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Sample records for chenopodiaceae

  1. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Treesearch

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  2. Development of SSR markers for the genus Patellifolia (Chenopodiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigall, Marion; Bülow, Lorenz; Schubert, Jörg; Frese, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed to promote studies on the patterns of genetic diversity within Patellifolia patellaris (Chenopodiaceae) and the relationship between the three species of the genus Patellifolia. Methods and Results: The genomic sequence from P. procumbens was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 3648 SSRs were identified. A subset of 53 SSR markers was validated, of which 25 proved to be polymorphic in the three species except for the P. webbiana–specific marker JKIPat16. The number of alleles ranged from 85 in P. patellaris, 187 in P. procumbens, and 202 in P. webbiana. Conclusions: The set of 25 new markers will facilitate studies of the relationships between the three Patellifolia species and of the spatial and temporal distribution of genetic diversity within the species. PMID:27610279

  3. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform).

  4. A new species of Kali (Salsoloideae, Chenopodiaceae) from Sicily, supported by molecular analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nomenclatural and taxonomical considerations on Kali, a controversial genus recently segregated from the polyphyletic Salsola s. l. (Chenopodiaceae), are provided. Morphologically, Kali groups annual plants with leaves ending in a spine and lacking hypodermis, having also a cortex alternate to longi...

  5. Polyploidy enhances the occupation of heterogeneous environments through hydraulic related trade-offs in Atriplex canescens (Chenopodiaceae)

    Treesearch

    Guang-You Hao; Mary E. Lucero; Stewart C. Sanderson; Elizabeth H. Zacharias; N. Michele. Holbrook

    2013-01-01

    Plant hydraulic characteristics were studied in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Atriplex canescens (Chenopodiaceae) to investigate the potential physiological basis underlying the intraspecific habitat differentiation among plants of different ploidy levels.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of fatty acid methyl esters of some members of Chenopodiaceae.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Kannathasan, Krishnan; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of four halophytic plants, viz. Arthrocnemum indicum, Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda maritima and Suaeda monoica belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae, were prepared and their composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The FAME extracts were also screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. Among the fatty acids analyzed, the relative percentage of lauric acid was high in S. brachiata (61.85%). The FAME extract of S. brachiata showed the highest antibacterial and antifungal activities among the extracts tested. The other three extracts showed potent antibacterial and moderate anticandidal activities.

  7. Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    The present study provides an update on the betaxanthin (bx) compositions of red and yellow beetroots, yellow-coloured Swiss chard petioles, and yellow-orange cactus pear. Applying RP-HPLC coupled with positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry and by comparison with UV-vis and mass spectrometric characteristics as well as retention times of semi-synthesized reference compounds, 24 betaxanthins were identified in red and yellow beetroot hypocotyls. Twenty-five and thirteen betaxanthins were present in yellow Swiss chard petioles and the cactus pear cultivar 'Gialla', respectively. Ethanolamine-bx and threonine-bx were found to be novel betaxanthins in Chenopodiaceae representatives, which to the best of our knowledge have not been reported as genuine pigments so far. Furthermore, aspartic acid-bx (miraxanthin II), lysine-bx, and methionine-bx, hitherto found in other families, were identified in the Chenopodiaceae for the first time. Additionally, tyrosine-bx (portulacaxanthin II) and tryptophan-bx have not been earlier reported to occur in the Cactaceae. These findings provide valuable phytochemical information and may be useful for a better understanding of the functional properties of betaxanthins in plants.

  8. Host specificity of an Italian population of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), candidate for the biological control of Salsola tragus (Chenopodiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian thistle, Salsola tragus L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a troublesome weed infesting the drier regions of western North America. It is native to Central Asia and infests rangelands and semi-arid pasture lands, croplands, residential, disturbed and industrial areas. Cosmobaris scolopacea (Germar) is a...

  9. New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

    2015-01-05

    The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given. 

  10. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Promote the Growth of Ceratocarpus arenarius (Chenopodiaceae) with No Enhancement of Phosphorus Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dengsha; Chen, Yinglong; Feng, Gu

    2012-01-01

    The mycorrhizal status of plants in the Chenopodiaceae is not well studied with a few controversial reports. This study examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and growth response of Ceratocarpus arenarius in the field and a greenhouse inoculation trial. The colonization rate of AM fungi in C. arenarius in in-growth field cores was low (around 15%). Vesicles and intraradical hyphae were present during all growth stages, but no arbuscules were observed. Sequencing analysis of the large ribosomal rDNA subunit detected four culturable Glomus species, G. intraradices, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum and G. microaggregatum together with eight unculturable species belong to the Glomeromycota in the root system of C. arenarius collected from the field. These results establish the mycotrophic status of C. arenarius. Both in the field and in the greenhouse inoculation trial, the growth of C. arenarius was stimulated by the indigenous AM fungal community and the inoculated AM fungal isolates, respectively, but the P uptake and concentration of the mycorrhizal plants did not increase significantly over the controls in both experiments. Furthermore, the AM fungi significantly increased seed production. Our results suggest that an alternative reciprocal benefit to carbon-phosphorus trade-off between AM fungi and the chenopod plant might exist in the extremely arid environment. PMID:22957011

  11. The cytoskeleton maintains organelle partitioning required for single-cell C4 photosynthesis in Chenopodiaceae species.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Simon D X; Franceschi, Vincent R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2006-09-01

    Recently, three Chenopodiaceae species, Bienertia cycloptera, Bienertia sinuspersici, and Suaeda aralocaspica, were shown to possess novel C(4) photosynthesis mechanisms through the compartmentalization of organelles and photosynthetic enzymes into two distinct regions within a single chlorenchyma cell. Bienertia has peripheral and central compartments, whereas S. aralocaspica has distal and proximal compartments. This compartmentalization achieves the equivalent of spatial separation of Kranz anatomy, including dimorphic chloroplasts, but within a single cell. To characterize the mechanisms of organelle compartmentalization, the distribution of the major organelles relative to the cytoskeleton was examined. Examination of the distribution of the cytoskeleton using immunofluorescence studies and transient expression of green fluorescent protein-tagged cytoskeleton markers revealed a highly organized network of actin filaments and microtubules associating with the chloroplasts and showed that the two compartments in each cell had different cytoskeletal arrangements. Experiments using cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs showed in Bienertia and S. aralocaspica that microtubules are critical for the polarized positioning of chloroplasts and other organelles. Compartmentalization of the organelles in these species represents a unique system in higher plants and illustrates the degree of control the plant cell has over the organization and integration of multiorganellar processes within its cytoplasm.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promote the growth of Ceratocarpus arenarius (Chenopodiaceae) with no enhancement of phosphorus nutrition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Shi, Ning; Bai, Dengsha; Chen, Yinglong; Feng, Gu

    2012-01-01

    The mycorrhizal status of plants in the Chenopodiaceae is not well studied with a few controversial reports. This study examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and growth response of Ceratocarpus arenarius in the field and a greenhouse inoculation trial. The colonization rate of AM fungi in C. arenarius in in-growth field cores was low (around 15%). Vesicles and intraradical hyphae were present during all growth stages, but no arbuscules were observed. Sequencing analysis of the large ribosomal rDNA subunit detected four culturable Glomus species, G. intraradices, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum and G. microaggregatum together with eight unculturable species belong to the Glomeromycota in the root system of C. arenarius collected from the field. These results establish the mycotrophic status of C. arenarius. Both in the field and in the greenhouse inoculation trial, the growth of C. arenarius was stimulated by the indigenous AM fungal community and the inoculated AM fungal isolates, respectively, but the P uptake and concentration of the mycorrhizal plants did not increase significantly over the controls in both experiments. Furthermore, the AM fungi significantly increased seed production. Our results suggest that an alternative reciprocal benefit to carbon-phosphorus trade-off between AM fungi and the chenopod plant might exist in the extremely arid environment.

  13. Comparative pharmacognostic evaluation of some species of the genera Suaeda and Salsola leaf (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Munir, Uzma; Perveen, Anjum; Qamarunnisa, Syeda

    2014-09-01

    The genera Suaeda and Salsola are halophytic plants belong to the family Chenopodiaceae. Species of these genera have been extensively used in traditional medicines against many diseases due to their various bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, sterol, phenolic compounds etc. The present research was carried out to establish detailed pharmacognosy of Suaeda fruticosa, Suaeda monoica, Salsola imbricata and Salsola tragus, which included macroscopy, microscopy, physico-chemical parameters and qualitative phytochemical screening of leaf samples extracted with methanol and chloroform. It was observed that macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were diagnostic features and can be used for distinction and identification of these closely related plant species. Phytochemically, these plant species are rich in constituents like anthraquinones, alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Physico-chemical parameters revealed that in all investigated plant species; methanol extractive values were higher than that of chloroform. Moreover, total ash values were found to be higher than other acid insoluble and water-soluble ash values, while a considerable amount of moisture was present in the species of both genera. On the basis of pharmacognosy, species of Suaeda were found to be more promising than Salsola. Present investigation will contribute towards establishment of pharmacognostic profile of these medicinally effective plants species.

  14. Microsatellite markers for the tetraploid halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort. (Chenopodiaceae) and cross-species amplification in related taxa.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Kathleen; Hensen, Isabell; Schie, Stephan; Debener, Thomas; Weising, Kurt

    2009-07-01

    We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the tetraploid halophyte Suaeda maritima (Chenopodiaceae). Population genetic parameters were estimated for three populations from different habitats (coastal and inland), using the program Tetrasat. Between two and 15 alleles per locus were observed. Mean expected heterozygosities (H(E) ) and Shannon-Wiener Diversity Indices (H') per locus and population ranged from zero to 0.852, and from zero to 2.990, respectively. The two inland populations were less diverse than the coastal one at most of the loci. All markers cross-amplified in the closely related Suaeda salsa, and all but one were transferable to Suaeda spicata and Suaeda salinaria.

  15. A broader model for C₄ photosynthesis evolution in plants inferred from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae s.s.).

    PubMed

    Kadereit, Gudrun; Ackerly, David; Pirie, Michael D

    2012-08-22

    C(4) photosynthesis is a fascinating example of parallel evolution of a complex trait involving multiple genetic, biochemical and anatomical changes. It is seen as an adaptation to deleteriously high levels of photorespiration. The current scenario for C(4) evolution inferred from grasses is that it originated subsequent to the Oligocene decline in CO(2) levels, is promoted in open habitats, acts as a pre-adaptation to drought resistance, and, once gained, is not subsequently lost. We test the generality of these hypotheses using a dated phylogeny of Amaranthaceae s.l. (including Chenopodiaceae), which includes the largest number of C(4) lineages in eudicots. The oldest chenopod C(4) lineage dates back to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, representing one of the first origins of C(4) in plants, but still corresponding with the Oligocene decline of atmospheric CO(2). In contrast to grasses, the rate of transitions from C(3) to C(4) is highest in ancestrally drought resistant (salt-tolerant and succulent) lineages, implying that adaptation to dry or saline habitats promoted the evolution of C(4); and possible reversions from C(4) to C(3) are apparent. We conclude that the paradigm established in grasses must be regarded as just one aspect of a more complex system of C(4) evolution in plants in general.

  16. The Cytoskeleton Maintains Organelle Partitioning Required for Single-Cell C4 Photosynthesis in Chenopodiaceae Species[W

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Simon D.X.; Franceschi, Vincent R.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, three Chenopodiaceae species, Bienertia cycloptera, Bienertia sinuspersici, and Suaeda aralocaspica, were shown to possess novel C4 photosynthesis mechanisms through the compartmentalization of organelles and photosynthetic enzymes into two distinct regions within a single chlorenchyma cell. Bienertia has peripheral and central compartments, whereas S. aralocaspica has distal and proximal compartments. This compartmentalization achieves the equivalent of spatial separation of Kranz anatomy, including dimorphic chloroplasts, but within a single cell. To characterize the mechanisms of organelle compartmentalization, the distribution of the major organelles relative to the cytoskeleton was examined. Examination of the distribution of the cytoskeleton using immunofluorescence studies and transient expression of green fluorescent protein–tagged cytoskeleton markers revealed a highly organized network of actin filaments and microtubules associating with the chloroplasts and showed that the two compartments in each cell had different cytoskeletal arrangements. Experiments using cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs showed in Bienertia and S. aralocaspica that microtubules are critical for the polarized positioning of chloroplasts and other organelles. Compartmentalization of the organelles in these species represents a unique system in higher plants and illustrates the degree of control the plant cell has over the organization and integration of multiorganellar processes within its cytoplasm. PMID:16905659

  17. C3 cotyledons are followed by C4 leaves: intra-individual transcriptome analysis of Salsola soda (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Maximilian; Billakurthi, Kumari; Kadereit, Gudrun; Ludwig, Martha; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Some species of Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) convert from C3 photosynthesis during the seedling stage to the C4 pathway in adult leaves. This unique developmental transition of photosynthetic pathways offers the exceptional opportunity to follow the development of the derived C4 syndrome from the C3 condition within individual plants, avoiding phylogenetic noise. Here we investigate Salsola soda, a little-studied species from tribe Salsoleae, using an ontogenetic approach. Anatomical sections, carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values, transcriptome analysis by means of mRNA sequencing, and protein levels of the key C4 enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) were examined from seed to adult plant stages. Despite a previous report, our results based on δ(13)C values, anatomy and transcriptomics clearly indicate a C3 phase during the cotyledon stage. During this stage, the entire transcriptional repertoire of the C4 NADP-malic enzyme type is detected at low levels compared to a significant increase in true leaves. In contrast, abundance of transcripts encoding most of the major photorespiratory enzymes is not significantly decreased in leaves compared to cotyledons. PEPC polypeptide was detected only in leaves, correlating with increased PEPC transcript abundance from the cotyledon to leaf stage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Habitat fragmentation and recent bottlenecks influence genetic diversity and differentiation of the Central European halophyte Suaeda maritima (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Prinz, Kathleen; Weising, Kurt; Hensen, Isabell

    2013-11-01

    Central European salt habitats are mainly restricted to the maritime coast but scattered occurrences can also be found inland. In inland habitats, human activities have caused losses and reductions in the size of natural salt sites but have also created new anthropogenic habitats around potash mining dumps colonized by halophytic species in the last 30 yr. We aimed to investigate the effects of bottlenecks, isolation, and ongoing habitat fragmentation on the genetic variation of a species commonly growing in these special habitats. We used 10 microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity and differentiation of 31 populations of Suaeda maritima (Chenopodiaceae) from Central European coasts and inland habitats. Two approaches were applied to analyze the tetraploid data based on allele frequencies directly derived from microsatellite data and from transformed binary data. In comparison to the coastal populations from the North Sea and the English Channel, significantly reduced genetic variation and increased between-population differentiation was revealed for populations from the German inland and the Baltic Sea coast. Genetic structure analyses clearly separated coastal and inland populations. Our results indicate that gene flow is restricted among populations from inland salt sites and the Baltic Sea coast, presumably due to their isolation, small sizes, genetic bottlenecks and/or founder events. Patterns of allele distribution indicate some occasional genetic exchange among habitat types in the past. Anthropogenic salt sites may facilitate gene flow among inland salt habitats preventing endangered inland halophyte populations from genetic erosion.

  19. Structural and physiological analyses in Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) indicate multiple transitions among C3, intermediate, and C4 photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Akhani, Hossein; Roalson, Eric H; Edwards, Gerald E

    2013-09-01

    In subfamily Salsoloideae (family Chenopodiaceae) most species are C4 plants having terete leaves with Salsoloid Kranz anatomy characterized by a continuous dual chlorenchyma layer of Kranz cells (KCs) and mesophyll (M) cells, surrounding water storage and vascular tissue. From section Coccosalsola sensu Botschantzev, leaf structural and photosynthetic features were analysed on selected species of Salsola which are not performing C4 based on leaf carbon isotope composition. The results infer the following progression in distinct functional and structural forms from C3 to intermediate to C4 photosynthesis with increased leaf succulence without changes in vein density: From species performing C3 photosynthesis with Sympegmoid anatomy with two equivalent layers of elongated M cells, with few organelles in a discontinuous layer of bundle sheath (BS) cells (S. genistoides, S. masenderanica, S. webbii) > development of proto-Kranz BS cells having mitochondria in a centripetal position and increased chloroplast number (S. montana) > functional C3-C4 intermediates having intermediate CO2 compensation points with refixation of photorespired CO2, development of Kranz-like anatomy with reduction in the outer M cell layer to hypodermal-like cells, and increased specialization (but not size) of a Kranz-like inner layer of cells with increased cell wall thickness, organelle number, and selective expression of mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase (Kranz-like Sympegmoid, S. arbusculiformis; and Kranz-like Salsoloid, S. divaricata) > selective expression of enzymes between the two cell types for performing C4 with Salsoloid-type anatomy. Phylogenetic analysis of tribe Salsoleae shows the occurrence of C3 and intermediates in several clades, and lineages of interest for studying different forms of anatomy.

  20. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, Schistosomicidal, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Soares, Marina H; Dias, Herbert J; Vieira, Tatiana M; de Souza, Maria G M; Cruz, Ana F F; Badoco, Fernanda R; Nicolella, Heloiza D; Cunha, Wilson R; Groppo, Milton; Martins, Carlos H G; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Chenopodiaceae) (DA-EO) against a representative panel of cariogenic bacteria. We have also assessed the in vitro schistosomicidal effects of DA-EO on Schistosoma mansoni and its cytotoxicity to GM07492-A cells in vitro. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that the monoterpenes cis-piperitone oxide (35.2%), p-cymene (14.5%), isoascaridole (14.1%), and α-terpinene (11.6%) were identified by as the major constituents of DA-EO. DA-EO displayed weak activity against Streptococcus sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 1000 μg/ml). On the other hand, DA-EO at 25 and 12.5 μg/ml presented remarkable schistosomicidal action in vitro and killed 100% of adult worm pairs within 24 and 72 h, respectively. The LC50 values of DA-EO were 6.50 ± 0.38, 3.66 ± 1.06, and 3.65 ± 0.76 μg/ml at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. However, DA-EO at concentrations higher than 312.5 μg/ml significantly reduced the viability of GM07492-A cells (IC50  = 207.1 ± 4.4 μg/ml). The selectivity index showed that DA-EO was 31.8 times more toxic to the adult S. mansoni worms than GM07492-A cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate the promising schistosomicidal potential of the essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Structural and physiological analyses in Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) indicate multiple transitions among C3, intermediate, and C4 photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V.; Koteyeva, Nuria K.; Akhani, Hossein; Roalson, Eric H.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    2013-01-01

    In subfamily Salsoloideae (family Chenopodiaceae) most species are C4 plants having terete leaves with Salsoloid Kranz anatomy characterized by a continuous dual chlorenchyma layer of Kranz cells (KCs) and mesophyll (M) cells, surrounding water storage and vascular tissue. From section Coccosalsola sensu Botschantzev, leaf structural and photosynthetic features were analysed on selected species of Salsola which are not performing C4 based on leaf carbon isotope composition. The results infer the following progression in distinct functional and structural forms from C3 to intermediate to C4 photosynthesis with increased leaf succulence without changes in vein density: From species performing C3 photosynthesis with Sympegmoid anatomy with two equivalent layers of elongated M cells, with few organelles in a discontinuous layer of bundle sheath (BS) cells (S. genistoides, S. masenderanica, S. webbii) > development of proto-Kranz BS cells having mitochondria in a centripetal position and increased chloroplast number (S. montana) > functional C3–C4 intermediates having intermediate CO2 compensation points with refixation of photorespired CO2, development of Kranz-like anatomy with reduction in the outer M cell layer to hypodermal-like cells, and increased specialization (but not size) of a Kranz-like inner layer of cells with increased cell wall thickness, organelle number, and selective expression of mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase (Kranz-like Sympegmoid, S. arbusculiformis; and Kranz-like Salsoloid, S. divaricata) > selective expression of enzymes between the two cell types for performing C4 with Salsoloid-type anatomy. Phylogenetic analysis of tribe Salsoleae shows the occurrence of C3 and intermediates in several clades, and lineages of interest for studying different forms of anatomy. PMID:23881394

  2. The effects of salinity on photosynthesis and growth of the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Leisner, Courtney P; Cousins, Asaph B; Offermann, Sascha; Okita, Thomas W; Edwards, Gerald E

    2010-12-01

    Recent research on the photosynthetic mechanisms of plant species in the Chenopodiaceae family revealed that three species, including Bienertia sinuspersici, can carry out C(4) photosynthesis within individual photosynthetic cells, through the development of two cytoplasmic domains having dimorphic chloroplasts. These unusual single-cell C(4) species grow in semi-arid saline conditions and have semi-terete succulent leaves. The effects of salinity on growth and photosynthesis of B. sinuspersici were studied. The results show that NaCl is not required for development of the single-cell C(4) system. There is a large enhancement of growth in culture with 50-200 mM NaCl, while there is severe inhibition at 400 mM NaCl. With increasing salinity, the carbon isotope values (δ(13)C) of leaves increased from -17.3(o)/(oo) (C(4)-like) without NaCl to -14.6(o)/(oo) (C(4)) with 200 mM NaCl, possibly due to increased capture of CO(2) from the C(4) cycle by Rubisco and reduced leakiness. Compared to growth without NaCl, leaves of plants grown under saline conditions were much larger (~2 fold) and more succulent, and the leaf solute levels increased up to ~2000 mmol kg solvent(-1). Photosynthesis on an incident leaf area basis (CO(2) saturated rates, and carboxylation efficiency under limiting CO(2)) and stomatal conductance declined with increasing salinity. On a leaf area basis, there was some decline in Rubisco content with increasing salinity up to 200 mM NaCl, but there was a marked increase in the levels of pyruvate, Pi dikinase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (possibly in response to sensitivity of these enzymes and C(4) cycle function to increasing salinity). The decline in photosynthesis on a leaf area basis was compensated for on a per leaf basis, up to 200 mM NaCl, by the increase in leaf size. The influence of salinity on plant development and the C(4) system in Bienertia is discussed.

  3. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Holoparasite Cistanche deserticola (Orobanchaceae) Reveals Gene Loss and Horizontal Gene Transfer from Its Host Haloxylon ammodendron (Chenopodiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qin; Ren, Zhumei; Zhao, Jiayuan; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami; Crabbe, M. James C; Li, Jianqiang; Zhong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background The central function of chloroplasts is to carry out photosynthesis, and its gene content and structure are highly conserved across land plants. Parasitic plants, which have reduced photosynthetic ability, suffer gene losses from the chloroplast (cp) genome accompanied by the relaxation of selective constraints. Compared with the rapid rise in the number of cp genome sequences of photosynthetic organisms, there are limited data sets from parasitic plants. Principal Findings/Significance Here we report the complete sequence of the cp genome of Cistanche deserticola, a holoparasitic desert species belonging to the family Orobanchaceae. The cp genome of C. deserticola is greatly reduced both in size (102,657 bp) and in gene content, indicating that all genes required for photosynthesis suffer from gene loss and pseudogenization, except for psbM. The striking difference from other holoparasitic plants is that it retains almost a full set of tRNA genes, and it has lower dN/dS for most genes than another close holoparasitic plant, E. virginiana, suggesting that Cistanche deserticola has undergone fewer losses, either due to a reduced level of holoparasitism, or to a recent switch to this life history. We also found that the rpoC2 gene was present in two copies within C. deserticola. Its own copy has much shortened and turned out to be a pseudogene. Another copy, which was not located in its cp genome, was a homolog of the host plant, Haloxylon ammodendron (Chenopodiaceae), suggesting that it was acquired from its host via a horizontal gene transfer. PMID:23554920

  4. Species having C4 single-cell-type photosynthesis in the Chenopodiaceae family evolved a photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase like that of Kranz-type C4 species.

    PubMed

    Lara, María Valeria; Chuong, Simon D X; Akhani, Hossein; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Edwards, Gerald E

    2006-10-01

    Spatial and temporal regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is critical to the function of C(4) photosynthesis. The photosynthetic isoform of PEPC in the cytosol of mesophyll cells in Kranz-type C(4) photosynthesis has distinctive kinetic and regulatory properties. Some species in the Chenopodiaceae family perform C(4) photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy by spatial separation of initial fixation of atmospheric CO(2) via PEPC from C(4) acid decarboxylation and CO(2) donation to Rubisco within individual chlorenchyma cells. We studied molecular and functional features of PEPC in two single-cell functioning C(4) species (Bienertia sinuspersici, Suaeda aralocaspica) as compared to Kranz type (Haloxylon persicum, Salsola richteri, Suaeda eltonica) and C(3) (Suaeda linifolia) chenopods. It was found that PEPC from both types of C(4) chenopods displays higher specific activity than that of the C(3) species and shows kinetic and regulatory characteristics similar to those of C(4) species in other families in that they are subject to light/dark regulation by phosphorylation and display differential malate sensitivity. Also, the deduced amino acid sequence from leaf cDNA indicates that the single-cell functioning C(4) species possesses a Kranz-type C(4) isoform with a Ser in the amino terminal. A phylogeny of PEPC shows that isoforms in the two single-cell functioning C(4) species are in a clade with the C(3) and Kranz C(4) Suaeda spp. with high sequence homology. Overall, this study indicates that B. sinuspersici and S. aralocaspica have a C(4)-type PEPC similar to that in Kranz C(4) plants, which likely is required for effective function of C(4) photosynthesis.

  5. Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of C4 photosynthesis in species having two vastly different types of kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Voznesenskaya, E V; Chuong, S D X; Koteyeva, N K; Franceschi, V R; Freitag, H; Edwards, G E

    2007-11-01

    C (4) species of family Chenopodiaceae, subfamily Suaedoideae have two types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda, sections Salsina and Schoberia, both of which have an outer (palisade mesophyll) and an inner (Kranz) layer of chlorenchyma cells in usually semi-terete leaves. Features of Salsina (S. AEGYPTIACA, S. arcuata, S. taxifolia) and Schoberia type (S. acuminata, S. Eltonica, S. cochlearifoliA) were compared to C (3) type S. Heterophylla. In Salsina type, two layers of chlorenchyma at the leaf periphery surround water-storage tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded. In leaves of the Schoberia type, enlarged water-storage hypodermal cells surround two layers of chlorenchyma tissue, with the latter surrounding the vascular bundles. The chloroplasts in Kranz cells are located in the centripetal position in Salsina type and in the centrifugal position in the Schoberia type. Western blots on C (4) acid decarboxylases show that both Kranz forms are NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) type C (4) species. Transmission electron microscopy shows that mesophyll cells have chloroplasts with reduced grana, while Kranz cells have chloroplasts with well-developed grana and large, specialized mitochondria, characteristic of NAD-ME type C (4) chenopods. In both C (4) types, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is localized in the palisade mesophyll, and Rubisco and mitochondrial NAD-ME are localized in Kranz cells, where starch is mainly stored. The C (3) species S. heterophylla has Brezia type isolateral leaf structure, with several layers of Rubisco-containing chlorenchyma. Photosynthetic response curves to varying CO (2) and light in the Schoberia Type and Salsina type species were similar, and typical of C (4) plants. The results indicate that two structural forms of Kranz anatomy evolved in parallel in species of subfamily Suaedoideae having NAD-ME type C (4) photosynthesis.

  6. Development of structural and biochemical characteristics of C(4) photosynthesis in two types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (family Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Berry, James O; Chuong, Simon D X; Franceschi, Vincent R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2011-05-01

    Genus Suaeda (family Chenopodiaceae, subfamily Suaedoideae) has two structural types of Kranz anatomy consisting of a single compound Kranz unit enclosing vascular tissue. One, represented by Suaeda taxifolia, has mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells distributed around the leaf periphery. The second, represented by Suaeda eltonica, has M and BS surrounding vascular bundles in the central plane. In both, structural and biochemical development of C(4) occurs basipetally, as observed by analysis of the maturation gradient on longitudinal leaf sections. This progression in development was also observed in mid-sections of young, intermediate, and mature leaves in both species, with three clear stages: (i) monomorphic chloroplasts in the two cell types in younger tissue with immunolocalization and in situ hybridization showing ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) preferentially localized in BS chloroplasts, and increasing in parallel with the establishment of Kranz anatomy; (ii) vacuolization and selective organelle positioning in BS cells, with occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and immunolocalization showing that it is preferentially in M cells; (iii) establishment of chloroplast dimorphism and mitochondrial differentiation in mature tissue and full expression of C(4) biochemistry including pyruvate, Pi dikinase (PPDK) and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME). Accumulation of rbcL mRNA preceded its peptide expression, occurring prior to organelle positioning and differentiation. During development there was sequential expression and increase in levels of Rubisco and PEPC followed by NAD-ME and PPDK, and an increase in the (13)C/(12)C isotope composition of leaves to values characteristic of C(4) photosynthesis. The findings indicate that these two forms of NAD-ME type C(4) photosynthesis evolved in parallel within the subfamily with similar ontogenetic programmes.

  7. Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of photosynthesis in two C4 subspecies of Tecticornia indica and the C3 species Tecticornia pergranulata (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Akhani, Hossein; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Chuong, Simon D X; Roalson, Eric H; Kiirats, Olavi; Franceschi, Vincent R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2008-01-01

    Among dicotyledon families, Chenopodiaceae has the most C(4) species and the greatest diversity in structural forms of C(4). In subfamily Salicornioideae, C(4) photosynthesis has, so far, only been found in the genus Halosarcia which is now included in the broadly circumscribed Tecticornia. Comparative anatomical, cytochemical, and physiological studies on these taxa, which have near-aphyllous photosynthetic shoots, show that T. pergranulata is C(3), and that two subspecies of T. indica (bidens and indica) are C(4) (Kranz-tecticornoid type). In T. pergranulata, the stems have two layers of chlorenchyma cells surrounding the centrally located water storage tissue. The two subspecies of T. indica have Kranz anatomy in reduced leaves and in the fleshy stem cortex. They are NAD-malic enzyme-type C(4) species, with mesophyll chloroplasts having reduced grana, characteristic of this subtype. The Kranz-tecticornoid-type anatomy is unique among C(4) types in the family in having groups of chlorenchymatous cells separated by a network of large colourless cells (which may provide mechanical support or optimize the distribution of radiation in the tissue), and in having peripheral vascular bundles with the phloem side facing the bundle sheath cells. Also, the bundle sheath cells have chloroplasts in a centrifugal position, which is atypical for C(4) dicots. Fluorescence analyses in fresh sections indicate that all non-lignified cell walls have ferulic acid, a cell wall cross-linker. Structural-functional relationships of C(4) photosynthesis in T. indica are discussed. Recent molecular studies show that the C(4) taxa in Tecticornia form a monophyletic group, with incorporation of the Australian endemic genera of Salicornioideae, including Halosarcia, Pachycornia, Sclerostegia, and Tegicornia, into Tecticornia.

  8. Light-dependent development of single cell C4 photosynthesis in cotyledons of Borszczowia aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae) during transformation from a storage to a photosynthetic organ.

    PubMed

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Franceschi, Vincent R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2004-02-01

    Previous work has shown that Borszczowia aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae) accomplishes C4 photosynthesis in a unique, polarized single-cell system in leaves. Mature cotyledons have the same structure as leaves, with chlorenchyma cells having biochemical polarization of dimorphic chloroplasts and C4 functions at opposite ends of the cell. Development of the single-celled C4 syndrome in cotyledons was characterized. In mature seeds, all cell layers are already present in the cotyledons, which contain mostly lipids and little starch. The incipient chlorenchyma cells have a few plastids towards the centre of the cell. Eight days after germination and growth in the dark, small plastids are evenly distributed around the periphery of the expanding cells. Immunolocalization studies show slight labelling of Rubisco in plastids in seeds, including chlorenchyma, hypodermal and water storage, but not epidermal, cells. After imbibition and 8 d of growth in the dark labelling for Rubisco progressively increased, being most prominent in chlorenchyma cells. There was no immunolabelling for the plastid C4 enzyme pyruvate, Pi dikinase under these conditions. Cotyledons developing in light show formation of chlorenchyma tissue, induction of the cytosolic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and development of dimorphic chloroplasts at opposite ends of the cells. Proximal chloroplasts have well-developed grana, store starch and contain Rubisco; those located distally have reduced grana, lack starch and contain pyruvate, Pi dikinase. The results show cotyledons developing in the dark have a single structural plastid type which expresses Rubisco, while light induces formation of dimorphic chloroplasts from the single plastid pool, synthesis of C4 enzymes, and biochemical and structural polarization leading to the single-cell C4 syndrome.

  9. Does Bienertia cycloptera with the single-cell system of C(4) photosynthesis exhibit a seasonal pattern of delta (13)C values in nature similar to co-existing C (4) Chenopodiaceae having the dual-cell (Kranz) system?

    PubMed

    Akhani, Hossein; Lara, María Valeria; Ghasemkhani, Maryam; Ziegler, Hubert; Edwards, Gerald E

    2009-01-01

    Family Chenopodiaceae is an intriguing lineage, having the largest number of C(4) species among dicots, including a number of anatomical variants of Kranz anatomy and three single-cell C(4) functioning species. In some previous studies, during the culture of Bienertia cycloptera Bunge ex Boiss., carbon isotope values (delta(13)C values) of leaves deviated from C(4) to C(3)-C(4) intermediate type, raising questions as to its mode of photosynthesis during growth in natural environments. This species usually co-occurs with several Kranz type C(4) annuals. The development of B. cycloptera morphologically and delta(13)C values derived from plant samples (cotyledons, leaves, bracts, shoots) were analyzed over a complete growing season in a salt flat in north central Iran, along with eight Kranz type C(4) species and one C(3) species. For a number of species, plants were greenhouse-grown from seeds collected from the site, in order to examine leaf anatomy and C(4) biochemical subtype. Among the nine C(4) species, the cotyledons of B. cycloptera, and of the Suaeda spp. have the same respective forms of C(4) anatomy occurring in leaves, while cotyledons of members of tribe Caroxyloneae lack Kranz anatomy, which is reflected in the delta(13)C values found in plants grown in the natural habitat. The nine C(4) species had average seasonal delta(13)C values of -13.9 per thousand (with a range between species from -11.3 to -15.9 per thousand). The measurements of delta(13)C values over a complete growing season show that B. cycloptera performs C(4) photosynthesis during its life cycle in nature, similar to Kranz type species, with a seasonal average delta(13)C value of -15.2 per thousand.

  10. [Polygamy in Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Talamali, A; Dutuit, P; Le Thomas, A; Gorenflot, R

    2001-02-01

    It appears that up to now the inflorescence and flower morphologies of Atriplex halimus have been described incompletely. This species has been classified as monoecious or dioecious. Numerous observations and ontogenic studies have pointed to types of flowers morphologically and functionally hermaphroditic, never described until now. One specimen of this species presents both unisexual, male and female flowers and bisexual flowers, so Atriplex halimus is polygam and more precisely trimonoecious. Observation of inflorescences reveals a structure based on the spike and the dichasium. The sex distribution along the inflorescence axis was studied and the existence of a physiological gradient controlling its expression is discussed.

  11. The ploidy races of Atriplex confertifolia (chenopodiaceae)

    Treesearch

    Stewart C. Sanderson

    2011-01-01

    Previous accounts of polyploidy in the North American salt desert shrub Atriplex confertifolia (shadscale) have dealt with the distribution of polyploidy and the morphological and secondary chemical differences between races. The present study amplifies these studies and reveals additional ploidy-flavonoid races, with ploidy levels known to extend from 2x to 12x, and...

  12. Molecular phylogeny and forms of photosynthesis in tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Schüssler, Christina; Freitag, Helmut; Koteyeva, Nuria; Schmidt, Denise; Edwards, Gerald; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Kadereit, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    While many C4 lineages have Kranz anatomy around individual veins, Salsoleae have evolved the Salsoloid Kranz anatomy where a continuous dual layer of chlorenchyma cells encloses the vascular and water-storage tissue. With the aim of elucidating the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in Salsoleae, a broadly sampled molecular phylogeny and anatomical survey was conducted, together with biochemical, microscopic, and physiological analyses of selected photosynthetic types. From analyses of photosynthetic phenotypes, a model for evolution of this form of C4 was compared with models for evolution of Kranz anatomy around individual veins. A functionally C3 proto-Kranz phenotype (Proto-Kranz Sympegmoid) and intermediates with a photorespiratory pump (Kranz-like Sympegmoid and Kranz-like Salsoloid types) are considered crucial transitional steps towards C4 development. The molecular phylogeny provides evidence for C3 being the ancestral photosynthetic pathway but there is no phylogenetic evidence for the ancestry of C3-C4 intermediacy with respect to C4 in Salsoleae. Traits considered advantageous in arid conditions, such as annual life form, central sclerenchyma in leaves, and reduction of surface area, evolved repeatedly in Salsoleae. The recurrent evolution of a green stem cortex taking over photosynthesis in C4 clades of Salsoleae concurrent with leaf reduction was probably favoured by the higher productivity of the C4 cycle. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Microbial diversity of rizosphere in two saline chenopodiaceaes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Saline environments can be found on all continents and in most countries. They consist in two primary types: those that arose from seawater and those which come from nonseawater sources. The latter contain different ion ratios where the dominant anion is typically carbonate. Plants native to sali...

  14. Chromosome races of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Chenopodiaceae

    Treesearch

    Stewart C. Sanderson; Howard C. Stutz

    2001-01-01

    Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) Nutt. is the most widespread species of perennial Atriplex in North America, distributed from southern San Luis Potosi, Mexico, to southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada, and from the Pacific Coast of California and Baja California to Texas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Kansas, and the Dakotas. Throughout its distributional range, A. canescens...

  15. Allopolyploid Origin of Chenopodium album s. str. (Chenopodiaceae): A Molecular and Cytogenetic Insight

    PubMed Central

    Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Belyayev, Alexander; Douda, Jan; Hreusová, Lucia; Mandák, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Reticulate evolution is characterized by occasional hybridization between two species, creating a network of closely related taxa below and at the species level. In the present research, we aimed to verify the hypothesis of the allopolyploid origin of hexaploid C. album s. str., identify its putative parents and estimate the frequency of allopolyploidization events. We sampled 122 individuals of the C. album aggregate, covering most of its distribution range in Eurasia. Our samples included putative progenitors of C. album s. str. of both ploidy levels, i.e. diploids (C. ficifolium, C. suecicum) and tetraploids (C. striatiforme, C. strictum). To fulfil these objectives, we analysed sequence variation in the nrDNA ITS region and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer of cpDNA and performed genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH). Our study confirms the allohexaploid origin of C. album s. str. Analysis of cpDNA revealed tetraploids as the maternal species. In most accessions of hexaploid C. album s. str., ITS sequences were completely or nearly completely homogenized towards the tetraploid maternal ribotype; a tetraploid species therefore served as one genome donor. GISH revealed a strong hybridization signal on the same eighteen chromosomes of C. album s. str. with both diploid species C. ficifolium and C. suecicum. The second genome donor was therefore a diploid species. Moreover, some individuals with completely unhomogenized ITS sequences were found. Thus, hexaploid individuals of C. album s. str. with ITS sequences homogenized to different degrees may represent hybrids of different ages. This proves the existence of at least two different allopolyploid lineages, indicating a polyphyletic origin of C. album s. str. PMID:27513342

  16. 7 CFR 201.56-1 - Goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, and Carpetweed family, Aizoaceae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... multigerm beet since the growing seedlings will separate from the cluster making it difficult to identify the source. Any cluster which produces at least one normal seedling is classified as normal; only one normal seedling per cluster is to be counted (see § 201.56(d)). Toxic substances from the clusters...

  17. 7 CFR 201.56-1 - Goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, and Carpetweed family, Aizoaceae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... multigerm beet since the growing seedlings will separate from the cluster making it difficult to identify the source. Any cluster which produces at least one normal seedling is classified as normal; only one normal seedling per cluster is to be counted (see § 201.56(d)). Toxic substances from the clusters...

  18. 7 CFR 201.56-1 - Goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, and Carpetweed family, Aizoaceae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; secondary roots may develop within the test period. (5) Seedling: Frequent counts should be made on multigerm beet since the growing seedlings will separate from the cluster making it difficult to identify the source. Any cluster which produces at least one normal seedling is classified as normal; only one...

  19. 7 CFR 201.56-1 - Goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, and Carpetweed family, Aizoaceae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; secondary roots may develop within the test period. (5) Seedling: Frequent counts should be made on multigerm beet since the growing seedlings will separate from the cluster making it difficult to identify the source. Any cluster which produces at least one normal seedling is classified as normal; only one...

  20. 7 CFR 201.56-1 - Goosefoot family, Chenopodiaceae, and Carpetweed family, Aizoaceae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; secondary roots may develop within the test period. (5) Seedling: Frequent counts should be made on multigerm beet since the growing seedlings will separate from the cluster making it difficult to identify the source. Any cluster which produces at least one normal seedling is classified as normal; only one...

  1. Hyperhydricity reversal and clonal propagation of four-wing saltbush (atriplex canescens, Chenopodiaceae) cultivated in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In vitro propagated shoots of four-wing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh Nutt)] showed severe symptoms of hyperhydricity. Hyperhydricity is a frequent physiological problem reported in micropropagation of A. canescens and other plant species, and drastically reduces the quality of in vitro cultur...

  2. [Anatomy of the vegetative organs of two species of Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) from Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, Damelis; Castro, Mercedes; Ruiz-Zapata, Thirza; Lapp, Marlene

    2014-12-01

    In Venezuela, Atriplex is represented by A. cristata and A. oestophora, the latter being endemic; they inhabit coastal areas with high temperatures, high solar radiation and sandy soils with high salt content. This work aimed to provide information to facilitate and clarify these species taxonomic delimitation, throughout the study of the anatomy of their vegetative organs; this may also clarify our understanding of their adaptability to soil and climatic conditions prevailing in areas they inhabit. The plant material was collected from at least three individuals of each species in Punta Taima Taima and Capatárida, Falcon. Segments of roots, located near the neck and towards the apex, apical, middle and basal internodes of stems, were taken; and of leaves, located in the middle portion of plants. This material was fixed in FAA (formaldehyde, acetic acid, 70% ethanol) until processing. Semipermanent and permanent microscope slides were prepared with transverse or longitudinal sections, made using a razor (free-hand) or a rotation microtome, in this latter case, after paraffin embedding; besides, additional plates were mounted with portions of leaf epidermis, obtained by the maceration technique. The sections were stained with aqueous toluidine blue (1%) or safranin-fast-green, and mounted in water-glycerin or in Canada balsam. In order to calculate the vulnerability index, the vessel diameter in the vascular rings of roots, as well as their density, were quantified. Our results revealed structural features in the different organs, that resulted of taxonomic value and allowed the distinction of the species: in the leaf, the presence of aquifer tissue, the number of vascular bundles and their organization in the midrib, and the collenchyma differentiation in this part of the leaf; in the roots, the xylem and phloem arrangement in the growth rings, the nature of conjunctive tissue, and the presence of included phloem in one species. In addition, the species showed typical anatomical features of halophytes and xerophytes, such as: high density of trichomes on leaves and young stems which act as salt secreting glands, abundant sclerenchyma in stems and roots, water storage tissue and Kranz anatomy in leaves, narrow cortical region in young roots, presence of cambial variants in stems and roots, as well as short and narrow xylem vessels. Vulnerability index calculations indicated that both species tend to assure conduction but not the efficiency of the system. Atriplex species have anatomical characters which facilitate their adaptation to the special conditions prevailing in their habitats and that may be used for taxonomic delimitation.

  3. Allopolyploid Origin of Chenopodium album s. str. (Chenopodiaceae): A Molecular and Cytogenetic Insight.

    PubMed

    Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Belyayev, Alexander; Douda, Jan; Hreusová, Lucia; Mandák, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Reticulate evolution is characterized by occasional hybridization between two species, creating a network of closely related taxa below and at the species level. In the present research, we aimed to verify the hypothesis of the allopolyploid origin of hexaploid C. album s. str., identify its putative parents and estimate the frequency of allopolyploidization events. We sampled 122 individuals of the C. album aggregate, covering most of its distribution range in Eurasia. Our samples included putative progenitors of C. album s. str. of both ploidy levels, i.e. diploids (C. ficifolium, C. suecicum) and tetraploids (C. striatiforme, C. strictum). To fulfil these objectives, we analysed sequence variation in the nrDNA ITS region and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer of cpDNA and performed genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH). Our study confirms the allohexaploid origin of C. album s. str. Analysis of cpDNA revealed tetraploids as the maternal species. In most accessions of hexaploid C. album s. str., ITS sequences were completely or nearly completely homogenized towards the tetraploid maternal ribotype; a tetraploid species therefore served as one genome donor. GISH revealed a strong hybridization signal on the same eighteen chromosomes of C. album s. str. with both diploid species C. ficifolium and C. suecicum. The second genome donor was therefore a diploid species. Moreover, some individuals with completely unhomogenized ITS sequences were found. Thus, hexaploid individuals of C. album s. str. with ITS sequences homogenized to different degrees may represent hybrids of different ages. This proves the existence of at least two different allopolyploid lineages, indicating a polyphyletic origin of C. album s. str.

  4. Seed germination biology of Intermountain populations of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens: Chenopodiaceae)

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer; Stephanie L. Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) is a widely distributed shrub of semiarid western North America. We studied viability and germinability of fourwing saltbush seeds over 10 years for collections from 23 Intermountain populations. Fruit fill averaged 53 percent, and 96 percent of filled fruits contained viable seeds even after 6 years of...

  5. Fruit and seed anatomy of Chenopodium and related genera (Chenopodioideae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae): implications for evolution and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukov, Alexander P; Zhang, Mingli

    2013-01-01

    A comparative carpological study of 96 species of all clades formerly considered as the tribe Chenopodieae has been conducted for the first time. The results show important differences in the anatomical structure of the pericarp and seed coat between representatives of terminal clades including Chenopodium s.str.+Chenopodiastrum and the recently recognized genera Blitum, Oxybasis and Dysphania. Within Chenopodium the most significant changes in fruit and seed structure are found in members of C. sect. Skottsbergia. The genera Rhagodia and Einadia differ insignificantly from Chenopodium. The evolution of heterospermy in Chenopodium is discussed. Almost all representatives of the tribe Dysphanieae are clearly separated from other Chenopodioideae on the basis of a diverse set of characteristics, including the small dimensions of the fruits (especially in Australian taxa), their subglobose shape (excl. Teloxys and Suckleya), and peculiarities of the pericarp indumentum. The set of fruit and seed characters evolved within the subfamily Chenopodioideae is described. A recent phylogenetic hypothesis is employed to examine the evolution of three (out of a total of 21) characters, namely seed color, testa-cell protoplast characteristics and embryo orientation.

  6. Positive selection of Kranz and non-Kranz C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase amino acids in Suaedoideae (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Rosnow, Josh J; Edwards, Gerald E; Roalson, Eric H

    2014-07-01

    In subfamily Suaedoideae, four independent gains of C4 photosynthesis are proposed, which includes two parallel origins of Kranz anatomy (sections Salsina and Schoberia) and two independent origins of single-cell C4 anatomy (Bienertia and Suaeda aralocaspica). Additional phylogenetic support for this hypothesis was generated from sequence data of the C-terminal portion of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene used in C4 photosynthesis (ppc-1) in combination with previous sequence data. ppc-1 sequence was generated for 20 species in Suaedoideae and two outgroup Salsola species that included all types of C4 anatomies as well as two types of C3 anatomies. A branch-site test for positively selected codons was performed using the software package PAML. From labelling of the four branches where C4 is hypothesized to have developed (foreground branches), residue 733 (maize numbering) was identified to be under positive selection with a posterior probability >0.99 and residue 868 at the >0.95 interval using Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB). When labelling all the branches within C4 clades, the branch-site test identified 13 codons to be under selection with a posterior probability >0.95 by BEB; this is discussed considering current information on functional residues. The signature C4 substitution of an alanine for a serine at position 780 in the C-terminal end (which is considered a major determinant of affinity for PEP) was only found in four of the C4 species sampled, while eight of the C4 species and all the C3 species have an alanine residue; indicating that this substitution is not a requirement for C4 function.

  7. In vitro cultures and regeneration of Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae) under increasing concentrations of sodium chloride and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Rosnow, Josh; Offermann, Sascha; Park, Joonho; Okita, Thomas W; Tarlyn, Nathan; Dhingra, Amit; Edwards, Gerald E

    2011-08-01

    To study the developmental transition of chloroplasts from C(3) to C(4) photosynthesis in the terrestrial single-cell C(4) species Bienertia sinuspersici, a regeneration protocol was developed. Stem explant material developed callus either with or without red nodular structures (RNS) when cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins, supplemented with 5 mM phosphate, plus 1 mg L(-1) dichloropenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 87 mM sucrose (Stage 1 media). Only calli having RNS were able to regenerate plantlets. MS media plus phosphate was used throughout regeneration, with the Stage 2 media containing 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine, 43 mM sucrose and 1.5% soluble starch. Stage 3 media had no hormones or organic sources of carbon, and cultures were grown under ambient (~400 ppm) versus CO(2) enrichment (1.2% CO(2)). When calli without RNS were cultured under Stage 3 conditions with 1.2% CO(2), there was an increase in growth, protein content, and photosystem II yield, while structural and biochemical analyses indicated the cells in the calli had C(3) type photosynthesis. CO(2) enrichment during growth of RNS during Stage 3 had a large effect on regeneration success, increasing efficiency of shoot and root development, size of plantlets, leaf soluble protein, and chlorophyll concentration. Anatomical analysis of plantlets, which developed under 1.2% CO(2), showed leaves developed C(4) type chlorenchyma cells, including expression of key C(4) biochemical enzymes. Increasing salinity in the media, from 0 to 200 mM NaCl, increased tissue osmolality, average plantlet area and regeneration success, but did not affect protein or chlorophyll content.

  8. Investigating the effect of heavy metals on developmental stages of anther and pollen in Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nafiseh; Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Malayeri, Behrouz; Lorestani, Bahareh; Cheraghi, Mehrdad

    2011-06-01

    Excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affect plant growth and development. Whereas some regions naturally contain high levels of heavy metals, anthropogenic release of heavy metals into the environment continuously increases soil contamination. Preliminary studies have shown that Chenopodium botrys can grow in some heavy metal contaminated soils and is a high accumulator plant species for Cu and moderately accumulator plant species for Fe, Mn, and Zn, thus, was considered as an important species in this study. Based on that, in this species, we studied the individual effects of heavy metals on the formation, development, and structure of anther and pollen. To achieve this purpose, surrounding area of Hame-Kasi iron and copper mine (Hamedan, Iran) was chosen as a polluted area where the amount of some heavy metals was several times higher than the natural soils. Flowers and young pods were removed from non-polluted and polluted plants, fixed in FAA 70, and subjected to developmental studies. Analysis of anther development in plants from contaminated sites showed general similarities in the pattern of pollen formation with those from non-polluted ones, but also deviation from typical form of major stages of anther and pollen development was seen in plants from polluted ones. Stabilizing of tapetum layer, increasing in tapetum layer numbers, thickening callose wall in the microspore mother cell stage, changing the anther shape, and decreasing the size of anther were the effects of heavy metals. Reduction of pollen number was also seen in the plants collected from polluted area.

  9. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Chikhi, Ilyas; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Medjdoub, Houria; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidiabetic effect of A. halimus leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The aqueous extract of the plant leaf was tested for its efficacy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extract was evaluated for its acute and short term general toxicity in male mice and for its antihyperglycemic activity using glucose tolerance test in rats. The aqueous extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and determination of total phenolic contents. Results The statistical data indicated the significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the blood glucose and hepatic levels. The total protein level was significantly increased when treated with the extract. Conclusions These results suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of A. halimus has beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level and hepatic levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Germination of dimorphic seeds of the desert annual halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae), a C4 plant without Kranz anatomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Dong, Ming

    2008-11-01

    Suaeda aralocaspica is a C4 summer annual halophyte without Kranz anatomy that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia. It produces two distinct types of seeds that differ in colour, shape and size. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the dormancy and germination characteristics of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica and to develop a conceptual model of their dynamics. Temperatures simulating those in the natural habitat of S. aralocaspica were used to test for primary dormancy and germination behaviour of fresh brown and black seeds. The effects of cold stratification, gibberellic acid, seed coat scarification, seed coat removal and dry storage on dormancy breaking were tested in black seeds. Germination percentage and recovery responses of brown seeds, non-treated black seeds and 8-week cold-stratified black seeds to salt stress were tested. Brown seeds were non-dormant, whereas black seeds had non-deep Type 2 physiological dormancy (PD). Germination percentage and rate of germination of brown seeds and of variously pretreated black seeds were significantly higher than those of non-pretreated black seeds. Exposure of seeds to various salinities had significant effects on germination, germination recovery and induction into secondary dormancy. A conceptual model is presented that ties these results together and puts them into an ecological context. The two seed morphs of S. aralocaspica exhibit distinct differences in dormancy and germination characteristics. Suaeda aralocaspica is the first cold desert halophyte for which non-deep Type 2 PD has been documented.

  11. Germination of Dimorphic Seeds of the Desert Annual Halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae), a C4 Plant without Kranz Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Dong, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Suaeda aralocaspica is a C4 summer annual halophyte without Kranz anatomy that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia. It produces two distinct types of seeds that differ in colour, shape and size. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the dormancy and germination characteristics of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica and to develop a conceptual model of their dynamics. Methods Temperatures simulating those in the natural habitat of S. aralocaspica were used to test for primary dormancy and germination behaviour of fresh brown and black seeds. The effects of cold stratification, gibberellic acid, seed coat scarification, seed coat removal and dry storage on dormancy breaking were tested in black seeds. Germination percentage and recovery responses of brown seeds, non-treated black seeds and 8-week cold-stratified black seeds to salt stress were tested. Key Results Brown seeds were non-dormant, whereas black seeds had non-deep Type 2 physiological dormancy (PD). Germination percentage and rate of germination of brown seeds and of variously pretreated black seeds were significantly higher than those of non-pretreated black seeds. Exposure of seeds to various salinities had significant effects on germination, germination recovery and induction into secondary dormancy. A conceptual model is presented that ties these results together and puts them into an ecological context. Conclusions The two seed morphs of S. aralocaspica exhibit distinct differences in dormancy and germination characteristics. Suaeda aralocaspica is the first cold desert halophyte for which non-deep Type 2 PD has been documented. PMID:18772148

  12. Fruit and Seed Anatomy of Chenopodium and Related Genera (Chenopodioideae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae): Implications for Evolution and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Sukhorukov, Alexander P.; Zhang, Mingli

    2013-01-01

    A comparative carpological study of 96 species of all clades formerly considered as the tribe Chenopodieae has been conducted for the first time. The results show important differences in the anatomical structure of the pericarp and seed coat between representatives of terminal clades including Chenopodium s.str.+Chenopodiastrum and the recently recognized genera Blitum, Oxybasis and Dysphania. Within Chenopodium the most significant changes in fruit and seed structure are found in members of C. sect. Skottsbergia. The genera Rhagodia and Einadia differ insignificantly from Chenopodium. The evolution of heterospermy in Chenopodium is discussed. Almost all representatives of the tribe Dysphanieae are clearly separated from other Chenopodioideae on the basis of a diverse set of characteristics, including the small dimensions of the fruits (especially in Australian taxa), their subglobose shape (excl. Teloxys and Suckleya), and peculiarities of the pericarp indumentum. The set of fruit and seed characters evolved within the subfamily Chenopodioideae is described. A recent phylogenetic hypothesis is employed to examine the evolution of three (out of a total of 21) characters, namely seed color, testa-cell protoplast characteristics and embryo orientation. PMID:23626750

  13. Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Three Main Active Ingredients of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides (Family: Chenopodiaceae) against Blattella germanica

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei Xiang; Zhao, Kun; Chu, Sha Sha; Liu, Zhi Long

    2012-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three main active ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults. Methods: Composition of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Topical application bioassay was used to evaluate contact toxicity of essential oil and three main components. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil and its main components was measured using a sealed space method. Results: Twenty-two components were identified in the essential oil and the main components were (Z)-ascaridole (29.7%), isoascaridole (13.0%), ρ-cymene (12.7%) and piperitone (5.0%). The essential oil and (Z)-ascaridole, isoascaridole and ρ-cymene possessed fumigant toxicity against male German cockroaches with LC50 values of 4.13, 0.55, 2.07 and 6.92 mg/L air, respectively. Topical application bioassay showed that all the three compounds were toxic to male German cockroaches and (Z)-ascaridole was the strongest with a LD50 value of 22.02 μg/adult while the crude oil with a LD50 value of 67.46 μg/adult. Conclusion: The essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides and its three main active ingredients may be explored as natural potential insecticides in the control of cockroaches. PMID:23378965

  14. Positive selection of Kranz and non-Kranz C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase amino acids in Suaedoideae (Chenopodiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rosnow, Josh J.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Roalson, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    In subfamily Suaedoideae, four independent gains of C4 photosynthesis are proposed, which includes two parallel origins of Kranz anatomy (sections Salsina and Schoberia) and two independent origins of single-cell C4 anatomy (Bienertia and Suaeda aralocaspica). Additional phylogenetic support for this hypothesis was generated from sequence data of the C-terminal portion of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene used in C4 photosynthesis (ppc-1) in combination with previous sequence data. ppc-1 sequence was generated for 20 species in Suaedoideae and two outgroup Salsola species that included all types of C4 anatomies as well as two types of C3 anatomies. A branch-site test for positively selected codons was performed using the software package PAML. From labelling of the four branches where C4 is hypothesized to have developed (foreground branches), residue 733 (maize numbering) was identified to be under positive selection with a posterior probability >0.99 and residue 868 at the >0.95 interval using Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB). When labelling all the branches within C4 clades, the branch-site test identified 13 codons to be under selection with a posterior probability >0.95 by BEB; this is discussed considering current information on functional residues. The signature C4 substitution of an alanine for a serine at position 780 in the C-terminal end (which is considered a major determinant of affinity for PEP) was only found in four of the C4 species sampled, while eight of the C4 species and all the C3 species have an alanine residue; indicating that this substitution is not a requirement for C4 function. PMID:24600021

  15. Effect of the heavy metals on the developmental stages of ovule and seed proteins in Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Yousefi, N; Chehregani, A; Malayeri, B; Lorestani, B; Cheraghi, M

    2011-12-01

    Excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affect plant growth and development. Also, the presence of elevated levels of heavy metal ions triggers a wide range of cellular responses including changes in gene expression and synthesis of metal-detoxifying peptides. The overall objective of this research was to elucidate some microscopic effects of heavy metals on the formation, development, and structure of ovule and seed storage proteins in Chenopodium botrys L. To achieve this purpose, the surrounding area of Hame-Kasi iron and copper mine (Hamedan, Iran) was chosen as a polluted area where the amount of some heavy metals was several times higher than the natural soils. Flowers and young pods were removed from nonpolluted and polluted plants, fixed in FAA 70 and subjected to developmental studies. Our results showed that heavy metals can cause some abnormalities during the ovule developmental process. Decreasing the size of embryo sac, quick growth of inner integument, quick degradation of embryonic sac cells, accumulation of dark particles, irregularity, and even blockage of the nuclear envelope formation and increasing of embryonic sac cytoplasm concentration were the effects of heavy metals. Reduction of ovule number was also seen in the plants collected from polluted area. For protein studies, mature seeds were harvested from nonpolluted and polluted plants at the same time. Seed storage proteins (water soluble ones) were extracted and studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after being prepared. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between seed protein bands of polluted and nonpolluted samples, but the quantity of protein bands was different, and there was a slight quantitative increase of bands with molecular mass of 35 and 15 kD and decrease of a band with molecular mass of 17 kD in the plants collected from the mine area.

  16. The unique structural and biochemical development of single cell C4 photosynthesis along longitudinal leaf gradients in Bienertia sinuspersici and Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Berry, James O; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E

    2016-04-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of photosynthetic enzyme expression and structural maturation of chlorenchyma cells along longitudinal developmental gradients were characterized in young leaves of two single cell C4 species, Bienertia sinuspersici and Suaeda aralocaspica Both species partition photosynthetic functions between distinct intracellular domains. In the C4-C domain, C4 acids are formed in the C4 cycle during capture of atmospheric CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In the C4-D domain, CO2 released in the C4 cycle via mitochondrial NAD-malic enzyme is refixed by Rubisco. Despite striking differences in origin and intracellular positioning of domains, these species show strong convergence in C4 developmental patterns. Both progress through a gradual developmental transition towards full C4 photosynthesis, with an associated increase in levels of photosynthetic enzymes. Analysis of longitudinal sections showed undeveloped domains at the leaf base, with Rubisco rbcL mRNA and protein contained within all chloroplasts. The two domains were first distinguishable in chlorenchyma cells at the leaf mid-regions, but still contained structurally similar chloroplasts with equivalent amounts of rbcL mRNA and protein; while mitochondria had become confined to just one domain (proto-C4-D). The C4 state was fully formed towards the leaf tips, Rubisco transcripts and protein were compartmentalized specifically to structurally distinct chloroplasts in the C4-D domains indicating selective regulation of Rubisco expression may occur by control of transcription or stability of rbcL mRNA. Determination of CO2 compensation points showed young leaves were not functionally C4, consistent with cytological observations of the developmental progression from C3 default to intermediate to C4 photosynthesis.

  17. When do different C4 leaf anatomies indicate independent C4 origins? Parallel evolution of C4 leaf types in Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kadereit, Gudrun; Lauterbach, Maximilian; Pirie, Michael D; Arafeh, Rami; Freitag, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Broad-scale phylogenetic studies give first insights in numbers, relationships, and ages of C4 lineages. They are, however, generally limited to a model that treats the evolution of the complex C4 syndrome in different lineages as a directly comparable process. Here, we use a resolved and well-sampled phylogenetic tree of Camphorosmeae, based on three chloroplast and one nuclear marker and on leaf anatomical traits to infer a more detailed picture of C4 leaf-type evolution in this lineage. Our ancestral character state reconstructions allowed two scenarios: (i) Sedobassia is a derived C3/C4 intermediate, implying two independent gains of C4 in Bassia and Camphorosma; or (ii) Sedobassia is a plesiomorphic C3/C4 intermediate, representing a syndrome ancestral to the Bassia/Camphorosma/Sedobassia lineage. In Bassia, a kochioid leaf type (Bassia muricata and/or Bassia prostrata type) is ancestral. At least three independent losses of water-storage tissue occurred, resulting in parallel shifts towards an atriplicoid leaf type. These changes in leaf anatomy are adaptations to different survival strategies in steppic or semi-desert habitats with seasonal rainfall. In contrast, Camphorosma shows a fixed C4 anatomy differing from Bassia types in its continuous Kranz layer, which indeed points to an independent origin of the full C4 syndrome in Camphorosma, either from an independent C3 or from a common C3/C4 intermediate ancestor, perhaps similar to its C3/C4 intermediate sister genus Sedobassia. The enlarged bundle sheath cells of Sedobassia might represent an important early step in C4 evolution in Camphorosmeae. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The need to re-investigate the nature of homoplastic characters: an ontogenetic case study of the ‘bracteoles’ in Atripliceae (Chenopodiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Olvera, Hilda; Vrijdaghs, Alexander; Ochoterena, Helga; Smets, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Within Chenopodioideae, Atripliceae have been distinguished by two bracteoles enveloping the female flowers/fruits, whereas in other tribes flowers are described as ebracteolate with persistent perianth. Molecular phylogenetic hypotheses suggest ‘bracteoles’ to be homoplastic. The origin of the bracteoles was explained by successive inflorescence reductions. Flower reduction was used to explain sex determination. Therefore, floral ontogeny was studied to evaluate the nature of the bracteoles and sex determination in Atripliceae. Methods Inflorescences of species of Atriplex, Chenopodium, Dysphania and Spinacia oleracea were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results The main axis of the inflorescence is indeterminate with elementary dichasia as lateral units. Flowers develop centripetally, with first the formation of a perianth primordium either from a ring primordium or from five individual tepal primordia fusing post-genitally. Subsequently, five stamen primordia originate, followed by the formation of an annular ovary primordium surrounding a central single ovule. Flowers are either initially hermaphroditic remaining bisexual and/or becoming functionally unisexual at later stages, or initially unisexual. In the studied species of Atriplex, female flowers are strictly female, except in A. hortensis. In Spinacia, female and male flowers are unisexual at all developmental stages. Female flowers of Atriplex and Spinacia are protected by two accrescent fused tepal lobes, whereas the other perianth members are absent. Conclusions In Atriplex and Spinacia modified structures around female flowers are not bracteoles, but two opposite accrescent tepal lobes, parts of a perianth persistent on the fruit. Flowers can achieve sexuality through many different combinations; they are initially hermaphroditic, subsequently developing into bisexual or functionally unisexual flowers, with the exception of Spinacia and strictly female flowers in Atriplex, which are unisexual from the earliest developmental stages. There may be a relationship between the formation of an annular perianth primordium and flexibility in floral sex determination. PMID:21852278

  19. Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages.

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, J-F; Viard, F; Delescluse, M; Cuguen, J

    2003-01-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated to wild plant populations have important evolutionary and ecological consequences and require detailed investigations for risk assessments of transgene escape into natural ecosystems. Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because: (i) they are cross-compatible with their wild relatives (the sea beet, B. vulgaris ssp. maritima); (ii) crop-to-wild gene flow is likely to occur via weedy lineages resulting from hybridization events and locally infesting fields. Using a chloroplastic marker and a set of nuclear microsatellite loci, the occurrence of crop-to-wild gene flow was investigated in the French sugar beet production area within a 'contact-zone' in between coastal wild populations and sugar beet fields. The results did not reveal large pollen dispersal from weed to wild beets. However, several pieces of evidence clearly show an escape of weedy lineages from fields via seed flow. Since most studies involving the assessment of transgene escape from crops to wild outcrossing relatives generally focused only on pollen dispersal, this last result was unexpected: it points out the key role of a long-lived seed bank and highlights support for transgene escape via man-mediated long-distance dispersal events. PMID:12908976

  20. The unique structural and biochemical development of single cell C4 photosynthesis along longitudinal leaf gradients in Bienertia sinuspersici and Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Koteyeva, Nuria K.; Voznesenskaya, Elena V.; Berry, James O.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of photosynthetic enzyme expression and structural maturation of chlorenchyma cells along longitudinal developmental gradients were characterized in young leaves of two single cell C4 species, Bienertia sinuspersici and Suaeda aralocaspica. Both species partition photosynthetic functions between distinct intracellular domains. In the C4-C domain, C4 acids are formed in the C4 cycle during capture of atmospheric CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In the C4-D domain, CO2 released in the C4 cycle via mitochondrial NAD-malic enzyme is refixed by Rubisco. Despite striking differences in origin and intracellular positioning of domains, these species show strong convergence in C4 developmental patterns. Both progress through a gradual developmental transition towards full C4 photosynthesis, with an associated increase in levels of photosynthetic enzymes. Analysis of longitudinal sections showed undeveloped domains at the leaf base, with Rubisco rbcL mRNA and protein contained within all chloroplasts. The two domains were first distinguishable in chlorenchyma cells at the leaf mid-regions, but still contained structurally similar chloroplasts with equivalent amounts of rbcL mRNA and protein; while mitochondria had become confined to just one domain (proto-C4-D). The C4 state was fully formed towards the leaf tips, Rubisco transcripts and protein were compartmentalized specifically to structurally distinct chloroplasts in the C4-D domains indicating selective regulation of Rubisco expression may occur by control of transcription or stability of rbcL mRNA. Determination of CO2 compensation points showed young leaves were not functionally C4, consistent with cytological observations of the developmental progression from C3 default to intermediate to C4 photosynthesis. PMID:26957565

  1. Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data from ITS, psbB-psbH, and rbcL, with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China

    Treesearch

    Zhi-Bin Wen; Ming-Li Zhang; Ge-Lin Zhu; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2010-01-01

    To reconstruct phylogeny and verify the monophyly of major subgroups, a total of 52 species representing almost all species of Salsoleae s.l. in China were sampled, with analysis based on three molecular markers (nrDNA ITS, cpDNA psbB-psbH and rbcL), using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our molecular evidence provides strong...

  2. Biological characterization and complete genomic sequence of Apium virus Y infecting celery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apium virus Y (ApVY) isolated from celery plants (Ce) with ring spot and line pattern symptoms from a commercial field in California was characterized in this study. The experimental host range of the virus included 13 plant species in the families Apiaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae, and almost...

  3. Improving the evaluation process of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a prospective biocontrol agent of Salsola tragus, using a molecular approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian thistle, Salsola tragus L. (sensu lato), (Chenopodiaceae) is a weed native to Central Asia that was accidentally introduced in the U.S. in the early 1870s with seeds imported from Russia. Due to the dramatic impacts of its invasiveness on ecology and human activities, the weed has been targe...

  4. Larval description of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The last-instar larva of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is described for the first time. Specimens in this study were reared from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Chenopodiaceae), Bolivia, La Paz, 4 km S Viacha, Quipaquipani, 3880 m. The larva of Copitarsia incommoda is compared with larvae of Copi...

  5. EFFECT OF MANURES ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND PHARMACOBIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME GREENS

    PubMed Central

    Banu, S. Naseer; Sivakumar, A.; Subramanian, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens. PMID:22557123

  6. The genus Aeolothrips in Iran (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) with one new species.

    PubMed

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Aeolothrips zurstrasseni sp. n. is described from Fars Province, and A. modestus zur Strassen is newly recorded from Iran, in Isfahan Province. Both species have been collected from the flowers of Suaeda sp. (Chenopodiaceae), and the presence of several species of thrips on plants of this family is discussed. Recent records of Aeolothrips balati and A. citricinctus from Iran are not accepted here.

  7. Chapter 23. Shrubs of other families

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Monsen; Richard Stevens; Nancy L. Shaw

    2004-01-01

    Numerous genera and species of shrubs occur throughout the Intermountain region in addition to those included in the Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Rosaceae families. Although shrubs are widespread throughout this region and dominate many areas, species richness is low compared to the shrub flora of the Pacific United States, Chile, western Australia, and South Africa...

  8. Chapter 20. Chenopod shrubs

    Treesearch

    E. Durant McArthur; Stephen B. Monsen

    2004-01-01

    Chenopod plants (Family Chenopodiaceae) are distributed worldwide but are especially prominent in some wet and dry saline or alkaline situations. Chenopods are both herbaceous and woody. The relative proportions of life-forms in the family is demonstrated by data from the important center of chenopod diversity in south-central Asia, where n = 341 species: 76 percent...

  9. The dwarf saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr.): Evaluation of breeding populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding populations of the dwarf saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr. [Chenopodiaceae]) have been evaluated under high seawater salinity (45 dS m-1) for phenotypic, morphometric, biomass and seed traits in an effort to select suitable families and genotypes within families for breeding purposes and...

  10. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-05-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species.

  11. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species. PMID:23599273

  12. National Guidebook for Application of Hydrogeomorphic Assessment to Tidal Fringe Wetlands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    grasses (Poaceae), rushes (Juncaceae), sedges ( Cyperaceae ), and chenopods (Chenopodiaceae) or a combination of these families. The plants typically...information about these systems compared with that for the grass- and sedge -dominated tidal marshes. This guidebook, therefore, is restricted to...vegetation type (Golet and Larson 1974; Shaw and Fredine 1956). Marshes, for example, are dominated by grasses and sedges ; swamps by trees. In the case

  13. Pinocembrine: a bioactive flavanone from Teloxys graveolens.

    PubMed

    Del Rayo Camacho, M; Sanchez, B; Quiroz, H; Contreras, J L; Mata, R

    1991-03-01

    Bioactivity directed fractionation of the acetone extract of Teloxys graveolens (Willd.) Weber (Chenopodiaceae), using the brine shrimp lethality test, led to the isolation of 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (pinocembrine) (LC50 = 4.25 micrograms/ml) as the only active compound. Pinocembrine also exhibited fasciolicide, ovicide and larvicide activities on newly excysted Fasciola hepatica, on infective eggs of Ascaridi galli and on stage three larvae of Stomoxys calcitrans, respectively.

  14. A Comparison of the Hatching of Juveniles from Cysts of Heterodera schachtii and H. trifolii

    PubMed Central

    Steele, A. E.; Toxopeus, H.; Heijbroek, W.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of root diffusates of selected plants within the families Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae and the hatching agent zinc chloride were tested for their effects on hatching and emergence of juveniles from cysts of Heterodera schachtii and a race of H. trifolii parasitic on Chenopodaceae and Cruciferae in The Netherlands. Although all diffusates strongly stimulated hatching of juveniles of H. schachtii, their effects on H. trifolii were less evident. PMID:19295758

  15. Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen.

  16. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  17. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  18. Relationships in the Caryophyllales as suggested by phylogenetic analyses of partial chloroplast DNA ORF2280 homolog sequences.

    PubMed

    Downie, S; Katz-Downie, D; Cho, K

    1997-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the angiosperm order Caryophyllales were investigated by comparative sequencing of two portions of the highly conserved inverted repeat (totaling some 1100 base pairs) coinciding with the region occupied by ORF2280 in Nicotiana, the largest gene in the plastid genomes of most land plants. Data were obtained for 33 species in 11 families within the order and for one species each of Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, and Nepenthaceae. These data, when analyzed along with previously published ORF (open reading frame) sequences from Nicotiana. Spinacia. Epifagus, and Pelargonium using parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods, reveal that: (1) Amaranthus, Celosia, and Froelichia (all Amaranthaceae) do not comprise a monophyletic group; (2) Amaranthus may be nested within a paraphyletic Chenopodiaceae; (3) Sarcobatus (Chenopodiaceae) is allied with Nyctaginaceae + Phytolaccaceae (the latter family excluding Stegnosperma but including Petiveria); and (4) Caryophyllaceae (with Corrigiola basal within the clade) are sister group to Chenopodiaceae + Amaranthaceae. Basal relations within the order remain obscure. Sequence divergence values in pairwise comparisons across all Caryophyllales taxa ranged from 0.1 to 5% of nucleotides. However, despite these low values, 23 insertion and deletion events were apparent, of which five were informative phylogenetically and bolstered several of the relationships listed above. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey for ORF homolog length variants in representatives from 70 additional angiosperm families revealed major deletions, of 100 to 1400 base pairs, in 19 of these families. Although the ORF is located within the mutationally retarded inverted repeat region of most angiosperm chloroplast DNAs, this gene appears particularly prone to length mutation.

  19. Cytotoxicity of selected medicinal and nonmedicinal plant extracts to microbial and cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Booth, Gary M; Malmstrom, Robert D; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants.

  20. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%.

  1. New septanoside and 20-hydroxyecdysone septanoside derivative from Atriplex portulacoides roots with preliminary biological activities.

    PubMed

    Ben Nejma, Aymen; Nguir, Asma; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Hamza, M'hamed Ali; Daïch, Adam; Othman, Mohamed; Lawson, Ata Martin

    2015-04-15

    The phytochemical investigation of a Tunisian plant Atriplex portulacoides (Chenopodiaceae) led to the isolation of two new compounds designated as portulasoid (2) and septanoecdysone (3) along with the known 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE) (1). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including ES-HRMS, 1D and 2D-NMR. The isolated compounds were finally tested for their antioxidant activity by using DPPH, ABTS(+), Fe(3+) and catalase assays and also for their antibacterial and anticholinesterase activities.

  2. Phenolic constituents of Celosia cristata L. susceptible to spinach root rot pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaolin; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Tahara, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    Cochliophilin A (5-hydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone, 1), known as a host-specific attractant towards the zoospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides, a cause of root rot and damping-off diseases of Chenopodiaceae, was found in the Amaranthaceae plant, Celosia cristata, that is susceptible to the pathogen. The content of 1 in Celosia seedlings was quantified as 1.4 microg/g fresh weight. A new isoflavone, cristatein (5-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,2'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 2), and five known flavonoids were also identified.

  3. Simultaneous allergy to vine pollen and grape.

    PubMed

    Mur, P; Feo Brito, F; Bartolomé, B; Galindo, P A; Gómez, E; Borja, J; Alonso, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female student suffering from seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis with sensitization to pollens from vine and also from grass, olive, and Chenopodiaceae plants who had recently developed episodes of itching, maculopapular rash, and facial angioedema after eating grapes. Testing revealed positive reactions to vine pollen and grapes, and specific IgE were found for both allergens. Immunoblotting and inhibition assays revealed cross-reactivity between the allergenic structures of vine pollen and grape fruit and also among botanically unrelated pollens.

  4. Holocene environmental changes in the Alashan Gobi, NW China: Evidence from a pollen record in comparison to modern pollen spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzschuh, U.; Tarasov, P.; Hartmann, K.; Wuennemann, B.

    2003-04-01

    Pollen data of an early to mid-Holocene sediment record from the centre of the present dry Eastern Juyan lake, Alashan Gobi, northwestern China and comparisons with modern pollen spectra provide information about vegetation and climatic changes in a desert dominated region. The arid Alashan Plateau receives less than 80 mm annual precipitation and is covered by a typical desert vegetation comprising Calligonum mongolicum, Nitraria sphaerocarpa, Zygophyllum xanthoxylon, Ephedra przewalskii, Reaumuria soogorica, Artemisia tschernerviana, Haloxylon ammodendron and some other Chenopodiaceae being the main plant taxa. An 8.25 m long sediment core taken from the northwestern part of Juyan lake covers the the early and the mid-Holocene (11.0 to 2.0 cal. ka BP). Altogether 64 samples with a total of ca. 400 grains per sample were analysed. The most abundant taxa and their probable origin are the following: Betula (far transport from the adjacent mountains), Ulmus (riparian vegetation), Artemisia, Poaceae, Ephedra distachya-type, Ephedra fragilis-type (steppe vegetation or indefinable), Chenopodiaceae, Nitraria, Calligonum, Reaumuria (desert vegetation). According to 5 AMS datings and pollen spectra the record can be subdivided into two parts: 11.0 to 5.5 cal. ka BP with higher abundances of Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra and 5.5 to 2.0 cal. ka BP with more Artemisia and less Ephedra. Due to the varying Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae ratio and the similarly changing abundance of some desert taxa (Nitraria, Calligonum, Reaumuria) a division in periods with steppe vegetation mainly indicate wetter conditions while the abundance of desert vegetation may reflect somewhat drier conditions. According to the age model wetter conditions prevailed between about 8.2 7.5, 6.6 - 6.2, 5.6 4.8, 4.3 4.0 and 3.2 2.8 cal. ka BP. Many pollen surface samples from the Alashan Gobi and the adjacent areas (the Qilian Mountains in the south and Mongolia in the north) supply this investigation with Recent

  5. An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E

    2015-06-01

    Three C4 acid decarboxylases, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) were recruited from C3 plants to support C4 photosynthesis. In Poaceae, there are established lineages having PEPCK type species, and some NADP-ME lineages in which PEPCK contributes to C4. Besides family Poaceae, recently PEPCK has been reported to function in C4 photosynthesis in eudicot species including Cleome gynandra (Cleomaceae), Trianthema portulacastrum and Zaleya pentandra (Aizoaceae). We evaluated PEPCK by enzyme assay and western blots in representatives of Poaceae, Aizoaceae, Cleomaceae, and Chenopodiaceae compared to that in the PEPCK type C4 grass Spartina anglica. Eragrostis nutans was identified as the first NAD-ME type C4 grass having substantial amounts of PEPCK. In the eudicots, including C. gynandra, Cleome angustifolia, T. portulacastrum, Z. pentandra, and nine C4 members of family Chenopodiaceae (which has the most C4 species and diversity in forms among eudicot families), amounts of PEPCK were generally very low (barely detectable up to 4% of that in S. anglica). Based on these results, C4 species can be classified biochemically according to the dominant decarboxylase recruited for C4 function; and, Poaceae remains the only family in which PEPCK is known to have a significant role in C4 photosynthesis.

  6. Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3) were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3)) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3)), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3)) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3)). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3) and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city.

  7. Comparison of Spinach Sex Chromosomes with Sugar Beet Autosomes Reveals Extensive Synteny and Low Recombination at the Male-Determining Locus.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Satoshi; Yago, Takumi; Iwabuchi, Keisuke; Hirakawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Onodera, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 2n = 12) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, 2n = 18) are important crop members of the family Chenopodiaceae ss Sugar beet has a basic chromosome number of 9 and a cosexual breeding system, as do most members of the Chenopodiaceae ss. family. By contrast, spinach has a basic chromosome number of 6 and, although certain cultivars and genotypes produce monoecious plants, is considered to be a dioecious species. The loci determining male and monoecious sexual expression were mapped to different loci on the spinach sex chromosomes. In this study, a linkage map with 46 mapped protein-coding sequences was constructed for the spinach sex chromosomes. Comparison of the linkage map with a reference genome sequence of sugar beet revealed that the spinach sex chromosomes exhibited extensive synteny with sugar beet chromosomes 4 and 9. Tightly linked protein-coding genes linked to the male-determining locus in spinach corresponded to genes located in or around the putative pericentromeric and centromeric regions of sugar beet chromosomes 4 and 9, supporting the observation that recombination rates were low in the vicinity of the male-determining locus. The locus for monoecism was confined to a chromosomal segment corresponding to a region of approximately 1.7Mb on sugar beet chromosome 9, which may facilitate future positional cloning of the locus. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Allergenic pollen in the atmosphere of Kayseri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ince, Ali; Kart, Levent; Demir, Ramazan; Ozyurt, M Sabri

    2004-01-01

    Airborne pollen are important allergens that cause sensitization in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Our aim was to detect the pollen in the atmosphere of Kayseri, to present a pollen calendar, and to detect the allergenic level of these pollen by performing skin tests on patients. Atmospheric pollen were collected by Durham gravimetric samplers in Kayseri between March and November in the years 1996 and 1997. In our study, we observed pollen belonging to 43 different taxa. The total number of pollen per cm2 was found to be 1,330.8 in 1996 and 1,182.5 in 1997. Most of the pollen were from the taxa Pinus, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae, Populus and Quercus in decreasing order. In the skin tests, pollen of the taxa Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were found to give the most frequent allergic reactions. It was concluded that preparing an airborne pollen calendar could be useful for medical practice. Nevertheless the skin test data did not really correlate with the aerobiologic data, as skin test reactivity is related to the allergenicity of the pollen and not just to ambient exposure.

  9. Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of eleven edible plants.

    PubMed

    Boğa, Mehmet; Hacıbekiroğlu, Işıl; Kolak, Ufuk

    2011-03-01

    Consumers have become more interested in beneficial effects of vegetables, fruits, and tea to protect their health. The antioxidant potential and anticholinesterase activity of eleven edible plants were investigated. The dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts prepared from celery [Apium graveolens L. (Umbelliferae)], Jerusalem artichoke [Helianthus tuberosus L. (Compositae)], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L. (Chenopodiaceae)], chard [Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae)], purslane [Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae)], ispit, or borage [Trachystemon orientale (L.) G. Don (Boraginaceae)], garden rocket [Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae)], red cabbage [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC. (Cruciferae)], lime flower [Tilia tomentosa Moench (Tiliaceae)], cinnamon [Cinnamomum cassia Presl. (Lauraceae)], and rosehip [Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae)], were tested to determine their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities by using CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) and Ellman methods, respectively, for the first time. As a result, the dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon showed the best antioxidant effect among the extracts of the tested plants. The ethanol extract of cinnamon exhibited 63.02% inhibition against acetylcholinesterase and 85.11% inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 200 µg/mL concentration while the dichloromethane extract of garden rocket possessed the highest inhibition (91.27%) against BChE among all the tested extracts. This study indicated that the ethanol extract of cinnamon may be a new potential resource of natural antioxidant and anticholinesterase compounds.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline soils: Vertical distribution at different soil depth

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Alejandra; Bartoloni, Norberto; Cofré, Noelia; Soteras, Florencia; Cabello, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize land plants in every ecosystem, even extreme conditions such as saline soils. In the present work we report for the first time the mycorrhizal status and the vertical fungal distribution of AMF spores present in the rhizospheric soil samples of four species of Chenopodiaceae (Allenrolfea patagonica, Atriplex argentina, Heterostachys ritteriana and Suaeda divaricata) at five different depths in two saline of central Argentina. Roots showed medium, low or no colonization (0–50%). Nineteen morphologically distinctive AMF species were recovered. The number of AMF spores ranged between 3 and 1162 per 100 g dry soil, and AMF spore number decreased as depth increased at both sites. The highest spore number was recorded in the upper soil depth (0–10 cm) and in S. divaricata. Depending of the host plant, some AMF species sporulated mainly in the deep soil layers (Glomus magnicaule in Allenrolfea patagonica, Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Atriplex argentina), others mainly in the top layers (G. brohultti in Atriplex argentina and Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Allenrolfea patagonica). Although the low percentages of colonization or lack of it, our results show a moderate diversity of AMF associated to the species of Chenopodiaceae investigated in this study. The taxonomical diversity reveals that AMF are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from saline soils of central Argentina. PMID:25242945

  11. One-Seeded Fruits in the Core Caryophyllales: Their Origin and Structural Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sukhorukov, Alexander P.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Struwig, Madeleen; Nilova, Maya V.; Dzhalilova, Khalima Kh.; Balandin, Sergey A.; Erst, Andrey; Krinitsyna, Anastasiya A.

    2015-01-01

    The core Caryophyllales consist of approximately 30 families (12 000 species) distributed worldwide. Many members evolved one-seeded or conjoined fruits, but their origin and structural diversity have not been investigated. A comparative anatomical investigation of the one-seeded fruits within the core Caryophyllales was conducted. The origin of the one-seeded fruits and the evolutionary reconstructions of some carpological characters were traced using a tree based on rbcl and matK data in order to understand the ancestral characters and their changes. The one-seeded fruit type is inferred to be an ancestral character state in core Caryophyllales, with a subsequent increase in the seed number seen in all major clades. Most representatives of the ‘Earlier Diverging’ clade are distinguished in various carpological traits. The organization of the pericarp is diverse in many groups, although fruits with a dry, many-layered pericarp, consisting of sclerenchyma as outer layers and a thin-walled parenchyma below, with seeds occupying a vertical embryo position, are likely ancestral character states in the core Caryophyllales clade. Several carpological peculiarities in fruit and seed structure were discovered in obligate one-seeded Achatocarpaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Seguieriaceae and Sarcobataceae. The horizontal embryo evolved in only certain groups of Chenopodiaceae. The bar-thickening of endotegmen cells appears to be an additional character typical of core Caryophyllales. The syncarpy-to-lysicarpy paradigm in Caryophyllaceae needs to be reinterpreted. PMID:25710481

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline soils: vertical distribution at different soil depth.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Bartoloni, Norberto; Cofré, Noelia; Soteras, Florencia; Cabello, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize land plants in every ecosystem, even extreme conditions such as saline soils. In the present work we report for the first time the mycorrhizal status and the vertical fungal distribution of AMF spores present in the rhizospheric soil samples of four species of Chenopodiaceae (Allenrolfea patagonica, Atriplex argentina, Heterostachys ritteriana and Suaeda divaricata) at five different depths in two saline of central Argentina. Roots showed medium, low or no colonization (0-50%). Nineteen morphologically distinctive AMF species were recovered. The number of AMF spores ranged between 3 and 1162 per 100 g dry soil, and AMF spore number decreased as depth increased at both sites. The highest spore number was recorded in the upper soil depth (0-10 cm) and in S. divaricata. Depending of the host plant, some AMF species sporulated mainly in the deep soil layers (Glomus magnicaule in Allenrolfea patagonica, Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Atriplex argentina), others mainly in the top layers (G. brohultti in Atriplex argentina and Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Allenrolfea patagonica). Although the low percentages of colonization or lack of it, our results show a moderate diversity of AMF associated to the species of Chenopodiaceae investigated in this study. The taxonomical diversity reveals that AMF are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from saline soils of central Argentina.

  13. Palaeoecological construction from the Oligo-Miocene coal deposits of Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Koşun, Erdal; Serkan Akkiraz, Mehmet; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koç, Koray

    2015-04-01

    The palynomorph composition of the Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal deposits from Gelibolu peninsula, NW Turkey, was analyzed to determine the palaeoclimate conditions. The samples were collected from two different abandoned coal mines. Also two different palynological assemblages were reported. The first one belongs to the Late Oligocene (Osmancik Formation). The other one is the Miocene (Gazhanedere Formation). The Late Oligocene palynological assemblage consist mainly of Alnus, Myricaceae, Cyrillaceae-Clethraceae, Calamus and Castanea. Riparian vegetation or wetland forest community incorporate high amounts of Alnus, and low percentages of deciduous Salix, Pterocarya and Carya. Calamus, which is a stratigraphical marker for the Late Oligocene of the Thrace Basin, was also recorded in high quantities. The content of the Miocene palynological assemblage is different from the Late Oligocene assemblage, and is mainly made up of Polypodiaceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Myricaceae, Oleaceae, Cyrillaceae-Clethraceae and Sapotaceae. Calamus and Alnus totally disappear here. In contrast, open vegetation elements such Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae occur frequently. The palaeoclimate calculations were made by the help of coexistence approach method. The late Oligocene association contains a total of 18 taxa, 11 of which were used for calculating the coexistence intervals. The values obtained 15.6 to 21.1 ° C for annual temperature, 5.0 to 13.3 ° C for winter temperature, 24.7 to 28.1 ° C for summer temperature and, 1096 to 1355 mm annual rainfall. In the Miocene palynological assemblage 23 taxa were identified. The palaeoclimate calculation is based on the 21 taxa. Quantitative data indicate the values for the mean annual temperature 15.6-21.3 ° C, for the winter temperature 5.0 to 13.3 ° C, 24.7- 27.9 ° C for summer temperature and 823-1520 mm for the annual rainfall. The palaeoclimate was warm and contained dry seasons due to lower boundary of annual precipitation

  14. Holocene vegetation dynamics of Taiga forest in the Southern Altai Mountains documented by sediments from Kanas Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Chen, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese Altai is the southern limit of the Taiga forest of the continent, and regional vegetation dynamics during the Holocene will help us to understand regional climate changes, such as the Siberian High variations. Here we present a pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction from a well dated sediment core from Kanas Lake, a deep glacial moraine dammed lake in the Southern Altai Mountains (Chinese Altai). The 244-cm-long sequence spans the last 13,500 years, and the chronology is based on nine accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates from terrestrial plant macrofossils. At least five stages of regional vegetation history are documented: (i) From 13.5 to 11.7 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), Kanas Lake region was occupied by steppe dominated by Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and grass pollen, with low tree coverage. (ii) From 11.7 to 8.5 ka, regional forest build up dramatically indicated by increasing tree pollen percentages, including Picea, Larix, and the highest Junipers, with decreasing Artemisia and increasing Chenopodiaceae. (iii) From 8.5 to 7.2 ka, the forest around the lake became dense with the maximum content of Picea and Betula pollen types. And the steppe pollen types reached their lowest values. (iv) From 7.2 to 4 ka, as a typical tree species of Taiga forest, Larix pollen percentage became much higher than previous stage, and the sum of trees & shrubs pollen types decreased, which possibly indicated cooler and wetter climate (v) After 4 ka, trees & shrubs (e.g. Betula, Junipers) pollen types decreased, with increasing Artemisia and decreasing Chenopodiaceae, which might indicated more humid and cooler climate in the late Holocene. Comparing to the other pollen records in the Altai Mountains, Lake Grusha and Lake Hoton had recorded a slightly different process of vegetation evolution in the early Holocene, where forest was built up in the northern side of the Chinese Altai faster than that of the Kanas Lake area. And the difference could

  15. High-Resolution Pollen Record of Deglacial Climate Variability in Central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Edgar, T.

    2004-12-01

    Pollen evidence from lacustrine sediments in Tampa Bay, Florida document considerable climatic variability superimposed on deglacial warming in the subtropics. Nine radiocarbon dates on well-preserved mollusk shells provide a reliable chronology of continuous sedimentation from 20 ka to 11.5 ka; examination of pollen assemblages from 2 cm increments within the lacustrine unit provide temporal resolution averaging one sample every 45 years. During the glacial maximum, much drier and cooler than modern conditions are indicated by pollen assemblages enriched in Chenopodiaceae, Carya, Poaceae and Ambrosia. Increased abundance of Pinus pollen between 17.4 ka and 15 ka indicates the existence of warmer, wetter conditions in the interval including Heinrich Event 1. After a reversion to drier, cooler conditions at about 15 ka, Pinus pollen abundance increased again at 14 ka. Combined with the near loss of Carya pollen, these data suggest attainment of nearly modern climatic conditions during the Bolling-Allerod (14-13 ka). However, variability within the Bolling-Allerod is documented by shifts to deglacial-equivalent vegetation during the Older Dryas (13.4-13.6 ka). The Younger Dryas (12.9-11.6 ka) is characterized by two distinct phases: from 12.9-11.9 ka, the increased abundance of Chenopodiaceae and Quercus mark drier, possibly cooler conditions comparable to those of the deglacial (17.4 - 14 ka). From 11.9-11.5 ka, strong dominance of herbaceous Chenopodiaceae is similar to full-glacial conditions, indicating much drier, possibly cooler conditions. Comparison of these paleoclimatic patterns with marine records from Orca Basin in the Gulf of Mexico indicate close temporal correspondence in warming of atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures. Pollen evidence also suggests that significant warming began around 17.4 ka, before the onset of Heinrich Event 1, as has been documented at other sites in the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. This record of deglacial atmospheric

  16. Quinoa: Nutritional, functional, and antinutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Filho, Antonio Manoel Maradini; Pirozi, Mônica Ribeiro; Borges, João Tomaz Da Silva; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Coimbra, Jane Sélia Dos Reis

    2017-05-24

    We have prepared a review of the physical-chemical composition and the functional and anti-nutritional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is a plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, originally from the Andean regions, adaptable to different types of soils and climatic conditions. Its composition has attracted the attention of scientific community for its high nutritional value, being rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, vitamins, and minerals, with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is also gluten-free, a characteristic that enables its use by celiac patients. In spite of all these attributes, quinoa is not widely used by consumers due to the high cost of imported grain and little knowledge of its benefits. More studies are required to increase knowledge about this "pseudo-cereal" to demonstrate its functional and nutritional benefits and to study its anti-nutritional effects, since it presents high commercial value and excellent nutritional quality.

  17. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    PubMed

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS.

  18. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads.

  19. Saltbush-associated Asphondylia species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the Mediterranean Basin and their chalcidoid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).

    PubMed

    Dorchin, Netta; Mifsud, David; Askew, Richard

    2014-10-02

    Numerous species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been recorded from saltbush (Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex) around the world but only 11 of them belong to the large cecidomyiid genus Asphondylia. Of these, two species were described in the late 19th century from complex bud galls on Atriplex halimus in the Mediterranean Basin. In the present study Asphondylia punica is redescribed, A. conglomerata is synonymized with it, and Asphondylia scopuli is described from Atriplex lanfrancoi, an endemic plant to the Maltese Islands. Descriptions are accompanied by information about the galls and life history of the gall midges, and a review of the parasitic Hymenoptera associated with A. scopuli is provided. Four species of parasitoids were found and attributed to the families Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae, of which the pteromalid Mesopolobus melitensis is described as new.

  20. Evaluation of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Dubey, N K; Tripathi, Y B

    2007-04-10

    Essential oil extracted from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus Aspergillus flavus Link. The oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 microg/ml. The oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Helminthosporium oryzae and Pythium debaryanum at 100 microg/ml. The oil showed significant efficacy in inhibiting the aflatoxin B1 production by the aflatoxigenic strain of A. flavus. During in vivo investigation it protected stored wheat from different storage fungi for one year. Chenopodium oil also exhibited potent antioxidant activity when tested by ABTS method. All these observations suggest the possible exploitation of the Chenopodium oil as potential botanical fungitoxicant in ecofriendly control of post harvest biodeterioration of food commodities from storage fungi.

  1. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of Conyza linifolia and Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PubMed

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Hammoda, Hala M; El Ghazouly, Maged G; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Bassam, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    Two essential oil-containing plants growing wildly in Egypt: Conyza linifolia (Willd.) Täckh. (Asteraceae) and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) were subjected to essential oil analysis and biological investigation. The essential oils from both plants were prepared by hydrodistillation, and GC/MS was employed for volatiles profiling. This study is the first to perform GC/MS analysis of C. linifolia essential oil growing in Egypt. C. linifolia essential oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes, while that of C. ambrosioides was rich in monoterpenes. Ascaridole, previously identified as the major component of the latter, was found at much lower levels. In addition, the oils were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and one fungus. The insecticidal activities of both oils, including mosquitocidal and pesticidal potentials, were also evaluated. The results of biological activities encourage further investigation of the two oils as antimicrobial and insecticidal agents of natural origin.

  2. Inhibition of respiratory burst in human neutrophils and lipoxygenase enzyme by compounds from Haloxylon griffithii.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Jalil, Saima; Israr, Muddasir

    2006-10-01

    Secondary metabolites, ferulic acid (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy acetophenone (2), herniarin (3), p-hydroxy acetophenone (4), methyl 3,4-dihydroxycinnamate (5), and methyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (6) were isolated from Haloxylon griffithii, a member of the family Chenopodiaceae. The structures of compounds 1-6 were identified with the help of spectroscopic techniques. These compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. The lipoxygenase and respiratory burst inhibitory activities were determined. Compound 5 was found to be the most potent inhibitory activity against respiratory burst in human neutrophils among all the compounds as well as exhibited moderate lipoxygenase inhibitory activity from this plant. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Bilecik, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun

    2009-04-01

    In this study, pollen grains in the atmosphere of Bilecik were studied for a continuous period of 2 years (2005 and 2006) by using Durham sampler. During this period, pollen grains belonging to 46 taxa were recorded, 26 of which belonged to arboreal plants and 20 to non-arboreal. Of total 14,269 pollen grains determined in Bilecik atmosphere, 6,675 were recorded in 2005 and 7,594 were in 2006. From these, 75.74% were arboreal, 21.80% were non-arboreal and 2.47% unidentifiable. Pinus sp., Poaceae, Cupressaceae, Platanus sp., Quercus sp., Salix sp., Ailanthus sp., Fagus sp., Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae were the main pollen producers in the atmosphere of Bilecik, respectively. Pollen concentrations reached their highest levels in May. Atmospheric pollen concentrations in February, March, September, October and November were less than those in other months.

  4. Buried in Sands: Environmental Analysis at the Archaeological Site of Xiaohe Cemetery, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Feng; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Hueber, Francis M.; Li, Wen-Ying; Hu, Xin-Jun; Li, Yue-Zhuo; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Palynomorphs extracted from the mud coffins and plant remains preserved at the archaeological site of Xiaohe Cemetery (Cal. 3980 to 3540 years BP) in Lop Nur Desert of Xinjiang, China were investigated for the reconstruction of the ancient environments at the site. The results demonstrate that the Xiaohe People lived at a well-developed oasis, which was surrounded by extensive desert. The vegetation in the oasis consisted of Populus, Phragmites, Typha and probably of Gramineae, while the desert surrounding the oasis had some common drought-resistant plants dominated by Ephedra, Tamarix, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae. This present work provides the first data of the environmental background at this site for further archaeological investigation. PMID:23894382

  5. In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

    PubMed

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; López, P; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2002-06-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae) is an anthelmintic herb used in Latin-America's folk medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plant which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 microg/ml), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic indexes (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed (a) a statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both preparations of Paico, (b) a decrease in MI of both preparations assayed, although no modification in the CPK values either in the infusion or in the decoction was observed. These results suggest a possible genotoxic effect of both preparations, probably due to different active principles.

  6. [Structural characteristics of Artemisia frigid community at different succession stages in Horqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-qing; Sun, Ying-jie; Zhang, Tong-hui; Zhao, Ai-fen; Lian, Jie

    2011-07-01

    Taking space as a substitute for time, this paper studied the species composition and species diversity of Artemisia frigid community at three succession stages in Horqin Sandy Land. The three succession stages were Periploca sepium-A. frigida community, Periploca sepium-A. frigida+A. halodendron community, and A. frigida-Cleistogenes squarrosa community, all dominated by the plants of Compositae, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae. The species number and family number in the communities and the species number of Gramineae decreased with succession, while the percentages of Compositae and Gramineae species increased. The species diversity of the communities was in the order of P. sepium-A. frigida+A. halodendron > P. sepium-A. frigida >A. frigida-C. squarrosa. No obvious difference was observed in the species composition among the three communities. In the three communities, A. frigida had the highest coverage, and the coverage increased with succession.

  7. Comparative biochemistry of betaine biosynthesis and accumulation in diverse dicot families

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, K.F.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Bednarek, S.Y.; Hanson, A.D. )

    1989-04-01

    Salt stress elicits betaine accumulation to high levels in species from several diverse dicot families (Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Solanaceae, and Asteraceae). FAM-MS studies with deuterated precursors showed that species from all these families synthesize betaine from choline. Enzyme assays and immunotitration data showed that all accumulating species contained betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzyme activity recognized by antibodies raised against purified BADH isolated from Spinacia oleracea. Immunoblotting indicated that the BADH monomer was in all cases of Mr {approx} 63,000. The similarity of BADH in the different species is consistent with a single evolutionary origin for the betaine pathway. This was supported by the presence in immunoblots of a cross-reacting band at Mr {approx} 63,000 in Magnolia x Soulangiana, a primitive angiosperm.

  8. The Use of Halophytic Plants for Salt Phytoremediation in Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Farzi, Abolfazl; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

    2017-01-13

    This research studied the use of constructed wetlands (CWs) to reduce water salinity. For this purpose, three halophytic species of the Chenopodiaceae family (Salicornia europaea, Salsola crassa, and Bienertia cycloptera) that are resistant to saline conditions were planted in the CWs, and experiments were conducted at three different salinity levels (EC∼2, 6, 10 dS/m). Electrical conductivity (EC) and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl) were measured before and after phytoremediation with a retention time of one week. The results suggested these plants were able to grow well and complete their life cycles at all of the salinity levels within this study. Moreover, these plants reduced the measured parameters to acceptable levels. Therefore, these plants can be considered good options for salt phytoremediation.

  9. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  10. Pollen counts and their relationship to meteorological factors in Ankara, Turkey during 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilpinar, Ilginc; Civelek, Ersoy; Tuncer, Ayfer; Dogan, Cahit; Karabulut, Erdem; Sahiner, Umit M.; Yavuz, S. Tolga; Sackesen, Cansin

    2011-07-01

    Pollen plays an important role in the development and exacerbation of allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate the days with highest counts of the most allergenic pollens and to identify the meteorological factors affecting pollen counts in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. Airborne pollen measurements were carried out from 2005 to 2008 with a Burkard volumetric 7-day spore trap. Microscope counts were converted into atmospheric concentrations and expressed as pollen grains/m3. Meteorological parameters were obtained from the State Meteorological Service. All statistical analyses were done with pollen counts obtained from March to October for each year. The percentages of tree, grass and weed pollens were 72.1% ( n = 24,923), 12.8% ( n = 4,433) and 15.1% ( n = 5,219), respectively. The Pinaceae family from tree taxa (39% to 57%) and the Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae family from weed taxa, contributed the highest percentage of pollen (25% to 43%), while from the grass taxa, only the Poaceae family was detected from 2005 to 2008. Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae families, which are the most allergenic pollens, were found in high numbers from May to August in Ankara. In multiple logistic regression analysis, wind speed (OR = 1.18, CI95% = 1.02-1.36, P = 0.023) for tree pollen, daily mean temperature (OR = 1.10, CI95% = 1.04-1.17, P = 0.001) and sunshine hours (OR = 1.15, CI95% = 1.01-1.30, P = 0.033) for grass pollen, and sunshine hours (OR = 3.79, CI95% = 1.03-13.92, P = 0.044) for weed pollen were found as significant risk factors for high pollen count. The pollen calendar and its association with meteorological factors depend mainly on daily temperature, sunshine hours and wind speed, which may help draw the attention of physicians and allergic patients to days with high pollen counts.

  11. Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation history of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer, M.; Lamb, H. F.; Bonnefille, R.; Lézine, A.-M.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Gibert, E.; Cazet, J.-P.; Watrin, J.

    2007-09-01

    A sediment core recovered from Garba Guracha, a glacial lake at 3950 m altitude in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia, at the boundary of the Ericaceous and Afroalpine vegetation belts, provides a 16,700-year pollen record of vegetation response to climatic change. The earliest vegetation recorded was sparse and composed mainly of grasses, Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia, indicating an arid climate. At 13,400 cal BP, Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae pollen declined sharply and Cyperaceae increased, suggesting a change to moister conditions. The Younger Dryas interval is represented by a small increase in Artemisia and reduced Cyperaceae, indicating aridity. Just after the start of the Holocene (11,200 cal BP), the upper altitudinal limit of the Ericaceous belt rose, and woody Ericaceous vegetation extended across the Sanetti plateau, in response to increased moisture and temperature. The marked change from clastic to organic lake sedimentation at this time reflects the increase in woody vegetation cover in the lake catchment, accompanied by soil stabilisation, and increased leaf litter and soil humus content. From about 6000 cal BP, and especially after 4500 cal BP, mid-altitude dry Afromontane Juniper-Podocarpus forests developed on the northern slopes of the mountains in response to reduced rainfall in a shortened wet season. Erica shrub and forest decreased in area and altitude, and the Afroalpine ecosystem expanded on the plateau. Podocarpus declined from about 2000 cal BP, as Juniperus increased to its present dominance at 2500-3300 m altitude. Human impact on the high-altitude Afroalpine and Ericaceous vegetation has been relatively minor, confirming that the endemic biodiversity of the Ethiopian mountains is a legacy of natural Holocene vegetation change, following repeated expansion and contraction of the upland ecosystems during the Quaternary.

  12. Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, G. M.

    The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show

  13. Late Pleistocene to Holocene vegetation transition in the Eastern Pamir inferred from palynological data from Lake Karakul, Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinecke, Liv; Fletcher, William; Mischke, Steffen; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    Arid Central Asia is characterized by large differences in altitude, leading to a complicated climate history regarding regional patterns. Although an increasing number of local studies have been conducted in the recent years, few datasets cover regional climatic changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. Nevertheless, existing studies reveal significant spatial differences, calling for a higher number of data points in order to decipher climatic changes in the arid Central Asia region over time. Here we present the first palynological study from the late Pleistocene (approximately 29 cal kyr BP) to Holocene in the high Pamir Mountains. A 10.86 m long sediment core was retrieved from the shallower eastern basin of Lake Karakul, which is located in an endorheic basin at 3915 m above sea level in the eastern Pamir. The lake represents a valuable archive due to its remoteness and near absence of human influence. Modern vegetation in the catchment is sparse due to the harsh climate with mean annual temperatures of -3.8°C and a mean annual precipitation of 82 mm. The pollen record suggests three pollen assemblage zones (PAZ) and shows a clear dominance of Artemisia (40 to 80 %) and Chenopodiaceae (5 to 25 %), while other taxa are mainly recorded with values below 5 %. PAZ 1 (28.6 - 15.3 cal kyr BP) reflects variable Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae percentages and maximum values in herbs such as Caryophyllaceae and Lamiaceae as well as in the arboreal taxa Pinus and Alnus. The long distance transported arboreal pollen throughout the LGM and late glacial are assumed to point towards a strong Westerly influence. PAZ 2 (14.3 - 6.9 cal kyr BP) reveals maximum values of shrubby Ephedra spp., typical steppe taxa, increases in Cyperaceae and Asteraceae and a rapid decline in arboreal taxa, indicating warm and dry conditions in the early to mid-Holocene, and weakened Westerly influence. PAZ 3 (6.1 cal kyr BP to present) reflects an increase in meadow taxa such as Asteraceae and

  14. Chemical composition of halophytes from the Neusiedler Lake region in Austria.

    PubMed

    Albert, R; Popp, Marianne

    1977-06-01

    The ionic relations in halophytes from the region east of Neusiedler Lake in Austria have been investigated. The study encompasses the following compounds: Na, K, Mg, Ca; Cl, SO4, phosphate, nitrate, and organic acids.The ionic composition varies substantially among the species investigated. Frequently a specific pattern of ion content can be found within a specific taxon. a) Dicotyledons: Extraordinary accumulation of sodium, high intake of inorganic ions (mainly Cl, less SO4), and regular occurrence of free oxalate, causing low Ca-concentrations, are typical for Chenopodiaceae and Caryophyllaceae (Spergularia media). Lepidium crassifolium shows similar sodium preponderance accompanied by high levels of SO4, Cl, and organic anions other than oxalate (mainly citrate and malate). The remaining dicotyledons show rather moderate salt content; Asteraceae and Cichoriaceae prefer Cl, and Plantago maritima accumulates high amounts of SO4 as well as Cl. Malate and citrate are, without exception, the main organic anions. The K:Na ratios in dicotyledons (esp. Chenopodiaceae and Lepidium-Brassicaceae) lie far below unity. b) Monocotyledons: In marked contrast, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Juncaceae are characterized by a general low salt status. With few exceptions, Cl is stored as the main inorganic anion, phosphate reaches higher levels than in dicotyledons and in many cases lies in nearly the same concentration range as SO4. The pattern of organic anions with malate and citrate as the main acids, does not basically differ from nonhalophilous species. In any case, K:Na ratio exceeds unity. Triglochin maritimum is the only monocotyle species exhibiting as high salt content and low K:Na ratios as dicotyledons. Nitrate and phosphate are of minor quantitative importance with regard to their osmotic efficiency; their mEq percentage of the total anion concentration range between 0.03 to 2.6 (NO3) and 0.5 to 13.6 (phosphate), respectively.The results are discussed from different

  15. Contrasting Moisture Shifts at Low- and High-Elevations Inferred from Annual-to- Centennial Resolution Fossil Pollen Data from the Qaidam Basin, Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Yu, Z.; Zhao, C.; Liu, X.; Ito, E.

    2008-12-01

    We review fossil pollen records from our three study lakes in the Qaidam Basin on the NE Tibetan Plateau and investigate the possible different responses of high- and low-elevation moisture conditions to large-scale climate forcing by comparing with the reconstructed precipitation data from the surrounding mountains. The near-annual resolution pollen data for the last 50 years at Gahai Lake show that large changes in A/C (Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae) pollen ratios correlate with relative humidity from instrumental data at nearby Delingha, likely reflecting changes in pollen production in response to interannual shifts in effective moisture. The pollen data for the past 1000 years at decadal resolution from Hurleg and Toson lakes mainly reflect changes in relative plant abundances, especially of dominant Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae, and regional moisture. Fossil pollen A/C ratios from these two lakes show similar centennial-scale moisture oscillations as in lithology, stable isotopes and ostracode shell abundance during the last millennium. Similarly, Holocene pollen data at centennial sampling resolution from a long core at Hurleg Lake show major shifts in vegetation types between steppe desert and desert, caused by multi-millennial scale climate changes. A/C ratios suggest that climate was dry at 10.2-8.7 ka, relatively wet at 8.7-6.5 ka, dry and variable at 6.5-3 ka, and relatively wet after 3 ka. Other proxies (carbonate, oxygen isotopes of authigenic carbonates, and oxygen isotopes and Mg/Ca ratios of ostracode shells) from the same core support the climate interpretations from pollen data. The wet/dry climate patterns recorded in our lakes in the Qaidam Basin on all time scales are antiphase with tree-ring-based precipitation reconstruction from the surrounding mountains and to pollen and snow accumulation data from Dunde ice core, especially in the 1970s, around 1600 AD and in the early Holocene when the moisture experienced extreme changes. This contrasting

  16. Late-Holocene climate change derived from a high-resolution pollen record from varved sediments at Sugan Lake in the Qaidam Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, K.; Yu, Z.; Zhou, A.

    2010-12-01

    A 2700-yr high-resolution pollen record from annually-varved sediments at Sugan Lake in the Qaidam Basin (2793 m a.s.l) was obtained to examine vegetation and climatic change on the NE Tibetan Plateau. Fossil pollen data show that the area was constantly covered by open desert-steppe vegetation dominated by Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia, Poaceae and Ephedra. Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratios, representing relative abundance of steppe vs. desert plants on the surrounding landscape, suggest large regional moisture fluctuations over the last 2700 years, including (1) a dry and relatively stable climate prior to 300 AD, (2) a relatively wet climate at 300-1200 AD with higher variability at 1100-1200 AD, and (3) a highly unstable climate since 1200 AD, with relatively moist intervals at 1250-1400 AD and at 1700-1800 AD. However, other proxies from the same site (including varve thickness, Chironomid assemblages, and oxygen isotopes of precipitated carbonate) show different or even opposite moisture patterns as inferred from pollen data. This inconsistency and divergence suggest possible different responses of in-lake and watershed processes to the same climate change. For example, increase in freshwater input to the lake from ice melting origined from the surrounding mountains might have contributed to high lake level and moist conditions as interpreted from other proxies, even if there are no increases in precipitation in the low-elevation basin during the same periods. Furthermore, the effective moisture changes in the Basin are opposite in trend with snow accumulation records from Dunde ice core (5325 m a.s.l) and with the monsoon intensity inferred from Dongge Cave, suggesting that the regional topography on the Tibetan Plateau might have played an important role in mediating regional moisture changes. The shift in effective moisture at 1200 AD from stable to more variable conditions as inferred from our pollen data at Sugan Lake is also observed in other

  17. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change. PMID:27210568

  18. Spectroscopy investigation on chemo-catalytic, free radical scavenging and bactericidal properties of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Salicornia brachiata aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seralathan, Janani; Stevenson, Priscilla; Subramaniam, Shankar; Raghavan, Rachana; Pemaiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-01-01

    Nanosized silver have been widely used in many applications, such as catalysis, photonics, sensors, medicine etc. Thus, there is an increasing need to develop high-yield, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Herein, we report an efficient, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Salicornia brachiata, a tropical plant of the Chenopodiaceae family. Silver nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of the particles formed consists of highly diversified shapes like spherical, rod-like, prism, triangular, pentagonal and hexagonal pattern. However, addition of sodium hydroxide to the extract produces mostly spherical particles. The stable nanoparticles obtained using this green method show remarkable catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol. The reduction catalyzed by silver nanoparticles followed the first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of, 0.6 × 10-2 s-1. The bactericidal activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus E, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, was also explored using REMA. The obtained results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration required to induce bactericidal effect is lower than the control antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. In addition to these, the biogenic synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited excellent free radical scavenging activity.

  19. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  20. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation.

  1. Biological characterization and complete genomic sequence of Apium virus Y infecting celery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Donglin; Liu, Hsing-Yeh; Koike, Steven T; Li, Fan; Li, Ruhui

    2011-01-01

    A celery isolate of Apium virus Y (ApVY-Ce) from diseased plants in a commercial field in California was characterized. The experimental host range of the virus included 13 plant species in the families Apiaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae. Almost all infected plant species showed foliar chlorosis and distortion or severe stunting and systemic chlorosis. ApVY-Ce was transmitted to all 10 host species in the Apiaceae by green peach aphids. It reacted with the potyvirus group antibody and Celery mosaic virus (CeMV) antiserum. The complete genomic sequence of ApVY-Ce was determined to be 9917 nucleotides, excluding the 3' poly(A) tail, and it comprises a large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3184 amino acid residues. Its genomic organization is typical of potyviruses, and contains conserved motifs found in the genus Potyvirus. Comparisons with available genomic sequences of other potyviruses indicate that ApVY-Ce shares 26.1-52.9% identities with species of the existing genera and unassigned viruses in the Potyviridae at the polyprotein sequence level. Extensive phylogenetic analysis based on the 3'-partial sequences confirms that ApVY-Ce is most closely related to CeMV and is a distinct species of the genus Potyvirus.

  2. Results on the survival of cryptobiotic cyanobacteria samples after exposure to Mars-like environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J.-P.; Dulai, S.; Kereszturi, A.; Koncz, L.; Lorek, A.; Mohlmann, D.; Marschall, M.; Pocs, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tests on cyanobacteria communities embedded in cryptobiotic crusts collected in hot and cold deserts on Earth were performed under Mars-like conditions. The simulations were realized as a survey, to find the best samples for future research. During the tests organisms have to resist Mars-like conditions such as atmospheric composition, pressure, variable humidity (saturated and dry conditions) and partly strong UV irradiation. Organisms were tested within their original habitat inside the crust. Nearly half of the cryptobiotic samples from various sites showed survival of a substantial part of their coexisting organisms. The survival in general depended more on the nature of the original habitat and type of the sample than on the different conditions they were exposed to. The best survival was observed in samples from United Arab Emirates (Jebel Ali, 25 km SW of Dubai town) and from Western Australia (near the South edge of Lake Barley), by taxa: Tolypothrix byssoidea, Gloeocapsopsis pleurocapsoides, Nostoc microscopicum, Leptolyngbya or Symploca sp. At both places in salty desert areas members of the Chenopodiaceae family dominated among the higher plants and in the cryptobiotic crust cyanobacterial taxa Tolypothrix was dominant. These organisms were all living in salty locations with dry conditions most of the year. Among them Tolypothrix, Gloeocapsopsis and Symploca sp. were tested in Mars simulation chambers for the first time. The results suggest that extremophiles should be tested with taken into account the context of their original microenvironment, and also the importance to analyse communities of microbes beside single organisms.

  3. Genetic structure of coastal and inland populations of the annual halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort. in Central Europe, inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Prinz, K; Weising, K; Hensen, I

    2009-11-01

    Naturally occurring inland salt habitats are highly threatened due to increasing fragmentation and area reduction, while the surroundings of former potash mining dumps have experienced a massive invasion by halophytes over the last 20 years. We reconstructed colonisation patterns of these purely anthropogenic inland salt sites using molecular markers in the obligate halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) dumort. (Chenopodiaceae), a typical plant in such areas. In the present study, 120 individual plants from 40 coastal and inland populations in Central Europe were subjected to AFLP analysis with nine primer combinations. A total of 243 AFLP band positions were scored as presence/absence characters. Genetic diversity values were not significantly different in populations from natural and anthropogenic inland salt sites as compared to coastal habitats. Results from principal coordinate analysis, neighbour-joining analysis and analysis of molecular variance (amova) all indicated that most of the genetic variation is preserved within populations, while genetic differentiation among populations is comparatively low. We conclude that S. maritima has repeatedly and independently colonised the surroundings of former potash mining dumps in Central Germany. However, the absence of founder effects and the lack of phylogeographic structure prevented us from identifying putative donor populations.

  4. Three new flavonol glycosides from Suaeda maritima.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Latif, Rasha R; Mansour, Ragaa M A; Sharaf, Mohamed; Farag, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Three new flavonol glycosides isolated from the 70% methanol extract of Suaeda maritima (Chenopodiaceae) were characterized based on spectroscopic and chemical methods as quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1″' → 6″)-β-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1″″' → 2″″)-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1″' → 6″)-β-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1″″' → 2″″)-glucopyranoside, and kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1″' → 6″)-β-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-(2″″'-O-trans-feruloyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1″″' → 2″″)-β-d-glucopyranoside. In addition, four known compounds, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, methyl cis, trans-ferulate, and methyl trans-ferulate were identified. The plant extract and these compounds showed cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MCF7, HCT116, and HEPG2.

  5. A single amino acid of niapro of papaya ringspot virus determines host specificity for infection of papaya.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Raja, Joseph A J; Liu, Fang-Lin; Tai, Chun-Hsi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2008-08-01

    Most strains of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) belong to type W, causing severe loss on cucurbits worldwide, or type P, devastating papaya in tropical areas. While the host range of PRSV W is limited to plants of the families Chenopodiaceae and Cucuribitaceae, PRSV P, in addition, infects plants of the family Caricaceae (papaya family). To investigate one or more viral genetic determinants for papaya infection, recombinant viruses were constructed between PRSV P-YK and PRSV W-CI. Host reactions to recombinant viruses indicated that the viral genomic region covering the C-terminal region (142 residues) of NIaVPg, full NIaPro, and N-terminal region (18 residues) of NIb, is critical for papaya infection. Sequence analysis of this region revealed residue variations at position 176 of NIaVPg and positions 27 and 205 of NIaPro between type P and W viruses. Host reactions to the constructed mutants indicated that the amino acid Lys27 of NIaPro determines the host-specificity of PRSV for papaya infection. Predicted three-dimensional structures of NIaPros of parental viruses suggested that Lys27 does not affect the protease activity of NIaPro. Recovery of the infected plants from certain papaya-infecting mutants implied involvement of other viral factors for enhancing virulence and adaptation of PRSV on papaya.

  6. Holocene paleoecology of an estuary on Santa Rosa Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Liu, Gaisheng

    1994-01-01

    The middle to late Holocene history and early Anglo-European settlement impacts on Santa Rosa Island, California, were studied through the analysis of sediments in a small estuarine marsh. A 5.4-m-long sediment core produced a stratigraphic and pollen record spanning the last 5200 yr. Three major zones are distinguishable in the core. The lowermost zone (5200 to 3250 yr B.P.) represents a time of arid climate with predominantly marine sediment input and high Chenopodiaceae and Ambrosia pollen values. The intermediate zone (3250 yr B.P. to 1800 A.D.) is characterized by greater fresh water input and high values for Asteraceae and Cyperaceae pollen and charcoal particles. The uppermost zone (1800 A.D. to present) documents the unprecedented erosion, sedimentation, and vegetation change that resulted from the introduction of large exotic herbivores and exotic plants to the island during Anglo-European settlement. The identification of pollen grains of Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana) documents the persistence of this endemic species on the island throughout the middle to late Holocene.

  7. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  8. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  9. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  10. Response of AM fungi spore population to elevated temperature and nitrogen addition and their influence on the plant community composition and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xue; Guo, Rui; Guo, Jixun

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of elevated temperature and nitrogen (N) addition on species composition and development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the effect of AMF on plant community structure and aboveground productivity, we conducted a 5-year field experiment in a temperate meadow in northeast China and a subsequent greenhouse experiment. In the field experiment, N addition reduced spore population diversity and richness of AMF and suppressed the spore density and the hyphal length density (HLD). Elevated temperature decreased spore density and diameter and increased the HLD, but did not affect AMF spore population composition. In the greenhouse experiment, AMF altered plant community composition and increased total aboveground biomass in both elevated temperature and N addition treatments; additionally, AMF also increased the relative abundance and aboveground biomass of the grasses Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) and Setaria viridis (Gramineae) and significantly reduced the relative abundance and aboveground biomass of the Suaeda corniculata (Chenopodiaceae). Although elevated temperature and N addition can affect species composition or suppress the development of AMF, AMF are likely to play a vital role in increasing plant diversity and productivity. Notably, AMF might reduce the threat of climate change induced degradation of temperate meadow ecosystems. PMID:27098761

  11. Effects of dietary fruits, vegetables and a herbal tea on the in vitro transport of cimetidine: comparing the Caco-2 model with porcine jejunum tissue.

    PubMed

    Tarirai, Clemence; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Hamman, Josias H

    2012-02-01

    Dietary botanicals are often consumed together with allopathic medicines, which may give rise to pharmacokinetic interactions. In vitro intestinal models are useful to identify botanical-drug interactions, but they may exhibit different expressions of transporters or enzymes. To compare the effects of selected dietary botanical extracts on cimetidine transport across two in vitro intestinal models. Bi-directional transport of cimetidine was measured across Caco-2 cell monolayers and excised porcine jejunum tissue in the absence (control) as well as the presence of verapamil (positive control) and selected plant extracts. Sclerocarya birrea Hochst. (Anacardiaceae) (marula) and Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) (guava) crude extracts significantly decreased cimetidine efflux in both in vitro models resulting in increased absorptive transport of the drug. On the other hand, Dovyalis caffra Sim. (Flacourtiaceae) (Kei-apple), Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) (peach), Aspalathus linearis (Burm. f.) R. Dahlgren (Fabaceae) (rooibos tea), Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae) (carrot), Prunus domestica A. Sav. (Rosaceae) (plum), Beta vulgaris L. (Chenopodiaceae) (beetroot) and Fragaria x ananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier. (Rosaceae) (strawberry) crude extracts exhibited different effects on cimetidine transport between the two models. Caco-2 cells were more sensitive to changes in cimetidine transport by the plant extracts and therefore may overestimate the effects of co-administered plant extracts on drug transport compared to the excised pig tissue model, which is congruent with findings from previous studies. The excised porcine jejunum model seemed to provide a more realistic estimation of botanical-drug pharmacokinetic interactions than the Caco-2 cell model.

  12. Identification of genes encoding photoconvertible (Class I) water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins from Chenopodium ficifolium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Abe, Eriko; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins, called Class I WSCPs, have been detected in Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Polygonaceae plant species. To date, Chenopodium album WSCP (CaWSCP) is the only cloned gene encoding a Class I WSCP. In this study, we identified two cDNAs encoding Chenopodium ficifolium Class I WSCPs, CfWSCP1, and CfWSCP2. Sequence analyses revealed that the open reading frames of CfWSCP1 and CfWSCP2 were 585 and 588 bp, respectively. Furthermore, both CfWSCPs contain cystein2 and cystein30, which are essential for the chlorophyll-binding ability of CaWSCP. Recombinant CfWSCP1 and CfWSCP2, expressed in Escherichia coli as hexa-histidine fusion proteins (CfWSCP1-His and CfWSCP2-His), formed inclusion bodies; however, we were able to solubilize these using a buffer containing 8 M urea and then refold them by dialysis. The refolded CfWSCP1-His and CfWSCP2-His could bind chlorophylls and exhibited photoconvertibility, confirming that the cloned CfWSCPs are further examples of Class I WSCPs.

  13. Airborne pollen and spores of León (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, Delia; Suarez-Cervera, María; Díaz-González, Tomás; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa María

    1993-06-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of airborne pollen and spores was carried out over 2 years (from September 1987 to August 1989) in the city of León. Slides were prepared daily using a volumetric pollen trap, which was placed on the Faculty of Veterinary Science building (University of León) 12m above ground-level. Fifty-one pollen types were observed; the most important of these were: Cupressaceae during the winter, Pinus and Quercus in spring, and Poaceae, Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae in the summer. The results also showed the existence of a rich mould spore assemblage in the atmosphere. The group of Amerospores ( Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium) as well as Dictyospores ( Alternaria) were the most abundant; Puccinia was common in the air in August. Fluctuations in the total pollen and spores m3 of air were compared with meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall). From the daily sampling of the atmosphere of León, considering the maximum and minimum temperature and duration of rainfall, the start of the pollen grain season was observed generally to coincide with a rise in temperature in the absence of rain.

  14. Aggregation Behavior and a Putative Aggregation Pheromone in Sugar Beet Root Maggot Flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Susan Y.; Tindall, Kelly; Ding, Hongjian; Boetel, Mark A.; Rajabaskar, D.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2017-01-01

    Male-biased aggregations of sugar beet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), flies were observed on utility poles near sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. [Chenopodiaceae]) fields in southern Idaho; this contrasts with the approximately equal sex ratio typically observed within fields. Peak observation of mating pairs coincided with peak diurnal abundance of flies. Volatiles released by individual male and female flies were sampled from 08:00 to 24:00 hours in the laboratory using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Eleven compounds were uniquely detected from males. Three of these compounds (2-undecanol, 2-decanol, and sec-nonyl acetate) were detected in greater quantities during 12:00–24:00 hours than during 08:00–12:00 hours. The remaining eight compounds uniquely detected from males did not exhibit temporal trends in release. Both sexes produced 2-nonanol, but males produced substantially higher (ca. 80-fold) concentrations of this compound than females, again peaking after 12:00 hours. The temporal synchrony among male aggregation behavior, peak mating rates, and release of certain volatile compounds by males suggest that T. myopaeformis flies exhibit lekking behavior and produce an associated pheromone. Field assays using synthetic blends of the putative aggregation pheromone showed evidence of attraction in both females and males. PMID:28423428

  15. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  16. Quaternary forest associations in lowland tropical West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial fossil pollen records are frequently used to reveal the response of vegetation to changes in both regional and global climate. Here we present a fossil pollen record from sediment cores extracted from Lake Bosumtwi (West Africa). This record covers the last c. 520 thousand years (ka) and represents the longest terrestrial pollen record from Africa published to date. The fossil pollen assemblages reveal dynamic vegetation change which can be broadly characterized as indicative of shifts between savannah and forest. Savannah formations are heavily dominated by grass (Poaceae) pollen (>55%) typically associated with Cyperaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Forest formations are palynologically more diverse than the savannah, with the key taxa occurring in multiple forest zones being Moraceae, Celtis, Uapaca, Macaranga and Trema. The fossil pollen data indicate that over the last c. 520 ka the vegetation of lowland tropical West Africa has mainly been savannah; however six periods of forest expansion are evident which most likely correspond to global interglacial periods. A comparison of the forest assemblage composition within each interglacial suggests that the Holocene (11-0 ka) forest occurred under the wettest climate, while the forest which occurred at the time of Marine Isotope Stage 7 probably occurred under the driest climate.

  17. Tobacco streak virus isolated from lettuce.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, F S; Khodai Motlagh, M

    2009-05-01

    Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is an ilarvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus infects many plants and causes significant yield losses. In this study, 300 samples of lettuce were collected from lettuce fields in Tehran Province. Infected plants show symptoms such as: mosaic, vein clearing, vein necrosis, yellowing and leaf distortion. DAS-ELISA (Double Antibody Sandwich-ELISA) was used with a polyclonal antiserum against TSV. Five isolates (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), which are collected, respectively from Mohammad Abad (Karaj), Malek Abad (Karaj), Hashtgerd (Karaj), Tarand Balla (Varamin) and Deh mah sin (Pishva) were inoculated on 29 species of Cucurbitaceae, Amaranthaceae, Solanacea, Compositae, Leguminosae and Chenopodiacea. Chenopodium quinoa 6 days after inoculation showed necrotic local lesions. Gomphrena globosa 10 days after inoculation developed chlorotic local lesions. Systemic symptoms were produced in Datura stramonium. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney 5 days after inoculation developed necrotic local lesions. Nicotiana tabacum 7 days after inoculation showed necrotic and chlorotic local lesions. Nicotiana clevelandii 15 days after inoculation developed leaf distortion and vein necrosis. Lactuca sativa 10-15 days after inoculation developed leaf istortion and mosaic. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using one primer pairs designed by DSMZ. An approximately 710 bp fragment was amplified with a specific primer.

  18. Chemosensory perception and medicinal plants for digestive ailments in a Mapuche community in NW Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2009-06-25

    To document the richness of plant species used in gastrointestinal disorders and to investigate about the criteria of aroma and flavor associated with its recognition, classification, selection and use. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of interviews to 30 inhabitants living in a Mapuche community of Northwestern Patagonia; data collected was analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics. This work records 75 ethnospecies, pertaining to 40 botanic families. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae were the most frequently mentioned and described in terms of smell and taste. Most of species (69%) have notable aroma and/or flavor characteristics. The species presenting highest consensus in the population are positively associated with a higher frequency of organoleptic descriptions. In addition, local people consider these perceptions to be potentially useful in the search for substitutes when species are scarce or disappear from a locality. It is possible to establish a preliminary system of classification of medicinal plants based on their organoleptic characteristics and relate this to their effects on health. Moreover the cultural interpretation of smell and taste is of great heuristic importance to ethnopharmacology, in that it indicates which plants are most likely to contain the main active ingredients sought.

  19. Characteristics of modern pollen rain and the relationship to vegetation in sagebrush-steppe environments of Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, C.; Bryant, V.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in pollen production and dispersal characteristics among plant species complicate our ability to determine direct relationships between deposited pollen and actual vegetation. In order to better understand modern pollen-vegetation relationships, we analyzed pollen from 61 samples taken from sagebrush-steppe environments across Montana and compared them with the actual vegetation composition at each site. We also determined to what degree sagebrush-steppe communities can be geographically distinguished from one another based on their pollen signature. Pollen preservation was good, especially in wetter environments, with pollen degradataion ranging from 4-15%. Diploxylon Pinus was the primary contributor to the pollen rain, even in plots where pine trees did not occur or were several kilometers from the plot. Artemisia and grass pollen are underrepresented in the soils samples, while Chenopodiaceae and Juniperus pollen are overrepresented when compared to actual vegetation composition. Insect-pollinated species are present only in very minor amounts in the soil samples, even though some (e.g., Brassica) are abundant in the plots. In general, pollen spectra show significant differences between regions, however, within each region the individual spectra are not statistically significant from one another. An understanding of modern pollen-vegetation relationships and the palynological “fingerprint” of sagebrush-steppe communities aid in climatic and ecological interpretations of fossil pollen assemblages. The data also provide important control samples for forensics studies that use pollen to geolocate an object or person to a crime scene.

  20. Traditional healthy Mediterranean diet: estrogenic activity of plants used as food and flavoring agents.

    PubMed

    Agradi, Elisabetta; Vegeto, Elisabetta; Sozzi, Andrea; Fico, Gelsomina; Regondi, Simona; Tomè, Franca

    2006-08-01

    The Italian-style Mediterranean diet has been defined as healthy by epidemiologists and nutritionists. Besides being low fat, the Mediterranean diet is rich in biologically active minor compounds. Among these, phytoestrogens seem to have an impact on the prevention of chronic degenerative disease. It is important to understand how this occurs. The in vitro estrogenic activity of crude extracts from typical Mediterranean foods was tested using a yeast estrogen screen (YES), containing human estrogen receptor. Species belonging to Leguminosae, Apiaceae, Graminaceae, Iridaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cruciferae and Solanaceae showed the greatest number of positive responses. These species include some foods which are traditionally widely consumed, such as beans and other legumes, tomatoes, cabbage, carrots and some cereals. The highest activity was found in the more polar extracts (aqueous, methanol and chloroform: methanol) indicating that polar compounds are mainly responsible for the estrogenic activity. This is also supported by the traditional cooking practices. According to data from in vitro tests, the estrogenic activity is present in numerous plants which are commonly used as food in the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable foods rich in phytoestrogens, as in the Mediterranean tradition, may contribute to the maintenance of health status.

  1. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  2. A 1200-year proxy record of hurricanes and fires from the Gulf of Mexico coast: Testing the hypothesis of hurricane-fire interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kam-biu; Lu, Houyuan; Shen, Caiming

    2008-01-01

    We present here the first high-resolution pollen record of vegetation response to interactions of hurricane and fire disturbances over the past 1200 yr from a small lake in Alabama on the Gulf of Mexico coast. The paleotempestological record inferred from the overwash sand layers suggests that the Alabama coast was directly struck by Saffir-Simpson category 4 or 5 hurricanes twice during the last 1200 yr, around 1170 and 860 cal yr BP, suggesting an annual landfall probability of 0.17% for these intense hurricanes. The charcoal data suggest that intense fires occurred after each of these hurricanes. The pollen data suggest that populations of halophytic plants (Chenopodiaceae) and heliophytic shrubs ( Myrica) expanded after the hurricane strikes, probably due to saltwater intrusion into the marshes and soil salinization caused by overwash processes. Populations of pines ( Pinus sp.) decreased significantly after each intense hurricane and the ensuing intense fire, suggesting that repeated hurricane-fire interactions resulted in high tree mortality and probably impeded recruitment and recovery. Our data support the hypothesis that the likelihood and intensity of fire increased significantly after a major hurricane, producing responses by vegetation that are more complex and unpredictable than if the disturbance agents were acting singly and independently.

  3. Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. |

    1995-06-01

    High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

  4. Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts of three Chenopodium species against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Arshad; Amin, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane leaf, stem, root and inflorescence extracts (1, 2, 3 and 4% w/v) of three Chenopodium species (family Chenopodiaceae) namely Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was investigated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) G. Goid., a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. All the extracts of the three Chenopodium species significantly suppressed the test fungal growth. However, there was marked variation among the various extract treatments. Methanol inflorescence extract of C. album exhibited highest antifungal activity resulting in up to 96% reduction in fungal biomass production. By contrast, methanol leaf extract of the same species exhibited least antifungal activity where 21-44% reduction in fungal biomass was recorded due to various employed extract concentrations. The various methanol extracts of C. murale and C. ambrosioides decreased fungal biomass by 62-90 and 50-84%, respectively. Similarly, various n-hexane extracts of C. album, C. murale and C. ambrosioides reduced fungal biomass by 60-94, 43-90 and 49-86%, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of Holocene pollen records from the Romanian Plain.

    PubMed

    Tomescu

    2000-05-01

    This study is a critical review of pollen analyses carried out on Holocene sequences from 15 sites in and near the Romanian Plain. Three sites come from natural sediments, 10 sites are from anthropogenic deposits and two are from both anthropogenic and natural settings. The general reconstruction is of a steppe-forest-steppe vegetation through the Holocene. The nature of the deposits, however, casts doubts on this reconstruction. Deposits of archaeological sites generally yield pollen spectra that are influenced by human activities and thus unsuitable for vegetation reconstructions. Loess deposits are also unfavorable for pollen preservation because of high pH and porosity. Consequently, pollen spectra from loess deposits are strongly biased by selective pollen destruction. Research and experiments carried out by several authors suggest that spectra dominated by Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae or Pinus pollen in soils and loess are a result of selective pollen destruction, especially if low pollen concentrations, progressive pollen deterioration or high frequencies of deteriorated or unidentifiable pollen are evidenced. The fact that pollen records from the Romanian Plain come from loess, alkaline peat or archaeological sites reduces their reliability for reconstructions of vegetation. The vegetation history of similar regions in Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey suggests that early Holocene steppe vegetation was gradually replaced by forest or forest-steppe vegetation in the late Holocene. Records from lake sediments are required to find out whether the Holocene vegetation history of the Romanian Plain was similar.

  6. Characterisation of the airborne pollen spectrum in Guadalajara (central Spain) and estimation of the potential allergy risk.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Sabariego, Silvia; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Aerobiological research into airborne pollen diversity and seasonal variations in pollen counts has become increasingly important over recent decades due to the growing incidence of asthma, rhinitis and other pollen-related allergic conditions. Airborne pollen in Guadalajara (Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) was studied over a 6-year period (2008-2013) using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The highest pollen concentrations were recorded from February to June, coinciding with the pollen season of the pollen types that most contribute to the local airborne pollen spectrum: Cupressaceae (32.2%), Quercus (15.1%), Platanus (13.2%), Olea (8.3%), Populus (7.8%) and Poaceae (7.2%). These are therefore critical months for allergy sufferers. The pollen calendar was typically Mediterranean and comprised 25 pollen types. Between January and March, Cupressaceae pollen concentrations exceeded allergy risk thresholds on 38 days. Other woody species such as Olea and Platanus have a shorter pollen season, and airborne concentrations exceeded allergy risk thresholds on around 13 days in each case. Poaceae pollen concentrations attained allergy risk levels on 26 days between May and July. Other highly allergenic pollen types included Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, though these are less abundant than other pollen types in Guadalajara and did not exceed risk thresholds on more than 3 and 5 days, respectively.

  7. Increasing demands on limited water resources: Consequences for two endangered plants in Amargosa Valley, USA.

    PubMed

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Allen, Michael F

    2009-03-01

    Recent population expansion throughout the Southwest United States has created an unprecedented demand for already limited water resources, which may have severe consequences on the persistence of some species. Two such species are the federally protected Nitrophila mohavensis (Chenopodiaceae) and Grindelia fraxino-pratensis (Asteraceae) found in Amargosa Valley, one valley east of Death Valley, California. Because both species are federally protected, no plant material could be harvested for analysis. We therefore used a chamber system to collect transpired water for isotopic analysis. After a correction for isotopic enrichment during transpiration, δ(18)O values of plant xylem water were significantly different between N. mohavensis and G. fraxino-pratensis throughout the study. Using a multisource mixing model, we found that both N. mohavensis and G. fraxino-pratensis used soil moisture near the soil surface in early spring when surface water was present. However, during the dry summer months, G. fraxino-pratensis tracked soil moisture to deeper depths, whereas N. mohavensis continued to use soil moisture near the soil surface. These results indicate that pumping groundwater and subsequently lowering the water table may directly prevent G. fraxino-pratensis from accessing water, whereas these same conditions may indirectly affect N. mohavensis by reducing surface soil moisture and thus its ability to access water.

  8. Response of AM fungi spore population to elevated temperature and nitrogen addition and their influence on the plant community composition and productivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xue; Guo, Rui; Guo, Jixun

    2016-04-21

    To examine the influence of elevated temperature and nitrogen (N) addition on species composition and development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the effect of AMF on plant community structure and aboveground productivity, we conducted a 5-year field experiment in a temperate meadow in northeast China and a subsequent greenhouse experiment. In the field experiment, N addition reduced spore population diversity and richness of AMF and suppressed the spore density and the hyphal length density (HLD). Elevated temperature decreased spore density and diameter and increased the HLD, but did not affect AMF spore population composition. In the greenhouse experiment, AMF altered plant community composition and increased total aboveground biomass in both elevated temperature and N addition treatments; additionally, AMF also increased the relative abundance and aboveground biomass of the grasses Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) and Setaria viridis (Gramineae) and significantly reduced the relative abundance and aboveground biomass of the Suaeda corniculata (Chenopodiaceae). Although elevated temperature and N addition can affect species composition or suppress the development of AMF, AMF are likely to play a vital role in increasing plant diversity and productivity. Notably, AMF might reduce the threat of climate change induced degradation of temperate meadow ecosystems.

  9. Sensitivity of temperate vegetation to Holocene development of East Asian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Yin, Yi; Hao, Qian; Liu, Guo

    2014-08-01

    Estimating vegetation sensitivity during the Holocene will improve the predictions of future vegetation dynamics. We compiled 52 pollen sequences from the monsoon-influenced northern China to reconstruct the Holocene dynamics of three forest types dominated respectively by Pinus, Quercus and Betula, as well as steppe and desert indicated respectively by Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae. The sensitivities of these vegetation types to changes in intensity of the East Asian monsoon were calculated according to the elevation, temperature and precipitation groupings of sites. Our results show that the Holocene vegetation dynamics differed across vegetation types, with Pinus and Quercus at lower elevations more sensitive to monsoon-induced precipitation changes and Betula at higher elevations more sensitive to temperature changes at the beginning of the Holocene. We also found an increasing sensitivity for forests and steppe within different groups following evident reduction in monsoon intensity since 5 ka BP, caused most probably by climate drying in this drought-determined forest-steppe in northern China. Besides regional scale forest retreat caused by climate drying, elevational movement as well as site expansion and decline are also suggested to explain low vegetation sensitivities in some site-groups. Our study provides insights into the mechanisms of individualistic responses of plant taxa as well as the asymmetrical response of ecotonal vegetation to the Holocene monsoon development in China.

  10. Quantitative reconstructions of mid- to late holocene climate and vegetation in the north-eastern altai mountains recorded in lake teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Andreev, Andrei; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei; Babich, Valery; Li, Hong-Chun; Shilov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We report the first high-resolution (20-50 years) mid- to late Holocene pollen records from Lake Teletskoye, the largest lake in the Altai Mountains, in south-eastern West Siberia. Generally, the mid- to late Holocene (the last 4250 years) vegetation of the north-eastern Altai, as recorded in two studied sediment cores, is characterised by Siberian pine-spruce-fir forests that are similar to those of the present day. A relatively cool and dry interval with July temperatures lower than those of today occurred between 3.9 and 3.6 ka BP. The widespread distribution of open, steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae reflects maximum deforestation during this interval. After ca. 3.5 ka BP, the coniferous mountain taiga spread significantly, with maximum woody coverage and taiga biome scores between ca. 2.7 and 1.6 ka BP. This coincides well with the highest July temperature (approximately 1 °C higher than today) intervals. A short period of cooling about 1.3-1.4 ka BP could have been triggered by the increased volcanic activity recorded across the Northern Hemisphere. A new period of cooling started around 1100-1150 CE, with the minimum July temperatures occurring between 1450 and 1800 CE.

  11. Airborne pollen assemblages and weather regime in the central-eastern Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuecong; Ge, Yawen; Xu, Qinghai; Bunting, Jane M.; Lv, Suqing; Wang, Junting; Li, Zetao

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the results of pollen trapping studies designed to quantify the pollen assemblages carried in the winds of the Loess Plateau in Luochuan and Hunyuan. The one-year-collection samples analysis results show that pollen assemblages can be more sensitive to the change of climate than the vegetation composition, because of the change of pollen production. The analysis results of pollen traps in different weather regimes indicate that the pollen influx coming from dust weather contribute more to the total pollen influx than that coming from non-dust weather. The wind speed is the most important influenced factor to pollen assemblages, then the mean temperature and the mean relative humidity, the wind direction also contributes some. Strong wind coming from dust direction can make the percent and influx of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae increase obviously with averagely higher than over 2.7 times in dust weather than in non-dust samples. The influences of wind speed and wind direction are not serious to some arboreal pollen such as Rosaceae, Quercus, Betula, Pinus and Ostryopsis, which are mainly influenced by temperature or the relative humidity such as Salix, Hippophae, Carpinus, Brassicaceae, Cupressaceae, Fabaceae.

  12. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in the halophyte Halostachys caspica under salt and drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suwei; Zeng, Youling; Yi, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    The plants are always subjected to various environmental stress, because of plant sessile growth. qRT-PCR is a sensitive and reliable technology, and the normalization of target gene expression with suitable reference genes is very important for obtaining accurate data. Halostachys caspica is an extremely salt-tolerant halophyte belonging to Chenopodiaceae and a good candidate to explore the stress-physiological and molecular mechanism. To get truly the expression profiles of coding genes and miRNAs in H. caspica in response to salt and drought stress using qRT-PCR, suitable reference genes need to be confirmed. In this study, 10 candidate genes including ACT, UBC10, UBC13, TUB2, TUB3, EF1α, 5S rRNA, tRNA, U6 and miR1436 from H. caspica are chosen, and among them, the former nine are commonly used as internal control genes, and miR1436 with high sequence copies is no significant difference expression in high salinity-treated and untreated small RNA libraries of this species. The three softwares are used to analyze expression stability. The results showed that EF1α and TUB3 were the most stable under salt and drought stress, respectively, and UBC10 was the most constant aross all the samples with the both stressed combination. This work will benefit deep studies on abiotic tolerance in H. caspica. PMID:27527518

  13. Artificially accelerating the reversal of desertification: cyanobacterial inoculation facilitates the succession of vegetation communities.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Qingyi; Wu, Li; Liu, Yongding; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Desertification has been recognized as a global environmental problem, and one region experiencing ongoing desertification is the eastern edge of Qubqi Desert (Inner Mongolia). To investigate the facilitating effects of cyanobacterial inoculation technology on the desertification control along this steppe-desert transition region, artificial cyanobacterial crusts were constructed with two filamentous cyanobacteria 3 and 8 years ago combined with Salix planting. The results showed that no crusts formed after 3 years of fixation only with Salix planting, whereas after cyanobacterial inoculation, the crusts formed quickly and gradually succeed to moss crusts. During that course, topsoil environments were gradually improved, providing the necessary material basis for the regeneration of vascular plants. In this investigation, total 27 species of vascular plants had regenerated in the experimental region, mainly belonging to Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Leguminosae. Using space time substitution, the dominant species along with the application of cyanobacterial inoculation technology succeeded from Agriophyllum squarrosum ultimately to Leymus chinensis. In addition, it was found that the shady side of the dunes is more conducive to crust development and succession of vegetation communities. Conclusively, our results indicate artificial cyanobacterial inoculation technology is an effective and desirable path for desertification control.

  14. Effects of salt treatment and osmotic stress on V-ATPase and V-PPase in leaves of the halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Lüttge, U; Ratajczak, R

    2001-12-01

    The Chenopodiaceae Suaeda salsa L. was grown under different salt concentrations and under osmotic stress. The fresh weight was markedly stimulated by 0.1 M NaCl, 0.4 M NaCl and 0.1 M KCl and reduced by osmotic stress (PEG iso-osmotic to 0.1 M NaCl). Treatment with 0.4 M KCl severely damaged the plants. Membrane vesicle fractions containing tonoplast vesicles were isolated by sucrose gradient from leaves of the S. salsa plants and modulations of V-ATPase and V-PPase depending on the growth conditions were determined. Western blot analysis revealed that V-ATPase of S. salsa consists of at least nine subunits (apparent molecular masses 66, 55, 52, 48, 36, 35, 29, 18, and 16 kDa). This polypeptide pattern did not depend on culture conditions. V-PPase is composed of a single polypeptide (69 kDa). An additional polypeptide (54 kDa) was detected in the fractions of NaCl-, KCl- and PEG-treated plants. It turned out that the main strategy of salt-tolerance of S. salsa seems to be an up-regulation of V-ATPase activity, which is required to energize the tonoplast for ion uptake into the vacuole, while V-PPase plays only a minor role. The increase in V-ATPase activity is not obtained by structural changes of the enzyme, but by an increase in V-ATPase protein amount.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a vacuolar H+ -pyrophosphatase gene, SsVP, from the halophyte Suaeda salsa and its overexpression increases salt and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanli; Yin, Haibo; Zhang, Xia; Zhao, Fengyun; Li, Pinghua; Chen, Shihua; Zhao, Yanxiu; Zhang, Hui

    2006-01-01

    The chenopodiaceae Suaeda salsa L. is a leaf succulent euhalophyte. Shoots of the S. salsa are larger and more succulent when grown in highly saline environments. This increased growth and water uptake has been correlated with a large and specific cellular accumulation of sodium. S. salsa does not have salt glands or salt bladders on its leaves. Thus, this plant must compartmentalize the toxic Na(+) in the vacuoles. The ability to compartmentalize sodium may result from a stimulation of the proton pumps that provide the driving force for increased sodium transport into the vacuole. In this work, we isolated the cDNA of the vacuolar membrane proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (H(+) -PPase) from S. salsa. The SsVP cDNA contains an uninterrupted open reading frame of 2292 bp, coding for a polypeptide of 764 amino acids. Northern blotting analysis showed that SsVP was induced in salinity treated leaves. The activities of both the V-ATPase and the V-PPase in Arabidopsis overexpressing SsVP-2 is higher markedly than in wild-type plant under 200 mM NaCl and drought stresses. The Overexpression of SsVP can increase salt and drought tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis.

  16. Deglacial climate variability in central Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Brooks, G.R.; Cronin, T. M.; Edgar, T.; Larson, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pollen and ostracode evidence from lacustrine sediments underlying modern Tampa Bay, Florida, document frequent and abrupt climatic and hydrological events superimposed on deglacial warming in the subtropics. Radiocarbon chronology on well-preserved mollusk shells and pollen residue from core MD02-2579 documents continuous sedimentation in a variety of non-marine habitats in a karst-controlled basin from 20 ka to 11.5 ka. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), much drier and cooler-than-modern conditions are indicated by pollen assemblages enriched in Chenopodiaceae and Carya, with rare Pinus (Pinus pollen increased to 20–40% during the warming of the initial deglaciation (∼ 17.2 ka), reaching near modern abundance (60–80%) during warmer, moister climates of the Bølling/Allerød interval (14.7–12.9 ka). Within the Bølling/Allerød, centennial-scale dry events corresponding to the Older Dryas and Intra-Allerød Cold Period indicate rapid vegetation response (

  17. The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Liu, Xiaojing; Ajmal Khan, M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2005-06-01

    Suaeda salsa, a leaf succulent shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae, is one of the most important halophytes in China. Suaeda salsa produces dimorphic seeds (soft brown seeds and hard black seeds). Seeds of S. salsa were collected from the coastal salt flats near Huanghua City, China. Experiments were conducted to determine the salinity-alleviating effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of S. salsa. Brown seeds had a higher germination rate than black seeds in all experiments. Black seeds were more sensitive to salt in the absence of light in comparison to brown seeds. Brown seeds absorbed water more quickly in comparison to black seeds and were found to be more tolerant of salt stress. Our results showed that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene), nitrite, GA(4) and BA improved seed germination in the presence of salt. However, nitrate, GA(1), GA(3) failed to alleviate salt stress. ABA inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. Possible mechanisms involved in the alleviation of salt stress in S. salsa seeds and the ecological adaptation of the seeds to the environment are discussed.

  18. Concentrations of airborne pollen grains in Sivrihisar (Eskisehir), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu

    2008-03-01

    Pollen grains in the atmosphere of Sivrihisar were studied for a continuous period of 2 years (1 January 2005-31 December 2006) using a Durham sampler. During this period, pollen grains belonging to 41 taxa were recorded, 24 of which belonged to arboreal plants and 17 to non-arboreal. From these, 23,219 were identified in 2005 and 34,154 in 2006. Of the total pollen grains, 90.46% were arboreal, 9.43% non-arboreal, and 0.1% unidentifiable. The majority of the investigated allergic pollen grains were from Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Fraxinus spp., Cedrus spp., Artemisia spp., Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Populus spp., Quercus spp., Urticaceae and Asteraceae, respectively. Pollen concentrations reached their highest levels in May. This information was then established into a calendar form according to the pollens determined in 2005-2006, in terms of annual, monthly and weekly numbers of taxa fall per cm2. A comparison between the results and the meteorological factors revealed a close relationship between pollen concentrations in the air and meteorological conditions. An increase in pollination was also linked to increasing temperatures and the wind. It was therefore concluded that high temperatures and relative humidity were also effective in increasing the number of pollens in the air.

  19. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-05-23

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change.

  20. Evolutionary origins of abnormally large shoot sodium accumulation in nonsaline environments within the Caryophyllales.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J; Bowen, Helen C; Broadley, Martin R; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Neugebauer, Konrad; Taylor, Anna; Thompson, Jacqueline A; Wright, Gladys

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of sodium (Na)-'hyperaccumulator' species, which exhibit abnormally large shoot sodium concentrations ([Na]shoot ) when grown in nonsaline environments, was investigated among angiosperms in general and within the Caryophyllales order in particular. Shoot Na concentrations were determined in 334 angiosperm species, representing 35 orders, grown hydroponically in a nonsaline solution. Many Caryophyllales species exhibited abnormally large [Na]shoot when grown hydroponically in a nonsaline solution. The bimodal distribution of the log-normal [Na]shoot of species within the Caryophyllales suggested at least two distinct [Na]shoot phenotypes within this order. Mapping the trait of Na-hyperaccumulation onto the phylogenetic relationships between Caryophyllales families, and between subfamilies within the Amaranthaceae, suggested that the trait evolved several times within this order: in an ancestor of the Aizoaceae, but not the Phytolaccaceae or Nyctaginaceae, in ancestors of several lineages formerly classified as Chenopodiaceae, but not in the Amaranthaceae sensu stricto, and in ancestors of species within the Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Tamaricaceae and Polygonaceae. In conclusion, a disproportionate number of Caryophyllales species behave as Na-hyperaccumulators, and multiple evolutionary origins of this trait can be identified within this order.

  1. Salt-induction of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity in sugar beet. [Beta vulgaris L

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, K.F.; Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-05-01

    In Chenopodiaceae such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), glycine betaine (betaine) accumulates in response to drought or salinity stress and functions in the cytoplasm as a compatible osmolyte. The last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), increases as much as 4-fold in response to rising salinity in the external medium. This increase is accompanied by an increase in both protein and mRNA levels. The steady state increases in BADH were examined at a series of NaCl concentrations from 100 to 500 mM NaCl. BADH protein levels were examined by native PAGE, and by western blot analysis using antibodies raised against BADH purified from spinach. mRNA levels were examined by northern plot analysis of total RNA isolated from the leaves and hybridized with a sugar beet BADH cDNA clone. The time course for BADH mRNA induction was determined in a salt shock experiment utilizing 400 mM NaCl added to the external growth medium. Disappearance of BADH was examined in a salt relief experiment using plants step-wise salinized to 500 mM NaCl and then returned to 0 mM NaCl.

  2. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Angelino, Donato

    2013-09-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris cicla, BVc) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra, BVr) are vegetables of the Chenopodiaceae family, widely consumed in traditional western cooking. These vegetables represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients. They can be cultivated in soils with scarce organic material and little light and water. BVc and BVr have a long history of use in folk medicine. Modern pharmacology shows that BVc extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines. BVr contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods. Moreover, the promising results of their phytochemicals in health protection suggest the opportunity to take advantage of the large availability of this crop for purification of chemopreventive molecules to be used in functional foods and nutraceutical products.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and pollen composition of honey samples collected from different provinces in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Nazime; Guvensen, Aykut; Celik, Ali; Katircioglu, Hikmet

    2007-03-01

    The antibacterial activity of honey samples from different sources were collected and investigated against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, Morganella morganii, Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-4375, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, and Candida albicans. Pathogens exhibited different sensitivities towards the honey samples. The results showed that majority of the honey samples (75%) generally inhibitied the bacteria tested. The honey samples which were obtained from Izmir (samples 1 and 2) proved more effective as inhibitors against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus. The honey which was obtained from Muğla (sample 5) exhibited high anticandidal activity on C. albicans. A comparison of the honey samples on the basis of pollen content revealed that they were heterofloral, and samples which had highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus were dominated by pollen from Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae (sample 1), and Trifolium, Trigonella, Cyperaceae, Zea mays and Anthemis taxa (sample 2). The honey proved more effective on bacteria than antibiotics.

  4. Aerial and soil seed banks enable populations of an annual species to cope with an unpredictable dune ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Xuejun; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Huang, Zhenying; Walck, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Simultaneous formation of aerial and soil seed banks by a species provides a mechanism for population maintenance in unpredictable environments. Eolian activity greatly affects growth and regeneration of plants in a sand dune system, but we know little about the difference in the contributions of these two seed banks to population dynamics in sand dunes. Methods Seed release, germination, seedling emergence and survival of a desert annual, Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), inhabiting the Ordos Sandland in China, were determined in order to explore the different functions of the aerial and soil seed banks. Key Results The size of the aerial seed bank was higher than that of the soil seed bank throughout the growing season. Seed release was positively related to wind velocity. Compared with the soil seed bank, seed germination from the aerial seed bank was lower at low temperature (5/15 °C night/day) but higher in the light. Seedling emergence from the soil seed bank was earlier than that from the aerial seed bank. Early-emerged (15 April–15 May) seedlings died due to frost, but seedlings that emerged during the following months survived to reproduce successfully. Conclusions The timing of seed release and different germination behaviour resulted in a temporal heterogeneity of seedling emergence and establishment between the two seed banks. The study suggests that a bet-hedging strategy for the two seed banks enables A. squarrosum populations to cope successfully with the unpredictable desert environment. PMID:24918206

  5. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinal plants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plant extracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis.

  6. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  7. The natural profilin from Russian thistle (Salsola kali) contains a low IgE-binding ability isoform--molecular and immunological characterization.

    PubMed

    Mas, Salvador; Barderas, Rodrigo; Colás, Carlos; Quiralte, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2012-12-01

    Chenopodiaceae pollens such as those from Salsola kali and Chenopodium album are important causes of allergy in Mediterranean areas because of the progress of desertification in European countries. Among the various allergenic protein families, profilins constitute a group of pan-allergens that are involved in polysensitization and pollen-food allergy syndrome. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis of S. kali profilin highlighted a polymorphic pattern, with several isoforms that have different molecular features (isoelectric point and molecular mass) and immunological features. Two isoforms have been cloned and sequenced. Sal k 4.02 and Sal k 4.03 displayed non-conservative amino acid changes in critical positions of the IgE epitopes. Both isoforms were produced in Escherichia coli and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. Changes in the electrophoretic mobility and in their IgG and IgE immunological behavior were observed in comparison with Che a 2, their counterpart from C. album. The IgE-binding ability of Sal k 4.03 is similar to that of Che a 2, whereas Sal k 4.02 showed a 35% reduction in IgE binding in 86% of patients, suggesting a hypoallergenic character. Three-dimensional modeling allowed us to propose which amino acid residues are involved in those immunological changes based on epitope mapping studies previously performed in other profilins. These profilin isoforms constitute suitable candidates for specific immunotherapy with recombinant allergens.

  8. A new anti-inflammatory triterpene saponin isolated from Anabasis setifera.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Allia M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Mohamed, Mona A; Fawzy, Ghada A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2013-06-01

    A bio-guided fractionation of Anabasis setifera Moq. (Chenopodiaceae) for anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using carrageenin rat paw edema model in rats. On the basis of percent edema inhibition after 3 h of carrageenin injection, n-butanol fraction showed promising activity through a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in paw volume by 85.6 % from control using indomethacin as reference standard. Moreover, the n-butanol fraction significantly (p < 0.05) decreased PGE2 and TNF-α in the exudates of rat paw edema. Chemical investigation of n-butanol fraction afforded α-amyrin 3-O-glucopyranoside (1), patuletin 7-O-glucopyranoside (2), myricitrin (3) and a new oleanane triterpene saponin derivative (4), sophradiol 3-O-α-L-(1)C4-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'''→4'')-O-β-D-(4)C1-galactopyranosyl (1''→6')-O-β-D-(4)C1-glucopyranoside. The structure of the new compound was determined by comprehensive analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectral data and comparison with previously known analogs. Only compound 4 revealed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX) activities.

  9. Diurnal variation of airborne pollen at two different heights.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, P; Galán, C; Cariñanos, P; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    1999-01-01

    The diurnal variation in airborne pollen concentrations in the air of Córdoba at two different heights (1.5 m and 15 m) was studied during 2 consecutive years with the help of two Hirst volumetric samplers. According to pollen percentages obtained every hour, we determined whether every taxon studied presented a morning or an afternoon pattern, and whether this model was homogeneous (with a slight difference between the time of maximum and minimum reading) or heterogeneous (with a large difference between the two readings). We observed that the taxa that had many species in the area, such as Plantago, Poaceae, and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae showed a homogeneous model, while those taxa with few species present, such as Cupressaceae and Urticaceae showed a more heterogeneous model. Furthermore, the pattern of the plants with a large presence in the study area was more heterogeneous at 1.5 m because the pollen collected at this height is released from anthers. In the sampler placed at 15 m we detected airborne pollen, found that the curves were smoother and also observed a slight time delay for the taxa that were highly present in the area of study.

  10. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    PubMed

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area.

  11. Plant photosensitizers: A survey of their occurrence in arid and semiarid plants from North America.

    PubMed

    Downum, K R; Villegas, S; Rodriguez, E; Keil, D J

    1989-01-01

    Various plants native to arid and semiarid habitats throughout the southwestern United States, Baja California, and northern Mexico were bioassayed for phototoxic natural products. Approximately 115 species representing 57 genera and eight plant families were assayed for phototoxic activity by standard antimicrobial techniques usingEscherichia coli andSaccharomyces cerevisiae. Phototoxic constituents were extracted from numerous members in the Asteraceae (Compositae) and occurred with highest frequency among species of the subtribe Pectidinae (tribe Heliantheae). Extracts ofPectis, the largest genus in the Pectidinae, had substantial light-activated biocidal action despite the paucity of acetylenic thiophenes, the phototoxins characteristic of most other genera in the subtribe. Leaf resin from the creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mol. ex DC.) Coville; Zygophyllaceae], a dominant desert shrub, possessed potent antimicrobial activity in the absence of light; however, the toxicity of this extract was slightly enhanced in the presence of UVA irradiation. Phototoxic antimicrobials were not detected in extracts of selected species from the Asclepiadaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Polygonaceae, or Solanaceae.

  12. Airborne pollen grains in Bursa, Turkey, 1999-2000,.

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Adem; Tatlidil, Sevcan; Sapan, Nihat; Malyer, Hulusi; Canitez, Yakup

    2003-01-01

    In this study, pollen grains were sampled by using a Lanzoni trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000) in atmosphere of Bursa in 1999 and 2000. During two years. a total of 13,991 pollen grains/m3 which belonged to 59 taxa and unidentified pollen grains were recorded. A total of 7.768 pollen grains were identified in 1999 and a total of 6.223 in 2000. From these taxa, 36 belong to arboreal and 23 taxa to non-arboreal plants. Total pollen grains consist of 78.61% arboreal. 20.37% non-arboreal plants and 1.03% unidentified pollen grains. In the region investigated, Pinus sp., Olea sp., Platanus sp., Gramineae, Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Quercus sp., Acer sp.. Morus sp. Xanthium sp., Castanea sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Corvlus sp., Artemisia sp., Urtica sp.and Fraxinus sp. were responsible for the greatest amounts of pollen. During the study period the pollen concentration reached its highest level in April.

  13. A record of Quaternary humidity fluctuations on the NE Tibetan Plateau based on magnetic susceptibility variations in lacustrine sediments of the Qaidam Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, Christian; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Pross, Jörg; Fang, Xiaomin

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (?) and other magnetic proxies play an important role in paleoclimatic studies as they hold the potential for high-resolution records of past environmental change. Nevertheless, it is necessary to understand the cause of the variation in magnetic proxies by comparing them to more direct climate proxies such as pollen or stable isotopes. In this study we have compiled a high-resolution magnetic proxy dataset of the ca. 940-m-long core SG-1, which was drilled in the lacustrine sediments of the western Qaidam Basin on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our record spans the entire Quaternary (~2.8 to 0.1 Ma). The magnetic susceptibility record is compared to the Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratio, which is used to discriminate between dry and more humid phases in the Qaidam Basin, based on (i) 41 samples spanning the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT; ~1 Ma BP) and (ii) additional 40 samples selected from intervals of minimum and maximum ? values throughout the core. For the drill core SG-1, we observe a high correlation of the A/C ratio with ? results: minima of ? correspond to maxima of the A/C ratio (representing more humid phases) and vice versa. Additionally, spectral analysis of the ? record shows the emergence of the 100-ka Milankovitch cycle after the MPT. This testifies to the fact that cyclic variation of ? represents a response to global climate change.

  14. Phytolith analysis on dental calculus, enamel surface, and burial soil: information about diet and paleoenvironment.

    PubMed

    Fox, C L; Juan, J; Albert, R M

    1996-09-01

    Silica phytoliths (microscopic remains originating in plant tissues) have been identified on the enamel surface and dental calculus of a sample of teeth selected from well preserved skeletons from a Late Roman necropolis in Tarragona (Spain). Phytoliths were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their siliceous nature was confirmed by X-ray microanalysis. The phytoliths were compared to those of soil samples from both the areas of the tombs corresponding to the abdomen and the periphery of the skeletons, and were classified taxonomically by comparison with a large collection of silica particles from modern plants in the Mediterranean area. Most of the phytoliths identified on the enamel and the dental calculus belong to the family of Poaceae, while the phytoliths from the abdominal area belong to Poaceae, Leguminosae, Cyperaceae, and Chenopodiaceae. Results are concordant with archaeological, ecological, and historical data from the same site, and with the human Mediterranean diet. If done properly, the study of phytoliths can provide direct information about the vegetable diet of past human populations, and could be applied to the study of human fossils.

  15. Holocene climate changes in the mid-high-latitude-monsoon margin reflected by the pollen record from Hulun Lake, northeastern Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ruilin; Xiao, Jule; Chang, Zhigang; Zhai, Dayou; Xu, Qinghai; Li, Yuecong; Itoh, Shigeru; Lomtatidze, Zaur

    2010-03-01

    Pollen-assemblage data from a sediment core from Hulun Lake in northeastern Inner Mongolia describe the changes in the vegetation and climate of the East Asian monsoon margin during the Holocene. Dry steppe dominated the lake basin from ca. 11,000 to 8000 cal yr BP, suggesting a warm and dry climate. Grasses and birch forests expanded 8000 to 6400 cal yr BP, implying a remarkable increase in the monsoon precipitation. From 6400 to 4400 cal yr BP, the climate became cooler and drier. Chenopodiaceae dominated the interval from 4400 to 3350 cal yr BP, marking extremely dry condition. Artemisia recovered 3350-2050 cal yr BP, denoting an amelioration of climatic conditions. Both temperature and precipitation decreased 2050 to 1000 cal yr BP as indicated by decreased Artemisia and the development of pine forests. During the last 1000 yr, human activities might have had a significant influence on the environment of the lake region. We suggest that the East Asian summer monsoon did not become intensified until 8000 cal yr BP due to the existence of remnant ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. Changes in the monsoon precipitation on millennial to centennial scales would be related to ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropical Pacific.

  16. Climate Variability and Human Impacts at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson River, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritrairat, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Griffin, K.; Kurdyla, D.; Guilderson, T.

    2006-12-01

    The investigation of pollen, spores, charcoal, organic carbon content, C/N ratios, and radiometric dating provides a paleoecological study of Tivoli North Bay (42oN, 74oW), lower Hudson River. This freshwater tidal marsh record reveals vegetational changes which reflect local and regional vegetational and climatic shifts. Significant charcoal maxima at the base of the core appear to be parallel to the well-dated 500-yr charcoal maxima in Piermont Marsh downriver, implying a regional climatic impact of the Medieval Warming Interval in the lower Hudson Valley. European settlement is marked by very abrupt shift in vegetation and sediment composition as a result of deforestation, invasive species introduction, and infrastructure construction. Betula became a successful replacement of forest dominants such as Quercus, Pinus, and Tsuga. Weedy species including Ambrosia, Impatiens, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae expand as human impact increases. Higher sedimentation rate due to higher inorganic input appears to contribute to marsh composition changes as woody taxa such as Salix, Cephalanthus, Fraxinus, and Vitis appear in the wetland in the most recent centuries. Additional radiometric control linking stratigraphy from Tivoli North Bay to other Hudson River wetlands as well as pollen and spore analysis of river and air traps will lead to a better understanding of the Hudson watershed history. Significant extended droughts in the Hudson watershed due to natural variability have major implications for future water availability in this landscape.

  17. Production and characterization of polyclonal antibodies in rabbits to 4S-limonene synthase from spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    PubMed

    Alonso, W R; Crock, J E; Croteau, R

    1993-02-15

    Limonene synthase, a monoterpene cyclase from the oil glands of spearmint (Mentha spicata) leaves that catalyzes the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-4S-limonene, was purified, and polyclonal antibodies were generated in rabbits against the sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured protein. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the antibodies were very specific for denatured limonene synthase from all Mentha species tested. However, no immunological cross-reactivity was observed with denatured limonene synthases from Valencia oranges (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae) or wormseed (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae). Furthermore, the antibody preparation did not detectably cross-react with other monoterpene cyclases from related angiosperm species of the Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Umbellifereae, or from conifer species, and no cross-reactivity was demonstrated toward several sesquiterpene cyclases of higher plant and fungal origin. Although the antibody preparation was highly selective for denatured limonene cyclase from Mentha, the antibodies did not recognize the native protein in several different types of experiments. Nevertheless, specificity for the target enzyme was unambiguously demonstrated when the antibody preparation was shown to cross-react with the cyclase protein expressed in Escherichia coli that harbored the corresponding limonene synthase cDNA gene from M. spicata.

  18. Short-lived vegetational and environmental change during the Preboreal in the Biebrza Upper Basin (NE Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Klerk, Pim; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans

    2007-08-01

    A pollen diagram from the upper Biebrza basin (NE Poland) shows a conspicuous pollen fluctuation around 9650 BP, which is superimposed on a broader pollen fluctuation correlated with a more open vegetation phase during the Preboreal generally found in Europe. High-resolution pollen analyses indicate a duration of only a few years in which Pinus forests became more open. The resulting niches were partly occupied by Betula trees and partly by Betula shrubs, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae. Shortly before the increased opening of the upland vegetation, reed vegetation developed in the valley, in which Sparganium and later Typha became prominent. At the end of the short fluctuation, this reed vegetation diminished. The wetland vegetation development might be partly related to hydrological changes caused by a reduced evapotranspiration of the opened upland forest. The data presented here show that the open vegetation phase of the Preboreal was not of uniform character, but that within its short time span of ca 150 years an even shorter fluctuation of a few years to a few decades occurred. It is unknown whether this is a regionally restricted phenomenon or whether it has an extra-regional character.

  19. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  20. Betaine synthesis in chenopods: localization in chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; May A.M.; Grumet, R.; Bode, J.; Jamieson, G.C.; Rhodes, D.

    1985-06-01

    Plants from several families (Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae, Compositae) accumulate betaine (glycine betaine) in response to salt or water stress via the pathway: choline betainal (betaine aldehyde) betaine. Betaine accumulation is probably a metabolic adaptation to stress. Intact protoplasts from leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) oxidized ( UC)choline to betainal and betaine, as did protoplast lysates. Upon differential centrifugation, the ( UC)choline-oxidizing activity of lysates sedimented with chloroplasts. Chloroplasts purified from protoplast lysates by a Percoll cushion procedure retained strong ( UC)choline-oxidizing activity, although the proportion of the intermediate, ( UC)betainal, in the reaction products was usually higher than for protoplasts. Isolated chloroplasts also readily oxidized ( UC)betainal to betaine. Light increased the oxidation of both ( UC)choline and ( UC)betainal by isolated chloroplasts. Similar results were obtained with another chenopod (Beta vulgaris) but not with pea (Pisum sativum), a species that accumulates no betaine. The chloroplast site for betaine synthesis in chenopods contrasts with the mitochondrial site in mammals.

  1. Rainfall in the Negev Desert during the middle Holocene, based on 13C of organic matter in land snail shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.

    1990-09-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotope ratios ( {13C}/{12C}) of organic matter in land snail shells is used to infer middle Holocene rainfall amounts in the Negev Desert by reconstructing the distribution of C 4 plants in the family Chenopodiaceae. The organics are derived from the diet of the snails, which consists of plant material, and are enriched in 13C where C 4 plants are present. A survey of modern plant communities indicates that in areas receiving ≥300 mm mean annual rainfall, nearly all plant communities consist of C 3 species only (no C 4 chenopodes), whereas in areas under ≤230 mm rainfall, most plant communities contain one or more C 4 chenopode species. In between is a transition zone consisting of a mosaic of both pure C 3 and mixed C 3 + C 4 plant communities. Isotopic results for fossil land snails indicate a consistent geographic pattern throughout the middle Holocene, from ca. 6500 to 3000 yr B.P., with the transition zone located ca. 20 km south of its present position. This implies a near doubling of rainfall within this region as compared to present.

  2. Response of AM fungi spore population to elevated temperature and nitrogen addition and their influence on the plant community composition and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xue; Guo, Rui; Guo, Jixun

    2016-04-01

    To examine the influence of elevated temperature and nitrogen (N) addition on species composition and development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the effect of AMF on plant community structure and aboveground productivity, we conducted a 5-year field experiment in a temperate meadow in northeast China and a subsequent greenhouse experiment. In the field experiment, N addition reduced spore population diversity and richness of AMF and suppressed the spore density and the hyphal length density (HLD). Elevated temperature decreased spore density and diameter and increased the HLD, but did not affect AMF spore population composition. In the greenhouse experiment, AMF altered plant community composition and increased total aboveground biomass in both elevated temperature and N addition treatments; additionally, AMF also increased the relative abundance and aboveground biomass of the grasses Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) and Setaria viridis (Gramineae) and significantly reduced the relative abundance and aboveground biomass of the Suaeda corniculata (Chenopodiaceae). Although elevated temperature and N addition can affect species composition or suppress the development of AMF, AMF are likely to play a vital role in increasing plant diversity and productivity. Notably, AMF might reduce the threat of climate change induced degradation of temperate meadow ecosystems.

  3. Pollen record from Colle Curti and Cesi: Early and Middle Pleistocene mammal sites in the Umbro-Marchean Apennine Mountains (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Adele

    2000-12-01

    The palynological record from the Colle Curti and Cesi continental deposits has been examined in order to identify the main palaeofloristic and vegetational changes between 0.99 and 0.6-0.7 Ma. These data show a progressive increase in aridity, as well as a progressive decrease in temperature, which are associated with the transition in dominance from the 41 to 100 ka cyclicity in the Milankovitch orbital record during the Middle Pleistocene. The disappearance of Tsuga, recorded during the lower part of the Brunhes Chron, also has been related to a shift in global aridity. During the successive open vegetational phases (glacials), Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia progressively increase, whereas Cyperaceae decrease. Forest phases (interglacials) are successively dominated by Tsuga, Abies with Picea and, finally, Pinus; but all lack significant expansion of broad-leaved deciduous taxa. Palynological and sedimentological data, in addition to taphonomic interpretations, demonstrate the occurrence of several hiatuses in the lower parts of the interglacials. These hiatuses are considered to represent the palaeoenvironmental response to climatic changes affecting local sedimentological and geomorphological conditions.

  4. Rubisco Evolution in C4 Eudicots: An Analysis of Amaranthaceae Sensu Lato

    PubMed Central

    Kapralov, Maxim V.; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) catalyses the key reaction in the photosynthetic assimilation of CO2. In C4 plants CO2 is supplied to Rubisco by an auxiliary CO2-concentrating pathway that helps to maximize the carboxylase activity of the enzyme while suppressing its oxygenase activity. As a consequence, C4 Rubisco exhibits a higher maximum velocity but lower substrate specificity compared with the C3 enzyme. Specific amino-acids in Rubisco are associated with C4 photosynthesis in monocots, but it is not known whether selection has acted on Rubisco in a similar way in eudicots. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated Rubisco evolution in Amaranthaceae sensu lato (including Chenopodiaceae), the third-largest family of C4 plants, using phylogeny-based maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to detect Darwinian selection on the chloroplast rbcL gene in a sample of 179 species. Two Rubisco residues, 281 and 309, were found to be under positive selection in C4 Amaranthaceae with multiple parallel replacements of alanine by serine at position 281 and methionine by isoleucine at position 309. Remarkably, both amino-acids have been detected in other C4 plant groups, such as C4 monocots, illustrating a striking parallelism in molecular evolution. Conclusions/Significance Our findings illustrate how simple genetic changes can contribute to the evolution of photosynthesis and strengthen the hypothesis that parallel amino-acid replacements are associated with adaptive changes in Rubisco. PMID:23285238

  5. Re-consideration of Peronospora farinosa infecting Spinacia oleracea as distinct species, Peronospora effusa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2007-04-01

    Downy mildew is probably the most widespread and potentially destructive global disease of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The causal agent of downy mildew disease on various plants of Chenopodiaceae, including spinach, is regarded as a single species, Peronospora farinosa. In the present study, the ITS rDNA sequence and morphological data demonstrated that P. farinosa from S. oleracea is distinct from downy mildew of other chenopodiaceous hosts. Fifty-eight spinach specimens were collected or loaned from 17 countries of Asia, Europe, Oceania, North and South America, which all formed a distinct monophyletic group. No intercontinental genetic variation of the ITS rDNA within Peronospora accessions causing spinach downy mildew disease was found. Phylogenetic trees supported recognition of Peronospora from spinach as a separate species. Microscopic examination also revealed morphological differences between Peronospora specimens from Spinacia and P. farinosa s. lat. specimens from Atriplex, Bassia, Beta, and Chenopodium. Consequently, the name Peronospora effusa should be reinstated for the downy mildew fungus found on spinach. Here, a specimen of the original collections of Peronospora effusa is designated as lectotype.

  6. The impact of altered precipitation variability on annual weed species.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Todd M P; Gross, Katherine L

    2010-10-01

    Climate change models predict increasing variability in precipitation across the globe, with an increase in the incidence of large precipitation events but decreasing overall event frequency. Research with annual species in arid and semiarid ecosystems has demonstrated that precipitation variability can influence plant community dynamics; however, less is known about the impact of precipitation variability in less water-limited ecosystems, including economically important agricultural systems. • We conducted three greenhouse experiments to determine how variation in total precipitation and the interval between precipitation events affected emergence and growth of two common annual midwestern weed species, Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) and Setaria faberi (Poaceae). • Both species responded to precipitation variability; however, the effect depended on life stage and precipitation amount, indicating that responses are highly context-dependent. Emergence of both species increased with longer intervals between precipitation events at low total precipitation, but species' responses varied under typical precipitation amounts. Individual seedling biomass of both species depended on interactions between total water and intervals, but species' responses differed; Setaria faberi biomass was reduced with longer intervals, but Chenopodium album had either a positive or no response. • Our results suggest that changes in precipitation variability likely will affect the composition and relative abundance of agriculturally important weeds. These results are important for understanding how changes in the temporal variability of precipitation due to global climate changes could impact plants in non-arid communities.

  7. Sensitive response of desert vegetation to moisture change based on a near-annual resolution pollen record from Gahai Lake in the Qaidam Basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Yu, Zicheng; Chen, Fahu; Liu, Xiuju; Ito, Emi

    2008-05-01

    We present a 50-year pollen record at near-annual resolution from Gahai Lake in the Qaidam Basin on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Chronology of a 22-cm short core was established by 210Pb and 137Cs analysis. The pollen results at 0.5 cm intervals show large changes in Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratios from < 0.2 to 0.95 in the last 50 years. High (low) A/C ratios represent increase (decrease) in steppe pollen production, which correspond to high (low) relative humidity observed at nearby Delingha weather station. On the basis of good correspondence with instrumental records and carbonate content from Gahai Lake, we conclude that A/C ratio is sensitive to moisture change and can be a very useful index in reconstructing paleoclimate of arid regions. Comparison with pollen and snow accumulation data from Dunde ice core suggests that effective moisture at low and high elevations shows the opposite relationship when mountain precipitation was extremely high, possibly due to topography-induced uplifting and subsiding air dynamics.

  8. Ecosystem responses during Late Glacial period recorded in the sediments of Lake Łukie (East Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Słowiński, Michał; Correa-Metrio, Alex; Obremska, Milena; Luoto, Tomi; Nevalainen, Liisa; Woszczyk, Michał; Milecka, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study was to reconstruct climate impact on the functioning of Lake Łukie and its catchment (Łęczna Włodawa Lake District, East European Plain) during Late Glacial period. In order to reconstruct climatic fluctuations and corresponding ecosystem responses, we analysed lake sediments for pollen, subfossil Cladocera, plant macrofossils and chemical composition of the sediment. Of these, plant macrofossils and Cladocera were used to infer minimum and mean July temperatures and ordination analysis was used to examine biotic community shifts. Multiproxy analyses of late-glacial sediments of Lake Łukie clearly show that the main driver of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as geomorphological processes in the catchment was climate variation. The history of the lake initiated during the Older Dryas. In that period, Łęczna Włodawa Lake District was covered by open habitats dominated by grasses (Poaceae), humid sites were occupied by tundra plant communities with less clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides), dry sites by dominated by steppe-like vegetation with light-demanding species such as Helianthemum, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and juniper bushes (Juniperus). Cold climate limited the growth and development of organisms in the lake, Cladocera community species composition was poor, with only few species present there all the time. During this time period, permafrost was still present in the ground limiting infiltration of rainwater and causing high erosion in the catchment area. Surface runoff is confirmed by the presence of sclerotia of Cenococcum geophilum and high terrigenous silica content. The warming of the early Allerød caused a remarkable change in the natural environment of this area. This is in accordance with the temperature rise reconstructed with the use of plant macrofossils though the Cladocera reconstruction did not recorded the rise than. This temperature increase resulted in turnover of vegetation in the

  9. Late Pliocene-Quaternary humidity fluctuations on the NE Tibetan Plateau deduced from the magnetic record in lacustrine sediments of the Qaidam paleolake (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, C.; Zhang, W.; Appel, E.; Koutsodendris, A.; Pross, J.; Fang, X.

    2013-12-01

    -resolution reconstruction of humidity changes. As Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae are the predominant pollen taxa (average 60% of total pollen grains), the Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratio is used to identify vegetation dynamics of the Qaidam Basin: lower A/C ratios prevail during desert environments and higher A/C ratios during steppe conditions. Pollen counting of 41 samples along the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT; ~1.2-0.7 Ma), during which a shift from the dominating 41-kyr obliquity cycle to the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle took place, reveals the dominance of steppe and desert plants in that time span as well as a high correlation between χ values and A/C ratios. This shows that χ is an indicator for humidity in the time span around the MPT, whereby χ values are higher in dryer phases and lower in more humid (or rather less dry) times. Along the remaining core palynological results of 40 additional samples are available showing the same behavior between χ and humidity fluctuations, beside a minor part of the core probably due to changes in the lake system. Our results show that magnetic susceptibility of drill core SG-1 is a suitable proxy for reconstructing past environmental changes of the Qaidam paleolake in a high resolution, concluded from its response to orbital forcing and sensitivity to humidity fluctuations detected by the comparison to other magnetic proxies and palynological results.

  10. Mineral Ion composition and occurrence of CAM-like diurnal malate fluctuations in plants of coastal and desert habitats of israel and the Sinai.

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Troughton, John H; Evenari, Michael; Läuchli, André; Lüttge, Ulrich

    1976-06-01

    1. The mineral ion composition and the occurrence of CAM-like diurnal malate fluctuations in species from 6 field locations in Israel and the Sinai were studied during the spring of 1974. The sites were a) a salt swamp near Acre on the Mediterranean Sea shore in the northern part of Israel, b) the high coast near Tel Aviv, c) the southern Dead Sea area near Sedom, d) the Negev highlands surrounding the ancient town of Avdat, e) the Wadi Paran in the southern Negev desert, and f) the Red Sea shore near the southeastern tip of the Sinai peninsula close to the Bedouin village of Nabek. The carbon assimilatory organs of the plants were analysed for Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) as well as for malate at dawn and dusk. 2. Most species analysed are characterized by high levels of mineral ions (mainly Na(+)/and Cl(-)) often exceeding 300-400 μeq per g fresh weight, and by high Na(+)/K(+) ratios in their tissues mainly ranging from 10 to 20. These typical halophytic attributes are particularly found in species of the Acre salt swamp, of the Dead Sea area and the Red Sea shore and in many species of the Negev highlands. 3. In plants occupying the Tel Aviv high coast habitats Na(+) and Cl(-) are lower averaging 100 to 200 μeq per g fresh weight. The Na(+)/K(+) ratio is about 5. 4. Numerous species mainly inhabiting the less saline loessial plains and wadis of the Negev desert contain only up to 100 μeq Na(+) and Cl(-) per g fresh weight and are characterized by Na(+)/K(+) ratios of about 1 and below. 5. The salt-accumulating species of the coastal habitats contain Na(+) and Cl(-) in more or less equivalent amounts, i.e. halophytes of the "chloride type" in the terminology of Walter dominate these sites. In contrast, many inland halophytes chiefly belonging to the Chenopodiaceae accumulate much more Na(+) than Cl(-) and/or SO4(2-). 6. The special feature of Na(+) contents which far exceed the sum of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) distinguishes the inland Chenopodiaceae as a "physiotype

  11. Characterisation of bio-aerosols during dust storm period in N-NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Sudesh; Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam

    Bio-investigations for pollen and spores were performed on dry free-fall dust and PM 10 aerosol samples, collected from three different locations separated by a distance of 600 km, situated in dust storm hit region of N-NW India. Presence of pollen of trees namely Prosopis ( Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cinearia), Acacia, Syzygium, Pinus, Cedrus, Holoptelea and shrubs namely Ziziphus, Ricinus, Ephedra and members of Fabaceae, Oleaceae families was recorded but with varying proportions in the samples of different locations. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae and Cyperaceae (sedges) were some of the herb pollen identified in the samples. Among the fungal spores Nigrospora was seen in almost all samples. Nigrospora is a well known allergen and causes health problems. The concentration of trees and shrubs increases in the windward direction just as the climate changes from hot arid to semiarid. The higher frequency of grasses (Poaceae) or herbs could either be a result of the presence of these herbs in the sampling area and hence the higher production of pollen/spores or due to the resuspension from the exposed surface by the high-intensity winds. But we cannot ascertain the exact process at this stage. The overall similarity in the pollen and spore assemblage in our dust samples indicates a common connection or source(s) to the dust in this region. Presence of the pollen of the species of Himalayan origin in our entire samples strongly point towards a Himalayan connection, could be direct or indirect, to the bioaerosols and hence dust in N-NW India. In order to understand the transport path and processes involved therein, present study needs further extension with more number of samples and with reference to meteorological parameters.

  12. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  13. In vitro anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of solvent-extracted fractions from Suaeda asparagoides.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Dae; Lee, Whi Min; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Hwa Jin; Kim, Tae Wan; Choe, Nong-Hoon; Kim, Sang Keun; Rhee, Man Hee

    2007-06-01

    Suaeda asparagoides Miq. (Chenopodiaceae: S. asparagoides) is a salt-marsh plant that has long been prescribed in traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of hypertension and hepatitis. In order to elucidate the pharmacological mechanisms of the herb, we conducted an examination of the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of solvent-extracts of S. asparagoides. All of the solvent fractions showed potent anti-oxidative effects, as assessed using a radical generation assay system (xanthine oxidase assay) and an electron-donating activity system (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical] assay), with IC50 values ranging from 9 to 42 microg/ml. In agreement with this pattern, the total phenolic contents were widely distributed in the various solvent fractions, and ranged from 36.5 to 50.3 mg/g of dry weight. All of the solvent fractions significantly suppressed NO production in RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1 microg/ml) and of the fractions, only the chloroform (CHC) fraction completely blocked the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). Additionally, the hexane (HEX) and CHC fractions suppressed the mRNA expression of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), respectively, in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that the pharmacological action of S. asparagoides is due to its potent anti-oxidative effects and anti-inflammatory effects, and that therefore it can be applied to other diseases caused by oxidative stress and inflammation, such as cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Pollen-climate relationships in time (9 ka, 6 ka, 0 ka) and space (upland vs. lowland) in eastern continental Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang; Cao, Xianyong; Dallmeyer, Anne; Zhao, Yan; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Temporal and spatial stability of the vegetation-climate relationship is a basic ecological assumption for pollen-based quantitative inferences of past climate change and for predicting future vegetation. We explore this assumption for the Holocene in eastern continental Asia (China, Mongolia). Boosted regression trees (BRT) between fossil pollen taxa percentages (Abies, Artemisia, Betula, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Ephedra, Picea, Pinus, Poaceae and Quercus) and climate model outputs of mean annual precipitation (Pann) and mean temperature of the warmest month (Mtwa) for 9 and 6 ka (ka = thousand years before present) were set up and results compared to those obtained from relating modern pollen to modern climate. Overall, our results reveal only slight temporal differences in the pollen-climate relationships. Our analyses suggest that the importance of Pann compared with Mtwa for taxa distribution is higher today than it was at 6 ka and 9 ka. In particular, the relevance of Pann for Picea and Pinus increases and has become the main determinant. This change in the climate-tree pollen relationship parallels a widespread tree pollen decrease in north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We assume that this is at least partly related to vegetation-climate disequilibrium originating from human impact. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration may have permitted the expansion of moisture-loving herb taxa (Cyperaceae and Poaceae) during the late Holocene into arid/semi-arid areas. We furthermore find that the pollen-climate relationship between north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau is generally similar, but that regional differences are larger than temporal differences. In summary, vegetation-climate relationships in China are generally stable in space and time, and pollen-based climate reconstructions can be applied to the Holocene. Regional differences imply the calibration-set should be restricted spatially.

  15. Radiation of the Australian flora: what can comparisons of molecular phylogenies across multiple taxa tell us about the evolution of diversity in present-day communities?

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Mike; Cook, Lyn; Steane, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    The Australian fossil record shows that from ca. 25 Myr ago, the aseasonal-wet biome (rainforest and wet heath) gave way to the unique Australian sclerophyll biomes dominated by eucalypts, acacias and casuarinas. This transition coincided with tectonic isolation of Australia, leading to cooler, drier, more seasonal climates. From 3 Myr ago, aridification caused rapid opening of the central Australian arid zone. Molecular phylogenies with dated nodes have provided new perspectives on how these events could have affected the evolution of the Australian flora. During the Mid-Cenozoic (25-10 Myr ago) period of climatic change, there were rapid radiations in sclerophyll taxa, such as Banksia, eucalypts, pea-flowered legumes and Allocasuarina. At the same time, taxa restricted to the aseasonal-wet biome (Nothofagus, Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae) did not radiate or were depleted by extinction. During the Pliocene aridification, two Eremean biome taxa (Lepidium and Chenopodiaceae) radiated rapidly after dispersing into Australia from overseas. It is clear that the biomes have different histories. Lineages in the aseasonal-wet biome are species poor, with sister taxa that are species rich, either outside Australia or in the sclerophyll biomes. In conjunction with the fossil record, this indicates depletion of the Australian aseasonal-wet biome from the Mid-Cenozoic. In the sclerophyll biomes, there have been multiple exchanges between the southwest and southeast, rather than single large endemic radiations after a vicariance event. There is need for rigorous molecular phylogenetic studies so that additional questions can be addressed, such as how interactions between biomes may have driven the speciation process during radiations. New studies should include the hitherto neglected monsoonal tropics. PMID:15519972

  16. Antispasmodic and bronchorelaxant activities of Salsola imbricata are mediated through dual Ca(+2) antagonistic and β-adrenergic agonistic effects.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Janbaz, Khalid Hussain

    2017-12-01

    Salsola imbricata Forssk. (Chenopodiaceae) has folkloric repute for the treatment of various gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. The present study investigates spasmolytic and bronchorelaxant effects of S. imbricata. The crude aqueous-ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. imbricata and its fractions, in cumulative concentrations (0.01-10 mg/mL), were tested on contractions of isolated rabbit jejunum and tracheal preparations. Furthermore, concentration response curves (CRCs) of Ca(+2) and carbachol were constructed in the absence and presence of the extract. Standard organ bath methods were used. The crude extract relaxed spontaneous, K(+ )(80 mM) and carbachol (1 μM)-induced contractions in jejunum preparations with respective EC50 values of 0.40 (0.35-0.46), 0.69 (0.60-0.79) and 0.66 (0.57-0.75) mg/mL. It shifted Ca(+2) CRCs rightward in nonparallel manner. In isolated tracheal preparations, the crude extract caused relaxation of K(+ )(80 mM) and carbachol (1 μM)-induced contractions with EC50 values of 0.86 (0.75-0.98) and 0.74 (0.66-0.84) mg/mL, respectively. It displaced carbachol CRCs rightward with suppression of maximal response. In both tissues, pretreatment with propranolol (1 μM) caused rightward shift in inhibitory CRCs of the extract against carbachol-induced contractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was found more potent in relaxing smooth muscle contractions than the parent extract and its aqueous fraction. The results suggest that the spasmolytic and bronchorelaxant activities of S. imbricata are related to Ca(+2) antagonistic and β-adrenergic agonistic effects, thus justifying some of the traditional uses of the plant.

  17. The Little Ice Age and its Spatial Variability across the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence, and AMS 14C based chronology, we present a correlation between two new high resolution Little Ice Age (LIA) records from the Central Balkans that are part of one of the least studied regions of Europe. The sediments extracted from a western sinkhole and central Serbian oxbow lake are analyzed at 8-10-cm intervals to capture the nature and magnitude of the LIA at a resolution of 20 years. During the 15th-19th CE, indigenous tree (e.g. Quercus, Acer, Pinus) and herbaceous (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia) pollen from these records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics. While tree populations from Central Serbia remain comparatively stable (40-60%), the trees of western Serbia vacillate drastically between 15% and 50%. Similarly, central Serbian grasses show variations of ~18-36% whereas the western Serbian grass populations exhibit abrupt oscillations between high (55%) and low (19%) percentages. As a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes, the 1-cm resolution potassium and titanium counts are in strong agreement with varying herbaceous taxa. These variations in ecological signals across the cores can account for local factors including altitude, terrain exposure, soils etc., however, the dynamic human component of the landscape is evident through crop pollen (e.g. Cerealia, Juglans) and microscopic charcoal highlighting the dominant role of people in ecological changes. Although the two sites show certain differences in charcoal concentration, extremely high charcoal indicates accelerated land clearance between the 15th and 17th CE. Until the beginning of 18th CE, the cultivars (e.g. Secale, Triticum) occur with very low percentages and then peak to suggest improved agriculture in the region. In the post-LIA era, the 20th CE exhibits increased arboreal percentages and declining grasslands in both the two Central

  18. Quantification Analysis and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 20-Hydroxyecdysone, Momordin Ic, and Oleanolic Acid from the Fructus of Kochia scoparia.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sae-Rom; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Na-Ri; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Seo, Chang-Seob

    2017-01-01

    The fructus of Kochia scoparia Schrader (Chenopodiaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine that has been used for treating gonorrhea and dermatitis. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of three marker compounds, including 20-hydroxyecdysone, momordin Ic, and oleanolic acid, from the fructus of K. scoparia. The simultaneous analysis of three components was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of the nine marker compounds by determining their anti-inflammatory activities in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Among three marker compounds, momordin Ic, but not 20-hydroxyecdysone and oleanolic acid, had inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. The effects of three marker compounds on prostaglandin E2(PGE2) were also evaluated. All three compounds significantly reduced PGE2 production in LPS-treated cells. We suggest that momordin Ic is the most potent phytochemical of the fructus of K. scoparia as an anti-inflammatory agent. Simultaneous analysis of three phenylpropanoids in the Kochia scoparia was established using HPLC-PDA systemThe momordin Ic had inhibitory effects on production of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophagesThe momordin Ic, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and oleanolic acid significantly reduced PGE2 production in LPS-treated cells. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: Interleukin-6; PGE(2): Pro-inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.

  19. Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Croteau, R

    1984-11-15

    Ascaridole, an asymmetric monoterpene endoperoxide with anthelmintic properties, occurs as a major constituent (60-80%) in the volatile oil of American wormseed fruit (Chenopodium ambrosioides: Chenopodiaceae), and as a lesser component in the leaf pocket oil of the boldo tree (Peumus boldus: Monimiaceae). Determination of optical activity and chromatographic resolution of naturally occurring ascaridole, and several synthetic derivatives, showed that both wormseed and boldo produce ascaridole in racemic form. The biosynthesis of ascaridole from the conjugated, symmetrical diene alpha-terpinene (a major component of the oil from wormseed) was shown to be catalyzed by a soluble iodide peroxidase isolated from homogenates of C. ambrosioides fruit and leaves. The enzymatic synthesis of ascaridole was confirmed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the product, which was also shown to be racemic. Optimal enzymatic activity occurred at pH 4.0 in the presence of 2.5 mM H2O2 and 1 mM NaI. Soluble enzyme extracts were fractionated by gel filtration on both Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-100, and were shown to consist of a high-molecular-weight peroxidase component (Mr greater than 1,000,000, 30% of total activity) and two other peroxidase species having apparent molecular weights of 62,000 and 45,000 (major component). Peroxidase activity was susceptible to proteolytic destruction only after periodate treatment, suggesting an association of the enzyme(s) with polysaccharide material. Ascaridole biosynthesis from alpha-terpinene was inhibited by cyanide, catalase, and reducing agents, but not by compounds that trap superoxide or quench singlet oxygen. A peroxide transfer reaction initiated by peroxidase-generated I+ is proposed for the conversion of alpha-terpinene to ascaridole.

  20. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport

  1. Kranz and single-cell forms of C4 plants in the subfamily Suaedoideae show kinetic C4 convergence for PEPC and Rubisco with divergent amino acid substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Rosnow, Josh J.; Evans, Marc A.; Kapralov, Maxim V.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Roalson, Eric H.

    2015-01-01

    The two carboxylation reactions performed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) are vital in the fixation of inorganic carbon for C4 plants. The abundance of PEPC is substantially elevated in C4 leaves, while the location of Rubisco is restricted to one of two chloroplast types. These differences compared with C3 leaves have been shown to result in convergent enzyme optimization in some C4 species. Investigation into the kinetic properties of PEPC and Rubisco from Kranz C4, single cell C4, and C3 species in Chenopodiaceae s. s. subfamily Suaedoideae showed that these major carboxylases in C4 Suaedoideae species lack the same mutations found in other C4 systems which have been examined; but still have similar convergent kinetic properties. Positive selection analysis on the N-terminus of PEPC identified residues 364 and 368 to be under positive selection with a posterior probability >0.99 using Bayes empirical Bayes. Compared with previous analyses on other C4 species, PEPC from C4 Suaedoideae species have different convergent amino acids that result in a higher K m for PEP and malate tolerance compared with C3 species. Kinetic analysis of Rubisco showed that C4 species have a higher catalytic efficiency of Rubisco (k catc in mol CO2 mol–1 Rubisco active sites s–1), despite lacking convergent substitutions in the rbcL gene. The importance of kinetic changes to the two-carboxylation reactions in C4 leaves related to amino acid selection is discussed. PMID:26417023

  2. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

  3. Identifying and Interpreting the Imprint of the Little Ice Age over the Balkan Landscape: A Combined Palynological and Geochemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    We examine a multi-centennial Balkan record of vegetation and landscape during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic transition that lasted from c. 15th to the 19th century AD. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)), and a robust chronology based on AMS 14C dating are used to reconstruct the vegetation response and human-environmental interactions during the LIA. A sediment core extracted from a sinkhole lake located in western Serbia (44°30'N-19°30'E; elevation 250 m a.s.l.) was sampled at 10-cm intervals for investigating biological proxies. Palynological data include temperate indigenous trees (e.g. Quercus, Betula), herbaceous taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae), and key anthropogenic indicators (e.g. Juglans, cereals) and demonstrate wet and cool conditions as well as seasonal variations during cal. 16th to 19th century AD. The XRF data obtained from the core at 1-cm intervals show changes in the clastic input and surface erosion around the lake probably owing to seasonal variations during the LIA. Moreover, pollen and charcoal data together reveal the changing nature of human interference across the LIA from intense deforestation to reforestation and sustained cultivation with climatic and seasonal variations. Correlating palaeoecological and geochemical data for this region allows us to interpret the long-term dynamics of landscape and humans across one of the important climatic intervals in Europe. The Balkans, as one of Europe's "Biodiversity Hotspots" and a rapidly changing region, provides insights into possible biotic responses to future global climatic change.

  4. A major allergen from pollen defines a novel family of plant proteins and shows intra- and interspecies [correction of interspecie] cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Barral, Patricia; Batanero, Eva; Palomares, Oscar; Quiralte, Joaquín; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2004-03-15

    Olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen is a main cause of allergy associated with extensive areas of Europe and North America. Ole e 10, a small (10.8 kDa) and acidic (pI 5.8) protein, has been identified as a major allergen from the olive pollen, isolated, and characterized. Circular dichroism analysis gave 17% alpha helix, 33% beta sheet, and 21% beta turn for its secondary structure. Based on amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides, the protein was cloned and sequenced. The allergen consists of a single polypeptide chain of 102 aa, with a signal peptide of 21 residues. Ole e 10 showed homology with the C-terminal domain of another olive allergen, Ole e 9 (1,3-beta-glucanase, 53% identity), with deduced sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana genes (42-46% identity) and with polypeptide segments (Cys boxes) of proteins involved in yeast development (Epd1/Gas-1p/Phr2 families; 42-43% similarity). Ole e 10 showed 55% prevalence for olive-allergic patients and exhibited an IgE response dependent on its conformation. Remarkable IgE cross-reactivity was detected with Ole e 9, but no correlation was observed between the individual IgE responses to both allergens. Ole e 10 shares IgE B cell epitopes with proteins from Oleaceae, Gramineae, Betulaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cupressaceae, Ambrosia, and Parietaria pollens, latex, and vegetable foods, such as tomato, kiwi, potato, and peach. These data indicate that Ole e 10 is a new pan-allergenic plant protein that shows notable intra- and interspecie IgE cross-reactivity and is a powerful candidate to be involved in pollen-latex-fruit syndrome.

  5. Habitat characteristics and eggshell distribution of the salt marsh mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in marshes in subtropical Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Dale, Pat E R; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A; Brown, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as significantly higher in eggshells than any other vegetation. There were also high numbers in the mix of S. virginicus with the arrowgrass, Triglochin striata Ruiz & Pavón (Alismatales: Juncaginaceae). Both mixed types are found in relatively wetter areas, despite very few eggshells being found generally in the low marsh. Most sites contained S. virginicus and eggshell locations were variable for this species alone. This was probably related to its life form variability in response to salinity and location on the marsh. Location on the marsh was important for eggshell distribution with most eggshells around the edges of pools and depressions, followed by, but to a significantly lesser extent, the marsh surface. Eggshells were fewest in the low marsh. Partition analysis resulted in a tree that simplified and summarised the factors important for eggshell distribution confirming the individual analyses. The potential effects of climate, sea level and other change are also briefly discussed in the context of likely changes to land cover and relative location on the marsh. For example, increased sea level may lead to low marsh conditions extending into higher marsh area with implications for oviposition and numbers of eggshells.

  6. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  7. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 μg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 μg/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced

  8. The Eocene-Oligocene palynological record from the Xining Basin (Tibetan Plateau, China) as evidence for Asian paleoenvironments and regional change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoorn, Carina; Straathof, Julia; Abels, Hemmo; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) transition is marked by global cooling trend that coincided with rapid growth of the Antarctic ice sheet and a drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This trend is particularly well registered in the oceanographic record, but complete continental sequences comprising this transition are sparse. Even rarer are palynological records for this period of climatic change. Here, we report on a palynological and chronostratigraphic study of playa/lake deposits situated in the Xining Basin (Tibetan Plateau, NW China). In this basin, the E-O transition was identified by a regional lithological change in the red bed / gypsum alternation and was precisely dated through magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy (Abels et al., this session). This sedimentary sequence also contains pollen and includes high abundances (and many varieties) of Ephedra and Nitraria, taxa typical for arid vegetation types. Subtle fluctuations of these taxa throughout the sequence suggest that the local vegetation alternated from desert type (Ephedra dominated) to -slightly more humid- steppe type (Nitraria dominated). A remarkable increase in regional pollen influx of Pinaceae occurs below the E-O boundary, at ca. 36 Ma, and is considered to be evidence for climatic cooling and/or increased topography in the Tibetan Plateau. The palynological results of the Xining section fit well in the wider Chinese context during the E-O transition when a broad arid belt crossed China from East to West. By Neogene times the arid zone was restricted to NW China (Sun & Wang, 2005) and palynological assemblages were no longer Ephedra and Nitraria dominated, but instead a.o. characterized by Artemisia and Amaranthaceae / Chenopodiaceae and only minor amounts of Nitraria. This change seems to coincide with the development of the Asian monsoons, but the role that this climatic system played on the evolution of the arid land floras remains to be further investigated.

  9. Fifteen years' record of airborne allergenic pollen and meteorological parameters in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Balafoutis, Christos; Damialis, Athanasios; Papakosta, Despoina; Gioulekas, George; Patakas, Dimitrios

    . A pollen calendar has been constructed for the area of Thessaloniki and relationships between pollen transport and meteorological parameters have been assessed. Daily airborne pollen records were collected over a 15-year period (1987-2001), using a Burkard continuous volumetric pollen trap, located in the centre of the city. Sixteen allergenic pollen types were identified. Simultaneously, daily records of five main meteorological parameters (mean air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sunshine, wind speed) were made, and then correlated with fluctuations of the airborne pollen concentrations. For the first time in Greece, a pollen calendar has been constructed for 16 pollen types, from which it appears that 24.9% of the total pollen recorded belong to Cupressaceae, 20.8% to Quercus spp., 13.6% to Urticaceae, 9.1% to Oleaceae, 8.9% to Pinaceae, 6.3% to Poaceae, 5.4% to Platanaceae, 3.0% to Corylus spp., 2.5% to Chenopodiaceae and 1.4% to Populus spp. The percentages of Betula spp., Asteraceae (Artemisia spp. and Ambrosia spp.), Salix spp., Ulmaceae and Alnus spp. were each lower than 1%. A positive correlation between pollen transport and both mean temperature and sunshine was observed, whereas usually no correlation was found between pollen and relative humidity or rainfall. Finally, wind speed was generally found to have a significant positive correlation with the concentrations of 8 pollen types. For the first time in the area of Thessaloniki, and more generally in Greece, 15-year allergenic pollen records have been collected and meteorological parameters have been recorded. The airborne pollen concentration is strongly influenced by mean air temperature and sunshine duration. The highest concentrations of pollen grains are observed during spring (May).

  10. Aerial and soil seed banks enable populations of an annual species to cope with an unpredictable dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Xuejun; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Huang, Zhenying; Walck, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    Simultaneous formation of aerial and soil seed banks by a species provides a mechanism for population maintenance in unpredictable environments. Eolian activity greatly affects growth and regeneration of plants in a sand dune system, but we know little about the difference in the contributions of these two seed banks to population dynamics in sand dunes. Seed release, germination, seedling emergence and survival of a desert annual, Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), inhabiting the Ordos Sandland in China, were determined in order to explore the different functions of the aerial and soil seed banks. The size of the aerial seed bank was higher than that of the soil seed bank throughout the growing season. Seed release was positively related to wind velocity. Compared with the soil seed bank, seed germination from the aerial seed bank was lower at low temperature (5/15 °C night/day) but higher in the light. Seedling emergence from the soil seed bank was earlier than that from the aerial seed bank. Early-emerged (15 April-15 May) seedlings died due to frost, but seedlings that emerged during the following months survived to reproduce successfully. The timing of seed release and different germination behaviour resulted in a temporal heterogeneity of seedling emergence and establishment between the two seed banks. The study suggests that a bet-hedging strategy for the two seed banks enables A. squarrosum populations to cope successfully with the unpredictable desert environment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Implications of Late Pliocene-Pleistocene Humidity Fluctuations in the Qaidam Paleolake (NE Tibetan Plateau) Deduced from Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, C.; Appel, E.; Koutsodendris, A.; Zhang, W.; Pross, J.; Fang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau) contains a near-continuous, up to 12 km thick sequence of Cenozoic strata that offers a unique opportunity for studying long-term climate change. We investigate the 940-m-long drill core SG-1 from the western Qaidam Basin, which is characterized by a long-term transition from a semi-deep freshwater lake to nearly complete exsiccation of the water body, detected by several studies including geochemical and lithological observations. Based on magnetostratigraphy and optically stimulated luminescence dating, and refined by orbital tuning, the SG-1 core spans the interval from 2.69 to 0.1 Ma. Moisture availability in the western Qaidam Basin deduced from the pollen ratio Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C), suggests desert to steppe vegetation along core SG-1 as a long-term feature. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) is well suited for the high-resolution investigation of paleohumidity. The meaning of χ as a paleohydrology proxy is shown by comparing χ to other magnetic proxies for checking its relation to magnetic grain sizes and magnetic mineralogy as well as to pollen results. χ variations are analyzed to obtain regional information on the factors leading to the drying process of the Qaidam paleolake as well as potential driving factors for humidity fluctuations (e.g., insolation). An important topic that needs further investigation is the influence of monsoon in the Qaidam Basin. While the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau is directly affected by monsoon precipitation through the topographic barrier, its influence in the past is questionable in the hyper-arid Qaidam Basin. We check a potential coupling to the monsoon system in the western Qaidam Basin by comparing our χ record to reconstructions of the Asian monsoon system from other archives as well as searching evidence from orbital cyclicities found in the χ time series.

  12. Land use changes and its climatic implications in Northern Italy during the Dark Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Oeggl-Wahlmüller, Notburga; Festi, Daniela; Zagermann, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Here we present an interdisciplinary study on land use changes in Northern Italy at the transition from the Roman Empire to the Early Middle Ages. The combination of archaeological data and high-resolution pollen analyses carried out in the Fiavè basin (Trentino) provide a detailed insight in socio-economic changes and its implications with climate in the Dark Ages. The vegetation in this area is dominated up to 1000 m by submediterranian trees like Fraxinus ornus and Ostrya carpinifolia, superseded by a mixed Fagus and Abies forest with variable amounts of Picea abies. Since 2008 archaeological surveys in the Fiavè basin as well as excavations conducted on a fortified hill-top settlement (castrum) in 985m register the settlement development of this settlement cluster and reveal an almost continuous occupation from Roman to Early Medieval Times. In addition a high-resolution pollen record from a 1.30 m thick peat sequence of the bog "Palude di Fiave" discloses four main phases: (1) in the Late Iron Age high amounts of arboreal pollen and the spread of Abies demonstrate a decrease in settlement activity suggested by wetter climate conditions. (2) During the Roman Empire a phase with arable farming in the basin starts. Olea, Juglans and Castanea sativa are introduced and document the onset of horticulture in this region. (3) After 300 AD - during the Migration Period - the wet and cool conditions have had poor impact on settlement activity. Agricultural (Cerealia) and nitrophilous indicators (Plantago, Chenopodiaceae, Urticaceae) are continuously proved. However a change within the cultivated crops in relation to the climate conditions is observed. Subsequently a progressive recovery of Pinus followed by Abies and Fagus marks the climatic improvement at the beginning of the Early Medieval Times. (4) The time from 600 to 800 AD is characterized by increasing frequency and diversity of anthropogenic-related indicators. The implications of these land use changes with

  13. A mosaic disease of Senna hirsuta induced by a potyvirus in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, A T; Proll, E

    2001-04-01

    A virus inducing mosaic and severe leaf malformation, isolated from Senna hirsuta in Nigeria, was studied. The virus had a rather narrow host range, infecting a few species in Caesalpinaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Fabaceae families. The virus was widespread in southern Nigeria with prevalence ranging from 74% to 86.4% in some locations. It was transmitted mechanically and in a non-persistent manner by Myzuspersicae, Aphis craccivora and A. spiraecola. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds. Electron microscopy of leaf dip preparations revealed flexuous rod-shaped particles. The viral coat protein had Mr of 32.5 K. The virus reacted positively with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to peanut stripe virus specific for potyviruses (members of the Potvvirus genus) and with antisera to turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), potato virus Y (PVY), TuMV, potato virus A (PVA), potato virus V (PVV) and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), but it failed to react with antisera to celery mosaic virrus (CeMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), soybean mosaic virus (SMV), and clover yellow mosaic virus (ClYMV) in plate-trapped ELISA (PTA-ELISA). No positive reaction was obtained when the virus was tested against any of the antisera in double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA). This is the first report of natural infection of Senna species in Nigeria. The virus, tentatively designated as Senna mosaic virus (SeMV), seems to differ from other viruses previously described from Senna species in the literature and indeed other legume potyviruses in Nigeria.

  14. Immunochemical characterization of prosopis juliflora pollen allergens and evaluation of cross-reactivity pattern with the most allergenic pollens in tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Khodadadi, Ali; Amini, Akram; Shakurnia, Abdol-Hosein; Marashi, Seyed Saeid; Ali-Sadeghi, Hosein; Zarinhadideh, Farnoosh; Sepahi, Najmeh

    2015-02-01

    Allergy to Prosopis juliflora (mesquite) pollen is one of the common causes of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Mesquite is widely used as street trees in towns and ornamental shade trees in parks and gardens throughout arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The inhalation of mesquite pollen and several species of Amaranthus/Chenopodiaceae family is the most important cause of allergic respiratory symptoms in Khuzestan province. This study was designed to evaluate IgE banding proteins of mesquite pollen extract and its IgE cross-reactivity with other allergenic plants. Twenty patients with allergic symptoms and positive skin prick tests (SPT) for mesquite pollen extract participated in the study. Crude pollen extract was prepared from local mesquite trees and used for the evaluation of allergenic profiles of P. juliflora pollen extract by Sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting. There were several protein bands in mesquite pollen extract using SDS-PAGE with the approximate range of molecular weight of 10-85 kDa. The most frequent IgE reactive bands among the patients' sera were approximately 20 and 66 kDa. However, there were other IgE reactive protein bands among the patients' sera with molecular weights of 10, 15, 35, 45, 55 and 85 kDa. Inhibition experiments revealed high IgE cross-reactivity between mesquite and acacia. There are several IgE-binding proteins in P. juliflora pollen extract. Results of this study indicate that proteins with a molecular weight of 10 to 85 kDa are the major allergens in P. juliflora pollen extract.

  15. Compartmentation of photosynthesis in cells and tissues of C(4) plants.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G E; Franceschi, V R; Ku, M S; Voznesenskaya, E V; Pyankov, V I; Andreo, C S

    2001-04-01

    Critical to defining photosynthesis in C(4) plants is understanding the intercellular and intracellular compartmentation of enzymes between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in the leaf. This includes enzymes of the C(4) cycle (including three subtypes), the C(3) pathway and photorespiration. The current state of knowledge of this compartmentation is a consequence of the development and application of different techniques over the past three decades. Initial studies led to some alternative hypotheses on the mechanism of C(4) photosynthesis, and some controversy over the compartmentation of enzymes. The development of methods for separating mesophyll and bundle sheath cells provided convincing evidence on intercellular compartmentation of the key components of the C(4) pathway. Studies on the intracellular compartmentation of enzymes between organelles and the cytosol were facilitated by the isolation of mesophyll and bundle sheath protoplasts, which can be fractionated gently while maintaining organelle integrity. Now, the ability to determine localization of photosynthetic enzymes conclusively, through in situ immunolocalization by confocal light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, is providing further insight into the mechanism of C(4) photosynthesis and its evolution. Currently, immunological, ultrastructural and cytochemical studies are revealing relationships between anatomical arrangements and photosynthetic mechanisms which are probably related to environmental factors associated with evolution of these plants. This includes interesting variations in the C(4) syndrome in leaves and cotyledons of species in the tribe Salsoleae of the family Chenopodiaceae, in relation to evolution and ecology. Thus, analysis of structure-function relationships using modern techniques is a very powerful approach to understanding evolution and regulation of the photosynthetic carbon reduction mechanisms.

  16. Are tyrosine residues involved in the photoconversion of the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein of Chenopodium album?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Seki, Y; Uchida, A; Nakayama, K; Satoh, H

    2015-05-01

    Non-photosynthetic and hydrophilic chlorophyll (Chl) proteins, called water-soluble Chl-binding proteins (WSCPs), are distributed in various species of Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Polygonaceae and Brassicaceae. Based on their photoconvertibility, WSCPs are categorised into two classes: Class I (photoconvertible) and Class II (non-photoconvertible). Chenopodium album WSCP (CaWSCP; Class I) is able to convert the chlorin skeleton of Chl a into a bacteriochlorin-like skeleton under light in the presence of molecular oxygen. Potassium iodide (KI) is a strong inhibitor of the photoconversion. Because KI attacks tyrosine residues in proteins, tyrosine residues in CaWSCP are considered to be important amino acid residues for the photoconversion. Recently, we identified the gene encoding CaWSCP and found that the mature region of CaWSCP contained four tyrosine residues: Tyr13, Tyr14, Tyr87 and Tyr134. To gain insight into the effect of the tyrosine residues on the photoconversion, we constructed 15 mutant proteins (Y13A, Y14A, Y87A, Y134A, Y13-14A, Y13-87A, Y13-134A, Y14-87A, Y14-134A, Y87-134A, Y13-14-87A, Y13-14-134A, Y13-87-134A, Y14-87-134A and Y13-14-87-134A) using site-directed mutagenesis. Amazingly, all the mutant proteins retained not only chlorophyll-binding activity, but also photoconvertibility. Furthermore, we found that KI strongly inhibited the photoconversion of Y13-14-87-134A. These findings indicated that the four tyrosine residues are not essential for the photoconversion.

  17. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Chenopodium opulifolium schrad leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Abayomi M.; Tanayen, Julius Khidzee; Magomere, Albert; Ezeonwumelu, Joseph O. C.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Chenopodium opulifolium is a specie of the Chenopodiaceae commonly used as vegetables in local diet and for treating different ailment in Uganda. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of C. opulifolium leaves (AECO). Materials and Methods: The dried leaf of the plant was extracted by maceration in water. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidants, and membrane stabilizing effects were determined in the extract. The extract was then investigated for acute toxicity, antinociceptive (writhing, hot plate and open field test), and anti-inflammatory (egg albumin-induced paw edema) effects in rodents. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, and saponins in AECO. Total caffeic acid derivatives and total flavonoids content were 91.7 mgCAE/g sample and 94.7 mgRE/g sample, respectively. AECO demonstrated antioxidant effects in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and NO assays. Significant membrane stabilizing activity was observed in both the heat and hypotonic solution-induced lysis of erythrocytes. The acute toxicity test showed that AECO (5000 mg/kg) did not cause any significant change in behavior or death in rats. AECO (100-400 mg/kg) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in both the writhing and hot plate tests, but no significant reduction in the locomotory activity in mice. Furthermore, the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced egg albumin-induced rat paw edema by 44.2%, 44.5%, and 51.2%, respectively, after 120 min. Conclusion: The results showed that C. opulifolium extract possesses significant antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, and these affirm the reasons for its folkloric use. PMID:28163955

  18. Comparative analysis of the complete chloroplast genome sequences in psammophytic Haloxylon species (Amaranthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenpan; Xu, Chao; Li, Delu; Jin, Xiaobai; Li, Ruili

    2016-01-01

    The Haloxylon genus belongs to the Amaranthaceae (formerly Chenopodiaceae) family. The small trees or shrubs in this genus are referred to as the King of psammophytic plants, and perform important functions in environmental protection, including wind control and sand fixation in deserts. To better understand these beneficial plants, we sequenced the chloroplast (cp) genomes of Haloxylon ammodendron (HA) and Haloxylon persicum (HP) and conducted comparative genomic analyses on these and two other representative Amaranthaceae species. Similar to other higher plants, we found that the Haloxylon cp genome is a quadripartite, double-stranded, circular DNA molecule of 151,570 bp in HA and 151,586 bp in HP. It contains a pair of inverted repeats (24,171 bp in HA and 24,177 bp in HP) that separate the genome into a large single copy region of 84,214 bp in HA and 84,217 bp in HP, and a small single copy region of 19,014 bp in HA and 19,015 bp in HP. Each Haloxylon cp genome contains 112 genes, including 78 coding, 30 tRNA, and four ribosomal RNA genes. We detected 59 different simple sequence repeat loci, including 44 mono-nucleotide, three di-nucleotide, one tri-nucleotide, and 11 tetra-nucleotide repeats. Comparative analysis revealed only 67 mutations between the two species, including 44 substitutions, 23 insertions/deletions, and two micro-inversions. The two inversions, with lengths of 14 and 3 bp, occur in the petA-psbJ intergenic region and rpl16 intron, respectively, and are predicted to form hairpin structures with repeat sequences of 27 and 19 bp, respectively, at the two ends. The ratio of transitions to transversions was 0.76. These results are valuable for future studies on Haloxylon genetic diversity and will enhance our understanding of the phylogenetic evolution of Amaranthaceae. PMID:27867769

  19. Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

    2007-04-01

    This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container.

  20. Increase of cellular recruitment, phagocytosis ability and nitric oxide production induced by hydroalcoholic extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Patrício, Fernando J; Costa, Graciomar C; Sousa, Sanara M; Frazão, Josias B; Aragão-Filho, Walmir C; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Amaral, Flávia M M; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2007-04-20

    The leaves and the oil from the seeds of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae), a plant known in Brazil as 'mastruz', have been used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. Experimentally it was shown that Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibits the Ehrlich tumor growth, what could be due to an immunomodulatory effect of this product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on macrophage activity and on lymphoid organs cellularity. C3H/HePas mice received the HCE (5mg/kg) by intraperitoneal via and were sacrificed 2 days later. HCE treatment did not alter the cell number in bone marrow, but it increased the cell number in peritoneal cavity, spleen and lymph node. The spreading and phagocytosis activity, the PMA-induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) release and the nitric oxide (NO) production were also increased when compared to control group. Similar results were obtained with concanavalin A (Con A), used as a positive control, with exception of the NO production that was only detected in HCE-derived macrophages. The in vitro treatment with HCE induced a dose-dependent NO production by resident macrophages, but did not enhance the NO production by HCE-derived macrophage, which however, was enhanced by Con A, suggesting that HCE and Con A induce NO production by different routes. In conclusion, HCE-treatment was able to increase the macrophages activity and also the cellular recruitment to secondary lymphoid organs, what could explain the previously related anti-tumor activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides.

  1. Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Flávia R F; Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Azevedo, Ana Paula S; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2006-04-25

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Chenopodiaceae] ('mastruz') have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. There are no results focusing the effect of C. ambrosioides treatment on tumor development in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with C. ambrosioides on Ehrlich tumor development. Swiss mice were treated by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) with hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of C. ambrosioides (5 mg/kg) or with PBS (control group) 48 h before or 48 h later the Ehrlich tumor implantation. The tumor cells were implanted on the left footpad (solid tumor) or in the peritoneal cavity (ascitic tumor). To determine the solid tumor growth, footpad was measured each 2 days until the fourteenth day, when the feet were weighed. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated after 8 days of tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume and tumor cell number. The i.p. administration of C. ambrosioides extract before or after the tumor implantation significantly inhibited the solid and ascitic Ehrlich tumor forms. This inhibition was observed in ascitic tumor cell number, in the ascitic volume, in the tumor-bearing foot size and foot weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, C. ambrosioides has a potent anti-tumoral effect which was evident with a small dose and even when the treatment was given two days after the tumor implantation. This effect is probably related with anti-oxidant properties of C. ambrosioides.

  2. A Late-Glacial/Holocene Pollen Record from the Eastern Andes of Northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Barbara C. S.; Rodbell, Donald T.

    1995-09-01

    A pollen and sediment record of a core 4.2-m-long from Laguna Baja (7°42' S, 77°32' W, 3575 m) in the Cordillera Oriental of northern Peru suggests several episodes of major vegetational and climatic change over the past 13,000 yr. The oldest pollen assemblage consists of a mixture of paramo elements (tropical alpine vegetation), including high percentages of Poaceae (40%) that decline upward, moist montane forest (Compositae and Polylepis), and wet montane forest (e.g., Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae). Organic carbon content range from <2% to 8%. About 11,600 yr B.P. this mixed pollen assemblage was replaced by Poaceae (>60%), with high percentages of Jamesonia, a fern characteristic of paramo and decreasing values of Plantago tubulosa and the wet montane forest elements Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae. Charcoal percentages are at a maximum during this period, magnetic susceptibility and sand percentages are high, and percentages of organic matter are low. Several explanations for these changes are possible, including a reduction in temperature and moisture, more frequent periods of aridity with increased fires, or natural succession. The Holocene record begins with pronounced increases in organic carbon and pollen of wet montane forest, primarily Hedyosmum , Podacarpaceae, and Urticales. High values of Podocarpaceae pollen (>35%) and a decline in charcoal suggest temperature and moisture levels above modern-day values. Wet montane forest pollen remain high and charcoal values are low from about 10,000 to 6000 yr B.P., suggesting that warm and moist conditions prevailed for about 4000 yr. Subsequently Podocarpaceae and Urticales decline, and for a brief time Alnus is prominent in the pollen record. Following the Alnus maximum at about 5000 yr B.P., Poaceae, Ambrosia and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae become frequent. Increased paramo and disturbance indicator pollen suggest increased anthropogenic activities in this region from the middle Holocene to the present.

  3. The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Obon, C; Inocencio, C; Heinrich, M; Verde, A; Fajardo, J; Llorach, R

    2005-03-01

    We studied medicinal and food plant species, recording an extraordinary number of species and uses in Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia and Valencia in Spain. Focusing on two demographically distinct regions - Castilla-La Mancha and Lower Segura Valley. A high proportion of the flora (20 to 30 %) is known for its medicinal properties, and, interestingly, a high number of medicinal-food plants (5 to 7 %) is recorded. The concept of "Local Food" involves the whole repertory of species that characterises the local diet (incl. local cultivars and non-cultivated gathered food plants). The number of food plant species varies between 15 and 25 % of the vascular flora, and for the gathered food plants (GFP) this decreases to a 3 to 8 %. Those GFP that are also used for medicinal purposes are only 2 to 4 % of the total vascular flora. The relevant plant families are very similar in relative numbers along the different areas: Compositae, Rosaceae and Umbelliferae, followed of Boraginaceae, Liliaceae, Cruciferae, and Caryophyllaceae. Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae and Gramineae are less uniformly represented or in lesser numbers. The high species diversity does not imply a general dietary relevance of this particular plant family. For instance Caryophyllaceae with a relatively low number of species comprises the "collejas" (Silene vulgaris) that have shown to be the more widely consumed species. Information regarding 145 species has been recorded. Among the Gathered Food Plant Species 81 are used in medicine, in double proportion than the cultivated food plants. 61 are orally administered, in the same form as food.

  4. Kranz and single-cell forms of C4 plants in the subfamily Suaedoideae show kinetic C4 convergence for PEPC and Rubisco with divergent amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed

    Rosnow, Josh J; Evans, Marc A; Kapralov, Maxim V; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E; Roalson, Eric H

    2015-12-01

    The two carboxylation reactions performed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) are vital in the fixation of inorganic carbon for C4 plants. The abundance of PEPC is substantially elevated in C4 leaves, while the location of Rubisco is restricted to one of two chloroplast types. These differences compared with C3 leaves have been shown to result in convergent enzyme optimization in some C4 species. Investigation into the kinetic properties of PEPC and Rubisco from Kranz C4, single cell C4, and C3 species in Chenopodiaceae s. s. subfamily Suaedoideae showed that these major carboxylases in C4 Suaedoideae species lack the same mutations found in other C4 systems which have been examined; but still have similar convergent kinetic properties. Positive selection analysis on the N-terminus of PEPC identified residues 364 and 368 to be under positive selection with a posterior probability >0.99 using Bayes empirical Bayes. Compared with previous analyses on other C4 species, PEPC from C4 Suaedoideae species have different convergent amino acids that result in a higher K m for PEP and malate tolerance compared with C3 species. Kinetic analysis of Rubisco showed that C4 species have a higher catalytic efficiency of Rubisco (k catc in mol CO2 mol(-1) Rubisco active sites s(-1)), despite lacking convergent substitutions in the rbcL gene. The importance of kinetic changes to the two-carboxylation reactions in C4 leaves related to amino acid selection is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Monitoring the Photosynthetic Apparatus During Space Flight: Interspecific Variation in Chlorophyll Fluorescence Signatures Induced by Different Root Zone Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Patterson, Mark T.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been used extensively as a tool to indicate stress to the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants. A rise in fluorescence has been attributed to the blockage of photosystem II photochemistry, and patterns of fluorescence decay (quenching) from dark adapted leaves can be related to specific photochemical and non-photochemical deexcitation pathways of light trapped by the photosynthetic apparatus and thus result in characteristically different fluorescence signatures. Four distantly related plant species, Hypocharis radicata (Asteraceae), Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae), Spinacea oleracea (Chenopodiaceae) and Triticum aestivum (Poaceae), were grown hydroponically for three weeks before the initiation of three different root zone stresses (10 mM Cu, 100 mM NaCl and nitrogen deficient nutrition). After 10 days, characteristic fluorescence signatures for each stress could be noted although the degree varied between species. Fast kinetics analysis showed a reduction in plastoquinone pool size for copper and nitrogen stress for all species but a more species specific result with NaCl stress. Photochemical quenching kinetics varied between species and stress treatments from no quenching in S. oleracea in copper treatments to increased photochemical quenching in NaCl treatments. Non-photochemical quenching kinetics demonstrated a distinct pattern between stresses for all species. Copper treatments characteristically exhibited a shallow, flat non-photochemical quenching profile suggesting a general blockage of electron transport whereas NaCl treatments exhibited a slow rising profile that suggested damage to thylakoid acidification kinetics and nitrogen deficiency exhibited a fast rising and declining profile that suggested an altered state 1-state 2 transition regulated by the phosphorylation of LHCII. These results demonstrate characteristic fluorescence signatures for specific plant stresses that may be applied to different, unrelated plant

  6. Monitoring the Photosynthetic Apparatus During Space Flight: Interspecific Variation in Chlorophyll Fluorescence Signatures Induced by Different Root Zone Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Patterson, Mark T.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been used extensively as a tool to indicate stress to the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants. A rise in fluorescence has been attributed to the blockage of photosystem II photochemistry, and patterns of fluorescence decay (quenching) from dark adapted leaves can be related to specific photochemical and non-photochemical deexcitation pathways of light trapped by the photosynthetic apparatus and thus result in characteristically different fluorescence signatures. Four distantly related plant species, Hypocharis radicata (Asteraceae), Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae), Spinacea oleracea (Chenopodiaceae) and Triticum aestivum (Poaceae), were grown hydroponically for three weeks before the initiation of three different root zone stresses (10 mM Cu, 100 mM NaCl and nitrogen deficient nutrition). After 10 days, characteristic fluorescence signatures for each stress could be noted although the degree varied between species. Fast kinetics analysis showed a reduction in plastoquinone pool size for copper and nitrogen stress for all species but a more species specific result with NaCl stress. Photochemical quenching kinetics varied between species and stress treatments from no quenching in S. oleracea in copper treatments to increased photochemical quenching in NaCl treatments. Non-photochemical quenching kinetics demonstrated a distinct pattern between stresses for all species. Copper treatments characteristically exhibited a shallow, flat non-photochemical quenching profile suggesting a general blockage of electron transport whereas NaCl treatments exhibited a slow rising profile that suggested damage to thylakoid acidification kinetics and nitrogen deficiency exhibited a fast rising and declining profile that suggested an altered state 1-state 2 transition regulated by the phosphorylation of LHCII. These results demonstrate characteristic fluorescence signatures for specific plant stresses that may be applied to different, unrelated plant

  7. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) rescues mice from γ-ray irradiation by accelerating hematopoiesis and curtailing immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jinhee; Bing, So Jin; Kim, Areum; Lee, Nam Ho; Byeon, Sang-Hee; Kim, Gi-Ok; Jee, Youngheun

    2017-12-01

    Beetroot [Beta vulgaris Linné (Chenopodiaceae)], a vegetable usually consumed as a food or a medicinal plant in Europe, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Since the lymphohematopoietic system is the most sensitive tissue to ionizing radiation, protecting it from radiation damage is one of the best ways to decrease detrimental effects from radiation exposure. In this study, we evaluated the radio-protective effects of beetroot in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells. Beetroot extract was administered at a dose of 400 mg/mouse per os (p.o.) three times into C57BL/6 mice and, at day 10 after γ-ray irradiation, diverse molecular presentations were measured and compared against non-irradiated and irradiated mice with PBS treatments. Survival of beetroot-fed and unfed irradiated animal was also compared. Beetroot not only stimulated cell proliferation, but also minimized DNA damage of splenocytes. Beetroot also repopulated S-phase cells and increased Ki-67 or c-Kit positive cells in bone marrow. Moreover, beetroot-treated mice showed notable boosting of differentiation of HSCs into burst-forming units-erythroid along with increased production of IL-3. Also, beetroot-treated mice displayed enhancement in the level of hematocrit and hemoglobin as well as the number of red blood cell in peripheral blood. Beetroot diet improved survival rate of lethally exposed mice with a dose reduction factor (DRF) of 1.1. These results suggest that beetroot has the potency to preserve bone marrow integrity and stimulate the differentiation of HSCs against ionizing radiation.

  8. Physiological and proteomic analyses of salt stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juncheng; Meng, Yaxiong; Li, Baochun; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xianliang; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun; Wang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the adaptation mechanism of Chenopodiaceae Halogeton glomeratus, a succulent annual halophyte, under saline conditions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological adaptation mechanisms of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of NaCl treatment for 21 d. Our results revealed that H. glomeratus has a robust ability to tolerate salt; its optimal growth occurs under approximately 100 mm NaCl conditions. Salt crystals were deposited in water-storage tissue under saline conditions. We speculate that osmotic adjustment may be the primary mechanism of salt tolerance in H. glomeratus, which transports toxic ions such as sodium into specific salt-storage cells and compartmentalizes them in large vacuoles to maintain the water content of tissues and the succulence of the leaves. To investigate the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in H. glomeratus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves that had been exposed to 200 mm NaCl for 24 h, 72 h and 7 d. Forty-nine protein spots, exhibiting significant changes in abundance after stress, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and similarity searches across EST database of H. glomeratus. These stress-responsive proteins were categorized into nine functional groups, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and stress and defence response. PMID:25124288

  9. Choosing between good and better: optimal oviposition drives host plant selection when parents and offspring agree on best resources.

    PubMed

    Videla, Martín; Valladares, Graciela R; Salvo, Adriana

    2012-07-01

    Insect preferences for particular plant species might be subjected to trade-offs among several selective forces. Here, we evaluated, through laboratory and field experiments, the feeding and ovipositing preferences of the polyphagous leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in relation to adult and offspring performance and enemy-free space. Female leafminers preferred laying their eggs on Vicia faba (Fabaceae) over Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae), in both laboratory and field choice experiments, although no oviposition preference was observed in no-choice tests. Females fed more often on B. v. var. cicla (no-choice test) or showed no feeding preference (choice test), even when their realized fecundity was remarkably higher on V. faba. Offspring developed faster, tended to survive better, and attained bigger adult size on the preferred host plant. Also, a field experiment showed higher overall parasitism rates for leafminers developing on B. v. var. cicla, with a nonsignificant similar tendency in field surveys. According to these results, host plant selection by L. huidobrensis appears to be driven mainly by variation in host quality. Moreover, the consistent oviposition choices for the best host and the labile feeding preferences observed here, suggest that host plant selection might be driven by maximization of offspring fitness even without a conflict of interest between parents and offspring. Overall, these results highlight the complexity of decisions performed by phytophagous insects regarding their host plants, and the importance of simultaneous evaluation of the various driving forces involved, in order to unravel the adaptive significance of female choices.

  10. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-01-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  11. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of

  12. Transport of airborne pollen into the city of Thessaloniki: the effects of wind direction, speed and persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damialis, Athanasios; Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Lazopoulou, Chariklia; Balafoutis, Christos; Vokou, Despina

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of the wind vector analyzed into its three components (direction, speed and persistence), on the circulation of pollen from differe nt plant taxa prominent in the Thessaloniki area for a 4-year period (1996- 1999). These plant taxa were Ambrosia spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae, spp., Cupressaceae, Olea europaea, Pinaceae, Platanus spp., Poaceae, Populus spp., Quercus spp., and Urticaceae. Airborne pollen of Cupressaceae, Urticaceae, Quercus spp. and O. europaea make up approximately 70% of the total average annual pollen counts. The set of data that we worked with represented days without precipitation and time intervals during which winds blew from the same direction for at least 4 consecutive hours. We did this in order to study the effect of the different wind components independently of precipitation, and to avoid secondary effects produced by pollen resuspension phenomena. Factorial regression analysis among the summed bi-hourly pollen counts for each taxon and the values of wind speed and persistence per wind direction gave significant results in 22 cases (combinations of plant taxa and wind directions). The pollen concentrations of all taxa correlated significantly with at least one of the three wind components. In seven out of the 22 taxon-wind direction combinations, the pollen counts correlated positively with wind persistence, whereas this was the case for only two of the taxon-wind speed combinations. In seven cases, pollen counts correlated with the interaction effect of wind speed and persistence. This shows the importance of wind persistence in pollen transport, particularly when weak winds prevail for a considerable part of the year, as is the case for Thessaloniki. Medium/long-distance pollen transport was evidenced for Olea (NW, SW directions), Corylus (NW, SW), Poaceae (SW) and Populus (NW).

  13. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  14. Holocene vegetation and climatic variations in Central India: A study based on multiproxy evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh

    2013-11-01

    Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal

  15. Sensitivity of East African savannah vegetation to historical moisture-balance variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ssemmanda, I.; Gelorini, V.; Verschuren, D.

    2014-11-01

    Fossil pollen records provide key insight into the sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. However, tracing vegetation response to relatively modest historical climate fluctuations is often complicated by the overriding signature of anthropogenic landscape disturbance. Here we use high-resolution pollen data from a ~200-year lake-sediment record in open wooded savannah of Queen Elizabeth National Park (southwestern Uganda) to assess the sensitivity of the tropical lowland grassland-forest transition to historical, decade-scale moisture-balance fluctuations. Specifically we trace vegetation response to three episodes of higher average rainfall dated to the 1820s-1830s, ca. 1865-1890 and from 1962 to around 2000. Our pollen data indeed reveal a sequence of three wet periods, separated by two drier periods. During the inferred wetter episodes we find increases in the percent pollen abundance of trees and shrubs from moist semi-deciduous forest (Allophylus, Macaranga, Alchornea, Celtis), riparian forest (Phoenix reclinata) and wooded savannah (Acalypha, Rhus-type vulgaris, Combretaceae/Melastomataceae) as well as taxa common in the local rift-valley grasslands (Acacia, Ficus), together creating strong temporary reductions in Poaceae pollen (to 45-55% of the terrestrial pollen sum). During intervening dry periods, Poaceae pollen attained values of 65-75%, and dryland herbs such as Commelina, Justicia-type odora and Chenopodiaceae expanded at the expense of Asteraceae, Solanum-type, Swertia usambarensis-type, and (modestly so) Urticaceae. Noting that the overall richness of arboreal taxa remained high but their combined abundance low, we conclude that the landscape surrounding Lake Chibwera has been an open wooded savannah throughout the past 200 years, with historical moisture-balance variation exerting modest effects on local tree cover (mostly the abundance of Acacia and Ficus) and the occurrence of damp soil areas promoting Phoenix reclinata. The

  16. Diet and habitat of the saiga antelope during the late Quaternary using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgensen, Jonathan; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Stuart, Anthony J.; Schneider, Matthias; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Bocherens, Hervé

    2017-03-01

    Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is one of the typical late Pleistocene species of the cold and arid mammoth steppe that covered a large area of northern hemisphere. The species is currently endangered and persists only in small areas of Central Asian steppe and desert ecosystems. The investigation of the ecology of the Pleistocene saiga using stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N) aimed to decipher how different their diet and habitat were from those observed nowadays in relict populations. Up to 76 samples of bone collagen of ancient saiga from Western Europe, Siberia and Eastern Beringia were analysed and compared with 52 samples of hair and bone collagen of modern specimens from Kazahkstan, Russia and Mongolia. The δ13C values of the ancient saiga do not exhibit a clear trend over time. They cover the same range of values as the modern ones, from a C3-dominated to a C3-C4-dominated mixed diet (including probably Chenopodiaceae). In contrast, the δ15N values of fossil saigas are more variable and lower on average than the extant ones. The lowest δ15N values of ancient saiga are found around the Last Glacial Maximum, reflecting the influence of the cold conditions at that time. On the other hand, fossil saiga occupying the same regions as the historical and modern populations exhibit high δ15N values similar to the modern ones, confirming ecological continuity over time. Modern saiga is thus occupying just one of its potential diverse habitats they used in the past. Therefore, the extant saiga is not a refugee species confined to a suboptimal habitat. During the late Pleistocene, the saiga occupied a separate niche compared with the other ungulates of the mammoth steppe. However, this species could also adapt to a lichen-dominated diet normally seen in reindeer, leading to an isotopic overlap between the two species in south-western France and Alaska around the Last Glacial Maximum. This adaptation allowed a geographical expansion that does not correspond to a

  17. The origin of shallow lakes in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan, and the history of pesticide use around these lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.; Crootof, Arica; Reidy, Liam; Saito, Laurel; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Scott, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    The economy of the Khorezm Province in Uzbekistan relies on the large-scale agricultural production of cotton. To sustain their staple crop, water from the Amu Darya is diverted for irrigation through canal systems constructed during the early to mid-twentieth century when this region was part of the Soviet Union. These diversions severely reduce river flow to the Aral Sea. The Province has >400 small shallow (<3 m deep) lakes that may have originated because of this intensive irrigation. Sediment cores were collected from 12 lakes to elucidate their origin because this knowledge is critical to understanding water use in Khorezm. Core chronological data indicate that the majority of the lakes investigated are less than 150 years old, which supports a recent origin of the lakes. The thickness of lacustrine sediments in the cores analyzed ranged from 20 to 60 cm in all but two of the lakes, indicating a relatively slow sedimentation rate and a relatively short-term history for the lakes. Hydrologic changes in the lakes are evident from loss on ignition and pollen analyses of a subset of the lake cores. The data indicate that the lakes have transitioned from a dry, saline, arid landscape during pre-lake conditions (low organic carbon content) and low pollen concentrations (in the basal sediments) to the current freshwater lakes (high organic content), with abundant freshwater pollen taxa over the last 50–70 years. Sediments at the base of the cores contain pollen taxa dominated by Chenopodiaceae and Tamarix, indicating that the vegetation growing nearby was tolerant to arid saline conditions. The near surface sediments of the cores are dominated by Typha/Sparganium, which indicate freshwater conditions. Increases in pollen of weeds and crop plants indicate an intensification of agricultural activities since the 1950s in the watersheds of the lakes analyzed. Pesticide profiles of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its degradates and γ-HCH (gamma

  18. Relationship between Pollen Counts and Weather Variables in East-Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karakoç, Gülbin Bingöl; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Pinar, Münevver; Kendirli, Seval Güneçer; Çakan, Halil

    2004-01-01

    Background: Aeroallergen sampling provides information regarding the onset, duration and severity of the pollen season that clinicians use to guide allergen selection for skin testing and treatment. Objectives: This atmospheric survey reports (1) airborne pollen contributions in Adana in one-year period (2) pollen onset, duration and peak level (3) the relationship between airborne pollen and selected meteorological variables and; (4) effects on symptoms in pollen allergic children. Methods: Pollen sampling was performed with a volumetric Burkard Spore Trap. Meteorological data were measured daily from April 2001 to April 2002. Asthma symptom scores were investigated in 186 pollen allergic children that were on follow up in pediatric allergy outpatient clinics during same period. Results: Average measurements included 82.5% tree pollen, 7.7% grass pollen and 9.8% herb pollen 54 taxa were identified during one year. The most prominent tree pollens were Cupressaceae, Eucalyptus and Pinus. The most common herb was Chenopodiaceae pollen family. When airborne pollen levels were examined in relation to single meteorological conditions; daily variations in total pollen counts were not significantly correlated with any variable studied (humidity, rainfall, temperature and wind) (p>0.05). On the other hand, statistically significant relationship between pollen concentration and symptom scores were found (p>0.05). Positive correlations were seen between both Gramineae and Herb pollen, and humidity and rainfall from March to July. However, positive correlations were detected between tree pollen counts and temperature and humidity in May and June. Conclusion: This survey is the first volumetric airborne pollen analysis conducted in the survey area in Adana. This study suggested that the effects of weather on pollen count and symptom scores in this population could not be clearly identified with the evaluation of one-year data. However, pollen counts had effect on allergic

  19. Palaeohydrology, vegetation, and climate since the late Illinois Episode (~130 ka) in south-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B. Brandon; Baker, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    marine oxygen isotope stages 5e and 5c. Associated with the transition between the first two climates are fossils of the subtropical ostracode Heterocypris punctata and the giant tortoise Geochelone crassiscutata that suggest short periods in winter when polar low-pressure systems did not extend into Illinois as they do today. (3) The third climatic regime occurred during the transition from the Sangamon interglacial episode to the Wisconsin glacial episode. A severely continental climate is indicated by the heat-tolerant ostracode Pelocypris tuberculatum, variable ??18O values of ostracode valves, and high environmental tolerance index values for the ostracode assemblages. The weedy Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae families grew on exposed mudflats. The tree pollen associated with this type of climate included low percentages of Picea and Liquidambar, an assemblage that has no modem analogue. We suggest that this transitional climatic regime was associated with the large-scale changes in the climate system during marine oxygen isotope stage 4.

  20. Late Weichselian environmental history in southeastern Sweden during the deglaciation of the Scandinavian ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, Svante; Möller, Per

    1987-07-01

    Late Weichselian litho-, bio-, and chronostratigraphy ( 14C and varves) in southeastern Sweden provide a detailed picture of the deglaciation pattern and dynamics, shore displacement, late-glacial sedimentation, and history of the landscape, vegetation, and climate. Two plausible glacial models were tested against lithologic, chronologic, and climatic data. Permafrost at and outside the ice margin and topographic conditions beneath the ice apparently caused inward spread of frozen glacier-bed conditions. This led to a buildup of a large zone of debris-rich basal ice. A climatic amelioration about 12,700 yr B.P. changed the temperature profile in the ice sheet. Deposition of basal melt-out till began at the previously frozen glacier bed, and a rapid recession of the clean ice set in; thin exposed debris-rich basal ice which was separated from the active ice margin about 150 yr later. In this zone of stagnant ice there followed a 200- 300-yr period marked by subglacial and supraglacial melt-out and resedimentation, forming a large hummocky/transverse moraine. The mild climate favored rapid plant immigration, and a park-tundra was established. The gradual closing of the landscape was interrupted by a 100- to 150-yr period of tundra vegetation and a cool, dry climate, with local vegetational differences caused by differences in soil moisture. About 12,000 yr B.P. a second climatic amelioration set in, and during the next 1000 yr a birch (and pine) woodland gradually developed. Soils stabilized and Empetrum heaths became abundant as the climate gradually deteriorated at the end of this period. By 11,000 yr B.P. the area had become a tundra again with scattered birch stands, dominated by herbs such as Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, grasses, and sedges. Some 500 yr later a birch/pine woodland again succeeded, and within about 500 yr the vegetation changed to a rather closed woodland as the climate ameliorated further. However, the time lag between climatic and vegetation

  1. Using packrat middens to assess how grazing influences vegetation change in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Jessica F.; Cole, Kenneth L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2006-01-01

    -settlement middens, and modern middens from ungrazed areas, contained more native grasses, skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), Utah serviceberry (Amelanchier utahensis), and roundleaf buffaloberry (Shepherdia rotundifolia) than modern middens from grazed areas. Pollen data supported the macrofossil data, recording decreases in pollen of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae), grass family (Poaceae), and globemallow (Sphaeralcea spp.) from pre- to post-settlement.

  2. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    . Accumulations of the Chenopodiaceae in the interfluve areas probably indicate local saline swampy environments during sea level fall. The increasing amounts of herbs indicate the existence of wet prairie areas (Thalictrum, Rumex, Valeriana, Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, Galium) or steppes (Artemisia - up to 17%, Asteraceae, Campanula, Fabaceae, Daucaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Plantago). This is the contribution to the projects ESF -EC-009-07, APVT 51-011305, APVV-0280-07 (Slovakia) and MSM0021622427 (Czech republic).

  3. Magnetic susceptibility as a high-resolution climate proxy in lacustrine sediments of the Qaidam paleolake (NE Tibetan Plateau) throughout the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, Christian; Appel, Erwin; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Voigt, Silke; Pross, Jörg; Zhang, Weilin; Fang, Xiaomin

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic proxies in lacustrine archives play an important role as they are acquirable in high resolution due to short measurement times. One premise for building a link between magnetic properties and climate variation is to investigate what is controlling their changes. The magnetic record of drill core SG-1 (940-m-long) in the Qaidam Basin, in particular magnetic susceptibility (Ξ), is a good example for the value of magnetic properties concerning climate change. SG-1 was obtained from the Chahansilatu sub-basin in the western, presently hyper-arid Qaidam Basin and contains late Pliocene-Quaternary lacustrine sediments. Potential humidity sources in that region during the past were primarily the Westerlies but also the East Asian monsoon. Time markers for depth-time transformation of drill core SG-1 were previously acquired by magnetostratigraphic and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, indicating a time span from 2.8 to 0.1 Ma. Relating the high-amplitude variation of the Ξ record to orbital forcing and applying extensive time series analysis, a more detailed depth to time transformation is achieved. To assess the climate sensitivity of Ξ, the Ξ record is compared with other magnetic parameters and with palynological results. The pollen ratio Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) shows a good anti-correlation with Ξ values, except of the interval around ~1.5 Ma. Thus, for core SG-1 high and low Ξ values predominantly document dryer and less dry conditions, respectively. Our observations reduce the possible mechanisms leading to the observed Ξ variation to two interfering scenarios: low-temperature oxidation (LTO) in the sedimentary source area and a change of the catchment area. As a bottom line of this study, the updated time frame of drill core SG-1 and the comparison of Ξ with other magnetic properties and palynological results lead to a well-dated, high-resolution record of humidity fluctuations during the late Pliocene-Quaternary on the NE fringe

  4. Autochthonous microbe-assisted phytoremediation of brown coal mine overburden soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidović, Saud; Teodorović, Smilja; Lalević, Blažo; Karličić, Vera; Jovanović, Ljubinko; Kiković, Dragan; Raičević, Vera

    2015-04-01

    One of the largest brown coal mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kakanj, has been exploited for over a hundred years. As a consequence of decades of exploitation, severe biocenosis disturbance and degradation of the entire ecosystem have occurred, resulting in overburden soil formation. A significant challenge in remediation of degraded mining areas is difficulty in creating conditions favorable for vegetation growth. Thus, numerous remediation technologies have focused on increasing soil nutrient composition, as well as the number and activity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), given that they stimulate host plant growth by increasing the availability of essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, manganese, iron), producing phytohormones, and providing protection from pathogens. The main objective of this research was to characterize autochthonous plant and microbial overburden communities and access their ability to restore these contaminated soils. Phytocenological analysis of vegetation and plant species was performed according to Flora Europaea (2001), from 2011 - 2013. Our results show that plant species were not detected at mine overburden soil in 2011. However, we detected presence of a single plant species, Amaranthus albus L., in 2012. Further, we recorded the presence of five families (Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae) in 2013. Microbial abundance and enzymatic activity were also examined during the same period. The diversity of microbial populations in the first year was rather small. Two Bacillus spp., B. simplex and a B. cereus group member, indigenous to mine overburden were isolated and identified using standard macroscopic and microscopic, as well as molecular techniques (Hamidovic et al., submitted). Phosphate solubilizing activity of bacteria was tested on National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium (1999). Production of ammonia was determined in peptone water with Nessler

  5. Lettuce mosaic virus: from pathogen diversity to host interactors.

    PubMed

    German-Retana, Sylvie; Walter, Jocelyne; Le Gall, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus (type species Potato virus Y) in the family Potyviridae. The virion is filamentous, flexuous with a length of 750 nm and a width of 15 nm. The particles are made of a genomic RNA of 10 080 nucleotides, covalently linked to a viral-encoded protein (the VPg) at the 5' end and with a 3' poly A tail, and encapsidated in a single type of capsid protein. The molecular weight of the capsid protein subunit has been estimated electrophoretically to be 34 kDa and estimated from the amino acid sequence to be 31 kDa. The genome is expressed as a polyprotein of 3255 amino-acid residues, processed by three virus-specific proteinases into ten mature proteins. LMV has a worldwide distribution and a relatively broad host range among several families. Weeds and ornamentals can act as local reservoirs for lettuce crops. In particular, many species within the family Asteraceae are susceptible to LMV, including cultivated and ornamental species such as common (Lactuca sativa), prickly (L. serriola) or wild (L. virosa) lettuce, endive/escarole (Cichorium endiva), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), Cape daisy (Osteospermum spp.) and gazania (Gazania rigens). In addition, several species within the families Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae are natural or experimental hosts of LMV. Genetic control of resistance to LMV: The only resistance genes currently used to protect lettuce crops worldwide are the recessive genes mo1(1) and mo1(2) corresponding to mutant alleles of the gene encoding the translation initiation factor eIF4E in lettuce. It is believed that at least one intact copy of eIF4E must be present to ensure virus accumulation. LMV is transmitted in a non-persistent manner by a high number of aphid species. Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae are particularly active in disseminating this virus in the fields. LMV is also seedborne in lettuce. The

  6. Circum-Mediterranean cultural heritage and medicinal plant uses in traditional animal healthcare: a field survey in eight selected areas within the RUBIA project

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Andrea; Giusti, Maria Elena; de Pasquale, Caterina; Lenzarini, Cinzia; Censorii, Eleonora; Gonzáles-Tejero, María Reyes; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Ramiro-Gutiérrez, Jose M; Skoula, Melpomeni; Johnson, Chris; Sarpaki, Anaya; Della, Athena; Paraskeva-Hadijchambi, Demetra; Hadjichambis, Andreas; Hmamouchi, Mohammed; El-Jorhi, Said; El-Demerdash, Mohamed; El-Zayat, Mustafa; Al-Shahaby, Omar; Houmani, Zahia; Scherazed, Mekious

    2006-01-01

    During the years 2003–2005, a comparative ethnobotanical field survey was conducted on remedies used in traditional animal healthcare in eight Mediterranean areas. The study sites were selected within the EU-funded RUBIA project, and were as follows: the upper Kelmend Province of Albania; the Capannori area in Eastern Tuscany and the Bagnocavallo area of Romagna, Italy; Cercle de Ouezanne, Morocco; Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche Natural Park in the province of Huelva, Spain; the St. Catherine area of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; Eastern and Western Crete, Greece; the Paphos and Larnaca areas of Cyprus; and the Mitidja area of Algeria. One hundred and thirty-six veterinary preparations and 110 plant taxa were recorded in the survey, with Asteraceae and Lamiaceae being the most quoted botanical families. For certain plant species the survey uncovered veterinary phytotherapeutical indications that were very uncommon, and to our knowledge never recorded before. These include Anabasis articulata (Chenopodiaceae), Cardopatium corymbosum (Asteraceae), Lilium martagon (Liliaceae), Dorycnium rectum (Fabaceae), Oenanthe pimpinelloides (Apiaceae), Origanum floribundum (Lamiaceae), Tuberaria lignosa (Cistaceae), and Dittrichia graveolens (Asteraceae). These phytotherapeutical indications are briefly discussed in this report, taking into account modern phytopharmacology and phytochemistry. The percentage of overall botanical veterinary taxa recorded in all the study areas was extremely low (8%), however when all taxa belonging to the same botanical genus are considered, this portion increases to 17%. Nevertheless, very few plant uses were found to be part of a presumed "Mediterranean" cultural heritage in veterinary practices, which raises critical questions about the concept of Mediterraneanism in ethnobotany and suggests that further discussion is required. Nearly the half of the recorded veterinary plant uses for mammals uncovered in this survey have also been recorded

  7. Abrupt Climate Change & Paleoindian Environments in western Colorado from 17-9 ka yr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, C. L.; Briles, C.; Meltzer, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The late-glacial period was characterized by rapid climate changes that resulted in significant ecosystem reorganizations worldwide. In western Colorado, one of the coldest locations in North American today, mountain environments during the late-glacial period are poorly known. Yet, archeological evidence indicates that Folsom-age Paleoindians were present in the region, perhaps even occasionally over-wintering in the Gunnison Basin during the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 12.9 to 11.5ka yr BP). To determine the climate, vegetation, and fire history during the late-glacial/early-Holocene transition, a 17-kyr-old sediment core from Lily Pond (38°56’06” N, 106°38’37”W, 3208m elevation) was analyzed for pollen and charcoal and compared with other high-resolution records from the region. The data suggest that, following deglaciation, the region supported an alpine parkland dominated by Artemisia and scattered Picea. Conditions warmed and became wetter than before during the Bølling-Allerød period (B/A; 14.7 to 12.9ka yr BP), when the region was covered by open Picea, Pinus, and Abies forest. Cooling during the YDC is inferred from abundant Picea, slightly more Artemisia and decreased Pinus, which indicate the presence of subalpine parkland. With the onset of the Holocene at ~11.5 ka yr BP, Pinus, Quercus, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae increased, suggesting an upslope expansion of xerophytic taxa in response to warmer and effectively drier summers than before or at present. Fire activity was absent prior to 14.7 ka yr BP, increased substantially during the B/A, decreased during the YDC, increased at the beginning of the Holocene, and declined in the early Holocene. The vegetation changes that occurred at Lily Pond are generally consistent with other high-resolution records in the Colorado Rockies in showing cooler-than-present YDC followed by rapid warming. The Lily Lake data provide new information that indicates substantial warming and establishment of

  8. Tales from Two Cores: Bayesian Re-Analyses of the Summit Lake and Blue Lakes Pollen Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.

    2016-12-01

    Pollen cores from Summit Lake and Blue Lakes in Humboldt Co., Nevada provide palaeoclimatic information for the last 2000 yearsin the NW Great Basin. Summit Lake is in the northern Black Rock Range (41.5 N -119.1 W) and is at an elevation of 1780 m. The Blue Lakes sit at an elevation of 2434 m in the southern Pine Forest Range (41.6 N -118.6 W). The distance between the two lakes is 33.5 km. The cores were originally taken to reconstruct the fire history in the NW Great Basin. In this study, stochastic climate histories are created using a Bayesian methodology as implemented in the Bclim program. This Bayesian approach takes: 1) a multivariate approach based on modern pollen analogs, 2) accounts for the non-linear and non-Gaussian relationship between the climate and the pollen proxy, and 3) accounts for the uncertainties in the radiocarbon record and climate histories. For both cores, the following climatic variables are reported for the last 2 kya: Mean Temperature of the Coldest month (MTCO), Growing Degree Days above 5 Centigrade (GDD5), the ratio of Actual to Potential Evapotranspiration (AET/PET). Because it was sequentially sampled,the Artemesia/Chenopodiaceae ratio (A/C), an indicator of wetness, and the Grasses/Shrubs (G/S) ratio, an indicator of thevegetation communities, is calculated for each section of the Summit Lake core. Bayesian changepoint analyses of the Summit Lake core indicates that there is no significant difference in the mean or variance of the A/C ratio for the last 2 kya cal BP, but there is a significant decrease in G/S ratio dating to circa 700 ya cal BP. At Summit Lake, a statistically significant decrease in the GDD5 occurs at 1.4-1.5 kya cal BP, and a significant increase in the GDD5 occurs for the last 200 ya cal BP. The GDD5 and MTCO for Blue Lakes has a significant increase at 600 ya cal BP, and afterwards decreases in the next century. The regional archaeological record will be discussed in light of these changes.

  9. Neogene vegetation and past climate change in the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (central Nepal).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Wagreich, Michael; Draxler, Ilse; Paudayal, Khum N.

    2010-05-01

    The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which reflects Neogene extensional tectonics in the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya, lies north of the Dhaulagiri-Annapurna ranges and south of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone. The basement of Thakkhola-Mustang Graben is made up of Tibetan-Tethyan sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, which are unconformably overlain by continental debris (more than 850 m) of Neogene to Quaternary age. Stratigraphically, the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben sediments have been divided into five formations namely the Tetang Formation, the Thakkhola Formation, the Sammargaon Formation, the Marpha Formation and the Kaligandaki Formation. Different approaches have been made to study the Neogene sediments in this graben. In this study, we mainly focused on sedimentological and palynological studies of the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which provides a basis for discussing the paleo-environmental evolution of the southern continental margin of the Tibetan Plateau towards the end of the Miocene. Field mapping, profile logging, stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis, and palynological studies were carried out to understand the depositional environment and the paleoclimate. The methodology developed by Zetter (1989) was followed for the pollen extraction. Pollen samples were processed in the laboratory and were studied under the light microscope (LM), which were later transferred to the scanning electron microscope (SEM). A variety of sedimentary environments are recognized including alluvial fan, lacustrine, braided river and glacio-fluvial. Neogene sediments are composed of braided fluvial deposits with lacustrine deposits in different level of the succession. Most of the pollens were found in the lacustrine layers of the Tetang and Thakkhola formations. Pollen analysis shows that the sediments contain dominant alpine trees like Abies, Pinus, Keteleeria, Picea Tsuga and Quercus with some steppe elements like Artemisia, Compositae, Chenopodiaceae, Plantago and

  10. The Neogene Environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Cantrill, D. J.; Francis, J. E.; Roof, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Discontinuous sequences of Neogene marine and non-marine glacigenic sequences, including the Meyer Desert Formation (MDF), occur throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. The upper 85m of the MDF, consisting of interbedded diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones, outcrops in the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at 85° 07'S, 166° 35'E. The location is about 170 km south of the confluence of the Beardmore Glacier with the Ross Ice Shelf and about 500 km north of the South Pole The glacial, fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine facies of the MDF represent a dynamic glacial margin which advanced and retreated on at least four occasions. On at least one occasion, the retreat was sufficiently long for plants and animals to colonize the head of a major fjord which existed in the place of the existing Beardmore Glacier. From the fossils we have identified at least 18 species of plants, 3 species of insects, 2 species of freshwater mollusks, and a species of fish. The plant fossils consist of pollen, seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, and in situ plants. The plants include a cryptogamic flora of mosses and liverworts, conifers, and angiosperms in the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Nothofagaceae, Ranunculaceae, Hippuridaceae, ?Caryophyllaceae, and ?Chenopodiaceae or ?Myrtaceae. The plants grew in a weakly developed soil developed on a complex periglacial environment that included moraines, glacial outwash streams, well-drained gravel ridges, and poorly drained depressions in which peat and marl were being deposited. The fossil assemblage represents a mosaic tundra environment of well- and poorly-drained micro-sites, in which nutrient availability would have been patchily distributed. Antarctica has been essentially in a polar position since the Early Cretaceous and at 85° S receives no sunlight from the middle of March until the end of September. Today, the annual radiation received is about 42% that of Tierra del Fuego at 55° S. During the Neogene

  11. Pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectra of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Eastern Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single

  12. Involvement of NFκB in the antirheumatic potential of Chenopodium album L., aerial parts extracts.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sumit K; Itankar, Prakash R; Verma, Prashant R; Bharne, Ashish P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-08-08

    Chenopodium album L. (C. album) is commonly known as Bathua in Hindi (Family: Chenopodiaceae). Traditionally, the plant is used as a laxative, diuretic, sedative and the infusion of the plant is used for the treatment of rheumatism. However, no scientific validation is available on the antirheumatic potential of the plant. In the present investigation, role of NF kappa B (NFκB) in the antiarthritic potential of extracts of aerial parts of Chenopodium album was explored and evaluated. The defatted aerial parts of Chenopodium album were successively extracted with ethylacetate, acetone, methanol and 50% methanol to study their antioxidant capacity followed by antiarthritic potential using Complete Freund׳s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model in rats. The polyphenol, flavonoid and flavanone contents of different extracts were quantified and correlated with their antioxidant capacity, antiarthritic activity and NFκB inhibition potential. The experimental data indicated that the acetone extract of Chenopodium album (ACCA) has shown significant reduction in rat paw edema (80.13%) at dose level of 200 mg/kg per oral in 21 days of this study. On 22nd day, hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated and it was observed that the altered hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR), biochemical parameters (Serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) and loss in body weight in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal level by the ACCA extract. ACCA extract significantly decreased the NFκB expression in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and this effect is comparable with standard indomethacine in CFA treated rats. The polyphenolic and flavonoid content of different extracts were in the range of 14.56±0.21-42.00±0.2 mg (gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and 2.20±0.003-7.33±0.5 mg (rutin equivalent/g extract) respectively. The antiarthritic activity possessed by ACCA extract can be correlated directly to its

  13. Vegetation and climate of the southern Levant during the last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunzhu; Litt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Sediments in the Dead Sea basin are outstanding archives for understanding the paleoenvironment of the southern Levant because of their locations at the boundary between the Mediterranean and Arabian-Sahara climate zones. During the past decades, extensive investigations have demonstrated high lake levels during the last Glacial but low lake levels during the present and last Interglacial. However, palynological results from Lake Kinneret and Birkat Ram suggested a dry last Glacial and wet Holocene (Schiebel, 2013; Chen and Miebach, unpublished). Studies on Lake Samra (last interglacial precursor of the modern Dead Sea) became a focus after deep drilling cores were retrieved in 2011. Core 5017-1A encompasses the most complete Samra profile in the region, which exhibits thick halite layers indicating extremely low lake levels (Neugebauer et al., 2014). As interpreted based on lithological and hydrological results, the marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e was the most arid period (work in progress). In this case, pollen analysis would provide independent evidence of the regional climate changes. Our preliminary result shows that late MIS 6 was characterized by an expansion of goosefoot (Chenopodiaceae)-dominated desert/semi-desert. During the MIS 6/5 transition, an abrupt increase of grasses and a corresponding decline of goosefoot suggest the occurrence of a more humid grass steppe, whereas the woodlands were still open. The MIS 5e has witnessed higher woodland density and moisture availability provided high values of Mediterranean woodland components (mainly olives and deciduous oaks). From MIS 5d to 5a, a drying trend was recorded from the contraction of the Mediterranean biome and the expansion of steppe/semi-steppe. As a key time interval of our study, MIS 5e comprised a typical vegetation succession process that is also prevalent in other Mediterranean pollen records. Therefore, in biostratigraphical terms, high abundances of woody taxa marks the MIS 5e, although the

  14. Sensitivity of the grassland-forest ecotone in East African open woodland savannah to historical rainfall variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ssemmanda, I.; Gelorini, V.; Verschuren, D.

    2014-04-01

    Fossil pollen records provide key insight into the sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change at longer time scales. However, tracing vegetation response to relatively modest historical climate fluctuations is often complicated by the overriding signature of anthropogenic landscape disturbance. Here we use high-resolution pollen data from a ~200 year lake-sediment record in open woodland savannah of Queen Elisabeth National Park (southwestern Uganda) to assess the sensitivity of the tropical lowland grassland-forest ecotone to historical fluctuations in annual rainfall on the order of 10% lasting several decades. Specifically we trace vegetation response to three episodes of increased regional rainfall dated to the 1820s-1830s, ca. 1865-1890 and from 1962 to around 2000. During inferred wetter episodes we find increases in the relative pollen abundance from trees and shrubs of moist semi-deciduous forest (Allophylus, Macaranga, Celtis, Alchornea), riparian forest (Phoenix reclinata) and savannah woodland (Myrica, Acalypha, Combretaceae/Melostomataceae) as well as local savannah taxa (Acacia, Rhus type vulgaris, Ficus), together creating strong temporary reductions in Poaceae pollen (to 45-55% of the terrestrial pollen sum). During intervening dry episodes, most notably the period ca. 1920-1962, Poaceae pollen attained values of 65-75%, and dryland herbs such as Commelina, Justicia type odora and Chenopodiaceae expanded at the expense of Asteraceae, Solanum-type, Swertia usumbarensis-type, and (modestly so) Urticaceae. Noting that the overall diversity of arboreal taxa remained high but their combined abundance low, we conclude that the landscape surrounding Lake Chibwera has been an open woodland savannah throughout the past 200 years, with historical rainfall variation exerting modest effects on local tree cover (mostly the abundance of Acacia and Ficus) and the prevalence of damp soil areas promoting Phoenix reclinata. The strong apparent expansion

  15. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  16. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    In the Eastern Mediterranean sea, the climate succession of the last deglaciation is documented and dated in marine cores by the d18-O variation of foraminiferal cal- cite and pollen records. The Last Glacial Maximum is identified by a large abundance of grass pollen from a prairie-type vegetal cover with low annual precipitation in the mountainous north and east borderlands of the sea, where the pollen mainly origi- nates. During the first phase of the last deglaciation, the Bolling/Allerod chronozone, the moisture availability increases and makes possible the spread of a deciduous for- est, as shown by the increasing pollen abundance of the deciduous oak. The cold and arid Younger Dryas is identified by a reversal to semi-desert conditions, with the in- crease of sage-brush (Artemisia) and the saline-tolerant Chenopodiaceae. The climate of the earliest Holocene is Optimum for at least 3000 years (9000-6000yr BP), with the largest spread of the deciduous forest at low-middle elevations signalling wet sum- mers and of the Pistacia woodland at low elevations signalling mild, no-frost winters. This is the time when the most recent sapropel deposited in the eastern Mediterranean under anoxic bottom conditions generated by a surface lid of lower salinity due to the concomitant largest floods of the Nile River fed by the strongest African monsoon rains in the Ethiopian Highlands. In SW Asia, the pollen records of lakes and marshes have been correlated with those of the marine cores, thereby obtaining a robust time-frame. In that area, the archaeo- logical data of human settlements are independently dated by 14C. Thus the archaeo- logical succession can be securely set against the well-dated climatic succession. The Late Palaeolithic populations of SW Asia were wandering hunter-gatherers in the prairies of the Last Glacial Maximum, where they already collected wild wheat, barley and fruit. With the Bolling/Allerod wetter and warmer climate, they began to settle in

  17. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  18. Lake sediments documented late Quaternary humid pulses in the Gobi Desert of southern Mongolia: Vegetation, hydrologic and paleoglaciation inferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kaifeng; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Schlütz, Frank; Diekmann, Bernhard; Mischke, Steffen; Grunert, Jörg; Murad, Waheed; Nottebaum, Veit; Stauch, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted to decipher the late Quaternary moisture and thermal history of the arid central Asia. However, an array of paramount aspects has inhibited our complete understanding of the broad pattern and underlying mechanisms: (i) Biased or even contradictory conclusions may be achieved due to the interpretations of different proxies. (ii) Most of the works poured attention into Holocene period, only few records can extend back to earlier marine isotope stages. (iii) Substantial spatial heterogeneity is noteworthy in the area. Exceeding amounts of studies were carried out in Lake Baikal catchments, northern and western Mongolia, while only two works were hitherto conducted in southern Mongolia. (iv) It remains elusive with respect to how and to what extent have East Asian Summer Monsoon and Westerlies affected the thermal and moisture signals in this spectacular arid region. To address this set of issues, two parallel cores (ONW I, 6.00 m; ONW II, 13.36 m) were retrieved from Orog Nuur, Gobi Desert of southern Mongolia. An array of multidisciplinary investigations involving geomorphologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, geochemical and biotic studies (i.e., palynological and ostracod valve analyses) provide a comprehensive data set for inferences of hydrological perturbations, vegetation development and phases of glacier expansions over the last ~50 ka. Orog Nuur catchment depicted a broadly vulnerable ecosystem that was dominated by Artemisia steppe community in the late Pleistocene, and Chenopodiaceae desert steppe in the Holocene. In addition, the Termination I is ideally documented in a complete suite of geochemical, palynological, and ostracod signatures. In general, the thermal and moisture history in the Gobi Desert were as follows: (i) MIS3 had a relatively warm temperature and sufficient moisture supply in particular between ~40 ka and ~26 ka; (ii) The MIS2 was subject to cold temperature and moisture deficit, which was interrupted

  19. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

    2013-12-01

    To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in

  20. Tyrosinase modulation by five Rwandese herbal medicines traditionally used for skin treatment.

    PubMed

    Kamagaju, Léocadie; Morandini, Renato; Bizuru, Elias; Nyetera, Polycarpe; Nduwayezu, Jean Baptiste; Stévigny, Caroline; Ghanem, Ghanem; Duez, Pierre

    2013-04-19

    Traditional herbal medicines provide an interesting, largely unexplored source for the development of potential new drugs and skin-care cosmetics. Some herbal extracts are known to be inhibitors of melanin formation, sometimes more potent than the classical inhibitors, hydroquinone/arbutin or kojic acid, and are not associated with melanocytes cytotoxicity or mutagenicity. Such plants are used in traditional medicine in many countries, particularly in Africa, for skin lightening. To evaluate in vitro the ability of Rwandese medicinal plants, traditionally used for the treatment of skin (discoloration and attenuation of discolored spots), to modulate pigmentation and tyrosinase activity. Based on an ethnopharmacological survey, five herbs [Brillantaisia cicatricosa Lindau (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ugandae (Aellen) Aellen (Chenopodiaceae), Dolichopentas longiflora Oliv. (Rubiaceae), Protea madiensis Oliv. (Proteaceae) and Sesamum angolense Welw. (Pedaliaceae)] were selected. Twenty-seven extracts, obtained by treating the herbs with increasing polarities solvents, were investigated for their effects on cell viability (MTT test) and on pigmentation: inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase (colorimetry of reaction products, measurement of enzyme activity, TLC-autography; studies on crude cellular extracts obtained from normal melanocytes and on a mushroom tyrosinase) and measurement of melanogenesis by human melanoma cells. None of the tested plant extracts were cytotoxic on tested human melanoma cell lines, except for Dolichopentas longiflora (IC50 of leaves n-hexane extract, 4μg/ml for MM028 and 4.5μg/ml for MM001; IC50 of roots ethyl acetate extract, 0.8μg/ml for MM028 and 3.9μg/ml for MM001). Almost all extracts inhibited melanogenesis in a melanoma whole cells overall pigmentation assay, a model reflecting the entire cycle of melanogenesis. All the Protea madiensis extracts quite strongly inhibited melanogenesis and, surprisingly, one of the Dolichopentas

  1. Late Quaternary vegetation and environments in the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (NE Asia) reconstructed from a 50-kyr fossil pollen record from Lake Billyakh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Stefanie; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Andreev, Andrei A.; Tütken, Thomas; Gartz, Steffi; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2010-08-01

    Here we present a detailed radiocarbon-dated 936 cm long pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) situated in the western part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains, about 140 km south of the Arctic Circle. A set of 53 surface pollen samples representing tundra, cold deciduous forest and taiga was collected in northern and central Yakutia communities to verify the accuracy of the quantitative biome reconstruction method and to obtain a more precise attribution of the identified pollen taxa to the main regional biomes. The adjusted method is then applied to the pollen record from Lake Billyakh to gain a reconstruction of vegetation and environments since about 50.7 kyr BP. The results of the pollen analysis and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that herbaceous tundra and steppe communities dominated the area from 50.7 to 13.5 kyr BP. Relatively low pollen concentrations and high percentages of herbaceous pollen taxa (mainly Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Artemisia) likely indicate a reduced vegetation cover and/or lower pollen production. On the other hand, extremely low percentages of drought-tolerant taxa, such as Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra, and the constant presence of various mesophyllous herbaceous ( Thalictrum, Rosaceae, Asteraceae) and shrubby taxa ( Betula sect. Nanae/Fruticosae, Duschekia fruticosa, Salix) in the pollen assemblages prevent an interpretation of the last glacial environments around Lake Billyakh as extremely arid. The lowest pollen percentages of woody taxa and the highest values of Artemisia pollen attest that the 31-15 kyr BP period as the driest and coldest interval of the entire record. A relative high content of taxa representing shrub tundra communities and the presence of larch pollen recorded prior to 31 kyr and after 13.5 kyr BP likely indicate interstadial climate amelioration associated with the middle and latest parts of the last glacial. An increase in pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa around 12 kyr BP

  2. A new high-resolution pollen sequence at Lake Van, Turkey: insights into penultimate interglacial-glacial climate change on vegetation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickarski, Nadine; Litt, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    A new detailed pollen and oxygen isotope record of the penultimate interglacial-glacial cycle, corresponding to the marine isotope stage (MIS) 7-6, has been generated from the Ahlat Ridge (AR) sediment core at Lake Van, Turkey. The presented Lake Van pollen record (ca. 250.2-128.8 ka) displays the highest temporal resolution in this region with a mean sampling interval of ˜ 540 years.

    The integration of all available proxies shows three temperate intervals of high effective soil moisture availability. This is evidenced by the predominance of steppe-forested landscapes (oak steppe-forest) similar to the present interglacial vegetation in this sensitive semiarid region between the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.

    The wettest and warmest stage, as indicated by highest temperate tree percentages, can be broadly correlated with MIS 7c, while the amplitude of the tree population maximum during the oldest penultimate interglacial (MIS 7e) appears to be reduced due to warm but drier climatic conditions. The detailed comparison of the penultimate interglacial complex (MIS 7) to the last interglacial (Eemian, MIS 5e) and the current interglacial (Holocene, MIS 1) provides a vivid illustration of possible differences in the successive climatic cycles. Intervening periods of treeless vegetation can be correlated with MIS 7d and 7a, in which open landscapes favor local erosion and detrital sedimentation. The predominance of steppe elements (e.g., Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae) during MIS 7d indicates very dry and cold climatic conditions. In contrast, the occurrence of higher temperate tree percentages (mainly deciduous Quercus) throughout MIS 7b points to relatively humid and mild conditions, which is in agreement with other pollen sequences in southern Europe.

    Despite the general dominance of dry and cold desert-steppe vegetation during the penultimate glacial (broadly equivalent to MIS 6), this period can be divided into

  3. Fossil pollen analysis of U-Pb-dated speleothems: a new approach to understanding Pliocene terrestrial climate evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sniderman, K.; Woodhead, J. D.; Porch, N.

    2013-12-01

    The nature of terrestrial environments in the Southern Hemisphere during the warm Pliocene is poorly known. This is not only because there are few published fossil records, but also because many of the existing records have very limited age control. For example, in Australia, the ages of most putative 'mid-Pliocene' fossil pollen records are based solely on biostratigraphic correlation. These correlations for the most part do not have the resolution to differentiate late Miocene from early Pliocene environments, let alone to pinpoint a <0.5 Myr long interval of maximum Pliocene warmth. Hence it remains unclear whether all terrestrial pollen records attributed to the Mid Pliocene (e.g. Salzmann et al. 2008, Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 17:432) are actually representative of the target interval (whether Dowsett's 3.0-3.3 Ma PRISM interval, or Fedorov et al's (2013, Nature 496:43) 4.0-4.4 Ma interval). If not, these records provide little basis for evaluating whether there was a distinctive vegetation response to peak Pliocene warmth, or alternatively whether vegetation throughout much of the late Neogene was relatively constant. Here, we present new fossil pollen records recovered from U-Pb dated speleothems (cave carbonate deposits) from the Nullarbor Plain, a 200,000 km2 limestone karst plateau in southern Australia which today has a semi-arid mediterranean-type climate (annual rainfall c. 200 mm), and which today is dominated by Chenopodiaceae shrubland. The c. 1% error of U-Pb ages mean that the age of individual Pliocene speleothems can be determined with an error of c. 30-50 kyr. The pollen records reveal two patterns. First, mid-late Pliocene vegetation (c. 4.2-2.8 Ma) in this region was woodland or forest dominated by Myrtaceae, with no sign of extensive cheonopod shrubland. Climate reconstructions based on presence of taxa now absent from the Nullarbor suggest that mean annual rainfall and/or summer rainfall were 50-100% higher than today. Second, vegetation near

  4. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    We report the first high-resolution (with intervals ca. 20-50 years) late-Holocene (4200 yr BP) pollen record from Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mountains, obtained from the underwater Ridge of Sofia Lepneva in 2006 (core Tel 2006). The study presents (i) the results of palynological analysis of Tel 2006; (ii) the results of spectral analysis of natural cycles based on the periodical fluctuation of taiga-biome curve; and (iii) quantitative reconstructions of the late-Holocene regional vegetation, woody coverage and climate in northern part of the Altai Mountains in order to define place of Northeast Altai on the map of the late-Holocene Central Asian environmental history. Late Holocene vegetation of the northeastern part of Altai recorded in Tel 2006 core is characterized by spread of dark-coniferous forest with structure similar to modern. Dominant trees, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), are the most ecological sensitive taxa between Siberian conifers (Shumilova, 1962), that as a whole suggests mild and humid climatic conditions during last 4200 years. However, changes of pollen taxa percentages and results of numerical analysis reveal pronounced fluctuation of climate and vegetation. Relatively cool and dry stage occurred prior to ca. 3500 cal yr BP. Open vegetation was widespread in the region with maximum deforestation and minimal July temperatures between 3800-3500 cal yr BP. Steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae could grow on the open sites around Lake Teletskoye. Reconstructed woody coverage is very low and varies between 29-35%. After ca. 3500 cal yr BP the area of dark-coniferous mountain taiga has significantly enlarged with maximums of woody coverages and taiga biome scores between ca. 2470-1040 cal yr BP. In the period of ~3500-2500 cal yr BP the averages July temperatures increased more than 1 0C. Climate became warmer and wetter. During last millennium (after 1040 cal yr BP) average July