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Sample records for chemo-resistant ewing sarcoma

  1. Ewing sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    Bone cancer - Ewing sarcoma; Ewing family of tumors; Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET); Bone neoplasm - Ewing sarcoma ... adulthood. But it usually develops during puberty, when bones are growing rapidly. It is more common in ...

  2. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  3. Collecting and Storing Biological Samples From Patients With Ewing Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-21

    Askin Tumor; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  4. The Biology of Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Keir A.; Smyth, Niall A.; Murawski, Christopher D.; Kennedy, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to review the current literature on the biology of Ewing's sarcoma, including current treatments and the means by which an understanding of biological mechanisms could impact future treatments. Methods. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration was performed. Both preclinical and clinical evidence was considered, but specific case reports were not. Primary research articles and reviews were analyzed with an emphasis on recent publications. Results. Ewing sarcoma is associated with specific chromosomal translocations and the resulting transcripts/proteins. Knowledge of the biology of Ewing sarcoma has been growing but has yet to significantly impact or produce new treatments. Localized cases have seen improvements in survival rates, but the same cannot be said of metastatic and recurrent cases. Standard surgical, radiation, and chemotherapy treatments are reaching their efficacy limits. Conclusion. Improving prognosis likely lies in advancing biomarkers and early diagnosis, determining a cell(s) of origin, and developing effective molecular therapeutics and antiangiogenic agents. Preclinical evidence suggests the utility of molecular therapies for Ewing sarcoma. Early clinical results also reveal potential for novel treatments but require further development and evaluation before widespread use can be advocated. PMID:23346417

  5. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-25

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  6. Ewing Sarcoma in the Right Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bihong; Thangam, Manoj; Loyalka, Pranav; Buja, L. Maximilian; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most prevalent malignant primary bone tumor but constitutes only a small proportion of cardiac metastases. We present a case of asymptomatic Ewing sarcoma metastatic to the right ventricle. A 36-year-old man presented for evaluation and resection of a pedunculated right ventricular cardiac tumor. Three years before, he had been diagnosed with translocation-negative Ewing sarcoma, for which he had undergone chemotherapy and amputation of the left leg below the knee. We resected the right ventricular tumor. Analysis of the resected mass supported the diagnosis of metastatic Ewing sarcoma. Postoperative transthoracic echocardiograms showed normal biventricular size and function. One year later, the patient had no recurrence of the sarcoma. In addition to discussing this case, we review the relevant medical literature. PMID:27777536

  7. Ewing's sarcoma of scapula: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohammad; Varshney, Manoranjan; Maheshwari, Veena; Mubeen, Aysha; Siddiqui, Mohammed Azfar; Julfiqar, Julfiqar; Gaur, Kavita

    2011-03-10

    Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common malignant bone tumour of childhood and adolescence. It may affect any bone, but it is frequent in the femur, ilium and the tibia. Here the authors are reporting a case of Ewing's sarcoma involving scapula in a 14-year-old boy presenting with pain and swelling around the shoulder. Swelling was removed which on histopathological examination showed solid sheets closely packed, poorly differentiated small cells that have a high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, fine chromatin and small nucleoli. A tentative diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma was made which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  8. Ewing Sarcoma: An Eponym Window to History

    PubMed Central

    Cripe, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma was named after James R. Ewing, an eminent American pathologist at Cornell who described the first cases in 1921. Although he is best remembered for this singular achievement, Ewing's contributions to the study of cancer were far more profound and influential. He essentially launched oncology as a discipline with the publication of his seminal textbook and founded the major American cancer societies that exist today. His vision of comprehensive cancer centers still drives our research infrastructure. Since his initial report, these organizations have helped us achieve numerous milestones in understanding and treating patients with Ewing sarcoma. PMID:21151695

  9. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-06-21

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  10. Tumor-Targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R Arrests a Chemo-Resistant Patient Soft-Tissue Sarcoma in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Maawy, Ali; Murakami, Takashi; Mii, Sumiyuki; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Momiyama, Masashi; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    A patient-derived nude-mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma has been established and treated in the following groups: (1) untreated controls; (2) gemcitabine (GEM) (80 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 3 weeks); (3) Pazopanib (100 mg/kg, orally, daily, 3 weeks) and (4) Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (5 × 10(7) CFU/body, ip, weekly, 3 weeks). The sarcoma was resistant to GEM (p = 0.879). Pazopanib tended to reduce the tumor volume compared to the untreated mice, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.115). S. typhimurium A1-R significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the untreated mice (p = 0.001). S. typhimurium A1-R was the only effective treatment for the soft-tissue sarcoma nude mouse model among all treatments including a newly approved multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor; Pazopanib. These results suggest tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R is a promising treatment for chemo-resistant soft-tissue sarcoma.

  11. Recent advances in targeted therapy for Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Pishas, Kathleen I.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal. PMID:27635231

  12. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cranial Vault

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Geetha; Sreelesh, K. P.; Somanathan, Thara; Soman, Lali V.

    2016-01-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) arising from cranial bones is rare and accounts for only 1%–4% of all EWS. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with EWS of the frontoparietal region of the skull. She underwent excision following which she received combination chemotherapy with vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and VP16 and local radiation of 45 Gy. She is alive in complete remission at 40 months. PMID:28163522

  13. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Non-Metastatic Extracranial Ewing Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Kidney; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  14. Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Vietti, T.J.; Nesbit, M.E.; Tefft, M.; Kissane, J.; Burgert, O.; Pritchard, D.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with vertebral primaries were registered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study between 1973 and 1977. The radiation doses to the primary tumors ranged between 3800 and 6200 rad. All patients received intensive combination chemotherapy. After a followup ranging between 14 and 62 months, 14 patients remained disease-free. All patients with primary tumor of the cervical and dorsal spine remained disease-free. Of eight patients with lesions in the distal spine, (sacrococcygeal region) six developed recurrence, in three a local recurrence was observed despite doses of 6000 rad or higher. Doses of 5000 rad or less (in addition to combination chemotherapy as used in the Intergroup Ewing's Study) appear adequate in controlling the primary tumors of the proximal segments of the spinal column.

  15. Ewing's sarcoma of maxilla: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Jairamdas Nagpal, Deepak Kumar; Prabhu, Prashant Ramesh; Palaskar, Sangeeta Jayant; Patil, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is uncommon malignancy of childhood, frequently involving the mandible. The occurrence in maxilla is rare. It is histopathologically characterized by sheets of round cells positive for CD99. Although the prognosis is poor but early diagnosis and long term follow up can improve the survival. This article presents a rare case of Ewing's sarcoma of maxilla in a 15 year old male patient showing excessive fibro-osseous response which is not a frequent presentation. A retrospective analysis of cases of Ewings sarcoma of maxilla published in the English litreture is reviewed. In our case, diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry where sheets of round tumor cells were positive for CD 99. Ewings sarcoma of maxilla is a rare and aggressive tumor. Hence early diagnosis, combined therapy and long term follow up is suggested in such cases. PMID:25328307

  16. Epiphyseal ewing sarcoma: first reported case with molecular confirmation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Yosmar; García-Esparza, Elena; Conde, Esther; Azorín, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric malignant bone neoplasm after osteosarcoma. Ewing sarcoma comprises "small, round, blue-cell" tumors thought to arise from neural crest cells. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy that presented with a nonpainful circumscribed lesion. The radiographs showed a lytic lesion at the tibial epiphysis with a large soft tissue mass, best depicted in the magnetic resonance imaging scan that suggested an aggressive lesion. A needle biopsy of the lesion was performed. The diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma was made based on microscopic, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. This is the third case report about a primary epiphyseal Ewing sarcoma and the fist one with molecular confirmation.

  17. Localized Ewing sarcoma of the tibia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant primary round cell tumour of bone in which there is commonly extension into extraosseous soft tissues at the time of diagnosis. This report details the clinical, radiological and pathological features of a case of ES of the tibia in which there was extensive osseous involvement but no infiltration beyond the periosteum into surrounding soft tissue. We also record the findings of one other ES case that exhibited similar behaviour. Both cases were male, involved the tibia and had the characteristic t (11;22) (q24;q12) translocation. No recurrence of tumour or metastasis has been seen in these two cases, both of which have had 6 years follow-up. Our findings indicate that there is heterogeneity in the behaviour of ES and show that localized ES is associated with a good prognosis. PMID:23379545

  18. Primary extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Alio, Jorge L; Sales-Sanz, Marco; Vaz, Maria A; Barrancos, Constanza; Reguero, Maria E; Diamantopoulus, Jorge; Poveda, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with painless, progressive vision loss and mild proptosis of the OD. CT revealed a right intraconal mass with slight penetration of the optic canal not contiguous with any bony structure. Incisional biopsy through a transfrontal orbitotomy revealed a diffuse growth of homogeneous, small, round cells. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for vimentin and MIC2 (CD99), and the translocation at EWS gene (22q12) was detected. Metastatic workup and a full-body bone scan were negative, confirming primary orbital extraosseous Ewing sarcoma. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and an orbital exenteration with preservation of eyelids and conjunctiva. He also received adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiotherapy, and he has remained disease-free for almost 3 years.

  19. RUNX3 facilitates growth of Ewing sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Krista L; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Camilleri, Emily T; Wang, Xiaoke; Riester, Scott M; van Wijnen, Andre J; Oliveira, Andre M; Westendorf, Jennifer J

    2014-12-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive pediatric small round cell tumor that predominantly occurs in bone. Approximately 85% of Ewing sarcomas harbor the EWS/FLI fusion protein, which arises from a chromosomal translocation, t(11:22)(q24:q12). EWS/FLI interacts with numerous lineage-essential transcription factors to maintain mesenchymal progenitors in an undifferentiated state. We previously showed that EWS/FLI binds the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2 and prevents osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of another Runt-domain protein, RUNX3, in Ewing sarcoma. RUNX3 participates in mesenchymal-derived bone formation and is a context dependent tumor suppressor and oncogene. RUNX3 was detected in all Ewing sarcoma cells examined, whereas RUNX2 was detected in only 73% of specimens. Like RUNX2, RUNX3 binds to EWS/FLI via its Runt domain. EWS/FLI prevented RUNX3 from activating the transcription of a RUNX-responsive reporter, p6OSE2. Stable suppression of RUNX3 expression in the Ewing sarcoma cell line A673 delayed colony growth in anchorage independent soft agar assays and reversed expression of EWS/FLI-responsive genes. These results demonstrate an important role for RUNX3 in Ewing sarcoma.

  20. BCOR-CCNB3 (Ewing-like) sarcoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 10 cases, in comparison with conventional Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela; Marland, Gillian; Gaston, Czar Louie L; Douis, Hassan; Mangham, D Chas; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar

    2014-10-01

    BCOR-CCNB3 fusion transcripts resulting from an X-chromosomal paracentric inversion were recently identified in a series of unclassifiable soft tissue and bone sarcomas with Ewing sarcoma-like morphology. The morphologic and clinical features of these sarcomas are, as yet, not well characterized. Here we describe the clinicopathologic features of 10 cases of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma and compare their clinical course with typical Ewing sarcoma. Nine of 10 patients were male, and all were 11 to 18 years of age. Seven tumors were located in the bone and 3 in the deep soft tissues. The histomorphologic spectrum was quite wide, with 7 tumors predominately showing small primitive cell morphology with angulated nuclei simulating so-called atypical Ewing sarcoma and 3 predominately showing spindle cell morphology. Recurrent and metastatic lesions showed increased cellularity and marked pleomorphism. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of CCNB3 (100%), bcl2 (90%), CD99 (60%), and CD117 (60%). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for BCOR-CCNB3 fusion transcripts was positive in all 9 cases, which yielded sufficient extracted RNA. Five- and 10-year survival rates were 75% and 56%, respectively. BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas located in axial skeleton and soft tissues showed a significantly shorter survival. The Ewing sarcoma overall survival was not statistically different, although there was a trend for longer survival of patients with BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas in the extremities. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed description of the histologic spectrum, immunohistochemical features, and clinical characteristic of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma justifying distinction from Ewing sarcoma with its typical EWS/FUS-ETS translocations. Ideally immunohistochemistry is used in combination with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for definitive diagnosis.

  1. Ewing's sarcoma cancer stem cell targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Roumiana

    2014-01-01

    Ewing`s sarcoma (ES) family of tumors (ESFTs) are round cell tumors of bone and soft tissues, afflicting children and young adults. This review summarizes the present findings about ES cancer stem cell (CSC) targeted therapy: prognostic factors, chromosomal translocations, initiation, epigenetic mechanisms, candidate cell of ES origin (Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs)). The ES CSC model, histopathogenesis, histogenesis, pathogenesis, ES mediated Hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) senescence are also discussed. ESFTs therapy is reviewed concerning CSCs, radiotherapy, risk of subsequent neoplasms, stem cell (SC) support, promising therapeutic targets for ES CSCs (CSC markers, immune targeting, RNAi phenotyping screens, proposed new drugs), candidate EWS-FLI1 target genes and further directions (including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)). Bone marrow-derived human MSCs are permissive for EWS-FLI1 expression with transition to ESFT-like cellular phenotype. ESFTs are genetically related to NCSC, permissive for EWS-FLI1 expression and susceptible to oncogene-induced immortalization. Primitive neuroectodermal features and MSC origin of ESFTs provide a basis of immune targeting. The microRNAs profile of ES CSCs is shared by ESCs and CSCs from divergent tumor types. Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state allows creation of patient- and disease-specific SCs. The functional role of endogenous EWS at stem cell level on both senescence and tumorigenesis is a link between cancer and aging. The regulatory mechanisms of oncogenic activity of EWS fusions could provide new prognostic biomarkers, therapeutic opportunities and tumor-specific anticancer agents against ESFTs.

  2. Primary Cutaneous Ewing Sarcoma: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Yuste, Veronica; Sierra, Elena; Ruano, David; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Conde, Esther; Azorin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma is a rare entity. Although the diagnosis may be very difficult, it can be confirmed through molecular biology. We present the case of a 13-years old male with a lesion in the sole of the right foot, characterized by a monomorphous proliferation of small, round and blue cells. The histology and molecular biology allowed us to perform the diagnosis of cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma. This neoplasm must be distinguished from other round cell tumors with cutaneous involvement. The prognosis and treatment of this rare disease will also be discussed.

  3. Clinicopathological implications of GNAS in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    NOH, BYEONG-JOO; SUNG, JI-YOUN; KIM, YOUN WHA; ARAUJO, EDUARDO SANTINI; KALIL, RICARDO KARAM; JUNG, WOON-WON; KIM, HYUN-SOOK; PARK, YONG-KOO

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether guanine nucleotide-binding protein α stimulating (GNAS) gene expression correlates with pathognomonic signs by analyzing the mutations, methylation status and G-protein α subunit (Gsα) expression of GNAS in Ewing sarcoma (ES). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 77 patients with primary ES were obtained in South Korea, Argentina and Brazil, and were studied via methylation chip assay and direct sequencing of the GNAS gene and immunohistochemical analysis of Gsα. The mutation and methylation statuses of the GNAS gene were examined. Immunohistochemical results were measured with respect to proportion and staining intensity. The results revealed that GNAS genes in ES tumor samples were less methylated compared with normal controls. No mutations were detected at exons 8 or 9 of the GNAS locus complex on chromosome 20q13.3, indicating that the pathogenesis of ES was not associated with GNAS mutation. Gsα expression correlated well with the methylation status of the GNAS gene. Notably, high Gsα expression was detected more frequently in samples from living patients than from decedents, although this was not statistically significant (P=0.055). In conclusion, GNAS mutation is not associated with the pathogenesis of ES tumors. This finding may be used to differentiate ES tumors from metastatic bone lesions with morphological similarity to ES tumors. Analysis of the methylation status of the GNAS gene and immunohistochemical Gsα expression suggests that hypermethylated GNAS (low Gsα expression) in ES may be associated with unfavorable progression with a non-significant trend. PMID:27313744

  4. Ewing's sarcoma in mandibular similar to dental abscess.

    PubMed

    Keshani, Forouz; Jahanshahi, Gholamreza; Attar, Bijan Movahedian; Kalantari, Mahsa; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Hashemzade, Zahra; Tavakoli, Payam

    2014-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that comprises approximately 4-6% of primary bone tumors. In most cases, femur and pelvis are affected, and less commonly the head and neck areas (in the jaws, usually the mandible). These tumors have been reported more frequently in males, mostly aged 5-20 years old. Systemic symptoms and signs such as fever, weight loss, anemia, leukocytosis, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may be the first signs in oral Ewing's sarcoma. Such signs and symptoms are also seen in odontogenic infections and abscess. In one case, the patient went to a dentist with pain, swelling, and abscess similar to odontogenic infection and patient's tooth was pulled due to misdiagnosis. This tumor has an aggressive clinical behavior and is identified with rapid growth and high probability of metastasis at diagnosis. Thus, it is necessary to differentiate it from a dental abscess. As for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma, first the tumor must undergo chemotherapy to reduce its size and, eventually, it undergoes extensive surgery. This case report deals with a 16-year-old patient wrongly diagnosed with odontogenic infection and abscess, and hospitalized. As the symptoms did not remit, biopsy was carried out and the patient was operated on with Ewing's sarcoma diagnosis.

  5. Appearance of extraosseous pelvic Ewing sarcoma on triphasic bone scan.

    PubMed

    Muckle, Marianne; Habibi, Elham; Simon, Birgit; Zipfel, Matthias; Biersack, Hans Jürgen; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2014-04-01

    A 24-year-old man with extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the pelvis underwent a triphasic bone scintigraphy to rule out bone metastases and local bone infiltration before chemotherapy. The bone scintigraphy showed tracer uptake in the tumor in all 3 phases.

  6. Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone Tumor Cells Produce MCSF that Stimulates Monocyte Proliferation in a Novel Mouse Model of Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Margulies, BS; DeBoyace, SD; Damron, TA; Allen, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy. PMID:26051470

  7. Ewing sarcoma of the oral cavity. A review

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, José; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A review is made of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and survival characteristics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) of the oral cavity. Material and Methods A systematic literature search was carried out, with restrictions referred to time (1960-2014), language (English and Spanish) and type of study (case reports, letters, datasets, reviews). The following MeSH terms and boolean operators were used: Ewing AND Sarcoma AND [tongue, jaw, maxilla, cheek, condyle OR temporomandibular, floor AND mouth, gum OR gingiva, palate OR palatal, lip, uvula, head AND neck]. Results Seventy-one cases of ES of the oral cavity were documented from 53 articles. The main differences versus ES of other locations were a younger age at manifestation, a shorter time from symptoms onset to diagnosis, and swelling as the most frequent clinical manifestation versus swelling and pain in the rest of disease locations. The way in which ES manifests in the oral cavity is varied and comprises dental displacement (19.7%), dental mobility (7%), root reabsorption (5.6%), destruction of the dental follicle (4.2%), premature exfoliation (4.2%) and paresthesia of the chin (2.8%). Metastatic neck adenopathies appear in 11.3% of the cases. Significant differences in survival are observed between patients with a complete diagnosis of ES (hematoxylin-eosin staining, PAS positivity, CD99 positivity) and those with an incomplete diagnosis. Conclusions Ewing sarcoma of the oral cavity presents a series of specific features that distinguish it from ES of other locations. Key words:Primitive neuroectodermal tumor, PNET, Ewing sarcoma, Ewing tumor, sarcoma, oral cavity. PMID:28210452

  8. 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy and Measuring Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Ewing Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-21

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  9. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  10. Primary Ewing Sarcoma of Sphenoid Bone with Intracranial Extension: A Common Tumour at an Uncommon Location

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Guddi Rani; Choudhary, Vijayanand

    2017-01-01

    Primary Ewing Sarcoma of the cranial bone is rare, contributing to only 1% of all Ewing Sarcomas. Primary cranial Ewing Sarcoma occurs most commonly in temporal bone followed by parietal and occipital bones. Sphenoid bone is less commonly involved. We report a case of Ewing Sarcoma of the sphenoid bone with intra-cranial extension in a 20-month-old boy. On CT scan a provisional diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma was made. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and histopathological examination of core needle biopsy showed small round cell tumour. On Immunohistochemistry (IHC), CD99 (MIC2) and FLI 1 were strongly positive and final diagnosis of Ewing Sarcoma was made. Considering the rarity of this unusual site, we report a case of primary Ewing Sarcoma arising in the sphenoid bone with erosion of adjacent bones and intra-cranial extension. PMID:28384876

  11. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the retina.

    PubMed

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Shehata, Bahig; Sorensen, Poul; Bergstrom, Chris; Hubbard, G Baker

    2012-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy underwent enucleation of his left eye for an intraocular tumor. Examination showed a small, round blue cell tumor arising in the peripheral retina near the ciliary body. Immunohistochemical stain results were positive for neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 99 (CD99), Friend leukemia integration 1, and CD56. Ultrastructural findings included occasional intracytoplasmic dense core granules. Polymerase chain reaction of the tumor showed a Ewing sarcoma/Friend leukemia integration gene fusion product. The tumor was classified as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the retina and should be distinguished from retinoblastoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the retina.

  12. Efficacy of ATR inhibitors as single agents in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lecona, Emilio; Murga, Matilde; Callen, Elsa; Azorin, Daniel; Alonso, Javier; Lopez, Andres J.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are pediatric bone tumors that arise from a driver translocation, most frequently EWS/FLI1. Current ES treatment involves DNA damaging agents, yet the basis for the sensitivity to these therapies remains unknown. Oncogene-induced replication stress (RS) is a known source of endogenous DNA damage in cancer, which is suppressed by ATR and CHK1 kinases. We here show that ES suffer from high endogenous levels of RS, rendering them particularly dependent on the ATR pathway. Accordingly, two independent ATR inhibitors show in vitro toxicity in ES cell lines as well as in vivo efficacy in ES xenografts as single agents. Expression of EWS/FLI1 or EWS/ERG oncogenic translocations sensitizes non-ES cells to ATR inhibitors. Our data shed light onto the sensitivity of ES to genotoxic agents, and identify ATR inhibitors as a potential therapy for Ewing Sarcomas. PMID:27577084

  13. Neglected primary Ewing's sarcoma of ethmoid presenting as surgical emergency

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Dinesh; Rao, Vinjamuri Srinivas; Rajesh, Alugolu; Purohit, Aniruddh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    We present a male child with primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from ethmoid sinuses with intradural and extracranial extension (bilateral nasal cavities, orbits, and maxillary sinuses). This is a rare condition. He presented with recurrent episodes of epistaxis for 2 years, sudden onset rapidly progressive bilateral proptosis, with painful restriction of extraocular movements, and decreased visual acuity for 4 days. Sudden complete loss of vision following admission demanded emergency tumor decompression. PMID:23741264

  14. The First European Interdisciplinary Ewing Sarcoma Research Summit

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, Heinrich; Alonso, Javier; Aman, Pierre; Aryee, Dave N. T.; Ban, Jozef; Burchill, Sue A.; Burdach, Stefan; De Alava, Enrique; Delattre, Olivier; Dirksen, Uta; Fourtouna, Argyro; Fulda, Simone; Helman, Lee J.; Herrero-Martin, David; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; Kontny, Udo; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Metzler, Markus; Moriggl, Richard; Niedan, Stephan; Potratz, Jenny; Redini, Françoise; Richter, Günther H. S.; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Rossig, Claudia; Schäfer, Beat W.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Scotlandi, Katia; Sorensen, Poul H.; Staege, Martin S.; Tirode, Franck; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Ventura, Selena; Eggert, Angelika; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) provides an interaction platform for stakeholders in research and care of children with cancer. Among ENCCA objectives is the establishment of biology-based prioritization mechanisms for the selection of innovative targets, drugs, and prognostic markers for validation in clinical trials. Specifically for sarcomas, there is a burning need for novel treatment options, since current chemotherapeutic treatment protocols have met their limits. This is most obvious for metastatic Ewing sarcoma (ES), where long term survival rates are still below 20%. Despite significant progress in our understanding of ES biology, clinical translation of promising laboratory results has not yet taken place due to fragmentation of research and lack of an institutionalized discussion forum. To fill this gap, ENCCA assembled 30 European expert scientists and five North American opinion leaders in December 2011 to exchange thoughts and discuss the state of the art in ES research and latest results from the bench, and to propose biological studies and novel promising therapeutics for the upcoming European EWING2008 and EWING2012 clinical trials. PMID:22662320

  15. Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of the penis: a report of an extraordinarily unusual site and a literature review of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Brimo, Fadi; Zeizafoun, Nebras

    2013-02-01

    Ewing's sarcomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNETs) arise from a multipotent progenitor cell and are considered to be of neuroectodermal derivation. Most tumors commonly arise in the skeletal system, which are the classic ES/PNET and occasionally occur in the soft tissue of extraskeletal sites, which are named extraskeletal Ewing's sarcomas (EES/PNET). This study reports a case of a 28-year-old man with primary EES/PNET of the penis.

  16. Whole-Body Radiation Therapy, Systemic Chemotherapy, and High-Dose Chemotherapy Followed By Stem Cell Rescue in Treating Patients With Poor-Risk Ewing Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-07

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  17. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Grotzer, Michael A.; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed. PMID:27524931

  18. Sinonasal adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Tumer, Yanki; Bishop, Justin A

    2016-12-02

    We describe the case of a sinonasal adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma in a 41-year-old male. Histologically, the tumor exhibited distinctive areas of nested growth pattern with prominent stromal fibrosis and metaplastic bone formation. The tumor cells were small and uniform with minimal amount of pale eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm and round or oval nuclei with finely dispersed chromatin and small nucleoli. Approximately 20% of the tumor parenchyma comprised of small clusters of basaloid cells within an osteofibrous background resembling adamantinoma. The tumor showed strong expression of keratins, p63, CD99 and Fli-1, and EWSR1 rearrangement. The diagnosis of sinonasal Ewing family tumors is particularly problematic owing to the large number of potential mimics. For any poorly differentiated or undifferentiated head and neck tumor, cellular monotony and CD99 immunoreactivity should prompt consideration for molecular studies that include analysis of both EWSR1 and FLI1, even in the presence of strong cytokeratin expression or focal keratinization.

  19. Metastatic extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma treated with trabectedin: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hernando-Cubero, Jorge; Sanz-Moncasi, Pilar; Hernández-García, Alba; Pajares-Bernard, Isabel; Martínez-Trufero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) comprises a number of rare malignant tumors. Standard first-line treatment for patients with these tumors includes chemotherapy with a five-drug regimen of vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin®) and cyclophosphamide, alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (VAC/IE). In cases of inadequate response, there are a number of second-line regimens available. However, further treatment options are required for those patients with disease unresponsive to standard treatment. Trabectedin is a novel treatment option for patients with ESFT. The present study reports the case of a Caucasian 69-year-old female patient who presented with a soft tissue mass on the chest wall that had developed 7 months earlier. A computed tomography scan revealed a 9×8×7-cm mass on the anterior chest wall above the pectoral muscle. Histopathological evaluations and molecular analysis indicated that it was consistent with a metastatic extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma. The patient was treated with an alternating VAC/IE regimen; however, an inadequate response was observed. The patient received second-line treatment with a gemcitabine and dacarbazine combination regimen, but the disease progressed. Subsequently, treatment with trabectedin (1.5 mg/m2 as a 24-h continuous infusion every 3 weeks) was initiated. Trabectedin treatment resulted in long-lasting (18 months) progression-free survival. It is vital that novel drugs continue to being developed for patients with ESFT following progression subsequent to standard chemotherapy. The current report presents a case of a patient with metastatic, pre-treated Ewing's sarcoma achieving disease stabilization with trabectedin. Based on these results and the observed tolerability profile, trabectedin represents an alternative treatment for patients with ESFT. Further studies are required in order to determine the efficacy of trabectedin as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. It is also important to

  20. Impact of treatment protocol on outcome of localized Ewing's sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nasaka, Srividya; Gundeti, Sadashivudu; Ganta, Ranga Raman; Arigela, Ravi Sankar; Linga, Vijay Gandhi; Maddali, Lakshmi Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The outcome of localized Ewing's sarcoma has improved with multi-disciplinary approach. Survivals of Ewing's sarcoma from the Asian countries differed between centers. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of newly diagnosed localized Ewing's sarcoma patients from 2002 to 2012. The patients were analyzed in three groups; Group 1(2002-2004) who received non-ifosfomide based regimens, Group 2(2005-2008) who received VDC/IE for 12 cycles, and Group 3(2009-2012), who received VDC/IE for 17 cycles. The groups were compared for their baseline characteristics, treatment protocol and outcome. Results: Seventy three patients were included in the study. The median age of presentation was 15 years, with slight male predominance. Axial primary was seen in 62%. The median RFS of the three groups was 26.4, 31.4 and 36.8 months respectively (P = 0.0018). The median OS was 27.9, 35 and 43 months respectively (P = 0.0007). At a median follow-up of 35 months, the 3 year RFS and OS for the three treatment groups were 17%, 31%, 60% and 35%, 45% and 70% respectively. Larger tumor size, axial primary, high LDH were associated with poorer survival. Radiotherapy was associated with inferior local control and survival. Conclusions: We found that the survival of our ESFT patients improved over time with intensified multiagent chemotherapy and with lesser time to local therapy. But the results were still inferior to those reported in literature. We had majority of patients presenting in axial site and radiotherapy as the predominant mode of local control. The outcome may further improve with surgery as local control procedure. PMID:28032089

  1. Gene expression signature based screening identifies ribonucleotide reductase as a candidate therapeutic target in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Kelli L.; Gordon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need in cancer therapeutics to identify targeted therapies that will improve outcomes and decrease toxicities compared to conventional, cytotoxic chemotherapy. Ewing sarcoma is a highly aggressive bone and soft tissue cancer that is caused by the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. Although EWS-FLI1 is specific for cancer cells, and required for tumorigenesis, directly targeting this transcription factor has proven challenging. Consequently, targeting unique dependencies or key downstream mediators of EWS-FLI1 represent important alternative strategies. We used gene expression data derived from a genetically defined model of Ewing sarcoma to interrogate the Connectivity Map and identify a class of drugs, iron chelators, that downregulate a significant number of EWS-FLI1 target genes. We then identified ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2), the iron-dependent subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), as one mediator of iron chelator toxicity in Ewing sarcoma cells. Inhibition of RNR in Ewing sarcoma cells caused apoptosis in vitro and attenuated tumor growth in an in vivo, xenograft model. Additionally, we discovered that the sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma cells to inhibition or suppression of RNR is mediated, in part, by high levels of SLFN11, a protein that sensitizes cells to DNA damage. This work demonstrates a unique dependency of Ewing sarcoma cells on RNR and supports further investigation of RNR inhibitors, which are currently used in clinical practice, as a novel approach for treating Ewing sarcoma. PMID:27557498

  2. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Ewing's Sarcoma: Initial Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rombi, Barbara; DeLaney, Thomas F.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Huang, Mary S.; Ebb, David H.; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Raskin, Kevin A.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Marcus, Karen J.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy (PT) has been prescribed similarly to photon radiotherapy to achieve comparable disease control rates at comparable doses. The chief advantage of protons in this setting is to reduce acute and late toxicities by decreasing the amount of normal tissue irradiated. We report the preliminary clinical outcomes including late effects on our pediatric Ewing's sarcoma patients treated with PT at the Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of the medical records of 30 children with Ewing's sarcoma who were treated with PT between April 2003 and April 2009. Results: A total of 14 male and 16 female patients with tumors in several anatomic sites were treated with PT at a median age of 10 years. The median dose was 54 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) with a median follow-up of 38.4 months. The 3-year actuarial rates of event-free survival, local control, and overall survival were 60%, 86%, and 89%, respectively. PT was acutely well tolerated, with mostly mild-to-moderate skin reactions. At the time of writing, the only serious late effects have been four hematologic malignancies, which are known risks of topoisomerase and anthracyline exposure. Conclusions: Proton radiotherapy was well tolerated, with few adverse events. Longer follow-up is needed to more fully assess tumor control and late effects, but the preliminary results are encouraging.

  3. Extensive primary Ewings' sarcoma in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulos, Kostas; Ferekidis, Eleftherios

    2003-01-01

    We describe a rare case of an extensive primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma located in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone with extension to the orbit, the endocranium, the parapharyngeal and infratemporal space. The patient presented with diplopia, anosmia and prolapse of the left eye. He was given chemo- and radiotherapy and was free of symptoms on re-examination 1.5 years later. The prognosis of Ewing's sarcoma in the absence of surgery is uncertain, but prompt treatment appears to have a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. In the future, more cases should be studied in order to investigate the biological behaviour of a primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma.

  4. Adamantinoma-like Ewing's sarcoma and Ewing's-like adamantinoma. The t(11; 22), t(21; 22) status.

    PubMed

    Hauben, E; van den Broek, L C; Van Marck, E; Hogendoorn, P C

    2001-09-01

    Adamantinoma of the long bones and Ewing's sarcoma are two malignant tumours between which, at first sight, there seems to be no morphological and clinical relationship. Both tumours, however, are known to express cytokeratins. Adamantinoma is a tumour of true epithelial nature, predominantly expressing cytokeratins 14 and 19. Ewing's sarcoma, believed to be from neuroectodermal origin, like other mesenchymal tumours, can aberrantly express cytokeratin 8 and 18. In the literature there are some reports of tumours showing clinical and/or morphological overlap between adamantinoma and Ewing's sarcoma, suggesting a possible relationship. These studies are mostly based on the epithelioid configuration of these lesions and their cytokeratin expression on immunohistochemistry. This raises the question of whether there is occasionally a morphological similarity between adamantinoma and Ewing's sarcoma, or whether there is a common genetic background. The Ewing's sarcoma/primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) family is characterized in 90-95% of cases by a t(11; 22) and in 5-10% of cases by t(21; 22). In the few reports in the literature on cytogenetic investigations on adamantinoma, these translocations were never found using classical karyotyping. This study investigated the putative presence of t(11; 22) and t(21; 22) in 14 cases of adamantinoma by RT-PCR. These translocations were not found in any of these cases. The results support the view that these tumours are genetically and clinically distinct, but may eventually show overlapping morphological and immunohistochemical features.

  5. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Ganitumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-06

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone Marrow; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Lung; Metastatic Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of Bone; Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of Soft Tissues

  6. Sequencing Overview of Ewing Sarcoma: A Journey across Genomic, Epigenomic and Transcriptomic Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Laurens G. L.; Szuhai, Karoly; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive neoplasm occurring predominantly in adolescent Caucasians. At the genome level, a pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS translocation is present. The resulting fusion protein acts as a molecular driver in the tumor development and interferes, amongst others, with endogenous transcription and splicing. The Ewing sarcoma cell shows a poorly differentiated, stem-cell like phenotype. Consequently, the cellular origin of Ewing sarcoma is still a hot discussed topic. To further characterize Ewing sarcoma and to further elucidate the role of EWSR1-ETS fusion protein multiple genome, epigenome and transcriptome level studies were performed. In this review, the data from these studies were combined into a comprehensive overview. Presently, classical morphological predictive markers are used in the clinic and the therapy is dominantly based on systemic chemotherapy in combination with surgical interventions. Using sequencing, novel predictive markers and candidates for immuno- and targeted therapy were identified which were summarized in this review. PMID:26193259

  7. Adult Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cheddhi; Modrek, Aram S.; Bayin, N. Sumru; Snuderl, Matija; Schiff, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare malignancy, especially in adults. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old male presented with back pain and urinary hesitancy. MRI revealed a thoracic extradural mass with no osseous involvement. He underwent surgery for gross total resection of the mass, which was diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. He was subsequently treated with chemoradiotherapy. He remains disease-free 1 year after surgery. Review of the literature indicated only 45 previously reported cases of spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in adults. Conclusions. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare clinical entity that should be included in the differential for spinal epidural masses. Its treatment is multidisciplinary but frequently requires surgical intervention due to compressive neurologic symptoms. Gross total resection appears to correlate with improved outcomes. PMID:27610254

  8. Targeting the DNA repair pathway in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Goshorn, Ross; Bradley, Cori; Griffiths, Lyra M; Benavente, Claudia; Twarog, Nathaniel R; Miller, Gregory M; Caufield, William; Freeman, Burgess B; Bahrami, Armita; Pappo, Alberto; Wu, Jianrong; Loh, Amos; Karlström, Åsa; Calabrese, Chris; Gordon, Brittney; Tsurkan, Lyudmila; Hatfield, M Jason; Potter, Philip M; Snyder, Scott E; Thiagarajan, Suresh; Shirinifard, Abbas; Sablauer, Andras; Shelat, Anang A; Dyer, Michael A

    2014-11-06

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a tumor of the bone and soft tissue that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. With current therapies, 70% of patients with localized disease survive, but patients with metastatic or recurrent disease have a poor outcome. We found that EWS cell lines are defective in DNA break repair and are sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPis). PARPi-induced cytotoxicity in EWS cells was 10- to 1,000-fold higher after administration of the DNA-damaging agents irinotecan or temozolomide. We developed an orthotopic EWS mouse model and performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies using three different PARPis that are in clinical development for pediatric cancer. Irinotecan administered on a low-dose, protracted schedule previously optimized for pediatric patients was an effective DNA-damaging agent when combined with PARPis; it was also better tolerated than combinations with temozolomide. Combining PARPis with irinotecan and temozolomide gave complete and durable responses in more than 80% of the mice.

  9. 3D Tissue-Engineered Model of Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Santoro, Marco; Ramammoorthy, Vandhana; Menegaz, Brian A.; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Iles, Lakesla R.; Amin, Hesham M.; Livingston, Andrew J.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Ludwig, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite longstanding reliance upon monolayer culture for studying cancer cells, and numerous advantages from both a practical and experimental standpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests more complex three-dimensional (3D) models are necessary to properly mimic many of the critical hallmarks associated with the oncogenesis, maintenance and spread of Ewing sarcoma (ES), the second most common pediatric bone tumor. And as clinicians increasingly turn to biologically-targeted therapies that exert their effects not only on the tumor cells themselves, but also on the surrounding extracellular matrix, it is especially important that preclinical models evolve in parallel to reliably measure antineoplastic effects and possible mechanisms of de novo and acquired drug resistance. Herein, we highlight a number of innovative methods used to fabricate biomimetic ES tumors, encompassing both the surrounding cellular milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM), and suggest potential applications to advance our understanding of ES biology, preclinical drug testing, and personalized medicine. PMID:25109853

  10. Palliation of recurrent Ewing sarcoma of the pelvis with cryoablation and somatosensory-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Anne-Marie I; Gilchrist, James; Schaefer, Leah; Dupuy, Damian E

    2009-01-01

    Palliation of recurrent Ewing sarcoma can be difficult to treat due to tumor resistance to chemotherapy and previously received maximum dose radiotherapy. We report the successful use of cryoablation for pain palliation in a patient with recurrent pelvic Ewing sarcoma. Tumor location necessitated use of somatosensory-evoked potentials to prevent nerve damage to the S1 nerve root. Clinical and imaging aspects of the case are discussed.

  11. MR findings of primary Ewing's sarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Paramjeet; Jain, Manoj; Singh, D P; Kalra, Naveen; Khandelwal, N; Suri, S

    2002-12-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull is a very rare entity. We report MRI findings in a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the greater wing of sphenoid in a 4-year-old patient. Magnetic resonance imaging showed markedly heterogenous signal intensity with areas of haemorrhage and necrosis. It also demonstrated the exact extent of tumour due to its multiplanar capabilities and was, therefore, helpful in planning surgery.

  12. Characterization of Ewing sarcoma associated cancer/testis antigens.

    PubMed

    Mahlendorf, Dorothea E; Staege, Martin Sebastian

    2013-03-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from tumors of the Ewing family (EFT) is still poor. Immunotherapy strategies are pursued and EFT-specific antigens have to be identified as targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Due to the lack of expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in normal tissues, these antigens are partially able to induce immune responses in cancer patients. Therefore, they are promising targets for immunotherapy. EFT are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements involving members of the TET (translocated in liposarcoma, Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1, TATA box binding protein-associated factor 15) family of RNA binding proteins and members of the E-26 (ETS) family of transcription factors. The resulting onco-fusion proteins are highly specific for EFT and downstream targets of TET-ETS represent candidate tumor specific antigens. In order to identify new EFT-associated CTA, we analyzed microarray-data sets from EFT and normal tissues from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The impact of TET-ETS on expression of CTA was analyzed using GEO data sets from transgenic mesenchymal stem cells. One CTA with high specificity for EFT is lipase I (LIPI, membrane-associated phospholipase A1-β). CTL specific for LIPI-derived peptides LDYTDAKFV and NLLKHGASL were able to lyse HLA-A2 positive EFT cells in vitro which confirms the possible role of LIPI and other CTA for EFT-immunotherapy.

  13. EWS/FLI1 Target Genes and Therapeutic Opportunities in Ewing Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cidre-Aranaz, Florencia; Alonso, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone malignancy that affect children and young adults. Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary bone malignancy in pediatric patients. Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma since it was first described in the 1920s, in the last decade survival rates have remained unacceptably invariable, thus pointing to the need for new approaches centered in the molecular basis of the disease. Ewing sarcoma driving mutation, EWS-FLI1, which results from a chromosomal translocation, encodes an aberrant transcription factor. Since its first characterization in 1990s, many molecular targets have been described to be regulated by this chimeric transcription factor. Their contribution to orchestrate Ewing sarcoma phenotype has been reported over the last decades. In this work, we will focus on the description of a selection of EWS/FLI1 targets, their functional role, and their potential clinical relevance. We will also discuss their role in other types of cancer as well as the need for further studies to be performed in order to achieve a broader understanding of their particular contribution to Ewing sarcoma development.

  14. EWS/FLI1 Target Genes and Therapeutic Opportunities in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Cidre-Aranaz, Florencia; Alonso, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone malignancy that affect children and young adults. Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary bone malignancy in pediatric patients. Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma since it was first described in the 1920s, in the last decade survival rates have remained unacceptably invariable, thus pointing to the need for new approaches centered in the molecular basis of the disease. Ewing sarcoma driving mutation, EWS–FLI1, which results from a chromosomal translocation, encodes an aberrant transcription factor. Since its first characterization in 1990s, many molecular targets have been described to be regulated by this chimeric transcription factor. Their contribution to orchestrate Ewing sarcoma phenotype has been reported over the last decades. In this work, we will focus on the description of a selection of EWS/FLI1 targets, their functional role, and their potential clinical relevance. We will also discuss their role in other types of cancer as well as the need for further studies to be performed in order to achieve a broader understanding of their particular contribution to Ewing sarcoma development. PMID:26258070

  15. Ewing Sarcoma: Current Management and Future Approaches Through Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Hawkins, Douglas S; Dirksen, Uta; Lewis, Ian J; Ferrari, Stefano; Le Deley, Marie-Cecile; Kovar, Heinrich; Grimer, Robert; Whelan, Jeremy; Claude, Line; Delattre, Olivier; Paulussen, Michael; Picci, Piero; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; van den Berg, Hendrik; Ladenstein, Ruth; Michon, Jean; Hjorth, Lars; Judson, Ian; Luksch, Roberto; Bernstein, Mark L; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Brennan, Bernadette; Craft, Alan W; Womer, Richard B; Juergens, Heribert; Oberlin, Odile

    2015-09-20

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive sarcoma of bone and soft tissue occurring at any age with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The treatment of ES relies on a multidisciplinary approach, coupling risk-adapted intensive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies with surgery and/or radiotherapy for control of the primary site and possible metastatic disease. The optimization of ES multimodality therapeutic strategies has resulted from the efforts of several national and international groups in Europe and North America and from cooperation between pediatric and medical oncologists. Successive first-line trials addressed the efficacy of various cyclic combinations of drugs incorporating doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, etoposide, and dactinomycin and identified prognostic factors now used to tailor therapies. The role of high-dose chemotherapy is still debated. Current 5-year overall survival for patients with localized disease is 65% to 75%. Patients with metastases have a 5-year overall survival < 30%, except for those with isolated pulmonary metastasis (approximately 50%). Patients with recurrence have a dismal prognosis. The many insights into the biology of the EWS-FLI1 protein in the initiation and progression of ES remain to be translated into novel therapeutic strategies. Current options and future approaches will be discussed.

  16. An unusual association of malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (clear cell sarcoma-like) and Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Insabato, Luigi; Guadagno, Elia; Natella, Valentina; Somma, Anna; Bihl, Michel; Pizzolorusso, Antonio; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Apice, Gaetano; Tornillo, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Very recently a new designation of "Malignant Neuroectodermal Gastrointestinal Tumor" has been proposed for an aggressive form of neuroectodermal tumor with features similar to that of Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Tissue, however without a melanocytic differentiation. Also known as "clear cell sarcoma-like tumors of the gastrointestinal tract", these tumors show some features strongly suggesting an origin from a gastrointestinal neuroectodermal precursor cell unable to differentiate along the melanocytic lineage. They occur mainly in young and middle-aged adults, and have a poor prognosis with a high rate of liver and lymphnode metastases. Histologically they are composed of epithelioid or oval-to spindle cells with a sheet-like or nested pattern of growth, strongly positive for neural markers (S-100, SOX10, and vimentin) and negative for the melanocytic ones. EWSR1 gene rearrangements including EWSR1-ATF1 or EWSR1-CREB1 GENE fusions are typically assessed in these tumors. Here we report a case of malignant neuroectodermal gastrointestinal tumor which immunophenotypically unusually expressed FLI-1, occurring in a 29-year-old man with a previous medical history of Ewing sarcoma. We finally suggest that this case might be a further evidence of a link between these two entities.

  17. Prognostic significance of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in Ewing's sarcoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suoyuan; Yang, Qing; Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhuoying; Zuo, Dongqing; Cai, Zhengdong; Hua, Yingqi

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the role of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma, although these have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive results. Therefore, the present study aimed to systematically review the published studies and conduct a meta-analysis to assess its prognostic value more precisely. Cohort studies assessing the prognostic role of LDH levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma were included. A pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of overall survival (OS) or 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was used to assess the prognostic role of the levels of serum LDH. Nine studies published between 1980 and 2014, with a total of 1,412 patients with Ewing's sarcoma, were included. Six studies, with a total of 644 patients, used OS as the primary endpoint and four studies, with 795 patients, used 5-year DFS. Overall, the pooled HR evaluating high LDH levels was 2.90 (95% CI: 2.09–4.04) for OS and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.93–2.98) for 5-year DFS. This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of serum LDH are associated with lower OS and 5-year DFS rates in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, serum LDH levels are an effective biomarker of Ewing's sarcoma prognosis. PMID:28105365

  18. Salient features of mesenchymal stem cells—implications for Ewing sarcoma modeling

    PubMed Central

    Monument, Michael J.; Bernthal, Nicholas M.; Randall, R. Lor

    2013-01-01

    Despite a heightened appreciation of the many defining molecular aberrations in Ewing sarcoma, the cooperative genetic environment and permissive cell of origin essential for EWS/ETS-mediated oncogenesis remain elusive. Consequently, inducible animal and in vitro models of Ewing sarcoma from a native cellular context are unable to fully recapitulate malignant transformation. Despite these shortcomings, human, and murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the closest working in vitro systems available. MSCs are tolerant of ectopic EWS/FLI expression, which is accompanied by a molecular signature most similar to Ewing sarcoma. Whether MSCs are the elusive cell of origin or simply a tolerant platform of the EWS/FLI transcriptome, these cells have become an excellent molecular tool to investigate and manipulate oncogenesis in Ewing sarcoma. Our understanding of the biological complexity and heterogeneity of human MSCs (hMSCs) has increased substantially over time and as such, appreciation and utilization of these salient complexities may greatly enhance the efficient use of these cells as surrogate models for Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis. PMID:23443465

  19. Evaluation of cytarabine against Ewing sarcoma xenografts by the pediatric preclinical testing program.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Peter J; Morton, Christopher L; Kang, Min; Reynolds, C Patrick; Billups, Catherine A; Favours, Edward; Payne-Turner, Debbie; Tucker, Chandra; Smith, Malcolm A

    2010-12-01

    Treatment with the nucleoside analog cytarabine has been shown to mimic changes in gene expression associated with downregulation of the EWS-FLI1 oncogene in Ewing sarcoma cell lines, selectively inhibit their growth in vitro, and cause tumor regression in athymic nude mice. For this report cytarabine was studied in vitro against a panel of 23 pediatric cancer cell lines and in vivo against 6 Ewing sarcoma xenografts. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines were the most sensitive to cytarabine in vitro (median IC(50) 9 nM), while Ewing sarcoma cell lines showed intermediate sensitivity (median IC(50) 232 nM). Cytarabine at a dose of 150 mg/kg administered daily 5× failed to significantly inhibit growth of five xenograft models, but reduced growth rate of the A673 xenograft by 50%. Cytarabine shows no differential in vitro activity against Ewing sarcoma cell lines and is ineffective in vivo against Ewing sarcoma xenografts at the dose and schedule studied.

  20. Primary pericranial Ewing's sarcoma on the temporal bone: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Hiroto; Nitta, Naoki; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Fukami, Tadateru; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary Ewing's sarcoma originating in the pericranium is an extremely rare disease entity. Case Description: A 9-year-old female patient was admitted to our department due to a left temporal subcutaneous mass. The mass was localized under the left temporal muscle and attached to the surface of the temporal bone. Head computed tomography revealed a mass with bony spicule formation on the temporal bone, however, it did not show bone destruction or intracranial invasion. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed no lesions other than the mass on the temporal bone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the mass was located between the temporal bone and the pericranium. The mass was completely resected with the underlying temporal bone and the overlying deep layer of temporal muscle, and was diagnosed as primary Ewing's sarcoma. Because the tumor was located in the subpericranium, we created a new classification, “pericranial Ewing's sarcoma,” and diagnosed the present tumor as pericranial Ewing's sarcoma. Conclusion: We herein present an extremely rare case of primary pericranial Ewing's sarcoma that developed on the temporal bone. PMID:27308095

  1. FLI-1 distinguishes Ewing sarcoma from small cell osteosarcoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anna F; Hayes, Malcolm M; Lebrun, David; Espinosa, Inigo; Nielsen, G Petur; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2011-05-01

    Small cell osteosarcoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma are 2 primary bone tumors with a small round blue cell component, which can mimic the appearance of Ewing sarcoma. Distinguishing these tumors from each other on biopsy material is important clinically, as optimal therapy differs according to the tumor type. However, separating these entities on morphology alone can be challenging. FLI-1 has been described to be a useful marker for Ewing sarcoma, particularly when hematolymphoid markers are negative. In small cell osteosarcoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, the FLI-1 staining pattern has not been adequately characterized. Using a monoclonal FLI-1 antibody, nuclear immunoreactivity in tumor cells was evaluated in 10 small cell osteosarcomas, 10 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, and 8 Ewing sarcomas, together with a number of other small, round, blue cell tumors. None of the small cell osteosarcomas or mesenchymal chondrosarcomas exhibited FLI-1 staining in the tumor cells, in contrast to the positive nuclear FLI-1 staining in the stromal endothelial cells. In comparison, 6 of the 8 Ewing sarcomas showed moderate-to-strong nuclear FLI-1 staining of the tumor cells in addition to strong staining of the stromal endothelial cell nuclei. With the exception of lymphoblastic lymphomas, FLI-1 positivity was not seen in the other small round blue cell tumors examined. These findings show that, in contrast to Ewing sarcoma, small cell osteosarcoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma lack FLI-1 immunoreactivity. FLI-1 is therefore useful in the differential diagnosis of small round blue cell tumors of the bone.

  2. Multiple Active Compounds from Viscum album L. Synergistically Converge to Promote Apoptosis in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Twardziok, Monika; Kleinsimon, Susann; Rolff, Jana; Jäger, Sebastian; Eggert, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer in children and adolescents, with poor prognosis and outcome in ~70% of initial diagnoses and 10–15% of relapses. Hydrophobic triterpene acids and hydrophilic lectins and viscotoxins from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) demonstrate anticancer properties, but have not yet been investigated for Ewing sarcoma. Commercial Viscum album L. extracts are aqueous, excluding the insoluble triterpenes. We recreated a total mistletoe effect by combining an aqueous extract (viscum) and a triterpene extract (TT) solubilized with cyclodextrins. Ewing sarcoma cells were treated with viscum, TT and viscumTT in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. In vitro and ex vivo treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with viscum inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, while viscumTT combination treatment generated a synergistic effect. Apoptosis occurred via intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, evidenced by activation of both CASP8 and CASP9. We show that viscumTT treatment shifts the balance of apoptotic regulatory proteins towards apoptosis, mainly via CLSPN, MCL1, BIRC5 and XIAP downregulation. ViscumTT also demonstrated strong antitumor activity in a cell line- and patient-derived mouse model, and may be considered an adjuvant therapy option for pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma. PMID:27589063

  3. Functional epigenetic approach identifies frequently methylated genes in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Alholle, Abdullah; Brini, Anna T; Gharanei, Seley; Vaiyapuri, Sumathi; Arrigoni, Elena; Dallol, Ashraf; Gentle, Dean; Kishida, Takeshi; Hiruma, Toru; Avigad, Smadar; Grimer, Robert; Maher, Eamonn R; Latif, Farida

    2013-11-01

    Using a candidate gene approach we recently identified frequent methylation of the RASSF2 gene associated with poor overall survival in Ewing sarcoma (ES). To identify effective biomarkers in ES on a genome-wide scale, we used a functionally proven epigenetic approach, in which gene expression was induced in ES cell lines by treatment with a demethylating agent followed by hybridization onto high density gene expression microarrays. After following a strict selection criterion, 34 genes were selected for expression and methylation analysis in ES cell lines and primary ES. Eight genes (CTHRC1, DNAJA4, ECHDC2, NEFH, NPTX2, PHF11, RARRES2, TSGA14) showed methylation frequencies of>20% in ES tumors (range 24-71%), these genes were expressed in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) and hypermethylation was associated with transcriptional silencing. Methylation of NPTX2 or PHF11 was associated with poorer prognosis in ES. In addition, six of the above genes also showed methylation frequency of>20% (range 36-50%) in osteosarcomas. Identification of these genes may provide insights into bone cancer tumorigenesis and development of epigenetic biomarkers for prognosis and detection of these rare tumor types.

  4. Ewing's sarcoma of the mandible in a young child.

    PubMed

    Brazão-Silva, Marco Túllio; Fernandes, Alexandre Vieira; Faria, Paulo Rogério de; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2010-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a malignancy primarily affecting bone tissue that is commonly diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. Its occurrence in the head and neck region is unusual and generally involves the mandible and maxilla. An extensive review of the literature shows only few cases of the oral ES in patients under the age of 5. This paper reports a rare case of ES of the mandible in a 4-year-old girl, which had been previously misdiagnosed and treated as a dental abscess. In the clinical examination, a hard immobile expansive mass of 5 cm in diameter was observed on the left side of the mandible. Radiographic examination revealed a radiolucent lesion with ill-defined borders and wide vestibular bone plate destruction. Microscopically, the tumor was composed by monotonous small round cells that exhibited immunoreactivity for CD99, vimentin and pancytokeratin. The patient was subjected to multiagent chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, cyclophosfamide and doxorrubycin (VAC/ICE regimen). However, after the first chemotherapeutic cycle, the patient died due to disseminated infection. This case elucidates the importance of professional knowledge of the relevant aspects of malignant lesions such as ES.

  5. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity in Ewing sarcoma/ primitive neuroectodermal tumour.

    PubMed

    Elbashier, S H A; Nazarina, A R; Looi, L M

    2013-12-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES)/ primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm affecting mainly children and young adults. The tumour is included with other primitive neoplasms under the category of small round cell tumour. Cytokeratin expression in ES/PNET has been described in sporadic case reports as well as a few systemic series. We studied this feature in Malaysian patients diagnosed in University Malaya Medical Centre on the basis of typical morphology and immunohistochemical assays. Immunohistochemical staining for AE1/AE3 and MNF116 were performed in 43 cases. Cytokeratin was expressed in 17 cases (39.5%) in focal, intermediate or diffuse patterns. There was no significant association between cytokeratin immunoreactivity and the following parameters: patient age, sex, skeletal and extraskeletal primary location as well as primary, metastastic or recurrent tumours or chemotherapy treatment. A significant association between cytokeratin and neuron specific enolase (NSE) expression was demonstrated. Our study supports evidence of epithelial differentiation in ES/PNET and emphasizes that the expression of cytokeratin does not exclude ES/PNET in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours.

  6. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Khuri, Safi; Gilshtein, Hayim; Sayidaa, Sa'd; Bishara, Bishara; Kluger, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation). These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation) was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery. PMID:27920700

  7. Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Sinonasal Tract: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tomoharu; Yasumatsu, Ryuji; Nakashima, Torahiko; Arita, Shuji; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    A 23-year-old male presented with a 3-month history of left purulent rhinorrhea, progressive nasal obstruction, and intermittent epistaxis. A fiberoptic examination revealed a large vascular polypoid mass completely filling the left nasal cavity. CT and MRI scans showed a large hypervascular mass involving the left nasal airway, maxillary antrum, and the anterior ethmoid cells. There was no bony erosion or contiguous spread, and the remaining sinuses, orbit, and cranial fossa were uninvolved. The patient underwent complete removal of the mass via an external lateral rhinotomy approach. The soft mass was large and vascular. A microscopic analysis revealed an undifferentiated tumor consisting of a solid sheet of small, round blue cells. Mitotic figures were also present. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for CD99. Molecular studies using a PCR confirmed the chromosomal translocation of FLI1 (exon 6). These findings were considered diagnostic for Ewing's sarcoma. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (total: 7 cycles) was commenced. He also received radiation therapy for local control (total dose: 50.4 Gy). The patient is currently alive without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:28203170

  8. Targeted Therapies for Advanced Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yunyun; Ludwig, Joseph; Janku, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of adolescent and young adult patients battling metastatic Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumours (ESFT) remains less than 30% despite the development of systemic therapies. In the era of personalized medicine, novel molecular targets have been tested in preclinical or clinical settings in ESFT. In this review, we focus on early clinical and translational research that identified multiple molecular targets, including IGF-1R; mTOR; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; EWS-FLI1-related targets, and others. Overall, novel targeted therapies demonstrated modest efficacy; however pronounced and durable antineoplastic responses have been observed in small subsets of treated patients, for example with IGF-1R antibodies. Identifying outcome-predicting biomarkers and overcoming treatment resistance remain major challenges. Due to the rarity of ESFT, multi-institutional collaboration efforts of clinicians, basic and translational scientists are needed in order to understand biology of therapeutic response or resistance, which can lead to development of novel therapeutic methods and improved patient outcomes. PMID:25869102

  9. The ganglioside antigen GD2 is surface-expressed in Ewing sarcoma and allows for MHC-independent immune targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kailayangiri, S; Altvater, B; Meltzer, J; Pscherer, S; Luecke, A; Dierkes, C; Titze, U; Leuchte, K; Landmeier, S; Hotfilder, M; Dirksen, U; Hardes, J; Gosheger, G; Juergens, H; Rossig, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Novel treatment strategies are needed to cure disseminated Ewing sarcoma. Primitive neuroectodermal features and a mesenchymal stem cell origin are both compatible with aberrant expression of the ganglioside antigen GD2 and led us to explore GD2 immune targeting in this cancer. Methods: We investigated GD2 expression in Ewing sarcoma by immunofluorescence staining. We then assessed the antitumour activity of T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor specific for GD2 against Ewing sarcoma in vitro and in vivo. Results: Surface GD2 was detected in 10 out of 10 Ewing sarcoma cell lines and 3 out of 3 primary cell cultures. Moreover, diagnostic biopsies from 12 of 14 patients had uniform GD2 expression. T cells specifically modified to express the GD2-specific chimeric receptor 14. G2a-28ζ efficiently interacted with Ewing sarcoma cells, resulting in antigen-specific secretion of cytokines. Moreover, chimeric receptor gene-modified T cells from healthy donors and from a patient exerted potent, GD2-specific cytolytic responses to allogeneic and autologous Ewing sarcoma, including tumour cells grown as multicellular, anchorage-independent spheres. GD2-specific T cells further had activity against Ewing sarcoma xenografts. Conclusion: GD2 surface expression is a characteristic of Ewing sarcomas and provides a suitable target antigen for immunotherapeutic strategies to eradicate micrometastatic cells and prevent relapse in high-risk disease. PMID:22374462

  10. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Netalkar, A; Lad, S D

    2000-02-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma is an uncommon lethal tumour of the long bones and pelvic girdle mainly affecting children and young adults. An origin in the cranial bones is extremely rare. We report a unique case of primary involvement of the greater wing of sphenoid bone in a 16-year-old patient. Aggressive management using microsurgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy was curative. Localized, primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranial bones should be considered as a distinct clinicopathological entity with an extremely low rate of dural penetration and metastases, and with a relatively better prognosis as compared with those of long bones and pelvic girdle. In neurosurgical practice, primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranial bones requires early aggressive management to achieve adequate long-term prognosis and cure.

  11. Melatonin Cytotoxicity Is Associated to Warburg Effect Inhibition in Ewing Sarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sanchez, Ana M.; Antolin, Isaac; Puente-Moncada, Noelia; Suarez, Santos; Gomez-Lobo, Marina; Rodriguez, Carmen; Martin, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin kills or inhibits the proliferation of different cancer cell types, and this is associated with an increase or a decrease in reactive oxygen species, respectively. Intracellular oxidants originate mainly from oxidative metabolism, and cancer cells frequently show alterations in this metabolic pathway, such as the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis). Thus, we hypothesized that melatonin could also regulate differentially oxidative metabolism in cells where it is cytotoxic (Ewing sarcoma cells) and in cells where it inhibits proliferation (chondrosarcoma cells). Ewing sarcoma cells but not chondrosarcoma cells showed a metabolic profile consistent with aerobic glycolysis, i.e. increased glucose uptake, LDH activity, lactate production and HIF-1α activation. Melatonin reversed Ewing sarcoma metabolic profile and this effect was associated with its cytotoxicity. The differential regulation of metabolism by melatonin could explain why the hormone is harmless for a wide spectrum of normal and only a few tumoral cells, while it kills specific tumor cell types. PMID:26252771

  12. Nonmetastatic Ewing's Sarcoma of the Lumbar Spine in an Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Dobran, Mauro; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Moriconi, Elisa; Nocchi, Niccolò; Gladi, Maurizio; Scerrati, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Although the spine is frequently involved in metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, primary involvement of the spine, beside sacrum, is much less frequent, especially in adult patients. Because of the low incidence of these tumors, there are currently no clinical guidelines outlining their management and a multitude of therapeutic strategies have been employed with varying success. The definitive management of Ewing's sarcoma of the spine, as in other locations, could include the combination of three main modalities: aggressive surgery, radiotherapy, and combined chemotherapy. Whenever possible, en bloc spondylectomy or extralesional resection is preferable, providing a better oncological result with a longer survival and a better preservation of the spine biomechanics. This is the lesson we learned about the case, we present here, of nonmetastatic lumbar localization by Ewing's sarcoma in as adult patient. PMID:23133768

  13. Tumorigenicity of Ewing sarcoma is critically dependent on the trithorax proteins MLL1 and menin

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Laurie K.; Bailey, Natashay; Van Noord, Raelene A.; Krook, Melanie A.; Harris, Ashley; Cramer, Cassondra; Jasman, Brooke; Patel, Rajiv M.; Thomas, Dafydd; Borkin, Dmitry; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Grembecka, Jolanta; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental transcription programs are epigenetically regulated by the competing actions of polycomb and trithorax (TrxG) protein complexes, which repress and activate genes, respectively. Ewing sarcoma is a developmental tumor that is associated with widespread de-regulation of developmental transcription programs, including HOX programs. Posterior HOXD genes are abnormally over-expressed by Ewing sarcoma and HOXD13, in particular, contributes to the tumorigenic phenotype. In MLL1 fusion-driven leukemia, aberrant activation of HOXA genes is epigenetically mediated by the TrxG complex and HOXA gene expression and leukemogenesis are critically dependent on the protein-protein interaction between the TrxG proteins MLL1 and menin. Based on these data, we investigated whether posterior HOXD gene activation and Ewing sarcoma tumorigenicity are similarly mediated by and dependent on MLL1 and/or menin. Our findings demonstrate that Ewing sarcomas express high levels of both MLL1 and menin and that continued expression of both proteins is required for maintenance of tumorigenicity. In addition, exposure of Ewing sarcoma cells to MI-503, an inhibitor of the MLL1-menin protein-protein interaction developed for MLL1-fusion driven leukemia, leads to loss of tumorigenicity and down-regulated expression of the posterior HOXD gene cluster. Together these data demonstrate an essential role for MLL1 and menin in mediating tumor maintenance and posterior HOXD gene activation in Ewing sarcoma. A critical dependency of these tumors on the MLL1-menin interaction presents a potentially novel therapeutic target. PMID:27888797

  14. Gene Expression Music Algorithm-Based Characterization of the Ewing Sarcoma Stem Cell Signature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gene Expression Music Algorithm (GEMusicA) is a method for the transformation of DNA microarray data into melodies that can be used for the characterization of differentially expressed genes. Using this method we compared gene expression profiles from endothelial cells (EC), hematopoietic stem cells, neuronal stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and defined a set of genes that can discriminate between the different stem cell types. We analyzed the behavior of public microarray data sets from Ewing sarcoma (“Ewing family tumors,” EFT) cell lines and biopsies in GEMusicA after prefiltering DNA microarray data for the probe sets from the stem cell signature. Our results demonstrate that individual Ewing sarcoma cell lines have a high similarity to ESC or EC. Ewing sarcoma cell lines with inhibited Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWSR1-FLI1) oncogene retained the similarity to ESC and EC. However, correlation coefficients between GEMusicA-processed expression data between EFT and ESC decreased whereas correlation coefficients between EFT and EC as well as between EFT and MSC increased after knockdown of EWSR1-FLI1. Our data support the concept of EFT being derived from cells with features of embryonic and endothelial cells. PMID:27446218

  15. Exploring the surfaceome of Ewing sarcoma identifies a new and unique therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Pais, Helio; Harrison, Sally; Bataille, Carole; Bunjobpol, Wilawan; Zhang, Jing; Rabbitts, Terence H.

    2016-01-01

    The cell surface proteome of tumors mediates the interface between the transformed cells and the general microenvironment, including interactions with stromal cells in the tumor niche and immune cells such as T cells. In addition, the cell surface proteome of individual cancers defines biomarkers for that tumor type and potential proteins that can be the target of antibody-mediated therapy. We have used next-generation deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) coupled to an in-house database of genes encoding cell surface proteins (herein referred to as the surfaceome) as a tool to define a cell surface proteome of Ewing sarcoma compared with progenitor mesenchymal stem cells. This subtractive RNA-seq analysis revealed a specific surfaceome of Ewing and showed unexpectedly that the leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain protein 1 (LINGO1) is expressed in over 90% of Ewing sarcoma tumors, but not expressed in any other somatic tissue apart from the brain. We found that the LINGO1 protein acts as a gateway protein internalizing into the tumor cells when engaged by antibody and can carry antibody conjugated with drugs to kill Ewing sarcoma cells. Therefore, LINGO1 is a new, unique, and specific biomarker and drug target for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma. PMID:26979953

  16. XI-006 induces potent p53-independent apoptosis in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Pishas, Kathleen I; Adwal, Alaknanda; Neuhaus, Susan J; Clayer, Mark T; Farshid, Gelareh; Staudacher, Alexander H; Callen, David F

    2015-06-22

    There is an imperious need for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma, the second most prevalent solid bone tumour observed in children and young adolescents. Recently, a 4-nitrobenzofuroxan derivative, XI-006 (NSC207895) was shown to diminish MDM4 promoter activity in breast cancer cell lines. As amplification of MDM4 is frequently observed in sarcomas, this study examined the therapeutic potential of XI-006 for the treatment of Ewing and osteosarcoma. XI-006 treatment of Ewing and osteosarcoma cell lines (n = 11) resulted in rapid and potent apoptosis at low micro-molar concentrations specifically in Ewing sarcoma cell lines (48 hr IC50 0.099-1.61 μM). Unexpectedly, apoptotic response was not dependent on MDM4 mRNA/protein levels or TP53 status. Alkaline/neutral comet and γH2AX immunofluorescence assays revealed that the cytotoxic effects of XI-006 could not be attributed to the induction of DNA damage. RNA expression analysis revealed that the mechanism of action of XI-006 could be accredited to the inhibition of cell division and cycle regulators such as KIF20A and GPSM2. Finally, potent synergy between XI-006 and olaparib (PARP inhibitor) were observed due to the down-regulation of Mre11. Our findings suggest that XI-006 represents a novel therapeutic intervention for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma.

  17. XI-006 induces potent p53-independent apoptosis in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Pishas, Kathleen I.; Adwal, Alaknanda; Neuhaus, Susan J.; Clayer, Mark T.; Farshid, Gelareh; Staudacher, Alexander H.; Callen, David F.

    2015-01-01

    There is an imperious need for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma, the second most prevalent solid bone tumour observed in children and young adolescents. Recently, a 4-nitrobenzofuroxan derivative, XI-006 (NSC207895) was shown to diminish MDM4 promoter activity in breast cancer cell lines. As amplification of MDM4 is frequently observed in sarcomas, this study examined the therapeutic potential of XI-006 for the treatment of Ewing and osteosarcoma. XI-006 treatment of Ewing and osteosarcoma cell lines (n = 11) resulted in rapid and potent apoptosis at low micro-molar concentrations specifically in Ewing sarcoma cell lines (48 hr IC50 0.099–1.61 μM). Unexpectedly, apoptotic response was not dependent on MDM4 mRNA/protein levels or TP53 status. Alkaline/neutral comet and γH2AX immunofluorescence assays revealed that the cytotoxic effects of XI-006 could not be attributed to the induction of DNA damage. RNA expression analysis revealed that the mechanism of action of XI-006 could be accredited to the inhibition of cell division and cycle regulators such as KIF20A and GPSM2. Finally, potent synergy between XI-006 and olaparib (PARP inhibitor) were observed due to the down-regulation of Mre11. Our findings suggest that XI-006 represents a novel therapeutic intervention for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma. PMID:26095524

  18. A very rare cause of neck pain: primary Ewing sarcoma of the axis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ramazan; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Dagcinar, Adnan

    2013-11-01

    We report the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with a 1-month history of neck pain, left-sided torticollis, and no neurological deficit. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an expansile lesion in the axis, with epidural and prevertebral soft tissue components. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen revealed primary vertebral Ewing sarcoma. This is the first case of primary vertebral Ewing sarcoma that has presented with torticollis. It is essential for physicians to be familiar with this condition and the associated imaging findings because early diagnosis of such cases is the key to better prognosis.

  19. Adamantinoma-like Ewing's sarcoma with EWS-FLI1 fusion gene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiromasa; Honoki, Kanya; Enomoto, Yasunori; Kasai, Takahiko; Kido, Akira; Amano, Itsuto; Kumamoto, Makiko; Morishita, Toru; Mii, Yoshio; Nonomura, Akitaka; Takakura, Yoshinori

    2006-11-01

    Recent studies have advocated the genotypic and phenotypic delineation of a novel Ewing's sarcoma histologic variant showing epithelial features defined as "adamantinoma-like Ewing's sarcoma". We described an 18-year-old girl with a primary small round-cell sarcoma of the right tibia showing polyphenotypic differentiation with epithelioid features. The neoplastic cells had mainly round or oval nuclei with fine chromatin with a portion of epithelial arrangements. The immunohistochemical analysis showed the epithelial markers of cytokeratin 5/6/18, AE1/AE3, and cytokeratin high molecular weight were stained especially in the foci with epithelioid features, as well as MIC2, S100, and NSE. The diagnosis of the lesion was confirmed as Ewing's sarcoma by the presence of the EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript, and could be defined as the so-called "adamantinoma-like Ewing's sarcoma". After wide excision and high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell transfusion, the patient has been well and continuously event-free for 3 years since the initial diagnosis.

  20. Ewing sarcoma dissemination and response to T-cell therapy in mice assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liebsch, L; Kailayangiri, S; Beck, L; Altvater, B; Koch, R; Dierkes, C; Hotfilder, M; Nagelmann, N; Faber, C; Kooijman, H; Ring, J; Vieth, V; Rossig, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Novel treatment strategies in Ewing sarcoma include targeted cellular therapies. Preclinical in vivo models are needed that reflect their activity against systemic (micro)metastatic disease. Methods: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) was used to monitor the engraftment and dissemination of human Ewing sarcoma xenografts in mice. In this model, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of T cells redirected against the Ewing sarcoma-associated antigen GD2 by chimeric receptor engineering. Results: Of 18 mice receiving intravenous injections of VH-64 Ewing sarcoma cells, all developed disseminated tumour growth detectable by WB-MRI. All mice had lung tumours, and the majority had additional manifestations in the bone, soft tissues, and/or kidney. Sequential scans revealed in vivo growth of tumours. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background signal suppression effectively visualised Ewing sarcoma growth in extrapulmonary sites. Animals receiving GD2-targeted T-cell therapy had lower numbers of pulmonary tumours than controls, and the median volume of soft tissue tumours at first detection was lower, with a tumour growth delay over time. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging reliably visualises disseminated Ewing sarcoma growth in mice. GD2-retargeted T cells can noticeably delay tumour growth and reduce pulmonary Ewing sarcoma manifestations in this aggressive disease model. PMID:23839490

  1. C/EBPβ-1 promotes transformation and chemoresistance in Ewing sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jamie D; Abegglen, Lisa M; Huang, Xiaomeng; Carter, Bryce E; Schackmann, Elizabeth A; Stucki, Marcus; Paxton, Christian N; Randall, R Lor; Amatruda, James F; Putnam, Angelica R; Kovar, Heinrich; Lessnick, Stephen L; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2017-01-27

    CEBPB copy number gain in Ewing sarcoma was previously shown to be associated with worse clinical outcome compared to tumors with normal CEBPB copy number, although the mechanism was not characterized. We employed gene knockdown and rescue assays to explore the consequences of altered CEBPB gene expression in Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Knockdown of EWS-FLI1 expression led to a decrease in expression of all three C/EBPβ isoforms while re-expression of EWS-FLI1 rescued C/EBPβ expression. Overexpression of C/EBPβ-1, the largest of the three C/EBPβ isoforms, led to a significant increase in colony formation when cells were grown in soft agar compared to empty vector transduced cells. In addition, depletion of C/EBPβ decreased colony formation, and re-expression of either C/EBPβ-1 or C/EBPβ-2 rescued the phenotype. We identified the cancer stem cell marker ALDH1A1 as a target of C/EBPβ in Ewing sarcoma. Furthermore, increased expression of C/EBPβ led to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. In summary, we have identified CEBPB as an oncogene in Ewing sarcoma. Overexpression of C/EBPβ-1 increases transformation, upregulates expression of the cancer stem cell marker ALDH1A1, and leads to chemoresistance.

  2. Promoter Methylation Analysis Reveals that KCNA5 Ion Channel Silencing Supports Ewing Sarcoma Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ryland, Katherine E; Hawkins, Allegra G.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Punj, Vasu; Borinstein, Scott C.; Laird, Peter W.; Martens, Jeffrey R.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb proteins are essential regulators of gene expression in stem cells and development. They function to reversibly repress gene transcription via post-translational modification of histones and chromatin compaction. In many human cancers, genes that are repressed by polycomb in stem cells are subject to more stable silencing via DNA methylation of promoter CpG islands. Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor that is characterized by over-expression of polycomb proteins. This study investigates the DNA methylation status of polycomb target gene promoters in Ewing sarcoma tumors and cell lines and observes that the promoters of differentiation genes are frequent targets of CpG-island DNA methylation. In addition, the promoters of ion channel genes are highly differentially methylated in Ewing sarcoma compared to non-malignant adult tissues. Ion channels regulate a variety of biological processes, including proliferation, and dysfunction of these channels contributes to tumor pathogenesis. In particular, reduced expression of the voltage-gated Kv1.5 channel has been implicated in tumor progression. These data show that DNA methylation of the KCNA5 promoter contributes to stable epigenetic silencing of Kv1.5 channel. This epigenetic repression is reversed by exposure to the DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine, which inhibits Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation through mechanisms that include restoration of Kv1.5 channel function. Implications This study demonstrates that promoters of ion channels are aberrantly methylated in Ewing sarcoma and that epigenetic silencing of KCNA5 contributes to tumor cell proliferation, thus providing further evidence of the importance of ion channel dyregulation to tumorigenesis. PMID:26573141

  3. Primary Pulmonary Ewing's Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor in a 67-year-old Man

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Ji Hye; Choi, Jong Sang; In, Kwang Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Cho, Kyung Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a branch of neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), which is very rare soft tissue sarcoma. We report a case of EES/PNET arising is the lung of a 67-yr-old man. Computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography confirmed the mass to have a primary pulmonary origin. The mass showed positive reactivity in the Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain and MIC-2 immunoreactivity in immunohistochemical stain. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed, which revealed an EWSR1 (Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1) 22q12 rearrangement. The diagnosis was confirmed both pathologically and genetically. The mass lesion was resected, and the patient is currently undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:17923745

  4. Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Kidney: A Rare and Lethal Entity.

    PubMed

    Celli, Romulo; Cai, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor represents a spectrum of undifferentiated tumors with similar biology that together represent the second most common sarcoma in the pediatric-young adult age range. Very rarely, this tumor presents as a primary neoplasm of the kidney. The clinical presentation of this tumor is not specific, and other renal tumors may present with a similar histologic appearance. Establishing the correct diagnosis is critical because renal Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor carries a strikingly dismal prognosis and thus dictates a specific treatment strategy. A low threshold for the use of ancillary molecular tests is recommended, particularly in diagnostically problematic cases. Important considerations with regards to morphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular alterations will be reviewed here and should be taken into account before rendering this rare and lethal diagnosis.

  5. The role of FLI-1-EWS, a fusion gene reciprocal to EWS-FLI-1, in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Houghton, Peter J; Chen, Yidong; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2015-11-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue in children that is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly FLI-1. The EWS-FLI-1 fusion oncogene is widely believed to play a central role in Ewing sarcoma. The EWS-FLI-1 gene product regulates the expression of a number of genes important for cancer progression, can transform mouse cells such as NIH3T3 and C3H10T1/2, and is necessary for proliferation and tumorigenicity of Ewing sarcoma cells, suggesting that EWS-FLI-1 is the causative oncogene. However, a variety of evidence also suggest that EWS-FLI-1 alone cannot fully explain the Ewing sarcomagenesis. Here we report that FLI-1-EWS, a fusion gene reciprocal to EWS-FLI-1, is frequently expressed in Ewing sarcoma. We present evidence suggesting that endogenous FLI-1-EWS is required for Ewing sarcoma growth and that FLI-1-EWS cooperates with EWS-FLI-1 in human mesenchymal stem cells, putative cells of origin of Ewing sarcoma, through abrogation of the proliferation arrest induced by EWS- FLI-1.

  6. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Ewing Sarcoma Compared to Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Low miR-31 Expression with Effects on Proliferation and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Karnuth, Bianca; Dedy, Nicolas; Spieker, Tilmann; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Ranft, Andreas; Dirksen, Uta; Jürgens, Heribert; Bräuninger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma, the second most common bone tumor in children and young adults, is an aggressive malignancy with a strong potential to metastasize. Ewing sarcoma is characterised by translocations encoding fusion transcription factors with an EWSR1 transactivation domain fused to an ETS family DNA binding domain. microRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and aberrantly expressed microRNAs have been identified as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in most cancer types. To identify potential oncogenic and tumor suppressor microRNAs in Ewing sarcoma, we determined and compared the expression of 377 microRNAs in 40 Ewing sarcoma biopsies, 6 Ewing sarcoma cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells, the putative cellular origin of Ewing sarcoma, from 6 healthy donors. Of the 35 differentially expressed microRNAs identified (fold change >4 and q<0.05), 19 were higher and 16 lower expressed in Ewing sarcoma. In comparisons between Ewing sarcoma samples with EWS-FLI or EWS-ERG translocations, with differing dissemination characteristics and of primary samples and metastases no significantly differential expressed microRNAs were detected using various stringency criteria. For miR-31, the microRNA with lowest expression in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, functional analyses were performed to determine its potential as a tumor suppressor in Ewing sarcoma. Two of four miR-31 transfected Ewing sarcoma cell lines showed a significantly reduced proliferation (19% and 33% reduction) due to increased apoptosis in one and increased length of G1-phase in the other cell line. All three tested miR-31 transfected Ewing sarcoma cell lines showed significantly reduced invasiveness (56% to 71% reduction). In summary, we identified 35 microRNAs differentially expressed in Ewing sarcoma and demonstrate that miR-31 affects proliferation and invasion of Ewing sarcoma cell lines in ex vivo assays. PMID:24667836

  7. Ewing Sarcoma, an enigmatic malignancy of likely progenitor cell origin, driven by transcription factor oncogenic fusions

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Since its first description by James Ewing in 1921, Ewing Sarcoma has been a cryptic malignancy. A poorly differentiated tumor of uncertain histogenesis and aggressive biologic behavior, it is the second most common malignancy of bone and soft tissue affecting adolescents and young adults. Some two decades ago, the understanding of Ewing Sarcoma biology took a leap forward with the identification of recurrent EWS/Ets fusions, which drive onco-genesis in this disease. A further leap forward occurred over the last half decade with the application of gene silencing, global expression profiling and primary cell culture technologies to the study of this disease. Resulting work has revealed EWS/Ets fusions to be surprisingly versatile regulators of gene expression, and has narrowed the search for the elusive cell of origin. Improved understanding of EWS/Ets biology and relevant oncogenic pathways has in turn led to the development of targeted therapies, including, recently, small molecules targeting key complexes involving the oncogenic fusion itself. In many respects still remaining an enigma, Ewing Sarcoma is an important model for cancers originating in progenitor-type cells or manifesting progenitor-type cell features, and cancers containing recurrent oncogenic fusions, the latter a surprisingly expanding number. PMID:20490326

  8. EWS-FLI1-mediated suppression of the RAS-antagonist Sprouty 1 (SPRY1) confers aggressiveness to Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cidre-Aranaz, F; Grünewald, T G P; Surdez, D; García-García, L; Carlos Lázaro, J; Kirchner, T; González-González, L; Sastre, A; García-Miguel, P; López-Pérez, S E; Monzón, S; Delattre, O; Alonso, J

    2017-02-09

    Ewing sarcoma is characterized by chromosomal translocations fusing the EWS gene with various members of the ETS family of transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. EWS-FLI1 is an aberrant transcription factor driving Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis by either transcriptionally inducing or repressing specific target genes. Herein, we showed that Sprouty 1 (SPRY1), which is a physiological negative feedback inhibitor downstream of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) and other RAS-activating receptors, is an EWS-FLI1 repressed gene. EWS-FLI1 knockdown specifically increased the expression of SPRY1, while other Sprouty family members remained unaffected. Analysis of SPRY1 expression in a panel of Ewing sarcoma cells showed that SPRY1 was not expressed in Ewing sarcoma cell lines, suggesting that it could act as a tumor suppressor gene in these cells. In agreement, induction of SPRY1 in three different Ewing sarcoma cell lines functionally impaired proliferation, clonogenic growth and migration. In addition, SPRY1 expression inhibited extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling induced by serum and basic FGF (bFGF). Moreover, treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with the potent FGFR inhibitor PD-173074 reduced bFGF-induced proliferation, colony formation and in vivo tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, thus mimicking SPRY1 activity in Ewing sarcoma cells. Although the expression of SPRY1 was low when compared with other tumors, SPRY1 was variably expressed in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors and higher expression levels were significantly associated with improved outcome in a large patient cohort. Taken together, our data indicate that EWS-FLI1-mediated repression of SPRY1 leads to unrestrained bFGF-induced cell proliferation, suggesting that targeting the FGFR/MAPK pathway can constitute a promising therapeutic approach for this devastating disease.

  9. Therapeutic opportunities in Ewing sarcoma: EWS-FLI inhibition via LSD1 targeting

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Emily R.; Pishas, Kathleen I.; Saund, Ranajeet S.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive primary pediatric bone tumor, often diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. A pathognomonic reciprocal chromosomal translocation results in a fusion gene coding for a protein which derives its N-terminus from a FUS/EWS/TAF15 (FET) protein family member, commonly EWS, and C-terminus containing the DNA-binding domain of an ETS transcription factor, commonly FLI1. Nearly 85% of cases express the EWS-FLI protein which functions as a transcription factor and drives oncogenesis. As the primary genomic lesion and a protein which is not expressed in normal cells, disrupting EWS-FLI function is an attractive therapeutic strategy for Ewing sarcoma. However, transcription factors are notoriously difficult targets for the development of small molecules. Improved understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms employed by EWS-FLI to hijack normal cellular programming has uncovered potential novel approaches to pharmacologically block EWS-FLI function. In this review we examine targeting the chromatin regulatory enzymes recruited to conspire in oncogenesis with a focus on the histone lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). LSD1 inhibitors are being aggressively investigated in acute myeloid leukemia and the results of early clinical trials will help inform the future use of LSD1 inhibitors in sarcoma. High LSD1 expression is observed in Ewing sarcoma patient samples and mechanistic and preclinical data suggest LSD1 inhibition globally disrupts the function of EWS-ETS proteins. PMID:26848860

  10. Correlation of Ezrin Expression Pattern and Clinical Outcomes in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hong; McCracken, Courtney; Geng, Zhi; Shehata, Bahig M.; Olson, Thomas A.; Katzenstein, Howard M.; Wetmore, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ezrin is a membrane-cytoskeleton linker protein that has been associated with metastasis and poor outcomes in osteosarcoma and high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. The prognostic value of ezrin expression in Ewing sarcoma is unknown. Methods. The relationship between ezrin expression and outcome was analyzed in a cohort of 53 newly diagnosed Ewing sarcoma patients treated between 2000 and 2011. The intensity and proportion of cells with ezrin immunoreactivity were assessed in diagnostic tumor tissue using a semiquantitative scoring system to yield intensity and positivity scores for each tumor. Results. Ezrin expression was detected in 72% (38/53) of tumor samples. The proportion of patients with metastatic disease was equal in the positive and negative ezrin expression groups. There was no significant difference in the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) between patients with positive versus negative ezrin expression. Patients whose tumor sample showed high ezrin intensity had significantly better 5-year EFS when compared to patients with low/no ezrin intensity (78% versus 55%; P = 0.03). Conclusions. Ezrin expression can be detected in the majority of Ewing sarcoma tumor samples. Intense ezrin expression may be correlated with a favorable outcome; however further investigation with a larger cohort is needed to validate this finding. PMID:28246524

  11. Therapeutic opportunities in Ewing sarcoma: EWS-FLI inhibition via LSD1 targeting.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Emily R; Pishas, Kathleen I; Saund, Ranajeet S; Lessnick, Stephen L

    2016-04-05

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive primary pediatric bone tumor, often diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. A pathognomonic reciprocal chromosomal translocation results in a fusion gene coding for a protein which derives its N-terminus from a FUS/EWS/TAF15 (FET) protein family member, commonly EWS, and C-terminus containing the DNA-binding domain of an ETS transcription factor, commonly FLI1. Nearly 85% of cases express the EWS-FLI protein which functions as a transcription factor and drives oncogenesis. As the primary genomic lesion and a protein which is not expressed in normal cells, disrupting EWS-FLI function is an attractive therapeutic strategy for Ewing sarcoma. However, transcription factors are notoriously difficult targets for the development of small molecules. Improved understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms employed by EWS-FLI to hijack normal cellular programming has uncovered potential novel approaches to pharmacologically block EWS-FLI function. In this review we examine targeting the chromatin regulatory enzymes recruited to conspire in oncogenesis with a focus on the histone lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). LSD1 inhibitors are being aggressively investigated in acute myeloid leukemia and the results of early clinical trials will help inform the future use of LSD1 inhibitors in sarcoma. High LSD1 expression is observed in Ewing sarcoma patient samples and mechanistic and preclinical data suggest LSD1 inhibition globally disrupts the function of EWS-ETS proteins.

  12. The Macrophage Inhibitor CNI-1493 Blocks Metastasis in a Mouse Model of Ewing Sarcoma through Inhibition of Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Anthony J.; Maloney, Caroline; Behr, Christopher A.; Edelman, Morris C.; Glick, Richard D.; Al-Abed, Yousef; Symons, Marc; Soffer, Samuel Z.; Steinberg, Bettie M.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma carries a poor prognosis, and novel therapeutics to prevent and treat metastatic disease are greatly needed. Recent evidence demonstrates that tumor-associated macrophages in Ewing Sarcoma are associated with more advanced disease. While some macrophage phenotypes (M1) exhibit anti-tumor activity, distinct phenotypes (M2) may contribute to malignant progression and metastasis. In this study, we show that M2 macrophages promote Ewing Sarcoma invasion and extravasation, pointing to a potential target of anti-metastatic therapy. CNI-1493 is a selective inhibitor of macrophage function and has shown to be safe in clinical trials as an anti-inflammatory agent. In a xenograft mouse model of metastatic Ewing Sarcoma, CNI-1493 treatment dramatically reduces metastatic tumor burden. Furthermore, metastases in treated animals have a less invasive morphology. We show in vitro that CNI-1493 decreases M2-stimulated Ewing Sarcoma tumor cell invasion and extravasation, offering a functional mechanism through which CNI-1493 attenuates metastasis. These data indicate that CNI-1493 may be a safe and effective adjuvant agent for the prevention and treatment of metastatic Ewing Sarcoma. PMID:26709919

  13. The Macrophage Inhibitor CNI-1493 Blocks Metastasis in a Mouse Model of Ewing Sarcoma through Inhibition of Extravasation.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Anthony J; Maloney, Caroline; Behr, Christopher A; Edelman, Morris C; Glick, Richard D; Al-Abed, Yousef; Symons, Marc; Soffer, Samuel Z; Steinberg, Bettie M

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma carries a poor prognosis, and novel therapeutics to prevent and treat metastatic disease are greatly needed. Recent evidence demonstrates that tumor-associated macrophages in Ewing Sarcoma are associated with more advanced disease. While some macrophage phenotypes (M1) exhibit anti-tumor activity, distinct phenotypes (M2) may contribute to malignant progression and metastasis. In this study, we show that M2 macrophages promote Ewing Sarcoma invasion and extravasation, pointing to a potential target of anti-metastatic therapy. CNI-1493 is a selective inhibitor of macrophage function and has shown to be safe in clinical trials as an anti-inflammatory agent. In a xenograft mouse model of metastatic Ewing Sarcoma, CNI-1493 treatment dramatically reduces metastatic tumor burden. Furthermore, metastases in treated animals have a less invasive morphology. We show in vitro that CNI-1493 decreases M2-stimulated Ewing Sarcoma tumor cell invasion and extravasation, offering a functional mechanism through which CNI-1493 attenuates metastasis. These data indicate that CNI-1493 may be a safe and effective adjuvant agent for the prevention and treatment of metastatic Ewing Sarcoma.

  14. Targeting of EWS/FLI-1 by RNA interference attenuates the tumor phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chansky, Howard A; Barahmand-Pour, Fariba; Mei, Qi; Kahn-Farooqi, Waqqar; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Blackburn, Michael; Chansky, Kari; Conrad, Ernest U; Bruckner, James D; Greenlee, Theodore K; Yang, Liu

    2004-07-01

    The defining cytogenetic abnormality of Ewing's sarcoma is the presence of a balanced t(11;22) translocation expressing the EWS/FLI-1 chimeric fusion protein. The effect of EWS/FLI-1 appears to be dominant negative since over-expression of EWS does not overcome the sarcoma phenotype. Previous studies have shown that EWS/FLI-1 as well as related sarcoma fusion proteins are necessary and sufficient to induce transformation both in vitro and in vivo. In this study we report that synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) specifically suppresses EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene expression in SK-ES Ewing's sarcoma cells. Knockdown of the EWS/FLI-1 fusion protein is correlated with decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. We demonstrate that Ewing's sarcoma tumors as well as Ewing's sarcoma cell lines predominantly express the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Using an in vitro invasion assay, the SDF-1 ligand of CXCR4 was shown to be a potent stimulus of invasion by SK-ES cells. Knockdown of EWS/FLI-1 by RNA interference abrogates the invasiveness of SK-ES cells. These experiments suggest that targeted silencing of the EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene by siRNA represents a promising strategy to study the loss of EWS/FLI-1 protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells of otherwise identical genetic background.

  15. Functional, chemical genomic, and super-enhancer screening identify sensitivity to cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway inhibition in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, Brian; Cowley, Glenn; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A.; Tsherniak, Aviad; Parasuraman, Sudha; Kim, Sunkyu; Alexe, Gabriela; Stegmaier, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor in children and adolescents, with treatment remaining a clinical challenge. This disease is mediated by somatic chromosomal translocations of the EWS gene and a gene encoding an ETS transcription factor, most commonly, FLI1. While direct targeting of aberrant transcription factors remains a pharmacological challenge, identification of dependencies incurred by EWS/FLI1 expression would offer a new therapeutic avenue. We used a combination of super-enhancer profiling, near-whole genome shRNA-based and small-molecule screening to identify cyclin D1 and CDK4 as Ewing sarcoma-selective dependencies. We revealed that super-enhancers mark Ewing sarcoma specific expression signatures and EWS/FLI1 target genes in human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Particularly, a super-enhancer regulates cyclin D1 and promotes its expression in Ewing sarcoma. We demonstrated that Ewing sarcoma cells require CDK4 and cyclin D1 for survival and anchorage-independent growth. Additionally, pharmacologic inhibition of CDK4 with selective CDK4/6 inhibitors led to cytostasis and cell death of Ewing sarcoma cell lines in vitro and growth delay in an in vivo Ewing sarcoma xenograft model. These results demonstrated a dependency in Ewing sarcoma on CDK4 and cyclin D1 and support exploration of CDK4/6 inhibitors as a therapeutic approach for patients with this disease. PMID:26337082

  16. Primary spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma: report of five cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, P; Gairola, M; Sharma, M; Thulkar, S; Julka, P; Rath, G

    2001-08-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumour occurring in children and adolescents and exists in two different clinicopathological entities: osseous Ewing's sarcoma (OES) and extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES). Five cases of primary epidural EES are described, which presented with non-specific symptoms leading to a long diagnostic delay. The median age at diagnosis was 22 years (range 13-36 years). The median diagnostic delay was 3 months. All patients had one or more neurological deficits. All underwent surgical exploration with a laminectomy and partial resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy to a dose of 46-50 Gy and chemotherapy with VAC (vincristine, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide) alternating with ICE (ifosphamide, cisplatin and etoposide) for at least six cycles. The mean follow-up period is 21.2 months (range 11-32 months). Four of the five patients achieved a complete remission and are disease free at the time of writing this report. Two patients have a residual neurological deficit--both having presented with long history of neurological deficit. Primary spinal epidural EES should be suspected whenever young patients present with back pain and/or radicular pain, have abnormal neurology and an extradural mass is demonstrated on MRI. Surgical excision followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (50 Gy) and combination chemotherapy (VAC alternating with ICE) achieved local and systemic control in these patients. A greater number of patients and longer follow up are required to evolve a generally accepted treatment policy for this aggressive but potentially curable malignancy.

  17. Ewing sarcoma cells secrete EWS/Fli-1 fusion mRNA via microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Tsugita, Masanori; Yamada, Nami; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Yamada, Kazunari; Moritake, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Akao, Yukihiro; Ohno, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Tumours defined as Ewing sarcoma (ES) constitute a group of highly malignant neoplasms that most often affect children and young adults in the first 2 decades of life. The EWS/Fli-1 fusion gene, a product of the translocation t(11;22) (q24; 12), is detected in 95% of ES patients. Recently, it was validated that cells emit a heterogeneous mixture of vesicular, organelle-like structures (microvesicles, MVs) into their surroundings including blood and body fluids, and that these MVs contain a selected set of tumor-related proteins and high levels of mRNAs and miRNAs. In this present study, we detected the Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs from the culture medium of ES cell lines carrying t(11;22) (q24; 12). Also, we detected this fusion gene in approximately 40% of the blood samples from mice inoculated with xenografts of TC135 or A673 cells. These findings indicate the EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs might be a new non-invasive diagnostic marker for specific cases of Ewing sarcoma.

  18. Subungual Ewing sarcoma/PNET tumor family of the great toe: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Binesh, Fariba; Sobhanardekani, Mohammad; Zare, Saeedeh; Behniafard, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma is seen mainly in patients less than 18. This aggressive tumor generally affects the axial skeleton and only rarely involves the acral regions. Ewing’s sarcoma in the foot is inordinately scarce. Clinical features are uncertain and can imitate other common diseases. This paper presents a case of 62-year-old malewith complaints of pain and swelling of the subungual area of his right great toe. The lesion was excised, and histopathological diagnosis of Ewing’s sarcoma was made. Histopathological examination, supported by immunochemical methods, remains the mainstay of diagnosis. Surgical ablation along with chemotherapy is the therapy of choice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Ewing’s sarcoma involving the nail bed of the great toe without bone erosion. The key messages of this case report is “Subungual Ewing sarcoma is a rare case, and Ewing’s sarcoma must be kept in mind for acral lesions, especially in the adult population.” PMID:27279998

  19. Primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Primary Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the genital tract of women is uncommon. Rarer still is its occurrence in the vagina, with only five cases described so far. Out of these, only one case was confirmed using molecular analysis. Case presentation We present an extremely rare case of Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old Indian girl. She presented with a vaginal mass that was initially diagnosed as a malignant round cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse positivity for vimentin, membranous positivity for MIC2, and positivity for BCL2 and FLI-1. On the other hand, she was negative for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, Myo D-1, myogenin and smooth muscle actin. A diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor was thus offered. Furthermore, a molecular analysis of our patient using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique showed positivity for t(11; 22) (q24; q12) (EWSR1-FLI1), thus confirming the diagnosis of a Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Our patient was offered chemotherapy on Institutional protocol EFT 2001. Conclusion This is a rare case of primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, which was confirmed with molecular analysis, in the youngest patient known so far. This study reinforces the value of integrating morphological features with membranous MIC2 positivity, along with application of molecular techniques in objective identification of an Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor at uncommon sites. PMID:20233457

  20. Targeting the epigenetic readers in Ewing Sarcoma inhibits the oncogenic transcription factor EWS/Fli1

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Camille; Lamoureux, François; Baud’huin, Marc; Calleja, Lidia Rodriguez; Quillard, Thibaut; Amiaud, Jérôme; Tirode, Franck; Rédini, Françoise; Bradner, James E.; Heymann, Dominique; Ory, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Ewing Sarcoma is a rare bone and soft tissue malignancy affecting children and young adults. Chromosomal translocations in this cancer produce fusion oncogenes as characteristic molecular signatures of the disease. The most common case is the translocation t (11; 22) (q24;q12) which yields the EWS-Fli1 chimeric transcription factor. Finding a way to directly target EWS-Fli1 remains a central therapeutic approach to eradicate this aggressive cancer. Here we demonstrate that treating Ewing Sarcoma cells with JQ1(+), a BET bromodomain inhibitor, represses directly EWS-Fli1 transcription as well as its transcriptional program. Moreover, the Chromatin Immuno Precipitation experiments demonstrate for the first time that these results are a consequence of the depletion of BRD4, one of the BET bromodomains protein from the EWS-Fli1 promoter. In vitro, JQ1(+) treatment reduces the cell viability, impairs the cell clonogenic and the migratory abilities, and induces a G1-phase blockage as well as a time- and a dose-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, in our in vivo model, we observed a tumor burden delay, an inhibition of the global vascularization and an increase of the mice overall survival. Taken together, our data indicate that inhibiting the BET bromodomains interferes with EWS-FLi1 transcription and could be a promising strategy in the Ewing tumors context. PMID:27006472

  1. An Interaction with Ewing's Sarcoma Breakpoint Protein EWS Defines a Specific Oncogenic Mechanism of ETS Factors Rearranged in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kedage, Vivekananda; Selvaraj, Nagarathinam; Nicholas, Taylor R; Budka, Justin A; Plotnik, Joshua P; Jerde, Travis J; Hollenhorst, Peter C

    2016-10-25

    More than 50% of prostate tumors have a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS family transcription factor. However, mechanisms that differentiate the function of oncogenic ETS factors expressed in prostate tumors from non-oncogenic ETS factors expressed in normal prostate are unknown. Here, we find that four oncogenic ETS (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), and no other ETS, interact with the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint protein, EWS. This EWS interaction was necessary and sufficient for oncogenic ETS functions including gene activation, cell migration, clonogenic survival, and transformation. Significantly, the EWS interacting region of ERG has no homology with that of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. Therefore, this finding may explain how divergent ETS factors have a common oncogenic function. Strikingly, EWS is fused to various ETS factors by the chromosome translocations that cause Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, these findings link oncogenic ETS function in both prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma.

  2. Functional Genomic Screening Reveals Splicing of the EWS-FLI1 Fusion Transcript as a Vulnerability in Ewing Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Grohar, Patrick J; Kim, Suntae; Rangel Rivera, Guillermo O; Sen, Nirmalya; Haddock, Sara; Harlow, Matt L; Maloney, Nichole K; Zhu, Jack; O'Neill, Maura; Jones, Tamara L; Huppi, Konrad; Grandin, Magdalena; Gehlhaus, Kristen; Klumpp-Thomas, Carleen A; Buehler, Eugen; Helman, Lee J; Martin, Scott E; Caplen, Natasha J

    2016-01-26

    Ewing sarcoma cells depend on the EWS-FLI1 fusion transcription factor for cell survival. Using an assay of EWS-FLI1 activity and genome-wide RNAi screening, we have identified proteins required for the processing of the EWS-FLI1 pre-mRNA. We show that Ewing sarcoma cells harboring a genomic breakpoint that retains exon 8 of EWSR1 require the RNA-binding protein HNRNPH1 to express in-frame EWS-FLI1. We also demonstrate the sensitivity of EWS-FLI1 fusion transcripts to the loss of function of the U2 snRNP component, SF3B1. Disrupted splicing of the EWS-FLI1 transcript alters EWS-FLI1 protein expression and EWS-FLI1-driven expression. Our results show that the processing of the EWS-FLI1 fusion RNA is a potentially targetable vulnerability in Ewing sarcoma cells.

  3. A phase II study of clinical activity of SCH 717454 (robatumumab) in patients with relapsed osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bielack, Stefan S.; Gorlick, Richard G.; Skubitz, Keith; Daw, Najat C.; Herzog, Cynthia E.; Monge, Odd R.; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Boldrini, Erica; Pápai, Zsuzanna; Rubino, Joseph; Pathiraja, Kumudu; Hille, Darcy A.; Ayers, Mark; Yao, Siu‐Long; Nebozhyn, Michael; Lu, Brian; Mauro, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Robatumumab (19D12; MK‐7454 otherwise known as SCH717454) is a fully human antibody that binds to and inhibits insulin‐like growth factor receptor‐1 (IGF‐1R). This multiinstitutional study (P04720) determined the safety and clinical efficacy of robatumumab in three separate patient groups with resectable osteosarcoma metastases (Group 1), unresectable osteosarcoma metastases (Group 2), and Ewing sarcoma metastases (Group 3). Procedure Robatumumab infusions were administered every 2 weeks and were well tolerated with minimal toxicity. Centrally reviewed response data were available for 144 patients. Results Low disease burden was important for osteosarcoma response: three of 31 patients had complete response or partial response (PR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) in resectable patients (Group 1) versus zero of 29 in unresectable patients (Group 2); median overall survival was 20 months in Group 1 versus 8.2 months in Group 2. In centrally reviewed patients with Ewing sarcoma with PET‐CT data (N = 84/115), there were six PR, 23 stable disease, and 55 progression of disease by RECIST at 2 months. Patients with Ewing sarcoma had a median overall survival of 6.9 months. However, responding patients with Ewing sarcoma were allowed to continue on treatment after study closure. A minority of patients with metastatic Ewing sarcoma showed clinical responses and have remained healthy after receiving 25–115 doses of robatumumab with remissions of >4 years duration (N = 6). Conclusions These findings show that although the IGF‐1R remains an attractive treatment target, additional research is needed to identify responders and/or means to achieve durable remissions in order to successfully exploit IGF‐1R signal blockade in Ewing sarcoma (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00617890). PMID:27362300

  4. Lurbinectedin Inactivates the Ewing Sarcoma Oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 by Redistributing It within the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Matt L; Maloney, Nichole; Roland, Joseph; Guillen Navarro, Maria Jose; Easton, Matthew K; Kitchen-Goosen, Susan M; Boguslawski, Elissa A; Madaj, Zachary B; Johnson, Ben K; Bowman, Megan J; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Winn, Mary E; Turner, Lisa; Hostetter, Galen; Galmarini, Carlos María; Aviles, Pablo M; Grohar, Patrick J

    2016-11-15

    There is a great need to develop novel approaches to target oncogenic transcription factors with small molecules. Ewing sarcoma is emblematic of this need, as it depends on the continued activity of the EWS-FLI1 transcription factor to maintain the malignant phenotype. We have previously shown that the small molecule trabectedin interferes with EWS-FLI1. Here, we report important mechanistic advances and a second-generation inhibitor to provide insight into the therapeutic targeting of EWS-FLI1. We discovered that trabectedin functionally inactivated EWS-FLI1 by redistributing the protein within the nucleus to the nucleolus. This effect was rooted in the wild-type functions of the EWSR1, compromising the N-terminal half of the chimeric oncoprotein, which is known to be similarly redistributed within the nucleus in the presence of UV light damage. A second-generation trabectedin analogue lurbinectedin (PM01183) caused the same nuclear redistribution of EWS-FLI1, leading to a loss of activity at the promoter, mRNA, and protein levels of expression. Tumor xenograft studies confirmed this effect, and it was increased in combination with irinotecan, leading to tumor regression and replacement of Ewing sarcoma cells with benign fat cells. The net result of combined lurbinectedin and irinotecan treatment was a complete reversal of EWS-FLI1 activity and elimination of established tumors in 30% to 70% of mice after only 11 days of therapy. Our results illustrate the preclinical safety and efficacy of a disease-specific therapy targeting the central oncogenic driver in Ewing sarcoma. Cancer Res; 76(22); 6657-68. ©2016 AACR.

  5. Ewing sarcoma of the mandible mimicking an odontogenic abscess – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gosau, Martin; Baumhoer, Daniel; Ihrler, Stefan; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Driemel, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) of the mandible is rare and can be mistaken for inflammation of dental origin. We present a 24-year old male patient which underwent radical tumour surgery and primary reconstruction with a microvascular osteoseptocutaneous free fibular flap as well as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Incomplete osseous tumour resection required a second intervention. This case report recapitulates the clinical and histopathological findings in oral ES, demonstrates its sometimes difficult diagnosis and discusses the (dis-)advantages of primary osseous reconstruction in ablative tumour surgery. PMID:18983686

  6. Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney treated with chemotherapy including ifosfamide.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Hiroki; Kamiya, Takahiro; Hosoya, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Ogawa, Chitose; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Hosoya, Ryota; Manabe, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of the kidney is extremely rare, and is usually diagnosed after nephrectomy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although ifosfamide and etoposide improve survival to a great extent in ES/PNET, the use of nephrotoxic agent, particularly ifosfamide, is a concern after nephrectomy. We describe the case of a 14-year-old female patient with abdominal mass who was diagnosed with ES/PNET of the right kidney after nephrectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy including ifosfamide and etoposide were given. The estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased to 75% after the end of therapy. There was no evidence of recurrence 70 months after initial diagnosis.

  7. Intensive combined modality therapy including low-dose TBI in high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Glaubiger, D.; Diesseroth, A.; Makuch, R.; Waller, B.; Pizzo, P.; Glatstein, E.

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-four high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients were treated on an intensive combined modality protocol including low-dose fractionated total body irradiaiton (TBI) and autologous bone marrow infusion (ABMI). Twenty patients (83%) achieved a complete clinical response to the primary and/or metastatic sites following induction therapy. The median disease-free interval was 18 months, and nine patients remain disease-free with a follow-up of 22 to 72 months. Local failure as a manifestation of initial relapse occurred in only three patients (15%), each having synchronous distant failure. Eight patients failed initially with only distant metastases, usually within 1-2 years following a complete clinical response. Two patterns of granulocyte recovery following consolidative therapy (including TBI and ABMI) were recognized. The time to platelet recovery was different for the groups with early and late granulocyte recovery. Patients with late recovery did not tolerate maintenance chemotherapy. However, there was no difference in disease-free and overall survival, when comparing the groups with early and late granulocyte recovery. It is concluded that these high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients remain a poor-prognosis group in spite of intensive combined modality therapy including low-dose TBI. The control of microscopic systemic disease remains the major challenge to improving the cure rate. A new combined modality protocol with high-dose 'therapeutic' TBI (800 rad/2 fractions) is being used and the protocol design is outlined.

  8. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Metastatic and Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Lester, Rachael A.; Grams, Michael P.; Haddock, Michael G.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Arndt, Carola A. S.; Rose, Peter S.; Laack, Nadia N.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy has been utilized for metastatic and recurrent osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma (ES), in order to provide palliation and possibly prolong overall or progression-free survival. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is convenient for patients and offers the possibility of increased efficacy. We report our early institutional experience using SBRT for recurrent and metastatic osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Methods. We reviewed all cases of osteosarcoma or ES treated with SBRT between 2008 and 2012. Results. We identified 14 patients with a total of 27 lesions from osteosarcoma (n = 19) or ES (n = 8). The median total curative/definitive SBRT dose delivered was 40 Gy in 5 fractions (range, 30–60 Gy in 3–10 fractions). The median total palliative SBRT dose delivered was 40 Gy in 5 fractions (range, 16–50 Gy in 1–10 fractions). Two grade 2 and 1 grade 3 late toxicities occurred, consisting of myonecrosis, avascular necrosis with pathologic fracture, and sacral plexopathy. Toxicity was seen in the settings of concurrent chemotherapy and reirradiation. Conclusions. This descriptive report suggests that SBRT may be a feasible local treatment option for patients with osteosarcoma and ES. However, significant toxicity can result, and thus systematic study is warranted to clarify efficacy and characterize long-term toxicity. PMID:25548538

  9. Detection and characterization of side population in Ewing's sarcoma SK-ES-1 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Rui; Yan, Ming; Ye, Zhengxu; Liang, Wei; Luo, Zhuojing

    2010-01-01

    Dye exclusion is a valuable technique to isolate cancer stem cells (CSCs) based on an ability of stem cell to efflux fluorescent DNA-binding dye, especially for tumors without unique surface markers. It has been proven that side population (SP) cells that exclude Hoechst 33342 dye are enriched with stem-like cells in several cancer cell lines. In this study, we isolated and characterized SP cells from human Ewing's sarcoma cell line SK-ES-1 in vitro. SP cells were detected in SK-ES-1 and comprised 1.2% of total cell population. Only SP cells had the capacity to regenerate both SP and non-SP cells. The proliferation rates were similar between SP and non-SP cells. However, the clonogenicity and invasiveness of SP cells were significantly higher than that of non-SP cells. Further characterization of this SP phenotype presented other properties. SP cells exhibited increased multi-drug resistance and the ATP binding cassette protein (ABC) transporters were up-regulated in SP population. These findings suggest that SP cells derived from Ewing's sarcoma play the critical role in tumor metastasis and recurrence and might be an ideal target for clinical therapy.

  10. EWS-FLI1 confers exquisite sensitivity to NAMPT inhibition in Ewing sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mutz, Cornelia N; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N T; Bouchard, Eric D J; Mejia, Edgard M; Hatch, Grant M; Kauer, Maximilian O; Katschnig, Anna M; Ban, Jozef; Garten, Antje; Alonso, Javier; Banerji, Versha; Kovar, Heinrich

    2017-02-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is the second most common bone cancer in children and adolescents with a high metastatic potential. EwS development is driven by a specific chromosomal translocation resulting in the generation of a chimeric EWS-ETS transcription factor, most frequently EWS-FLI1.Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a key metabolite of energy metabolism involved in cellular redox reactions, DNA repair, and in the maintenance of genomic stability. This study describes targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme of NAD synthesis, by FK866 in EwS cells. Here we report that blocking NAMPT leads to exhaustive NAD depletion in EwS cells, followed by a metabolic collapse and cell death. Using conditional EWS-FLI1 knockdown by doxycycline-inducible shRNA revealed that EWS-FLI1 depletion significantly reduces the sensitivity of EwS cells to NAMPT inhibition. Consistent with this finding, a comparison of 7 EwS cell lines of different genotypes with 5 Non-EwS cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells revealed significantly higher FK866 sensitivity of EWS-ETS positive EwS cells, with IC50 values mostly below 1nM.Taken together, our data reveal evidence of an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of EwS cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential new treatment approach for Ewing sarcoma.

  11. A bivalent promoter contributes to stress-induced plasticity of CXCR4 in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Krook, Melanie A.; Hawkins, Allegra G.; Patel, Rajiv M.; Lucas, David R.; Van Noord, Raelene; Chugh, Rashmi; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneity is a major impediment to cancer cures. Tumor cell heterogeneity can arise by irreversible genetic mutation, as well as by non-mutational mechanisms, which can be reversibly modulated by the tumor microenvironment and the epigenome. We recently reported that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is induced in Ewing sarcoma cells in response to microenvironmental stress. In the current study, we investigated plasticity of CXCR4 expression in vivo and assessed whether CXCR4 impacts on tumor growth. Our studies showed that Ewing sarcoma cells convert between CXCR4 negative and CXCR4 positive states in vivo and that positive cells are most abundant adjacent to areas of necrosis. In addition, tumor volumes directly correlated with CXCR4 expression supporting a role for CXCR4 in growth promotion. Mechanistically, our results show that, in ambient conditions where CXCR4 expression is low, the CXCR4 promoter exists in a poised, bivalent state with simultaneous enrichment of both activating (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) post-translational histone modifications. In contrast, when exposed to stress, CXCR4 negative cells lose the H3K27me3 mark. This loss of promoter bivalency is associated with CXCR4 upregulation. These studies demonstrate that stress-dependent plasticity of CXCR4 is, in part, mediated by epigenetic plasticity and a bivalent promoter. PMID:27528222

  12. Preclinical Justification of pbi-shRNA EWS/FLI1 Lipoplex (LPX) Treatment for Ewing's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Donald D.; Jay, Christopher; Wang, Zhaohui; Luo, Xiuquan; Kumar, Padmasini; Eysenbach, Hilary; Ghisoli, Maurizio; Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John

    2016-01-01

    The EWS/FLI1 fusion gene is well characterized as a driver of Ewing's sarcoma. Bi-shRNA EWS/FLI1 is a functional plasmid DNA construct that transcribes both siRNA and miRNA-like effectors each of which targets the identical type 1 translocation junction region of the EWS/FLI1 transcribed mRNA sequence. Previous preclinical and clinical studies confirm the safety of this RNA interference platform technology and consistently demonstrate designated mRNA and protein target knockdown at greater than 90% efficiency. We initiated development of pbi-shRNA EWS/FLI1 lipoplex (LPX) for the treatment of type 1 Ewing's sarcoma. Clinical-grade plasmid was manufactured and both sequence and activity verified. Target protein and RNA knockdown of 85–92% was demonstrated in vitro in type 1 human Ewing's sarcoma tumor cell lines with the optimal bi-shRNA EWS/FLI1 plasmid. This functional plasmid was placed in a clinically tested, liposomal (LP) delivery vehicle followed by in vivo verification of activity. Type 1 Ewing's sarcoma xenograft modeling confirmed dose related safety and tumor response to pbi-shRNA EWS/FLI1 LPX. Toxicology studies in mini-pigs with doses comparable to the demonstrated in vivo efficacy dose resulted in transient fever, occasional limited hypertension at low- and high-dose assessment and transient liver enzyme elevation at high dose. These results provide the justification to initiate clinical testing. PMID:27166877

  13. Genomic landscape of Ewing sarcoma defines an aggressive subtype with co-association of STAG2 and TP53 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Tirode, Franck; Surdez, Didier; Ma, Xiaotu; Parker, Matthew; Le Deley, Marie Cécile; Bahrami, Armita; Zhang, Zhaojie; Lapouble, Eve; Grossetête-Lalami, Sandrine; Rusch, Michael; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Rio-Frio, Thomas; Hedlund, Erin; Wu, Gang; Chen, Xiang; Pierron, Gaelle; Oberlin, Odile; Zaidi, Sakina; Lemmon, Gordon; Gupta, Pankaj; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Easton, John; Gut, Marta; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Shurtleff, Sheila; Laurence, Valérie; Michon, Jean; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Gut, Ivo; Downing, James; Dyer, Michael; Zhang, Jinghui; Delattre, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a primary bone tumor initiated by EWSR1–ETS gene fusions. To identify secondary genetic lesions that contribute to tumor progression, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 112 Ewing sarcoma samples and matched germline DNA. Overall, Ewing sarcoma tumors had relatively few single-nucleotide variants, indels, structural variants and copy-number alterations. Apart from whole chromosome arm copy-number changes, the most common somatic mutations were detected in STAG2 (17%), CDKN2A (12%), TP53 (7%), EZH2, BCOR, and ZMYM3 (2.7% each). Strikingly, STAG2 mutations and CDKN2A deletions were mutually exclusive, as confirmed in Ewing sarcoma cell lines. In an expanded cohort of 299 patients with clinical data, we discovered that STAG2 and TP53 mutations are often concurrent and are associated with poor outcome. Finally, we detected subclonal STAG2 mutations in diagnostic tumors and expansion of STAG2 immuno-negative cells in relapsed tumors as compared with matched diagnostic samples. PMID:25223734

  14. Intraoperative Electron-Beam Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ewing Sarcomas and Rhabdomyosarcomas: Long-Term Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Sole, Claudio V.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Polo, Alfredo; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Carmen; Desco, Manuel; Martinez-Monge, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess long-term outcomes and toxicity of intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in the management of pediatric patients with Ewing sarcomas (EWS) and rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS). Methods and Materials: Seventy-one sarcoma (EWS n=37, 52%; RMS n=34, 48%) patients underwent IOERT for primary (n=46, 65%) or locally recurrent sarcomas (n=25, 35%) from May 1983 to November 2012. Local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. For survival outcomes, potential associations were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: After a median follow-up of 72 months (range, 4-310 months), 10-year LC, disease-free survival, and OS was 74%, 57%, and 68%, respectively. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for other covariates, disease status (P=.04 and P=.05) and R1 margin status (P<.01 and P=.04) remained significantly associated with LC and OS. Nine patients (13%) reported severe chronic toxicity events (all grade 3). Conclusions: A multimodal IOERT-containing approach is a well-tolerated component of treatment for pediatric EWS and RMS patients, allowing reduction or substitution of external beam radiation exposure while maintaining high local control rates.

  15. Loss of Ewing sarcoma EWS allele promotes tumorigenesis by inducing chromosomal instability in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyewon; Galbraith, Richard; Turner, Thaddeus; Mehojah, Justin; Azuma, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors expresses aberrant EWSR1- (EWS) fusion genes that are derived from chromosomal translocation. Although these fusion genes are well characterized as transcription factors, their formation leaves a single EWS allele in the sarcoma cells, and the contribution that the loss of EWS makes towards disease pathogenesis is unknown. To address this question, we utilized zebrafish mutants for ewsa and tp53. The zebrafish tp53(M214K)w/m line and the ewsaw/m, zygotic ewsam/m, and Maternal-Zygotic (MZ) ewsam/m lines all displayed zero to low incidence of tumorigenesis. However, when the ewsa and tp53 mutant lines were crossed with each other, the incidence of tumorigenesis drastically increased. Furthermore, 27 hour post fertilization (hpf) MZ ewsam/m mutant embryos displayed a higher incidence of aberrant chromosome numbers and mitotic dysfunction compared to wildtype zebrafish embryos. Consistent with this finding, tumor samples obtained from ewsam/m;tp53w/m zebrafish displayed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the wildtype tp53 locus. These results suggest that wildtype Ewsa inhibits LOH induction, possibly by maintaining chromosomal stability. We propose that the loss of ewsa promotes tumorigenesis, and EWS deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of EWS-fusion-expressing sarcomas. PMID:27557633

  16. Dramatic Response to Cisplatin Window Therapy in a Boy With Advanced Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Trizzino, Antonino; Ziino, Ottavio; Parafioriti, Antonina; Podda, Marta; Tropia, Serena; Luksch, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common type of primary bone malignancy, and retains a high propensity to metastasize; the prognosis of patients with disseminated disease is very poor, with an event-free survival rate of <20%. Current multimodality treatment for ES consists of combined chemotherapy before and concurrent with surgery and local radiotherapy for the involved bone. Cisplatin is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of bone tumors in children, but is not currently used in ES. We describe a child with multifocal ES, treated with a phase II trial including a single-drug window therapy, which displayed a dramatic response to 2 courses of cisplatin and had a favorable outcome. PMID:23892353

  17. Sarcomas (other than Ewing's) of flat bones in children and adolescents. A clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; Pratt, C B; Parham, D M; Fleming, I D; Meyer, W H; Rao, B N

    1990-02-15

    The clinicopathologic features and response to therapy of 28 patients with non-Ewing's flat bone sarcoma treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, over a 25-year period were reviewed. Twenty-two patients had osteosarcoma, four malignant fibrous histiocytoma, one chondrosarcoma, and one fibrosarcoma. Ages at diagnosis ranged from 3 to 24 years (median, 15 years). Primary sites were craniofacial bones in ten patients, pelvis eight, scapula four, ribs two, metatarsal bones two, clavicle one, and vertebra one. All primary tumors were associated with soft tissue extension; none of the patients had metastatic disease at presentation. Six cases represented second malignancies that arose 5 to 16 years after irradiation for an unrelated tumor. Complete excision was possible in ten patients, eight of whom received postoperative chemotherapy. Five of these patients remain free of disease 1.8+ to 13+ years (median, 8.1 years) from diagnosis. Prolonged remissions after adjuvant chemotherapy were achieved in only two of 18 patients after incomplete surgical resection or biopsy. The median survival time in this group was 1 year (range, 0.2-7.7+ years). The remaining 16 patients had progressive local disease, but only two developed concurrent metastases. Thus, complete surgical resection appears to maximize disease-free survival in patients with non-Ewing's flat bone sarcoma. For the large percentage of patients in whom total resection is not possible, because of soft tissue extension and local invasion of bulky tumors, preoperative chemotherapy may increase the likelihood of complete excision and improve long-term survival.

  18. Long-term results in 144 localized Ewing's sarcoma patients treated with combined therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, G.; Toni, A.; Avella, M.; Manfrini, M.; Sudanese, A.; Ciaroni, D.; Boriani, S.; Emiliani, E.; Campanacci, M.

    1989-04-15

    The results of 144 previously untreated cases of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone are reported with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. This series was treated between 1972 and 1982 at Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli with a combined therapy. The local control of the disease consisted of amputation (ten cases), resection followed by radiation therapy (35-45 Gy) (48 cases) and radiation therapy alone (40-60 Gy) (86 cases). Adjuvant chemotherapy, rigorously standardized, was performed according two different protocols: the first (85 cases treated in the period 1972-1978) consisted of vincristine (VCR) Adriamycin (doxorubicin) (ADM), and cyclophosphamide (EDX); the second (59 cases treated in the period 1979-1982) of VCR, ADM, EDX and dactinomycin (DACT). At a follow-up of 5 to 16 years (median, 9), 59 patients (41%) are continuously disease-free (CDF), 81 (56%) developed metastatic disease and/or local recurrence, and four (3%) had a second malignancy. Three factors seem to be correlated to prognosis: the site of the initial lesion (only 23% of the pelvic lesions are represented in the CDF group versus 46% of the other locations); the chemotherapy protocol (32% of the cases in the first protocol are CDF versus 54% in the second); the type of local treatment (60% of the patients treated with amputation or resection plus radiotherapy versus 28% of those treated with radiation therapy alone are CDF). A local recurrence was observed in 24% of the patients (8% in the group locally treated with surgery or surgery plus radiation therapy versus 36% in the group treated with radiation therapy alone). These data suggest that even though adjuvant chemotherapy can improve the long-term results in localized Ewing's sarcoma patients, this disease still represents, in a high percentage of cases, a lethal process whose final prognosis widely depends on the local control of the lesion.

  19. DNA methylation profiling identifies PTRF/Cavin-1 as a novel tumor suppressor in Ewing sarcoma when co-expressed with caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Huertas-Martínez, Juan; Court, Franck; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Herrero-Martín, David; Almacellas-Rabaiget, Olga; Sáinz-Jaspeado, Miguel; Garcia-Monclús, Silvia; Lagares-Tena, Laura; Buj, Raquel; Hontecillas-Prieto, Lourdes; Sastre, Ana; Azorin, Daniel; Sanjuan, Xavier; López-Alemany, Roser; Moran, Sebastian; Roma, Josep; Gallego, Soledad; Mora, Jaume; García Del Muro, Xavier; Giangrande, Paloma H; Peinado, Miquel A; Alonso, Javier; de Alava, Enrique; Monk, Dave; Esteller, Manel; Tirado, Oscar M

    2017-02-01

    Epigenetic modifications have been shown to be important in developmental tumors as Ewing sarcoma. We profiled the DNA methylation status of 15 primary tumors, 7 cell lines, 10 healthy tissues and 4 human mesenchymal stem cells lines samples using the Infinium Human Methylation 450K. Differential methylation analysis between Ewing sarcoma and reference samples revealed 1166 hypermethylated and 864 hypomethylated CpG sites (Bonferroni p < 0.05, δ-β-value with absolute difference of >0.20) corresponding to 392 and 470 genes respectively. Gene Ontology analysis of genes differentially methylated in Ewing sarcoma samples showed a significant enrichment of developmental genes. Membrane and cell signal genes were also enriched, among those, 11 were related to caveola formation. We identified differential hypermethylation of CpGs located in the body and S-Shore of the PTRF gene in Ewing sarcoma that correlated with its repressed transcriptional state. Reintroduction of PTRF/Cavin-1 in Ewing sarcoma cells revealed a role of this protein as a tumor suppressor. Restoration of caveolae in the membrane of Ewing sarcoma cells, by exogenously reintroducing PTRF, disrupts the MDM2/p53 complex, which consequently results in the activation of p53 and the induction of apoptosis.

  20. Multimodality Treatment in Ewing's Sarcoma Family Tumors of the Maxilla and Maxillary Sinus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mamot, Christoph; Krasniqi, Fatime; Metternich, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) encompasses a group of highly aggressive, morphologically similar, malignant neoplasms sharing a common spontaneous genetic translocation that affect mostly children and young adults. These predominantly characteristic, small round-cell tumors include Ewing's sarcoma of the bone and soft tissue, as well as primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) involving the bone, soft tissue, and thoracopulmonary region (Askin's tumor). Extraosseous ESFTs are extremely rare, especially in the head and neck region, where literature to date consists of sporadic case reports and very small series. We hereby present a review of the literature published on ESFTs reported in the maxilla and maxillary sinus region from 1968 to 2016. PMID:27413360

  1. Establishing a panel of chemo-resistant mesothelioma models for investigating chemo-resistance and identifying new treatments for mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Amanda L.; Weir, Chris; Moon, Elizabeth; Harvie, Rozelle; Klebe, Sonja; Clarke, Stephen J.; Pavlakis, Nick; Howell, Viive M.

    2014-01-01

    Mesothelioma is inherently chemo-resistant with only 50% of patients responding to the standard of care treatments, and consequently it has a very grim prognosis. The aim of this study was to establish a panel of chemo-resistant mesothelioma models with clinically relevant levels of resistance as tools for investigating chemo-resistance and identifying new treatments for mesothelioma. Chemo-resistant cell lines were established in vitro and characterized in vivo using syngeneic Fischer rats. Tumors derived from all chemo-resistant cell lines were immunohistochemically classified as mesothelioma. Homozygous deletion of p16INK4A/p14ARF and increased expression of several ATP-binding cassette transporters were demonstrated, consistent with findings in human mesothelioma. Further, the acquisition of chemo-resistance in vitro resulted in changes to tumor morphology and overall survival. In conclusion, these models display many features corresponding with the human disease, and provide the first series of matched parental and chemo-resistant models for in vitro and in vivo mesothelioma studies. PMID:25141917

  2. In vitro radiation studies on Ewing's sarcoma cell lines and human bone marrow: application to the clinical use of total body irradiation (TBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Mitchell, J.B.; McPherson, S.; Miser, J.; Triche, T.; Glatstein, E.

    1984-07-01

    Patients with Ewing's sarcoma who present with a central axis or proximal extremity primary and/or with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis despite aggressive combination chemotherapy and local irradiation. In this high risk group of patients, total body irradiation (TBI) has been proposed as a systemic adjuvant. To aid in the design of a clinical TBI protocol, the authors have studied in the in vitro radiation response of two established cell lines of Ewing's sarcoma and human bone marrow CFUc. The Ewing's lines showed a larger D/sub 0/ and anti-n compared to the bone marrow CFU. No repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLDR) was found after 4.5 Gy in plateau phase Ewing's sarcoma cells. A theoretical split dose survival curve for both the Ewing's sarcoma lines and human bone marrow CFUc using this TBI schedule shows a significantly lower surviving fraction (10/sup -4/-10/sup -5/) for the bone marrow CFUc. Based on these in vitro results, two 4.0 Gy fractions separated by 24 hours is proposed as the TBI regimen. Because of the potentially irreversible damage to bone marrow, autologous bone marrow transplantation following the TBI is felt to be necessary. The details of this clinical protocol in high risk Ewing's sarcoma patients are outlined.

  3. EWS-FLI-1 expression triggers a Ewing's sarcoma initiation program in primary human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Riggi, Nicolò; Suvà, Mario-Luca; Suvà, Domizio; Cironi, Luisa; Provero, Paolo; Tercier, Stéphane; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Baumer, Karine; Kindler, Vincent; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2008-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) express the EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene generated by the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12). Expression of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein in a permissive cellular environment is believed to play a key role in ESFT pathogenesis. However, EWS-FLI-1 induces growth arrest or apoptosis in differentiated primary cells, and the identity of permissive primary human cells that can support its expression and function has until now remained elusive. Here we show that expression of EWS-FLI-1 in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) is not only stably maintained without inhibiting proliferation but also induces a gene expression profile bearing striking similarity to that of ESFT, including genes that are among the highest ESFT discriminators. Expression of EWS-FLI-1 in hMSCs may recapitulate the initial steps of Ewing's sarcoma development, allowing identification of genes that play an important role early in its pathogenesis. Among relevant candidate transcripts induced by EWS-FLI-1 in hMSCs, we found the polycomb group gene EZH2, which we show to play a critical role in Ewing's sarcoma growth. These observations are consistent with our recent findings using mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells and provide compelling evidence that hMSCs are candidate cells of origin of ESFT.

  4. Chimeric EWSR1-FLI1 regulates the Ewing sarcoma susceptibility gene EGR2 via a GGAA microsatellite

    PubMed Central

    Grünewald, Thomas G. P.; Bernard, Virginie; Gilardi-Hebenstreit, Pascale; Raynal, Virginie; Surdez, Didier; Aynaud, Marie-Ming; Mirabeau, Olivier; Cidre-Aranaz, Florencia; Tirode, Franck; Zaidi, Sakina; Perot, Gaëlle; Jonker, Anneliene H.; Lucchesi, Carlo; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Véron, Amélie S.; Reynaud, Stephanie; Lapouble, Eve; Boeva, Valentina; Frio, Thomas Rio; Alonso, Javier; Bhatia, Smita; Pierron, Gaëlle; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Cox, David G.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Charnay, Patrick; Delattre, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering the ways in which somatic mutations and germline susceptibility variants cooperate to promote cancer is challenging. Ewing sarcoma is characterized by fusions between EWSR1 and members of the ETS gene family, usually EWSR1-FLI1, leading to the generation of oncogenic transcription factors that bind DNA at GGAA motifs1–3. A recent genome-wide association study4 identified susceptibility variants near EGR2. Here we found that EGR2 knockdown inhibited proliferation, clonogenicity and spheroidal growth in vitro and induced regression of Ewing sarcoma xenografts. Targeted germline deep sequencing of the EGR2 locus in affected subjects and controls revealed 291 Ewing-associated SNPs. At rs79965208, the A risk allele connected adjacent GGAA repeats by converting an interspaced GGAT motif into a GGAA motif, thereby increasing the number of consecutive GGAA motifs and thus the EWSR1-FLI1–dependent enhancer activity of this sequence, with epigenetic characteristics of an active regulatory element. EWSR1-FLI1 preferentially bound to the A risk allele, which increased global and allele-specific EGR2 expression. Collectively, our findings establish cooperation between a dominant oncogene and a susceptibility variant that regulates a major driver of Ewing sarcomagenesis. PMID:26214589

  5. Chimeric EWSR1-FLI1 regulates the Ewing sarcoma susceptibility gene EGR2 via a GGAA microsatellite.

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Thomas G P; Bernard, Virginie; Gilardi-Hebenstreit, Pascale; Raynal, Virginie; Surdez, Didier; Aynaud, Marie-Ming; Mirabeau, Olivier; Cidre-Aranaz, Florencia; Tirode, Franck; Zaidi, Sakina; Perot, Gaëlle; Jonker, Anneliene H; Lucchesi, Carlo; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Véron, Amélie S; Reynaud, Stephanie; Lapouble, Eve; Boeva, Valentina; Rio Frio, Thomas; Alonso, Javier; Bhatia, Smita; Pierron, Gaëlle; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Cox, David G; Morton, Lindsay M; Machiela, Mitchell J; Chanock, Stephen J; Charnay, Patrick; Delattre, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    Deciphering the ways in which somatic mutations and germline susceptibility variants cooperate to promote cancer is challenging. Ewing sarcoma is characterized by fusions between EWSR1 and members of the ETS gene family, usually EWSR1-FLI1, leading to the generation of oncogenic transcription factors that bind DNA at GGAA motifs. A recent genome-wide association study identified susceptibility variants near EGR2. Here we found that EGR2 knockdown inhibited proliferation, clonogenicity and spheroidal growth in vitro and induced regression of Ewing sarcoma xenografts. Targeted germline deep sequencing of the EGR2 locus in affected subjects and controls identified 291 Ewing-associated SNPs. At rs79965208, the A risk allele connected adjacent GGAA repeats by converting an interspaced GGAT motif into a GGAA motif, thereby increasing the number of consecutive GGAA motifs and thus the EWSR1-FLI1-dependent enhancer activity of this sequence, with epigenetic characteristics of an active regulatory element. EWSR1-FLI1 preferentially bound to the A risk allele, which increased global and allele-specific EGR2 expression. Collectively, our findings establish cooperation between a dominant oncogene and a susceptibility variant that regulates a major driver of Ewing sarcomagenesis.

  6. The second European interdisciplinary Ewing sarcoma research summit – A joint effort to deconstructing the multiple layers of a complex disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite multimodal treatment, long term outcome for patients with Ewing sarcoma is still poor. The second “European interdisciplinary Ewing sarcoma research summit” assembled a large group of scientific experts in the field to discuss their latest unpublished findings on the way to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and strategies. Ewing sarcoma is characterized by a quiet genome with presence of an EWSR1-ETS gene rearrangement as the only and defining genetic aberration. RNA-sequencing of recently described Ewing-like sarcomas with variant translocations identified them as biologically distinct diseases. Various presentations adressed mechanisms of EWS-ETS fusion protein activities with a focus on EWS-FLI1. Data were presented shedding light on the molecular underpinnings of genetic permissiveness to this disease uncovering interaction of EWS-FLI1 with recently discovered susceptibility loci. Epigenetic context as a consequence of the interaction between the oncoprotein, cell type, developmental stage, and tissue microenvironment emerged as dominant theme in the discussion of the molecular pathogenesis and inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity of Ewing sarcoma, and the difficulty to generate animal models faithfully recapitulating the human disease. The problem of preclinical development of biologically targeted therapeutics was discussed and promising perspectives were offered from the study of novel in vitro models. Finally, it was concluded that in order to facilitate rapid pre-clinical and clinical development of novel therapies in Ewing sarcoma, the community needs a platform to maintain knowledge of unpublished results, systems and models used in drug testing and to continue the open dialogue initiated at the first two Ewing sarcoma summits. PMID:26802024

  7. The second European interdisciplinary Ewing sarcoma research summit--A joint effort to deconstructing the multiple layers of a complex disease.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Heinrich; Amatruda, James; Brunet, Erika; Burdach, Stefan; Cidre-Aranaz, Florencia; de Alava, Enrique; Dirksen, Uta; van der Ent, Wietske; Grohar, Patrick; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Helman, Lee; Houghton, Peter; Iljin, Kristiina; Korsching, Eberhard; Ladanyi, Marc; Lawlor, Elizabeth; Lessnick, Stephen; Ludwig, Joseph; Meltzer, Paul; Metzler, Markus; Mora, Jaume; Moriggl, Richard; Nakamura, Takuro; Papamarkou, Theodore; Radic Sarikas, Branka; Rédini, Francoise; Richter, Guenther H S; Rossig, Claudia; Schadler, Keri; Schäfer, Beat W; Scotlandi, Katia; Sheffield, Nathan C; Shelat, Anang; Snaar-Jagalska, Ewa; Sorensen, Poul; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Stewart, Elizabeth; Sweet-Cordero, Alejandro; Szuhai, Karoly; Tirado, Oscar M; Tirode, Franck; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Üren, Aykut; Zinovyev, Andrei; Delattre, Olivier

    2016-02-23

    Despite multimodal treatment, long term outcome for patients with Ewing sarcoma is still poor. The second "European interdisciplinary Ewing sarcoma research summit" assembled a large group of scientific experts in the field to discuss their latest unpublished findings on the way to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and strategies. Ewing sarcoma is characterized by a quiet genome with presence of an EWSR1-ETS gene rearrangement as the only and defining genetic aberration. RNA-sequencing of recently described Ewing-like sarcomas with variant translocations identified them as biologically distinct diseases. Various presentations adressed mechanisms of EWS-ETS fusion protein activities with a focus on EWS-FLI1. Data were presented shedding light on the molecular underpinnings of genetic permissiveness to this disease uncovering interaction of EWS-FLI1 with recently discovered susceptibility loci. Epigenetic context as a consequence of the interaction between the oncoprotein, cell type, developmental stage, and tissue microenvironment emerged as dominant theme in the discussion of the molecular pathogenesis and inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity of Ewing sarcoma, and the difficulty to generate animal models faithfully recapitulating the human disease. The problem of preclinical development of biologically targeted therapeutics was discussed and promising perspectives were offered from the study of novel in vitro models. Finally, it was concluded that in order to facilitate rapid pre-clinical and clinical development of novel therapies in Ewing sarcoma, the community needs a platform to maintain knowledge of unpublished results, systems and models used in drug testing and to continue the open dialogue initiated at the first two Ewing sarcoma summits.

  8. Chest Wall Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors: Long-Term Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Lagmay, Joanne P.; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Islam, Saleem; Marcus, Robert B.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To review the 40-year University of Florida experience treating Ewing sarcoma family of tumors of the chest wall. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients were treated from 1966 to 2006. Of the patients, 22 were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, and 17 patients were treated with surgery with or without RT. Of 9 patients with metastatic disease, 8 were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 16.6 years, and the most frequent primary site was the rib (n = 17). The median potential follow-up was 19.2 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and local control (LC) rates were 34%, 34%, and 72%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 30), the 5-year OS, CSS, and LC rates were 44%, 44%, and 79%, respectively. LC was not statistically significantly different between patients treated with RT alone (61%) vs. surgery + RT (75%). None of the 4 patients treated with surgery alone experienced local failure. No patient or treatment variable was significantly associated with local failure. Of the patients, 26% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Grade 3+ toxicity, including 2 pulmonary deaths. Modern intensive systemic therapy helped increase the 5-year CSS from 7% to 49% in patients treated after 1984 (p = 0.03). Conclusions: This is the largest single-institution series describing the treatment of chest wall Ewing tumors. Despite improvements in survival, obtaining local control is challenging and often accompanied by morbidity. Effort should be focused on identifying tumors amenable to combined-modality local therapy and to improving RT techniques.

  9. Characterization of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Ewing Sarcoma Patients. Pathogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Ana Teresa; Manara, Maria Cristina; Berghuis, Dagmar; Ordóñez, José Luis; Biscuola, Michele; Lopez-García, Maria Angeles; Osuna, Daniel; Lucarelli, Enrico; Alviano, Francesco; Lankester, Arjan; Scotlandi, Katia; de Álava, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Background Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) is a mesenchymal-derived tumor that generally arises in bone and soft tissue. Intensive research regarding the pathogenesis of EWS has been insufficient to pinpoint the early events of Ewing sarcomagenesis. However, the Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) is currently accepted as the most probable cell of origin. Materials and Methods In an initial study regarding a deep characterization of MSC obtained specifically from EWS patients (MSC-P), we compared them with MSC derived from healthy donors (MSC-HD) and EWS cell lines. We evaluated the presence of the EWS-FLI1 gene fusion and EWSR1 gene rearrangements in MSC-P. The presence of the EWS transcript was confirmed by q-RT-PCR. In order to determine early events possibly involved in malignant transformation, we used a multiparameter quantitative strategy that included both MSC immunophenotypic negative/positive markers, and EWS intrinsic phenotypical features. Markers CD105, CD90, CD34 and CD45 were confirmed in EWS samples. Results We determined that MSC-P lack the most prevalent gene fusion, EWSR1-FLI1 as well as EWSR1 gene rearrangements. Our study also revealed that MSC-P are more alike to MSC-HD than to EWS cells. Nonetheless, we also observed that EWS cells had a few overlapping features with MSC. As a relevant example, also MSC showed CD99 expression, hallmark of EWS diagnosis. However, we observed that, in contrast to EWS cells, MSC were not sensitive to the inhibition of CD99. Conclusions In conclusion, our results suggest that MSC from EWS patients behave like MSC-HD and are phenotypically different from EWS cells, thus raising important questions regarding MSC role in sarcomagenesis. PMID:24498265

  10. Caveolin-1 promotes Ewing sarcoma metastasis regulating MMP-9 expression through MAPK/ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lagares-Tena, Laura; García-Monclús, Silvia; López-Alemany, Roser; Almacellas-Rabaiget, Olga; Huertas-Martínez, Juan; Sáinz-Jaspeado, Miguel; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Rodríguez-Galindo, Carlos; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Herrero-Martín, David; Tirado, Oscar M.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a bone and soft tissue sarcoma affecting mostly children and young adults. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a well-known target of EWS/FLI1, the main driver of ES, with an oncogenic role in ES. We have previously described how CAV1 is able to induce metastasis in ES via matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). In the present study we showed how CAV1 silencing in ES reduced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Accordingly, chemical inhibition of MEK1/2 resulted in reduction in MMP-9 expression and activity that correlated with reduced migration and invasion. IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Protein 1 (IQGAP1) silencing reduced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, IQGAP1 silenced cells showed a marked decrease in their migratory and invasive capacity. We demonstrated that CAV1 and IQGAP1 localize in close proximity at the cellular edge, thus IQGAP1 could be the connecting node between CAV1 and MEK/ERK in ES metastatic phenotype. Analysis of the phosphorylation profile of CAV1-silenced cells showed a decrease of p-ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6). RPS6 can be phosphorylated by p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK) proteins. CAV1-silenced cells showed reduced levels of p-RSK1 and treatment with U0126 provoked the same effect. Despite not affecting ERK1/2 and RPS6 phosphorylation status neither MMP-9 expression nor activity, RSK1 silencing resulted in a reduced migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and reduced incidence of metastases in vivo in a novel orthotopic model. The present work provides new insights into CAV1-driven metastatic process in ES unveiling novel key nodes. PMID:27487136

  11. Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Spine in a Two-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Electricwala, Jaffer T.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) is a highly malignant bone tumour. It may involve any part of the skeleton but the most frequent parts are the ilium and diaphysis of femur and tibia (Alfeeli et al., 2005; Zhu et al., 2012). Primary ES of the spine is extremely rare (Yan et al., 2011). It accounts for only 3.5 to 14.9 percent of all primary bone sarcomas. The age of presentation ranges from 12 to 24 years (median 21 years) (Ferguson, 1999; Sharafuddin et al., 1992; Klimo Jr. et al., 2009). We report an unusual case of primary ES of the spine in a two-year-old boy, who presented to us with paraparesis and features of cauda equina syndrome. MRI scan showed a tumour mass arising from the pedicle of L4 vertebra invading the spinal canal. Tc-99 bone scan showed increased tracer uptake in L4 vertebra and normal tracer uptake elsewhere in the skeleton. After reaching the diagnosis of a space occupying lesion invading the lumber spinal canal, we performed a decompressive laminectomy and a biopsy was sent which confirmed the diagnosis of ES. Immunohistochemistry showed tumour cells staining positive for CD-99 (specific stain for ES). Gene testing showed an EWS-FLI 1 chimera. Surgery was followed by good improvement in motor signs. The child was then referred to a specialized oncotherapy centre for further treatment, radiation, and chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report primary ES of the spine at the age of two years. PMID:27895949

  12. Stable interference of EWS–FLI1 in an Ewing sarcoma cell line impairs IGF-1/IGF-1R signalling and reveals TOPK as a new target

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Martín, D; Osuna, D; Ordóñez, J L; Sevillano, V; Martins, A S; Mackintosh, C; Campos, M; Madoz-Gúrpide, J; Otero-Motta, A P; Caballero, G; Amaral, A T; Wai, D H; Braun, Y; Eisenacher, M; Schaefer, K-L; Poremba, C; de Alava, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma is a paradigm of solid tumour -bearing chromosomal translocations resulting in fusion proteins that act as deregulated transcription factors. Ewing sarcoma translocations fuse the EWS gene with an ETS transcription factor, mainly FLI1. Most of the EWS–FLI1 target genes still remain unknown and many have been identified in heterologous model systems. METHODS: We have developed a stable RNA interference model knocking down EWS–FLI1 in the Ewing sarcoma cell line TC71. Gene expression analyses were performed to study the effect of RNA interference on the genetic signature of EWS–FLI1 and to identify genes that could contribute to tumourigenesis. RESULTS: EWS–FLI1 inhibition induced apoptosis, reduced cell migratory and tumourigenic capacities, and caused reduction in tumour growth. IGF-1 was downregulated and the IGF-1/IGF-1R signalling pathway was impaired. PBK/TOPK (T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase) expression was decreased because of EWS–FLI1 inhibition. We showed that TOPK is a new target gene of EWS–FLI1. TOPK inhibition prompted a decrease in the proliferation rate and a dramatic change in the cell's ability to grow in coalescence. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of TOPK activity in Ewing sarcoma and suggests a significant role of this MAPKK-like protein kinase in the Ewing sarcoma biology. PMID:19491900

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum targeting in Ewing's sarcoma by the alkylphospholipid analog edelfosine

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ximena; Dakir, EL-Habib; Mollinedo, Faustino; Gajate, Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the second most common bone cancer in children and young people. Edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is the prototype of a family of synthetic antitumor compounds, collectively known as alkylphospholipid analogs (APLs). We have found that APLs ranked edelfosine>perifosine>erucylphosphocholine>miltefosine for their capacity to promote apoptosis in ES cells. Edelfosine accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggered an ER stress response that eventually led to caspase-dependent apoptosis in ES cells. This apoptotic response involved mitochondrial-mediated processes, with cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation and generation of reactive oxygen species. Edelfosine-induced apoptosis was also dependent on sustained c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Oral administration of edelfosine showed a potent in vivo antitumor activity in an ES xenograft animal model. Histochemical staining gave evidence for ER stress response and apoptosis in the ES tumors isolated from edelfosine-treated mice. Edelfosine showed a preferential action on ES tumor cells as compared to non-transformed osteoblasts, and appeared to be well suited for combination therapy regimens. These results demonstrate in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of edelfosine against ES cells that is mediated by caspase activation and ER stress, and provide the proof of concept for a putative edelfosine- and ER stress-mediated approach forES treatment. PMID:25999349

  14. The posterior HOXD locus: Its contribution to phenotype and malignancy of Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    von Heyking, Kristina; Schmidt, Oxana; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Neff, Frauke; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Burdach, Stefan; Richter, Günther H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Microarray analysis revealed genes of the posterior HOXD locus normally involved in bone formation to be over-expressed in primary Ewing sarcoma (ES). The expression of posterior HOXD genes was not influenced via ES pathognomonic EWS/ETS translocations. However, knock down of the dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 2 (DKK2) resulted in a significant suppression of HOXD10, HOXD11 and HOXD13 while over-expression of DKK2 and stimulation with factors of the WNT signaling pathway such as WNT3a, WNT5a or WNT11 increased their expression. RNA interference demonstrated that individual HOXD genes promoted chondrogenic differentiation potential, and enhanced expression of the bone-associated gene RUNX2. Furthermore, HOXD genes increased the level of the osteoblast- and osteoclast-specific genes, osteocalcin (BGLAP) and platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB), and may further regulate endochondral bone development via induction of parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH). Additionally, HOXD11 and HOXD13 promoted contact independent growth of ES, while in vitro invasiveness of ES lines was enhanced by all 3 HOXD genes investigated and seemed mediated via matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Consequently, knock down of HOXD11 or HOXD13 significantly suppressed lung metastasis in a xeno-transplant model in immune deficient mice, providing overall evidence that posterior HOXD genes promote clonogenicity and metastatic potential of ES. PMID:27363011

  15. SERUM VALUES OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN EWING'S SARCOMA

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, André Mathias; Zumárraga, Juan Pablo; dos Santos, Renan Pires Negrão; Haubert, Guilherme de Oliveira; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the relationship between the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the percentage of tumor necrosis (TN) in patients with Ewing´s Sarcoma (ES). Methods: This is a case series with retrospective evaluation of patients with diagnosis of ES divided into 2 groups: Group 1, patients whose serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were obtained in the staging phase before preoperative chemotherapy (CT), and Group 2, patients whose values were measured after completion of the preoperative CT. The percentage of tumor necrosis (TN) of surgical specimens extracted in surgery was also evaluated. Results: Eighty four medical records from 1995 to 2015 were included. Both AP as LDH decreased in the patients studied, the pre CT value being higher than the post CT value. The average decrease of LHD was 272.95 U/L and AP was 10.17 U/L. The average tumor necrosis was 65.12 %. There was no statistical correlation between serums levels and the tumor necrosis percentage. Conclusion: The serum levels values of AP and LDH are not predictors for chemotherapy-induced necrosis in patients with ES. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:28243173

  16. BMI-1 promotes Ewing sarcoma tumorigenicity independent of CDKN2A-repression

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Dorothea; Hsu, Jessie Hao-Ru; Hung, Long; Cooper, Aaron; Abdueva, Diana; van Doorninck, John; Peng, Grace; Shimada, Hiro; Triche, Timothy J.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.

    2008-01-01

    Deregulation of the polycomb group gene BMI-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. In this study, we have investigated if the Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumors (ESFT) express BMI-1 and whether it functions as an oncogene in this highly aggressive group of bone and soft tissue tumors. Our data show that BMI-1 is highly expressed by ESFT cells and that, although it does not significantly affect proliferation or survival, BMI-1 actively promotes anchorage independent growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, we find that BMI-1 promotes the tumorigenicity of both p16-wild type and p16-null cell lines demonstrating that the mechanism of BMI-1 oncogenic function in ESFT is, at least in part, independent of CDKN2A repression. Expression profiling studies of ESFT cells following BMI-1 knockdown reveal that BMI-1 regulates the expression of hundreds of downstream target genes including, in particular, genes involved in both differentiation and development as well as cell:cell and cell:matrix adhesion. Gain and loss of function assays confirm that BMI-1 represses expression of the adhesion-associated basement membrane protein nidogen 1. In addition, while BMI-1 promotes ESFT adhesion, nidogen 1 inhibits cellular adhesion in vitro. Together these data support a pivotal role for BMI-1 ESFT pathogenesis and suggest that its oncogenic function in these tumors is in part mediated through modulation of adhesion pathways. PMID:18701473

  17. Ewing sarcoma gene EWS is essential for meiosis and B lymphocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjie; Watford, Wendy; Li, Cuiling; Parmelee, Alissa; Bryant, Mark A.; Deng, Chuxia; O’Shea, John; Lee, Sean Bong

    2007-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma gene EWS encodes a putative RNA-binding protein with proposed roles in transcription and splicing, but its physiological role in vivo remains undefined. Here, we have generated Ews-deficient mice and demonstrated that EWS is required for the completion of B cell development and meiosis. Analysis of Ews–/– lymphocytes revealed a cell-autonomous defect in precursor B lymphocyte (pre–B lymphocyte) development. During meiosis, Ews-null spermatocytes were deficient in XY bivalent formation and showed reduced meiotic recombination, resulting in massive apoptosis and complete arrest in gamete maturation. Inactivation of Ews in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in premature cellular senescence, and the mutant animals showed hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Finally, we showed that EWS interacts with lamin A/C and that loss of EWS results in a reduced lamin A/C expression. Our findings reveal essential functions for EWS in pre–B cell development and meiosis, with proposed roles in DNA pairing and recombination/repair mechanisms. Furthermore, we demonstrate a novel role of EWS in cellular senescence, possibly through its interaction and modulation of lamin A/C. PMID:17415412

  18. Exenteration and Custom Implant Brachytherapy as a Treatment for Recurrent Primary Extraskeletal Orbital Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Klufas, Michael A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Bohle, George C.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Abramson, David H.

    2016-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy initially presented to an outside hospital with a right orbital mass with biopsy positive for translocation involving EWS RNA-binding protein 1 gene and imaging consistent with primary extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (ES). There was no evidence of metastatic disease. Patient underwent gross tumor resection and adjuvant chemotherapy (VAdriaC/IE) followed by postoperative 45-Gy proton beam radiation. After 19 months, a solitary infield local recurrence occurred, which was unsuccessfully surgically resected. Thereafter, treatment commenced with irinotecan and temozolomide, and the patient presented to the center of the authors. MRI showed locally recurrent disease without evidence of metastatic disease. Right orbital exenteration was performed, and an orbital mold was fashioned to deliver brachytherapy. There were no complications. The patient had no evidence of recurrent disease at 37-month follow up. This is the first report of orbital implant brachytherapy for recurrent primary ES of the orbit, and an additional report of primary extraskeletal ES of the orbit, which is a rare primary orbital tumor. PMID:24814278

  19. Targeting ROCK2 rather than ROCK1 inhibits Ewing sarcoma malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Pinca, Rosa Simona; Manara, Maria Cristina; Chiadini, Valentina; Picci, Piero; Zucchini, Cinzia; Scotlandi, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the molecular processes characterizing Ewing sarcoma (EWS) cell migration is crucial to highlight novel therapies for patients with disseminated disease. In this study we analyzed the role of ROCK kinases in the regulation of cell migration, growth and differentiation of EWS cells. Overexpression of ROCK promotes invasion and metastasis in many solid tumors. However, the effect of ROCK in EWS has not been extensively investigated. Expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 was analyzed by western blotting in a representative panel of human EWS cell lines, in comparison with the parameters of in vitro malignancy. We investigated the effects of a ROCK2 specific inhibitor toward those of a pan-ROCK inhibitor on the growth, migration and differentiation of two EWS cell lines. ROCK2 but not ROCK1 expression was found to be associated with in vitro cell migration and anchorage-independent growth capabilities. Exposure of EWS cells to ROCK inhibitors significantly reduced migration and growth, while favoring morphology changes and neural differentiation. These effects were more striking when cells were specifically deprived of ROCK2 activity. Our findings lead to consider ROCK2, rather than ROCK1, as a possible molecular target for the treatment of EWS. PMID:28112365

  20. The PARP inhibitor olaparib enhances the sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma to trabectedin

    PubMed Central

    Carcaboso, Angel M.; Herrero-Martín, David; García-Macías, María del Carmen; Sevillano, Vicky; Alonso, Diego; Pascual-Pasto, Guillem; San-Segundo, Laura; Vila-Ubach, Monica; Rodrigues, Telmo; Fraile, Susana; Teodosio, Cristina; Mayo-Iscar, Agustín; Aracil, Miguel; Galmarini, Carlos María; Tirado, Oscar M.; Mora, Jaume; de Álava, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Recent preclinical evidence has suggested that Ewing Sarcoma (ES) bearing EWSR1-ETS fusions could be particularly sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPinh) in combination with DNA damage repair (DDR) agents. Trabectedin is an antitumoral agent that modulates EWSR1-FLI1 transcriptional functions, causing DNA damage. Interestingly, PARP1 is also a transcriptional regulator of EWSR1-FLI1, and PARPinh disrupts the DDR machinery. Thus, given the impact and apparent specificity of both agents with regard to the DNA damage/DDR system and EWSR1-FLI1 activity in ES, we decided to explore the activity of combining PARPinh and Trabectedin in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The combination of Olaparib and Trabectedin was found to be highly synergistic, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, and the accumulation of G2/M. The drug combination also enhanced γH2AX intranuclear accumulation as a result of DNA damage induction, DNA fragmentation and global DDR deregulation, while EWSR1-FLI1 target expression remained unaffected. The effect of the drug combination was corroborated in a mouse xenograft model of ES and, more importantly, in two ES patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models in which the tumors showed complete regression. In conclusion, the combination of the two agents leads to a biologically significant deregulation of the DDR machinery that elicits relevant antitumor activity in preclinical models and might represent a promising therapeutic tool that should be further explored for translation to the clinical setting. PMID:26056084

  1. Management of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors: Current scenario and unmet need

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Bivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are heterogeneous, aggressive group of disease with peak incidence in adolescent and young adults. The outcome has been improved dramatically from 10% with surgery and radiotherapy alone to 65%-70% now, in localized disease, with the introduction of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy regimen evolved from single agent to multiagent with effort of many cooperative clinical trials over decades. The usual treatment protocol include introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy in neoadjuvant setting to eradicate systemic disease with timely incorporation of surgery and/or radiotherapy as local treatment modality and further adjuvant chemotherapy to prevent recurrence. Risk adapted chemotherapy in neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting along with radiotherapy has been used in many international collaborative trials and has resulted in improved outcome, more so in patients with localized disease. The role of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue is still debatable. The outcome of patients with metastatic disease is dismal with long term outcome ranges from 20%-40% depending on the sites of metastasis and intensity of treatment. There is a huge unmet need to improve outcome further, more so in metastatic setting. Novel therapy targeting the molecular pathways and pathogenesis of ESFT is very much required. Here we have discussed the current standard of management in patients with ESFT, investigational targeted or novel therapies along with future promises. PMID:27672565

  2. Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood cells: new insights into Ewing sarcoma biology and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Przybyl, Joanna; Kozak, Katarzyna; Kosela, Hanna; Falkowski, Slawomir; Switaj, Tomasz; Lugowska, Iwona; Szumera-Cieckiewicz, Anna; Ptaszynski, Konrad; Grygalewicz, Beata; Chechlinska, Magdalena; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Siedlecki, Janusz A; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a group of highly aggressive small round cell tumors of bone or soft tissue with high metastatic potential and low cure rate. ES tumors are associated with a rapid osteolysis and necrosis. The currently accepted clinical prognostic parameters do not accurately predict survival of high-risk patients. Moreover, neither the subtype of EWS-FLI1/ERG in the tumor, nor the detection of fusion transcripts in the peripheral blood (PB) samples, has prognostic value in ES patients. We evaluated the prevalence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in 34 adult ES patients. Since CTCs were confirmed in only small subset of patients, we further explored the expression profiles of PB leukocytes using a panel of genes associated with immune system status and increased tumor invasiveness. Moreover, we analyzed the alterations of the routine blood tests in the examined cohort of patients and correlated our findings with the clinical outcome. A uniform decrease in ZAP70 expression in PB cells among all ES patients, as compared to healthy individuals, was observed. Monocytosis and the abnormal expression of CDH2 and CDT2 genes in the PB cells significantly correlated with poor prognosis in ES patients. Our study supports the previously proposed hypothesis of systemic nature of ES. Based on the PB cell expression profiles, we propose a mechanism by which immune system may be involved in intensification of osteoclastogenesis and disease progression in ES patients. Moreover, we demonstrate the prognostic value of molecular PB testing at the time of routine histopathological diagnosis.

  3. Trk inhibition reduces cell proliferation and potentiates the effects of chemotherapeutic agents in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Tiago Elias; dos Santos, Rafael Pereira; da Rocha, Amanda; dos Santos, Michel Pinheiro; da Costa Lopez, Patrícia Luciana; Filho, Marco Aurélio Silva; Souza, Bárbara Kunzler; da Rosa Rivero, Luís Fernando; Becker, Ricardo Gehrke; Gregianin, Lauro José; Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi; Brunetto, André Tesainer; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a highly aggressive pediatric cancer that may arise from neuronal precursors. Neurotrophins stimulate neuronal devlopment and plasticity. Here, we found that neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as their receptors (TrkA and TrkB, respectively) are expressed in ES tumors. Treatment with TrkA (GW-441756) or TrkB (Ana-12) selective inhibitors decreased ES cell proliferation, and the effect was increased when the two inhibitors were combined. ES cells treated with a pan-Trk inhibitor, K252a, showed changes in morphology, reduced levels of β-III tubulin, and decreased mRNA expression of NGF, BDNF, TrkA and TrkB. Furthermore, combining K252a with subeffective doses of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs resulted in a decrease in ES cell proliferation and colony formation, even in chemoresistant cells. These results indicate that Trk inhibition may be an emerging approach for the treatment of ES. PMID:27145455

  4. The irony of highly-effective bacterial therapy of a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of Ewing's sarcoma, which was blocked by Ewing himself 80 years ago.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Kawaguchi, Kei; Igarashi, Kentaro; Singh, Arun S; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Miyake, Kentaro; Nelson, Scott D; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; DeLong, Jonathan C; Lwin, Thinzar M; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-15

    William B. Coley developed bacterial therapy of cancer more than 100 years ago and had clinical success. James Ewing, a very famous cancer pathologist for whom the Ewing sarcoma is named, was Coley's boss at Memorial Hospital in New York and terminated Coley's bacterial therapy of cancer. A tumor from a patient with soft-tissue Ewing's sarcoma, who failed doxorubicin (DOX) therapy, was previously implanted in nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. In the present study, the Ewing's sarcoma PDOX was treated with tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R expressing green fluorescent (GFP), alone and in combination with DOX. S. typhimurium A1-R-GFP was detected in the tumors after intratumor (i.t.) or intravenous (i.v.) injection. The combination of S. typhimurium A1-R and DOX significantly reduced tumor weight (37.8 ± 15.6 mg) compared to the untreated control (73.8 ± 10.1 mg, P < 0.01). S. typhimurium A1-R monotherapy treated tumors tended to be smaller (50.9 ± 17.8 mg, P = 0.051). DOX monotherapy did not show efficacy (66.3 ± 26.4 mg, P = 0.82), as was the case with the patient. The PDOX model faithfully replicated the DOX resistance the Ewing's sarcoma had in the patient. S. typhimurium A1-R converted the Ewing's sarcoma from DOX resistant to sensitive. One can only wonder how bacterial therapy and immunotherapy of cancer would have developed over the past 80 years if Ewing did not stop Coley.

  5. Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin in Ewing Sarcoma Cells Antagonizes EWS/ETS Function and Promotes Phenotypic Transition to More Metastatic Cell States.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Elisabeth A; Menon, Rajasree; Bailey, Kelly M; Thomas, Dafydd G; Van Noord, Raelene A; Tran, Jenny; Wang, Hongwei; Qu, Ping Ping; Hoering, Antje; Fearon, Eric R; Chugh, Rashmi; Lawlor, Elizabeth R

    2016-09-01

    Ewing sarcomas are characterized by the presence of EWS/ETS fusion genes in the absence of other recurrent genetic alterations and mechanisms of tumor heterogeneity that contribute to disease progression remain unclear. Mutations in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are rare in Ewing sarcoma but the Wnt pathway modulator LGR5 is often highly expressed, suggesting a potential role for the axis in tumor pathogenesis. We evaluated β-catenin and LGR5 expression in Ewing sarcoma cell lines and tumors and noted marked intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Tumors with evidence of active Wnt/β-catenin signaling were associated with increased incidence of tumor relapse and worse overall survival. Paradoxically, RNA sequencing revealed a marked antagonism of EWS/ETS transcriptional activity in Wnt/β-catenin-activated tumor cells. Consistent with this, Wnt/β-catenin-activated cells displayed a phenotype that was reminiscent of Ewing sarcoma cells with partial EWS/ETS loss of function. Specifically, activation of Wnt/β-catenin induced alterations to the actin cytoskeleton, acquisition of a migratory phenotype, and upregulation of EWS/ETS-repressed genes. Notably, activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling led to marked induction of tenascin C (TNC), an established promoter of cancer metastasis, and an EWS/ETS-repressed target gene. Loss of TNC function in Ewing sarcoma cells profoundly inhibited their migratory and metastatic potential. Our studies reveal that heterogeneous activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in subpopulations of tumor cells contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity and disease progression in Ewing sarcoma. Significantly, this is mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of EWS/ETS fusion protein function that results in derepression of metastasis-associated gene programs. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5040-53. ©2016 AACR.

  6. The role of miR-17-92 in the miRegulatory landscape of Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Schwentner, Raphaela; Herrero-Martin, David; Kauer, Maximilian O; Mutz, Cornelia N; Katschnig, Anna M; Sienski, Grzegorz; Alonso, Javier; Aryee, Dave Nt; Kovar, Heinrich

    2016-12-22

    MicroRNAs serve to fine-tune gene expression and play an important regulatory role in tissue specific gene networks. The identification and validation of miRNA target genes in a tissue still poses a significant problem since the presence of a seed sequence in the 3'UTR of an mRNA and its expression modulation upon ectopic expression of the miRNA do not reliably predict regulation under physiological conditions. The chimeric oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 is the driving pathogenic force in Ewing sarcoma. MiR-17-92, one of the most potent oncogenic miRNAs, was recently reported to be among the top EWS-FLI1 activated miRNAs. Using a combination of AGO2 pull-down experiments by PAR-CLIP (Photoactivatable-Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Crosslinking and Immunoprecipitation) and of RNAseq upon miRNA depletion by ectopic sponge expression, we aimed to identify the targetome of miR-17-92 in Ewing sarcoma. Intersecting both datasets we found an enrichment of PAR-CLIP hits for members of the miR-17-92 cluster in the 3'UTRs of genes up-regulated in response to mir-17-92 specific sponge expression. Strikingly, approximately a quarter of these genes annotate to the TGFB/BMP pathway, the majority mapping downstream of SMAD signaling. Testing for SMAD phosphorylation, we identify quiet but activatable TGFB signaling and cell autonomous activity of the BMP pathway resulting in the activation of the stemness regulatory transcriptional repressors ID1 and ID3. Taken together, our findings shed light on the complex miRegulatory landscape of Ewing Sarcoma pointing miR-17-92 as a key node connected to TGFB/BMP pathway.

  7. Quantification of the Heterogeneity of Prognostic Cellular Biomarkers in Ewing Sarcoma Using Automated Image and Random Survival Forest Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyue; Branford White, Harriet; Schäfer, Karl L.; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Machado, Isidro; Picci, Piero; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; Athanasou, Nicholas A.; Noble, J. Alison; Hassan, A. Bassim

    2014-01-01

    Driven by genomic somatic variation, tumour tissues are typically heterogeneous, yet unbiased quantitative methods are rarely used to analyse heterogeneity at the protein level. Motivated by this problem, we developed automated image segmentation of images of multiple biomarkers in Ewing sarcoma to generate distributions of biomarkers between and within tumour cells. We further integrate high dimensional data with patient clinical outcomes utilising random survival forest (RSF) machine learning. Using material from cohorts of genetically diagnosed Ewing sarcoma with EWSR1 chromosomal translocations, confocal images of tissue microarrays were segmented with level sets and watershed algorithms. Each cell nucleus and cytoplasm were identified in relation to DAPI and CD99, respectively, and protein biomarkers (e.g. Ki67, pS6, Foxo3a, EGR1, MAPK) localised relative to nuclear and cytoplasmic regions of each cell in order to generate image feature distributions. The image distribution features were analysed with RSF in relation to known overall patient survival from three separate cohorts (185 informative cases). Variation in pre-analytical processing resulted in elimination of a high number of non-informative images that had poor DAPI localisation or biomarker preservation (67 cases, 36%). The distribution of image features for biomarkers in the remaining high quality material (118 cases, 104 features per case) were analysed by RSF with feature selection, and performance assessed using internal cross-validation, rather than a separate validation cohort. A prognostic classifier for Ewing sarcoma with low cross-validation error rates (0.36) was comprised of multiple features, including the Ki67 proliferative marker and a sub-population of cells with low cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio of CD99. Through elimination of bias, the evaluation of high-dimensionality biomarker distribution within cell populations of a tumour using random forest analysis in quality controlled tumour

  8. [A case report of Ewing's sarcoma with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Chida, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Kenji; Yamao, Yoko; Shiotuka, Kaori; Ritsuno, Hideaki; Awabuchi, Satoshi; Akoshima, Hiromichi; Sugimura, Mikako; Noguchi, Kenji; Tanabe, Nobukazu; Iwabuchi, Masahiro; Mano, Yutaka; Tadokoro, Keiichi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2009-10-01

    In this report, we present a rare case of Ewing's sarcoma with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) arising from the abdominal cavity in a 20-year-old woman. The patient complained of upper abdominal pain. Radiological imaging showed a 15-cm mass penetrating to the proxymal jejunum in the upper abdominal cavity and peritoneal disseminations. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor was ES/pPNET. Although the patient underwent radiation therapy, she died of the disease two months after diagnosis. ES/pPNET in the abdominal cavity is extremely rare and our case showed aggressive behavior and an unfortunate outcome.

  9. Flow perfusion effects on three-dimensional culture and drug sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Marco; Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Menegaz, Brian A.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional tumor models accurately describe different aspects of the tumor microenvironment and are readily available for mechanistic studies of tumor biology and for drug screening. Nevertheless, these systems often overlook biomechanical stimulation, another fundamental driver of tumor progression. To address this issue, we cultured Ewing sarcoma (ES) cells on electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) 3D scaffolds within a flow perfusion bioreactor. Flow-derived shear stress provided a physiologically relevant mechanical stimulation that significantly promoted insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) production and elicited a superadditive release in the presence of exogenous IGF1. This finding is particularly relevant, given the central role of the IGF1/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway in ES tumorigenesis and as a promising clinical target. Additionally, flow perfusion enhanced in a rate-dependent manner the sensitivity of ES cells to IGF-1R inhibitor dalotuzumab (MK-0646) and showed shear stress-dependent resistance to the IGF-1R blockade. This study demonstrates shear stress-dependent ES cell sensitivity to dalotuzumab, highlighting the importance of biomechanical stimulation on ES-acquired drug resistance to IGF-1R inhibition. Furthermore, flow perfusion increased nutrient supply throughout the scaffold, enriching ES culture over static conditions. Our use of a tissue-engineered model, rather than human tumors or xenografts, enabled precise control of the forces experienced by ES cells, and therefore provided at least one explanation for the remarkable antineoplastic effects observed by some ES tumor patients from IGF-1R targeted therapies, in contrast to the lackluster effect observed in cells grown in conventional monolayer culture. PMID:26240353

  10. Radiation therapy for Ewing's sarcoma: Results from Memorial Sloan-Kettering in the modern era

    SciTech Connect

    La, Trang H.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Healey, John H.; Laquaglia, Michael P.; Boland, Patrick J.; Wolden, Suzanne L. . E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) treated with modern radiotherapy techniques with MRI along with optimal chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of all 60 patients with ESFT who received radiation to the primary site between 1990 and 2004 were reviewed. All patients received chemotherapy, including vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and etoposide. Radiation was used as the sole modality for local control in 31 patients and was given either before (n = 3) or after surgical resection (n = 26) in the remainder. All patients had MRI and CT scan-based treatment planning, and 43% received intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Radiation doses ranged from 30 Gy to 60 Gy (median, 51 Gy), and 35% received hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Results: Median age was 16 years (range, 2-40 years). Because of selection bias for radiotherapy, the majority of primary tumors were centrally located (72%): spine (n = 18), pelvis (n = 15), extremities (n 12), chest wall (n = 5), head and neck (n = 5), and other (n = 5). Thirty-eight percent of patients presented with metastatic disease, and 52% of primary tumors were {>=}8 cm. Actuarial 3-year local control was 77%. The presence of metastases at diagnosis was an adverse prognostic factor for local control (84% vs. 61%, p = 0.036). No other predictive factors for local failure were identified. In patients without metastatic disease, 3-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 70% and 86%, respectively, whereas in patients with metastases they were both 21%. Follow-up of surviving patients was 6-178 months (median, 41 months). Conclusion: In this unfavorable cohort of ESFT patients, radiation therapy was an effective modality for local control, especially for patients without metastases. The presence of metastases at diagnosis is a predictive factor not only for death but also for local failure.

  11. Meningeal Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral PNET: Clinicopathological, Immunohistochemical and FISH study of four cases.

    PubMed

    柯昌庶, Changshu Ke; 段秋红, Qiuhong Duan; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Feng; Yan, Meng; Xu, San-Peng; Zhou, Sheng; Wan, Feng; Shu, Kai; Lei, Ting; Xia, Li-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Meningeal Ewing Sarcoma (ES)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is a rare diagnostically challenging small round cell tumor in the CNS. This study investigates the clinical pathological features of four cases of this tumor from archives of 6 years in our hospital. Patients were within the median age of 21.5 years and male to female ratio was 1:1. The tumors distributed at the supra-tentorial location, posterior fossa and lumbar vertebral canal, usually presenting as the dura-sited nodule or having close connection with the meninges within the cranium or vertebral canal. Histopathologically, small round undifferentiated tumor cells with hypercellularities, scant cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli were observed, although some components such as atypical larger vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli of tumor cells, necrotic foci and mesenchymal collagen proliferation forming the lobular structure, were also appreciated. Immunohistochemally, tumor cells displayed membranous positivity of CD99 (4/4), nuclear positivity of FLI-1 (4/4) and NKX2.2 (4/4), negativity of EMA, GFAP and synaptophysin expression. The histochemical PAS staining showed weak positivity in one case. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test using EWSR1 (22q12) dual color break apart rearrangement probe showed positive results in two cases. Results suggest that using a panel of immunohistochemical markers, including NKX2.2, CD99, FLI-1, EMA, GFAP and synaptophysin, combined with the supplementary EWSR1 FISH test, helps to define the diagnosis of meningeal ES/pPNET of CNS.

  12. Cadherin-11 regulates the metastasis of Ewing sarcoma cells to bone.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Mihoko; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Endo, Makoto; Okada, Seiji; Iura, Kunio; Kamura, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Toshifumi; Iida, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Yuko; Nabeshima, Akira; Yokoyama, Nobuhiko; Fukushima, Suguru; Oda, Yoshinao; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-08-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a small round-cell tumor of the bones and soft tissues. ES frequently causes distant metastases, particularly in the lung and bone, which worsens patient prognosis. Cadherin-11 (Cad-11) is an adhesion molecule that is highly expressed in osteoblasts. Its expression is associated with bone metastases in prostate and breast cancer patients, and is known to occur in ES. Here we investigated the effects of Cad-11 on bone metastases of ES. Human ES cell lines RD-ES, SK-ES-1, SK-N-MC, and TC-71 cells were transduced with lentivirus containing Cad-11 shRNA or control shRNA (ES/Cad-11 and ES/Ctr). RD-ES and TC-71 were infected with a lentivirus luciferase vector. Adhesion assays were performed using these cells and recombinant Cad-11-Fc chimera or mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Cell motility was investigated via wound-healing assay. Intracardiac injection of RD-ES/Cad-11 and RD-ES/Ctr was used to create a mouse model of experimental bone metastasis. The association between Cad-11 expression and bone metastases and clinical prognosis in ES patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. We found knockdown of Cad-11 in ES cells resulted in reduced attachment ability and cell motility. In a mouse model of metastasis, RD-ES/Cad-11 cells caused fewer metastases than RD-ES/Ctr cells. The expression of Cad-11 in ES patients was significantly related to bone metastases (P < 0.05, logistic regression) and poorer overall survival (P < 0.05, log-rank test). These findings may explain that Cad-11 in ES cells may be essential for cell adhesion and motility, and is a promising molecular target for patients with ES.

  13. Whole Lung Irradiation for Adults With Pulmonary Metastases From Ewing Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Dana L.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Gerber, Naamit K.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and patterns of failure in adult patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) treated with whole lung irradiation (WLI) for pulmonary metastases. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of all ES patients treated at age 18 or older with 12-15 Gy WLI for pulmonary metastases at a single institution between 1990 and 2014. Twenty-six patients met the study criteria. Results: The median age at WLI was 23 years (range, 18-40). The median follow-up time of the surviving patients was 3.8 years (range, 1.0-9.6). The 3-year cumulative incidence of pulmonary relapse (PR) was 55%, with a 3-year cumulative incidence of PR as the site of first relapse of 42%. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 38 and 45%, respectively. Patients with exclusively pulmonary metastases had better outcomes than did those with extrapulmonary metastases: the 3-year PR was 45% in those with exclusively lung metastases versus 76% in those with extrapulmonary metastases (P=.01); the 3-year EFS was 49% versus 14% (P=.003); and the 3-year OS was 61% versus 13% (P=.009). Smoking status was a significant prognostic factor for EFS: the 3-year EFS was 61% in nonsmokers versus 11% in smokers (P=.04). Two patients experienced herpes zoster in the radiation field 6 and 12 weeks after radiation. No patients experienced pneumonitis or cardiac toxicity, and no significant acute or late sequelae were observed among the survivors. Conclusion: WLI in adult patients with ES and lung metastases is well tolerated and is associated with freedom from PR of 45% at 3 years. Given its acceptable toxicity and potential therapeutic effect, WLI for pulmonary metastases in ES should be considered for adults, as it is in pediatric patients. All patients should be advised to quit smoking before receiving WLI.

  14. IGF1R Signaling in Ewing Sarcoma Is Shaped by Clathrin-/Caveolin-Dependent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Sofia; Ordóñez, José Luis; Amaral, Ana Teresa; Prins, Frans; Floris, Giuseppe; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; de Alava, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Receptor endocytosis is critical for cell signaling. IGF1R mediates an autocrine loop that is de-regulated in Ewing Sarcoma (ES) cells. Here we study the impact of IGF1R internalization, mediated by clathrin and caveolin-1 (CAV1), in ES signaling. We used clathrin and CAV1-siRNA to interfere in clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis. Chlorpromazine (CPMZ) and methyl-beta-cyclo-dextrin (MCD) were also used in order to inhibit clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis, respectively. We analyzed IGF1R internalization and co-localization with clathrin and CAV1 upon ligand binding, as well as the status of the IGF1R pathway, cellular proliferation, and the apoptosis of interfered and inhibited ES cells. We performed a high-throughput tyrosine kinase phosphorylation assay to analyze the effects of combining the IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEW541 (AEW) with CPMZ or MCD on the intracellular phospho-proteome. We observed that IGF1R is internalized upon ligand binding in ES cells and that this process is dependent on clathrin or CAV1. The blockage of receptor internalization inhibited AKT and MAPK phosphorylation, reducing the proliferative rate of ES cells and increasing the levels of apoptosis. Combination of AEW with CPMZ or MCD largely enhanced these effects. CAV1 and clathrin endocytosis controls IGF1R internalization and signaling and has a profound impact on ES IGF1R-promoted survival signaling. We propose the combination of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors with endocytosis inhibitors as a new therapeutic approach to achieve a stronger degree of receptor inhibition in this, or other neoplasms dependent on IGF1R signaling. PMID:21611203

  15. Let-7a is a direct EWS-FLI-1 target implicated in Ewing's sarcoma development.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Claudio; Riggi, Nicolo; Suvà, Mario-Luca; Janiszewska, Michalina; Horlbeck, Janine; Baumer, Karine; Provero, Paolo; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are the second most common bone malignancy in children and young adults, characterized by unique chromosomal translocations that in 85% of cases lead to expression of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein. EWS-FLI-1 functions as an aberrant transcription factor that can both induce and suppress members of its target gene repertoire. We have recently demonstrated that EWS-FLI-1 can alter microRNA (miRNA) expression and that miRNA145 is a direct EWS-FLI-1 target whose suppression is implicated in ESFT development. Here, we use miRNA arrays to compare the global miRNA expression profile of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and ESFT cell lines, and show that ESFT display a distinct miRNA signature that includes induction of the oncogenic miRNA 17-92 cluster and repression of the tumor suppressor let-7 family. We demonstrate that direct repression of let-7a by EWS-FLI-1 participates in the tumorigenic potential of ESFT cells in vivo. The mechanism whereby let-7a expression regulates ESFT growth is shown to be mediated by its target gene HMGA2, as let-7a overexpression and HMGA2 repression both block ESFT cell tumorigenicity. Consistent with these observations, systemic delivery of synthetic let-7a into ESFT-bearing mice restored its expression in tumor cells, decreased HMGA2 expression levels and resulted in ESFT growth inhibition in vivo. Our observations provide evidence that deregulation of let-7a target gene expression participates in ESFT development and identify let-7a as promising new therapeutic target for one of the most aggressive pediatric malignancies.

  16. Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney: clinicopathologic analysis of 34 cases.

    PubMed

    Karpate, Arti; Menon, Santosh; Basak, Ranjan; Yuvaraja, Thyavihalli B; Tongaonkar, Hemant B; Desai, Sangeeta B

    2012-08-01

    The present study describes the clinicopathologic analysis of 34 cases of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor occurring in the kidney. The patients were 21 males and 13 females with an age range of 6 to 44 years. Clinically, patients presented with multiple symptoms including hematuria, pain, and/or lump in the abdomen. Nephrectomy was performed in most of the cases. Grossly, whole of the renal parenchyma was involved by a variegated tumor. Histologically, the tumor was composed of monomorphic, small, and round cells arranged in a variety of patterns. Rosettes, geographical areas of necrosis, and arborizing vascular pattern were the prominent histologic features. The nucleus was monomorphic and round. Anisonucleosis was also noted in some cases. The nucleus was mostly hyperchromatic. A mixture of hyperchromatic and powdery chromatin was noted in few cases. Immunohistochemically, MIC2 (CD99) was positive in 32 of 34 cases followed by neuron-specific enolase (9/12 cases), vimentin (8/14 cases), synaptophysin (1/8 cases), and S-100 protein (1/4 cases). Molecular analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction that was carried out in 26 cases revealed presence of EWS-FLI-1 type 1 translocation in 12 cases, EWS-FLI-1 type 2 translocation in 10 cases, and both type 1 and type 2 EWS-FLI-1 translocation in 2 cases. Two cases did not demonstrate any translocation. Follow-up data were available for 17 of 34 cases. Local recurrence of the tumor was seen in 4 patients, and 10 patients were recorded to have distant metastasis in various organs, such as lung, bone, and lymph node, during the course of the disease.

  17. Ewing Sarcoma of the Bone in Children under 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Prete, Arcangelo; Cozza, Raffaele; Podda, Marta; Manzitti, Carla; Pession, Andrea; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Contoli, Benedetta; Balter, Rita; Fagioli, Franca; Bisogno, Gianni; Amoroso, Loredana

    2013-01-01

    Background Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT) are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. Methods The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23%) patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58–83%) and 72% (95% CI 57–83%) for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17–60%) and 21% (95% CI 5–45%) for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01), while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P  = 0.002). In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000–2008 were 89% (95% CI 71–96%) and 86% (95% CI 66–94%), respectively. Conclusion The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome. PMID:23382839

  18. High-throughput RNAi screen in Ewing sarcoma cells identifies leucine rich repeats and WD repeat domain containing 1 (LRWD1) as a regulator of EWS-FLI1 driven cell viability.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Surdez, Didier; Rantala, Juha K; Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Ban, Jozef; Kauer, Maximilian; Tomazou, Eleni; Fey, Vidal; Alonso, Javier; Kovar, Heinrich; Delattre, Olivier; Iljin, Kristiina

    2017-01-05

    A translocation leading to the formation of an oncogenic EWS-ETS fusion protein defines Ewing sarcoma. The most frequent gene fusion, present in 85 percent of Ewing sarcomas, is EWS-FLI1. Here, a high-throughput RNA interference screen was performed to identify genes whose function is critical for EWS-FLI1 driven cell viability. In total, 6781 genes were targeted by siRNA molecules and the screen was performed both in presence and absence of doxycycline-inducible expression of the EWS-FLI1 shRNA in A673/TR/shEF Ewing sarcoma cells. The Leucine rich repeats and WD repeat Domain containing 1 (LRWD1) targeting siRNA pool was the strongest hit reducing cell viability only in EWS-FLI1 expressing Ewing sarcoma cells. LRWD1 had been previously described as a testis specific gene with only limited information on its function. Analysis of LRWD1 mRNA levels in patient samples indicated that high expression associated with poor overall survival in Ewing sarcoma. Gene ontology analysis of LRWD1 co-expressed genes in Ewing tumors revealed association with DNA replication and analysis of differentially expressed genes in LRWD1 depleted Ewing sarcoma cells indicated a role in connective tissue development and cellular morphogenesis. Moreover, EWS-FLI1 repressed genes with repressive H3K27me3 chromatin marks were highly enriched among LRWD1 target genes in A673/TR/shEF Ewing sarcoma cells, suggesting that LRWD1 contributes to EWS-FLI1 driven transcriptional regulation. Taken together, we have identified LRWD1 as a novel regulator of EWS-FLI1 driven cell viability in A673/TR/shEF Ewing sarcoma cells, shown association between high LRWD1 mRNA expression and aggressive disease and identified processes by which LRWD1 may promote oncogenesis in Ewing sarcoma.

  19. Expression of the EWS/FLI-1 oncogene in murine primary bone-derived cells Results in EWS/FLI-1-dependent, ewing sarcoma-like tumors.

    PubMed

    Castillero-Trejo, Yeny; Eliazer, Susan; Xiang, Lilin; Richardson, James A; Ilaria, Robert L

    2005-10-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common malignant pediatric bone tumor. Over 80% of Ewing sarcoma contain the oncogene EWS/FLI-1, which encodes the EWS/FLI-1 oncoprotein, a hybrid transcription factor comprised of NH2-terminal sequences from the RNA-binding protein EWS and the DNA-binding and COOH-terminal regions of the Ets transcription factor FLI-1. Although numerous genes are dysregulated by EWS/FLI-1, advances in Ewing sarcoma cancer biology have been hindered by the lack of an animal model because of EWS/FLI-1-mediated cytotoxicity. In this study, we have developed conditions for the isolation and propagation of murine primary bone-derived cells (mPBDC) that stably express EWS/FLI-1. Early-passage EWS/FLI-1 mPBDCs were immortalized in culture but inefficient at tumor induction, whereas later-passage cells formed sarcomatous tumors in immunocompetent syngeneic mice. Murine EWS/FLI-1 tumors contained morphologically primitive cells that lacked definitive lineage markers. Molecular characterization of murine EWS/FLI-1 tumors revealed that some but not all had acquired a novel, clonal in-frame p53 mutation associated with a constitutive loss of p21 expression. Despite indications that secondary events facilitated EWS/FLI-1 mPBDC tumorigenesis, cells remained highly dependent on EWS/FLI-1 for efficient transformation in clonogenic assays. This Ewing sarcoma animal model will be a useful tool for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of Ewing sarcoma and provides rationale for the broader use of organ-specific progenitor cell populations for the study of human sarcoma.

  20. Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the esophagus: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew D; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Andrade, Rafael S; Dolan, Michelle M; Aslan, Deniz L

    2010-10-01

    This study presents a case of Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the esophagus of a 44-year-old woman who presented with progressive dysphagia. Imaging studies demonstrated a polypoid lesion in the esophagus. The tumor was characterized by corded and pseudopapillary architecture, cytologic monotony, and low proliferative activity. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD99, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, cyclin D1, p53, and FLI1 gene product. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated a 22q12 translocation, associated with primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the tumor cells, whereas reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction conformed expression of Ewing sarcoma/FLI1 fusion transcript in the patient's bone marrow aspirate. Although this is a rare site for this type of tumor to occur, primitive neuroectodermal tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumors of the esophagus. Genetic analysis is crucial to establish the diagnosis and can be successfully performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material and hematopoietic tissue.

  1. Trial of Dasatinib in Advanced Sarcomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-20

    Rhabdomyosarcoma; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors; Chondrosarcoma; Sarcoma, Ewing's; Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part; Chordoma; Epithelioid Sarcoma; Giant Cell Tumor of Bone; Hemangiopericytoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)

  2. Gene expression profile of ewing sarcoma cell lines differing in their EWS-FLI1 fusion type.

    PubMed

    Bandrés, Eva; Malumbres, Raquel; Escalada, Alvaro; Cubedo, Elena; González, Iranzu; Honorato, Beatriz; Zarate, Ruth; García-Foncillas, Jesus; de Alava, Enrique

    2005-10-01

    The t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation is present in up to 95% of Ewing tumor patients and results in the formation of an EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene that encodes a chimeric transcription factor. Many alternative forms of EWS-FLI-1 exist because of variations in the location of the EWS and FLI-1 genomic breakpoints. Previous reports have shown that the type 1 fusion is associated with a significantly better prognosis than the other fusion types. It has been suggested that the observed clinical discrepancies result from different transactivation potentials of the various EWS-FLI-1 fusion proteins. In an attempt to identify genes whose expression levels are differentially modulated by structurally different EWS-FLI-1 transcription factors, we have used microarray technology to interrogate 19,000 sequence genes to compare gene expression profile of type 1 or non-type 1 Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Data analysis showed few qualitative differences on gene expression; expression of only 41 genes (0.215% of possible sequences analyzed) differed significantly between Ewing tumor cell lines carrying EWS-FLI-1 fusion type 1 with respect to those with non-type 1 fusion.

  3. Molecular localization of the t(11; 22)(q24; q12) translocation of Ewing sarcoma by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Selleri, L.; Hermanson, G.G.; Eubanks, J.H.; Lewis, K.A.; Evans, G.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Chromosome translocations are associated with a variety of human leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. To localize molecular markers flanking the t(11;22)(q24;q12) breakpoint that occurs in virtually all cases of Ewing sarcoma and peripheral neuroepithelioma, high-resolution chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization was carried out using a panel of cosmid clones localized and ordered on chromosome 11q. The location of the Ewing sarcoma translocation breakpoint was determined relative to the nearest two cosmid markers on 11q, clones 23.2 and 5.8, through the analysis of metaphase chromosome hybridization. By in situ hybridization to interphase nuclei, the approximate physical separation of these two markers was determined. In both Ewing sarcoma and peripheral neuroepithelioma, cosmid clone 5.8 is translocated from chromosome 11q24 to the derivative chromosome 22 and a portion of chromosome 22q12 carrying the leukemia inhibitory factor gene is translocated to the derivative chromosome 11. The physical distance between the flanking cosmid markers on chromosome 11 was determined to be in the range of 1,000 kilobases, and genomic analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed no abnormalities over a region of 650 kilobases in the vicinity of the leukemia inhibitory factor gene on chromosome 22. This approach localizes the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint to a small region on chromosome 11q24 and provides a rapid and precise technique for the molecular characterization of chromosomal aberrations.

  4. Lysyl oxidase is downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein and its propeptide domain displays tumor supressor activities in Ewing sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Agra, Noelia; Cidre, Florencia; García-García, Laura; de la Parra, Juan; Alonso, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy in children and young adults. It is driven by oncogenic fusion proteins (i.e. EWS/FLI1) acting as aberrant transcription factors that upregulate and downregulate target genes, leading to cellular transformation. Thus, identificating these target genes and understanding their contribution to Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis are key for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study we show that lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme involved in maintaining structural integrity of the extracellular matrix, is downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein and in consequence it is not expressed in Ewing sarcoma cells and primary tumors. Using a doxycycline inducible system to restore LOX expression in an Ewing sarcoma derived cell line, we showed that LOX displays tumor suppressor activities. Interestingly, we showed that the tumor suppressor activity resides in the propeptide domain of LOX (LOX-PP), an N-terminal domain produced by proteolytic cleavage during the physiological processing of LOX. Expression of LOX-PP reduced cell proliferation, cell migration, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and formation of tumors in immunodeficient mice. By contrast, the C-terminal domain of LOX, which contains the enzymatic activity, had the opposite effects, corroborating that the tumor suppressor activity of LOX is mediated exclusively by its propeptide domain. Finally, we showed that LOX-PP inhibits ERK/MAPK signalling pathway, and that many pathways involved in cell cycle progression were significantly deregulated by LOX-PP, providing a mechanistic explanation to the cell proliferation inhibition observed upon LOX-PP expression. In summary, our observations indicate that deregulation of the LOX gene participates in Ewing sarcoma development and identify LOX-PP as a new therapeutic target for one of the most aggressive paediatric malignancies. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies based on the

  5. Lysyl Oxidase Is Downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 Oncoprotein and Its Propeptide Domain Displays Tumor Supressor Activities in Ewing Sarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Laura; de la Parra, Juan; Alonso, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy in children and young adults. It is driven by oncogenic fusion proteins (i.e. EWS/FLI1) acting as aberrant transcription factors that upregulate and downregulate target genes, leading to cellular transformation. Thus, identificating these target genes and understanding their contribution to Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis are key for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study we show that lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme involved in maintaining structural integrity of the extracellular matrix, is downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein and in consequence it is not expressed in Ewing sarcoma cells and primary tumors. Using a doxycycline inducible system to restore LOX expression in an Ewing sarcoma derived cell line, we showed that LOX displays tumor suppressor activities. Interestingly, we showed that the tumor suppressor activity resides in the propeptide domain of LOX (LOX-PP), an N-terminal domain produced by proteolytic cleavage during the physiological processing of LOX. Expression of LOX-PP reduced cell proliferation, cell migration, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and formation of tumors in immunodeficient mice. By contrast, the C-terminal domain of LOX, which contains the enzymatic activity, had the opposite effects, corroborating that the tumor suppressor activity of LOX is mediated exclusively by its propeptide domain. Finally, we showed that LOX-PP inhibits ERK/MAPK signalling pathway, and that many pathways involved in cell cycle progression were significantly deregulated by LOX-PP, providing a mechanistic explanation to the cell proliferation inhibition observed upon LOX-PP expression. In summary, our observations indicate that deregulation of the LOX gene participates in Ewing sarcoma development and identify LOX-PP as a new therapeutic target for one of the most aggressive paediatric malignancies. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies based on the

  6. Synthetic siRNA targeting the breakpoint of EWS/Fli-1 inhibits growth of Ewing sarcoma xenografts in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Takigami, Iori; Ohno, Takatoshi; Kitade, Yukio; Hara, Akira; Nagano, Akihito; Kawai, Gou; Saitou, Mitsuru; Matsuhashi, Aya; Yamada, Kazunari; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2011-01-01

    The EWS/Fli-1 fusion gene, a product of the translocation t(11;22, q24;q12), is detected in 85% of Ewing sarcomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors. It is thought to be a transcriptional activator that plays a significant role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we developed a novel EWS/Fli-1 blockade system using RNA interference and tested its application for inhibiting the proliferation of Ewing sarcoma cells in vitro and the treatment of mouse tumor xenografts in vivo. We designed and synthesized a small interfering RNA (siRNA) possessing an aromatic compound at the 3'-end targeting the breakpoint of EWS/Fli-1. As this sequence is present only in tumor cells, it is a potentially relevant target. We found that the siRNA targeting EWS/Fli-1 significantly suppressed the expression of EWS/Fli-1 protein sequence specifically and also reduced the expression of c-Myc protein in Ewing sarcoma cells. We further demonstrated that inhibition of EWS/Fli-1 expression efficiently inhibited the proliferation of the transfected cells but did not induce apoptotic cell death. In addition, the siRNA possessing the aromatic compound at the 3'-end was more resistant to nucleolytic degradation than the unmodified siRNA. Administration of the siRNA with atelocollagen significantly inhibited the tumor growth of TC-135, a Ewing sarcoma cell line, which had been subcutaneously xenografted into mice. Moreover, modification of the 3'-end with an aromatic compound improved its efficiency in vivo. Our data suggest that specific downregulation of EWS/Fli-1 by RNA interference is a possible approach for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma.

  7. The molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance to ET-743 (Trabectidin; Yondelis) in the Ewing's sarcoma cell line, TC-71.

    PubMed

    Manara, M C; Perdichizzi, S; Serra, M; Pierini, R; Benini, S; Hattinger, C M; Astolfi, A; Bagnati, R; D'Incalci, M; Picci, P; Scotlandi, K

    2005-12-01

    Identification of new active agents against sarcoma is considered an important challenge in medical oncology. ET-743 (Trabectidin; Yondelis) has recently emerged as the first active drug developed against sarcoma in the last two decades, with promising results especially against soft-tissue sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma (ES). In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance to ET-743 in ES cells. Three resistant cell variants (TC/ET 3 nM, TC/ET 6 nM and TC/ET 12 nM) were obtained, showing 28-, 47- and 102-fold increase in ET-743 resistance. Cross-resistance to other drugs was analyzed. Comparative genomic hybridization and cDNA microarray technology were employed to characterize and compare the gene expression profile of two TC/ET variants with the parental cell line. TC/ET cells show a conventional multidrug resistance phenotype and P-glycoprotein overexpression was found to significantly contribute to ET-743 resistance. However, functional studies with the cyclosporine analogue, PSC-833, indicate that other mechanisms are involved in resistance to ET-743. The gene expression profile of TC/ET cells indicated, among up-regulated genes, an increase in expression of insulin-like growth factor receptor-I (IGF-IR) and one of its major intracellular mediators, insulin receptor substrate-1. Functional studies using a neutralizing antibody anti-IGF-IR confirmed involvement of this signaling pathway in resistance to ET-743. Simultaneous blockage of both P-glycoprotein and IGF-IR completely restored sensitivity to ET-743 in ES cells. Overall, these findings provide impetus for future studies testing the therapeutic value of new specific inhibitors of P-glycoprotein and IGF-IR, which could represent a concrete therapeutic option for ES patients refractory to conventional agents.

  8. Microarray analysis of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours reveals characteristic gene expression signatures associated with metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Eisenacher, Martin; Braun, Yvonne; Brachwitz, Kristin; Wai, Daniel H; Dirksen, Uta; Lanvers-Kaminsky, Claudia; Juergens, Heribert; Herrero, David; Stegmaier, Sabine; Koscielniak, Ewa; Eggert, Angelika; Nathrath, Michaela; Gosheger, Georg; Schneider, Dominik T; Bury, Carsten; Diallo-Danebrock, Raihanatou; Ottaviano, Laura; Gabbert, Helmut E; Poremba, Christopher

    2008-03-01

    In Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT), the clinically most adverse prognostic parameters are the presence of tumour metastasis at time of diagnosis and poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To identify genes differentially regulated between metastatic and localised tumours, we analysed 27 ESFT specimens using Affymetrix microarrays. Functional annotation of differentially regulated genes revealed 29 over-represented pathways including PDGF, TP53, NOTCH, and WNT1-signalling. Regression of primary tumours (n=20) induced by polychemotherapy was found to be correlated with the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, apoptosis, ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and PI3 kinase and p53 pathways. These findings could be confirmed by in vitro cytotoxicity assays. A set of 46 marker genes correctly classifies these 20 tumours as responding versus non-responding. We conclude that expression signatures of initial tumour biopsies can help to identify ESFT patients at high risk to develop tumour metastasis or to suffer from a therapy refractory cancer.

  9. A rare case of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor developing in maxillary sinus of an old patient.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Joshi, Avinash R; Barpande, Chitrangi

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) family of tumors is an uncommon group of malignant neoplasms that may present in both skeletal and extraskeletal sites. PNET outside the central nervous system is called peripheral PNET (pPNET) developing from migrating embryonal cells of the neural crest. Very few cases of pPNET of the maxilla are reported in English literature. These tumors may be difficult to diagnose due to their primitive morphology. These tumors occur predominantly in infancy or early childhood. The occurrence of extraskeletal ES/PNET in the maxillary sinus in an old age is very rare. We report a case of extraskeletal ES/PNET developing in maxillary sinus in a 60-year-old woman. The ES/PNET should be included in the differential diagnosis of a small round cell tumor and immunohistochemical analysis with a panel of immunomarkers should be done for correct diagnosis and proper treatment.

  10. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Liu; Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A.

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. {yields} The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. {yields} While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. {yields} This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  11. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and its molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yohei; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Akashi, Takumi; Kurata, Morihito; Nakamura, Takuro; Kihara, Kazunori

    2011-08-01

    We report a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma (PNET/ES) arising from the urinary bladder. A 65-year-old man presented with hematuria and dysuria. Computed tomography revealed an enlarged invasive tumor at the base of the bladder. No additional abnormal findings were disclosed by other diagnostic imaging methods. The surgical specimens showed small round cell tumor with positive staining for MIC2 gene product (CD99). EWS-FLI1 fusion transcripts were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing, confirming the diagnosis of PNET/ES. The patient developed swollen pelvic lymph nodes as well as multiple lung metastases at 8 months postoperatively. No effective results could be obtained even with systemic chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin and etoposide (VIDE) based on the EUROpean Ewing tumour Working Initiative of National Groups 1999 (EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99) multinational trial. The patient died of acute superior mesenteric artery thrombosis at 22 months postoperatively. PNET/ES could have been included in past cases of small cell carcinoma because of the difficulty in its differential diagnosis. Exact diagnosis is crucial for deciding the treatment strategy for rare bladder tumors consisting of small round cells.

  12. Pro-inflammatory chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions within the Ewing sarcoma microenvironment determine CD8(+) T-lymphocyte infiltration and affect tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, Dagmar; Santos, Susy J; Baelde, Hans J; Taminiau, Antonie Hm; Egeler, R Maarten; Schilham, Marco W; Hogendoorn, Pancras Cw; Lankester, Arjan C

    2011-02-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive round cell sarcoma with poor patient prognosis, particularly in cases of advanced-stage disease. Dynamic tumor-host immune interations within the tumor microenvironment may polarize in situ immune responses and shape tumor development and/or progression. To gain insight into the nature of tumour-host immune interactions within the Ewing sarcoma microenvironment, the presence and spatial distribution of infiltrating CD8(+) /CD4(+) T-lymphocytes were evaluated in therapy-naive Ewing sarcoma. Expression profiling of 40 different chemokines and several chemokine receptors was performed in therapy-naive tumours and cell lines by qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Considerable inter-tumour variation was observed regarding density, type, and distribution of infiltrating T-lymphocytes. Tumour-infiltrating T-cells contained significantly higher percentages of CD8(+) T-lymphocytes as compared to stroma-infiltrating cells, suggesting preferential migration of this T-cell type into tumour areas. Gene expression levels of several type 1-associated, pro-inflammatory chemokines (CXCR3- and CCR5-ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5) correlated positively with infiltrating (CD8(+) ) T-lymphocyte numbers expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Survival analyses demonstrated an impact of tumour-infiltrating, and not stroma-infiltrating, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes on tumour progression. At protein level, both tumour and stromal cells expressed the IFNγ-inducible chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10. CCR5-ligand CCL5 was exclusively expressed by non-tumoural stromal/infiltrating cells. Together, our results indicate that an inflammatory immune microenvironment with high expression of type 1-associated chemokines may be critical for the recruitment of (CD8(+) ) T-lymphocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. The observed impact of tumour-infiltrating (CD8(+) ) T-lymphocytes is consistent with a role for adaptive anti-tumour immunity in the

  13. Clinical and Biochemical Function of Polymorphic NR0B1 GGAA-Microsatellites in Ewing Sarcoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Monument, Michael J.; Johnson, Kirsten M.; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Abegglen, Lisa; Watkins, W. Scott; Jorde, Lynn B.; Womer, Richard B.; Beeler, Natalie; Monovich, Laura; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Bridge, Julia A.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Krailo, Mark D.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetics involved in Ewing sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis are poorly understood. EWS/FLI and related EWS/ETS chimeras upregulate numerous gene targets via promoter-based GGAA-microsatellite response elements. These microsatellites are highly polymorphic in humans, and preliminary evidence suggests EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression is highly dependent on the number of GGAA motifs within the microsatellite. Objectives Here we sought to examine the polymorphic spectrum of a GGAA-microsatellite within the NR0B1 promoter (a critical EWS/FLI target) in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors, and characterize how this polymorphism influences gene expression and clinical outcomes. Results A complex, bimodal pattern of EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression was observed across a wide range of GGAA motifs, with maximal expression observed in constructs containing 20–26 GGAA motifs. Relative to white European and African controls, the NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite in tumor cells demonstrated a strong bias for haplotypes containing 21–25 GGAA motifs suggesting a relationship between microsatellite function and disease susceptibility. This selection bias was not a product of microsatellite instability in tumor samples, nor was there a correlation between NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms and survival outcomes. Conclusions These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms observed in human populations modulate EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression and may influence disease susceptibility in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:25093581

  14. 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a Pharmacodynamic Marker for EWS-FLI1 Activity and Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Osgood, Christy L.; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Maloney, Nichole; Madaj, Zachary B.; Peck, Anderson; Boguslawski, Elissa; Jess, Jennifer; Buck, Jason; Winn, Mary E.; Manning, H. Charles; Grohar, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a bone and soft-tissue tumor that depends on the activity of the EWS-FLI1 transcription factor for cell survival. Although a number of compounds have been shown to inhibit EWS-FLI1 in vitro, a clinical EWS-FLI1-directed therapy has not been achieved. One problem plaguing drug development efforts is the lack of a suitable, non-invasive, pharmacodynamic marker of EWS-FLI1 activity. Here we show that 18F-FLT PET (18F- 3′-deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography) reflects EWS-FLI1 activity in Ewing sarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. 18F-FLT is transported into the cell by ENT1 and ENT2, where it is phosphorylated by TK1 and trapped intracellularly. In this report, we show that silencing of EWS-FLI1 with either siRNA or small-molecule EWS-FLI1 inhibitors suppressed the expression of ENT1, ENT2, and TK1 and thus decreased 18F-FLT PET activity. This effect was not through a generalized loss in viability or metabolic suppression, as there was no suppression of 18F-FDG PET activity and no suppression with chemotherapy. These results provide the basis for the clinical translation of 18F-FLT as a companion biomarker of EWS-FLI1 activity and a novel diagnostic imaging approach for Ewing sarcoma. PMID:27671553

  15. Small interfering RNAs expressed from a Pol III promoter suppress the EWS/Fli-1 transcript in an Ewing sarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Dohjima, Taikoh; Lee, Nan Sook; Li, Haitang; Ohno, Takatoshi; Rossi, John J

    2003-06-01

    The EWS/Fli-1 fusion gene encodes an oncogenic fusion protein. The fusion is a product of the translocation t(11;22) (q24;q12), which is detected in 85% of Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells. Utilizing intracellularly expressed 21- to 23-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the EWS/Fli-1 fusion transcript in an Ewing sarcoma cell line, we achieved a greater than 80% reduction in the EWS/Fli-1 transcript. The reduction in transcript levels was accompanied by growth inhibition of an Ewing cell line. In addition to quantitating the reduction of the fusion transcript, we carefully monitored reduction of the endogenous EWS and Fli-1 mRNAs as well. One of the two siRNAs targeted to the fusion transcript also partially downregulated the Fli-1 mRNA, further potentiating the growth inhibition. These results highlight both the power of siRNAs and the potential side reactions that need to be carefully monitored. In addition, these results provide the first demonstration of expressed siRNAs downregulating an oncogenic fusion transcript. The results and observations from these studies should prove useful in targeting other fusion transcripts characteristic of sarcomas and erythroleukemias.

  16. Small round blue cell sarcoma of bone mimicking atypical Ewing's sarcoma with neuroectodermal features. An analysis of five cases with immunohistochemical and electron microscopic support.

    PubMed

    Llombart-Bosch, A; Lacombe, M J; Contesso, G; Peydro-Olaya, A

    1987-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) of bone may occasionally display rosette-like textures mimicking Homer-Wright ones, as seen in neuroectodermic neoplasms (neuroblastoma, peripheral neuroepithelioma). Of a group of 39 cases of ES, reviewed with electron microscopic study, the authors have isolated five atypical ES, which histologically also possessed neuroectodermic traces. These tumors were composed of small round blue cells with rosette-like figures and cytoplasmic glycogen. The immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) as well as for HNK-1 (leu-7) monoclonal antibody. Electron microscopic examination confirmed the tumor cell as being of small round type, with a dense chromatine pattern and the presence of isolated dendritic processes, as well as synaptic-like buttons; intermediate filaments, neurotubuli, and dense-core neurosecretory granules also were seen. Moreover, in two cases basement-like condensations surrounded some cells. Scanning electron microscopic study in one case confirmed the presence of rosette-like figures and cell elongations with short dendritic projections of the cytoplasm. Clinically and radiologically these cases showed features similar to ES of bone; one case, located in the chest wall, had a local relapse after treatment, with the histologic features of a pleomorphic neuroblastoma. The authors conclude that these tumors resemble closely immature neuroepithelioma of soft tissue but, being primary to bone, are superimposable on those described as "neuroectodermal tumors of bone."

  17. Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Relapse in Ewing Sarcoma Patients Treated With Chemotherapy and R0 Resection

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Morani, Ajaykumar; Wang, Wei-Lien; Hess, Kenneth R.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Lin, Patrick P.; Daw, Najat C.; Mahajan, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To identify prognostic factors and patterns of relapse for patients with Ewing sarcoma who underwent chemotherapy and R0 resection without radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent surgical resection at our institution between 2000 and 2013 for an initial diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma. The associations of demographic and clinical factors with local control (LC) and patient outcome were determined by Cox regression. Time to events was measured from the time of surgery. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Results: A total of 66 patients (median age 19 years, range 4-55 years) met the study criteria. The median follow-up was 5.6 years for living patients. In 43 patients (65%) for whom imaging studies were available, the median tumor volume reduction was 73%, and at least partial response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors was achieved in 17 patients (40%). At 5 years, LC was 78%, progression-free survival (PFS) was 59%, and overall survival (OS) was 65%. Poor histologic response (necrosis ≤95%) was an independent predictor of LC (hazard ratio [HR] 6.8, P=.004), PFS (HR 5.2, P=.008), and OS (HR 5.0, P=.008). Metastasis on presentation was also an independent predictor of LC (HR 6.3, P=.011), PFS (HR 6.8, P=.002), and OS (HR 6.7, P=.002). Radiologic partial response was a predictor of PFS (HR 0.26, P=.012), and postchemotherapy tumor volume was associated with OS (HR 1.06, P=.015). All deaths were preceded by distant relapse. Of the 8 initial local-only relapses, 5 (63%) were soon followed by distant relapse. Predictors of poor postrecurrence survival were time to recurrence <1 year (HR 11.5, P=.002) and simultaneous local and distant relapse (HR 16.8, P=.001). Conclusions: Histologic and radiologic response to chemotherapy were independent predictors of outcome. Additional study is needed to determine the role of adjuvant

  18. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas (Extremity Sarcoma Closed to Entry as of 5/30/07)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-01

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  19. Pediatric Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Williams, Regan F; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Gosain, Ankush

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors accounting for approximately 10% of childhood solid tumors. Treatment is focused on multimodality therapy, which has improved the prognosis over the past two decades. Current regimens focus on decreasing treatment for low-risk patients to decrease the long-term side effects while maximizing therapy for patients with metastatic disease to improve survival. Pediatric sarcomas can be divided into soft tissue sarcomas and osseous tumors. Soft tissue sarcomas are further delineated into rhabdomyosarcomas, which affect young children and nonrhabdomyosarcomas, which are most common in adolescents. The most common bone sarcomas are osteosarcomas and Ewing's sarcoma.

  20. High neuropeptide Y release associates with Ewing sarcoma bone dissemination - in vivo model of site-specific metastases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Tilan, Jason U; Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Polk, Taylor; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; Jenkins, Shari; Acree, Rachel; Connors, Katherine; Ledo, Phuong; Lu, Congyi; Lee, Yi-Chien; Rodriguez, Olga; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Albanese, Chris; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2015-03-30

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) develops in bones or soft tissues of children and adolescents. The presence of bone metastases is one of the most adverse prognostic factors, yet the mechanisms governing their formation remain unclear. As a transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1, the fusion protein driving ES transformation, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed and released from ES tumors. Hypoxia up-regulates NPY and activates its pro-metastatic functions. To test the impact of NPY on ES metastatic pattern, ES cell lines, SK-ES1 and TC71, with high and low peptide release, respectively, were used in an orthotopic xenograft model. ES cells were injected into gastrocnemius muscles of SCID/beige mice, the primary tumors excised, and mice monitored for the presence of metastases. SK-ES1 xenografts resulted in thoracic extra-osseous metastases (67%) and dissemination to bone (50%) and brain (25%), while TC71 tumors metastasized to the lungs (70%). Bone dissemination in SK-ES1 xenografts associated with increased NPY expression in bone metastases and its accumulation in bone invasion areas. The genetic silencing of NPY in SK-ES1 cells reduced bone degradation. Our study supports the role for NPY in ES bone invasion and provides new models for identifying pathways driving ES metastases to specific niches and testing anti-metastatic therapeutics.

  1. Twenty Years On – What Do We Really Know About Ewing Sarcoma And What Is The Path Forward?

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a highly aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. Despite advances in local control and systemic chemotherapy, metastatic relapse after an initial clinical remission remains a significant clinical problem. In addition, metastasis at the time of presentation or at relapse continues to be the leading cause of death for patients diagnosed with ES. Since the discovery over 20 years ago of the pathognomonic EWS-FLI1 fusion gene, much has been learned about the molecular and cellular biology of ES pathogenesis. In addition, more recent exploitation of advances in stem cell and developmental biology has provided key insights into the cellular origins of ES and the role of epigenetic deregulation in tumor initiation and maintenance. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that drive tumor relapse and metastasis remain largely unknown. These gaps in our knowledge continue to hamper the development of novel therapeutic strategies that will improve outcomes for patients with relapsed and metastatic disease. In this chapter we will review the current status of ES biology research, highlighting areas of investigation that we propose have the greatest potential to yield findings that will translate into clinically significant advances. PMID:26349414

  2. CD99 triggering induces methuosis of Ewing sarcoma cells through IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Manara, Maria Cristina; Terracciano, Mario; Mancarella, Caterina; Sciandra, Marika; Guerzoni, Clara; Pasello, Michela; Grilli, Andrea; Zini, Nicoletta; Picci, Piero; Colombo, Mario P.; Morrione, Andrea; Scotlandi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    CD99 is a cell surface molecule that has emerged as a novel target for Ewing sarcoma (EWS), an aggressive pediatric bone cancer. This report provides the first evidence of methuosis in EWS, a non-apoptotic form of cell death induced by an antibody directed against the CD99 molecule. Upon mAb triggering, CD99 induces an IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 complex, which is internalized into RAB5-positive endocytic vacuoles. This complex is then dissociated, with the IGF-1R recycling to the cell membrane while CD99 and RAS/Rac1 are sorted into immature LAMP-1-positive vacuoles, whose excessive accumulation provokes methuosis. This process, which is not detected in CD99-expressing normal mesenchymal cells, is inhibited by disruption of the IGF-1R signaling, whereas enhanced by IGF-1 stimulation. Induction of IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 was also observed in the EWS xenografts that respond to anti-CD99 mAb, further supporting the role of the IGF/RAS/Rac1 axis in the hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis and selective death of EWS cells. Thus, we describe a vulnerability of EWS cells, including those resistant to standard chemotherapy, to a treatment with anti-CD99 mAb, which requires IGF-1R/RAS signaling but bypasses the need for their direct targeting. Overall, we propose CD99 targeting as new opportunity to treat EWS patients resistant to canonical apoptosis-inducing agents. PMID:27835596

  3. Chemotherapy-related toxicity in patients with non-metastatic Ewing sarcoma: influence of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Paioli, Anna; Luksch, Roberto; Fagioli, Franca; Tamburini, Angela; Cesari, Marilena; Palmerini, Emanuela; Abate, Massimo Eraldo; Marchesi, Emanuela; Balladelli, Alba; Pratelli, Loredana; Ferrari, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    Influence of age and sex on chemotherapy-related toxicity was evaluated in children (3-9 years), adolescents (10-17 years), and adults (up to 40 years) with localized Ewing sarcoma (ES) enrolled in the ISG/SSG III protocol. Treatment was based on vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, dactinomycin, and etoposide. High-dose chemotherapy with busulfan and melphalan was given in poor responder patients. The analysis was based on 2191 courses of standard chemotherapy and 230 patients. A lower risk of G4 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, hospitalization, febrile neutropenia, and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions was observed in males. Use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was more frequent in adults, while children more often received RBC transfusions. A significant correlation between sex and chemotherapy-related toxicity was observed in the study, whereas no significant differences in terms of bone marrow toxicity can be expected according to patient age. Further studies should analyse the role of pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, and clinical characteristics.

  4. The Importance of Surgery as Part of Multimodal Therapy in Rapid Progressive Primary Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma of the Cervical Intra- and Epidural Space

    PubMed Central

    Bostelmann, Richard; Leimert, Mario; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Gierga, Kristin; Petridis, Athanasios K.

    2016-01-01

    Primary extraosseous Ewing sarcomas (EESs) are an extremely rare pathological entity. Less than 32 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we report an uncommon case with very rapid progression in the cervical region with extra- and intradural involvement. We present a thorough review of the literature and discuss possible treatment modalities. The Medline database was searched using the search terms: Ewing sarcoma, extraosseus tumour, treatment, management, cervical spine. A previously healthy 29-year-old man complained of right-sided radiculopathy (C7). Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing foraminal, sandglass shaped neurinoma-like lesion. Surgery revealed an intraand extra-dural lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as Ewing sarcoma. Despite gross total resection, there was a massive symptomatic tumor recurrence within 6 weeks. A second gross total resection was realized. The patient was treated according to the EURO E.W.I.N.G.-Protocol (VIDE) and recovered very well (progression-free interval during therapy). Several decompressive re-surgeries were realized with adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. At the last follow-up (17 months after initial surgery) the patient was in remission with a good quality of live. This case is to illustrate that despite extensive therapeutic efforts, the progression-free survival in case of primary EES may be very short. To maintain neurological function and good quality of live as long as possible, a multimodal strategy seems to be adequate. Like in the present case this implies several surgeries and adjuvant chemo-and radiotherapy. Whether this improves overall survival remains unclear. PMID:28176976

  5. Clinicopathologic Features of the Non-CNS Primary Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors in the Head and Neck Region.

    PubMed

    Woo, Chang Gok; Lee, Bora; Song, Joon Seon; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2017-02-28

    Ewing sarcoma family of tumor (ESFT) is a group of malignant neoplasms that affect children and young adults. Primary ESFT does not commonly arise from the head and neck region. This study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathologic characteristics of ESFT of the head and neck region except for central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Among the 207 cases of ESFT of the bone and soft tissue, diagnosed at Asan Medical Center during a 20-year period, 25 (12.1%) involved the head and neck region. Of those, 21 were available for histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies. EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 19 cases by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. Primary sites included the cranial area (6 cases, 31.6%), sinonasal tract (6 cases, 31.6%), paraspinal space (4 cases, 21.0%), and other spaces (3 cases, 15.8%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates for all cases were 69.7% and 33.6%, respectively. A large tumor size (>5 cm) correlated significantly with overall survival (P=0.009), but not with disease-free survival (P=0.210). Microscopically, 8 cases (42.1%) showed nested growth pattern. Clear and/or eosinophilic cytoplasm was observed in 68.4% cases. Immunopositivity for CD99, Friend leukaemia integration-1 (FLI-1), CD57, and caveloin-1 were detected in 100%, 88.9%, 83.3%, and 50% cases, respectively. ESFT in the head and neck region had a favorable prognosis and frequent atypical and epithelioid features. An awareness of these histologic and immunophenotypic characteristics will improve the diagnostic accuracy for head and neck round cell malignancies.

  6. Overexpression of HOX genes is prevalent in Ewing sarcoma and is associated with altered epigenetic regulation of developmental transcription programs.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Laurie K; Harris, Ashley; Bailey, Natashay J; Schwentner, Raphaela; Tomazou, Eleni; von Levetzow, Cornelia; Magnuson, Brian; Ljungman, Mats; Kovar, Heinrich; Lawlor, Elizabeth R

    2014-12-01

    The polycomb proteins BMI-1 and EZH2 are highly overexpressed by Ewing sarcoma (ES), a tumor of stem cell origin that is driven by EWS-ETS fusion oncogenes, most commonly EWS-FLI1. In the current study we analyzed expression of transcription programs that are controlled by polycomb proteins during embryonic development to determine if they are abnormal in ES. Our results show that polycomb target gene expression in ES deviates from normal tissues and stem cells and that, as expected, most targets are relatively repressed. However, we also discovered a paradoxical up regulation of numerous polycomb targets and these were highly enriched for homeobox (HOX) genes. Comparison of HOX profiles between malignant and non-malignant tissues revealed a distinctive HOX profile in ES, which was characterized by overexpression of posterior HOXD genes. In addition, ectopic expression of EWS-FLI1 during stem cell differentiation led to aberrant up regulation of posterior HOXD genes. Mechanistically, this up regulation was associated with altered epigenetic regulation. Specifically, ES and EWS-FLI1+ stem cells displayed a relative loss of polycomb-dependent H3K27me3 and gain of trithorax-dependent H3K4me3 at the promoters of posterior HOXD genes and also at the HOXD11.12 polycomb response element. In addition, a striking correlation was evident between HOXD13 and other genes whose regulation is coordinately regulated during embryonic development by distal enhancer elements. Together, these studies demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of polycomb target genes, in particular HOXD genes, is altered in ES and that these changes are mediated downstream of EWS-FLI1.

  7. Common Ewing sarcoma-associated antigens fail to induce natural T cell responses in both patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Altvater, Bianca; Kailayangiri, Sareetha; Theimann, Nadine; Ahlmann, Martina; Farwick, Nicole; Chen, Christiane; Pscherer, Sibylle; Neumann, Ilka; Mrachatz, Gabriele; Hansmeier, Anna; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Juergens, Heribert; Rossig, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    Disseminated or relapsed Ewing sarcoma (EwS) has remained fatal in the majority of patients. A promising approach to preventing relapse after conventional therapy is to establish tumor antigen-specific immune control. Efficient and specific T cell memory against the tumor depends on the expansion of rare T cells with native specificity against target antigens overexpressed by the tumor. Candidate antigens in EwS include six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-1 (STEAP1), and the human cancer/testis antigens X-antigen family member 1 (XAGE1) and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME). Here, we screened normal donors and EwS patients for the presence of circulating T cells reactive with overlapping peptide libraries of these antigens by IFN-γ Elispot analysis. The majority of 22 healthy donors lacked detectable memory T cell responses against STEAP1, XAGE1 and PRAME. Moreover, ex vivo detection of T cells specific for these antigens in both blood and bone marrow were limited to a minority of EwS patients and required nonspecific T cell prestimulation. Cytotoxic T cells specific for the tumor-associated antigens were efficiently and reliably generated by in vitro priming using professional antigen-presenting cells and optimized cytokine stimulation; however, these T cells failed to interact with native antigen processed by target cells and with EwS cells expressing the antigen. We conclude that EwS-associated antigens fail to induce efficient T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated antitumor immune responses even under optimized conditions. Strategies based on TCR engineering could provide a more effective means to manipulating T cell immunity toward targeted elimination of tumor cells.

  8. WEE1 accumulation and deregulation of S-phase proteins mediate MLN4924 potent inhibitory effect on Ewing sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, C; García-Domínguez, D J; Ordóñez, J L; Ginel-Picardo, A; Smith, P G; Sacristán, M P; de Álava, E

    2013-03-14

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor of children and young adults in which finding effective new targeted therapies is imperative. Here, we report an in-depth preclinical study of the investigational cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) inhibitor MLN4924 in ES, as we have recently demonstrated the implication of a CRL component in the ES pathogenesis. First, our results support a high sensitivity of ES cells to MLN4924 growth inhibition both in vitro (14 ES cell lines tested, median IC50=81 nM) and in tumor xenografts (tumor regression achieved with 60 mg/kg BID, subcutaneously, n=9). Second, we report a dual mechanism of action of MLN4924 in ES cells: while a wide range of MLN4924 concentrations (∼30-300 nM) trigger a G2 arrest that can only be rescued by WEE1 kinase inhibition or depletion, saturating doses of the drug (>300 nM) cause a delay in S-phase progression concomitant with unbalanced CDK2-Cyclin E and CDK2-Cyclin A relative levels (accumulation of the first and depletion of the latter). The aberrant presence of CDC6 in the nucleus at late S-phase cell cycle stage confirmed the loss of CDK2-Cyclin A-specific functions. Remarkably, other mechanisms explored (P27 accumulation and DNA damage signaling pathways) were found unable to explain MLN4924 effects, strengthening the specificity of our findings and suggesting the absence of functionality of some CRL substrates accumulated in response to MLN4924. This study renders a rationale for clinical trials and contributes molecular mechanisms for a better understanding of this promising antitumoral agent.

  9. Pappalysin-1 T cell receptor transgenic allo-restricted T cells kill Ewing sarcoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Andreas; Thiede, Melanie; Alba Rubio, Rebeca; Richter, Günther H. S.; Kirchner, Thomas; Busch, Dirk H.; Burdach, Stefan; Thiel, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA), also known as pappalysin, is a member of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. PAPPA acts as a protease, cleaving IGF inhibitors, i.e., IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), thereby setting free IGFs. The insulin/IGF-axis is involved in cancer in general and in Ewing sarcoma (ES) in particular. ES is a highly malignant bone tumor characterized by early metastatic spread. PAPPA is associated with various cancers. It is overexpressed and required for proliferation in ES. PAPPA also stimulates normal bone growth. We isolated HLA-A*02:01+/peptide-restricted T cells from A*02:01− healthy donors directed against PAPPA, generated by priming with A*02:01+ PAPPA peptide loaded dendritic cells. After TCR identification, retrovirally TCR transduced CD8+ T cells were assessed for their in vitro specificity and in vivo efficacy in human ES bearing Rag2−/−γc−/− mice. Engraftment in mice and tumor infiltration of TCR transgenic T cells in the mice was evaluated. The TCR transgenic T cell clone PAPPA-2G6 demonstrated specific reactivity toward HLA-A*02:01+/PAPPA+ ES cell lines. We furthermore detected circulating TCR transgenic T cells in the blood in Rag2−/−γc−/− mice and in vivo engraftment in bone marrow. Tumor growth in mice with xenografted ES was significantly reduced after treatment with PAPPA-2G6 TCR transgenic T cells in contrast to controls. Tumors of treated mice revealed tumor-infiltrating PAPPA-2G6 TCR transgenic T cells. In summary, we demonstrate that PAPPA is a first-rate target for TCR-based immunotherapy of ES. PMID:28344885

  10. CD99 polymorphisms significantly influence the probability to develop Ewing sarcoma in earlier age and patient disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Marcella; Parra, Alessandro; Scapoli, Luca; Sanctis, Paola De; Chiadini, Valentina; Hattinger, Claudia; Picci, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS), the second most common primary bone tumor in pediatric age, is known for its paucity of recurrent somatic abnormalities. Apart from the chimeric oncoprotein that derives from the fusion of EWS and FLI genes, recent genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility variants near the EGR2 gene that regulate DNA binding of EWS-FLI. However, to induce transformation, EWS-FLI requires the presence of additional molecular events, including the expression of CD99, a cell surface molecule with critical relevance for the pathogenesis of EWS. High expression of CD99 is a common and distinctive feature of EWS cells, and it has largely been used for the differential diagnosis of the disease. The present study first links CD99 germline genetic variants to the susceptibility of EWS development and its progression. In particular, a panel of 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms has been genotyped in a case-control study. The CD99 rs311059 T variant was found to be significantly associated [P value = 0.0029; ORhet = 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-9.8) and ORhom = 5.3 (95% CI 1.2-23.7)] with EWS onset in patients less than 14 years old, while the CD99 rs312257-T was observed to be associated [P value = 0.0265; ORhet = 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-9.9)] with a reduced risk of relapse. Besides confirming the importance of CD99, our findings indicate that polymorphic variations in this gene may affect either development or progression of EWS, leading to further understanding of this cancer and development of better diagnostics/prognostics for children and adolescents with this devastating disease. PMID:27792997

  11. Proximal femoral reconstruction after aseptic loosening following proximal femoral replacement for Ewing sarcoma: a case report with one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Schoof, Benjamin; Jakobs, Oliver; Gehrke, Thorsten; Gebauer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old patient initially treated for a proximal femoral Ewing's sarcoma when 12 years old. Index treatment comprised tumour resection and total hip arthroplasty. Two years later revision for aseptic loosening was performed. Subsequently, six further surgical revisons were performed for varying causes. At the age of 23 years the proximal femur was resected and a proximal femoral endoprosthesis implanted.Eighteen years after initial diagnosis the patient presented with recurrent aseptc loosening. Both the proximal femur and acetabulum were reconstructed. For acetabular reconstruction a structural allograft and a tantalum cup were utilised. Reconstruction of the femur utilsed extensive wire mesh and circlage wiring with impaction bone allograft into which a femoral stem was implanted.At one-year follow-up the patient was pain free, had no evidence of infection with satisfactory radiographs and no evidence of implant loosening. This is the first case reporting an extended proximal femoral reconstruction with a wire mesh in combination with impaction bone grafting in an aseptic loosened proximal femoral replacement following Ewing's Sarcoma.

  12. Influence of the Internalization Pathway on the Efficacy of siRNA Delivery by Cationic Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in the Ewing Sarcoma Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Alhaddad, Anna; Durieu, Catherine; Dantelle, Géraldine; Le Cam, Eric; Malvy, Claude; Treussart, François; Bertrand, Jean-Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are powerful tools commonly used for the specific inhibition of gene expression. However, vectorization is required to facilitate cell penetration and to prevent siRNA degradation by nucleases. We have shown that diamond nanocrystals coated with cationic polymer can be used to carry siRNAs into Ewing sarcoma cells, in which they remain traceable over long periods, due to their intrinsic stable fluorescence. We tested two cationic polymers, polyallylamine and polyethylenimine. The release of siRNA, accompanied by Ewing sarcoma EWS-Fli1 oncogene silencing, was observed only with polyethylenimine. We investigated cell penetration and found that the underlying mechanisms accounted for these differences in behavior. Using drugs selectively inhibiting particular pathways and a combination of fluorescence and electronic microscopy, we showed that siRNA gene silencing occurred only if the siRNA:cationic nanodiamond complex followed the macropinocytosis route. These results have potential implications for the design of efficient drug-delivery vectors. PMID:23284935

  13. Ewing's tumor of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Wood, R E; Nortje, C J; Hesseling, P; Grotepass, F

    1990-01-01

    Previous reports have focused on the fact that laminar periosteal new bone is a common radiologic sign of Ewing's sarcoma of the jaws. Critical analysis of the literature does not lead to this conclusion. A case is reported and radiologic appearances described. A review of the literature shows striking clinical and radiologic similarities to osteogenic sarcoma of the jaws. A differential radiologic interpretation of Ewing's sarcoma of the jaws is offered.

  14. Ewing sarcoma mimicking atypical carcinoid tumor: detection of unexpected genomic alterations demonstrates the use of next generation sequencing as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Leona A; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Bueno, Raphael; Dal Cin, Paola; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Sholl, Lynette M; Kuo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, tumors are being analyzed for a variety of mutations and other genomic changes, with the goals of guiding personalized therapy and directing patients to appropriate clinical trials based on genotype, as well as identifying previously unknown genomic changes in different tumor types and thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of human cancers. Next generation sequencing is a powerful research tool now gaining traction in the clinic. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of next generation sequencing assays in providing diagnostic information when evaluating tumor specimens. This is illustrated by a case previously thought to represent an atypical carcinoid tumor, in which an EWSR1-ERG translocation was detected during next generation sequencing using a hybrid capture approach, leading to a revised diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma. The role of translocation detection in these assays is also discussed.

  15. Reconstruction of the proximal humerus by combined use of extracorporeally-irradiated osteochondral graft and free vascularized fibula following resection of Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Keiichi; Fukano, Reiji; Ihara, Koichiro; Iwanaga, Ryuta; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2010-12-01

    Reconstruction of the proximal humerus following limb-saving resection of malignant bone tumor is extremely challenging. We describe here a novel anatomical reconstruction technique in a young patient. A 6-year-old girl with Ewing sarcoma of the proximal humerus was treated by wide excision of the tumor followed by reconstruction with extracorporeally-irradiated osteoarticular autograft combined with an intramedullary inserted free vascularized fibula graft. Proper alignment of the shoulder joint was maintained with no osteoarthritic changes after 16 months. The resulting limb function was satisfactory. This biological reconstruction method was safe and without serious complication. It is indicated for the reconstruction of non-weight-bearing joints and is ideal for the proximal humerus.

  16. Upregulation of the matrix metalloproteinase-1 gene by the Ewing's sarcoma associated EWS-ER81 and EWS-Fli-1 oncoproteins, c-Jun and p300.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Bruno; Inwards, Carrie Y; Janknecht, Ralf

    2003-10-09

    The mechanisms of action of Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) associated EWS-ETS oncoproteins have largely remained unresolved. Here, we analyzed how two EWS-ETS proteins, EWS-ER81 and EWS-Fli-1, in vitro activate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 promoter that is upregulated in a subset of EWSs. EWS-ER81 and EWS-Fli-1 interact with and thereby activate the MMP-1 promoter, which is potentiated by the cofactor p300 and the proto-oncoprotein c-Jun. Further, EWS-ER81 binds to c-Jun in vitro and in vivo. The interaction between c-Jun, p300 and EWS-ER81 or EWS-Fli-1 may also be relevant to the regulation of other yet-to-be-identified genes that are responsible for EWS formation.

  17. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a target of EWS/FLI-1 and a key determinant of the oncogenic phenotype and tumorigenicity of Ewing's sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Oscar M; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Villar, Joaquín; Dettin, Luis E; Llort, Anna; Gallego, Soledad; Ban, Jozef; Kovar, Heinrich; Notario, Vicente

    2006-10-15

    Tumors of the Ewing's sarcoma family (ESFT), such as Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), are highly aggressive malignancies predominantly affecting children and young adults. ESFT express chimeric transcription factors encoded by hybrid genes fusing the EWS gene with several ETS genes, most commonly FLI-1. EWS/FLI-1 proteins are responsible for the malignant phenotype of ESFT, but only few of their transcriptional targets are known. Using antisense and short hairpin RNA-mediated gene expression knockdown, array analyses, chromatin immunoprecipitation methods, and reexpression studies, we show that caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a new direct target of EWS/FLI-1 that is overexpressed in ESFT cell lines and tumor specimens and is necessary for ESFT tumorigenesis. CAV1 knockdown led to up-regulation of Snail and the concomitant loss of E-cadherin expression. Consistently, loss of CAV1 expression inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of EWS cells and markedly reduced the growth of EWS cell-derived tumors in nude mice xenografts, indicating that CAV1 promotes the malignant phenotype in EWS carcinogenesis. Reexpression of CAV1 or E-cadherin in CAV1 knockdown EWS cells rescued the oncogenic phenotype of the original EWS cells, showing that the CAV1/Snail/E-cadherin pathway plays a central role in the expression of the oncogenic transformation functions of EWS/FLI-1. Overall, these data identify CAV1 as a key determinant of the tumorigenicity of ESFT and imply that targeting CAV1 may allow the development of new molecular therapeutic strategies for ESFT patients.

  18. Stages of Ewing Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... added to their surface in the laboratory. The changed cells are called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T ... tests can show if your child's condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). ...

  19. Adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma mimicking basal cell adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Cecilia; Clarke, Martha R; Zhang, Lei; Antonescu, Cristina R; Seethala, Raja R

    2015-06-01

    Adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma (AES) is a rare variant of the Ewing family of tumors that resembles classic adamantinoma of bone. AES shows epithelial differentiation and a more complex immunohistochemical expression profile with keratin and basal marker immunoreactivity and can resemble a variety of carcinomas. We report an unusual case of an AES of the parotid gland that mimicked a basal cell adenocarcinoma. Like basal cell adenocarcinoma, this AES showed a nested basaloid proliferation with peripheral palisading in tumor nests with 'basaloid' epithelial differentiation as highlighted by cytokeratin AE1/3 and p40 positivity. However, unlike most basal cell adenocarcinomas, this tumor demonstrated high grade morphology, showed no true ductal or myoepithelial component, and also showed a tendency towards neuroectodermal phenotype with focal rosette formation, CD99 and weak synaptophysin immunoreactivity. EWSR1 and FLI1 fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of a translocation supporting the diagnosis of AES. This is the first case of AES presenting as a primary parotid mass highlighting the potential to be mistaken for primary salivary gland carcinomas, which in addition to basal cell adenocarcinoma include other basaloid tumors such as adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  20. CD99 regulates neural differentiation of Ewing sarcoma cells through miR-34a-Notch-mediated control of NF-kB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Selena; Aryee, Dave NT; Felicetti, Federica; De Feo, Alessandra; Mancarella, Caterina; Manara, Maria Cristina; Picci, Piero; Colombo, Mario Paolo; Kovar, Heinrich; Carè, Alessandra; Scotlandi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are mesenchymal tumors characterized by blocked differentiation process. In Ewing sarcoma (EWS) both CD99 and EWS-FLI1 concur to oncogenesis and inhibition of differentiation. Here we demonstrate that uncoupling CD99 from EWS-FLI1 by silencing the former, NF-kB signaling is inhibited and the neural differentiation program is re-established. NF-kB inhibition passes through miR-34a-mediated repression of Notch pathway. CD99 counteracts EWS-FLI1 in controlling NF-kB signaling through the miR-34a, which is increased and secreted into exosomes released by CD99-silenced EWS cells. Delivery of exosomes from CD99-silenced cells was sufficient to induce neural differentiation in recipient EWS cells through miR-34a inhibition of Notch-NF-kB signaling. Notably, even the partial delivery of CD99 siRNA may have a broad effect on the entire tumor cell population thanks to the spread operated by their miR-34a-enriched exosomes, a feature opening to a new therapeutic option. PMID:26616853

  1. Ewing-like adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Hamdane, M M; Charfi, L; Driss, M; Nouri, H; Sellami-Dhouib, R; Mrad, K; Mestiri, M; Ben Romdhane, K

    2012-11-01

    The Ewing-like variation of adamantinoma is a rare entity, leading to challenge its differential diagnosis, notably with Ewing's sarcoma. We are reporting a case of a 20-year-old male who presented with swelling in the left leg that had progressed over a 2-year period. X-rays revealed a tumour in the tibia that was intracortical, osteolytic, multilocular and invaded the soft tissues. A surgical biopsy was performed. Histopathology examination showed a tumour growth with small round cells expressing CD99. A diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma was made. Since the patient declined surgical treatment, chemotherapy was administered. Two years later, the patient returned because the tumour had grown in size. A second biopsy was performed. Microscopic evaluation showed a tumour growth with osteofibrous and epithelial components, which expressed pankeratin and vimentin, but was negative for CD99. A diagnosis of Ewing-like adamantinoma was made.

  2. Is fluoride a risk factor for bone cancer? Small area analysis of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma diagnosed among 0–49-year-olds in Great Britain, 1980–2005

    PubMed Central

    Blakey, Karen; Feltbower, Richard G; Parslow, Roger C; James, Peter W; Gómez Pozo, Basilio; Stiller, Charles; Vincent, Tim J; Norman, Paul; McKinney, Patricia A; Murphy, Michael F; Craft, Alan W; McNally, Richard JQ

    2014-01-01

    Background: Artificial fluoridation of drinking water to improve dental health has long been a topic of controversy. Opponents of this public health measure have cited the possibility of bone cancer induction. The study objective was to examine whether increased risk of primary bone cancer was associated with living in areas with higher concentrations of fluoride in drinking water. Methods: Case data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, diagnosed at ages 0–49 years in Great Britain (GB) (defined here as England, Scotland and Wales) during the period 1980–2005, were obtained from population-based cancer registries. Data on fluoride levels in drinking water in England and Wales were accessed through regional water companies and the Drinking Water Inspectorate. Scottish Water provided data for Scotland. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and level of fluoride in drinking water at small area level. Results: The study analysed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. There was no evidence of an association between osteosarcoma risk and fluoride in drinking water [relative risk (RR) per one part per million increase in the level of fluoride = 1·001; 90% confidence interval (CI) 0·871, 1·151] and similarly there was no association for Ewing sarcoma (RR = 0·929; 90% CI 0·773, 1·115). Conclusions: The findings from this study provide no evidence that higher levels of fluoride (whether natural or artificial) in drinking water in GB lead to greater risk of either osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma. PMID:24425828

  3. Gene expression profiling of Ewing sarcoma tumours reveals the prognostic importance of tumour–stromal interactions: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Volchenboum, Samuel L.; Andrade, Jorge; Huang, Lei; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Krailo, Mark; Womer, Richard B.; Ranft, Andreas; Potratz, Jenny; Dirksen, Uta; Triche, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Relapse of Ewing sarcoma (ES) can occur months or years after initial remission, and salvage therapy for relapsed disease is usually ineffective. Thus, there is great need to develop biomarkers that can predict which patients are at risk for relapse so that therapy and post‐therapy evaluation can be adjusted accordingly. For this study, we performed whole genome expression profiling on two independent cohorts of clinically annotated ES tumours in an effort to identify and validate prognostic gene signatures. ES specimens were obtained from the Children's Oncology Group and whole genome expression profiling performed using Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Lists of differentially expressed genes between survivors and non‐survivors were used to identify prognostic gene signatures. An independent cohort of tumours from the Euro‐Ewing cooperative group was similarly analysed as a validation cohort. Unsupervised clustering of gene expression data failed to segregate tumours based on outcome. Supervised analysis of survivors versus non‐survivors revealed a small number of differentially expressed genes and several statistically significant gene signatures. Gene‐specific enrichment analysis demonstrated that integrin and chemokine genes were associated with survival in tumours where stromal contamination was present. Tumours that did not harbour stromal contamination showed no association of any genes or pathways with clinical outcome. Our results reflect the challenges of performing RNA‐based assays on archived bone tumour specimens. In addition, they reveal a key role for tumour stroma in determining ES prognosis. Future biological and clinical investigations should focus on elucidating the contribution of tumour:micro‐environment interactions on ES progression and response to therapy. PMID:26052443

  4. Depsipeptide (Romidepsin) in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-03

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  5. R1507, an anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibody, and EWS/FLI-1 siRNA in Ewing's sarcoma: convergence at the IGF/IGFR/Akt axis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen J; Angelo, Laura S; Rodon, Jordi; Sun, Michael; Kuenkele, Klaus-Peter; Parsons, Henrique A; Trent, Jonathan C; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2011-01-01

    A subset of patients with Ewing's sarcoma responds to anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibodies. Mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance are unknown. We investigated whether an anti-IGF-1R antibody acts via a pathway that could also be suppressed by small interfering (si) RNA against the EWS/FLI-1 fusion protein, the hallmark of Ewing's sarcoma. The growth of two Ewing's sarcoma cell lines (TC-32 and TC-71) was inhibited by the fully human anti-IGF-1R antibody, R1507 (clonogenic and MTT assays). TC-32 and TC-71 cells express high levels of IGF-2, while RD-ES and A4573 Ewing's cell lines, which were less responsive to R1507 in our assays, express low or undetectable IGF-2, respectively. TC-71 cells also expressed high levels of IGF-1R, and R1507 decreased steady-state levels of this receptor by internalization/degradation, an effect which was associated with a decrease in p-IGF-1R, p-IRS-1, and p-Akt. EWS/FLI-1 siRNA also decreased p-Akt, due to its ability to increase IGF-BP3 levels and subsequently decrease IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels, thus inhibiting signaling through p-IGF-1R. This inhibition correlated with growth suppression and apoptosis. The attenuation of Akt activation was confirmed in TC-71 and HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells by transfecting them with IGF-1R siRNA. We conclude that antibodies and siRNA to IGF-1R, as well as siRNA to EWS/FLI-1, act via intersecting IGF/IGF-1R signals that suppress a common point in this pathway, namely the phosphorylation of Akt.

  6. Analysis of phase II methodologies for single-arm clinical trials with multiple endpoints in rare cancers: An example in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dutton, P; Love, S B; Billingham, L; Hassan, A B

    2016-09-01

    Trials run in either rare diseases, such as rare cancers, or rare sub-populations of common diseases are challenging in terms of identifying, recruiting and treating sufficient patients in a sensible period. Treatments for rare diseases are often designed for other disease areas and then later proposed as possible treatments for the rare disease after initial phase I testing is complete. To ensure the trial is in the best interests of the patient participants, frequent interim analyses are needed to force the trial to stop promptly if the treatment is futile or toxic. These non-definitive phase II trials should also be stopped for efficacy to accelerate research progress if the treatment proves to be particularly promising. In this paper, we review frequentist and Bayesian methods that have been adapted to incorporate two binary endpoints and frequent interim analyses. The Eurosarc Trial of Linsitinib in advanced Ewing Sarcoma (LINES) is used as a motivating example and provides a suitable platform to compare these approaches. The Bayesian approach provides greater design flexibility, but does not provide additional value over the frequentist approaches in a single trial setting when the prior is non-informative. However, Bayesian designs are able to borrow from any previous experience, using prior information to improve efficiency.

  7. EWS-FLI-1 modulates miRNA145 and SOX2 expression to initiate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward Ewing sarcoma cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Riggi, Nicolò; Suvà, Mario-Luca; De Vito, Claudio; Provero, Paolo; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Baumer, Karine; Cironi, Luisa; Janiszewska, Michalina; Petricevic, Tanja; Suvà, Domizio; Tercier, Stéphane; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Guillou, Louis; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) display plasticity and self-renewal properties reminiscent of normal tissue stem cells, but the events responsible for their emergence remain obscure. We recently identified CSCs in Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) and showed that they retain mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) plasticity. In the present study, we addressed the mechanisms that underlie ESFT CSC development. We show that the EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene, associated with 85%–90% of ESFTs and believed to initiate their pathogenesis, induces expression of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) genes OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in human pediatric MSCs (hpMSCs) but not in their adult counterparts. Moreover, under appropriate culture conditions, hpMSCs expressing EWS-FLI-1 generate a cell subpopulation displaying ESFT CSC features in vitro. We further demonstrate that induction of the ESFT CSC phenotype is the result of the combined effect of EWS-FLI-1 on its target gene expression and repression of microRNA-145 (miRNA145) promoter activity. Finally, we provide evidence that EWS-FLI-1 and miRNA-145 function in a mutually repressive feedback loop and identify their common target gene, SOX2, in addition to miRNA145 itself, as key players in ESFT cell differentiation and tumorigenicity. Our observations provide insight for the first time into the mechanisms whereby a single oncogene can reprogram primary cells to display a CSC phenotype. PMID:20382729

  8. EWS-FLI-1 modulates miRNA145 and SOX2 expression to initiate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward Ewing sarcoma cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Riggi, Nicolò; Suvà, Mario-Luca; De Vito, Claudio; Provero, Paolo; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Baumer, Karine; Cironi, Luisa; Janiszewska, Michalina; Petricevic, Tanja; Suvà, Domizio; Tercier, Stéphane; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Guillou, Louis; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) display plasticity and self-renewal properties reminiscent of normal tissue stem cells, but the events responsible for their emergence remain obscure. We recently identified CSCs in Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) and showed that they retain mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) plasticity. In the present study, we addressed the mechanisms that underlie ESFT CSC development. We show that the EWS-FLI-1 fusion gene, associated with 85%-90% of ESFTs and believed to initiate their pathogenesis, induces expression of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) genes OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in human pediatric MSCs (hpMSCs) but not in their adult counterparts. Moreover, under appropriate culture conditions, hpMSCs expressing EWS-FLI-1 generate a cell subpopulation displaying ESFT CSC features in vitro. We further demonstrate that induction of the ESFT CSC phenotype is the result of the combined effect of EWS-FLI-1 on its target gene expression and repression of microRNA-145 (miRNA145) promoter activity. Finally, we provide evidence that EWS-FLI-1 and miRNA-145 function in a mutually repressive feedback loop and identify their common target gene, SOX2, in addition to miRNA145 itself, as key players in ESFT cell differentiation and tumorigenicity. Our observations provide insight for the first time into the mechanisms whereby a single oncogene can reprogram primary cells to display a CSC phenotype.

  9. The Ews/Fli-1 fusion gene switches the differentiation program of neuroblastomas to Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Rorie, Checo J; Thomas, Venetia D; Chen, Pengchin; Pierce, Heather Hanson; O'Bryan, John P; Weissman, Bernard E

    2004-02-15

    Neuroblastoma (NB) and the Ewing sarcoma (ES)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) family are pediatric cancers derived from neural crest cells. Although NBs display features of the sympathetic nervous system, ES/PNETs express markers consistent with parasympathetic differentiation. To examine the control of these differentiation markers, we generated NB x ES/PNET somatic cell hybrids. NB-specific markers were suppressed in the hybrids, whereas ES/PNET-specific markers were unaffected. These results suggested that the Ews/Fli-1 fusion gene, resulting from a translocation unique to ES/PNETs, might account for the loss of NB-specific markers. To test this hypothesis, we generated two different NB cell lines that stably expressed the Ews/Fli-1 gene. We observed that heterologous expression of the Ews/Fli-1 protein led to the suppression of NB-specific markers and de novo expression of ES/PNET markers. To determine the extent of changes in differentiation, we used the Affymetrix GeneChip Array system to observe global transcriptional changes of genes. This analysis revealed that the gene expression pattern of the Ews/Fli-1-expressing NB cells resembled that observed in pooled ES/PNET cell lines and differed significantly from the NB parental cells. Therefore, we propose that Ews/Fli-1 contributes to the etiology of ES/PNET by subverting the differentiation program of its neural crest precursor cell to a less differentiated and more proliferative state.

  10. Clinical perspective on chemo-resistance and the role of RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Krett, Nancy L; Ma, Shuo; Rosen, Steven T

    2013-01-01

    Pre-messenger RNA splicing is significantly changed in cancer cells leading to the expression of cancer-specific transcripts. These transcripts have the potential to be used as cancer biomarkers and also as targets for new therapeutic approaches. In addition, the cancer-specific transcripts have the potential to alter the drug response of the cancer cells creating a chemo-resistant state. This later property of alternative splicing presents a challenge to clinicians in the design of effective therapeutic regimens. When a patient's cancer relapses it is frequently refractory to standard chemotherapies resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of how alternative splicing can lead to chemo-resistance is critical to the effective delivery of treatment. Here, we will discuss the impact of alternative splicing variants on drug metabolism and activation; on drug interactions with cell signaling pathways; and on cell death pathways in cancer therapeutics. In addition to the initial characterization of splicing variants, the mechanisms leading to alterations in splicing are being studied in the setting of chemo-resistance and will be discussed here. The promise of therapeutic intervention to obviate the impact of these splicing variants will significantly enhance treatment options for cancer patients.

  11. Ewing's sarcoma cells with CD57-associated increase of tumorigenicity and with neural crest-like differentiation capacity.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Joachim; Bogatyreva, Liubov; Boukamp, Petra; Rojewski, Markus; van Valen, Frans; Fiedler, Jörg; Hipp, Nora; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Beltinger, Christian

    2010-09-01

    The Ewing family of tumors (EFT) is an important group of pediatric malignancies with a guarded prognosis. Little is known about the heterogeneity of EFT cells, and the cellular origin of EFT is disputed. We now add evidence that EFT are heterogeneous by showing that EFT cells from spheres growing in serum-free medium are markedly more tumorigenic than adherently growing EFT cells. Furthermore, EFT cells strongly expressing CD57 (HNK-1), a surface marker for migrating and proliferating neural crest cells, are more tumorigenic than cells with low expression of CD57, possibly mediated in part by enhanced adhesion and invasion. We contribute to the controversy about the cellular origin of EFT by clonal analysis, showing that EFT cells can differentiate similar to neural crest cells. These data increase our knowledge about the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of EFT.

  12. Targeting Ewing sarcoma with activated and GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor-engineered human NK cells induces upregulation of immune-inhibitory HLA-G.

    PubMed

    Kailayangiri, Sareetha; Altvater, Bianca; Spurny, Christian; Jamitzky, Silke; Schelhaas, Sonja; Jacobs, Andreas H; Wiek, Constanze; Roellecke, Katharina; Hanenberg, Helmut; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Wiendl, Heinz; Pankratz, Susann; Meltzer, Jutta; Farwick, Nicole; Greune, Lea; Fluegge, Maike; Rossig, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Activated and in vitro expanded natural killer (NK) cells have substantial cytotoxicity against many tumor cells, but their in vivo efficacy to eliminate solid cancers is limited. Here, we used chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to enhance the activity of NK cells against Ewing sarcomas (EwS) in a tumor antigen-specific manner. Expression of CARs directed against the ganglioside antigen GD2 in activated NK cells increased their responses to GD2+ allogeneic EwS cells in vitro and overcame resistance of individual cell lines to NK cell lysis. Second-generation CARs with 4-1BB and 2B4 co-stimulatory signaling and third-generation CARs combining both co-stimulatory domains were all equally effective. By contrast, adoptive transfer of GD2-specific CAR gene-modified NK cells both by intratumoral and intraperitoneal delivery failed to eliminate GD2-expressing EwS xenografts. Histopathology review revealed upregulation of the immunosuppressive ligand HLA-G in tumor autopsies from mice treated with NK cells compared to untreated control mice. Supporting the relevance of this finding, in vitro co-incubation of NK cells with allogeneic EwS cells induced upregulation of the HLA-G receptor CD85j, and HLA-G1 expressed by EwS cells suppressed the activity of NK cells from three of five allogeneic donors against the tumor cells in vitro. We conclude that HLA-G is a candidate immune checkpoint in EwS where it can contribute to resistance to NK cell therapy. HLA-G deserves evaluation as a potential target for more effective immunotherapeutic combination regimens in this and other cancers.

  13. Ewing Sarcoma With ERG Gene Rearrangements: A Molecular Study Focusing on the Prevalence of FUS-ERG and Common Pitfalls in Detecting EWSR1-ERG Fusions by FISH

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sonja; Deniz, Kemal; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Dry, Sarah; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2016-01-01

    The genetics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) are characterized by a canonical fusion involving EWSR1 gene and a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, such as FLI1 and ERG. In fact, ERG gene rearrangements represent the second most common molecular alteration, with EWSR1-ERG being identified in 5–10% of cases, while only a handful of reports document a FUS-ERG fusion. In this study, we focus on ES with ERG gene abnormalities, specifically to investigate the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of FUS-ERG fusions in a large cohort of small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) and compare to the eight reported FUS-positive ES. Among the 85 SBRCTs tested, seven (8.2%) cases harbored FUS gene rearrangements; six fused to ERG and one with FEV. During this investigation we came across a number of ERG-rearranged ES lacking both EWSR1 and FUS abnormalities by FISH. In one case, RNA sequencing identified an EWSR1-ERG transcript despite the negative EWSR1 rearrangements by FISH. Additional 3-color FISH fusion assay demonstrated the fusion of EWSR1 and ERG signals in all four cases negative for break-apart EWSR1 FISH. These results emphasize a potential pitfall of relying on EWSR1 FISH assay alone for diagnosis of ES. In cases with classic morphology and/or strong CD99 and ERG immunoreactivity, additional molecular testing should be applied, such as ERG FISH or RT-PCR/next generation sequencing, for a more definitive diagnosis. Although our study group is small, there were no differences noted between the clinical, morphologic features and immunoprofile of the different subsets of ERG-rearranged SBRCTs. PMID:26690869

  14. Rapamycin induces the fusion-type independent downregulation of the EWS/FLI-1 proteins and inhibits Ewing's sarcoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Tirado, Oscar M; Notario, Vicente

    2003-12-18

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is the prototype of a family of tumors (ESFT) of neuroectodermal origin formed by small, round cells with limited neural differentiation, which arise most frequently within bones in children or adolescents. The proliferation of ESFT cells is highly dependent on the establishment of, and signaling through several growth factor-mediated autocrine loops. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of translation and cell proliferation, involved in the cellular response to various nutritional, stress and mitogenic effectors. As mTOR has recently been associated with certain human cancers, we investigated the possibility that mTOR played a role in the regulation of ES cell proliferation. Results showed that ES cell lines carrying EWS/FLI-1 alleles of different types expressed different levels of total and phosphorylated mTOR protein. We demonstrate that rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, efficiently blocked the proliferation of all cell lines by promoting cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. This was paralleled by the downregulation of the levels of the EWS/FLI-1 proteins, regardless of their fusion type, and the concomitant restoration of the expression of the TGF-beta type 2 receptor (TGFbeta RII), which is known to be repressed by several EWS-ETS fusion proteins. The expression of a rapamycin-resistant mTOR construct prevented both the proliferation blockade and the EWS/FLI-1 downregulation. These data demonstrate that mTOR signaling plays a central role in ES cell pathobiology and strongly suggest that the use of rapamycin as a cytostatic agent may be an efficient tool for the treatment of ES patients.

  15. Cyclin D1 is a useful marker for soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor in children and adolescents: A comparative immunohistochemical study with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Magro, Gaetano; Brancato, Franca; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Alaggio, Rita; Parenti, Rosalba; Salvatorelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin D1 amplification and/or overexpression contribute to the loss of the regulatory circuits that govern G1-S transition phase of the cell cycle, playing pivotal roles in different human malignant tumors, including breast, colon, prostate cancer, lymphoma, melanoma and neuroblastoma. In vitro studies have shown that cyclin D1 is overexpressed in Ewing's sarcoma (EWS)/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (pPNET), but not in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Only a few immunohistochemical studies are available on cyclin D1 expression in EWS/pPNET, which confirmed its expression only in a limited number of cases. The aim of the present study was a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of the expression and distribution of cyclin D1 in a large series of pediatric/adolescent soft tissue EWS/pPNETs and rhabdomyosarcomas (both embryonal and alveolar subtypes) to assess its potential usefulness in their differential diagnosis. Notably cyclin D1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all cases (20/20) of EWS/pPNET, while it was lacked in all cases (15/15) of rhabdomyosarcomas. Immunohistochemical overexpression of cyclin D1 in EWS/pPNET is a novel finding which could be exploitable as a diagnostic immunomarker for this tumor. Although highly sensitive, cyclin D1 is not specific for EWS/pPNET, and thus it should not be evaluated alone but in the context of a wide immunohistochemical panel. Accordingly, we first emphasize that when pathologists are dealing with a small round blue cell tumor of soft tissues in pediatric/adolescent patients, a strong and diffuse nuclear expression of cyclin D1 is of complementary diagnostic value to CD99 and FLI-1 in confirming diagnosis of EWS/pPNET and in ruling out rhabdomyosarcoma.

  16. Pericytes in sarcomas of bone.

    PubMed

    Chang, Le; Nguyen, Vi; Nguyen, Alan; Scott, Michelle A; James, Aaron W

    2015-07-01

    Pericytes are mesenchymal cells that closely enwrap small blood vessels, lying in intimate association with the endothelium. Pericytes have recently gained attention as an important mediator of vascular biology and angiogenesis in cancer. Although better studied in carcinoma, pericytes have known interaction with sarcomas of bone, including Ewing's sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. Best studied is Ewing's sarcoma (ES), which displays a prominent perivascular growth pattern. Signaling pathways of known importance in intratumoral pericytes in ES include Notch, PDGF/PDGFR-β, and VEGF signaling. In summary, pericytes serve important functions in the tumor microenvironment. Improved understanding of pericyte biology may hold significant implications for the development of new therapies in sarcoma.

  17. Study of EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement in 18 cases of CK20+/CM2B4+ Merkel cell carcinoma using FISH and correlation to the differential diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Suarez-Peñaranda, Jose M; Alonso, Soledad

    2013-10-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PCES/PNET) pose a challenging morphologic differential diagnosis. Approximately 90% of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) have a specific translocation, t(11;22) (q24;q12). The EWS-friend leukemia integration-1 (FLI-1) fusion results in FLI-1 overexpression. EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement has been suggested as a useful tool in the diagnosis of PCES/PNET. In contrast, Merkel cell polyomavirus was found to be an infective agent related to the pathogenesis of MCC. Merkel cell polyomavirus can be immunohistochemically detected with the antibody CM2B4. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case of any cytokeratin (CK)20-/CM2B4+ PNET. The goal of our study was to investigate whether EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement was present in cases of MCC. We have studied 18 cases of MCC. To make sure that the cases investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization were genuine MCC, we considered only CK20+/CM2B4+ cases. Six cases met this criterion. EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement was not evidenced in any of the 18 cases (including the 6 "genuine" cases of MCC). Although our findings were somewhat expected, we think that they fill a gap in the literature: the confirmation that MCC is devoid of the EWS/FLI-1 rearrangement.

  18. Vismodegib and Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-09

    Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Unclassified Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Chondrosarcoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Conjunctival Kaposi Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Unclassified Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Bone; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Kaposi Sarcoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Unclassified Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Bone

  19. MYCN-mediated miR-21 overexpression enhances chemo-resistance via targeting CADM1 in tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guopei; Li, Nan; Jia, Xiaoting; Peng, Cong; Luo, Liyun; Deng, Yingen; Yin, Jiang; Song, Ying; Liu, Hao; Lu, Minying; Zhang, Zhijie; Gu, Yixue; He, Zhimin

    2016-10-01

    Chemo-resistance is still a major obstacle in successful cancer treatment. Previously, we found that miR-21 (miR-21-5p) was upregulated in drug-resistant tongue cancer (TC) cell line Tca8113/PYM. However, the mechanisms for miR-21 upregulation and its role in chemo-resistance in TC remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that functional inhibition of miR-21 sensitized TC cells to chemotherapy. In agreement, overexpressed miR-21 enhanced chemo-resistance in TC cells. We found that miR-21 directly targeted CADM1 expression, which was downregulated in drug-resistant TC cells. Restored CADM1 expression sensitized TC cells to chemotherapy, but CADM1 knockdown induced chemo-resistance. Mechanically, CADM1 interacted with BMI1 to inhibit its nuclear translocation. Moreover, MYCN which was overexpressed in drug-resistant TC cells directly bound to the miR-21 promoter to upregulated miR-21 expression in TC cells. Importantly, the expression levels of miR-21 and CADM1 negatively correlated, but MYCN and miR-21 positively correlated in TC tissues. High levels of miR-21 and MYCN and low level of CADM1 were associated with poor prognosis in TC patients. In conclusion, our study suggests an important role of the MYCN/miR-21/CADM1 axis in chemo-resistance in TC patients and may lead to promising prognostic biomarkers and novel treatment strategies to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy for TC patients.

  20. General Information about Ewing Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... added to their surface in the laboratory. The changed cells are called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T ... tests can show if your child's condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... added to their surface in the laboratory. The changed cells are called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T ... tests can show if your child's condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Ewing sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... FLI-1, is associated with both TFIID and RNA polymerase II: interactions between two members of the ... EWS and hTAFII68, and subunits of TFIID and RNA polymerase II complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Mar; ...

  3. Cixutumumab and Temsirolimus in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Gliosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Osteosarcoma

  4. High mitochondrial mass identifies a sub-population of stem-like cancer cells that are chemo-resistant.

    PubMed

    Farnie, Gillian; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-10-13

    Chemo-resistance is a clinical barrier to more effective anti-cancer therapy. In this context, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are thought to be chemo-resistant, resulting in tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Our hypothesis is that chemo-resistance in CSCs is driven, in part, by enhanced mitochondrial function. Here, we used breast cell lines and metastatic breast cancer patient samples to begin to dissect the role of mitochondrial metabolism in conferring the CSC phenotype. More specifically, we employed fluorescent staining with MitoTracker (MT) to metabolically fractionate these cell lines into mito-high and mito-low sub-populations, by flow-cytometry. Interestingly, cells with high mitochondrial mass (mito-high) were specifically enriched in a number of known CSC markers, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and they were ESA+/CD24-/low and formed mammospheres with higher efficiency. Large cell size is another independent characteristic of the stem cell phenotype; here, we observed a >2-fold increase in mitochondrial mass in large cells (>12-μm), relative to the smaller cell population (4-8-μm). Moreover, the mito-high cell population showed a 2.4-fold enrichment in tumor-initiating cell activity, based on limiting dilution assays in murine xenografts. Importantly, primary human breast CSCs isolated from patients with metastatic breast cancer or a patient derived xenograft (PDX) also showed the co-enrichment of ALDH activity and mitochondrial mass. Most significantly, our investigations demonstrated that mito-high cells were resistant to paclitaxel, resulting in little or no DNA damage, as measured using the comet assay. In summary, increased mitochondrial mass in a sub-population of breast cancer cells confers a stem-like phenotype and chemo-resistance. As such, our current findings have important clinical implications for over-coming drug resistance, by therapeutically targeting the mito-high CSC population.

  5. Egr-1 promotes hypoxia-induced autophagy to enhance chemo-resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wan-Xin; Xiong, Er-Meng; Ge, Lu; Wan, Yan-Ya; Zhang, Chun-Li; Du, Feng-Yi; Xu, Min; Bhat, Reyaz Ahmed; Jin, Jie; Gong, Ai-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) plays an important role in hypoxia-induced drug-resistance. However, the mechanism still remains to be clarified. Herein, we investigated the role of Egr-1 in hypoxia-induced autophagy and its resulted hypoxia-driven chemo-resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) cells. Our data demonstrated that Egr-1 was overexpressed in HCC tissues and cells and conferred them drug resistance under hypoxia. Mechanistically, Egr-1 transcriptionally regulated hypoxia-induced autophagy by binding to LC3 promoter in HCC cells, which resulted in resistance of HCC cells to chemotherapeutic agents; while dominant negative Egr-1 could inhibit autophagy level, and thus enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to chemotherapeutic agents, indicating that hypoxia-induced Egr-1 expression enhanced drug resistance of HCC cells likely through autophagy. Accordingly, it is suggested that a mechanism of hypoxia/Egr-1/autophagy axis might be involved in drug resistance in HCC.

  6. Glancing angle deposited villi-like nanostructures for enhanced chemo-resistive performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Lee, Taikjin; Lee, Seok; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    Metal oxide nanostructures have attracted enormous attention for diverse applications such as solar cells, nanogenerators, nanolasers, optoelectronic devices and chemoresistive sensor. To achieve the enhanced electrical properties for these applications, one-dimensional (1D) metal oxide materials including nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes and nanobelts have been widely studied. However, the use of 1D nanomaterials as chemoresistive sensors is still in the beginning stage in how to integrate them. As an alternative, porous thin films based on 1D metal oxide nanostructures are considered as more desirable configuration due to their simplicity in synthesis, high reproducibility. In this study, we propose facile synthesis and self-assembled villi-like nanofingers (VLNF) WO3 thin films with large specific surface area on the SiO2/Si substrate. Room-temperature glancing angle deposition of WO3 by a simple controlling in both polar and azimuthal directions resulted in anisotropic nanostructures with large aspect ratio and porous structures with a relative surface area of 350 m2/g. Glancing angle deposited villi-like nanostructures for enhanced chemo-resistive performances.

  7. Ewe Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneeberg, Nan; Kpotufe, Prosper

    This volume consists of a guide to Ewe pronunciation and an Ewe textbook designed for students who are native speakers of English. Consonants, vowels and tones are introduced in the first section, and exercises that drill the contrasts between the segments are provided. The volume is divided into five units, each unit including a dialogue,…

  8. RING1B contributes to Ewing sarcoma development by repressing the NaV1.6 sodium channel and the NF-κB pathway, independently of the fusion oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Rodriguez, Eva; Fernández-Mariño, Ana Isabel; Pardo-Pastor, Carlos; Bahamonde, María Isabel; Fernández-Fernández, José M.; García-Domínguez, Daniel J.; Hontecillas-Prieto, Lourdes; Lavarino, Cinzia; Carcaboso, Angel M.; de Torres, Carmen; Tirado, Oscar M.; de Alava, Enrique; Mora, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive tumor defined by EWSR1 gene fusions that behave as an oncogene. Here we demonstrate that RING1B is highly expressed in primary ES tumors, and its expression is independent of the fusion oncogene. RING1B-depleted ES cells display an expression profile enriched in genes functionally involved in hematological development but RING1B depletion does not induce cellular differentiation. In ES cells, RING1B directly binds the SCN8A sodium channel promoter and its depletion results in enhanced Nav1.6 expression and function. The signaling pathway most significantly modulated by RING1B is NF-κB. RING1B depletion results in enhanced p105/p50 expression, which sensitizes ES cells to apoptosis by FGFR/SHP2/STAT3 blockade. Reduced NaV1.6 function protects ES cells from apoptotic cell death by maintaining low NF-κB levels. Our findings identify RING1B as a trait of the cell-of-origin and provide a potential targetable vulnerability. PMID:27317769

  9. Ewing's sarcoma fusion protein, EWS/Fli-1 and Fli-1 protein induce PLD2 but not PLD1 gene expression by binding to an ETS domain of 5' promoter.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, R; Murakami, M; Sobue, S; Iwasaki, T; Hagiwara, K; Takagi, A; Kojima, T; Asano, H; Suzuki, M; Banno, Y; Nozawa, Y; Murate, T

    2007-03-15

    It was reported that short interfering RNA (siRNA) of EWS/Fli-1 downregulated phospholipase D (PLD)2 in Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) cell line, suggesting that PLD2 is the target of aberrant transcription factor, EWS/Fli-1. Here, we further investigated the regulation of PLD2 gene expression by EWS/Fli-1 and Fli-1 in another EWS cell line, and also in EWS/Fli-1- or Fli-1-transfected cell line. EWS/Fli-1- or Fli-1-overexpressed cells showed higher PLD2 but not PLD1 protein expression and enhanced cell proliferation as compared to mock transfectant. The treatment of these cells with 1-butanol or siRNA of PLD2 inhibited cell growth, suggesting the pivotal role of PLD in cell growth promotion. PLD2 but not PLD1 mRNA level was also increased in EWS/Fli-1 or Fli-1-transfectants. After determining the transcription initiation points, we cloned the 5' promoter of both PLD1 and PLD2 and analysed promoter activities. Results showed that EWS/Fli-1 and Fli-1 increase PLD2 gene expression by binding to an erythroblast transformation-specific domain (-126 to -120 bp from the transcription initiation site) of PLD2 promoter, which is the minimal and most powerful region. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay using truncated proteins showed that both DNA-binding domain and trans-activating domain were necessary for the enhanced gene expression of PLD2.

  10. Full-term newborn after repeated ovarian tissue transplants in a patient treated for Ewing sarcoma by sterilizing pelvic irradiation and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Karlström, Per-Olof; Rezapour, Masoumeh; Castellanos, Enrique; Hreinsson, Julius; Rasmussen, Carsten; Sheikhi, Mona; Ouvrier, Bettina; Bozóky, Béla; Olofsson, Jan I; Lundqvist, Monalill; Hovatta, Outi

    2015-01-01

    We report the first successful transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue into heavily irradiated tissues in a patient who had received sterilizing pelvic radiotherapy (54 Gy) and 40 weeks of intensive high-dose chemotherapy for the treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma 14 years earlier. Repeated transplantation procedures were required to obtain fully functional follicular development. Enlargement of the transplants over time and increase of the size of the uterus were demonstrated on sequential ultrasonographic examinations. Eggs of good quality that could be fertilized in vitro were obtained only after a substantial incremental increase of the amount of ovarian tissue transplanted. Single embryo replacement resulted in a normal pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child by cesarean section at full-term. No neonatal or maternal postoperative complications occurred. Women facing high-dose pelvic radiotherapy should not be systematically excluded from fertility preservation options, as is currently the trend. PMID:25545009

  11. Impact of EWS-ETS fusion type on disease progression in Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: prospective results from the cooperative Euro-E.W.I.N.G. 99 trial.

    PubMed

    Le Deley, Marie-Cecile; Delattre, Olivier; Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Burchill, Sue A; Koehler, Gabriele; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Lion, Thomas; Poremba, Christopher; Marandet, Julien; Ballet, Stelly; Pierron, Gaelle; Brownhill, Samantha C; Nesslböck, Michaela; Ranft, Andreas; Dirksen, Uta; Oberlin, Odile; Lewis, Ian J; Craft, Alan W; Jürgens, Heribert; Kovar, Heinrich

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE EWS-ETS fusion genes are the driving force in Ewing's sarcoma pathogenesis. Because of the variable breakpoint locations in the involved genes, there is heterogeneity in fusion RNA and protein architecture. Since previous retrospective studies suggested prognostic differences among patients expressing different EWS-FLI1 fusion types, the impact of fusion RNA architecture on disease progression and relapse was studied prospectively within the Euro-E.W.I.N.G. 99 clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS Among 1,957 patients who registered before January 1, 2007, 703 primary tumors were accessible for the molecular biology study. Fusion type was assessed by polymerase chain reaction on frozen (n = 578) or paraffin-embedded materials (n = 125). The primary end point was the time to disease progression or relapse. Results After exclusion of noninformative patients, 565 patients were entered into the prognostic factor analysis comparing type 1 (n = 296), type 2 (n = 133), nontype 1/nontype 2 EWS-FLI1 (n = 91) and EWS-ERG fusions (n = 45). Median follow-up time was 4.5 years. The distribution of sex, age, tumor volume, tumor site, disease extension, or histologic response did not differ between the four fusion type groups. We did not observe any significant prognostic value of the fusion type on the risk of progression or relapse. The only slight difference was that the risk of progression or relapse associated with nontype 1/nontype 2 EWS-FLI1 fusions was 1.38 (95% CI, 0.96 to 2.0) times higher than risk associated with other fusion types, but it was not significant (P = .10). CONCLUSION In contrast to retrospective studies, the prospective evaluation did not confirm a prognostic benefit for type 1 EWS-FLI1 fusions.

  12. Human HLA-A*02:01/CHM1+ allo-restricted T cell receptor transgenic CD8+ T cells specifically inhibit Ewing sarcoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Blaeschke, Franziska; Thiel, Uwe; Kirschner, Andreas; Thiede, Melanie; Rubio, Rebeca Alba; Schirmer, David; Kirchner, Thomas; Richter, Günther H S; Mall, Sabine; Klar, Richard; Riddell, Stanley; Busch, Dirk H; Krackhardt, Angela; Grunewald, Thomas G P; Burdach, Stefan

    2016-07-12

    The endochondral bone protein Chondromodulin-I (CHM1) provides oncogene addiction in Ewing sarcoma (ES). We pre-clinically tested the targetability of CHM1 by TCR transgenic, allo-restricted, peptide specific T cells to treat ES. We previously generated allo-restricted wildtype CD8+ T cells directed against the ES specific antigen CHM1319 causing specific responses against ES. However, utilization of these cells in current therapy protocols is hampered due to high complexity in production, relatively low cell numbers, and rapid T cell exhaustion.In order to provide off-the-shelf products in the future, we successfully generated HLA-A*02:01-restricted T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic T cells directed against CHM1319 by retroviral transduction.After short-term expansion a 100% purified CHM1319-TCR-transgenic T cell population expressed a CD62L+/CD45RO and CD62L+/CD45RA+ phenotype. These cells displayed specific in vitro IFNg and granzyme B release in co-culture with HLA-A*02:01+ ES cell lines expressing CHM1. When co-injected with ES cells in Rag2-/-É£c-/- mice, CHM1-specific TCR-transgenic T cells significantly inhibited the formation of lung and liver metastases in contrast to control mice. Lungs and livers of representative mice displayed CD8+ T cell infiltration in the presence (control group treated with unspecific T cells) and in the absence (study group) of metastatic disease, respectively. Furthermore, mice receiving unspecific T cells showed signs of graft-versus-host-disease in contrast to all mice, receiving CHM1319-TCR-transgenic T cells.CHM1319 specific TCR-transgenic T cells were successfully generated causing anti-ES responses in vitro and in vivo. In the future, CHM1319-TCR-transgenic T cells may control minimal residual disease rendering donor lymphocyte infusions more efficacious and less toxic.

  13. Disturbance of the let-7/LIN28 double-negative feedback loop is associated with radio- and chemo-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weimin; Yang, Guangping; Yu, Hui; Wang, Ruihao; Wang, Linjing; Zhang, Guoqian; Fu, Wenfan; Dai, Lu; Li, Wanzhen; Liao, Boyu; Zhang, Shuxu

    2017-01-01

    Radio- and chemo-resistance represent major obstacles in the therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. In the present study, during induction of radio- or chemo-resistance in NSCLC cells, dynamic analyses revealed that decreased expression of let-7 induced by irradiation or cisplatin resulted in increased expression of its target gene LIN28, and increased expression of LIN28 then contributed to further decreased expression of let-7 by inhibiting its maturation and biogenesis. Moreover, we showed that down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of LIN28 expression promoted resistance to irradiation or cisplatin by regulating the single-cell proliferative capability of NSCLC cells. Consequently, in NSCLC cells, let-7 and LIN28 can form a double-negative feedback loop through mutual inhibition, and disturbance of the let-7/LIN28 double-negative feedback loop induced by irradiation or chemotherapeutic drugs can result in radio- and chemo-resistance. In addition, low expression of let-7 and high expression of LIN28 in NSCLC patients was associated significantly with resistance to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Therefore, our study demonstrated that disturbance of the let-7/LIN28 double-negative feedback loop is involved in the regulation of radio- and chemo-resistance, and that let-7 and LIN28 could be employed as predictive biomarkers of response to radiotherapy or chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. PMID:28235063

  14. The role of SH3GL3 in myeloma cell migration/invasion, stemness and chemo-resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruoying; Zhao, Hong; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Weiling; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-11-08

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer characterized by clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and their egress into peripheral blood. The mechanisms of myeloma cells migration/invasion have remained unclear. Herein, we found SH3GL3 was highly expressed in the CD138-negative (CD138-) myeloma cells. The migration/invasion capability of CD138- cells was significantly higher than that in the CD138-positive (CD138+) cells. Silencing SH3GL3 using shRNA reduced myeloma cells migration/invasion. Conversely, overexpression of SH3GL3 increased myeloma cells migration/invasion. Moreover, SH3GL3 is also associated with the stemness and chemo-resistance of CD138- myeloma cells. Elevated expression of stem cell and multi-drug resistant markers were seen in the myeloma cells with overexpressed SH3GL3; while knocking-down SH3GL3 reduced the expression of these markers. A marked increase in p-PI3K and p-FAK was observed in the cells with overexpressed SH3GL3. To test if FAK/PI3K signaling pathway was involved in the SH3GL3-mediated myeloma cells migration, the cells transfected w/wo SH3GL3 cDNA were treated with FAK inhibitor 14 and PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Inhibition of FAK and PI3K attenuated SH3GL3-mediated migration /invasion. Our findings indicate that SH3GL3 plays an important role in myeloma cell migration/invasion, stemness and chemo-resistance. The SH3GL3-mediated myeloma cell migration/invasion is mediated by FAK/PI3K signaling pathway.

  15. Osteopontin is involved in the development of acquired chemo-resistance of cisplatin in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tao; Ohashi, Rina; Cui, Ri; Tajima, Ken; Yoshioka, Masakata; Iwakami, Shinichiro; Sasaki, Shinichi; Shinohara, Atsuko; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Kobayashi, Jun; Inaba, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2009-11-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multi-functional cytokine involved in cell survival, migration and adhesion which is associated with tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. However, the role of OPN in chemo-sensitivity of human lung cancer has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of OPN in chemo-sensitivity of lung cancer cells. We developed a stable OPN transfectant (SBC-3/OPN) and a control transfectant (SBC-3/NEO) from human small cell lung cancer cell line, SBC-3. SBC-3/OPN cells were more resistant to cisplatin than SBC-3/NEO cells. Multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP) does not appear to be involved in the development of acquired chemo-resistance, since MRP inhibitor did not alter chemo-sensitivity. After exposure to cisplatin, the apoptotic SBC-3/OPN cells were reduced in number compared to SBC-3/NEO cells. Treatment with cisplatin revealed that the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2, was down-regulated in SBC-3/NEO cells, while that of SBC-3/OPN cells was not altered. In contrast, pro-apoptotic protein, bax, was not altered in both SBC-3/OPN and SBC-3/NEO cells, thus bcl-2/bax ratio was decreased in SBC-3/NEO but not altered in SBC-3/OPN cells. Activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was increased in SBC-3/NEO cells, but not in SBC-3/OPN cells. Our results suggest that OPN enhances chemo-resistance of cisplatin in SBC-3 cells by suppressing bcl-2 protein down-regulation, thereby blocking the caspase-9- and caspase-3-dependent cell apoptosis.

  16. The role of SH3GL3 in myeloma cell migration/invasion, stemness and chemo-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruoying; Zhao, Hong; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Weiling; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable cancer characterized by clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and their egress into peripheral blood. The mechanisms of myeloma cells migration/invasion have remained unclear. Herein, we found SH3GL3 was highly expressed in the CD138-negative (CD138−) myeloma cells. The migration/invasion capability of CD138− cells was significantly higher than that in the CD138-positive (CD138+) cells. Silencing SH3GL3 using shRNA reduced myeloma cells migration/invasion. Conversely, overexpression of SH3GL3 increased myeloma cells migration/invasion. Moreover, SH3GL3 is also associated with the stemness and chemo-resistance of CD138− myeloma cells. Elevated expression of stem cell and multi-drug resistant markers were seen in the myeloma cells with overexpressed SH3GL3; while knocking-down SH3GL3 reduced the expression of these markers. A marked increase in p-PI3K and p-FAK was observed in the cells with overexpressed SH3GL3. To test if FAK/PI3K signaling pathway was involved in the SH3GL3-mediated myeloma cells migration, the cells transfected w/wo SH3GL3 cDNA were treated with FAK inhibitor 14 and PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Inhibition of FAK and PI3K attenuated SH3GL3-mediated migration /invasion. Our findings indicate that SH3GL3 plays an important role in myeloma cell migration/invasion, stemness and chemo-resistance. The SH3GL3-mediated myeloma cell migration/invasion is mediated by FAK/PI3K signaling pathway. PMID:27683032

  17. Immune Therapy for Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery rapidly occurring at 14 days after start of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma is a good prognostic factor. Conversely, lymphopenia is associated with significantly decreased sarcoma survival. Clearly, the immune system can contribute towards better survival from sarcoma. This chapter will describe treatment and host factors that influence immune function and how effective local control and systemic interventions of sarcoma therapy can cause inflammation and/or immune suppression but are currently the standard of care. Preclinical and clinical efforts to enhance immune function against sarcoma will be reviewed. Interventions to enhance immune function against sarcoma have included regional therapy (surgery, cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, electroporation, and radiotherapy), cytokines, macrophage activators (mifamurtide), vaccines, natural killer (NK) cells, T cell receptor (TCR) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, and efforts to decrease inflammation. The latter is particularly important because of new knowledge about factors influencing expression of checkpoint inhibitory molecules, PD1 and CTLA-4, in the tumor microenvironment. Since these molecules can now be blocked using anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, how to translate this knowledge into more effective immune therapies in the future as well as how to augment effectiveness of current interventions (e.g., radiotherapy) is a challenge. Barriers to implementing this knowledge include cost of agents that release immune checkpoint blockade and coordination of cost-effective outpatient sarcoma treatment. Information on how to research clinical trial eligibility criteria and how to access current immune therapy trials against sarcoma are shared, too.

  18. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27606300

  19. MUC5B silencing reduces chemo-resistance of MCF-7 breast tumor cells and impairs maturation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    García, Enrique P; Tiscornia, Inés; Libisch, Gabriela; Trajtenberg, Felipe; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Noya, Verónica; Chiale, Carolina; Brossard, Natalie; Robello, Carlos; Santiñaque, Federico; Folle, Gustavo; Osinaga, Eduardo; Freire, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Mucins participate in cancer progression by regulating cell growth, adhesion, signaling, apoptosis or chemo-resistance to drugs. The secreted mucin MUC5B, the major component of the respiratory tract mucus, is aberrantly expressed in breast cancer, where it could constitute a cancer biomarker. In this study we evaluated the role of MUC5B in breast cancer by gene silencing the MUC5B expression with short hairpin RNA on MCF-7 cells. We found that MUC5B-silenced MCF-7 cells have a reduced capacity to grow, adhere and form cell colonies. Interestingly, MUC5B knock-down increased the sensitivity to death induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. We also show that MUC5B silencing impaired LPS-maturation of DCs, and production of cytokines. Furthermore, MUC5B knock-down also influenced DC-differentiation and activation since it resulted in an upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10, cytokines that might be involved in cancer progression. Thus, MUC5B could enhance the production of LPS-induced cytokines, suggesting that the use of MUC5B-based cancer vaccines combined with DC-maturation stimuli, could favor the induction of an antitumor immune response.

  20. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Newly Diagnosed Sarcomas, Wilms Tumor, or Other Rare Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-16

    Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Parts; Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Childhood Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Parts; Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Ewing Sarcoma; Hepatoblastoma; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma; Recurrent Hepatoblastoma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor

  1. Microenvironment mediated alterations to metabolic pathways confer increased chemo-resistance in CD133+ tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Alice; Dauer, Patricia; Gupta, Vineet; McGinn, Olivia; Arora, Nivedita; Majumdar, Kaustav; III, Charles Uhlrich; Dalluge, Joseph; Dudeja, Vikas; Saluja, Ashok; Banerjee, Sulagna

    2016-01-01

    Chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer has been attributed to tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a minor sub-population of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of chemo-resistance in these cells is still unclear. In the current study, immunohistochemical analysis of LSL-KrasG12D; LSL-Trp53R172H; PdxCre (KPC) murine tumors indicated that hypoxic regions developed through tumor progression. This hypoxic “niche” correlated with increased CD133+ population that had an increased HIF1A activity. Consistent with this observation, CD133+ cells had increased glucose uptake and activity of glycolytic pathway enzymes compared to CD133− cells. Mass spectrometric analysis (UPLC-TQD) following metabolic labeling of CD133+ cells with [13C]-U6 glucose confirmed this observation. Furthermore, although both populations had functionally active mitochondria, CD133+ cells had low mitochondrial complex I and complex IV activity and lesser accumulation of ROS in response to standard chemotherapeutic compounds like paclitaxel, 5FU and gemcitabine. CD133+ cells also showed increased resistance to all three chemotherapeutic compounds and treatment with Glut1 inhibitor (STF31) reversed this resistance, promoting apoptotic death in these cells similar to CD133− cells. Our study indicates that the altered metabolic profile of CD133+ pancreatic TIC protects them against apoptosis, by reducing accumulation of ROS induced by standard chemotherapeutic agents, thereby confering chemoresistance. Since resistance to existing chemotherapy contributes to the poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer, our study paves the way for identifying novel therapeutic targets for managing chemoresistance and tumor recurrence in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27472388

  2. Kaposi sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... between HIV, a weakened immune system, and the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Kaposi sarcoma has been linked to the spread of HIV and HHV-8 through sexual activity. People who have kidney or other organ transplants are also at risk for Kaposi sarcoma. ...

  3. miR-493 mediated DKK1 down-regulation confers proliferation, invasion and chemo-resistance in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoting; Li, Nan; Peng, Cong; Deng, Yingen; Wang, Jia; Deng, Min; Lu, Minying; Yin, Jiang; Zheng, Guopei; Liu, Haiying; He, Zhimin

    2016-02-09

    In the present study, we demonstrated that the levels of DKK1 were decreased in serums and tissues of GC. DKK1 levels inversely correlated with tumor class, TNM stage, distant metastasis and lymph node metastasis of GC. GC patients with low DKK1 levels had a poor overall survival. DKK1 inhibited the proliferation of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. DKK1 also inhibited invasion, but enhanced chemo-sensitivity of GC cells. Mechanically, miR-493 levels increased in GC and directly targeted and down-regulated DKK1 expression. In agreement, miR-493 promoted proliferation of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. MiR-493 also promoted invasion and chemo-resistance of GC cells. However, DKK1 overexpression reversed the effects of miR-493 on proliferation, invasion and chemo-sensitivity. Thus, our results provide new insight for the role of miR-493/DKK1 axis in GC.

  4. Doxorubicin Conjugated to Immunomodulatory Anticancer Lactoferrin Displays Improved Cytotoxicity Overcoming Prostate Cancer Chemo resistance and Inhibits Tumour Development in TRAMP Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shankaranarayanan, Jayanth Suryanarayanan; Kanwar, Jagat R.; AL-Juhaishi, Afrah Jalil Abd; Kanwar, Rupinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced, metastatic, castration resistant and chemo-resistant prostate cancer has triggered change in the drug development landscape against prostate cancer. Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is currently attracting attention in clinics for its anti-cancer properties and proven safety profile. bLf internalises into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis, boosts immunity and complements chemotherapy. We employed bLf as an excellent functional carrier protein for delivering doxorubicin (Dox) into DU145 cells, CD44+/EpCAM+ double positive enriched DU145 3D prostaspheres and drug resistant ADR1000-DU145 cells, thus circumventing Dox efflux, to overcome chemo-resistance. Successful bLf-Dox conjugation with iron free or iron saturated bLf forms did not affect the integrity and functionality of bLf and Dox. bLf-Dox internalised into DU145 cells within 6 h, enhanced nuclear Dox retention up to 24 h, and proved significantly effective (p < 0.001) in reducing LC50 value of Dox from 5.3 μM to 1.3 μM (4 fold). Orally fed iron saturated bLf-Dox inhibited tumour development, prolonged survival, reduced Dox induced general toxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity in TRAMP mice and upregulated serum levels of anti-cancer molecules TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL4 and CCL17. The study identifies promising potential of a novel and safer bLf-Dox conjugate containing a conventional cytotoxic drug along with bLf protein to target drug resistance. PMID:27576789

  5. Classic Kaposi Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kaposi sarcoma is found in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma occurs in patients who have ... combines treatment for Kaposi sarcoma with treatment for AIDS. For the treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma, combined ...

  6. Primary Ewing Family of Tumors of the Jaw has a better Prognosis compared to Tumors of Extragnathic sites

    PubMed Central

    Owosho, Adepitan A.; Ko, Eugene; Rosenberg, Haley I.; Yom, SaeHee K.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Huryn, Joseph M.; Estilo, Cherry L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw is rare. The aim of this study was to describe new cases of primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw and investigate reported prognostic factors of Ewing sarcoma in this series and treatment outcome. Materials and Methods Six patients with primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw were treated at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from 1992 through 2013. Clinical data, pathology reports, treatment prescribed, treatment regimens, outcome, and follow-up information were reviewed. Results Five of 6 patients were female and 5 cases were in the mandible. No patient presented with metastatic disease at diagnosis. All cases were positive for CD99, and 3 patients with genetic confirmation were positive for EWS-FLI1 fusion or EWSR1 gene rearrangement. All patients received induction multiagent chemotherapy and surgical resection and 2 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Total (grade IV) or nearly total (grade III) tumor necrosis in 3 of 5 patients (60%) assessed for histologic response to chemotherapy indicated intense sensitivity. All patients were alive and free of disease, with no history of local recurrence, at a median follow-up period of 6.5 years. Conclusion Patients with primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw have a good prognosis and metastasis is an uncommon occurrence at initial presentation. PMID:26679553

  7. Surgery for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Surgery for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Depending on the site and stage ... of Soft Tissue Sarcomas, by Stage More In Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma Causes, Risk ...

  8. [Interdisciplinary diagnostic and treatment of bone sarcomas of the extremities and trunk].

    PubMed

    Andreou, D; Hardes, J; Gosheger, G; Henrichs, M-P; Nottrott, M; Streitbürger, A

    2015-04-01

    Contrary to the relatively common benign bone tumours and tumour-like lesions, bone sarcomas are rare malignancies with an incidence of 0.8 new cases per 100 000 persons per year. The most common primary malignant bone tumour is osteosarcoma, followed by chondrosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Osteosarcomas and Ewing sarcomas occur predominantly in children, adolescents and young adults, while chondrosarcomas primarily affect older patients. Most of the tumours are located in the extremities and the pelvis and in about 90% of the cases the surgical treatment can be performed by means of a limb-sparing wide resection. An endoprosthetic or biological reconstruction of the resulting defect, depending on several patient- und tumour-related factors, is usually necessary. Apart from the surgical treatment, patients with osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma require a pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, while Ewing sarcoma patients often undergo radiation therapy as well. Regular follow-up examinations are required after the completion of treatment for the early detection and management of local and/or systemic recurrences as well as treatment-related complications. An extensive experience in the clinical and imaging features as well as the interdisciplinary treatment of these tumours is necessary for optimal patient care. Without it mistakes are often made, which can have grave consequences on the patients' prognosis and functional outcome. The centralised treatment of these patients in specialised sarcoma centres is therefore recommended.

  9. MiR-223/PAX6 Axis Regulates Glioblastoma Stem Cell Proliferation and the Chemo Resistance to TMZ via Regulating PI3K/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bai-Sheng; Luo, Qi-Zhi; Han, Yang; Huang, Dong; Tang, Qing-Ping; Wu, Li-Xiang

    2017-03-23

    Chemotherapy is a standard strategy for glioma, while chemoresistance remains a major therapeutic challenge in current clinical practice. Our present study was aimed to determine whether inhibition of the miR-223/ paired box 6 (PAX6) pathway could increase the sensitivity of glioma to Temozolomide. An elevated level of miR-223 was observed in glioma tissues. Exogenous miR-223 promoted cell survival when exposed to Temozolomide (TMZ), while miR-223 inhibition could reverse this process. The RNA and protein levels of PAX6 were significantly decreased by exogenous miR-223, and the 3'-untranslated region of PAX6 was shown to be a target of miR-223. Besides, it has also been reported that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is pivotal to regulate glioma growth and proliferation. In the present study, we revealed that miR-223/PAX6 axis regulated the growth, invasion and chemo resistance of glioblastoma stem cells to TMZ via regulating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which present a novel potential therapy for intervention of glioblastoma. Taken together, our findings shed new light on the miR-223/PAX6 pathway in glioma and this pathway might modulate the sensitivity of glioma to TMZ via regulating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Celecoxib enhanced the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in chemo-resistant gastric cancer xenograft mouse models through a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Bin; Shen, Fu-Ming; Lv, Qian-Zhou

    2016-04-05

    Our previous study suggested that co-administration of celecoxib increased chemo-sensitivity of multidrug-resistant human gastric cancer SGC-7901/DDP cells to cisplatin (DDP) in vitro. The present study was designed to investigate whether celecoxib had the similar activities in vivo. SGC-7901/DDP and SGC-7901 xenograft mouse models were established. At the end of the experiment, cisplatin treatment alone significantly inhibited tumor growth in SGC-7901 xenograft, as compared with that in SGC-7901/DDP xenograft, suggesting that it maintained cisplatin sensitivity. When cisplatin and celecoxib were co-administrated, their antitumor activities were augmented in SGC-7901/DDP xenograft. The levels of Ki67 and PCNA after combination therapy were significantly decreased in SGC-7901/DDP xenograft, as compared with those of cisplatin treatment alone. Moreover, examining the apoptotic index by TUNEL assay showed similar results. Further studies demonstrated the inhibitory effect of celecoxib on cyclooxygenase-2 and P-glycoprotein expression was the possible reason to increase sensitivity of SGC-7901/DDP cells to cisplatin in vivo. However, the ratio of thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin F1α was elevated after celecoxib treatment in mice. This has been proposed to increase the risk of thrombogenesis. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of celecoxib for reducing chemo-resistance in gastric cancer.

  11. Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Radu, Oana; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-02-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8) infection. Kaposi sarcoma lesions predominantly present at mucocutaneous sites, but may involve all organs and anatomic locations. Recognized epidemiologic-clinical forms of KS include classic, African (endemic), AIDS-associated (epidemic), and iatrogenic KS. New clinical manifestations have been described, such as antiretroviral therapy-related KS regression or flares. Kaposi sarcoma lesions evolve from early (patch stage) macules into plaques (plaque stage) that grow into larger nodules (tumor stage). Newer histologic variants include anaplastic, hyperkeratotic, lymphangioma-like, bullous, telangiectatic, ecchymotic, keloidal, pyogenic granuloma-like, micronodular, intravascular, glomeruloid and pigmented KS, as well as KS with sarcoidlike granulomas and KS with myoid nodules. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (HHV8) is the most specific immunohistochemical marker available to help distinguish KS from its mimics. Since KS remains one of the most common AIDS-defining malignancies, it is important that pathologists be able to recognize KS and its contemporary manifestations.

  12. Ewe Basic Course. Revised Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Irene; And Others

    The purpose of this beginning text in Ewe is to provide the student with an introduction to the structure of the Ewe language and "reasonable practice" in speaking. It is intended to be taught with the assistance of a native speaker of Ewe. Linguistic terminology is minimal. Suggested teaching time ranges from two semesters of class meetings of…

  13. Dasatinib inhibits migration and invasion in diverse human sarcoma cell lines and induces apoptosis in bone sarcoma cells dependent on SRC kinase for survival.

    PubMed

    Shor, Audrey C; Keschman, Elizabeth A; Lee, Francis Y; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Letson, G Douglas; Trent, Jonathan C; Pledger, W Jack; Jove, Richard

    2007-03-15

    Sarcomas are rare malignant mesenchymal tumors for which there are limited treatment options. One potential molecular target for sarcoma treatment is the Src tyrosine kinase. Dasatinib (BMS-354825), a small-molecule inhibitor of Src kinase activity, is a promising cancer therapeutic agent with p.o. bioavailability. Dasatinib exhibits antitumor effects in cultured human cell lines derived from epithelial tumors, including prostate and lung carcinomas. However, the action of dasatinib in mesenchymally derived tumors has yet to be shown. Based on our previous findings of Src activation in human sarcomas, we evaluated the effects of dasatinib in 12 cultured human sarcoma cell lines derived from bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Dasatinib inhibited Src kinase activity at nanomolar concentrations in these sarcoma cell lines. Downstream components of Src signaling, including focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)), were also inhibited at similar concentrations. This inhibition of Src signaling was accompanied by blockade of cell migration and invasion. Moreover, apoptosis was induced in the osteosarcoma and Ewing's subset of bone sarcomas at nanomolar concentrations of dasatinib. Inhibition of Src protein expression by small interfering RNA also induced apoptosis, indicating that these bone sarcoma cell lines are dependent on Src activity for survival. These results show that dasatinib inhibits migration and invasion of diverse sarcoma cell types and selectively blocks the survival of bone sarcoma cells. Therefore, dasatinib may provide therapeutic benefit by preventing the growth and metastasis of sarcomas in patients.

  14. 1982 Maurice Ewing Medalist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwani, Manik

    It is a pleasure to present the citation for this year's Maurice Ewing medalist, John Ewing.John was born in Texas and completed his early education there. During or shortly after high school, he spent 1 year working on a farm. Working on a farm included tinkering with tractors, automobiles, and various other machines. John has told me that this one year of fooling around with machines gave him better training in instrumentation than he subsequently obtained at more hallowed institutions, such as Harvard, where he obtained a B.S. degree in physics. John subsequently took some graduate courses at Columbia. At Columbia a course in mathematics for physics students (which was a disguised course in applied quantum mechanics) had to compete for John's attention with adventures at sea with Maurice Ewing. Adventures at sea won out. Joining John in his march out of graduate school were a number of others who went on to become illustrious scientists.

  15. Combination of 5-fluorouracil and genistein induces apoptosis synergistically in chemo-resistant cancer cells through the modulation of AMPK and COX-2 signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jin-Taek; Ha, Joohun; Park, Ock Jin . E-mail: ojpark@hannam.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the widely used chemotherapeutic drugs targeting various cancers, but its chemo-resistance remains as a major obstacle in clinical settings. In the present study, HT-29 colon cancer cells were markedly sensitized to apoptosis by both 5-FU and genistein compared to the 5-FU treatment alone. There is an emerging evidence that genistein, soy-derived phytoestrogen, may have potential as a chemotherapeutic agent capable of inducing apoptosis or suppressing tumor promoting proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the precise mechanism of cellular cytotoxicity of genistein is not known. The present study focused on the correlation of AMPK and COX-2 in combined cytotoxicity of 5-FU and genistein, since AMPK is known as a primary cellular homeostasis regulator and a possible target molecule of cancer treatment, and COX-2 as cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic molecule. Our results demonstrated that the combination of 5-FU and genistein abolished the up-regulated state of COX-2 and prostaglandin secretion caused by 5-FU treatment in HT-29 colon cancer cells. These appear to be followed by the specific activation of AMPK and the up-regulation of p53, p21, and Bax by genistein. Under same conditions, the induction of Glut-1 by 5-FU was diminished by the combination treatment with 5-FU and genistein. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found as an upstream signal for AMPK activation by genistein. These results suggested that the combination of 5-FU and genistein exert a novel chemotherapeutic effect in colon cancers, and AMPK may be a novel regulatory molecule of COX-2 expression, further implying its involvement in cytotoxicity caused by genistein.

  16. Pediatric Sarcoma in Central America: Outcomes, Challenges and Plans for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Paola; Ortiz, Roberta; Strait, Kelly; Fuentes, Soad; Gamboa, Yéssica; Arambú, Ingrid; Ah-Chu-Sanchez, María; London, Wendy; Rodríguez-Galindo, Carlos; Antillón-Klussmann, Federico; Báez, Fulgencio

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with cancer in middle-income countries have inferior outcomes to those in high-income countries. The magnitude and drivers for this survival gap are not well understood. We sought to describe patterns of clinical presentation, magnitude of treatment abandonment, and survival in children with sarcoma in Central America. Methods Retrospective review of hospital-based registries from national pediatric oncology referral centers. Patients with newly diagnosed osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma (Ewing), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and soft tissue sarcomas (STS) between 1/1/00-12/31/09 were included. Survival analysis was performed using standard definitions of overall and event-free survival (OS and EFS) and with abandonment included as an event (AOS and AEFS). Results A total of 785 new cases of pediatric sarcoma were reported (264 osteosarcoma, 175 Ewing, 240 RMS, and 106 STS). Metastatic disease at presentation was high (osteosarcoma 38%, Ewing 39%, RMS 29% and STS 21%). Treatment abandonment rate was high, particularly among patients with extremity bone sarcomas (osteosarcoma 30%, Ewing 15%, RMS 25% and STS 15%). Of 559 patients experiencing a first event, 59% had either relapse or progressive disease. The 4-year OS was 40% (SE±3%) and EFS was 30% (SE±2%), but further decreased to 31% (SE±2%) and 24% (SE±2%), when abandonment was taken into account. Conclusion High rate of metastases and treatment abandonment, and difficulty with upfront treatment effectiveness are important contributors to poor survival of children with pediatric sarcomas in Central America. Initiatives for early diagnosis, psychosocial support, quality improvement, and multidisciplinary care are warranted to improve outcomes. PMID:22972687

  17. BO-1055, a novel DNA cross-linking agent with remarkable low myelotoxicity shows potent activity in sarcoma models

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Srikanth R.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Pera, Benet; Lopes, Eloisi Caldas; Chaudhry, Anisha; Wong, Elissa W.P.; Saxena, Ashish; Su, Tsann-Long; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2016-01-01

    DNA damaging agents cause rapid shrinkage of tumors and form the basis of chemotherapy for sarcomas despite significant toxicities. Drugs having superior efficacy and wider therapeutic windows are needed to improve patient outcomes. We used cell proliferation and apoptosis assays in sarcoma cell lines and benign cells; γ-H2AX expression, comet assay, immunoblot analyses and drug combination studies in vitro and in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models. BO-1055 caused apoptosis and cell death in a concentration and time dependent manner in sarcoma cell lines. BO-1055 had potent activity (submicromolar IC50) against Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, intermediate activity in DSRCT (IC50 = 2-3μM) and very weak activity in osteosarcoma (IC50 >10μM) cell lines. BO-1055 exhibited a wide therapeutic window compared to other DNA damaging drugs. BO-1055 induced more DNA double strand breaks and γH2AX expression in cancer cells compared to benign cells. BO-1055 showed inhibition of tumor growth in A673 xenografts and caused tumor regression in cyclophosphamide resistant patient-derived Ewing sarcoma xenografts and A204 xenografts. Combination of BO-1055 and irinotecan demonstrated synergism in Ewing sarcoma PDX models. Potent activity on sarcoma cells and its relative lack of toxicity presents a strong rationale for further development of BO-1055 as a therapeutic agent. PMID:27248664

  18. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  19. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kaposi sarcoma is found in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma occurs in patients who have ... combines treatment for Kaposi sarcoma with treatment for AIDS. For the treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma, combined ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kaposi sarcoma is found in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma occurs in patients who have ... combines treatment for Kaposi sarcoma with treatment for AIDS. For the treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma, combined ...

  1. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Forscher, Charles; Mita, Monica; Figlin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing’s sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing’s sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. PMID:24669185

  2. Chromatin H3K27me3/H3K4me3 histone marks define gene sets in high-grade serous ovarian cancer that distinguish malignant, tumour-sustaining and chemo-resistant ovarian tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Chapman-Rothe, N; Curry, E; Zeller, C; Liber, D; Stronach, E; Gabra, H; Ghaem-Maghami, S; Brown, R

    2013-09-19

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, bivalent chromatin domains containing H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks silence developmental genes, while keeping them poised for activation following differentiation. We have identified gene sets associated with H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 marks at transcription start sites in a high-grade ovarian serous tumour and examined their association with epigenetic silencing and malignant progression. This revealed novel silenced bivalent marked genes, not described previously for ES cells, which are significantly enriched for the PI3K (P<10(-7)) and TGF-β signalling pathways (P<10(-5)). We matched histone marked gene sets to gene expression sets of eight normal fallopian tubes and 499 high-grade serous malignant ovarian samples. This revealed a significant decrease in gene expression for the H3K27me3 and bivalent gene sets in malignant tissue. We then correlated H3K27me3 and bivalent gene sets to gene expression data of ovarian tumour 'stem cell-like' sustaining cells versus non-sustaining cells. This showed a significantly lower expression for the H3K27me3 and bivalent gene sets in the tumour-sustaining cells. Similarly, comparison of matched chemo-sensitive and chemo-resistant ovarian cell lines showed a significantly lower expression of H3K27me3/bivalent marked genes in the chemo-resistant compared with the chemo-sensitive cell line. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that bivalent marks are associated with epigenetic silencing in ovarian cancer. However it also suggests that additional tumour specific bivalent marks, to those known in ES cells, are present in tumours and may potentially influence the subsequent development of drug resistance and tumour progression.

  3. Nivolumab With or Without Ipilimumab in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Sarcomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-04

    Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Metastatic Melanoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  4. Can Soft Tissue Sarcomas Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tissue Sarcoma Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Soft Tissue Sarcomas Be Found Early? People who have ... Your Doctor About Soft Tissue Sarcomas? More In Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma Causes, Risk ...

  5. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Unresectable Retroperitoneal Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Serizawa, Itsuko; Kagei, Kenji; Kamada, Tadashi; Imai, Reiko; Sugahara, Shinji; Okada, Tohru; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ito, Hisao; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for unresectable retroperitoneal sarcomas with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Methods and Materials: From May 1997 to February 2006, 24 patients (17 male and 7 female) with unresectable retroperitoneal sarcoma received CIRT. Age ranged from 16 to 77 years (median, 48.6 years). Of the patients, 16 had primary disease and 8 recurrent disease. Histologic diagnoses were as follows: malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 6, liposarcoma in 3, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in 3, Ewing/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in 2, and miscellaneous in 10 patients. The histologic grades were as follows: Grade 3 in 15, Grade 2-3 in 2, Grade 2 in 3, and unknown in 4. Clinical target volumes ranged between 57 cm{sup 3} and 1,194 cm{sup 3} (median 525 cm{sup 3}). The delivered carbon ion dose ranged from 52.8 to 73.6 GyE in 16 fixed fractions over 4 weeks. Results: The median follow-up was 36 months (range, 6-143 months). The overall survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 75% and 50%, respectively. The local control rates at 2 and 5 years were 77% and 69%. No complications of the gastrointestinal tract were encountered. No other toxicity greater than Grade 2 was observed. Conclusions: Use of CIRT is suggested to be effective and safe for retroperitoneal sarcomas. The results obtained with CIRT were a good overall survival rate and local control, notwithstanding the fact that most patients were not eligible for surgical resection and had high-grade sarcomas.

  6. NY-ESO-1 expression in synovial sarcoma and other mesenchymal tumors: significance for NY-ESO-1-based targeted therapy and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Ping; Robbins, Paul F; Raffeld, Mark; Aung, Phyu Phyu; Tsokos, Maria; Rosenberg, Steven A; Miettinen, Markku M; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard

    2012-06-01

    A promising targeted therapy against NY-ESO-1 (CTAG 1B) using genetically modified T-cells in synovial sarcomas was recently demonstrated in a clinical trial at the NCI. To investigate the role of NY-ESO-1 immunohistochemistry in patient selection and gain better insight into the incidence of NY-ESO-1 expression in synovial sarcomas and other mesenchymal tumors, we evaluated NY-ESO-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 417 tumors. This collection of samples included: 50 SS18/SSX1/2 fusion positive synovial sarcomas, 155 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), 135 other spindle cell sarcomas as well as 77 other sarcomas (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, malignant mesothelioma, and Ewing's sarcoma). We report that 76% of synovial sarcomas expressed NY-ESO-1 in a strong and diffuse pattern (2-3+, >50-70% of tumor cells). In contrast, only rare cases of other spindle cell mesenchymal tumor expressed NY-ESO-1 (GIST (2/155), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (1/34), and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (2/20)). Individual cases of other sarcomas (angiosarcoma, malignant mesothelioma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma) were positive for NY-ESO-1. However, no positive cases were identified amongst our cohort of leiomyosarcomas (0/24), hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumors (0/40), and cellular schwannomas (0/17). In summary, we find that NY-ESO-1 is strongly and diffusely expressed in a majority of synovial sarcomas, but only rarely in other mesenchymal lesions. Beyond its role in patient selection for targeted therapy, immunohistochemistry for NY-ESO-1 may be diagnostically useful for the distinction of synovial sarcoma from other spindle cell neoplasms.

  7. The soft tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Eilber, F.R.; Morton, D.L.; Sondak, V.K.; Economou, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    New advances in multimodality therapy of sarcomas in all anatomic sites are thoroughly described. Multimodality therapy with limb-salvage surgery for extremity tumors, sarcomas of the head and neck, trunk, intraabdominal, visceral, and genitourinary tract and cardiopulmonary system are presented. Separate sections are devoted to the management of pediatric sarcomas, pulmonary metastasis and to the pathology and radiobiology, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy of sarcomas. The text also stresses the philosophy of achieving adequate local control without radical amputation by combined surgery and chemo/radiotherapy.

  8. Trabectedin Followed by Irinotecan Can Stabilize Disease in Advanced Translocation-Positive Sarcomas with Acceptable Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    von Klot-Heydenfeldt, F.; Jabar, S.; Ranft, A.; Rossig, C.; Dirksen, U.; Van den Brande, J.; D'Incalci, M.; von Luettichau, I.; Grohar, P. J.; Berdel, W. E.; Burdach, St.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preclinical data indicate that trabectedin followed by irinotecan has strong synergistic effects on Ewing sarcoma. This is presumably due to hypersensitization of the tumor cells to the camptothecin as an effect of trabectedin in addition to synergistic suppression of EWS-FLI1 downstream targets. A strong effect was also reported in a human rhabdomyosarcoma xenograft. Procedure. Twelve patients with end-stage refractory translocation-positive sarcomas were treated with trabectedin followed by irinotecan within a compassionate use program. Eight patients had Ewing sarcoma and four patients had other translocation-positive sarcomas. Results. Three-month survival rate was 0.75 after the start of this therapy. One patient achieved a partial response according to RECIST criteria, five had stable disease, and the remaining six progressed through therapy. The majority of patients experienced significant hematological toxicity (grades 3 and 4). Reversible liver toxicity and diarrhea also occurred. Conclusions. Our experience with the combination of trabectedin followed with irinotecan in patients with advanced sarcomas showed promising results in controlling refractory solid tumors. While the hematological toxicity was significant, it was reversible. Quality of life during therapy was maintained. These observations encourage a larger clinical trial. PMID:27843394

  9. Metformin as an Adjuvant Drug against Pediatric Sarcomas: Hypoxia Limits Therapeutic Effects of the Drug

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Cecilia; Capristo, Mariantonietta; Manara, Maria Cristina; Mancarella, Caterina; Landuzzi, Lorena; Belfiore, Antonino; Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Picci, Piero; Scotlandi, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Metformin, a well-known insulin-sensitizer commonly used for type 2 diabetes therapy, has recently emerged as potentially very attractive drug also in oncology. It is cheap, it is relatively safe and many reports have indicated effects in cancer prevention and therapy. These desirable features are particularly interesting for pediatric sarcomas, a group of rare tumors that have been shown to be dependent on IGF and insulin system for pathogenesis and progression. Metformin exerts anti-mitogenic activity in several cancer histotypes through several molecular mechanisms. In this paper, we analyzed its effects against osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, the three most common pediatric sarcomas. Despite in vitro metformin gave remarkable antiproliferative and chemosensitizing effects both in sensitive and chemoresistant cells, its efficacy was not confirmed against Ewing sarcoma xenografts neither as single agent nor in combination with vincristine. This discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo effects may be due to hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors. We provide evidences that in hypoxia conditions metformin was not able to activate AMPK and inhibit mTOR signaling, which likely prevents the inhibitory effects of metformin on tumor growth. Thus, although metformin may be considered a useful complement of conventional chemotherapy in normoxia, its therapeutic value in highly hypoxic tumors may be more limited. The impact of hypoxia should be considered when novel therapies are planned for pediatric sarcomas. PMID:24391834

  10. [Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Bourry, N; Chabrot, P; Jeannin, G; Filaire, M; Charpy, C; Bay, J O; Kemeny, J L; Caillaud, D; Escande, G; Boyer, L

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor. We present a case of intimal sarcoma arising from right pulmonary artery and left lower pulmonary vein observed in a 44-year-old man with a non-productive cough. Computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging showing filling defect enhancement contributed early, suggesting the diagnosis of primary vascular tumor, hypothesis confirmed by pathologist findings.

  11. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of

  12. Pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Shanda H; Reardon, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Primary heart tumors are rare, and malignant primary heart tumors are only a small subset of these. Most primary malignant tumors are sarcomas arising from the cells of the structural elements of the heart such as blood vessels, muscle, connective tissue, fat and even bone. Unlike most malignancies, where cell type often dictates treatment choices and prognosis and is used for classification, the histology in primary cardiac sarcoma plays little role in determining therapeutic options or prognosis. We have found that anatomic location within the heart is the major determining factor in clinical presentation, treatment options and prognosis in cardiac sarcoma. Therefore, we accordingly classify primary cardiac sarcomas into right heart sarcomas, left heart sarcomas and pulmonary artery (PA) sarcomas. Since the first autopsy report of a primary PA sarcoma in 1923, there have been fewer than 250 cases reported in the English literature. Most of these reports have been single autopsy or case reports, and patient prognosis has generally been dismal. Since few institutions and even fewer individual physicians acquire much exposure to this disease, the diagnostic and treatment approaches have remained unresolved. Our cardiac sarcoma group working at the Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center and the MD Anderson Cancer Center has undertaken a systematic study of this disease, and operated on 9 patients using a radical resection with curative intent and multimodality approach. Based on this work, we have suggested a diagnostic strategy, treatment approach and staging system for primary PA sarcoma. A substantial improvement in patient survival over historical controls has also been demonstrated and will be discussed in this review.

  13. CNS Metastases from Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: Are They Really So Rare?

    PubMed Central

    Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Duczkowski, Marek; Bragoszewska, Hanna; Romaniuk-Doroszewska, Anna; Iwanowska, Beata; Szkudlinska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Madzik, Jaroslaw; Bilska, Katarzyna; Raciborska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To check whether primary involvement of brain/spinal cord by bone/soft tissue sarcomas' metastases in children is as rare as described and to present various morphological forms of bone/soft tissue sarcomas' CNS metastases. Methods. Patients with first diagnosis in 1999–2014 treated at single center were included with whole course of disease evaluation. Brain/spinal canal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography were performed in cases suspicious for CNS metastases. Extension from skull/vertebral column metastases was excluded. Results. 550 patients were included. MRI revealed CNS metastases in 19 patients (incidence 3.45%), 14 boys, aged 5–22 years. There were 12/250 osteosarcoma cases, 2/200 Ewing's sarcoma, 1/50 chondrosarcoma, 3/49 rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and 1/1 malignant mesenchymoma. There were 10 single metastases and 7 cases of multiple ones; in 2 RMS cases only leptomeningeal spread in brain and spinal cord was found. Calcified metastases were found in 3 patients and hemorrhagic in 4. In one RMS patient there were numerous solid, cystic, hemorrhagic lesions and leptomeningeal spread. Conclusions. CNS metastases are rare and late in children with bone/soft tissue sarcomas, although in our material more frequent (3.45%) than in other reports (0.7%). Hematogenous spread to brain and hemorrhagic and calcified lesions dominated in osteosarcoma. Ewing sarcoma tended to metastasize to skull bones. Soft tissue sarcomas presented various morphological forms. PMID:28243595

  14. Sarcomas With CIC-rearrangements are a Distinct Pathologic Entity With Aggressive Outcome: A Clinicopathologic and Molecular Study of 115 Cases.

    PubMed

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Owosho, Adepitan A; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Sonja; Deniz, Kemal; Huryn, Joseph M; Kao, Yu-Chien; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Singer, Samuel; Tap, William; Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Fletcher, Christopher D

    2017-03-24

    CIC-DUX4 gene fusion, resulting from either a t(4;19) or t(10;19) translocation, is the most common genetic abnormality detected in EWSR1-negative small blue round cell tumors. Following their discovery it was debated if these tumors should be classified as variants of Ewing sarcoma (ie, atypical Ewing sarcoma) or as a stand-alone pathologic entity. As such the WHO classification temporarily grouped the CIC-rearranged tumors under undifferentiated sarcomas with round cell phenotype, until further clinical evidence was available. However, most studies reported so far include small series with limited follow-up information, which preclude a more definitive assessment. The present work investigates the clinicopathologic features of a large cohort of sarcomas with CIC gene rearrangement, to define their clinical presentation, morphologic spectrum, and outcome. Our study further examines the overall survival of the CIC-positive cohort compared with a control group of EWSR1-rearranged Ewing sarcoma matched for age and stage. The study cohort included 115 patients, with a mean age of 32 years and a slight male predominance. Most tumors occurred in the soft tissue (86%), predominantly deep-seated and equally divided among trunk and extremity, followed by visceral locations (12%) and rarely in the bone (3%). Microscopically, most tumors showed round to ovoid cytomorphology but half of the cases showed also focal areas of spindling and epithelioid/rhabdoid phenotype, with frequent myxoid stromal changes. Variable CD99 reactivity was seen in 84% cases, with a diffuse pattern only in 23% of cases, whereas nuclear WT1 was seen in 92%. A CIC-DUX4 fusion was detected in 57% of cases, with either DUX4 on 4q35 (35%) or on 10q26 in 25 (22%) cases. No FOXO4 gene rearrangements were present in 39 cases tested. Clinical follow-up was available in 57 patients, with a 5-year survival of 43%, which was significantly lower than the 77% 5-year survival in the control Ewing sarcoma group (P

  15. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation. PMID:26425600

  16. Survival by Stage of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival by Stage of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Survival rates are often used by ... Your Doctor About Soft Tissue Sarcomas? More In Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma Causes, Risk ...

  17. Immunosuppressive Therapy-Related Kaposi Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kaposi sarcoma is found in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma occurs in patients who have ... combines treatment for Kaposi sarcoma with treatment for AIDS. For the treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma, combined ...

  18. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative complications, and recurrence within 5 years follow-up. The database is also a valuable research tool to study the impact of technical and medical interventions on prognosis of sarcoma patients. PMID:27822116

  19. Wastage of ova in young Merino ewes.

    PubMed

    de Blockey, M A; Parr, R A; Restall, B J

    1975-06-01

    Eight sub-flocks each of 48 to 51 Merino ewes were mated for 18 days with 1 ram to each subflock. Four of the sub-flocks were of non-parous 1.5-year-old ewes and the other 4 were of parous 2.5-year-old ewes. Fertilisation rates for the subflocks of 1.5-year-old ewes varied from 83 to 94%, and the sub-flocks of 2.5-year-old ewes ranged from 81 to 94%. By day 29 post coitum 42% and 56% of 1.5-year-old ewes in sub-flocks 1 and 2 respectively were no longer pregnant. Embryonic mortality was low in other sub-flocks of 1.5- and 2.5-year-old ewes. Virtually all embryonic death occurred after day 12 post coitum. The sporadic occurrence of high ova wastage in maiden 1.5-year-old ewes in this experiment and in others is discussed in relation to the short duration of oestrus in young ewes and the great variation in service activity of rams.

  20. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stockl, F.; Dolmetsch, A.; Saornil, M; Font, R.; Burnier, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a localised tumour composed of cells of myeloid origin. Histological diagnosis can be difficult in patients with poorly differentiated orbital tumours and no evidence of systemic leukaemia. The naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase (Leder stain) and immunohistochemical stains for lysozyme and MAC387 were used to determine the staining characteristics of these tumours. A case series of seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma is presented.
METHODS—Seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma were studied. Haematoxylin and eosin, Leder, and lysozyme stained sections were available in seven cases. Unstained formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of seven cases were available for immunohistochemical evaluation using the avidin-biotin-complex technique for MAC387.
RESULTS—The mean age of presentation of the orbital tumour was 8.8 years. Four patients presented with an orbital tumour before any systemic manifestations of leukaemia. In two cases the diagnosis of the orbital tumour and systemic leukaemia was made simultaneously. There was one case of established systemic myeloid leukaemia in remission with the subsequent development of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. Six of seven cases (86%) were positive for the Leder stain. Five of seven cases (71%) showed positive immunoreactivity with lysozyme. The immunohistochemical stain for MAC387 was positive in all seven cases (100%) including one case that was negative for both lysozyme and Leder stains.
CONCLUSIONS—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a tumour that affects children and can present with rapidly progressive proptosis. This tumour may develop before, during, or after the occurrence of systemic leukaemia. The combination of Leder and lysozyme stains is useful in the diagnosis of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. MAC387 may be a more reliable marker for orbital granulocytic sarcoma.

 PMID:9497470

  1. Studies of pituitary function in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Restall, B J; Kearins, R D; Starr, B G

    1977-03-01

    The release of LH from the pituitary of lactating ewes was studied. In Exp. 1, ewes were injected with 50 microng oestradiol benzoate (OB), 2-0 mg testosterone propionate (TP) or oil only (control) on days 5, 10, or 20 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples obtained 20-38 h after treatment, and the ovulations were recorded. The number of ewes in which an LH release was detected, and the amount released, declined between Day 5 and 20 after OB treatment but increased after TP treatment. The releases of LH were not always accompanied by ovulation and the incidence of ovulation was higher in ewes treated with TP. In Exp. 2, lactating ewes were injected with 1 or 5 (at 2-h intervals) doses of 50 microng Gn-RH, on Days 12 or 25 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples collected every 2 h for 10 h and every 3 h for a further 70 h. Release of LH occurred in all ewes, the amount being greater in ewes receiving multiple injections and in ewes treated on Day 25. The incidence of ovulation was higher after treatment on Day 25. Multiple injections of Gn-RH appeared to reduce the incidence of abnormal corpora lutea.

  2. Systemic therapy for cardiac sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Vinod; Benjamin, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sarcomas create 2 risks: local problems and metastatic disease. Most frequently, the histologies are angiosarcoma and high-grade pleomorphic unclassified sarcoma (formerly called MFH or malignant fibrous histiocytoma). There is also a clinical-pathological entity without distinctive histological features of tumors that originate in the pulmonary artery and are referred to as pulmonary artery sarcomas or intimal sarcomas of the pulmonary artery. Conventional wisdom indicates that soft-tissue sarcomas are poorly responsive to chemotherapy. Luckily, that is not the case. Attempts to concentrate on the local problem only with therapies up to and including cardiac transplantation have been unsuccessful due to the high rate of fatal metastatic disease.

  3. [Moritz Kaposi and his sarcoma].

    PubMed

    van Kessel, Anne; Quint, Koen D

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, Kaposi sarcoma is a multidisciplinary condition, not only observed by dermatologists. Since the HIV epidemic in the 80s and 90s of the last century, more insight into the aetiology of Kaposi sarcoma has been acquired. However, this sarcoma had already been described in 1872 by a Hungarian dermatologist named Moritz Kaposi (1832-1902). Kaposi described the entity as 'idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin'. This entity was an extraordinary diagnosis at that time, mostly observed in Jewish or Mediterranean men. In 1912, 10 years after the death of Moritz Kaposi, the entity name was changed to Kaposi sarcoma.

  4. IGF1R- and ROR1-Specific CAR T Cells as a Potential Therapy for High Risk Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Park, Haein; Greene, Joseph; Pao, James; Mulvey, Erin; Zhou, Sophia X; Albert, Catherine M; Moy, Fred; Sachdev, Deepali; Yee, Douglas; Rader, Christoph; Hamby, Carl V; Loeb, David M; Cairo, Mitchell S; Zhou, Xianzheng

    2015-01-01

    Patients with metastatic or recurrent and refractory sarcomas have a dismal prognosis. Therefore, new targeted therapies are urgently needed. This study was designed to evaluate chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) or tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) molecules for their therapeutic potential against sarcomas. Here, we report that IGF1R (15/15) and ROR1 (11/15) were highly expressed in sarcoma cell lines including Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, alveolar or embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from eight healthy donors using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system were cytotoxic against sarcoma cells and produced high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-13 in an antigen-specific manner. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells generated from three sarcoma patients released significant amounts of IFN-γ in response to sarcoma stimulation. The adoptive transfer of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from a sarcoma patient significantly reduced tumor growth in pre-established, systemically disseminated and localized osteosarcoma xenograft models in NSG mice. Infusion of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells also prolonged animal survival in a localized sarcoma model using NOD/scid mice. Our data indicate that both IGF1R and ROR1 can be effectively targeted by SB modified CAR T cells and that such CAR T cells may be useful in the treatment of high risk sarcoma patients.

  5. IGF1R- and ROR1-Specific CAR T Cells as a Potential Therapy for High Risk Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Park, Haein; Greene, Joseph; Zhou, Sophia X.; Albert, Catherine M.; Moy, Fred; Sachdev, Deepali; Yee, Douglas; Rader, Christoph; Hamby, Carl V.; Loeb, David M.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Zhou, Xianzheng

    2015-01-01

    Patients with metastatic or recurrent and refractory sarcomas have a dismal prognosis. Therefore, new targeted therapies are urgently needed. This study was designed to evaluate chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) or tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) molecules for their therapeutic potential against sarcomas. Here, we report that IGF1R (15/15) and ROR1 (11/15) were highly expressed in sarcoma cell lines including Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, alveolar or embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from eight healthy donors using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system were cytotoxic against sarcoma cells and produced high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-13 in an antigen-specific manner. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells generated from three sarcoma patients released significant amounts of IFN-γ in response to sarcoma stimulation. The adoptive transfer of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from a sarcoma patient significantly reduced tumor growth in pre-established, systemically disseminated and localized osteosarcoma xenograft models in NSG mice. Infusion of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells also prolonged animal survival in a localized sarcoma model using NOD/scid mice. Our data indicate that both IGF1R and ROR1 can be effectively targeted by SB modified CAR T cells and that such CAR T cells may be useful in the treatment of high risk sarcoma patients. PMID:26173023

  6. 17-N-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin in Treating Patients With Advanced Epithelial Cancer, Malignant Lymphoma, or Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-06

    AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Primary CNS Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Chondrosarcoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage IV Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IV Small

  7. Management of Bone Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Christina J; Basu-Mallick, Atrayee; Abraham, John A

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of bone sarcoma requires careful planning and involvement of an experienced multidisciplinary team. Significant advancements in systemic therapy, radiation, and surgery in recent years have contributed to improved functional and survival outcomes for patients with these difficult tumors, and emerging technologies hold promise for further advancement.

  8. Leukosis/Sarcoma Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leukosis/sarcoma (L/S) group of diseases designates a variety of transmissible benign and malignant neoplasms of chickens caused by members that belong to the family Retroviridae. Because the expansion of the literature on this disease, it is no longer feasible to cite all relevant publications ...

  9. Microenvironmental Targets in Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ehnman, Monika; Larsson, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting all age groups. They are typically classified according to their resemblance to corresponding normal tissue. Their heterogeneous features, for example, in terms of disease-driving genetic aberrations and body location, complicate both disease classification and development of novel treatment regimens. Many years of failure of improved patient outcome in clinical trials has led to the conclusion that novel targeted therapies are likely needed in combination with current multimodality regimens. Sarcomas have not, in contrast to the common carcinomas, been the subject of larger systematic studies on how tumor behavior relates to characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. There is consequently an urgent need for identifying suitable molecular targets, not only in tumor cells but also in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses preclinical and clinical data about potential molecular targets in sarcomas. Studies on targeted therapies involving the tumor microenvironment are prioritized. A greater understanding of the biological context is expected to facilitate more successful design of future clinical trials in sarcoma. PMID:26583076

  10. Chemo Resistance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    in xenograft models as well as in neoadjuvant trial are providing strong support for our hypothesis for resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy...the tumor and thus may contribute to relapse following therapy. This was to be accomplished by utilizing mouse xenograft models as well as markers...and future clinical studies. Our preliminary results both in xenograft models as well as in the neoadjuvant trial support our hypothesis for

  11. Chemo Resistance of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Thus PTEN deficiency results in myeloproliferative disorders and eventually leukemia (112, 113). The most recent study by He et al, using...Gateff E. Malignant neoplasms of genetic origin in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 1978 Jun 30;200(4349):1448-59. 48. Nusslein-Volhard C, Wieschaus

  12. Immunotherapy of Childhood Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Stephen S.; Chou, Alexander J.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of bone and soft tissue origin. Although more than 100 different histologic subtypes have been described, the majority of pediatric cases belong to the Ewing’s family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma. Most patients that present with localized stage are curable with surgery and/or chemotherapy; however, those with metastatic disease at diagnosis or those who experience a relapse continue to have a very poor prognosis. New therapies for these patients are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an established treatment modality for both liquid and solid tumors, and in pediatrics, most notably for neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. In the past, immunomodulatory agents such as interferon, interleukin-2, and liposomal-muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl-ethanolamine have been tried, with some activity seen in subsets of patients; additionally, various cancer vaccines have been studied with possible benefit. Monoclonal antibody therapies against tumor antigens such as disialoganglioside GD2 or immune checkpoint targets such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 are being actively explored in pediatric sarcomas. Building on the success of adoptive T cell therapy for EBV-related lymphoma, strategies to redirect T cells using chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies are rapidly evolving with potential for the treatment of sarcomas. This review will focus on recent preclinical and clinical developments in targeted agents for pediatric sarcomas with emphasis on the immunobiology of immune checkpoints, immunoediting, tumor microenvironment, antibody engineering, cell engineering, and tumor vaccines. The future integration of antibody-based and cell-based therapies into an overall treatment strategy of sarcoma will be discussed. PMID:26301204

  13. What Happens After Treatment for Soft Tissue Sarcomas?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sarcoma After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Soft Tissue Sarcomas? For some people with soft tissue ... for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Stops Working More In Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma Causes, Risk ...

  14. To Find a Safe Dose and Show Early Clinical Activity of Weekly Nab-paclitaxel in Pediatric Patients With Recurrent/ Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-02

    Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Ewing's Sarcoma; Ewing's Tumor; Sarcoma, Ewing's; Sarcomas, Epitheliod; Sarcoma, Soft Tissue; Sarcoma, Spindle Cell; Melanoma; Malignant Melanoma; Clinical Oncology; Oncology, Medical; Pediatrics, Osteosarcoma; Osteogenic Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma Tumor; Sarcoma, Osteogenic; Tumors; Cancer; Neoplasia; Neoplasm; Histiocytoma; Fibrosarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma

  15. Doxorubicin With Upfront Dexrazoxane Plus Olaratumab for the Treatment of Advanced or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-14

    Sarcoma, Soft Tissue; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Leiomyosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Synovial Sarcoma; Myxofibrosarcoma; Angiosarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Epithelioid Sarcoma

  16. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Pincus, David W.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  17. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Zhang, Chong; Feng, Zhiying; Ni, Yiming

    2008-08-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 73-year-old male patient with a two-week history of palpitations and shortness of breath, aggravated for two days and was believed to be pulmonary hypertension. Emergency heart ultrasound after admission presented a massive pulmonary embolism in the pulmonary artery. The patient's condition was successfully managed with urgent pulmonary artery embolectomy. The patient demonstrated improvement in hemodynamics after the operation. Histologic and immunohistochemical assays were performed and a diagnosis was made as primary pulmonary artery sarcoma arising from the left pulmonary artery. Resection of the tumor is recommended for the treatment of this rare malignant tumor. The corresponding chemotherapy, follow-up and prognosis are described as well in this case report.

  18. [Brachytherapy for sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Ducassou, A; Haie-Méder, C; Delannes, M

    2016-10-01

    The standard of care for local treatment for extremities soft tissue sarcomas relies on conservative surgery combined with external beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy can be realized instead of external beam radiotherapy in selected cases, or more often used as a boost dose on a limited volume on the area at major risk of relapse, especially if a microscopic positive resection is expected. Close interaction and communication between radiation oncologists and surgeons are mandatory at the time of implantation to limit the risk of side effects. Long-term results are available for low-dose rate brachytherapy. Nowadays, pulsed dose rate or high-dose-rate brachytherapy are more often used. Brachytherapy for paediatric sarcomas is rare, and has to be managed in reference centres.

  19. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Jiang; Dai, Yi-Ling; Zhang, Wen-Biao; Li, Shuang-Jiang; Tu, Chong-Qi

    2017-02-01

    The prognostic significance of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas remains controversial. To investigate the impact of its expression on survival and clinicopathological features, we performed a meta-analysis. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library for relevant studies. In total, 12 studies with 997 sarcoma patients were included. CXCR4 expression was found to be significantly associated with poor overall survival (HR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.86-3.01; P < 0.001). Further, when the analysis was stratified by histological subtypes (bony sarcoma including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma including synovial sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma), statistical analysis method (multivariate analysis and univariate analysis) and CXCR4 measuring method (IHC or RT-PCR), the significant correlation to poor overall survival was also observed except for that in Ewing sarcoma and RT-PCR groups. As for clinicopathological features, CXCR4 expression was significantly associated with higher rate of metastasis (OR 6.97, 95 % CI 2.28-21.31; P = 0.001) and higher tumor stage (OR 7.55, 95 % CI 1.25-45.47; P = 0.027), but not associated with gender, age and tumor site. In conclusion, CXCR4 expression may be an effective predictive factor of poor prognosis and clinicopathological features for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Further studies are needed to validate our findings.

  20. Giant retroperitoneal sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Ianoşi, G; Neagoe, Daniela; Buteică, Elena; Ianoşi, Simona; Drighiciu, Corina; Stănoiu, B; Burada, F; Mercuţ, D

    2007-01-01

    Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare malignant tumors, which are developing from mesenchymal stem cells residing in muscle, fat, and connective tissues. Underlying the rarity of this kind of tumors in general population, the aim of this paper is to present three cases of retroperitoneal sarcomas operated in Surgical Department of Military Hospital of Craiova (a retroperitoneal liposarcoma, a dedifferentiated liposarcoma and a malignant fibrous histiocytoma). From clinical point of view, we note the poverty of symptoms and non-specificity of these and a great tolerability of retroperitoneal space that offers the possibility for a great development of the tumor. CT-scan and MRI are the best investigations for diagnosis but surgical exploration is the best way for a good evaluation of these tumors. From histological point of view, we try to present new features about these kinds of tumors in order to classify them. Results of surgery correlated with complementary therapies were good without per-operative mortality or postoperative morbidity but we noted a recidive of one tumor (with different histological pattern) 21 months after the surgical intervention. The rarity of retroperitoneal sarcomas, combined with the vast array of histologic subtypes, has complicated our understanding of these tumors and impeded the development of effective therapies.

  1. An aza-macrocycle containing maltolic side-arms (maltonis) as potential drug against human pediatric sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identification of new drugs against paediatric sarcomas represents an urgent clinical need that mainly relies on public investments due to the rarity of these diseases. In this paper we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a new maltol derived molecule (maltonis), belonging to the family of molecules named hydroxypyrones. Methods Maltonis was screened for its ability to induce structural alteration of DNA molecules in comparison to another maltolic molecule (malten). In vitro antitumour efficacy was tested using a panel of sarcoma cell lines, representative of Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, the three most common paediatric sarcomas, and in normal human mesenchymal primary cell cultures. In vivo efficacy was tested against TC-71 Ewing sarcoma xenografts. Results Maltonis, a soluble maltol-derived synthetic molecule, was able to alter the DNA structure, inhibit proliferation and induce apoptotic cell death in paediatric sarcoma cells, either sensitive or resistant to some conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, such as doxorubicin and cisplatin. In addition, maltonis was able to induce: i) p21, p15 and Gadd45a mRNA upregulation; ii) Bcl-2, survivin, CDK6 and CDK8 down-regulation; iii) formation of γ-H2AX nuclear foci; iv) cleavage of PARP and Caspase 3. Two independent in vivo experiments demonstrated the tolerability and efficacy of maltonis in the inhibition of tumour growth. Finally maltonis was not extruded by ABCB1, one of the major determinants of chemotherapy failure, nor appeared to be a substrate of the glutathione-related detoxification system. Conclusions Considering that treatment of poorly responsive patients still suffers for the paucity of agents able to revert chemoresistance, maltonis may be considered for the future development of new therapeutic approaches for refractory metastatic patients. PMID:24575739

  2. Comparison of energy rationing systems for late gestation ewes: Impacts on ewe and lamb performance.

    PubMed

    Campion, F P; McGovern, F M; Lott, S; Fahey, A G; Creighton, P; Boland, T M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the effects of a ME () or a NE () system for rationing ewes during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance and 2) to investigate incremental increases in NE allocation above 100% of recommendation during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance. Fifty-two twin-bearing ewes ( = 13 per treatment) were rationed to either 100% of recommended ME requirements (100% ME) or 100, 110, or 120% of recommended NE requirements (100% NE, 110% NE, and 120% NE) from d 112 of gestation to parturition. Mean energy intake, measured as ME and NE, from Day 112 of gestation to parturition was higher in all NE treatments compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.01). Ewes offered the 3 NE treatments had a higher live weight at parturition compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.02), with 100% NE and 120% NE ewes still being heavier than 100% ME ewes at 35 d postpartum ( = 0.02). Increasing NE allowance resulted in a linear decrease in the level of BCS loss prepartum ( = 0.01) and a linear increase in the level of BCS loss postpartum ( = 0.01). There was no difference observed between any of the treatments in total colostrum produced to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.29) or in total colostrum intake to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.27). Increasing maternal NE allowance led to a linear increase in lamb serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum ( = 0.03). The estimated milk production of 120% NE ewes tended to be higher than all other treatments at wk 6 of lactation ( = 0.08). Colostral SFA levels from 100% ME ewes was lower than that of all 3 NE treatments ( = 0.01), and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels in colostrum of the 100% ME ewes were lower than those of the 100% NE ewes ( = 0.01). Cumulative levels of milk SFA, UFA, and MUFA did not differ between treatments ( = 0.19). Lamb growth rates during the first 5 wk postpartum were unaffected by treatment ( = 0.18) as were days to slaughter ( = 0.34). It can be concluded that both ME and NE systems used in this

  3. Altering ewe nutrition in late gestation: I. The impact on pre- and postpartum ewe performance.

    PubMed

    McGovern, F M; Campion, F P; Lott, S; Boland, T M

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of offering a single diet rationed to 80% (80% ME), 100% (100% ME), or 120% (120% ME) of recommended ME requirements from d 119 of gestation to lambing, with concurrent changes in other dietary nutrients. The effects on pre- and postpartum ewe performance, including estimated milk yield and milk fatty acid concentrations, were monitored. Sixty twin-bearing ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 20 per treatment) and individually fed for the final 4 wk of gestation. Metabolizable energy requirements were individually calculated for each ewe and amended according to treatment. Ewes were rationed daily on the basis of their treatment ME allocation, which led to concurrent alterations in other nutrient intakes. Diets were grass silage based and supplemented with concentrates to meet treatment ME allocation on an individual ewe basis. Ewes offered the 80% ME treatment had a lower liveweight ( = 0.04) and BCS ( = 0.03) at 24 h postpartum when compared with ewes offered the 120% ME diet. Although there was no difference in liveweight at either d 40 ( = 0.18) or 98 postpartum ( = 0.20), the difference in BCS persisted until d 40 postpartum ( = 0.02). Colostrum yield at 1 h postpartum ( = 0.03) and total yield up to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.04) was greater for ewes offered the 120% ME diet than either of the other treatment groups. Similarly, these ewes had a greater estimated milk yield during wk 3 of lactation ( = 0.04) and elevated concentrations of short-chain SFA ( = 0.02) and long-chain SFA ( ≤ 0.05) from wk 2 through 6 of lactation. In summary, the negative impact of applying a dietary insult to ewes in late gestation is reflected in colostrum and estimated milk yield and fatty acid composition, thus potentially influencing postpartum growth and development of the offspring.

  4. Surgical treatment of uterine sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare, heterogeneous malignant tumours of several histologic types originating from mesenchymal tissues of the uterus. The most common histologic types are carcinosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and endometrial stromal sarcoma, accounting for 90% of uterine sarcomas. To date, no effective treatment has been found to achieve a high rate of cure or prolong survival. Although complete surgical excision of the tumour is the only curative treatment modality, the rarity of these tumours and their diversity of histologic types have precluded the development of standard surgical strategies. Surgery may also be optimal for recurrent uterine sarcomas, but indications for secondary surgical treatment have not been established. Here, we describe recent changes in, and updates of, the surgical treatment of the three most common types of malignant uterine sarcomas.

  5. EWS/FLI-1 silencing and gene profiling of Ewing cells reveal downstream oncogenic pathways and a crucial role for repression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Alexandre; Tirode, Franck; Cohen, Pinchas; Delattre, Olivier

    2004-08-01

    Ewing tumors are characterized by abnormal transcription factors resulting from the oncogenic fusion of EWS with members of the ETS family, most commonly FLI-1. RNA interference targeted to the junction between EWS and FLI-1 sequences was used to inactivate the EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene in Ewing cells and to explore the resulting phenotype and alteration of the gene expression profile. Loss of expression of EWS/FLI-1 resulted in the complete arrest of growth and was associated with a dramatic increase in the number of apoptotic cells. Gene profiling of Ewing cells in which the EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene had been inactivated identified downstream targets which could be grouped in two major functional clusters related to extracellular matrix structure or remodeling and regulation of signal transduction pathways. Among these targets, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 gene (IGFBP-3), a major regulator of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) proliferation and survival signaling, was strongly induced upon treating Ewing cells with EWS/FLI-1-specific small interfering RNAs. We show that EWS/FLI-1 can bind the IGFBP-3 promoter in vitro and in vivo and can repress its activity. Moreover, IGFBP-3 silencing can partially rescue the apoptotic phenotype caused by EWS/FLI-1 inactivation. Finally, IGFBP-3-induced Ewing cell apoptosis relies on both IGF-1-dependent and -independent pathways. These findings therefore identify the repression of IGFBP-3 as a key event in the development of Ewing's sarcoma.

  6. Sex of littermate twin affects lifetime ewe productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ewe productivity is synonymous with annual litter-weight weaned (LWW) per ewe exposed to rams for breeding, and LWW is largely a function of number of lambs born (NLB) and weaned (NLW). Selecting for LWW should increase litter size and numbers of ewe-ram co-twins. Thus, we used historical records to...

  7. Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozelka, Paul R.

    This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

  8. Radiotherapy in Ewing tumors of the vertebrae: Treatment results and local relapse analysis of the Chess 81/86 and EICESS 92 trials

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, Andreas . E-mail: schuck@uni-muenster.de; Ahrens, Susanne; Schorlemer, Ines von; Kuhlen, Michaela; Paulussen, Michael; Hunold, Andrea; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried; Dunst, Juergen; Willich, Normann; Juergens, Heribert

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Treatment results in patients with Ewing tumors of the vertebrae enrolled in the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81, 86, and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (EICESS) 92 trials were analyzed with special emphasis on radiation-associated factors. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 116 patients with primary tumors of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae treated between 1981 and 1999. Furthermore, a relapse analysis was done on those patients who underwent radiotherapy and subsequently had a local recurrence. Results: A total of 64.6% of the patients received definitive radiotherapy; 27.5% of patients had surgery and radiotherapy. Only 4 patients (3.4%) underwent definitive surgery. Twenty-seven patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. 22.4% of the total group developed a local relapse. Among the subgroup with definitive radiotherapy, local recurrence was seen in 17 of 75 patients (22.6%). Event-free survival and survival at 5 years were 47% and 58%, respectively. Of the 14 evaluable patients with a local relapse after radiotherapy, 13 were in-field. No correlation between radiation dose and local control could be found. Conclusion: Surgery with wide resection margins is rarely possible. The results after definitive radiotherapy in vertebral tumors are comparable to those of other tumor sites when definitive radiotherapy is given. Nearly all local relapses after radiotherapy are in-field.

  9. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  10. What's New in Soft Tissue Sarcomas Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma What's New in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Research and Treatment? Research ... develop. This information is already being applied to new tests to diagnose and classify sarcomas. This is ...

  11. Alisertib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Leiomyosarcoma; Recurrent Liposarcoma; Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Recurrent Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Stage III Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  12. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Kaposi Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Kaposi Sarcoma? Kaposi Sarcoma Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Kaposi Sarcoma? As you cope with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and ...

  13. Effect of cohabitation with white-faced ewes on estrous activity of Hampshire and Suffolk ewes exposed to rams in June.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R A; Notter, D R

    1990-06-01

    Two groups of 24 Hampshire and 26 Suffolk purebred ewes each were used to study effects of cohabitation with cyclic white-faced (WF) ewes on estrous activity in June. Ewes lambed in January, February and March and had been isolated from mature rams since the previous fall breeding. From June 1 to July 2, treated (T) ewes were exposed to vasectomized rams and to 65 WF ewes; control (C) ewes were exposed only to vasectomized rams. Ovulation was assessed with biweekly serum progesterone assays; crayon marks were used to detect estrus. Daily observations of ram behavior were conducted to assess sexual activity of rams joined with T and C ewes. Cohabitation with WF ewes increased (P less than .01) ovulation percentages from 46% in C (42% for Hampshires and 50% for Suffolks) to 76% in T ewes (79% for Hampshires and 73% for Suffolks). Mating percentage also was increased (P less than .05) by cohabitation with WF ewes from 14% for C ewes to 30% for T ewes. Rams with T + WF ewes spent more (P less than .05) time checking ewes for estrus than did rams with C ewes. Hence, cohabitation with cycling WF ewes increased ovulation and mating percentages. Many acyclic T ewes first ovulated after 10 or more days of teasing, possibly due to increased ram contact in the presence of WF ewes.

  14. Differential expression of CART in ewes with differing ovulation rates.

    PubMed

    Juengel, Jennifer L; French, Michelle C; Quirke, Laurel D; Kauff, Alexia; Smith, George W; Johnstone, Peter D

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesised that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CARTPT) would be differentially expressed in ewes with differing ovulation rates. Expression of mRNA for CARTPT, as well as LHCGR, FSHR, CYP19A1 and CYP17A1 was determined in antral follicles ≥1 mm in diameter collected during the follicular phase in ewes heterozygous for the Booroola and Inverdale genes (I+B+; average ovulation rate 4) and ++ contemporaries (++; average ovulation rate 1.8). In ++ ewes (n = 6), CARTPT was expressed in small follicles (1 to <3 mm diameter), where 18.8 ± 2.5% follicles expressed CARTPT CART peptide was also detected in follicular fluid of some follicles of ++ ewes. In I+B+ ewes, 5/6 ewes did not have any follicles that expressed CARTPT, and no CART peptide was detected in any follicle examined. Expression pattern of CYP19A1 differed between I+B+ and ++ ewes with an increased percentage of small and medium follicles (3 to <4.5 mm diameter) but decreased percentage of large follicles (≥4.5 mm diameter) expressing CYP19A1 in the I+B+ ewes. Many of the large follicles from the I+B+ ewes appeared non-functional and expression of LHCGR, FSHR, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 was less than that observed in ++ ewes. Expression of FSHR and CYP17A1 was not different between groups in small and medium follicles, but LHCGR expression was approximately double in I+B+ ewes compared to that in ++ ewes. Thus, ewes with high ovulation rates had a distinct pattern of expression of CARTPT mRNA and protein compared to ewes with normal ovulation rates, providing evidence for CART being important in the regulation of ovulation rate.

  15. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Synovial sarcoma in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Israels, S.J.; Chan, H.S.L.; Daneman, A.; Weitzman, S.S.

    1984-04-01

    The clinical and radiologic findings in seven children with synovial sarcoma are described. The five boys and two girls had a mean age at presentation of 4.4 years. All seven had the lesion situated in an extremity. Plain radiographs in four revealed the presence of a soft-tissue mass with no calcification or bone and joint involvement. In two patients studied with computed tomography (CT), the primary lesions had peripheral irregular areas of enhancement with central areas of poor enhancement, reflecting the necrotic, cystic, and hemorrhagic changes found in the centers of these tumors. Although the exact margins of these lesions were difficult to define accurately even with intravenous contrast enhancement, CT is still recommended as the best imaging method for assessing the local extent of the primary tumor and is a useful tool in the planning of appropriate therapy as well as the gauging of the tumor response to ongoing treatment.

  17. [Radiotherapy for retroperitoneal sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Sargos, P; Stoeckle, E; Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Antoine, M; Delannes, M; Mervoyer, A; Kantor, G

    2016-10-01

    The management of retroperitoneal sarcoma can be very challenging, and the quality of initial treatment strategy appears to be a crucial prognostic factor. En bloc surgery is currently the standard of care for these rare tumours and perioperative treatments such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy have not been validated yet. However, local-regional relapse constitutes the most common disease course. While adjuvant radiotherapy is less and less common due to gastrointestinal toxicities, preoperative radiation therapy offers numerous advantages and is being evaluated as part of a national multicentre phase II study (TOMOREP trial) and is the subject of a European randomized phase III study (STRASS trial). The objective of this article is to present data on preoperative irradiation in terms of dose, volumes and optimal radiotherapy techniques for the treatment of this rare disease.

  18. Myeloid Sarcoma in the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoxiao; Gigantelli, James W; Abromowitch, Minnie; Morgan, Linda A; Suh, Donny W

    2016-12-08

    The authors describe a case of myeloid sarcoma of the orbit in a pediatric patient. An 8-month-old male infant presented to the ophthalmology clinic with a left orbital mass, which had been increasing in size over the previous 2 months. The mass was initially diagnosed at another clinic as an infantile hemangioma, and had been treated with a topical formulation of timolol. In the ophthalmology clinic, orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid enhancing mass. A biopsy was performed, and histopathology revealed myeloid sarcoma. The disease responded well to a standard chemotherapy regimen. Myeloid sarcoma is a rare, extra-medullary presentation that can occur as an isolated tumor, concurrently with or at relapse of acute myeloid leukemia. Because few cases of myeloid sarcoma in the orbit have been reported, this case report aids in the management of myeloid sarcoma in pediatric patients. The report describes an 8-month-old male infant, the youngest patient to develop myeloid sarcoma without preexisting acute myeloid leukemia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e64-e68.].

  19. Ewe characteristics associated with neonatal loss in Norwegian sheep.

    PubMed

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Waage, Steinar; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2014-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted to identify ewe characteristics that affect the risk of a ewe losing at least one lamb during the first 5 days post lambing. Data were from a national sheep registry, and only ewes that lambed in the spring of 2010 belonging to flocks that reported disease events were included. Ewes registered with abortion or stillbirth were excluded. Cases (n=4850) and controls (n=85,354) from 1153 flocks were studied using logistic regression models, accounting for within flock correlation. The odds of losing at least one lamb increased substantially when litter size exceeded two. For example, in 3-year-old ewes, the odds were 6 times greater for those with 3 lambs than for those with 1 lamb. However, the effect of litter size depended on the age of the ewe; for example for ewes giving birth to triplet lambs, the odds of losing at least one lamb were 2.7 times greater in 1-year-old ewes than in 3-year-old ewes. Dystocia was associated with increased risk of losing at least one lamb, but the effect varied by litter size. In ewes with single lambs, the odds of lamb loss were 5 times greater in those that experienced dystocia than in those that did not, while within subgroups of ewes with twins, triplets or >3 lambs, the corresponding odds ratio (OR) of losing one or more lambs was 2.2, 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. Compared with ewes of the Norwegian White breed, ewes of old Norwegian breeds were less likely to lose lambs (OR=0.8). We also examined the effects of several diseases experienced by the ewe during pregnancy or shortly postpartum on the risk of subsequent neonatal lamb loss. Significantly increased risk was found for ewes with abdominal hernia (OR=2.5) and for ewes treated for moderate to severe clinical mastitis (OR=1.6) when compared with ewes without these disorders. In conclusion, our large study population allowed for a detailed analysis of the combined effect of important ewe factors that affected survival of their lambs in the

  20. Organic and inorganic selenium: III. Ewe and progeny performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W C; Bobe, G; Pirelli, G J; Mosher, W D; Hall, J A

    2012-12-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient in sheep, and deficiency can limit lamb growth and survival. To evaluate how different chemical forms of Se administered to mature ewes at comparative dosages affect ewe and progeny performance, 240 ewes were divided into 8 treatment groups (n = 30 each) and drenched weekly with no Se; at the maximum FDA-allowed concentration with inorganic Na-selenite or organic Se-yeast (4.9 mg Se/wk); with inorganic Na-selenate (8.95 mg Se/wk); or with inorganic Na-selenite and organic Se-yeast at supranutritional concentrations (14.7 and 24.5 mg Se/wk, respectively). The treatment period started approximately 2 wk before breeding and lasted for 62.5 wk. Ewes of the no-Se and Se-yeast groups continued treatments for another 21 to 24 wk through a second lambing season. Chemical form or dosage of Se did not affect ewe reproductive performance based on proportion of ewes lambing in each treatment group, or number of lambs born, nursed, or weaned per ewe (all P > 0.10). Ewes receiving the highest supplementation rate of Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk had higher BCS (scale 1 to 5) at the end of yr 1 (2.95 vs. 2.66; P = 0.05) than ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk. Performance was better in lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk than in lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk or no Se. In yr 1, lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 vs. 4.9 mg Se/wk were heavier at 120 d of age (37.0 vs. 34.2 kg; P = 0.05). In yr 2, lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk were or tended to be heavier at 60 d of age than lambs from ewes receiving no Se (21.2 vs. 19.0 kg; P = 0.04) or lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk (19.2 kg; P = 0.09). This effect was more pronounced in ewes raising multiple lambs. We conclude that supranutritional supplementation of ewes with Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk improves lamb growth and ewe health without negatively affecting reproductive performance.

  1. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Soft Tissue Sarcoma That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Leiomyosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Sarcoma Differentiation Score 2; Sarcoma Differentiation Score 3; Stage IA Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IB Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIA Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIB Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma

  2. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Metastatic, Locally Advanced, or Recurrent Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma; Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

  3. Supplementing metabolizable protein to ewes during late gestation: II. Effects on ewe lamb performance and reproductive efficiency.

    PubMed

    Van Emon, M L; Schauer, C S; Eckerman, S R; Maddock Carlin, K R; Vonnahme, K A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of maternal MP intake in isocaloric diets during late gestation on female offspring growth from birth to breeding and measure reproductive performance of those offspring in their first breeding season. In yr 1, maternal dietary treatments were applied at d 100 of gestation, were similar in total energy, and contained 60MP1, 60% of MP requirements; 80MP1, 80% of MP requirements; and 100MP1, 100% of the MP requirements on a DM basis during late gestation. In yr 2, maternal dietary treatments were similar in total energy and contained 60MP2, 60% of MP requirements; 100MP2, 100% of the MP requirements; and 140MP2, 140% of MP requirements on a DM basis during late gestation. While there was a quadratic effect ( = 0.003) for ewe lamb birth weight with the ewe lambs from 80MP1 ewes having increased birth weights compared with ewe lambs from 60MP1 and 100MP1 ewes in yr 1, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.22) of maternal diet on growth of ewe lamb offspring thereafter. A quadratic effect ( = 0.02) was observed for the percentage of ewe lambs bred during the first 17 d of the breeding season, with more ewe lambs born to ewes fed 80MP1 bred compared with ewe lambs born to ewes fed 60MP1 and 100MP1. Ewe lambs giving birth within the first 17 d of lambing season increased ( = 0.001) linearly as MP intake increased in the maternal diet. In yr 2, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.07) of maternal MP treatment during late gestation on growth of ewe lambs and reproductive performance except ADG from birth to weaning and lamb birth weight. There was a quadratic effect ( = 0.01) for ADG from birth to weaning of ewe lambs from ewes consuming 100MP2 being increased compared with ewe lambs from ewes fed 60MP2 and 140MP2. There was a linear ( = 0.04) reduction in birth weight of lambs born to ewe lambs as the dam's maternal dietary MP intake increased. The data from the current study suggest that feeding 80% or 100% of MP requirements

  4. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  5. [Radiotherapy of adult soft tissue sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Le Péchoux, C; Moureau-Zabotto, L; Llacer, C; Ducassou, A; Sargos, P; Sunyach, M P; Thariat, J

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of soft tissue sarcoma is low and requires multidisciplinary treatment in specialized centers. The objective of this paper is to report the state of the art regarding indications and treatment techniques of main soft tissue sarcoma localisations.

  6. p53 expression and its relationship to DNA alterations in bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed Central

    Wadayama, B.; Toguchida, J.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sasaki, M. S.; Yamamuro, T.

    1993-01-01

    The p53 gene is one of the best studied tumour suppressor genes. Recently we performed mutation analysis on the p53 gene in a large number of bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and found that approximately one-third of the sarcomas have some type of DNA alteration at the p53 locus (Toguchida et al., 1992). However, the expression of the p53 protein resulting from these alterations still remains to be clarified. In this study, p53 expression in the sarcoma tissues was analysed immunohistochemically using antibody PAb421 (Oncogene Science) and its relationship to DNA alterations was examined. Of 113 tumours, 29 (25.7%) showed positive staining for the p53 protein. These included 19 of 67 osteosarcomas, five of 20 chondrosarcomas, four of 11 malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs) and one Ewing's sarcoma. In chondrosarcomas, most of the p53-positive tumours belonged to highly malignant and atypical tumour types (dedifferentiated or mesenchymal type), suggesting a role for p53 mutation in the progression of cartilaginous tumours. All the cases with a missense mutation showed strongly positive staining, while no immunoreactivity was observed in the remaining three-quarters with DNA alterations including gross rearrangement, frame-shift mutation, nonsense mutation or mutation at splicing site except in one case. These results demonstrated the dominance of the p53 mutations with null protein expression in bone and soft tissue sarcomas, showing a unique characteristic of these types of tumours compared with other malignancies such as colon carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8260365

  7. A case report of CIC-rearranged undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma in the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Misawo; Kitajima, Masateru; Narita, Jun; Hattori, Shinya; Endo, Otone; Goto, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    CIC-rearranged undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma (CIC-rearranged USRCS) is a recently established type of Ewing-like small round cell sarcomas, characterized by CIC gene rearrangement, most commonly CIC-DUX4 fusion. This report presents the second case of CIC-rearranged USRCS arising primarily in the cerebrum. A 64-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with a 1 × 1 cm sized hemorrhagic subcortical tumor in the left temporo-parietal lobe. The tumor repeatedly recurred, and the patient underwent three surgeries, chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide, and radiotherapy, as well as gamma knife surgery. Systemic examination revealed no other extracranial masses. Imprint cytology revealed small to moderate-sized round-to-ovoid tumor cells with mild pleomorphism and variations in size and shape. The nuclei contained finely granular chromatin, and some had easily-recognizable nucleoli. The tumor exhibited a mainly cytoplasmic pattern of CD99 immunostaining, rather than a diffuse membranous pattern. The tumor also exhibited diffuse positivity for calretinin and p16, as well as partial positivity for WT1 (nuclear and cytoplasmic staining pattern) and D2-40. FISH assessment showed CIC split signals. In conclusion, CIC-rearranged USRCSs can occur primarily in the cerebrum. It would be impossible to diagnose them through cytology alone, but cytology would be useful to rule out other small round cell brain tumors including gliomas, lymphomas, carcinomas, and germinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis including tests for CD99, calretinin, and WT1 would help to suggest CIC-rearranged USRCSs and distinguish them from Ewing sarcomas. Additionally, immunohistochemistry for p16 might be useful in the diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:828-832. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    PubMed

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (P<0.005) and BCS (P<0.005) than the LPA ewes during pregnancy and postpartum (P<0.04), and had a greater milk yield than the LPA ewes (P<0.03). Treatments did not influence any behaviour at lambing, lambs' BW, neither the ewes' behavioural and physiological changes at weaning. HPA lambs paced and vocalized more than LPA lambs (P<0.0001). The variation of albumin concentration before and after weaning was greater in the HPA lambs than in the LPA lambs (P<0.0001). In conclusion, although ewes' BW, BCS and milk production were affected by pasture allowance until

  9. EWE: A computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, S. R.; Chaplin, K. R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It was applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues.

  10. Epithelioid sarcoma in FNAB smears.

    PubMed

    Pohar-Marinsek, Z; Zidar, A

    1994-12-01

    FNAB smears of eleven epithelioid sarcomas were reviewed and analysed. Ten cases had a very similar cytomorphologic picture composed predominantly of dissociated epithelioid-like cells with eccentrically placed nuclei. These tumors were clearly malignant but difficult to differentiate morphologically from melanoma, epithelioid leiomiosarcoma, and Schwannoma or adenocarcinoma. One case was composed of spindle cells and was reminiscent of a fibrohistiocytic tumor. Immunocytochemical reactions to vimentin and cytokeratin were performed in six cases on the Papanicolaou stained smears. The reactions to both antigens were positive in all six cases. Ultrastructural characteristics of eight of the tumors are also described. It seems that epithelioid sarcoma has a rather distinct cytomorphologic picture. Taking into consideration clinical data and using also immunocytochemistry, a definitive diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma can probably be given from FNAB smears.

  11. Skin Ultrasound in Kaposi Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, R; Alfageme, F; Roustán, G; Suarez, M D

    2016-05-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging has recently been increasing in numerous dermatologic diseases. This noninvasive technique provides additional details on the structure and vascularization of skin lesions. Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor that typically arises in the skin and mucosas. It can spread to lymph nodes and internal organs. We performed B-mode and color Doppler ultrasound studies in 3 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma confirmed by histological examination. We found differences in the ultrasound pattern between nodular and plaque lesions, in both B-mode and color Doppler. We believe that skin ultrasound imaging could be a useful technique for studying cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma, providing additional information on the structural and vascular characteristics of the lesion.

  12. Reticular schwannoma mimicking myxoid sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Afroz, Nishat; Sahoo, Biswajit; Naim, Mohammed

    2014-02-20

    Reticular/microcystic schwannoma is a recently described rare distinctive variant of schwannoma with a predilection for gastrointestinal tract. Its occurrence in soft tissue is extremely rare. We report a case of reticular/microcystic variant of schwannoma in a 55-year-old Indian woman who presented with a painless slow-growing swelling in the right forearm for the past 6 months. MRI findings suggested myxoid sarcoma. However, histological and immunohistochemical findings in the excised specimen were consistent with reticular/microcystic variant of schwannoma. This case report emphasises that the diagnosis of reticular/microcystic schwannoma should always be considered in cases where myxoid sarcomas are suspected as it can mimic malignant myxoid sarcomas, clinically and radiologically, thereby avoiding aggressive intervention and overtreatment.

  13. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Ladeia, Antônio Alexandre Lisbôa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started. PMID:23580888

  14. [Therapeutic options for synovial sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Deme, Dániel; Telekes, András

    2015-05-31

    Synovial sarcomas account for approximately 5 to 10% of soft tissue sarcomas and 0.05 to 0.1% of all malignant neoplasms. They predominantly affect the extremities but can occur in any part of the body. More than 50% of the patients are expected to develop metastatic disease within 3-5 years. In some patients disease recurrence may develop after 20 years. The 5-year overall survival rate is 10% for patients with metastatic disease and 76% for patients with localized one. Age, tumour size, histological subtype, and adjuvant radiotherapy influence prognosis. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy has not been proven yet. There are several ongoing clinical trials to determine the efficacy of active agents used for therapy of locally advanced, relapsed/refractory or metastatic disease. Better understanding of the biological behaviour of synovial sarcomas would provide the future way for the targeted therapy in combination with conventional treatments.

  15. ENCCA WP17-WP7 consensus paper on teenagers and young adults (TYA) with bone sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M; Dirksen, U; Bielack, S S; Whelan, J S; Lewis, I J; Jürgens, H; Ferrari, S; Sundby Hall, K; Cleton-Jansen, A M; Stark, D

    2014-08-01

    Teenagers and young adults (TYA) cancer contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality in a population with much to offer society. TYA place distinct challenges upon cancer care services, many reporting feeling marginalized and their needs not being met in adult or paediatric cancer services. Bone tumours such as osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, because of their age at presentation and the complexity of their care, are where challenges in managing (TYA) with cancer have often been most readily apparent. Bone sarcomas may be managed by paediatric or medical oncologists, and require fastidious attention to protocol. A lack of recent improvement in survival in TYA with bone tumours may be linked to a lack of specialist care, poor concordance with therapy in some situations and TYA-specific pharmacology. Participation in clinical trials, particularly of young adults, is low, hindering progress. All these requirements may be best met by a concerted effort to create collaborative care between adult and paediatric experts in bone sarcoma, working together to meet TYA patients' needs.

  16. Mast cell sarcoma: clinical management.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Catherine R; Butterfield, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Mast cell sarcoma is a disorder that results in abnormal mast cells as identified by morphology, special stains, and in some publications, c-kit mutation analysis. It affects animal species such as canines more commonly than humans. In humans it is a very rare condition, with variable clinical presentation. There is no standard therapy for the disorder. It can affect any age group. It is occasionally associated with systemic mastocytosis and/or urticaria pigmentosa. The prognosis of mast cell sarcoma in published literature is very poor in humans.

  17. Energy requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Deng, K D; Jiang, C G; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Liu, J; Ma, T; Zhao, Y G; Xu, G S; Diao, Q Y

    2014-05-01

    The ME and NE requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs grown from 35 to 50 kg BW were assessed in a comparative slaughter trial. Thirty-five ewe lambs (33.5 ± 0.6 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were used: 7 lambs were slaughtered at the start of the trial to provide baseline measures of body composition and 7 lambs were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 43 kg BW to provide intermediate measures of body composition. The remaining 21 lambs were divided into 3 groups of 7 lambs each and fed a pelleted mixed diet (concentrate:roughage = 44:56, DM basis) for ad libitum intake or 65 or 45% of ad libitum intake. All 3 groups were slaughtered when the ad libitum group reached 50 kg BW. Total body energy, N, fat, ash, and moisture content were measured. In a separate trial, 15 ewe lambs (39.5 ± 0.7 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were housed in metabolism cages to evaluate the ME value of the diet at each of the 3 levels of feed intake. In vivo methane production was measured by open-circuit respirometry along with the collection of all feces and urine. The daily NEm requirement of the ewe lambs was 280 kJ/kg metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) or 292 kJ/kg metabolic shrunk BW (SBW(0.75)), whereas the daily ME requirement for maintenance was 418 kJ/kg BW(0.75) or 437 kJ/kg SBW(0.75), with a partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance of 0.67. The NEg requirement ranged from 1.37 to 3.94 MJ/d for ADG from 100 to 250 g BW, and the partial efficiency of ME utilization for gain was 0.44. The NE and ME requirements of Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewe lambs were lower than the recommendations of the United States' nutritional system.

  18. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Docetaxel, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Uterine Sarcoma That Has Been Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

  19. Molecular Approaches to Sarcoma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, R. J.; Tarantolo, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of aggressive tumors that have a relatively poor prognosis. Although conventional therapeutic regimens can effectively cytoreduce the overall tumor mass, they fail to consistently achieve a curative outcome. Alternative gene-based approaches that counteract the underlying neoplastic process by eliminating the clonal aberrations that potentiate malignant behavior have been proposed. As compared to the accumulation of gene alterations associated with epithelial carcinomas, sarcomas are frequently characterized by the unique presence of a single chromosomal translocation in each histological subtype. Similar to the Philadelphia chromosome associated with CML, these clonal abnormalities result in the fusion of two independent unrelated genes to generate a unique chimeric protein that displays aberrant activity believed to initiate cellular transformation. Secondary gene mutations may provide an additional growth advantage that further contributes to malignant progression. The recent clinical success of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571, suggests that therapeutic approaches specifically directed against essential survival factors in sarcoma cells may be effective. This review summarizes published approaches targeting a specific molecular mechanism associated with sarcomagenesis. The strategy and significance of published translational studies in six distinct areas are presented. These include: (1) the disruption of chimeric transcription factor activity; (2) inhibition of growth stimulatory post-translational modifications; (3) restoration of tumor suppressor function; (4) interference with angiogenesis; (5) induction of apoptotic pathways; and (6) introduction of toxic gene products. The potential for improving outcomes in sarcoma patients and the conceptual obstacles to be overcome are discussed. PMID:18521343

  20. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma - Multimodality Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Nari; Seol, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Il Hwan; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare and fatal disease. PAS can often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. Moreover, the correct diagnosis is frequently delayed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms. The prognosis of patients with PAS is poor. We report a case of a woman with a primary PAS who was initially diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism.

  1. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma - Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Nari; Seol, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Il Hwan; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare and fatal disease. PAS can often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. Moreover, the correct diagnosis is frequently delayed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms. The prognosis of patients with PAS is poor. We report a case of a woman with a primary PAS who was initially diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism. PMID:27833785

  2. Kaposi sarcoma associated with lipoedema.

    PubMed

    Ekmekci, T R; Ayabakan, O; Sakiz, D; Koslu, A

    2005-05-01

    Lipoedema is a form of lipodistrophy, which consists of abnormal accumulation of fat in subcutaneous tissue of the lower limbs. It does not cause any disease and it has not been reported association with malignity. We describe a 63-year-old woman occurring of Kaposi sarcoma on the lipoedema base.

  3. Desegregation in Ewing Township, New Jersey: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Oscar D.; And Others

    In January 1974, a research team from Teachers College, Coloumbia University spent four days in Ewing Township, New Jersey studying and documenting the efforts made by the school district and community in bringing about a desegregated system. Ewing School District was one of four districts to be included in the Comparative Desegregation Project…

  4. Logical Demonomy Among the Ewe in West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzobo, N. K.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the indigenous pattern of moral behavior among the Ewe, an ethnic and linguistic group in West Africa, and assesses its role in moral education within the African context. The author develops a conceptual framework he calls "logical demonomy" that he uses to define the Ewe system of moral laws. (JT)

  5. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma or Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  6. Sapanisertib or Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    High Grade Sarcoma; Metastatic Leiomyosarcoma; Metastatic Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Metastatic Synovial Sarcoma; Metastatic Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Myxofibrosarcoma; Recurrent Leiomyosarcoma; Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Recurrent Synovial Sarcoma; Recurrent Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

  7. Extremity preservation by combined modality therapy in sarcomas of the hand and foot: an analysis of local control, disease free survival and functional result

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Loeffler, J.S.; Fraass, B.A.; Tepper, J.

    1983-08-01

    A primary tumor arising in the hand or foot represents an uncommon presentation for patients with Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or soft tissue sarcoma (STS). While there exists considerable literature on the treatment of extremity sarcomas, very little deals specifically with lesions of the hand or foot. It remains controversial whether these lesions can be successfully treated with combined modality therapy which preserves the extremity and maintains function. From 1972 to 1979, 10 patients with sarcomas arising in the hand or foot were treated with combined modality therapy at the National Cancer Institute. Seven patients with ES of bone received local irradiation to 5000 rad and combination chemotherapy following an incisional biopsy. Three patients with STS received a gross tumor excision and local irradiation to 6000 rad. Local control was achieved in nine patients (90%) with a follow-up of 30 to 119 months (median 56 months). These patients have complete or almost complete function of the treated extremity. Nine patients are alive with five patients remaining disease-free following the initial combined modality treatment. We conclude that for selected patients with sarcomas arising in the hand or foot, combined modality therapy which leaves the extremity intact results in excellent local tumor control and preserves function. Careful treatment planning is an essential aspect of successful radiation therapy of a hand or foot primary. Our treatment recommendations are outlined. This approach is a viable alternative to amputation in these patients.

  8. What's New in Kaposi Sarcoma Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Kaposi Sarcoma About Kaposi Sarcoma What’s New in Kaposi Sarcoma Research and Treatment? A great ... once it has developed. Treatment Researchers are studying new and different ways to treat KS. Imiquimod (Aldara) ...

  9. What's New in Uterine Sarcoma Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Uterine Sarcoma About Uterine Sarcoma What's New in Uterine Sarcoma Research and Treatment? Molecular pathology ... the chromosomes leads to the formation of a new gene, called JAZF1/JJAZ. This gene may help ...

  10. What Are the Key Statistics about Uterine Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sarcoma About Uterine Sarcoma What Are the Key Statistics About Uterine Sarcoma? The American Cancer Society's estimates ... uterine corpus. Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics. Written by References ...

  11. What Are the Key Statistics about Kaposi Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sarcoma About Kaposi Sarcoma What Are the Key Statistics About Kaposi Sarcoma? Before the AIDS epidemic, Kaposi ... and children. Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics. Written by References ...

  12. Incidence and Survival of Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Comparison between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sun Min; Yoo, Cheol Joo; Han, Jung Woo; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Soo Hee; Ahn, Joong Bae; Rha, Sun Young; Shin, Sang Joon; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoo-Ho; Rho, Jae Kyung; Kim, Hyo Song

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric-type sarcomas such as rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Ewing sarcoma (EWS), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and desmoplastic small round-cell tumor (DSRCT) are rare in adults, with limited studies on their prognosis and optimal treatment strategies. We aimed to examine the outcome of children and adult patients with RMS, EWS, PNET, and DSRCT and relevant prognostic factors. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 220 pediatric-type sarcoma patients at a single institution between 1985 and 2011. Comparisons were made in order to examine differences in demographics, disease characteristics, and survival. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 220 consecutive patients were identified at our institute. Median age was 15.6 years (range, 0 to 81 years) and there were 108 children (49%) and 112 adult patients (51%). According to histological classification, 106 patients (48.2%) had RMS, 60 (27.3%) had EWS, 50 (22.7%) had PNET, and 4 (1.8%) had DSRCT. With a median follow-up period of 6.6 years, the estimated median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 75 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.2 to 122.8 months) and median event-free survival (EFS) for all patients was 11 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 13.2 months). No significant difference in OS and EFS was observed between adults and children. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.617; 95% CI, 1.022 to 2.557; p=0.040) and no debulking surgery (HR, 1.443; 95% CI, 1.104 to 1.812; p=0.012) showed independent association with worse OS. Conclusion Metastatic disease and no surgical treatment are poor prognostic factors for OS among pediatric-type sarcomas for both adults and children. PMID:25143049

  13. Mycotic rhinitis in a Mutton Merino ewe.

    PubMed

    Leask, Rhoda; Steyl, Johan

    2017-01-24

    Although nasal masses are uncommon in sheep and may have several causes, including neoplasia and bacterial, fungal and viral infections, these lesions may lead to economic losses resulting from weight loss and even death. It is therefore important to differentiate between various categories of upper respiratory tract obstructions and lower respiratory tract infections. The correct aetiological diagnosis of obstructive masses is essential for appropriate treatment and management to be given or action to be taken. The presentation, clinical signs, treatment and pathology of a case of suspected mycotic rhinitis in a 6-year-old Mutton Merino ewe, are described.

  14. Ribociclib and Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients Metastatic or Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-30

    Metastatic Angiosarcoma; Metastatic Epithelioid Sarcoma; Metastatic Fibrosarcoma; Metastatic Leiomyosarcoma; Metastatic Liposarcoma; Metastatic Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Metastatic Synovial Sarcoma; Metastatic Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Myxofibrosarcoma; Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma; Stage III Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Undifferentiated (Embryonal) Sarcoma

  15. Sarcomas related to the heart and vasculature.

    PubMed

    Raaf, H N; Raaf, J H

    1994-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of the heart, pericardium, and great vessels. Its presentation is infrequent, nonspecific, and subtle. For example, emboli from these tumors to the lungs or peripheral arteries may mimic thrombotic embolic disease. New noninvasive techniques such as echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aid in diagnosis and preoperative assessment. Angiosarcoma, the most common cardiac sarcoma, is aggressive and usually arises in the right atrium. Kaposi's sarcoma of the heart has been found in patients with AIDS and in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients. Most primary sarcomas of the aorta and pulmonary artery (the elastic arteries) show minimal differentiation and are classified as "intimal, sarcomas," whereas leiomyosarcomas predominate in the muscular arteries and great veins. Surgical resection of any sarcoma of the vasculature, when feasible, is technically challenging but may result in cure or palliation. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also relieve symptoms and prolong survival.

  16. Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Köhle, Olivia; Abt, Dominik; Rothermundt, Christian; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Brugnolaro, Christiane; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors. Amongst others, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the kidney and synovial sarcoma of the kidney belong to the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Synovial sarcomas can occur almost anywhere in the body, most frequently, however, in the lower (62%) or upper extremities (21%). Metastases occur in 50-70% of cases, and thus the prognosis is poor. PNETs are rare, highly aggressive neoplastic lesions which mainly occur in the torso or axial skeleton in young adults. The prognosis is poor with a 5-year disease-free survival rate of 45-55%. The primary therapeutic approach is surgical resection. Most randomized studies assessing adjuvant chemotherapy for all types of localized soft tissue sarcomas did not show statistically significantly better overall survival times after chemotherapy, although they did show longer progression-free survival. We report on two cases of primary renal synovial sarcoma and one case of PNET of the kidney. PMID:25918607

  17. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, K.L.; Robb, P.K.; Caldarelli, D.D.; Templeton, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    A 23-year-old white man presented with a thyroid mass 12 years after receiving high-dose radiotherapy for a T2 and N1 lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx. Following subtotal thyroidectomy, a histopathologic examination revealed liposarcoma of the thyroid gland. The relationship between sarcomas and irradiation is described and Cahan and colleagues' criteria for radiation-induced sarcomas are reviewed. To our knowledge, we are presenting the first such case of a radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

  18. Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary valve.

    PubMed

    Scheidl, Stefan; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Reiter, Ursula; Tröster, Natascha; Kovacs, Gabor; Rienmüller, Rainer; Lang, Susanna; Klepetko, Walter; Olschewski, Horst

    2010-04-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma is a rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary valve itself has not been described. Embolization into pulmonary arteries originating from the pulmonary valve intimal sarcoma can mimic chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and mislead the diagnosis. We present and discuss a patient initially diagnosed as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, treated by pulmonary endarterectomy. After 24 months, a tumor of the pulmonary valve was detected by echocardiography. The patient underwent removal and replacement of the pulmonary valve. Histology revealed pulmonary valve intimal sarcoma.

  19. Kaposi sarcoma: review and medical management update.

    PubMed

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms involved, the true nature of Kaposi sarcoma remains an enigma. Four clinical variants have been described for the disease, differing in natural history, site of predilection, and prognosis. All forms of Kaposi sarcoma may manifest in the oral cavity and Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus appears essential to development of all clinical variants. The spectrum of therapeutic strategies is broad and selection of appropriate intervention mandates a thorough understanding of disease spread and the patient's symptomatology, as well as risks and benefits of therapy. This article provides an overview of epidemiology, subtypes, clinical course, pathogenesis, and management strategies for Kaposi sarcoma.

  20. Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Chronically Infected and Subsequently Challenged Ewes.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo; Faria, Gabriela da Silva Magalhães; Guerreiro, Bruna Martins; Dal Pietro, Nathalia Helena Pereira da Silva; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; da Silva, Helenara Machado; Garcia, João Luis; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-01-01

    This experiment studied congenital transmission in sheep experimentally infected with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and reinfected at one of three stages of pregnancy. Twenty ewes were experimentally infected with T. gondii strain ME49 (day 0). After the T. gondii infection became chronic (IFAT≤512), the ewes were allocated with rams for coverage. After the diagnosis of pregnancy, these ewes were allocated into four experimental groups (n = 5): I-reinfected with T. gondii on the 40th day of gestation (DG); II-reinfected on DG 80; III-reinfected on DG 120; and IV-saline solution on DG 120 (not reinfected). Five ewes (IFAT<64) were kept as negative controls (uninfected, group V), therefore in groups I-III were infected prior to pregnancy and re-infected during pregnancy, group IV was only infected prior to pregnancy, and group V was not infected. Parasitism by T. gondii was investigated (histopathology, immunohistochemistry, mouse bioassay and PCR) in mothers and lambs tissue. All ewes produced lambs serologically positive for T. gondii. The results of the mouse bioassay, immunohistochemistry and PCR assays revealed the presence of T. gondii in all 20 sheep and their lambs. The congenital transmission of T. gondii was associated with fetal loss and abnormalities in persistently infected sheep and in ewes infected and subsequently reinfected by this protozoan. Therefore, congenital T. gondii infection was common when ewes were chronically infected prior to pregnancy, with or without reinfection during at various stages of gestation.

  1. Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Chronically Infected and Subsequently Challenged Ewes

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo; Faria, Gabriela da Silva Magalhães; Guerreiro, Bruna Martins; dal Pietro, Nathalia Helena Pereira da Silva; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; da Silva, Helenara Machado; Garcia, João Luis; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-01-01

    This experiment studied congenital transmission in sheep experimentally infected with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and reinfected at one of three stages of pregnancy. Twenty ewes were experimentally infected with T. gondii strain ME49 (day 0). After the T. gondii infection became chronic (IFAT≤512), the ewes were allocated with rams for coverage. After the diagnosis of pregnancy, these ewes were allocated into four experimental groups (n = 5): I-reinfected with T. gondii on the 40th day of gestation (DG); II-reinfected on DG 80; III-reinfected on DG 120; and IV-saline solution on DG 120 (not reinfected). Five ewes (IFAT<64) were kept as negative controls (uninfected, group V), therefore in groups I-III were infected prior to pregnancy and re-infected during pregnancy, group IV was only infected prior to pregnancy, and group V was not infected. Parasitism by T. gondii was investigated (histopathology, immunohistochemistry, mouse bioassay and PCR) in mothers and lambs tissue. All ewes produced lambs serologically positive for T. gondii. The results of the mouse bioassay, immunohistochemistry and PCR assays revealed the presence of T. gondii in all 20 sheep and their lambs. The congenital transmission of T. gondii was associated with fetal loss and abnormalities in persistently infected sheep and in ewes infected and subsequently reinfected by this protozoan. Therefore, congenital T. gondii infection was common when ewes were chronically infected prior to pregnancy, with or without reinfection during at various stages of gestation. PMID:27788185

  2. Myeloid sarcoma causing airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Krause, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary collection of blasts of the myeloid series that partially or totally effaces the architecture of the tissue in which it is found. These tumors have been described in many sites of the body, but the skin, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, bone, soft tissue, and testes are most common. They can arise in a patient following the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, but they may also be precursors of leukemia and should be considered diagnostic for acute myeloid leukemia. The differential diagnosis of this neoplasm includes malignant lymphoma, with which it is often mistaken, leading to diagnostic and therapeutic delays. We present the case of an 84-year-old African American man with a history of renal disease secondary to hypertension and coronary artery disease without any prior history of malignancies who presented with airway obstruction. He was diagnosed with a myeloid sarcoma of the mediastinum compressing his trachea.

  3. Pathology of soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Thway, K

    2009-11-01

    Sarcomas are a rare, complex group of childhood and adult neoplasms with differentiation towards mesenchymal tissue, which may arise almost anywhere in the body. Although pathologically diverse, they frequently exhibit similar clinical presentations and radiological features. Correct histopathological diagnosis is therefore crucial, but there is overlap between histological patterns of malignant tumours, between benign and malignant lesions, and with non-mesenchymal tumours. Immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic techniques, the latter to detect tumour-specific alterations, add significantly to histological interpretation, but several groups of tumours still lack reliable immunohistochemical markers or reproducible genetic changes. The classification of sarcomas is incomplete and continues to evolve, and although the biology of many remains relatively poorly understood, our increasing insight into molecular events occurring in these tumours is certain to aid future diagnosis and therapy. This paper aims to give a broad overview of several of the main soft tissue sarcomas from a clinicopathological perspective, discussing laboratory diagnosis and the use and limitations of ancillary investigations, including recent developments in molecular diagnosis.

  4. AZD0530 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Locally Advanced or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-02

    Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma; Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

  5. Targeting epigenetic misregulation in synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Joshua J; Meltzer, Paul S

    2012-03-20

    Like many sarcomas, synovial sarcoma is driven by a characteristic oncogenic transcription factor fusion, SS18-SSX. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Su et al. elucidate the protein partners necessary for target gene misregulation and demonstrate a direct effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors on the SS18-SSX complex composition, expression misregulation, and apoptosis.

  6. The effects of pasture availability for twin- and triplet-bearing ewes in mid and late pregnancy on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth.

    PubMed

    Corner, R A; Kenyon, P R; Stafford, K J; West, D M; Morris, S T; Oliver, M H

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of offering ewes two different feeding levels, during mid and late pregnancy, on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth. Romney ewes, bearing twin (n = 80) or triplet foetuses (n = 56), were allocated to a pasture sward height of 2 or 4 cm between 70 and 107 days of pregnancy. In late pregnancy (day 107 to 147), half of the ewes were reallocated the alternate sward height, which produced four treatments: 2-2, 2-4, 4-2 and 4-4. Ewes were weighed on days 65, 92, 107 and 130 of pregnancy and lamb live weights were recorded 12 to 24 h after birth. Twelve to 24 h after birth the maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewes were determined, whilst their lambs were tagged. After the lambs were released, the behaviour of each ewe and her lambs was observed for 5 min. Ewe treatment and litter size had no effect on ewe MBS. However, as MBS increased (ewes stayed closer to lambs during tagging), ewes bleated less in a high-pitch and were quicker to make contact with their lamb. During the observation period, ewes in the 4-4 treatment had a greater percentage of their bleats in a low pitch (P < 0.05) than ewes in the 2-2 and 4-2 treatment (61.3% v. 41.3% and 38.8% low bleats, respectively) and more lambs born to 4-4 ewes (95%) bleated than lambs born to 2-2 ewes (84%; P < 0.05). However, lambs born to ewes in the 2-2 treatment bleated earlier than lambs in all other treatments (P < 0.05). Lambs born to 4-4 ewes were less likely (P < 0.05) to move towards their dam in order to make contact than lambs born to 2-2 or 4-2 ewes (3.1% v. 16.9% and 16.7%, respectively). These findings suggest that under the conditions of the present study, ewe nutrition had little effect on maternal behaviour. However, lambs born to ewes offered 2 cm pasture sward heights during mid and/or late pregnancy (2-2, 2-4 and 4-2 treatments) displayed behaviour that demonstrated greater 'need' whereas lambs born to ewes offered 4 cm during mid and

  7. Morel Receives 2005 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Morel, François M. M.

    2006-02-01

    François M. M. Morel received the Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December 2005, in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. François Morel has led the search to understand the role of metals in the ocean, starting with a focus on inorganic processes and aquatic chemistry, and leading to a blend of geochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, and genetics. His influence comes from his research and from the way he has educated an entire community of scientists with his textbooks, with his teaching, and through his former students and postdocs who hold faculty positions at universities throughout the world.

  8. Gastrointestinal Kaposi sarcoma with appendiceal involvement.

    PubMed

    Egwuonwu, Steve; Gatto-Weis, Cara; Miranda, Roberto; Casas, Luis De Las

    2011-04-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor manifesting as nodular lesions on skin, mucous membranes, or internal organs. This is a case of a 42-year-old human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV) positive bisexual male, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) since diagnosis four years ago. He presented with a three-day history of abdominal pains, fever, vomiting, and a one-week history of melena stools. Endoscopy revealed Kaposi sarcoma in the stomach and duodenum. Postendoscopy, he developed acute abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy revealed extensive Kaposi sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract with appendiceal involvement. The patient underwent appendectomy and had an uneventful recovery. A review of the literature discusses appendiceal Kaposi sarcoma with appendicitis, a rare but critical manifestation of gastrointestinal Kaposi sarcoma.

  9. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of ewe traits in Icelandic sheep.

    PubMed

    Arnason, T; Jónmundsson, J V

    2008-12-01

    The prolificacy of the ewes was measured as the number of lambs born per ewe mated (NLB) when the ewes were 1-4 years of age. The ewe productivity related to the same age interval was measured by special ewe production indices (EPI). The genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by a series of bivariate REML analyses using animal models. The material used for the genetic analysis contained records on 193,213 ewes. The heritability estimates for NLB were h(2) = 0.17, 0.13, 0.11, 0.10 for the four respective age classes. Corresponding estimates for EPI were h(2) = 0.16, 0.17, 0.17, 0.15. The genetic correlations among NLB at different ages ranged from 0.63 to 0.98 and among EPI from 0.82 to 0.99. The genetic correlations between NLB and EPI were generally low. The material used for estimating the breeding values by the MT-BLUP Animal Model consisted of 1.5 million individuals in the pedigree file. In total 815,782 ewes had records for the NLB and 763,491 ewes had production index (at least 1 year). The records were registered in the years 1990-2006. All possible missing patterns were present in the data. In the iteration process expected values for missing traits were generated and solutions were obtained on canonical transformed scale. The genetic evaluations were run independently for NLB and EPI for computational convenience given the correlations between these traits were negligible.

  10. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality.

  11. Evaluating Dactinomycin and Vincristine in Young Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-23

    Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Ewing Sarcoma; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  12. Limb salvage with microvascular free fibula following primary bone sarcoma resection

    PubMed Central

    Parag, Sahasrabudhe; Yogesh, Panchwagh; Rathod, Jesal; Nikhil, Panse; Amit, Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extremity sarcomas are challenging to manage. Total eradication of tumour has to be balanced with restoration of limb function to prevent mortality and morbidity. Disease-free survival with maximum limb function is the ultimate goal in these patients. Materials and Methods: We present a series of ten cases of extremity malignancies, where limb salvage was attempted with microvascular free fibula for limb reconstruction from the period of 2008 to 2015. Results: Of the ten cases in the study, there were two females and eight males. There were nine patients with lower limb malignancies and one patient with upper limb malignancy. There were four patients with Ewing's sarcoma of femur, five patients with osteosarcoma of femur and one patient with chondrosarcoma of the humerus. The follow-up period ranged from 1.2 to 6.2 years with mean follow-up of 3.1 years. There were two deaths during follow-up, both were due to distant metastasis. The assessment of the function was done on the basis of Musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score. Maximum score was 30 and minimum score was 24, the average score being 26. Of the eight surviving patients, three patients had full weightbearing, four patients had partial weightbearing at end of 2 years and one patient of upper limb reconstruction had complete upper limb function. None of the patients had to undergo limb amputation. Conclusion: Limb salvage with vascularised fibula graft offers good functional outcome along with good disease-free survival rates. PMID:28216818

  13. ESF-EMBO Symposium "Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence" Sept 29-Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Beat W; Koscielniak, Ewa; Kovar, Heinrich; Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled "Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence" with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field.

  14. ESF-EMBO Symposium “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” Sept 29–Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Beat W.; Koscielniak, Ewa; Kovar, Heinrich; Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field. PMID:23761860

  15. Effect of ewe prolificacy potential and stocking rate on ewe and lamb performance in a grass-based lamb production system.

    PubMed

    Earle, E; McHugh, N; Boland, T M; Creighton, P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born per ewe per year) as dictated by sire breed type, stocking rate (SR; ewes per ha), and their interaction on ewe and lamb performance in a temperate grass-based lamb production system. The study was a 2 × 3 factorial design, consisting of 2 differing ewe PP and 3 SR which included 180 medium prolificacy potential (MP- Suffolk-sired crossbred ewes) and 180 high prolificacy potential ewes (HP- Belclare-sired crossbred ewes) allocated to 1 of 3 ( = 60 ewes) SR: low (LSR; 10 ewes per ha), medium (MSR; 12 ewes per ha) or high (HSR: 14 ewes per ha). Each treatment was managed in a 5-paddock rotational grazing system for the duration of the study. Medium prolificacy ewes were consistently heavier ( < 0.001) compared to HP ewes, with HP ewes having a higher BCS at lambing and 6 wk post-lambing (PL; < 0.05). Low SR ewes had a higher BW ( < 0.05) and BCS ( < 0.05) at mating, 6 wk PL, and weaning relative to MSR and HSR ewes which did not differ from each other. Lambs born to MP ewes were heavier at birth and weaning ( < 0.001) and achieved a higher ADG from birth to weaning ( < 0.05). Ewe PP had no effect on lifetime ADG or d to slaughter (DTS) with HP lambs yielding a higher carcass weight ( < 0.001). Low SR and MSR lambs achieved higher ADG from birth to weaning ( < 0.001) and weaning weight ( < 0.001) relative to HSR lambs and did not differ from each other, while post-weaning and lifetime lamb ADG was highest at the LSR, intermediate at the MSR, and lowest at the HSR ( < 0.001). A ewe PP by SR interaction existed for DTS, with MP lambs at the LSR reaching slaughter weight earlier ( < 0.01) relative to HP lambs, while at the MSR and HSR, MP and HP lambs did not differ from each other. High PP ewes produced a higher average born ( < 0.001) and weaned litter size per ewe ( < 0.01), with live weight weaned per ha ( < 0.001) increasing as ewe PP

  16. Therapeutic Angiotensin-(1-7) in Treating Patients With Metastatic Sarcoma That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-10

    Bone Cancer; Chondrosarcoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma

  17. Abattoir survey of congenital reproductive abnormalities in ewes.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C; Long, S E; Parkinson, T J

    A survey of abnormalities of the reproductive tract of female sheep was undertaken at two abattoirs in the south west of England over a period of 12 months. During the survey, 9970 reproductive tracts from cull ewes and 23,536 tracts from nulliparous sheep (prime lambs and hoggets) were examined. A total of 655 (6.57 per cent) ewes and 459 (1.95 per cent) nulliparous sheep had abnormalities of the reproductive tract. Of these, congenital abnormalities of the paramesonephric ducts accounted for 2.4 per cent of the ewes and 7.4 per cent of the nulliparous sheep, congenital abnormalities of the ovaries accounted for 2.6 per cent of the ewes and 7.4 per cent of the nulliparous sheep and cystic structures that were considered to have been of congenital origin accounted for 27.2 per cent of the ewes and 52.7 per cent of the nulliparous sheep. The most common lesion was paraovarian cysts (26.6 per cent of ewes and 39.0 per cent of nulliparous sheep), but few of these appeared to have affected the sheep's reproductive function. Several specific conditions were recorded, including some described for the first time in sheep. Uterus unicornis occurred in 20 sheep and other forms of segmental aplasia of parts of the paramesonephric ducts occurred in a further 13 animals. Uterus didelphys occurred in six sheep, and 11 animals were intersex. Intersex sheep had vestigial structures that were derived from the paramesonephric ducts, hypoplastic or masculinised gonads and some had masculinised external genitalia. Ovarian hypoplasia occurred in 34 sheep, and in a further 12 mainly nulliparous animals, the ovaries were fused. Sixty nulliparous animals and two ewes had hydatids of Morgagni.

  18. Ziv-aflibercept in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Unresectable, or Metastatic Gynecologic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-03

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma; Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

  19. Effect of post-mating GnRH analogue (buserelin) treatment on PGF2alpha release in ewes and ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Khan, T H; Beck, N F G; Mann, G E; Khalid, M

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of buserelin or saline treatment on ovarian function (Experiment 1), plasma PGFM concentrations and oxytocin stimulated prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) release (Experiment 2) in ewe lambs and ewes. Welsh Halfbred ewes (n=26) and ewe lambs (n=24) were mated to vasectomised rams at synchronised oestrus and on Day 12 post-mating each animal was injected intramuscularly either normal saline or 4 microg buserelin. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone and oestradiol concentrations were determined in samples collected by jugular venepuncture 1h before and at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment (n=7 per treatment group). Progesterone concentrations increased (P<0.05) from 2 to 8h after buserelin treatment and returned to basal levels after 72 h, whereas oestradiol concentrations were maximal at 2h post-treatment and returned to basal levels after 24h (P<0.05). Oestradiol concentrations were lower (P<0.05) in buserelin-treated animals than controls at 72 h post-treatment. Basal and post-treatment progesterone concentrations were greater (P<0.05) in ewes than in ewe lambs but oestradiol levels were similar for both age groups. Ovulation rate, determined by laparoscopy on Day 14, was similar for both age groups (ewes 1.1; ewe lambs 1.0). Buserelin treatment induced accessory corpora lutea in ewes (4/7; 57%) but not in ewe lambs (0/7; 0%). In the Experiment 2, plasma PGFM concentrations were determined in samples collected at 20-min intervals for 6h on Day 14 and at 20-min intervals for 1h before and at 10-min intervals for 1h and then at 20-min intervals for a further 3h period after an intravenous injection of oxytocin (1IU/kg body weight) on Day 15 post-oestrus. In this experiment there were five ewe lambs and six ewes per treatment group. There was no effect of buserelin treatment or age on basal PGFM concentrations on either Day 14 or 15. Although peak PGFM concentrations tended to be lower in

  20. Yeasts associated with Sardinian ewe's dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, S; Fadda, M E; Deplano, M; Mulargia, A F; Palmas, F

    2001-09-19

    In the present work, the occurrence of yeasts in different types of typical Sardinian ewe's cheeses (32 samples of pecorino, 32 of caciotta, 40 of feta, 56 of ricotta) was determined. For the strains isolated the following properties were studied: proteolytic and lipolytic activities, the ability to grow at different temperatures, different concentrations of salt, and to assimilate and/or ferment compounds like lactate, citrate, lactose, glucose, galactose, lactic acid. Of 160 samples analysed, 76.2% yielded growth of yeasts. Yeast counts showed a certain variability among the samples. The highest levels were observed in caciotta and feta cheeses. A total of 281 strains belonging to 16 genera and 25 species were identified. In general, Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species, representing 28.8% of the total isolates. Other frequently appearing species were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and K. marxianus. Other genera encountered were Pichia, Candida, Dekkera, Yarrowia and Rhodotorula. With regard to the biochemical and technological properties of the yeasts, only K. lactis, K. marxianus and Dek. anomala assimilated and fermented lactose, whereas the majority of the species assimilated lactic acid. The assimilation of citrate was a characteristic of D. hansenii, R. rubra and Y. lipolytica. On the whole, the yeasts were weakly proteolytic while lipolytic activity was present in several species. A high percentage of strains showed a certain tolerance to low temperatures while only some strains of D. hansenii and K. lactis were able to grow at a 10% NaCl concentration.

  1. Ovarian activity in Booroola X Romney ewes which have a major gene influencing their ovulation rate.

    PubMed

    McNatty, K P; Henderson, K M; Lun, S; Heath, D A; Ball, K; Hudson, N L; Fannin, J; Gibb, M; Kieboom, L E; Smith, P

    1985-01-01

    A marked difference in both the function and composition of individual ovarian follicles was noted in Booroola X Romney ewes (6-7 years of age) which had previously been segregated on at least one ovulation rate record of 3-4 (F + ewes, N = 21) or less than 3 (++ ewes, N = 21). Follicles in F + ewes produced oestradiol and reached maturity at a smaller diameter than in ++ ewes. In F+ ewes (N = 3), the presumptive preovulatory follicles were 4.4 +/- 0.5 (s.e.m.) mm in diameter and contained 2.1 +/- 0.3 X 10(6) (s.e.m.) granulosa cells, whereas in ++ ewes (N = 3), such follicles were 7.3 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter and contained 6.5 +/- 0.8 X 10(6) cells. During a prostaglandin (PG)-induced follicular phase, the secretion rate of oestradiol from ovaries containing 3 presumptive preovulatory follicles in F + ewes was similar to that from ovaries with only one such follicle in ++ ewes. We suggest that the putative 'gene effect' in F + ewes is manifested during early follicular development and that it may be mediated via an enhanced sensitivity of granulosa cells to pituitary hormones. As a consequence, the development of 3 preovulatory follicles in F + ewes may be necessary to provide a cell mass capable of producing the same quantity of oestradiol as that from one preovulatory follicle in ++ ewes.

  2. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  3. Safety and efficacy of low-dose, subacute exposure of mature ewes to sodium chlorate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of low-dose, subacute exposure of mature ewes to NaClO3 in the drinking water. Twenty-five ewes (BW = 62.5 ± 7.3 kg) were placed indoors in individual pens with ad libitum access to water and feed. After 7 d of adaptation, ewes were assigned ran...

  4. What Is a Soft Tissue Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... simple guide can help. Downloadable PDFs Download free PDFs of our soft tissue sarcoma information About and Key Statistics Causes, Risks, Prevention Detection, Diagnosis, Staging Treatment and Side Effects Next Steps After Treatment More Resources Read ...

  5. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on soft tissue sarcoma and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... report " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " and other updates that there ...

  6. Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Joseph P; Munfakh, Nabil A; King, Gregory S; Carden, Juan O

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas are rare and lethal malignant tumors that typically affect larger vessels: the aorta, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary arteries. Since symptoms and imaging of pulmonary arterial intimal sarcomas mimic pulmonary thromboembolism, the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with chest pain, dyspnea, and filling defect within the pulmonary arteries should include intimal sarcoma. Often right ventricular failure is observed due to pulmonary hypertension caused by the obstructive effect of the tumor and concomitant chronic thromboembolism. We report the case of a 72-year-old African-American male with arterial intimal sarcoma of the left and right pulmonary artery with extension through the right artery into the bronchus and right lung.

  7. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking a pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, A; Yates, T J; Kuriakose, P

    2008-01-01

    Sarcomas involving the lung are a rare occurrence, often a result of metastatic disease from primary malignancies involving the skin, liver, breast or heart. Primary pulmonary artery sarcomas are rarer still, with limited cases reported world-wide and consequently data regarding treatment modalities are sparse and largely experimental. These tumors are often mistaken for a pulmonary embolism and seemingly supported by radiological findings. Patients will often present without symptom resolution despite therapeutic anticoagulation. The following case illustrates how a soft tissue sarcoma of the pulmonary artery can mimic a pulmonary embolism, thus, resulting in both a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. A positron emission tomography scan was an invaluable tool in this case, showing increased radiotracer uptake and placing neoplasm at the top of the differential diagnosis. This ultimately led to a biopsy that was vimentin positive, cytokeratin negative and CD117 negative, thus consistent with soft tissue sarcoma.

  8. Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kriz, Joseph P.; Munfakh, Nabil A.; King, Gregory S.; Carden, Juan O.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas are rare and lethal malignant tumors that typically affect larger vessels: the aorta, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary arteries. Since symptoms and imaging of pulmonary arterial intimal sarcomas mimic pulmonary thromboembolism, the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with chest pain, dyspnea, and filling defect within the pulmonary arteries should include intimal sarcoma. Often right ventricular failure is observed due to pulmonary hypertension caused by the obstructive effect of the tumor and concomitant chronic thromboembolism. We report the case of a 72-year-old African-American male with arterial intimal sarcoma of the left and right pulmonary artery with extension through the right artery into the bronchus and right lung. PMID:27239183

  9. Phase II Study of High-Dose Photon/Proton Radiotherapy in the Management of Spine Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaney, Thomas F. Liebsch, Norbert J.; Pedlow, Francis X.; Adams, Judith; Dean, Susan; Yeap, Beow Y.; McManus, Patricia; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Harmon, David C.; Spiro, Ira J.; Raskin, Kevin A.; Suit, Herman D.; Yoon, Sam S.; Hornicek, Francis J.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (XRT) for spine sarcomas is constrained by spinal cord, nerve, and viscera tolerance. Negative surgical margins are uncommon; hence, doses of {>=}66 Gy are recommended. A Phase II clinical trial evaluated high-dose photon/proton XRT for spine sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had nonmetastatic, thoracic, lumbar, and/or sacral spine/paraspinal sarcomas. Treatment included pre- and/or postoperative photon/proton XRT with or without radical resection; patients with osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma received chemotherapy. Shrinking fields delivered 50.4 cobalt Gray equivalent (Gy RBE) to subclinical disease, 70.2 Gy RBE to microscopic disease in the tumor bed, and 77.4 Gy RBE to gross disease at 1.8 Gy RBE qd. Doses were reduced for radiosensitive histologies, concurrent chemoradiation, or when diabetes or autoimmune disease present. Spinal cord dose was limited to 63/54 Gy RBE to surface/center. Intraoperative boost doses of 7.5 to 10 Gy could be given by dural plaque. Results: A total of 50 patients (29 chordoma, 14 chondrosarcoma, 7 other) underwent gross total (n = 25) or subtotal (n = 12) resection or biopsy (n = 13). With 48 month median follow-up, 5-year actuarial local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival are: 78%, 63%, and 87% respectively. Two of 36 (5.6%) patients treated for primary versus 7/14 (50%) for recurrent tumor developed local recurrence (p < 0.001). Five patients developed late radiation-associated complications; no myelopathy developed but three sacral neuropathies appeared after 77.12 to 77.4 Gy RBE. Conclusions: Local control with this treatment is high in patients radiated at the time of primary presentation. Spinal cord dose constraints appear to be safe. Sacral nerves receiving 77.12-77.4 Gy RBE are at risk for late toxicity.

  10. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  11. Validation of prognostic scoring and assessment of clinical benefit for patients with bone sarcomas enrolled in phase I clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, J. Andrew; Hess, Kenneth R.; Naing, Aung; Hong, David S.; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Benjamin, Robert S.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Conley, Anthony; Herzog, Cynthia E.; Anderson, Pete; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to validate the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) prognostic scoring systems for the selection of bone sarcoma patients for phase I clinical trials and to identify additional risk factors related to survival. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the baseline characteristics and outcomes of 92 bone sarcoma patients who were referred to MDACC's Phase I Clinical Trials Program. Results Ninety-two patients with Ewing sarcoma (N = 47), osteosarcoma (N = 22), chondrosarcoma (N = 16), and other tumors (N = 7) were evaluated; 78 were enrolled in at least 1 of 43 different phase I trials. The median overall survival (OS) was 8.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.8–13.7 months). Independent factors that predicted shorter survival were male sex, >2 metastatic sites, >3 previous therapies, hemoglobin level <10.5 g/dL, platelet count >200 x103/L, creatinine level ≥1.3 mg/dL, and lactate dehydrogenase level >ULN. Patients with good RMH scores (0-1) had longer OS than patients with poor RMH scores (2-3) (HR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.9–11.0; P < 0.0001), as did patients with low MDACC scores (0-1) as compared to patients with higher MDACC scores (2–4) (HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9–5.6; P < 0.0001). Conclusion The RMH prognostic score can be used to predict the OS of bone cancer patients referred for phase I trials. The MDACC score added no value to the RMH score and therefore does not have a role in assessment of patients with bone tumors. Patients with advanced bone sarcomas should be considered for phase I trials. PMID:27486883

  12. Survival and Margin Status in Head and Neck Radiation-Induced Sarcomas and De Novo Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Rosko, Andrew J; Birkeland, Andrew C; Chinn, Steven B; Shuman, Andrew G; Prince, Mark E; Patel, Rajiv M; McHugh, Jonathan B; Spector, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Objective To describe histologic subtypes and oncologic outcomes among patients with radiation-induced and de novo sarcomas of the head and neck. Study Design Retrospective case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary academic center. Subject and Methods In total, 166 adult patients with sarcoma of the head and neck treated from January 1, 1985, to January 1, 2010, were included. Tumors were characterized as radiation induced (15.1%) vs de novo sarcomas (84.9%). Clinical and tumor characteristics were compared. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results Radiation-induced sarcomas were more likely to be high grade ( P = .006) and advanced stage ( P = .03). Chondrosarcoma was more common in de novo tumors ( P = .02) while leiomyosarcoma ( P = .01), sarcoma not otherwise specified ( P = .02), and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma ( P < .001) were more common in radiation-induced sarcomas. Radiation-induced sarcomas were associated with statistically significantly worse DSS ( P = .019) and OS ( P = .005) compared with de novo sarcomas, but when only high-grade soft tissue sarcomas were analyzed, neither DSS ( P = .48) nor OS ( P = .29) differed. Margin status was a significant predictor of survival as both R0 and R1 resections correlated with statistically better DSS and OS compared with R2 ( P < .001) resections and patients treated with radiation therapy/chemoradiation therapy alone ( P = .005). Conclusion Radiation-induced sarcomas of the head and neck correlate with worse survival compared with de novo tumors; however, when controlling for tumor grade and resection status, there is no statistically significant difference in observed outcomes.

  13. Primary granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, G; Gangadharan, V P; Elizabath, K A; Preetha, S; Chithrathara, K

    2000-06-01

    Granulocytic sarcomas are rare extramedullary tumors of malignant myeloid precursor cells. Exceedingly rare in childhood, it commonly involves skin, lymph nodes, bone, and the spine. Ovarian involvement is rare. It can arise de novo, precede the development of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, or be the sole manifestation of relapse. We describe a 26-year-old woman with granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary without any hematologic disorder.

  14. Surgical management of soft tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Arlen, M.; Marcove, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    This volume reflects the latest thinking in surgical and adjuvant forms of therapy that can be offered to the sarcoma patient. Based on their analysis of sarcoma patients, the authors stress management based on site of origin, and discuss tumors on and about the shoulder girdle, hip joint, extremity, retroperitoneum, etc. Coverage includes methods for limb preservation; techniques for regional node resection; indications and methods for arterial perfusion, cryosurgery and isotope implantation; pre- and post-operative immunotherapy chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  15. Surgical management of extensive pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shehatha, Jaffar; Saxena, Pankaj; Clarke, Belinda; Dunning, John; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2009-04-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor that can be misdiagnosed as acute or chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease. This article reports a patient with a preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary embolism who was found to have an extensive pulmonary artery tumor. Surgical resection of the primary pulmonary artery sarcoma and reconstruction of the central pulmonary arteries, followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, provided significant improvement in his clinical symptoms.

  16. Status postpneumonectomy for pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Siordia, Juan A; Garlish, Amanda; Truong, Huong

    2015-07-02

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare disease that has a poor survival prognosis due to misdiagnosis with pulmonary thromboembolism or metastatic embolisation, detailed image findings and complicated surgical procedures. Surgical procedures established for treatment include pneumonectomy and pulmonary endarterectomy. Survival after surgery still remains at 1 year survival of 50%. The following case report demonstrates a patient's status postpneumonectomy for pulmonary artery sarcoma that presented with no complications after 1.5-year follow-up.

  17. Thromboembolism in pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Mohsen; Pernter, Patrizia; Triani, Antonio; Osele, Luzian; Wiedermann, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma, although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. Clinically and radiologically, it may imitate pulmonary embolism, making diagnosis difficult and delaying treatment. Patients often have no symptom resolution despite therapeutic anticoagulation. Visualization of filling defects within a pulmonary artery on contrast-enhanced CT cannot reliably differentiate between pulmonary thromboembolism and malignant lesions like leiomyosarcoma. FDG PET-CT offers the potential for identification of malignant lesions. The authors report a case with pulmonary artery thromboembolism due to thrombi formed on a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Integrated FDG PET-CT showed no FDG-uptake along the major part of the filling defect within the right main pulmonary artery suggesting blood clot and increased uptake along the posterior wall of the right main pulmonary artery and the left lower lobar artery suggesting malignancy.

  18. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma in Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Hwan; Jang, Jong-Won; Kim, Moon-Young; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Hang-Gul; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), previously known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurs commonly in the soft tissues in adult, but is rare in the maxillofacial region. It consists of undifferentiated mesenchymal tumor cells resembling histiocytes and fibroblasts. The purpose of this article is to report a case of UPS in the mandible. A 44-year-old patient presented with a painful growing mass in the mandible of two months’ duration. Computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed an ill-defined heterogenous, hypermetabolic mass about 4 cm in size in the left mandible invading adjacent soft tissues. A left mandiblulectomy and reconstruction with a fibular free flap were performed. Immunohistochemical study gave a diagnosis of UPS. The patient was referred for adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical removal of the tumor. PMID:27489851

  19. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma in Mandible.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Hwan; Jang, Jong-Won; Kim, Moon-Young; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Hang-Gul; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), previously known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurs commonly in the soft tissues in adult, but is rare in the maxillofacial region. It consists of undifferentiated mesenchymal tumor cells resembling histiocytes and fibroblasts. The purpose of this article is to report a case of UPS in the mandible. A 44-year-old patient presented with a painful growing mass in the mandible of two months' duration. Computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed an ill-defined heterogenous, hypermetabolic mass about 4 cm in size in the left mandible invading adjacent soft tissues. A left mandiblulectomy and reconstruction with a fibular free flap were performed. Immunohistochemical study gave a diagnosis of UPS. The patient was referred for adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical removal of the tumor.

  20. Studying Genes in Tissue Samples From Younger and Adolescent Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  1. Potential Therapeutic Targets in Uterine Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cuppens, Tine; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach. PMID:26576131

  2. Nutritional status of adult ewes during early and mid-pregnancy. 2. Effects of supplementation with selenised yeast on ewe reproduction and offspring performance to weaning.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Carson, A F; McCoy, M A; Dawson, L E R; O'Connell, N E; Gordon, A W

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of selenium (Se) supplementation of mature ewes in the period from day -14 to day 90 post mating on Se status, productivity and viability of ewes and their offspring. Multiparous crossbred ewes (n = 82) were randomly assigned to receive a standard dried grass-based diet (control) or dried grass diet supplemented with 1 g of selenised yeast (Selplex®), providing 0.5 mg Se per ewe per day. After day 90 post mating, all ewes were offered grass-based diets supplemented with a standard multivitamin and mineral mix, up to lambing. Ewes that were fed additional Se had increased (P < 0.001) activity of glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GPx) and increased plasma Se concentrations throughout the treatment period. At lambing, GPx activity of supplemented ewes was higher (P < 0.001) than that of controls. Twenty-four hours after birth, lambs of ewes given Se had higher (P < 0.001) concentration of Se in plasma, greater (P < 0.001) activity of GPx and better (P < 0.01) immune status. Lambs of ewes that received supplementation showed a faster progression to stand than control lambs (P < 0.05), independent of maternal behaviour which was not affected. Supplementation reduced perinatal lamb mortality (0.04 v. 0.17; P < 0.05). However, overall mortality from birth to weaning was unaffected (P > 0.05). Supplemented ewes weaned lambs on average 2 kg heavier than control ewes, due to the higher (P < 0.05) growth rates achieved by their offspring. In conclusion, for ewes with a marginal Se status, an organic source of Se supplemented throughout pregnancy, compared with supplementation only in the last trimester, positively affected measures of lamb viability and survival.

  3. The spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms at a tertiary sarcoma centre; assessing 772 tumour specimens and the value of current ancillary molecular diagnostic modalities

    PubMed Central

    Noujaim, Jonathan; Jones, Robin L; Swansbury, John; Gonzalez, David; Benson, Charlotte; Judson, Ian; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2017-01-01

    Background: EWSR1 rearrangements were first identified in Ewing sarcoma, but the spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms now includes many soft tissue tumour subtypes including desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT), myxoid liposarcoma (MLPS), extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC), angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH), clear cell sarcoma (CCS) and myoepithelial neoplasms. We analysed the spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged soft tissue neoplasms at our tertiary sarcoma centre, by assessing ancillary molecular diagnostic modalities identifying EWSR1-rearranged tumours and reviewing the results in light of our current knowledge of these and other Ewing sarcoma-like neoplasms. Methods: We retrospectively analysed all specimens tested for EWSR1 rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and/or reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) over a 7-year period. Results: There was a total of 772 specimens. FISH was performed more often than RT–PCR (n=753, 97.5% vs n=445, 57.6%). In total, 210 (27.9%) specimens were FISH-positive for EWSR1 rearrangement compared to 111 (14.4%) that showed EWSR1 fusion transcripts with RT–PCR. Failure rates for FISH and RT–PCR were 2.5% and 18.0%. Of 109 round cell tumours with pathology consistent with Ewing sarcoma, 15 (13.8 %) cases were FISH-positive without an identifiable EWSR1 fusion transcript, 4 (3.7%) were FISH-negative but RT–PCR positive and 4 (3.7%) were negative for both. FISH positivity for DSRCT, MLPS, EMC, AFH and CCS was 86.3%, 4.3%, 58.5%, 60.0% and 87.9%, respectively. A positive FISH result led to diagnostic change in 40 (19.0%) EWSR1-rearranged cases. 13 FISH-positive cases remained unclassifiable. Conclusions: FISH is more sensitive for identifying EWSR1 rearrangements than RT–PCR. However, there can be significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between groups of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms, with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. FISH and RT–PCR should be used as

  4. Intratumoral oxygen gradients mediate sarcoma cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Daniel M.; Park, Kyung Min; Tang, Vitor; Xu, Yu; Pak, Koreana; Eisinger-Mathason, T. S. Karin; Simon, M. Celeste; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a critical factor in the progression and metastasis of many cancers, including soft tissue sarcomas. Frequently, oxygen (O2) gradients develop in tumors as they grow beyond their vascular supply, leading to heterogeneous areas of O2 depletion. Here, we report the impact of hypoxic O2 gradients on sarcoma cell invasion and migration. O2 gradient measurements showed that large sarcoma mouse tumors (>300 mm3) contain a severely hypoxic core [≤0.1% partial pressure of O2 (pO2)] whereas smaller tumors possessed hypoxic gradients throughout the tumor mass (0.1–6% pO2). To analyze tumor invasion, we used O2-controllable hydrogels to recreate the physiopathological O2 levels in vitro. Small tumor grafts encapsulated in the hydrogels revealed increased invasion that was both faster and extended over a longer distance in the hypoxic hydrogels compared with nonhypoxic hydrogels. To model the effect of the O2 gradient accurately, we examined individual sarcoma cells embedded in the O2-controllable hydrogel. We observed that hypoxic gradients guide sarcoma cell motility and matrix remodeling through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation. We further found that in the hypoxic gradient, individual cells migrate more quickly, across longer distances, and in the direction of increasing O2 tension. Treatment with minoxidil, an inhibitor of hypoxia-induced sarcoma metastasis, abrogated cell migration and matrix remodeling in the hypoxic gradient. Overall, we show that O2 acts as a 3D physicotactic agent during sarcoma tumor invasion and propose the O2-controllable hydrogels as a predictive system to study early stages of the metastatic process and therapeutic targets. PMID:27486245

  5. What Are the Key Statistics about Soft Tissue Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Soft Tissue Sarcoma What Are the Key Statistics About Soft Tissue Sarcomas? The American Cancer Society's ... in the United States for 2017 are (these statistics include both adults and children): About 12,390 ...

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Soft Tissue Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been proven to cause soft tissue sarcomas. Arsenic has also been linked to a type of ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma Last Medical Review: December 29, 2014 Last Revised: February 9, 2016 American Cancer Society ...

  7. High prevalence of CIC fusion with double-homeobox (DUX4) transcription factors in EWSR1-negative undifferentiated small blue round cell sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Antoine; Sung, Yun Shao; Zhang, Lei; Singer, Samuel; Maki, Robert G; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2012-03-01

    Primitive round cell sarcomas of childhood and young adults have been problematic to diagnose and classify. Our goal was to investigate the pathologic and molecular characteristics of small blue round cell tumors (SBRCT) that remained unclassified after exhaustive immunohistochemistry and molecular screening to exclude known sarcoma-related translocations. As rare examples of EWSR1-negative SBRCT have been shown to carry rearrangements for FUS and CIC genes, we undertook a systematic screening for these two genes. CIC rearrangements by FISH were detected in 15/22 (68%), while none showed FUS abnormalities. RACE, RT-PCR, and/or long-range DNA PCR performed in two cases with frozen material showed that CIC was fused to copies of the DUX4 gene on either 4q35 or 10q26.3. Subsequent FISH analysis confirmed fused signals of CIC with either 4q35 or 10q26.3 region in six cases each. Tumors positive for CIC-DUX4 fusion occurred mainly in male young adult patients (median age: 29 years), with the extremities being the most frequent location. Microscopically, tumors displayed a primitive, round to oval cell morphology with prominent nucleoli, high mitotic count, and areas of necrosis. O13 expression was variable, being either diffuse or patchy and tumors mostly lacked other markers of differentiation. Although CIC-DUX4 resulting in a t(4;19) translocation has been previously described in primitive sarcomas, this is the first report implicating the related DUX4 on 10q26 in oncogenesis. These results suggest the possibility of a newly defined subgroup of primitive round cell sarcomas characterized by CIC rearrangements, distinct from Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

  8. Effects of ewe breed and ram exposure on estrous behavior in May and June.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R A; Notter, D R; Beal, W E

    1988-06-01

    Two groups of purebred ewes (A and B), each consisting of 25 Dorsets and 25 Hampshires, were used to study effects of ewe breed and ram exposure on ovulation and estrus in May and June. Ewes lambed in January and February and were isolated from mature rams for at least 5 mo. From May 8 to June 11 (Period 1), Group A ewes were penned with vasectomized rams fitted with marking harnesses and Group B ewes were isolated from rams. From June 11 to July 13 (Period 2), rams were placed with Group B ewes and Group A ewes were isolated from rams. Ovulation was monitored by biweekly serum progesterone assays and crayon marks were used to detect estrus. For Group A ewes in Period 1, more Dorsets ovulated (96%) than did Hampshires (72%), and of ewes that ovulated, more Dorsets mated (83 vs 28%). Fifty-five percent of Dorsets, but only 20% of Hampshires, appeared to have been spontaneously cycling at the start of the experiment. Of ewes mated in Period 1, more Dorsets than Hampshires continued to cycle during Period 2 (65 vs 0%). For Group B ewes in Period 1, 44% of Dorsets, but only 8% of Hampshires, ovulated in the absence of rams. In Period 2, 92% of Dorsets and 84% of Hampshires ovulated. Of ewes that ovulated, more Dorset ewes mated (78 vs 52%). Of ewes that mated, more Dorsets appeared to be cycling spontaneously at ram introduction (39 vs 0%). Throughout the study, 24% of Dorsets, but no Hampshires, cycled continuously.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor.

    PubMed

    Raj, Prince; Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management.

  10. Multidisciplinary management of soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Luis, Ángel Montero; Aguilar, Damián Pérez; Martín, José Antonio López

    2010-08-01

    Musculoskeletal sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms derived from connective tissue. Sarcomas represent about 1% of cancer in adults. The annual incidence in adults in Europe is around 14,000 new cases of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and 4,800 new cases of bone sarcomas. Musculoskeletal tumours arise anywhere in the body, although lower extremities are the most common site of appearance, followed by upper extremities, trunk, retroperitoneum and head and neck area. Adequate management of STS is a stimulating challenge for oncologists. The aim of treatment should be focused on four main aspects: improving survival, avoiding local recurrence, maximising organ function and, finally, minimising morbidity. Surgery, radiotherapy and, sometimes though increasingly, chemotherapy are the pillars on which rests the modern treatment of sarcomas. The optimal management of musculoskeletal tumour requires a multidisciplinary integration of these different approaches in treatment planning right from the initial diagnoses. Referring patients to qualified centres should be desirable to achieve the maximum probability of control and even cure for STS.

  11. McNutt Receives 2007 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Anthony B.; Mcnutt, Marcia K.

    2008-01-01

    Marcia Kemper McNutt was awarded the 2007 Maurice Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 12 December 2007 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is ``for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering technology, and instrumentation; or outstanding service to marine science.''

  12. Kaposi sarcoma following postmastectomy lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Montero Pérez, Iria; Rodríguez-Pazos, Laura; Álvarez-Pérez, Adriana; Ferreirós, M Mercedes Pereiro; Aliste, Carlos; Suarez-Peñaranda, Jose Manuel; Toribio, Jaime

    2015-11-01

    Classical Kaposi sarcoma (KS) usually appears on lower extremities accompanied or preceded by local lymphedema. However, the development in areas of chronic lymphedema of the arms following mastectomy, mimicking a Stewart-Treves syndrome, has rarely been described. We report an 81-year-old woman who developed multiple, erythematous to purple tumors, located on areas of post mastectomy lymphedema. Histopathological examination evidenced several dermal nodules formed by spindle-shaped cells that delimitated slit-like vascular spaces with some red cell extravasation. Immunohistochemically, the human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) latent nuclear antigen-1 was detected in the nuclei of most tumoral cells confirming the diagnosis of KS. Lymphedema could promote the development of certain tumors by altering immunocompetence. Although angiosarcoma (AS) is the most frequent neoplasia arising in the setting of chronic lymphedema, other tumors such as benign lymphangiomatous papules (BLAP) or KS can also develop in lymphedematous limbs. It is important to establish the difference between AS and KS because their prognosis and treatment are very different. Identification by immunohistochemistry of HHV-8 is useful for the distinction between KS and AS or BLAP.

  13. Induction of cervical dilation for transcervical embryo transfer in ewes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A major limitation in the application of assisted reproductive technologies in sheep arises from the inability to easily traverse the uterine cervix. The cervix of the non-pregnant ewe is a narrow and rigid structure, with 5–7 spiral folds and crypts that block its lumen. The first two folds closest to the vagina appear to be the greatest obstacle for the instrument insertion into the sheep cervix. Therefore, the dilation of the distal part of the cervix could provide the conformational change necessary to perform non-invasive transcervical procedures. The present study set out to assess the efficacy of Cervidil®, a patented dinoprostone (PgE2)-containing vaginal insert with a controlled-release mechanism, to safely induce sufficient cervical dilation for the purpose of transcervical embryo transfer (TCET) in cyclic ewes. Methods The transfer of frozen-thawed ovine embryos was attempted in 22 cross-bred Rideau Arcott x Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pre-treatment with Cervidil® for 12 or 24 h prior to TCET. Results Cervical penetration rate was significantly improved after Cervidil® pre-treatment, with 55% (6/11) of treated versus 9% (1/11) of control animals successfully penetrated (χ2-test, p < 0.05). Within the treated ewes that were penetrated, 67% (4/6) had been exposed to Cervidil(R) for 24 h and 33% (2/6) had had a 12-h exposure (p > 0.05). Variations in the age, weight, genotype, parity, lifetime lamb production (LLP) and post-partum interval (PPI) between penetrated and non-penetrated ewes were not significant (p > 0.05). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with the age, parity, LLP and PPI. Progesterone assays and ultrasonographic examinations performed 25 days after ET confirmed pregnancy in 2 of 7 penetrated ewes, but no fetuses were detected ultrasonographically 55 days post-TCET. Conclusions The present results indicate a significant benefit of using Cervidil

  14. Effect of the addition of calcium soap to ewes' diet on fatty acid composition of ewe milk and subcutaneous fat of suckling lambs reared on ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Palacios, C; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the inclusion of calcium soap (CS) in ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of suckling lambs. Sixty suckling lambs of three breeds (Castellana, Churra and Assaf) were divided into two equal groups. One group was fed with a diet composed of beetroot pulp, alfalfa, barley, corn, soy, cotton and 4% of CS, and the other with a control diet without CS. The fatty acid profiles of the ewe's milk samples collected on the day before slaughter and of the lamb subcutaneous fat collected from the back of the carcasses were analysed. The addition of calcium soap to the ewe's diet did not change the milk fatty acid profile but significantly increased SFA and decreased both the PUFA and MUFA levels of suckling lamb fat. PCA analysis revealed a good separation of the lamb samples according to the diet of the mothers, showing that diet is more important than breed in explaining sample variability.

  15. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Malignant Adult Hemangiopericytoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  16. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma: a rare neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Montserrat Blanco; Fontán, Eva María García; Carretero, Miguel Ángel Cańizares; Pińeiro, Ana González

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare tumor with an unknown cause. The diagnosis is established after other primary lung malignancies or metastatic extrathoracic sarcoma have been excluded. We report the case of a 69-year-old man who presented with a well-defined mass in the right upper lobe on a chest X-ray. A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) right upper lobectomy was performed. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, CD56 and Bcl-2, and focally positive for CD99, epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin 7 and 19. The cytogenetic study revealed a SYT genetic reassortment. So, the final pathological diagnosis was primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma. PMID:27516790

  17. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gökhan; Ciledağ, Aydin; Yüksel, Cabir; Yenigün, Bülent Mustafa; Kutlay, Hakan; Yazicıoğlu, Levent; Perçinel, Sibel; Kaya, Akin

    2011-01-01

    A 30 years old male patient was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism due to thorax-computerized tomography (CT) angiography, revealing a thrombus totally occluding left main pulmonary artery. The lesion was evaluated as tumoural mass. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed pathologic uptake at pulmonary artery mass. Due to localization of tumour, left pneumonectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis revealed to be pulmonary artery sarcoma. The patient was presented because pulmonary artery sarcomas are very rare tumors and can mimick pulmonary thromboembolism. The true prevalence is underestimated as many pulmonary artery sarcomas are misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. PET-CT may help to make a differential diagnosis.

  18. Intraventricular Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sieg, Emily P; Stepanyan, Hayk; Payne, Russell; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth; Specht, Charles S; Rizk, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is a histologic diagnosis based on cell morphology. These tumors are found throughout the body. They are rarely found in the central nervous system and almost never occur as a primary intraventricular tumor. We present the unusual case of a 68-year-old woman with an intraventricular undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. We go on to discuss the clinical presentation, radiographic characteristics, and management paradigm for these rare lesions. Our patient presented with acute confusion, inability to balance a checkbook, and gait imbalance. CT and MRI demonstrated a 4 x 3.6 x 3.6 cm enhancing lesion in the left lateral ventricle abutting the foramen of Monro. Pathology revealed an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. PMID:28003940

  19. Comparison of antioxidant defence parameters in colostrum and milk between Berrichon du Cher ewes and Uhrusk ewes.

    PubMed

    Lipko-Przybylska, Justyna; Albera, Edyta; Kankofer, Marta

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the profile of antioxidant parameters in ewes' colostrum and milk in relation to breed during 5 d post partum. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was analysed and the activity of the enzymic antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GSH-Tr), as well as the concentration of the non-enzymic antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin A and beta-carotene, were measured. Samples were collected from healthy animals belonging to two ewe breeds: Berrichon du Cher (n=15) and Uhrusk (n=15) kept in the Podlasie Province (Poland). Colostrum was sampled directly after parturition, as well as after 12, 24 and 48 h later and milk was sampled 5 d after parturition. Colostrum and milk for the evaluation of all parameters except for vitamin A and beta-carotene were centrifuged, and the supernatant was used for further analysis. Spectrophotometric methods were used for biochemical measurements. The results showed dynamic changes of antioxidative parameters within the time period examined. TAC values and GSH-Px activity increased significantly during the experiment. GSH-Tr activity showed a similar tendency in Uhrusk ewes but an opposite relationship in Berrichon du Cher. Concentrations of examined vitamins followed the increasing trends noticed in the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Moreover, differences between breeds in the evaluated parameters were detected; these differences were not unequivocal however. The results are also a source of not previously published physiological antioxidant profile in colostrum and milk of ewes over the post-partum period.

  20. Observation, Radiation Therapy, Combination Chemotherapy, and/or Surgery in Treating Young Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-08

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  1. Sarcoma derived from cultured mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tolar, Jakub; Nauta, Alma J; Osborn, Mark J; Panoskaltsis Mortari, Angela; McElmurry, Ron T; Bell, Scott; Xia, Lily; Zhou, Ning; Riddle, Megan; Schroeder, Tania M; Westendorf, Jennifer J; McIvor, R Scott; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Szuhai, Karoly; Oseth, Leann; Hirsch, Betsy; Yant, Stephen R; Kay, Mark A; Peister, Alexandra; Prockop, Darwin J; Fibbe, Willem E; Blazar, Bruce R

    2007-02-01

    To study the biodistribution of MSCs, we labeled adult murine C57BL/6 MSCs with firefly luciferase and DsRed2 fluorescent protein using nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposons and coinfused labeled MSCs with bone marrow into irradiated allogeneic recipients. Using in vivo whole-body imaging, luciferase signals were shown to be increased between weeks 3 and 12. Unexpectedly, some mice with the highest luciferase signals died and all surviving mice developed foci of sarcoma in their lungs. Two mice also developed sarcomas in their extremities. Common cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in tumor cells isolated from different animals. Original MSC cultures not labeled with transposons, as well as independently isolated cultured MSCs, were found to be cytogenetically abnormal. Moreover, primary MSCs derived from the bone marrow of both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed cytogenetic aberrations after several passages in vitro, showing that transformation was not a strain-specific nor rare event. Clonal evolution was observed in vivo, suggesting that the critical transformation event(s) occurred before infusion. Mapping of the transposition insertion sites did not identify an obvious transposon-related genetic abnormality, and p53 was not overexpressed. Infusion of MSC-derived sarcoma cells resulted in malignant lesions in secondary recipients. This new sarcoma cell line, S1, is unique in having a cytogenetic profile similar to human sarcoma and contains bioluminescent and fluorescent genes, making it useful for investigations of cellular biodistribution and tumor response to therapy in vivo. More importantly, our study indicates that sarcoma can evolve from MSC cultures.

  2. Kaposi's sarcoma following immune suppressive therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Deschênes, Isabelle; Dion, Louise; Beauchesne, Claude; de Brum-Fernandes, Artur

    2003-03-01

    The association between Kaposi's sarcoma and infection with human herpesvirus 8 is now well recognized. Immunologic impairment is associated with 2 forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, epidemic [associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] and iatrogenic (associated with immunosuppressive treatment); both forms have become more common during the last decade. We describe an HIV negative 54-year-old man who developed Kaposi's sarcoma 2 months after the beginning of immuno-suppressive therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). With tapering of medication, complete remission of Kaposi's sarcoma was achieved in one year. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with WG.

  3. Amputation for histiocytic sarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Takahiro; Hata, Takashi; Nezu, Yoko; Michishita, Masaki; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Mizutani, Hisashi; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2012-02-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with a skin lesion of the left tarsus. The lesion was biopsied and, based on the microscopic appearance and immunohistochemical characteristics, histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed. Amputation was performed with improved demeanor seen postoperatively. However, between 44 and 60 days following the surgery, relapse of skin lesions appeared in multiple locations, including at the previous amputation site, and euthanasia was elected. This is the first report of a histiocytic sarcoma treated with amputation in a cat.

  4. [Sarcomas, example of a pathologist network organization].

    PubMed

    Neuville, Agnes; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Sarcomas are rare and heterogeneous with many subtypes explaining the high level of diagnostic difficulty with frequent important therapeutic consequences. In 2009, a national network of pathologists has been set up with the main objective to perform a systematic histological review of every new sarcoma, gastro-intestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and desmoid tumor. We describe the network organization and report the results of the first two years of activity. These results clearly show the interest of this organization for the patients as well as for all pathologists. Moreover, data and material collect allows a better knowledge of these tumors and an improvement of the rules for their diagnostic management.

  5. Molecular piracy of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Choi, J; Means, R E; Damania, B; Jung, J U

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most recently discovered human tumor virus and is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and Multicentric Casttleman's disease. KSHV contains numerous open reading frames with striking homology to cellular genes. These viral gene products play a variety of roles in KSHV-associated pathogenesis by disrupting cellular signal transduction pathways, which include interferon-mediated anti-viral responses, cytokine-regulated cell growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle control. In this review, we will attempt to cover our understanding of how viral proteins deregulate cellular signaling pathways, which ultimately contribute to the conversion of normal cells to cancerous cells.

  6. Targeting Protein Kinases to Reverse Multidrug Resistance in Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. PMID:26827688

  7. Surgical margins and handling of soft-tissue sarcoma in extremities: a clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, R.; Coakley, N.; Werier, J.; Engel, J.; Ghert, M.; Verma, S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions In limb salvage surgery for extremity soft-tissue sarcoma (sts), what is an adequate surgical margin? What is the appropriate number of samples to take from the margins of a surgical resection specimen? What is the appropriate handling of surgical resection specimens? Background Surgery is the primary treatment for extremity sts. The combination of radiotherapy with surgery allows for limb salvage by using radiation to biologically “sterilize” microscopic extensions of tumour and to spare neurovascular and osseous structures. Adjuvant chemotherapy in sts—except for rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma—continues to be controversial. Methods The medline and embase databases (1975 to June 2011) and the Cochrane Library were searched for pertinent studies. The Web sites of the main guideline organizations and the American Society of Clinical Oncology conference proceedings (2007–2010) were also searched. Results and Conclusions Thirty-three papers, including four guidelines, one protocol, and one abstract, were eligible for inclusion. The data suggest that patients with clear margins have a better prognosis, but no prospective studies have indicated how wide margins should be. In limb-salvage surgery for extremity sts, the procedure should be planned to achieve a clear margin. However, to preserve functionality, surgery may result in a very close (<1 cm) or even microscopically positive margin. In this circumstance, the use of preoperative or postoperative radiation should be considered. No studies described the optimal number of tissue sections required to assess adequacy of excision nor the appropriate handling of surgical resection specimens. The Sarcoma Disease Site Group made its recommendations based on expert opinion and consensus. PMID:23737694

  8. Keratin subsets in spindle cell sarcomas. Keratins are widespread but synovial sarcoma contains a distinctive keratin polypeptide pattern and desmoplakins.

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, M.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of individual keratin polypeptides and desmoplakins was immunohistochemically studied in 25 spindle cell sarcomas of different types using acetone-fixed frozen sections. Results revealed that keratins 8 and 18 were present in a high number of tumors: 9 of 9 synovial sarcomas, 5 of 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 of 5 malignant schwannomas, and 1 of 4 undifferentiated spindle cell sarcomas. In addition to keratins 8 and 18, the glandular component of synovial sarcoma showed prominent reactivity with antibodies to keratins 7 and 19. Also the glandular epithelial cells in synovial sarcoma showed desmoplakin immunoreactivity preferentially in a luminal distribution, but desmoplakin was absent in other spindle cell sarcomas. Furthermore keratin 13 was seen focally in 4 of 9 synovial sarcomas. In contrast, keratins 7, 13, and 19 were practically absent in leiomyosarcomas, malignant schwannomas, and undifferentiated spindle cell sarcomas. The widespread presence of keratins 8 and 18 in various spindle cell sarcomas may reflect aberrant keratin expression in mesenchymal cells, previously described in cultured transformed fibroblasts. The presence of keratins 7 and 19 and desmoplakin is highly associated with morphologically observable epithelial differentiation restricted to synovial sarcoma among spindle cell sarcomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1704194

  9. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... the impact on healthy tissue. In some centers, proton beam radiation is an option. This uses streams of protons instead of x-ray beams to treat the ... be a better treatment for soft tissue sarcoma. Proton beam therapy is not widely available. Intraoperative radiation ...

  10. Advances in sarcoma diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dancsok, Amanda R; Asleh-Aburaya, Karama; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2017-01-01

    The heterogeneity of sarcomas with regard to molecular genesis, histology, clinical characteristics, and response to treatment makes management of these rare yet diverse neoplasms particularly challenging. This review encompasses recent developments in sarcoma diagnostics and treatment, including cytotoxic, targeted, epigenetic, and immune therapy agents. In the past year, groups internationally explored the impact of adding mandatory molecular testing to histological diagnosis, reporting some changes in diagnosis and/or management; however, the impact on outcomes could not be adequately assessed. Transcriptome sequencing techniques have brought forward new diagnostic tools for identifying fusions and/or characterizing unclassified entities. Next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular techniques were also applied to identify potential targets for directed and epigenetic therapy, where preclinical studies reported results for agents active within the receptor tyrosine kinase, mTOR, Notch, Wnt, Hedgehog, Hsp90, and MDM2 signaling networks. At the level of clinical practice, modest developments were seen for some sarcoma subtypes in conventional chemotherapy and in therapies targeting the pathways activated by various receptor tyrosine kinases. In the burgeoning field of immune therapy, sarcoma work is in its infancy; however, elaborate protocols for immune stimulation are being explored, and checkpoint blockade agents advance from preclinical models to clinical studies. PMID:27732970

  11. Preoperative diagnosis of a pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Velebit, V.; Christenson, J. T.; Simonet, F.; Maurice, J.; Schmuziger, M.; Hauser, H.; Didier, D.

    1995-01-01

    A pulmonary artery sarcoma was diagnosed preoperatively by magnetic resonance imaging enhanced with gadolinium and confirmed by percutaneous computed tomographic guided needle biopsy. Accurate preoperative diagnosis allowed planned curative surgery with removal of the right ventricular outflow tract and reconstructive surgery using a cryopreserved homograft. Images PMID:8539663

  12. Transplacental cancerization by Rous sarcoma virus.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Stoian, M; Hozoc, M; Athanasiu, P

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data obtained in the mouse are presented, pointing to the possibility of transplacental transmission of the genetic information contained in the genome of Rous sarcoma virus(RSV), by either intact RSV virions or nucleic acids extracted from infectant suspensions of tumors induced by the Carr(Ziber) on Bryan RSV strains.

  13. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M; Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M; de la Cruz, Kim I; Benjamin, Robert S; Hallman, Charles H

    2014-10-01

    Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival.

  14. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Mimicking Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Aftab, Muhammad; Al-Najjar, Raed M.; de la Cruz, Kim I.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Hallman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Primary sarcomas that arise from major blood vessels are exceedingly rare, and some of the published cases have been autopsy reports. Most patients are adults. We report a case of pulmonary artery sarcoma in a 77-year-old man who presented with acute onset of dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a large mass within the pulmonary trunk and its main branches. Because massive pulmonary embolism was suspected, both anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies were initiated. The patient responded poorly to these therapies, which then necessitated resection of both the mass and the pulmonary valve. A bioprosthetic porcine valve replaced the native valve, and we reconstructed the right ventricular outflow tract with a Dacron patch. Histopathologic examination revealed a high-grade sarcoma with focal myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. He was subsequently treated with chemotherapy and radiation and continued to show no evidence of disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma should be suspected in patients who present with manifestations of pulmonary embolism, especially when there is no evidence of deep venous thrombosis and poor response to anticoagulant therapy. Multimodal therapy can provide prolonged survival. PMID:25425986

  15. Feline postvaccinal sarcoma: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Brian; Wilcock, Anne; Bottoms, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    Comparison of the annual prevalence of feline postvaccinal sarcomas among 11 609 feline skin mass submissions from 1992 to 2010 revealed no decrease in disease prevalence or increase in the age of affected cats in response to changes in vaccine formulation or recommended changes in feline vaccination protocols.

  16. Osteogenic sarcoma presenting with lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Staddon, Arthur P; Lackman, Richard; Robinson, Keith; Shrager, Joseph B; Warhol, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A patient with osteogenic sarcoma presenting with lung metastases is discussed with attention to appropriate diagnosis, staging, and treatment. Multimodality treatment options using chemotherapy, orthopedic surgery and thoracic surgery are presented. Physical medicine and rehabilitation evaluation and treatment are included. Current research options are discussed.

  17. Combination Therapy for Advanced Kaposi Sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    In this clinical trial, adult patients with any form of advanced Kaposi sarcoma will be treated with liposomal doxorubicin and bevacizumab every 3 weeks for a maximum of six treatments.  Patients who respond to this therapy or have stable disease will rec

  18. Abnormal function of the corpus luteum in some ewes with phyto-oestrogenic infertility.

    PubMed

    Adams, N R; Hearnshaw, H; Oldham, C M

    1981-01-01

    Ewes with permanent phyto-estrogenic infertility show oestrus less regularly than normal ewes, and the present study examines the extent to which this results from abnormal ovarian function. Forty-nine affected ewes and 53 controls were run with rams fitted with marking crayons and harnesses, and crayon marks were recorded and laparoscopy performed at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. Fewer affected ewes showed oestrus accompanied by ovulation (28 v. 49, P less than 0.001), and four of these affected ewes had a second ovulation during the experiment. More of the ovulations observed in affected ewes were unaccompanied by behavioural oestrus than in controls (8 out of 38 v. 2 out of 50; P less than 0.05). Six affected ewes had no corpus luteum or oestrus, and five of these had adhesions over the genitalia. Hydrops uteri in five other affected ewes was accompanied by prolonged maintenance of the corpus luteum. Some other abnormalities were also observed. In a second study, plasma progesterone concentrations were measured twice daily in 12 affected ewes which were run with rams. Five ewes had oestrous cycles of abnormal duration (two of more than 23 days, two of 21 days, and one of 11 days), and these were accompanied by plasma progesterone patterns different from those of the ewes with an oestrous cycle duration of 16-18 days. It is concluded that the irregular oestrous cycles in affected ewes are due mainly to abnormal life span and progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, which in turn largely result from changes in the uterus.

  19. Effect of supplemental yeast culture and physiological factors on colostrum and milk composition of Pelibuey ewes.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Rafael Julio; Arredondo, Victalina; García, Fernando; Aguilar, Miguel; Prado, Omar; Rodríguez, Rosario

    2012-02-01

    The effects of supplemental yeast culture, litter size, stage and number of lactation on milk composition were studied in Pelibuey ewes. Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments. Ten control ewes grazed on guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and were supplemented with concentrate. A further ten ewes received the same diet with 14 g/head/day of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Colostrum was collected within 24 h after parturition, and subsequently, milk samples were collected at fortnightly intervals (7, 21, 35, and 49 days). Total solids content averaged 32% in colostrum and 12.5% in milk. Colostrum of primiparous ewes had higher total solids content than that of ewes with more than five lactations. However, ewes with more than five lactations produced milk with higher net energy, total solids, protein, and casein than ewes with fewer lactations. Milk at 7 days had a significantly higher content of energy, total solids, and fat than milk at 21, 35, and 49 days. Total solids content was lower for ewes rearing one lamb than larger litter sizes. Supplementation with yeast culture did not affect the composition of colostrum and milk, which was mainly affected by the stage and number of lactation.

  20. Devazepide, a nonpeptide antagonist of CCK receptors, induces apoptosis and inhibits Ewing tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Jaime; Agra, Noelia; Fernández, Noemí; Pestaña, Angel; Alonso, Javier

    2009-08-01

    The Ewing family of tumors is a group of highly malignant tumors that mainly arise in bone and most often affect children and young adults in the first two decades of life. Despite the use of multimodal therapy, the long-term disease-free survival rate of patients with Ewing tumors is still disappointingly low, making the discovery of innovative therapeutic strategies all the more necessary. We have recently shown that cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuroendocrine peptide, involved in many biological functions, including cell growth and proliferation, is a relevant target of the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein characteristic of Ewing tumors. CCK silencing inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo, suggesting that CCK acts as an autocrine growth factor for Ewing cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of two CCK receptor antagonists, devazepide (a CCK1-R antagonist) and L365 260 (a CCK2-R antagonist), on the growth of Ewing tumor cells. Devazepide (10 micromol/l) inhibited cell growth of four different Ewing tumor cells in vitro (range 85-88%), whereas the effect of the CCK2-R antagonist on cell growth was negligible. In a mouse tumor xenograft model, devazepide reduced tumor growth by 40%. Flow cytometry experiments showed that devazepide, but not L365 260, induced apoptosis of Ewing tumor cells. In summary, devazepide induces cell death of Ewing tumor cells, suggesting that it could represent a new therapeutic approach in the management of Ewing's tumor patients.

  1. Phenotypic characterization of the population of creole wool ewes in the highlands of Puebla State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Samuel; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Juan de Dios; Rojas-Álvarez, Joel; Bustamante-González, Angel

    2012-12-01

    This study characterized the population of wool ewes in the highlands of the State of Puebla, Mexico, considering traits such as fleece color, weight, and body measurements. In this region, dominated by a temperate climate, sheep are a traditional animal species for farming systems. To carry out the work, 2,082 ewes were randomly selected from 14 communities and 124 flocks belonging to the six municipalities that have the largest inventory of sheep in the state. For each ewe, live weight, breed, fleece color pattern, and 18 other body measurements were recorded. Descriptive statistics were estimated for weight and body traits and the morphotype was classified by multivariate analysis. Factor analysis identified the bulk, size, and breed standard as the attributes that best describe the population of ewes. These elements varied in importance among the groups (p < 0.05). Cluster analysis helped to classify the population into small black-faced ewes (28.5 %), small white ewes (11.9 %), black-faced medium-sized ewes (24.1 %), large ewes (12.3 %), and white medium-sized ewes (23.2 %). The groups identified were similar to creole sheep present in rural communities in other environments, but have lower morphostructural values than specialized breeds.

  2. The use of chicory for parasite control in organic ewes and their lambs.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadou, S; Gray, D; Younie, D; Tzamaloukas, O; Jackson, F; Kyriazakis, I

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential benefits of grazing lactating ewes and their lambs on chicory (Cichorium intybus). Fifty-six certified organic twin-rearing ewes were either drenched with an anthelmintic or not, within 2 days after parturition and were grazed upon either grass/clover or chicory pastures. Around 12 weeks after parturition a subset of 12 lambs per treatment was slaughtered for worm number and parasite species determination. The faecal egg counts of lambs from undrenched ewes grazing on chicory were significantly lower than those of lambs from undrenched ewes grazing on grass. Lambs grazing on chicory had similar abomasal worm counts as those grazing on grass at 12 weeks of age; the predominant species was Teladorsagia circumcincta. There was no difference between the intestinal worm counts in lambs grazing on grass or chicory, with Trichostrongylus vitrinus being the predominant species. Liveweight gains over the 126-day experimental period were significantly higher in lambs from drenched than those from undrenched ewes. Lambs from undrenched ewes grazing on chicory had higher liveweight gains compared to those from undrenched ewes grazing on grass. Although chicory grazing did not affect ewe nematode egg excretion, it resulted in lower egg counts in lambs and improved their liveweight gains to the same level as those deriving from drenched ewes.

  3. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  4. The Challenges of Detecting Circulating Tumor Cells in Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Brown, Hannah K.; Young, Robin; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, many of which have a propensity to develop distant metastases. Cancer cells that have escaped from the primary tumor are able to invade into surrounding tissues, to intravasate into the bloodstream to become circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and are responsible for the generation of distant metastases. Due to the rarity of these tumors and the absence of specific markers expressed by sarcoma tumor cells, the characterization of sarcoma CTCs has to date been relatively limited. Current techniques for isolating sarcoma CTCs are based on size criteria, the identification of circulating cells that express either common mesenchymal markers, sarcoma-specific markers, such as CD99, CD81, or PAX3, and chromosomal translocations found in certain sarcoma subtypes, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing’s sarcoma, detection of osteoblast-related genes, or measurement of the activity of specific metabolic enzymes. Further studies are needed to improve the isolation and characterization of sarcoma CTCs, to demonstrate their clinical significance as predictive and/or prognostic biomarkers, and to utilize CTCs as a tool for investigating the metastatic process in sarcoma and to identify novel therapeutic targets. The present review provides a short overview of the most recent literature on CTCs in sarcoma. PMID:27656422

  5. Alternative lengthening of telomeres does exist in various canine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Kreilmeier, Theresa; Sampl, Sandra; Deloria, Abigail J; Walter, Ingrid; Reifinger, Martin; Hauck, Marlene; Borst, Luke B; Holzmann, Klaus; Kleiter, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM) found in some human tumors such as sarcomas. Canine tumors are not characterized for ALT and the study aim was to identify if the ALT phenotype exists in canine sarcomas. Sixty-four canine sarcoma samples (20 snap-frozen, 44 FFPE) as well as six canine sarcoma cell lines were screened for ALT by C-circle assay. ALT was further evaluated by measuring telomere length via qPCR and telomere restriction-fragments including pulsed-field electrophoresis. ALT-associated proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry. Further, telomerase activity (TA) and gene expression were analyzed by TRAP and qPCR. DNA from 20 human neuroblastomas and 8 sarcoma cell lines served as comparative controls. ALT was detected in 9.4% (6/64) canine sarcomas including aggressive subtypes as hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma. C-circle levels were comparable with human ALT-positive controls. All ALT tumors demonstrated loss of ATRX expression and 5/6 showed strong p53 expression. TA was detected in 93% (14/15) snap-frozen samples including a sarcoma with ALT activity. This tumor showed long heterogeneous telomeres, and a high level of colocalization of DAXX with telomeres. One sarcoma was ALT and TA negative. All canine and human sarcoma cell lines were ALT negative. In this study, we demonstrated that canine sarcomas use ALT. As in humans, ALT was identified in aggressive sarcomas subtypes and coexisted with TA in one tumor. Overall, canine sarcomas seem to share many similarities with their human counterparts and appear an attractive model for comparative telomere research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Transplacental transfer of remifentanil in the pregnant ewe

    PubMed Central

    Coonen, JB; Marcus, MAE; Joosten, EAJ; van Kleef, M; Neef, C; van Aken, H; Gogarten, W

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose While remifentanil can be used either during labour or fetal surgery, more should be known about the transplacental transfer of this opioid. The aim of this study was to investigate the placental transfer and haemodynamic effects of remifentanil after i.v. administration to pregnant ewes. Experimental approach Seven pregnant ewes received a continuous infusion of remifentanil (0.33 µg·kg−1·min−1) for 1 h, and maternal and fetal arterial blood samples were drawn at regular intervals during and up to 1 h after the discontinuation of the infusion. Haemodynamic parameters were monitored continuously. Blood gas samples were drawn at baseline and once during the infusion. Key results Peak maternal remifentanil plasma levels of 4.0 ± 0.9 ng·mL−1 (mean ± SD) and peak fetal plasma levels of 0.4 ± 0.3 ng·mL−1 were obtained. Remifentanil plasma levels dropped rapidly after the discontinuation of the infusion. The continuous infusion of remifentanil did not result in significant maternal or fetal haemodynamic changes. Conclusions and implications Remifentanil rapidly passes through the placenta of pregnant ewes and although remifentanil concentrations stay significantly lower in the fetus compared with those in the mother, remifentanil can be detected in significant amounts in the fetus. PMID:21117280

  7. Large animal model for osteoporosis in humans: the ewe.

    PubMed

    Oheim, R; Amling, M; Ignatius, A; Pogoda, P

    2012-11-12

    Osteoporosis is a chronic systemic disease characterised by bone loss and microarchitectural deterioration. Since the underlying regulatory mechanisms are still not fully understood and treatment options are not satisfactorily resolved, massive efforts are underway to further investigate this critical illness. Large animal models are stipulated, e.g. by the Food and Drug Administration, for preclinical prevention and intervention studies related to osteoporosis research; in this context, the ewe has already proven its value for orthopaedic research. Although oestrogen deficiency doubtless influences bone metabolism in sheep, the ovariectomised ewe seems unsuitable as a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone loss induction due to its unreliable impact on bone mass and structure. In contrast, glucocorticoid treatment has a major impact on bone turnover and leads to bone conditions comparable to those found in steroid-treated humans. However, adverse side effects can be dramatic resulting in unacceptable discomfort and illness of the experimental animals. Further improvements are therefore essential to judge this model as ethically appropriate. Additionally, models for osteoporosis induced by surgical interventions of central regulatory mechanisms seem to be attractive, as remarkable bone loss is induced by only one surgical procedure without any further treatment. Taken together, different ewe models for osteoporosis have been successfully established and are invaluable for orthopaedic research. However, the search for a 'perfect' large remodelling animal model - in terms of mimicking the human disease and compatibility of bone loss, and without ethical concerns - is still on-going.

  8. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4), both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years). Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2), calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18), areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082) and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347) which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36), the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9) in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0) for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis in later life

  9. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-23

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  10. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) –Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor–Modified T Cells for the Immunotherapy of HER2-Positive Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nabil; Brawley, Vita S.; Hegde, Meenakshi; Robertson, Catherine; Ghazi, Alexia; Gerken, Claudia; Liu, Enli; Dakhova, Olga; Ashoori, Aidin; Corder, Amanda; Gray, Tara; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Hicks, John; Rainusso, Nino; Dotti, Gianpietro; Mei, Zhuyong; Grilley, Bambi; Gee, Adrian; Rooney, Cliona M.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Heslop, Helen E.; Wels, Winfried S.; Wang, Lisa L.; Anderson, Peter; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The outcome for patients with metastatic or recurrent sarcoma remains poor. Adoptive therapy with tumor-directed T cells is an attractive therapeutic option but has never been evaluated in sarcoma. Patients and Methods We conducted a phase I/II clinical study in which patients with recurrent/refractory human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive sarcoma received escalating doses (1 × 104/m2 to 1 × 108/m2) of T cells expressing an HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor with a CD28.ζ signaling domain (HER2-CAR T cells). Results We enrolled 19 patients with HER2-positive tumors (16 osteosarcomas, one Ewing sarcoma, one primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and one desmoplastic small round cell tumor). HER2-CAR T-cell infusions were well tolerated with no dose-limiting toxicity. At dose level 3 (1 × 105/m2) and above, we detected HER2-CAR T cells 3 hours after infusion by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 14 of 16 patients. HER2-CAR T cells persisted for at least 6 weeks in seven of the nine evaluable patients who received greater than 1 × 106/m2 HER2-CAR T cells (P = .005). HER2-CAR T cells were detected at tumor sites of two of two patients examined. Of 17 evaluable patients, four had stable disease for 12 weeks to 14 months. Three of these patients had their tumor removed, with one showing ≥ 90% necrosis. The median overall survival of all 19 infused patients was 10.3 months (range, 5.1 to 29.1 months). Conclusion This first evaluation of the safety and efficacy of HER2-CAR T cells in patients with cancer shows the cells can persist for 6 weeks without evident toxicities, setting the stage for studies that combine HER2-CAR T cells with other immunomodulatory approaches to enhance their expansion and persistence. PMID:25800760

  11. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of different usually recognized as probiotic bacterial strains on chemical composition and sensory properties of Scamorza cheese manufactured from ewe milk. To define the sensory profile of Scamorza cheese, a qualitative and quantitative reference frame specific for a pasta filata cheese was constructed. According to the presence of probiotic bacteria, cheeses were denoted S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum 46 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. The designation for control Scamorza cheese was S-CO. Analyses were performed at 15d of ripening. The moisture content of Scamorza ewe milk cheese ranged between 44.61 and 47.16% (wt/wt), showing higher values in S-CO and S-BB cheeses than in S-LA cheese; the fat percentage ranged between 25.43 and 28.68% (wt/wt), showing higher value in S-LA cheese. The NaCl percentage in Scamorza cheese from ewe milk was 1.75 ± 0.04% (wt/wt). Protein and casein percentages were the highest in Scamorza cheese containing a mix of bifidobacteria; also, the percentage of the proteose-peptone fraction showed the highest value in S-BB, highlighting the major proteolysis carried out by enzymes associated with B. longum and B. lactis strains. Texture and appearance attributes were able to differentiate probiotic bacteria-added cheeses from the untreated control product. In particular, S-BB and S-LA Scamorza cheeses showed higher color uniformity compared with S-CO cheese. Furthermore, the control cheese showed higher yellowness and lower structure uniformity than S-BB. The control product was less creamy and grainy than S-BB; conversely, the inclusion of probiotics into the cheese determined lower adhesivity and friability in S-BB and S-LA than in S-CO. This study allowed the definition of the principal composition and sensory properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. The specific

  12. Ovarian function in ewes after treatment with mifepristone early during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Paslay, E M; Jaeger, J R; Salli, U; Stormshak, F

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous progesterone regulates synthesis and secretion of luteal oxytocin. In Expt 1, mature ewes (n = 5 per group) were assigned randomly to control or mifepristone (RU486) treatment groups. Ewes were injected s.c. twice a day with vehicle or 10 mg RU486 on days 5-7 of the oestrous cycle (oestrus = day 0). On day 8, after an i.v. injection with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (250 microg cloprostenol), venous blood samples were collected at frequent intervals to determine plasma oxytocin concentrations. Plasma oxytocin concentrations of RU486-treated ewes were not significantly different from those of control ewes. In Expt 2, ewes were injected s.c. each day with vehicle or 175 mg RU486 on days 2-5 of the oestrous cycle followed by administration of prostaglandin F(2alpha) on day 6. Four of five RU486-treated ewes showed 'split-oestrus' (oestrous behaviour for 36 h and then again at 84-108 h after the onset of initial oestrus). There was no significant difference in mean plasma oxytocin or progesterone concentrations between treatment groups. The mean masses of mature corpora lutea from control and RU486-treated ewes on day 6 of the oestrous cycle did not differ significantly (394.8 +/- 28.8 versus 319.5 +/- 48.3 mg). RU486-treated ewes contained mature corpora lutea, new corpora lutea (two of four ewes) and preovulatory follicles (>or= 10 mm, two of four ewes). The average interoestrous interval for RU486-treated ewes was 9 days more than that for control animals (26.2 +/- 2.9 versus 17 +/- 0.5 days; P < 0.025).

  13. Pathogenesis of reproductive failure induced by Trypanosoma vivax in experimentally infected pregnant ewes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in different stages of pregnancy, determining the pathogenesis of reproductive failure, and confirming transplacental transmission. We used 12 pregnant ewes distributed into four experimental groups: G1, was formed by three ewes infected with T. vivax in the first third of pregnancy (30 days); G2 comprised three infected ewes in the final third of pregnancy (100 days); G3 and G4 were composed of three non-infected ewes with the same gestational period, respectively. Each ewe of G1 and G2 was inoculated with 1.25 × 105 tripomastigotes. Clinical examination, determination of parasitemia, serum biochemistry (albumin, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and urea), packed cell volume (PCV), serum progesterone, and pathological examination were performed. Placenta, amniotic fluid, blood and tissues from the fetuses and stillbirths were submitted to PCR. Two ewes of G1 (Ewe 1 and 3) presented severe infection and died in the 34th and 35th days post-infection (dpi), respectively; but both fetuses were recovered during necropsy. In G2, Ewe 5 aborted two fetuses on the 130th day (30 dpi) of pregnancy; and Ewe 6 aborted one fetus in the 140th day (40 dpi) of gestation. Ewes 2 and 4 delivered two weak lambs that died five days after birth. Factors possibly involved with the reproductive failure included high parasitemia, fever, low PCV, body score, serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and progesterone. Hepatitis, pericarditis, and encephalitis were observed in the aborted fetuses. The presence of T. vivax DNA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, blood, and tissues from the fetuses confirms the transplacental transmission of the parasite. Histological lesion in the fetuses and placenta also suggest the involvement of the parasite in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive failure in ewes. PMID:23289625

  14. [An unusual primary vascular tumor: intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery].

    PubMed

    Brochériou, I; Quillard, A; Gatecel, C; Wassef, M

    2000-01-01

    Primary sarcomas of great vessels are rare and involve the aorta, pulmonary artery and inferior vena cava. The pathologic classification of these tumors can be made on the location of the sarcoma in relation to the vessel wall, luminal or mural. Luminal sarcomas are usually intimal sarcoma and mural sarcoma are most frequently leiomyosarcoma. The myofibroblastic or endothelial differentiation of these tumors is still debated. We report a case of intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery.

  15. Recurrent pulmonary intimal sarcoma involving the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dipesh K; Joyce, Lyle D; Grogan, Martha; Aubry, Marie Christine; Miller, John A; Ding, Wei; Haddock, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is commonly misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary embolism. Rarely, it can involve the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary valve. We report a patient who was treated surgically for an intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery involving the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary valve. The sarcoma recurred in about 8 weeks. It responded favorably to chemoradiation therapy and shows some signs of regression.

  16. [Classic and aggressive Kaposi sarcoma with bone involvement].

    PubMed

    Sbiyaa, Mouhcine; El Alaoui, Adil; El Bardai, Mohammed; Mezzani, Amine; Lahrach, Kamal; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Classic Kaposi sarcoma is a multifocal rare tumor originating from vascular endothelial cells with progressive evolution and little malignant predisposition. Although Kaposi sarcoma with extensive visceral involvement is sometimes observed among HIV-positive patients, tumor dissemination to visceral lymph nodes in classic SK remains very rare. We report a rare case of aggressive classic Kaposi sarcoma of the hand with a rapid and destructive development.

  17. Overcoming Therapeutic Resistance of Bone Sarcomas: Overview of the Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets for Bone Sarcoma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are heterogeneous malignant tumors that exhibit clinical, histological, and molecular heterogeneity. Recent progress in their multimodal treatment has gradually improved patient prognosis; however, drug resistance and distant metastasis remain unresolved clinical problems. Recent investigations have suggested the existence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in bone sarcomas, which represent a subpopulation of tumor cells with high tumor-forming ability. The hallmarks of CSCs include tumor- and metastasis-forming potential and drug resistance, which are responsible for poor prognoses of bone sarcoma patients. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of CSCs and identification of therapeutic targets could contribute to novel treatment strategies for bone sarcomas and improve patient prognosis. This paper provides an overview of the accumulating knowledge on bone sarcoma stem cells and preclinical analyses to overcome their lethal phenotypes, in addition to a discussion of their potential for novel therapeutics for bone sarcomas. PMID:28115942

  18. Current Immunotherapies for Sarcoma: Clinical Trials and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Mitsis, Demytra; Francescutti, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoma tumors are rare and heterogeneous, yet they possess many characteristics that may facilitate immunotherapeutic responses. Both active strategies including vaccines and passive strategies involving cellular adoptive immunotherapy have been applied clinically. Results of these clinical trials indicate a distinct benefit for select patients. The recent breakthrough of immunologic checkpoint inhibition is being rapidly introduced to a variety of tumor types including sarcoma. It is anticipated that these emerging immunotherapies will exhibit clinical efficacy for a variety of sarcomas. The increasing ability to tailor immunologic therapies to sarcoma patients will undoubtedly generate further enthusiasm and clinical research for this treatment modality. PMID:27703409

  19. Animal models of soft-tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Rebecca D.; Mito, Jeffery K.; Kirsch, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from muscle, fat and connective tissue. Currently, over 75 subtypes of STS are recognized. The rarity and heterogeneity of patient samples complicate clinical investigations into sarcoma biology. Model organisms might provide traction to our understanding and treatment of the disease. Over the past 10 years, many successful animal models of STS have been developed, primarily genetically engineered mice and zebrafish. These models are useful for studying the relevant oncogenes, signaling pathways and other cell changes involved in generating STSs. Recently, these model systems have become preclinical platforms in which to evaluate new drugs and treatment regimens. Thus, animal models are useful surrogates for understanding STS disease susceptibility and pathogenesis as well as for testing potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:20713645

  20. Effect of vitamin E on the immune system of ewes during late pregnancy and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was designed to determine the effects of a regimen of repeated, intramuscular (i.m.) injections of vitamin E (VE) on innate and humoral components of the immune response of pregnant and lactating ewes. Pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of i.m. i...

  1. Ewing Marion Kauffman School Evaluation Impact Report Year 4. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Demers, Alicia; Johnson, Cleo Jacobs; Gentile, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to raise the academic achievement of children from low-income families in Kansas City, Missouri, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation founded the Ewing Marion Kauffman School in fall 2011. The Kauffman School's mission is "to prepare students to excel academically, graduate from college, and apply their unique…

  2. Genetic evaluation of the probability of lambing in yearling Targhee ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the additive genetic control of lambing percentage in yearling Targhee ewes. The records of 3,103 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2011 and mated at approximately 7.5 mo of age were analyzed. Records included sire, dam, weaning weight, breeding pen, age of dam...

  3. Ewe (for Togo). Special Skills Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozelka, Paul R., Comp.; Agbovi, Yao Ete, Comp.

    A book of language and cultural material for teachers and students of Ewe presents vocabulary lists and samples of Ewe language in various contexts, including letters, essays, and newspaper articles. Although not presented in lesson format, the material can be adapted by teachers or used by students for independent study. It is divided into two…

  4. Primary Thyroid Sarcoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Gottschling, Sebastian; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Dralle, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Different types of malignant tumors can occur within the thyroid. Primary cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Non-epithelial malignancies can also arise within the thyroid. The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical and radiological characteristics of reported primary thyroid sarcomas (PTS), based on a large sample of cases. The PubMed database was screened for articles from between 1990 and 2014. Overall, 86 articles with 142 patients were identified. Ultrasound evaluation was reported for 36 patients. Data regarding computed tomography of the neck were available for 29 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for eight patients. The following data were retrieved for the identified sarcomas: localization, size, homogeneity, internal texture, and margin characteristics. In most cases, PTS occurred in patients over 40 years of age, with a peak incidence for the group aged 60-79 years. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed in 29 cases (20.4%), followed by malignant hemangioendothelioma (n=23, 16.3%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n=20, 14.1%), leiomyosarcoma (n=16, 11.3%), and fibrosarcoma (n=13, 9.2%). In most patients (n=113, 79.6%), PTS manifested clinically as a painless goiter. On ultrasound, PTS were predominantly mixed hypo-to-hyperechoic in comparison to the normal thyroid tissue. On non-contrast computed tomography, most sarcomas were inhomogeneous hypo-to-hyperdense. On post-contrast magnetic resonance images, most sarcomas showed marked non-homogenous enhancement. In 26.8%, infiltration of the adjacent organs was seen. The trachea or esophagus was affected more frequently in patients with malignant histiocytoma and liposarcoma. Different strategies were used in the treatment of PTS. Our analysis provides clinical and radiological characteristics of PTS. The described features should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.

  5. Multimodality Local Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paryani, Nitesh N.; Zlotecki, Robert A.; Swanson, Erika L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Hochwald, Steven N.; Marcus, Robert B.; Indelicato, Daniel J.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Soft-tissue sarcomas of the retroperitoneum are rare tumors comprising less than 1% of all malignancies. Although surgery continues as the mainstay of treatment, the large size of these tumors coupled with their proximity to critical structures make resection with wide margins difficult to achieve. The role and timing of radiotherapy are controversial. This study updates our institutional experience using multimodality local therapy for resectable retroperitoneal sarcoma and identifies prognostic factors impacting disease control and survival. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 2007, 58 patients with nonmetastatic retroperitoneal sarcoma were treated with surgery and radiation at University of Florida. The median age at radiotherapy was 57 years old (range, 18-80 years). Forty-two patients received preoperative radiotherapy and 16 received postoperative radiotherapy. Nineteen patients received 1.8 Gy once daily and 39 patients received 1.2 Gy twice daily. Variables analyzed for prognostic value included age, grade, kidney involvement, histology, de novo versus recurrent presentation, tumor diameter, margin status, radiotherapy sequencing (preoperative vs. postoperative), total radiation dose, fractionation scheme, and treatment era. Results: The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rates were 49%, 58%, and 62%, respectively. Nearly two-thirds of disease failures involved a component of local progression. On multivariate analysis, only margin status was significantly associated with improved 5-year local control (85%, negative margins; 63%, microscopic positive margins; 0%, gross positive margins; p < 0.0001) and 5-year overall survival (64%, negative margins; 56%, microscopic positive margins; 13%, gross positive margins; p = 0.0012). Thirty-one Grade 3 or greater toxicities were observed in 22 patients, including two treatment-related deaths (3%). Conclusion: For retroperitoneal sarcoma, local control remains a

  6. De Novo Osteogenic Sarcoma of Mastoid Bone

    PubMed Central

    Işikdogan, Abdurrahman; Erekul, Selim; Pamir, Ali

    2002-01-01

    The most common primary malignant tumor of the bone is osteosarcoma. Primary involvement of the craniofacial bones in osteosarcoma is relatively rare. The mandible and the maxillae are the most commonly affected bones of the head. Here, we report a rare case of de novo high-grade osteogenic sarcoma of the mastoid region of the temporal bone and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic properties. PMID:18521333

  7. Response to lactation induction differs by season of year and breed of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Andrade, B Ramírez; Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Castillo, V; Albanell, E; Such, X

    2008-06-01

    Lactation artificially induced (ART) by steroid hormones and natural lactation (NAT) after lambing were compared in 2 dairy sheep breeds (Manchega and Lacaune) in 2 experiments conducted during winter and spring. In experiment 1, ART ewes (14 Manchega and 9 Lacaune) were induced into lactation in winter by the standard protocol, which consisted of s.c. injections of estradiol and progesterone administered in 2 portions daily from d 1 to 7. Hydrocortisone acetate was injected s.c. daily on d 18 to 20. Milking was initiated on d 21 and continued for 13 wk. A similar group of NAT ewes was selected for the contemporary comparison of NAT vs. ART lactation. All Lacaune ewes, but only 3 of the 14 Manchega ewes (21%), were successfully induced into lactation. Despite the successful induction of lactation in Lacaune ewes, milk yield was much lower than that obtained in NAT lactation (1.23 +/- 0.14 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.15 L/ d). Milk composition from wk 5 to 13 did not differ between groups, except for whey protein, which was greater in ART than in NAT ewes (1.47 vs. 1.25%). In experiment 2, 19 Manchega ewes were divided into 2 groups and induced into lactation in spring by using the standard induction protocol, similar to that used in experiment 1 (control, n = 9), or the standard protocol modified with bovine somatotropin (bST, 250 mg/ewe on d 11; n = 10). Manchega ewes had an improved response to the standard protocol of lactation induction in spring compared with winter. Milk yield in bST-treated Manchega ewes was 98% greater than that in control ewes (402 +/- 85 vs. 203 +/- 86 mL/d). The use of bST during mammogenesis did not affect milk composition. In conclusion, marked differences between Manchega and Lacaune dairy ewes were observed in their response to lactation induction when using the standard protocol during different photoperiod conditions. The Manchega ewes were unable to establish lactation in winter but were able to do so in spring. The response to lactation

  8. Genetic correlations between body weight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age.

    PubMed

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; van der Werf, J H J; Thompson, A N; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-08-01

    Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less BW when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more BW when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on BW change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between BW, BW change, and reproduction were estimated using records from approximately 7,350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on approximately 5,300 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 4,900 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 3,600 4-yr-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes BW change was measured: approximately 1,950 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 1,500 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 1,100 4-yr-old ewes. The BW measurements were for 3 periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 d on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 d for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 d for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than 0 using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all BW had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In 2-yr-old ewes, BW change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); BW change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = -0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than 0 but estimates of genetic correlations for 3-yr-old ewes were

  9. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma of the penile foreskin.

    PubMed

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Nebhnani, Deepa; Wadhwa, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma, considered to herald the onset of a blast crisis in the setting of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm/dysplasia, typically presents during the course of the disorder. Cutaneous involvement is uncommon and lesions on genital skin are seldom seen. We present a case of a well-differentiated myeloid sarcoma in the penile foreskin in an apparently healthy 29-year-old male presenting with phimosis. The unusual composition of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, and characteristic sparing of dermal blood vessels, nerves and smooth muscle fibres led to the correct diagnosis. Absence of commonly observed changes in the circumcision skin like those of balanitis xerotica was also helpful. Detailed hematological work up revealed a previously undiagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The patient also had simultaneous priapism, another rare presentation of chronic myeloid leukemia. One year hence, the patient is in hematological remission with no evidence of extramedullary disease. Although priapism has been described as a rare presenting symptom in chronic myeloid leukemia, the present case is unique as this is the first time a cutaneous myeloid sarcoma has been documented in the penile foreskin.

  10. Tumor Lysis Syndrome in a Retroperitoneal Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zakharia, Yousef; Mansour, Joshua; Vasireddi, Srinivasa; Zakharia, Kais; Fatakhov, Eduard; Koch, Christopher; Hrinczenko, Borys

    2014-01-01

    In the present case, a 49-year-old white female presented to the clinic with a 2-month history of nausea, vomiting, and right upper quadrant pain. On examination a 3-cm mass on the right anterior scalene muscle was noted. A computed tomography scan was performed revealing a 8.7 × 7.7 × 6.1 cm retroperitoneal mass with possible invasion of the inferior vena cava and right renal and left common iliac veins. An excisional biopsy was performed with pathology compatible with spindle cell sarcoma. The patient was then sent for follow-up at the sarcoma clinic as an outpatient. However, before chemotherapy was to be started the patient would be admitted to the hospital with progressively worse nausea and vomiting. At that time the patient's lab work showed lactic acidosis, acute renal failure, hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia, which met the Cairo-Bishop criteria for tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and kidney dialysis initiated. The patient would become progressively obtunded at which time the family opted for hospice care. The patient eventually succumbed peacefully 3 days after her last admission. In this case report, we briefly review the literature on TLS in solid tumors, and we present a rare case of spontaneous TLS in a retroperitoneal sarcoma.

  11. Osteogenic sarcoma. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma subtype.

    PubMed

    Ballance, W A; Mendelsohn, G; Carter, J R; Abdul-Karim, F W; Jacobs, G; Makley, J T

    1988-08-15

    A distinctly different entity from the now well-delineated malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is the MFH histopathologic subtype of osteogenic sarcoma. Although uncommon, recently the authors have encountered six cases of this neoplasm, in each of which the soft tissue component was devoid of bone elements and was microscopically indistinguishable from MFH of bone or soft tissue. Neoplastic osteoid and woven bone were present in the osseous component of each tumor, however. Radiologically, the lesions generally were osteoblastic but focally osteolytic with features typical of osteogenic sarcoma. Pain was the most common presenting symptom. There was no age or sex predilection. Immunocytochemical staining showed strong positivity with alpha-1-antichymotrypsin within malignant bizarre giant cells and occasional neoplastic osteoblasts in five cases. The biological behavior followed a very aggressive course. Four of the six patients developed pulmonary metastases 6 to 12 months after initial surgery; one patient presented initially with pulmonary metastases. Adequate tumor sampling as well as optimal correlation with clinical and radiographic information are required to distinguish the MFH subtype of osteogenic sarcoma from MFH of bone, both being high-grade neoplasms, however.

  12. Lymphangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Posada García, Celia; García-Cruz, Aranzazu; García-Doval, Ignacio; De La Torre, Carlos; Cruces, Manuel José

    2009-09-15

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal vascular disease with uncertain histogenesis. It is characterized by clinical and histologic polymorphism. The "lymphangioma-like" variant is very uncommon, accounting for less than 5% of all cases. We report the case of a 76-year-old woman, HIV negative, with a 4-year history of classic Kaposi sarcoma treated with cryotherapy who developed new bullous lesions on her lower extremities. Biopsy revealed histologic findings of lymphangioma-like KS (LLKS), together with areas of classic KS; HHV-8 staining was positive. Diagnosis of LLKS was made and the patient was proposed for radiotherapy. The lymphangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma is a rare morphologic expression of KS characterized by dilated and bizarrely shaped vascular channels lined by flattened endothelium permeating the dermis. "Bulla-like" lesions have been considered as a clinical hallmark of this variant. Its histologic appearance suggests a lymphatic origin of KS and it may resemble other vascular tumors. Findings of areas of typical KS and positive staining for HHV-8 may help to make a definitive diagnosis.

  13. The role of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gramolelli, Silvia; Schulz, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an unusual vascular tumour caused by an oncogenic-herpesvirus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8). KS lesions are characterized by an abundant inflammatory infiltrate, the presence of KSHV-infected endothelial cells that show signs of aberrant differentiation, as well as faulty angiogenesis/ vascularization. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of these histological features of KS, with an emphasis on the viral proteins that are responsible for their development.

  14. Progesterone improves the maturation of male-induced preovulatory follicles in anoestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Adib, Achraf; Freret, Sandrine; Touze, Jean-Luc; Lomet, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Chesneau, Didier; Estienne, Anthony; Papillier, Pascal; Monniaux, Danielle; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa

    2014-10-01

    The first ovulation induced by male effect in sheep during seasonal anoestrus usually results in the development of a short cycle that can be avoided by progesterone priming before ram introduction. In elucidating the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the occurrence of short cycles, the effects of progesterone and the time of anoestrus on the development of male-induced preovulatory follicles were investigated in anoestrous ewes using morphological, endocrine and molecular approaches. Ewes were primed with progesterone for 2 (CIDR2) or 12 days (CIDR12) and untreated ewes used as controls during early (April) and late (June) anoestrus. The duration of follicular growth and the lifespan of the male-induced preovulatory follicles were prolonged by ∼1.6 days in CIDR12 ewes compared with the controls. These changes were accompanied by a delay in the preovulatory LH and FSH surges and ovulation. Intra-follicular oestradiol concentration and mRNA levels of LHCGR and STAR in the granulosa and theca cells of the preovulatory follicles were higher in CIDR12 ewes than the control ewes. The expression of mRNA levels of CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 also increased in theca cells of CIDR12 ewes. CIDR2 ewes gave intermediate results. Moreover, ewes ovulated earlier in June than in April, without changes in the duration of follicular growth, but these effects were unrelated to the lifespan of corpus luteum. Our results give the first evidence supporting the positive effect of progesterone priming on the completion of growth and maturation of preovulatory follicles induced by male effect in seasonal anoestrous ewes, thereby preventing short cycles.

  15. Relationships between growth and productivity of range ewes.

    PubMed

    Stobart, R H; Blackwell, R L; Cartwright, T C; Bassett, J W

    1987-10-01

    The relationships between various measures of growth and productivity of range sheep were investigated, utilizing records of 1,109 range ewes sired by 269 rams. Body weights and degree of maturity of body weight at birth, weaning, 12 mo, 18 mo, 30 mo and absolute growth rate, absolute maturing rate and relative growth rate over various age intervals were studied relative to their relationship with productivity characters. Measures of ewe productivity were average annual production for the 4-yr period, 2 through 5 yr of age, for grease fleece weight, number of lambs born, number of lambs weaned and weight of lambs weaned. Heritability estimates were .31 +/- .11 for grease fleece weight, .42 +/- .12 for number of lambs born, .08 +/- .10 for number of lambs weaned and .03 +/- .10 for weight of lambs weaned. All production characters had positive phenotypic correlations (.04 to .22) with body weight at all ages. Both number of lambs born and weight of lambs weaned had small positive phenotypic correlations with growth rates over the 12- to 18-mo age interval. The genetic correlations between ewe productivity and weights at different ages were variable, ranging from -.71 between weaning weight and grease fleece weight to values greater than 1.00 for correlations between weight of lambs weaned and weights at birth, weaning and 18-mo. Degree of maturity at 12 mo had positive genetic correlations with all production characters. Estimated genetic correlations between number of lambs born and absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and absolute maturing rate over the 12- to 18-mo age interval were positive.

  16. Adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor of soft tissue associated with the vagus nerve: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshinao; Kishimoto, Takashi; Ota, Satoshi; Kambe, Michiyo; Yonemori, Yoko; Chazono, Hideaki; Yamasaki, Kazuki; Ochiai, Hidemasa; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Tanaka, Mio; Tanaka, Yukichi; Horie, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Yukio

    2013-05-01

    Adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor (EFT) is a rare subset of EFTs showing mixed features of Ewing sarcoma and adamantinoma of the long bones. All currently reported cases of the adamantinoma-like type have been associated with bone. Recently, a unique type of EFT was reported showing complex epithelial differentiation associated with the vagus nerve. Here we describe another unique type of EFT arising in the soft tissue of the neck associated with the vagus nerve. An 11-year-old girl presented to our hospital with a neck tumor on her right side. Surgical resection was performed, and histopathologic examination demonstrated a high-grade malignant neoplasm. The tumor was composed of sheets of small round proliferating cells, basaloid tumor nests with marked squamous differentiation, biphasic growth pattern with epithelioid tumor nests, and spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed diffuse expression of CD99 and FLI-1. In addition, small round cells and basaloid/squamoid components were immunoreactive for AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, high-molecular weight keratin, p63, and p40 (ΔNp63). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing analysis revealed that the tumor harbored a t(11;22) translocation, involving EWSR1 and FLI-1, which are characteristic of EFTs. According to these findings, our case has characteristics of both a subset of adamantinoma-like EFT and EFT with complex epithelial differentiation. We suggest that EFT with complex epithelial differentiation is in a common spectrum with the adamantinoma-like type and that adamantinoma-like EFTs can arise in soft tissue, leading to difficulty in differential diagnosis with malignant epithelial tumors.

  17. Effects of vitamin E and selenium injections on reproduction and preweaning lamb survival in ewes consuming diets marginally deficient in selenium.

    PubMed

    Kott, R W; Ruttle, J L; Southward, G M

    1983-09-01

    Medium wool ewes were injected with vitamin E and(or) Se over a 2-yr period to evaluate the influence of these treatments on reproduction. Ewes were divided randomly into four groups, consisting of a control, plus groups receiving monthly sc injections of either 272 iu vitamin E, 4 mg Se or 272 IU vitamin E plus 4 mg Se during pregnancy. Selenium administration increased (P less than .05) ewe blood Se concentrations, but had no effect (P greater than .10) on fertility (number of ewes lambing of ewes bred), prolificacy (number of lambs born/ewe lambing) or lamb sex ratio. Preweaning survival of lambs was increased (P less than .05) by ewe treatments with either Se or vitamin E and thus, treated ewes weaned approximately 20% more lambs/ewe mated than did control ewes.

  18. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy in Yankasa ewes.

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, A A; Ate, I U; Lawal, A I; Adamu, S

    2016-03-15

    Twenty pregnant Yankasa ewes were assigned to three groups to determine the effect of Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy. Groups A and B comprising seven ewes each were infected with approximately 1.0 × 10(6) cells of T evansi per ewe through venepuncture at the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Group C comprising six ewes served as uninfected control. There was slight pyrexia in the infected groups (groups A and B) but was absent in group C. The mean body weight, glucose concentration, and packed cell volume of ewes in group A were not significantly different from those in group C throughout the study. There was also no significant difference in mean glucose concentration between groups B and C. However, in group B, mean body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared to group C at week 2 and from week 4 post infection (pi) till the end of the study; the packed cell volume also significantly (P < 0.05) decreased but at weeks 4 and 6 pi. The mean plasma protein of ewes in group A was significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared to those of group C at weeks 7, 11 pi and thereafter till the end of the study. On the contrary, the plasma protein of ewes in group B decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to those in group C at weeks 2 and 6 pi. There were no reproductive losses throughout the study. This was characterized by insignificant differences in the gestation length between ewes in the infected groups (groups A and B) compared with those in group C. However, there were significant (P < 0.05) decreases in lamb birth weights of ewes in group B compared with ewes in groups A and C. Mice inoculation with blood from infected ewes postpartum was parasitemic 18 to 25 days pi, for ewes in group B, whereas none of the mice in groups A and C were parasitemic. Lambs born from the infected groups (groups A and B) were also aparasitemic for 40 days postpartum. It was therefore concluded that the T evansi isolate used caused mild

  19. Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery--diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Wakako; Morohashi, Satoko; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2011-08-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma is a rare tumour and the diagnosis is often delayed. We report the case of a woman with a primary pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma who presented with massive pulmonary embolism. The definitive diagnosis was elucidated after the patient's death by autopsy specimen. We discuss the diagnosis and lessons learned from this case.

  20. Pazopanib in the management of advanced soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cranmer, Lee D; Loggers, Elizabeth T; Pollack, Seth M

    2016-01-01

    Therapy of soft tissue sarcomas represents an area of significant unmet need in oncology. Angiogenesis has been explored as a potential target both preclinically and clinically, with suggestions of activity. Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with prominent antiangiogenic effects. In a Phase II study, pazopanib demonstrated activity in strata enrolling patients with leiomyosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, or other sarcomas but not those enrolling adipocytic sarcomas. PALETTE, the pivotal Phase III trial, demonstrated improved progression-free survival versus placebo in pazopanib-treated patients previously treated for advanced soft tissue sarcomas. No survival benefit was observed, and adipocytic sarcomas were excluded. Health-related quality-of-life assessments indicated significant decrements in several areas affected by pazopanib toxicities, but no global deterioration. Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that pazopanib therapy may or may not be cost-effective in different geographic settings. Pazopanib provides important proof-of-concept for antiangiogenic therapy in soft tissue sarcomas. Its use can be improved by further biological studies of its activity profile in sarcomas, studies of biological rational combinations, and clinicopathologic/biological correlative studies of activity to allow better drug targeting. PMID:27354810

  1. Variations of Surveillance Practice for Patients with Bone Sarcoma: A Survey of Australian Sarcoma Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kate; Bae, Susie; Desai, Jayesh; Strong, Robyn; Caruso, Denise; Howell, Deborah; Herschtal, Alan; Sullivan, Michael; Orme, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. After treatment, bone sarcoma patients carry a high chance of relapse and late effects from multimodal therapy. We hypothesize that significant variation in surveillance practice exists between pediatric medical oncology (PO) and nonpediatric medical oncology (NP) sarcoma disciplines. Methods. Australian sarcoma clinicians were approached to do a web based survey that assessed radiologic surveillance (RS) strategies, late toxicity assessment, and posttreatment psychosocial interventions. Results. In total, 51 clinicians responded. No differences were identified in local disease RS. In metastatic disease response assessment, 100% of POs (23/23) and 93% of NPs (24/26) conducted CT chest. However, this was more likely to occur for NPs in the context of a CT chest/abdomen/pelvis (NP: 10/26; PO: 1/23; p = 0.006). POs were more likely to use CXR for RS (p = 0.006). POs showed more prescriptive intensity in assessment of heart function (p = 0.001), hearing (p < 0.001), and fertility (p = 0.02). POs were more likely to deliver written information for health maintenance/treatment summary (p = 0.04). The majority of respondents described enquiring about psychosocial aspects of health (n = 33/37, 89%), but a routine formal psychosocial screen was only used by 23% (n = 6/26). Conclusion. There is high variability in bone sarcoma surveillance between PO and NP clinicians. Efforts to harmonize approaches would allow early and late effects recognition/intervention and facilitate improved patient care/transition and research. PMID:28348507

  2. Variations of Surveillance Practice for Patients with Bone Sarcoma: A Survey of Australian Sarcoma Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Jeremy; Thompson, Kate; Bae, Susie; Desai, Jayesh; Strong, Robyn; Caruso, Denise; Howell, Deborah; Herschtal, Alan; Sullivan, Michael; Orme, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. After treatment, bone sarcoma patients carry a high chance of relapse and late effects from multimodal therapy. We hypothesize that significant variation in surveillance practice exists between pediatric medical oncology (PO) and nonpediatric medical oncology (NP) sarcoma disciplines. Methods. Australian sarcoma clinicians were approached to do a web based survey that assessed radiologic surveillance (RS) strategies, late toxicity assessment, and posttreatment psychosocial interventions. Results. In total, 51 clinicians responded. No differences were identified in local disease RS. In metastatic disease response assessment, 100% of POs (23/23) and 93% of NPs (24/26) conducted CT chest. However, this was more likely to occur for NPs in the context of a CT chest/abdomen/pelvis (NP: 10/26; PO: 1/23; p = 0.006). POs were more likely to use CXR for RS (p = 0.006). POs showed more prescriptive intensity in assessment of heart function (p = 0.001), hearing (p < 0.001), and fertility (p = 0.02). POs were more likely to deliver written information for health maintenance/treatment summary (p = 0.04). The majority of respondents described enquiring about psychosocial aspects of health (n = 33/37, 89%), but a routine formal psychosocial screen was only used by 23% (n = 6/26). Conclusion. There is high variability in bone sarcoma surveillance between PO and NP clinicians. Efforts to harmonize approaches would allow early and late effects recognition/intervention and facilitate improved patient care/transition and research.

  3. The effect of dietary restriction, pregnancy, and fetal type in different ewe types on fetal weight, maternal body weight, and visceral organ mass in ewes.

    PubMed

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P

    2004-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate maternal body changes in response to dietary restriction or the increased nutrient requirement of fetal growth. In Exp. 1, 28 mature crossbred ewes (61.6 +/- 1.8 kg initial BW) were fed a pelleted forage-based diet to evaluate effects of pregnancy and nutrient restriction on visceral organ mass. Treatments were arranged in 2 x 3 factorially, with dietary restriction (60% restriction vs. 100% maintenance) and reproductive status (nonpregnant [NP], d 90 or d 130 of gestation) as main effects. Dietary treatments were begun at d 50 of gestation, and restricted ewes remained at 60% of maintenance throughout the experiment. Nonpregnant and d-90 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 40 d and slaughtered. The d-130 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 80 d and then slaughtered. In Exp. 2, four Romanov ewes were naturally mated (Romanov fetus and Romanov dam; R/ R), and two Romanov embryos were transferred to each of four Columbia recipients (Romanov embryos and Columbia recipient; R/C). Three Columbia ewes were naturally mated (Columbia fetus and Columbia recipient; C/C). In both experiments, maternal organ weights were reported as fresh weight (grams), scaled to empty body weight (EBW; grams per kilogram) and maternal body weight (MBW; grams per kilogram). In Exp. 1, ewe EBW and fetal mass were decreased (P < 0.02) with restriction compared with maintenance. Dietary restriction decreased liver mass (16.7 vs. 14.5 g/kg EBW or 18.8 vs. 16.4 g/kg MBW; P < 0.01), but dietary restriction did not affect total digestive tract mass. In Exp. 2, ewe BW was less for the R/R compared with R/C and C/C (44.8 vs. 110.4 and 98.1 +/- 7.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Fetal weight at d 130 was less for the R/R than for R/C and C/C (2.2 vs. 3.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) when measured as individual fetuses; however, when measured as total fetal mass carried in each ewe, there was no effect of ewe type. These data suggest that the

  4. The roles and implications of exosomes in sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Shen, Jacson; Tu, Chongqi; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-09-01

    Better diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic options are still necessary for patients with sarcomas due to the current limitations of diagnosis and treatment. Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles that are released by various cells and are found in most body fluids. Tumor-derived exosomes have been proven to mediate tumorigenesis, intercellular communication, microenvironment modulation, and metastasis in different cancers, including in sarcomas. Recently, exosomes have been considered as potential biomarkers for sarcoma diagnosis and prognosis, and as possible targets for sarcoma therapy. Moreover, due to their specific cell tropism and bioavailability, exosomes can also be engineered as vehicles for drug delivery. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the roles of tumor-derived exosomes in sarcoma and their potential clinical applications.

  5. Synovial sarcoma: a rare presentation of parapharyngeal mass.

    PubMed

    Shaariyah, Mohd Mokhtar; Mazita, Ami; Masaany, Mansor; Razif, Mohd Yunus; Isa, Mohamed Rose; Asma, Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of the head and neck region involving the parapharyngeal space. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma can be very challenging to the pathologists. We present a rare case of parapharyngeal synovial sarcoma in a young female patient who had a two-month history of left cervical intumescent mass at level II. The fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass was proved inconclusive. Transcervical excision of the mass was performed and the first case of parapharyngeal sarcoma was identified in our center by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Repeat imaging revealed residual tumor. The patient successfully underwent a second excision of the residual tumor and received adjuvant radiotherapy.

  6. Intimal sarcoma of the superficial femoral artery with osteosarcomatous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ebaugh, James L; Yuan, Minsheng; Hu, Jeffery; Chen, Ahchean; Raffetto, Joseph D

    2011-05-01

    Sarcomas of the large vessels usually present centrally in the aorta, pulmonary artery, and inferior vena cava. Peripheral arterial sarcomas are exceptionally rare. They have been reported in the iliac and common or profunda femoral arteries, and are frequently undifferentiated. In this study, we describe a differentiated intimal sarcoma of the superficial femoral artery with abundant osteosarcoma within the specimen. Before knowing the diagnosis, treatment was for a presumed pseudoaneurysm using excision and bypass. Postoperatively, the patient received palliative radiation therapy. The tumor's location and histopathology are unique. A differentiated intimal sarcoma has never been reported in the superficial femoral artery, and it represents the second peripheral arterial intimal sarcoma reported with osteosarcomatous differentiation.

  7. Two Cases of Ectopic Hamartomatous Thymoma Masquerading as Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yukiko; Tanaka, Hiroko; Sasaki, Toru; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Yonekawa, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Shimbashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign tumor. EHTs are difficult to differentiate from sarcomas, especially synovial sarcomas. We encountered two cases of EHT that were referred from other hospitals because sarcoma was suspected. In these cases, fusion gene detection via polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization was useful for differentiating EHT from synovial sarcoma. EHT requires accurate diagnosis before surgery to avoid excessive treatment. Both tumor location and the presence of fat inside the tumor are important imaging findings for EHT, and confirmation of spindle cells, epithelial cells, and mature adipose cells in the tumor is an important pathological finding. It is important to exclude synovial sarcoma from the differential diagnosis via fusion gene analysis. PMID:28168073

  8. Two Cases of Ectopic Hamartomatous Thymoma Masquerading as Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takahito; Sato, Yukiko; Tanaka, Hiroko; Sasaki, Toru; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Yonekawa, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Shimbashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign tumor. EHTs are difficult to differentiate from sarcomas, especially synovial sarcomas. We encountered two cases of EHT that were referred from other hospitals because sarcoma was suspected. In these cases, fusion gene detection via polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization was useful for differentiating EHT from synovial sarcoma. EHT requires accurate diagnosis before surgery to avoid excessive treatment. Both tumor location and the presence of fat inside the tumor are important imaging findings for EHT, and confirmation of spindle cells, epithelial cells, and mature adipose cells in the tumor is an important pathological finding. It is important to exclude synovial sarcoma from the differential diagnosis via fusion gene analysis.

  9. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    PubMed

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (-0.27 vs. 0.27); however, RFI values did not differ (P = 1.0) between yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa. Dry matter intake was 22% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (2.5 vs. 3.2 kg/d) and 59% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa (2.2 vs. 3.5 kg/d). Initial and final BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed pelleted alfalfa compared to chopped alfalfa. Final LMA did not differ (P = 0.77) between RFI groups, but final

  10. Gastrointestinal transport of calcium and glucose in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Stefanie; Schröder, Bernd; Gemmer, Anja; Reimers, Julia; Breves, Gerhard; Herrmann, Jens; Wilkens, Mirja R

    2016-06-01

    During lactation, mineral and nutrient requirements increase dramatically, particularly those for Ca and glucose. In contrast to monogastric species, in ruminants, it is rather unclear to which extend this physiological change due to increased demand for milk production is accompanied by functional adaptations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Therefore, we investigated potential modulations of Ca and glucose transport mechanisms in the GIT of lactating and dried-off sheep. Ussing-chamber technique was applied to determine the ruminal and jejunal Ca flux rates. In the jejunum, electrophysiological properties in response to glucose were recorded. Jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) served to characterize glucose uptake via sodium-linked glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), and RNA and protein expression levels of Ca and glucose transporting systems were determined. Ruminal Ca flux rate data showed a trend for higher absorption in lactating sheep. In the jejunum, small Ca absorption could only be observed in lactating ewes. From the results, it may be assumed that lactating ewes compensate for the Ca loss by increasing bone mobilization rather than by increasing supply through absorption from the GIT Presence of SGLT1 in the jejunum of both groups was shown by RNA and protein identification, but glucose uptake into BBMV could only be detected in lactating sheep. This, however, could not be attributed to electrogenic glucose absorption in lactating sheep under Ussing-chamber conditions, providing evidence that changes in jejunal glucose uptake may include additional factors, that is, posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation.

  11. Contrasting epidemiology of childhood osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    Marked dissimilarities in the epidemiology of osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma indicate differences in their origins. A major clue to the genesis of Ewing's tumor comes not from defining persons at high risk but from the observation that blacks are at unusually low risk. The neoplasm does not aggregate in families and is not part of any known syndrome. No environmental causes have been identified. By contrast, osteosarcoma may be caused by external or internal ionizing radiation, and it aggregated in families with the same tumor or with dissimilar tumors and in certain genetic disorders of bone. In man and in dogs, the frequency of the neoplasm is related to bone mass and growth. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the upper versus the lower limbs seems related to muscle mass. Age peaks in the occurrence of the tumor elsewhere vary with the anatomic site; head and neck tumors develop in early childhood and urogenital tumors both in early years and in adolescence. The sex ratio (male to female) also varies with the site affected. Rhabdomyosarcoma aggregates with certain other tumors in families and overlaps with osteosarcoma in some of these relationships but is distinguished from that tumor by its excessive occurrence in neurofibromatosis.

  12. Neural systems mediating seasonal breeding in the ewe.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R L; Jansen, H T; Billings, H J; Coolen, L M; Lehman, M N

    2010-07-01

    Seasonal reproduction in ewes is caused by a dramatic increase in response to oestradiol (E(2)) negative feedback during the nonbreeding (anoestrous) season. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that A15 dopaminergic neurones in the retrochiasmatic area (RCh) play a key role in these seasonal changes. These A15 neurones are stimulated by E(2) and inhibit gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in anoestrus, but not the breeding season. Because A15 neurones do not contain oestrogen receptors-alpha (ER alpha), it is likely that E(2)-responsive afferents stimulate their activity when circulating E(2) levels increase during anoestrus. Retrograde tract tracing studies identified a limited set of ER alpha-containing afferents primarily found in four areas [ventromedial preoptic area, RCh, ventromedial and arcuate (ARC) nuclei]. Pharmacological and anatomical data are consistent with GABA- and glutamate-containing afferents controlling A15 activity in anoestrus, with E(2) inhibiting GABA and stimulating glutamate release at this time of year. Tract tracing demonstrated that A15 efferents project posteriorly to the median eminence and the ARC, suggesting possible direct actions on GnRH terminals or indirect actions via kisspeptin neurones in the ARC to inhibit GnRH in anoestrus. Identification of this neural circuitry sets the stage for the development of specific hypotheses for morphological or transmitter/receptor expression changes that would account for seasonal breeding in ewes.

  13. Current state of pediatric sarcoma biology and opportunities for future discovery: A report from the sarcoma translational research workshop.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Pooja; Janeway, Katherine; Crompton, Brian D; Kadoch, Cigall; Mackall, Crystal L; Khan, Javed; Shern, Jack F; Schiffman, Joshua; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A; Ladanyi, Marc; Meltzer, Paul; Bult, Carol J; Adamson, Peter C; Lupo, Philip J; Mody, Rajen; DuBois, Steven G; Parsons, D Williams; Khanna, Chand; Lau, Ching; Hawkins, Douglas S; Randall, R Lor; Smith, Malcolm; Sorensen, Poul H; Plon, Sharon E; Skapek, Stephen X; Lessnick, Stephen; Gorlick, Richard; Reed, Damon R

    2016-05-01

    Sarcomas are a rare subgroup of pediatric cancers comprised of a variety of bone and soft-tissue tumors. While significant advances have been made in improving outcomes of patients with localized pediatric sarcomas since the addition of systemic chemotherapy to local control many decades ago, outcomes for patients with metastatic and relapsed sarcoma remain poor with few novel therapeutics identified to date. With the advent of new technologies to study cancer genomes, transcriptomes and epigenomes, our understanding of sarcoma biology has improved tremendously in a relatively short period of time. However, much remains to be accomplished in this arena especially with regard to translating all of this new knowledge to the bedside. To this end, a meeting was convened in Philadelphia, PA, on April 18, 2015 sponsored by the QuadW foundation, Children's Oncology Group and CureSearch for Children's Cancer that brought together sarcoma clinicians and scientists from North America to review the current state of pediatric sarcoma biology and ongoing/planned genomics based clinical trials in an effort to identify and bridge knowledge gaps that continue to exist at present. At the conclusion of the workshop, three key objectives that would significantly further our understanding of sarcoma were identified and a proposal was put forward to develop an all-encompassing pediatric sarcoma biology protocol that would address these specific needs. This review summarizes the proceedings of the workshop.

  14. Transfer of radiocesium from different environmental sources to ewes and suckling lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.J.; Mayes, R.W.; Beresford, N.A.; Lamb, C.S. )

    1989-10-01

    Indoor experiments are described that compare the transfer of radiocesium to ewe and lamb tissues from different sources. Lactating ewes were fed either perennial ryegrass contaminated by Chernobyl fallout, or saltmarsh vegetation contaminated by marine discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The transfer to ewe tissues and milk was greater from the Chernobyl contaminated herbage than from saltmarsh vegetation. Lambs receiving a mixture of vegetation and milk were given radiocesium from one of the two vegetation sources or from milk obtained from the experimental ewes. Transfer to lamb tissues declined in the order milk greater than Chernobyl fallout greater than Sellafield discharge. The radiocesium transfer to lamb tissues exceeded that to ewe tissues. Transfer coefficients for 137Cs in the Chernobyl fallout were higher than most previously published figures at 0.12 d kg-1 for ewe muscle and 0.50 d kg-1 for lamb muscle. The transfer coefficient for 137Cs from ewe milk to lamb muscle was 1.20 d kg-1.

  15. A preliminary study of the effects of organic farming on oocyte quality in ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Casao, A; María, G A; Abecia, J A

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether feeding Rasa Aragonesa ewes certified organic feed, from 15 days before mating until lamb weaning, improved oocyte quality and in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) performances of the offspring. In a second experiment, ovaries from ewe lambs that were bred on an organic farm and were of the same breed were compared with those from conventionally bred animals. The number (± standard error of the mean) of healthy oocytes per ewe lamb did not differ significantly between organic (12.2 ± 3.3) and conventionally (13.6 ± 4.0) fed ewes. Ovaries from ewe lambs born on an organic farm had significantly (P < 0.0001) more healthy oocytes per ewe lamb (39.6 ± 5.2) than did those born on a conventional farm (25.0 ± 4.2), and higher IVM (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P < 0.0001) and IVF (97.3 vs. 91%, P < 0.05) rates. In conclusion, this preliminary approach to the study of the effect of organic procedures on the sheep oocyte quality indicates that the total integration in the complete organic system improved the oocyte quality of ewe lambs, although organic feeding alone was insufficient to improve quality.

  16. Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Target Volume and Organ at Risk Contour Delineation Agreement Among NRG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Abrams, Ross A.; Bosch, Walter; Roberge, David; Haas, Rick L.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Deville, Curtiland; Chen, Yen-Lin; Finkelstein, Steven E.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Wang, Dian

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability in target volume and organ at risk (OAR) contour delineation for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Radiation planning computed tomography (CT) scans for 2 cases of RPS were distributed among 12 sarcoma radiation oncologists with instructions for contouring gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), high-risk CTV (HR CTV: area judged to be at high risk of resulting in positive margins after resection), and OARs: bowel bag, small bowel, colon, stomach, and duodenum. Analysis of contour agreement was performed using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm and kappa statistics. Results: Ten radiation oncologists contoured both RPS cases, 1 contoured only RPS1, and 1 contoured only RPS2 such that each case was contoured by 11 radiation oncologists. The first case (RPS 1) was a patient with a de-differentiated (DD) liposarcoma (LPS) with a predominant well-differentiated (WD) component, and the second case (RPS 2) was a patient with DD LPS made up almost entirely of a DD component. Contouring agreement for GTV and CTV contours was high. However, the agreement for HR CTVs was only moderate. For OARs, agreement for stomach, bowel bag, small bowel, and colon was high, but agreement for duodenum (distorted by tumor in one of these cases) was fair to moderate. Conclusions: For preoperative treatment of RPS, sarcoma radiation oncologists contoured GTV, CTV, and most OARs with a high level of agreement. HR CTV contours were more variable. Further clarification of this volume with the help of sarcoma surgical oncologists is necessary to reach consensus. More attention to delineation of the duodenum is also needed.

  17. Imaging investigations before referral to a sarcoma center delay the final diagnosis of musculoskeletal sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Dyrop, Heidi Buvarp; Vedsted, Peter; Rædkjær, Mathias; Safwat, Akmal; Keller, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The use of point-of-care or local investigations before referral to specialist sarcoma centers as part of a fast-track diagnostic pathway varies, and may affect the time to diagnosis. We wanted to investigate differences in time intervals and proportion of malignancy in patients who were referred after initial diagnostic investigations were performed locally and in patients who were referred without these investigations. Patients and methods We included 545 consecutive patients who were referred to Aarhus Sarcoma Center for suspected musculoskeletal sarcoma. Data on time intervals and investigations performed were collected from questionnaires and patient records. Patients who were referred from outside Aarhus uptake area after initial MRI/CT or histology performed locally were compared with patients who were referred from Aarhus uptake area without these investigations. Results The median total interval from first symptom to diagnosis was 166 days for outside patients referred with MRI/CT