtained reveal good percentage recoveries, which are in good agreement with those obtained by the official methods.