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Sample records for chest radiographic findings

  1. Pulmonary embolism findings on chest radiographs and multislice spiral CT.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel; Verschuren, Franck; Hainaut, Philippe; Goncette, Louis

    2004-07-01

    Multislice spiral CT is becoming an increasingly important tool for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. However, in many instances, a chest radiograph is usually performed as a first-line examination. Many parenchymal, vascular, and other ancillary findings may be observed on both imaging modalities with a highly detailed depiction of abnormalities on multislice CT. A comprehensive review of chest radiograph findings is presented with side-by-side correlations of CT images reformatted mainly in the frontal plane.

  2. Diagnostic Yield of Recommendations for Chest CT Examination Prompted by Outpatient Chest Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, H. Benjamin; Gilman, Matthew D.; Wu, Carol C.; Cushing, Matthew S.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Zhao, Jing; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Shepard, Jo-Anne O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic yield of recommended chest computed tomography (CT) prompted by abnormalities detected on outpatient chest radiographic images. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. Reports of all outpatient chest radiographic examinations performed at a large academic center during 2008 (n = 29 138) were queried to identify studies that included a recommendation for a chest CT imaging. The radiology information system was queried for these patients to determine if a chest CT examination was obtained within 1 year of the index radiographic examination that contained the recommendation. For chest CT examinations obtained within 1 year of the index chest radiographic examination and that met inclusion criteria, chest CT images were reviewed to determine if there was an abnormality that corresponded to the chest radiographic finding that prompted the recommendation. All corresponding abnormalities were categorized as clinically relevant or not clinically relevant, based on whether further work-up or treatment was warranted. Groups were compared by using t test and Fisher exact test with a Bonferroni correction applied for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4.5% (1316 of 29138 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 4.3%, 4.8%]) of outpatient chest radiographic examinations that contained a recommendation for chest CT examination, and increasing patient age (P < .001) and positive smoking history (P = .001) were associated with increased likelihood of a recommendation for chest CT examination. Of patients within this subset who met inclusion criteria, 65.4% (691 of 1057 [95% CI: 62.4%, 68.2%) underwent a chest CT examination within the year after the index chest radiographic examination. Clinically relevant corresponding abnormalities were present on chest CT images in 41.4% (286 of 691 [95% CI: 37.7%, 45.2%]) of cases, nonclinically relevant corresponding abnormalities in

  3. Sickle cell crisis in the adult: chest radiographic findings and comparison with pediatric sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J. A.; Hinrichs, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    With the advent of improved therapy, an increasing proportion of individuals suffering from sickle cell disease (SCD) are surviving into adulthood. In contrast to children, little has been documented concerning the typical radiographic findings in adults presenting with sickle cell crises (SCC). We describe the chest radiographic (CXR) manifestations of adults with SCD presenting in SSC, correlated to hemoglobin (Hb) values, and compare them to those of the pediatric sickle cell population. The chest radiographs of 66 consecutive adults presenting to our emergency department complaining of symptoms consistent with acute SCC were retrospectively reviewed over a 12-month period. The radiographic findings were correlated with admission Hb values and compared with those of 50 children with known SCD presenting with SCC. Chi square analysis revealed no significant difference between the cardiovascular and bony findings in the adults and in those of the pediatric controls (p > 0.08-p > 1.0). However, one important difference in the two cohorts was that upper lobe infiltrates occurred exclusively in the pediatric group (p = 0.06). There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference in cardiovascular and skeletal abnormalities between adults with Hb above and below the mean (8.2 g/dL). The radiographic features of adults presenting in acute SCCs are similar to those of children. Although the chest radiograph is often normal, in decreasing frequency, cardiovascular abnormalities, pneumonia sparing the upper lobes, and aseptic osteonecrosis of the shoulders and spine are not uncommon. There is a significant relationship, however, between cardiovascular abnormalities and Hb levels. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:12653383

  4. Chest radiographic and CT findings in hyperleukocytic acute myeloid leukemia: A retrospective cohort study of 73 patients.

    PubMed

    Stefanski, Michael; Jamis-Dow, Carlos; Bayerl, Michael; Desai, Ruchi J; Claxton, David F; Van de Louw, Andry

    2016-11-01

    Hyperleukocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with pulmonary complications and high early mortality rate, but given its rarity, data on chest radiographic presentation are scarce.We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 73 AML patients admitted with white blood cell count >100 × 10/L between 2003 and 2014 in order to describe the chest radiographic and computed tomography (CT) findings and to correlate them with AML subtype and respiratory symptoms.Forty-two of the 73 patients (58%) overall and 36 of the 54 patients (67%) with clinical signs of pulmonary leukostasis had abnormal radiographs on admission. The presence of radiographic abnormalities was significantly associated with dyspnea and oxygen/ventilatory support requirements (P < 0.01) and with day 28 mortality (45% vs 13%, P = 0.005) but not with monocytic subtype of AML. Sixteen patients had isolated focal basilar airspace opacities, unilateral (n = 13) or bilateral (n = 3), while 16 patients had bilateral diffuse opacities, interstitial (n = 12) or airspace and interstitial (n = 4). Two patients had isolated pleural effusion, 2 patients had unilateral midlung airspace opacities, and 6 patients had a combination of focal airspace and diffuse interstitial opacities. Overall, 2 patterns accounted for 75% of abnormal findings: bilateral diffuse opacities tended to be associated with monocytic AML, whereas basilar focal airspace opacities were more frequent in nonmonocytic AML (P < 0.05). Eighteen patients had CT scans, revealing interlobular septal thickening (n = 12), airspace (n = 11) and ground-glass (n = 9) opacities, pleural effusions (n = 12), and acute pulmonary embolism (n = 2).Hyperleukocytic AML is frequently associated with abnormal chest radiographs, involving mostly focal basilar airspace opacities (more frequent in nonmonocytic AML) or diffuse bilateral opacities. CT scan should be considered broadly due to the suboptimal

  5. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus

    PubMed Central

    Abhilash, KPP; Mannam, PR; Rajendran, K; John, RA; Ramasami, P

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%), generalized myalgia (83%), headache (65%), dyspnea (54%), cough (24.3%), and altered sensorium (14%). Almost half of the patients (49.4%) had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%), airspace opacity (10.5%), reticulonodular opacities (10.3%), peribronchial thickening (5.8%), and pulmonary edema (2%). Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of <20,000 cells/cumm, and total serum bilirubin >2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16), invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88), inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62), higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P < 0.001), and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85). Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe

  6. Computerized image-searching method for finding correct patients for misfiled chest radiographs in a PACS server by use of biological fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Toge, Risa; Morishita, Junji; Sasaki, Yasuo; Doi, Kunio

    2013-07-01

    We have developed an automated image-searching method based on biological fingerprints for identifying correct patients in misfiled chest radiographs in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) server. We used five biological fingerprints including distinctive anatomic structures in a misfiled chest radiograph of an unknown patient to find another image of the same patient stored with correct patient information in a PACS server. The correlation values were determined for the corresponding biological fingerprints in all images in the image server. The correlation indices as a measure of the overall similarity of the two images were determined from the summation of five correlation values and the combination of correlation values with the weighting factors. Finally, the correct patient was identified automatically by the image with the highest correlation index. By use of the summation of five correlation values as the correlation index, 78.0% (156/200) of the 200 patients for misfiled images were correctly identified in the database. When we applied the weighting factors for each biological fingerprint to determine the correlation index, the performance in identifying the correct patient was improved to 87.5% (175/200). An additional 5.0% (10/200) of images were included in the Top 10 ranking of the correlation index in the database. These cases could be identified manually by radiology personnel. We conclude that the automated image-searching method based on biological fingerprints with weighting factors would be useful for identification of the correct patient in the case of misfiled chest radiographs in a PACS server.

  7. Unsupervised segmentation of lungs from chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Payel; Antani, Sameer K.; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes our preliminary investigations for deriving and characterizing coarse-level textural regions present in the lung field on chest radiographs using unsupervised grow-cut (UGC), a cellular automaton based unsupervised segmentation technique. The segmentation has been performed on a publicly available data set of chest radiographs. The algorithm is useful for this application because it automatically converges to a natural segmentation of the image from random seed points using low-level image features such as pixel intensity values and texture features. Our goal is to develop a portable screening system for early detection of lung diseases for use in remote areas in developing countries. This involves developing automated algorithms for screening x-rays as normal/abnormal with a high degree of sensitivity, and identifying lung disease patterns on chest x-rays. Automatically deriving and quantitatively characterizing abnormal regions present in the lung field is the first step toward this goal. Therefore, region-based features such as geometrical and pixel-value measurements were derived from the segmented lung fields. In the future, feature selection and classification will be performed to identify pathological conditions such as pulmonary tuberculosis on chest radiographs. Shape-based features will also be incorporated to account for occlusions of the lung field and by other anatomical structures such as the heart and diaphragm.

  8. 42 CFR 37.41 - Chest radiograph specifications-film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chest radiograph specifications-film. 37.41 Section... Specifications for Performing Chest Radiographic Examinations § 37.41 Chest radiograph specifications—film. (a... posteroanterior projection at full inspiration on a film being no less than 14 by 17 inches and no greater than...

  9. Bone suppression technique for chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhimin; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Jane; Zhao, Hui; Hobbs, Susan K.; Wandtke, John C.; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Paul, Narinder; Foos, David

    2014-03-01

    High-contrast bone structures are a major noise contributor in chest radiographic images. A signal of interest in a chest radiograph could be either partially or completely obscured or "overshadowed" by the highly contrasted bone structures in its surrounding. Thus, removing the bone structures, especially the posterior rib and clavicle structures, is highly desirable to increase the visibility of soft tissue density. We developed an innovative technology that offers a solution to suppress bone structures, including posterior ribs and clavicles, on conventional and portable chest X-ray images. The bone-suppression image processing technology includes five major steps: 1) lung segmentation, 2) rib and clavicle structure detection, 3) rib and clavicle edge detection, 4) rib and clavicle profile estimation, and 5) suppression based on the estimated profiles. The bone-suppression software outputs an image with both the rib and clavicle structures suppressed. The rib suppression performance was evaluated on 491 images. On average, 83.06% (±6.59%) of the rib structures on a standard chest image were suppressed based on the comparison of computer-identified rib areas against hand-drawn rib areas, which is equivalent to about an average of one rib that is still visible on a rib-suppressed image based on a visual assessment. Reader studies were performed to evaluate reader performance in detecting lung nodules and pneumothoraces with and without a bone-suppression companion view. Results from reader studies indicated that the bone-suppression technology significantly improved radiologists' performance in the detection of CT-confirmed possible nodules and pneumothoraces on chest radiographs. The results also showed that radiologists were more confident in making diagnoses regarding the presence or absence of an abnormality after rib-suppressed companion views were presented

  10. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  11. Clinical predictors of chest radiographic abnormalities in young children hospitalized with bronchiolitis: a single center study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Ram; Na, Min Sun; Baek, Kyung Suk; Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Kyung Suk; Jung, Young Ho; Jee, Hye Mi; Kwon, Tae Hee; Han, Man Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chest radiography is often performed on patients hospitalized with typical clinical manifestations of bronchiolitis. We aimed to determine the proportion of subjects with pathologic chest radiographic findings and the clinical predictors associated with pathologic chest radiographic findings in young children admitted with the typical presentation of bronchiolitis. Methods We obtained the following data at admission: sex, age, neonatal history, past history of hospitalization for respiratory illnesses, heart rate, respiratory rate, the presence of fever, total duration of fever, oxygen saturation, laboratory parameters (i.e., complete blood cell count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], etc.), and chest radiography. Results The study comprised 279 young children. Of these, 26 had a chest radiograph revealing opacity (n=24) or atelectasis (n=2). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustment for confounding factors, the clinical predictors associated with pathologic chest radiographic findings in young children admitted with bronchiolitis were elevated hs-CRP level (>0.3 mg/dL) and past history of hospitalization for respiratory illnesses (all P<0.05). Conclusion The current study suggests that chest radiographs in young children with typical clinical manifestations of bronchiolitis have limited value. Nonetheless, young children with clinical factors such as high hs-CRP levels at admission or past history of hospitalization for respiratory illnesses may be more likely to have pathologic chest radiographic findings. PMID:28194212

  12. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  13. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Newman, D E; Wood, B J

    1989-01-01

    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18.

  14. 42 CFR 37.41 - Chest radiograph specifications-film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chest radiograph specifications-film. 37.41 Section... specifications—film. (a) Miners must be disrobed from the waist up at the time the radiograph is given. The... single posteroanterior projection at full inspiration on a film being no less than 14 by 17 inches and...

  15. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest radiograph classification and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Submitting required chest radiograph classification... OF COAL MINERS Chest Radiographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.60 Submitting required chest radiograph classification and...

  16. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A; Varma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings.

  17. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  18. Usefulness of chest radiographs in first asthma attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Gershel, J.C.; Goldman, H.S.; Stein, R.E.K.; Shelov, S.P.; Ziprkowski, M.

    1983-08-11

    To assess the value of routine chest radiography during acute first attacks of asthma, we studied 371 consecutive children over one year of age who presented with an initial episode of wheezing. Three hundred fifty children (94.3%) had radiographic findings that were compatible with uncomplicated asthma and were considered negative. Twenty-one (5.7%) had positive findings: atelectasis and pneumonia were noted in seven, segmental atelectasis in six, pneumonia in five, multiple areas of subsegmental atelectasis in two, and pneumomediastinum in one. The patients with positive films were more likely to have a respiratory rate above 60 or a pulse rate above 160 (P < 0.001), localized rales or localized decreased breath sounds before treatment (P < 0.01), and localized rales (P < 0.005) and localized wheezing (P < 0.02) after treatment; also, these patients were admitted to the hospital more often (P < 0.001). Ninety-five percent (20 of 21) of the children with positive films could be identified before treatment on the basis of a combination of tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, and localized rales or localized decreased breath sounds. Most first-time wheezers will not have positive radiographs; careful clinical evaluation should reveal which patients will have abnormal radiographs and will therefore benefit from the procedure. 20 references, 3 tables.

  19. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  20. Computer-assisted diagnosis of chest radiographs for pneumoconioses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliz, Peter; Pattichis, Marios S.; Ramachandran, Janakiramanan; James, David S.

    2001-07-01

    A Computer-assisted Chest Radiograph Reader System (CARRS) was developed for the detection of pathological features in lungs presenting with pneumoconioses. CARRS applies novel techniques in automatic image segmentation, incorporates neural network-based pattern classification, and integrates these into a graphical user interface. The three aspects of CARRS are described: Chest radiograph digitization and display, rib and parenchyma characterization, and classification. The quantization of the chest radiograph film was optimized to maximize the information content of the digital images. Entropy was used as the benchmark for optimizing the quantization. From the rib-segmented images, regions of interest were selected by the pulmonologist. A feature vector composed of image characteristics such as entropy, textural statistics, etc. was calculated. A laterally primed adaptive resonance theory (LAPART) neural network was used as the classifier. LAPART classification accuracy averaged 86.8 %. Truth was determined by the two pulmonologists. The CARRS has demonstrated potential as a screening device. Today, 90% or more of the chest radiographs seen by the pulmonologist are normal. A computer-based system that can screen 50% or more of the chest radiographs represents a large savings in time and dollars.

  1. Automatic image hanging protocol for chest radiographs in PACS.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui; Hao, Wei; Foos, David H; Cornelius, Craig W

    2006-04-01

    Chest radiography is one of the most widely used techniques in diagnostic imaging. It comprises at least one-third of all diagnostic radiographic procedures in hospitals. However, in the picture archive and communication system, images are often stored with the projection and orientation unknown or mislabeled, which causes inefficiency for radiologists' interpretation. To address this problem, an automatic hanging protocol for chest radiographs is presented. The method targets the most effective region in a chest radiograph, and extracts a set of size-, rotation-, and translation-invariant features from it. Then, a well-trained classifier is used to recognize the projection. The orientation of the radiograph is later identified by locating the neck, heart, and abdomen positions in the radiographs. Initial experiments are performed on the radiographs collected from daily routine chest exams in hospitals and show promising results. Using the presented protocol, 98.2% of all cases could be hung correctly on projection view (without protocol, 62%), and 96.1% had correct orientation (without protocol, 75%). A workflow study on the protocol also demonstrates a significant improvement in efficiency for image display.

  2. Acid corrosive esophagitis: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-06-01

    Thirty-nine esophagograms of 24 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCI) in suicide attempts were reviewed. All esophagograms were obtained in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases. In the acute and subacute phases, the radiographic findings consisted of mucosal edema, submucosal edema or hemorrhage, ulcerations, sloughing of the mucosa, atony, and dilatation. Strictures of the esophagus were present in the chronic phase. These radiographic findings were not different from those found in alkaline corrosive esophagitis. The severity of the corrosive esophagitis is considered related to the concentration, amount, viscosity, and duration of contact between the caustic agent and the esophageal mucosa.

  3. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-film. 37.50 Section 37.50 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Radiographs § 37.50 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—film. (a) Chest radiographs must...

  4. The routine pre-employment screening chest radiograph: Should it be routine?

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, V John; Gibikote, Sridhar; Kirupakaran, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: A routine chest radiograph is mandatory in many institutions as a part of pre-employment screening. The usefulness of this has been studied over the years keeping in mind the added time, cost, and radiation concerns. Studies conducted outside India have shown different results, some for and some against it. To our knowledge, there is no published data from India on this issue. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the reports of 4113 pre-employment chest radiographs done between 2007 and 2009 was conducted. Results: Out of 4113 radiographs, 24 (0.58%) candidates required further evaluation based on findings from the screening chest radiograph. Out of these, 7 (0.17%) candidates required appropriate further treatment. Interpretation and Conclusions: The percentage of significant abnormalities detected which needed further medical intervention was small (0.17%). Although the individual radiation exposure is very small, the large numbers done nation-wide would significantly add to the community radiation, with added significant cost and time implications. We believe that pre-employment chest radiographs should be restricted to candidates in whom there is relevant history and/or clinical findings suggestive of cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:27857470

  5. Detection of tuberculosis using hybrid features from chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Ayesha; Akram, M. Usman; Akhtar, Mahmood; Shafique, Irrum

    2017-02-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease and becomes a major threat all over the world but still diagnosis of tuberculosis is a challenging task. In literature, chest radiographs are considered as most commonly used medical images in under developed countries for the diagnosis of TB. Different methods have been proposed but they are not helpful for radiologists due to cost and accuracy issues. Our paper presents a methodology in which different combinations of features are extracted based on intensities, shape and texture of chest radiograph and given to classifier for the detection of TB. The performance of our methodology is evaluated using publically available standard dataset Montgomery Country (MC) which contains 138 CXRs among which 80 CXRs are normal and 58 CXRs are abnormal including effusion and miliary patterns etc. The accuracy of 81.16% was achieved and the results show that proposed method have outperformed existing state of the art methods on MC dataset.

  6. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-film. 37.50 Section 37.50 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—film. (a) Chest radiographs must be interpreted and...

  7. 42 CFR 37.51 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-digital radiography systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... of Chest Radiographs § 37.51 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—digital radiography systems. (a) For each chest radiograph obtained at an approved facility using a digital radiography...

  8. 42 CFR 37.51 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-digital radiography systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH..., and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.51 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—digital radiography systems. (a) For each chest radiograph obtained at an approved facility using a...

  9. Computer-aided Detection Fidelity of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest Radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Dellios, Nikolaos; Teichgraeber, Ulf; Chelaru, Robert; Malich, Ansgar; Papageorgiou, Ismini E

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The most ubiquitous chest diagnostic method is the chest radiograph. A common radiographic finding, quite often incidental, is the nodular pulmonary lesion. The detection of small lesions out of complex parenchymal structure is a daily clinical challenge. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of the computer-aided detection (CAD) software package SoftView™ 2.4A for bone suppression and OnGuard™ 5.2 (Riverain Technologies, Miamisburg, OH, USA) for automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a dataset of 100 posteroanterior chest radiographs with pulmonary nodular lesions ranging from 5 to 85 mm. All nodules were confirmed with a consecutive computed tomography scan and histologically classified as 75% malignant. The number of detected lesions by observation in unprocessed images was compared to the number and dignity of CAD-detected lesions in bone-suppressed images (BSIs). Results: SoftView™ BSI does not affect the objective lesion-to-background contrast. OnGuard™ has a stand-alone sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 58% for nodular lesion detection in chest radiographs. The false positive rate is 0.88/image and the false negative (FN) rate is 0.35/image. From the true positive lesions, 20% were proven benign and 80% were malignant. FN lesions were 47% benign and 53% malignant. Conclusion: We conclude that CAD does not qualify for a stand-alone standard of diagnosis. The use of CAD accompanied with a critical radiological assessment of the software suggested pattern appears more realistic. Accordingly, it is essential to focus on studies assessing the quality-time-cost profile of real-time (as opposed to retrospective) CAD implementation in clinical diagnostics. PMID:28299236

  10. A level crossing enhancement scheme for chest radiograph images.

    PubMed

    Nagesha; Kumar, G Hemantha

    2007-10-01

    A new approach for contrast enhancement of chest radiograph image data is presented. Existing methods for image enhancement focus mainly on the properties of the image to be processed while excluding any consideration of the observer characteristics. In several applications, particularly in the medical imaging area, effective contrast enhancement for diagnostic purposes can be achieved by including certain basic human visual properties. In this paper we shall present a novel (recursive) algorithm that tailors the required amount of contrast enhancement based on a combination of the optimal phase representation and the theory of projection onto a convex set. Constraints of maximum bandwidth of the image data, appropriate knowledge of the amplitude value of the image data, heuristic limitations and level crossing measurements serve to impose additional information. So that, the enhanced image data may better converge to the good quality image.

  11. Evaluation of a low-dose neonatal chest radiographic system

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, E.M.; Kirks, D.R.; Strife, J.L.; Henry, G.C.; Kereiakes, J.G.

    1988-11-01

    A new low-dose chest radiographic system for use in the neonatal nursery was evaluated. This test system, composed of a Du Pont Kevlar fiber-front cassette, Quanta fast-detail screen, Cronex 4L film (wide latitude), and additional yttrium filtration (0.1 mm), reduced the radiation dose in neonatal chest radiography by 69% (0.9 vs 2.9 mrad (0.009 vs 0.029 mGy)) as compared with a conventional system without added yttrium filtration; the thyroid dose was reduced by 76% (0.9 vs 3.7 mrad (0.009 vs 0.037 mGy)). The cumulative dose reduction was achieved through a combination of factors, including (1) beam hardening by the added yttrium filter, (2) increased X-ray transmission through the Kevlar cassette, and (3) a fast film-screen combination. Scatter radiation at distances of 1 and 6 ft. (0.3 and 1.8 m) was negligible for both systems. Image sharpness was compared for the conventional system with and without added yttrium filtration and for the Kevlar system with yttrium. Although sharpness of bony detail was unchanged by adding yttrium filtration to the conventional system, a decrease in sharpness was noted with the Kevlar system. Because image sharpness was affected in the test system, we are not using the Kevlar-Cronex 4L system for mobile chest radiography in the neonatal intensive care unit, despite dose reductions. However, further study is recommended to determine if there is a slower film-screen combination with yttrium filtration that will not degrade image sharpness.

  12. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  13. Organizing pneumonia: chest HRCT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Igor Murad; Zanetti, Gláucia; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Araujo-Neto, Cesar Augusto; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of HRCT findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma of patients with organizing pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the HRCT scans of 36 adult patients (26 females and 10 males) with biopsy-proven organizing pneumonia. The patients were between 19 and 82 years of age (mean age, 56.2 years). The HRCT images were evaluated by two independent observers, discordant interpretations being resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The most common HRCT finding was that of ground-glass opacities, which were seen in 88.9% of the cases. The second most common finding was consolidation (in 83.3% of cases), followed by peribronchovascular opacities (in 52.8%), reticulation (in 38.9%), bronchiectasis (in 33.3%), interstitial nodules (in 27.8%), interlobular septal thickening (in 27.8%), perilobular pattern (in 22.2%), the reversed halo sign (in 16.7%), airspace nodules (in 11.1%), and the halo sign (in 8.3%). The lesions were predominantly bilateral, the middle and lower lung fields being the areas most commonly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Ground-glass opacities and consolidation were the most common findings, with a predominantly random distribution, although they were more common in the middle and lower thirds of the lungs. PMID:26176521

  14. Interpretation of chest radiographs in AIDS patients: usefulness of CD4 lymphocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Shah, R M; Kaji, A V; Ostrum, B J; Friedman, A C

    1997-01-01

    Specific infections and neoplasms that are complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur within various CD4 lymphocyte count ranges. Knowledge of how these counts correlate with radiographic appearances of these entities can limit the differential diagnosis because certain conditions are uncommon above a specific count. In patients with CD4 lymphocyte counts above 200 cells/mm3 and radiographic findings of cavitary and noncavitary consolidation, bacterial pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the major diagnostic considerations. As the CD4 lymphocyte count falls, these infections are still common; however, cavitation is seen less frequently with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and unusual bacterial infections, including those caused by Rhodococcus equi and Nocardia asteroides, should be considered. In patients with counts below 200 cells/mm3, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common infection, usually manifesting radiographically as a reticular interstitial pattern. At CD4 lymphocyte counts of 50-200 cells/mm3, disseminated fungal infection and Kaposi sarcoma become prevalent. In patients with advanced AIDS and counts below 50 cells/mm3, radiographic nodular or reticular patterns may indicate AIDS-related lymphoma and cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections. When CD4 lymphocyte counts are applied to interpretation of chest radiographs in AIDS patients, the working differential diagnosis of a radiographic pattern can be tailored to the clinical situation of a given patient.

  15. Semi-automated location identification of catheters in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Cham, Matthew D.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Yankelevitz, David F.

    2007-03-01

    Localization of catheter tips is the most common task in intensive care unit imaging. In this work, catheters appearing in digital chest radiographs acquired by portable chest x-rays were tracked using a semi-automatic method. Due to the fact that catheters are synthetic objects, its profile does not vary drastically over its length. Therefore, we use forward looking registration with normalized cross-correlation in order to take advantage of a priori information of the catheter profile. The registration is accomplished with a two-dimensional template representative of the catheter to be tracked generated using two seed points given by the user. To validate catheter tracking with this method, we look at two metrics: accuracy and precision. The algorithms results are compared to a ground truth established by catheter midlines marked by expert radiologists. Using 12 objects of interest comprised of naso-gastric, endo-tracheal tubes, and chest tubes, and PICC and central venous catheters, we find that our algorithm can fully track 75% of the objects of interest, with a average tracking accuracy and precision of 85.0%, 93.6% respectively using the above metrics. Such a technique would be useful for physicians wishing to verify the positioning of catheter tips using chest radiographs.

  16. Fully automatic lung segmentation and rib suppression methods to improve nodule detection in chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Soleymanpour, Elaheh; Pourreza, Hamid Reza; Ansaripour, Emad; Yazdi, Mehri Sadooghi

    2011-07-01

    Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems can assist radiologists in several diagnostic tasks. Lung segmentation is one of the mandatory steps for initial detection of lung cancer in Posterior-Anterior chest radiographs. On the other hand, many CAD schemes in projection chest radiography may benefit from the suppression of the bony structures that overlay the lung fields, e.g. ribs. The original images are enhanced by an adaptive contrast equalization and non-linear filtering. Then an initial estimation of lung area is obtained based on morphological operations and then it is improved by growing this region to find the accurate final contour, then for rib suppression, we use oriented spatial Gabor filter. The proposed method was tested on a publicly available database of 247 chest radiographs. Results show that this method outperformed greatly with accuracy of 96.25% for lung segmentation, also we will show improving the conspicuity of lung nodules by rib suppression with local nodule contrast measures. Because there is no additional radiation exposure or specialized equipment required, it could also be applied to bedside portable chest x-rays. In addition to simplicity of these fully automatic methods, lung segmentation and rib suppression algorithms are performed accurately with low computation time and robustness to noise because of the suitable enhancement procedure.

  17. Gastroduodenal lesions of ingested acids: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-12-01

    Abdominal radiographs and barium studies of the stomach and duodenum of 27 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCl) in suicidal attempts were reviewed. Eleven patients were studied in the acute phase (1-10 days), nine in the subacute phase (11-20 days), and 15 in the chronic phase (21 days or more). Extensive gastric and duodenal mucosal and submucosal damage was radiographically demonstrated in all patients studied in the acute and subacute phase. Four patients had gastric perforation. The radiographic findings in the chronic phase were characterized by marked contraction of the lesser curvature, antral stenosis, irregular gastric contours, and deformed duodenal bulb. Esophageal mucosal and submucosal lesions were radiographically demonstrated in all these patients.

  18. Chest Radiographic Patterns and the Transmission of Tuberculosis: Implications for Automated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Angela; Barrie, James; Winter, Christopher; Elamy, Abdel-Halim; Tyrrell, Gregory; Long, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Computer-aided detection to identify and diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is being explored. While both cavitation on chest radiograph and smear-positivity on microscopy are independent risk factors for the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis it is unknown which radiographic pattern, were it detectable, would provide the greatest public health benefit; i.e. reduced transmission. Herein we provide that evidence. Objectives 1) to determine whether pulmonary tuberculosis in a high income, low incidence country is more likely to present with “typical” adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis radiographic features and 2) to determine whether those with “typical” radiographic features are more likely than those without such features to transmit the organism and/or cause secondary cases. Methods Over a three-year period beginning January 1, 2006 consecutive adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the Province of Alberta, Canada, were identified and their pre-treatment radiographs scored by three independent readers as “typical” (having an upper lung zone predominant infiltrate, with or without cavitation but no discernable adenopathy) or “atypical” (all others). Each patient’s pre-treatment bacillary burden was carefully documented and, during a 30-month transmission window, each patient’s transmission events were recorded. Mycobacteriology, radiology and transmission were compared in those with “typical” versus “atypical” radiographs. Findings A total of 97 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases were identified, 69 (71.1%) with and 28 (28.9%) without “typical” chest radiographs. “Typical” cases were more likely to have high bacillary burdens and cavitation (Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals: 2.75 [1.04–7.31] and 9.10 [2.51–32.94], respectively). Typical cases were also responsible for most transmission events—78% of tuberculin skin test conversions (p<0.002) and 95% of secondary cases in reported

  19. 78 FR 35575 - Black Lung Benefits Act: Standards for Chest Radiographs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for their performance. These standards are currently......

  20. 78 FR 35549 - Black Lung Benefits Act: Standards for Chest Radiographs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for their performance. These standards are currently......

  1. Automated localization of costophrenic recesses and costophrenic angle measurement on frontal chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduskar, Pragnya; Hogeweg, Laurens; Philipsen, Rick; van Ginneken, Bram

    2013-03-01

    Computer aided detection (CAD) of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs (CXR) is difficult because the disease has varied manifestations, like opacification, hilar elevation, and pleural effusions. We have developed a CAD research prototype for TB (CAD4TB v1.08, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Nijmegen, The Netherlands) which is trained to detect textural abnormalities inside unobscured lung fields. If the only abnormality visible on a CXR would be a blunt costophrenic angle, caused by pleural fluid in the costophrenic recess, this is likely to be missed by texture analysis in the lung fields. The goal of this work is therefore to detect the presence of blunt costophrenic (CP) angles caused by pleural effusion on chest radiographs. The CP angle is the angle formed by the hemidiaphragm and the chest wall. We define the intersection point of both as the CP angle point. We first detect the CP angle point automatically from a lung field segmentation by finding the foreground pixel of each lung with maximum y location. Patches are extracted around the CP angle point and boundary tracing is performed to detect 10 consecutive pixels along the hemidiaphragm and the chest wall and derive the CP angle from these. We evaluate the method on a data set of 250 normal CXRs, 200 CXRs with only one or two blunt CP angles and 200 CXRs with one or two blunt CP angles but also other abnormalities. For these three groups, the CP angle location and angle measurements were accurate in 91%, 88%, and 92% of all the cases, respectively. The average CP angles for the three groups are indeed different with 71.6° +/- 22.9, 87.5° +/- 25.7, and 87.7° +/- 25.3, respectively.

  2. Relationship between the chest radiograph, regional lung function studies, exercise tolerance, and clinical condition in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, A L; Boyce, P; Shaw, D G; Godfrey, S; Mearns, M

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of the interpretation of the chest film in delineating localised abnormalities of ventilation and perfusion, as well as the overall severity of airways obstruction, exercise tolerance, and clinical condition in children with cystic fibrosis. Radiographic findings in various regions of the chest film were compared with the functional values obtained with regional lung function tests which evaluated the arrival and disappearance of boluses of radioactive nitrogen given by inhalation and infusion. While the more severely affected areas on the chest radiograph were found to correlate with similar regions on the lung function tests, as did overall scores, errors occurred in some cases if the x-ray film alone was used as a judge of regional physiological derangement. In addition the degree of airways obstruction, the exercise tolerance on a cycle ergometer, and clinical grading, each correlated significantly with the radiographic score. We conclude that the chest radiograph is a good indicator of the overall severity of the lung disease and that it correlates well with exercise tolerance and clinical condition in cystic fibrosis. PMID:7469460

  3. Lung imaging during acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: computed tomography patterns and diagnostic accuracy of bedside chest radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Deux, Jean-François; Habibi, Anoosha; Abidi, Nour; Godeau, Bertrand; Adnot, Serge; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Rahmouni, Alain; Galacteros, Frederic; Maitre, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The lung computed tomography (CT) features of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease patients is not well described and the diagnostic performance of bedside chest radiograph (CR) has not been tested. Our objectives were to describe CT features of ACS and evaluate the reproducibility and diagnostic performance of bedside CR. Methods We screened 127 consecutive patients during 166 ACS episodes and 145 CT scans (in 118 consecutive patients) were included in the study. Results Among the 145 CT scans, 139 (96%) exhibited a new pulmonary opacity and 84 (58%) exhibited at least one complete lung segment consolidation. Consolidations were predominant as compared to ground-glass opacities and atelectasis. Lung parenchyma was increasingly consolidated from apex to base; the right and left inferior lobes were almost always involved in patients with a new complete lung segment consolidation on CT scan (98% and 95% of cases respectively). Patients with a new complete lung segment consolidation on CT scan had a more severe presentation and course as compared to others. The sensitivity of bedside CR for the diagnosis of ACS using CT as a reference was good (>85%) whereas the specificity was weak (<60%). Conclusion ACS more frequently presented on CT as a consolidation pattern, predominating in lung bases. The reproducibility and diagnostic capacity of bedside CR were far from perfect. These findings may help improve the bedside imaging diagnosis of ACS. PMID:23925645

  4. Chest radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.H.M.

    1982-01-01

    This review of chest radiology reexamines normal findings on plain chest radiographs, and presents a new plain film view for detecting metastases in the lungs, and describes new findings on acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Various chest radiologic procedures are examined. (KRM)

  5. The futility of universal pre-employment chest radiographs.

    PubMed Central

    Lohiya, Ghan-Shyam; Tan-Figueroa, Lilia; Lohiya, Piyush; Bui, De

    2006-01-01

    In a developmental center, a preemployment chest x-ray was required for all job applicants. We scrutinized the pros and cons of this practice through a review of the medical literature and our experience, and discussion with our colleagues. We concluded that such chest x-ray caused unwarranted radiation exposure, did not produce compliance with the tuberculosis laws, gave a false sense of security regarding workers' compensation risk management, was contrary to established occupational medicine practice guidelines, and was unnecessary and wasteful. We discontinued such chest x-rays. The purpose of the pre-employment examination should remain narrowly job related. Even long-established procedures require periodic utilization review. PMID:17225852

  6. Enhancement of chest radiographs obtained in the intensive care unit through bone suppression and consistent processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sheng; Zhong, Sikai; Yao, Liping; Shang, Yanfeng; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Portable chest radiographs (CXRs) are commonly used in the intensive care unit (ICU) to detect subtle pathological changes. However, exposure settings or patient and apparatus positioning deteriorate image quality in the ICU. Chest x-rays of patients in the ICU are often hazy and show low contrast and increased noise. To aid clinicians in detecting subtle pathological changes, we proposed a consistent processing and bone structure suppression method to decrease variations in image appearance and improve the diagnostic quality of images. We applied a region of interest-based look-up table to process original ICU CXRs such that they appeared consistent with each other and the standard CXRs. Then, an artificial neural network was trained by standard CXRs and the corresponding dual-energy bone images for the generation of a bone image. Once the neural network was trained, the real dual-energy image was no longer necessary, and the trained neural network was applied to the consistent processed ICU CXR to output the bone image. Finally, a gray level-based morphological method was applied to enhance the bone image by smoothing other structures on this image. This enhanced image was subtracted from the consistent, processed ICU CXR to produce a soft tissue image. This method was tested for 20 patients with a total of 87 CXRs. The findings indicated that our method suppressed bone structures on ICU CXRs and standard CXRs, simultaneously maintaining subtle pathological changes.

  7. Enhancement of chest radiographs obtained in the intensive care unit through bone suppression and consistent processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Zhong, Sikai; Yao, Liping; Shang, Yanfeng; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-03-21

    Portable chest radiographs (CXRs) are commonly used in the intensive care unit (ICU) to detect subtle pathological changes. However, exposure settings or patient and apparatus positioning deteriorate image quality in the ICU. Chest x-rays of patients in the ICU are often hazy and show low contrast and increased noise. To aid clinicians in detecting subtle pathological changes, we proposed a consistent processing and bone structure suppression method to decrease variations in image appearance and improve the diagnostic quality of images. We applied a region of interest-based look-up table to process original ICU CXRs such that they appeared consistent with each other and the standard CXRs. Then, an artificial neural network was trained by standard CXRs and the corresponding dual-energy bone images for the generation of a bone image. Once the neural network was trained, the real dual-energy image was no longer necessary, and the trained neural network was applied to the consistent processed ICU CXR to output the bone image. Finally, a gray level-based morphological method was applied to enhance the bone image by smoothing other structures on this image. This enhanced image was subtracted from the consistent, processed ICU CXR to produce a soft tissue image. This method was tested for 20 patients with a total of 87 CXRs. The findings indicated that our method suppressed bone structures on ICU CXRs and standard CXRs, simultaneously maintaining subtle pathological changes.

  8. Image-processing technique for suppressing ribs in chest radiographs by means of massive training artificial neural network (MTANN).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Abe, Hiroyuki; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio

    2006-04-01

    When lung nodules overlap with ribs or clavicles in chest radiographs, it can be difficult for radiologists as well as computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes to detect these nodules. In this paper, we developed an image-processing technique for suppressing the contrast of ribs and clavicles in chest radiographs by means of a multiresolution massive training artificial neural network (MTANN). An MTANN is a highly nonlinear filter that can be trained by use of input chest radiographs and the corresponding "teaching" images. We employed "bone" images obtained by use of a dual-energy subtraction technique as the teaching images. For effective suppression of ribs having various spatial frequencies, we developed a multiresolution MTANN consisting of multiresolution decomposition/composition techniques and three MTANNs for three different-resolution images. After training with input chest radiographs and the corresponding dual-energy bone images, the multiresolution MTANN was able to provide "bone-image-like" images which were similar to the teaching bone images. By subtracting the bone-image-like images from the corresponding chest radiographs, we were able to produce "soft-tissue-image-like" images where ribs and clavicles were substantially suppressed. We used a validation test database consisting of 118 chest radiographs with pulmonary nodules and an independent test database consisting of 136 digitized screen-film chest radiographs with 136 solitary pulmonary nodules collected from 14 medical institutions in this study. When our technique was applied to nontraining chest radiographs, ribs and clavicles in the chest radiographs were suppressed substantially, while the visibility of nodules and lung vessels was maintained. Thus, our image-processing technique for rib suppression by means of a multiresolution MTANN would be potentially useful for radiologists as well as for CAD schemes in detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs.

  9. Multi-scale Morphological Image Enhancement of Chest Radiographs by a Hybrid Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Alavijeh, Fatemeh Shahsavari; Mahdavi-Nasab, Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Chest radiography is a common diagnostic imaging test, which contains an enormous amount of information about a patient. However, its interpretation is highly challenging. The accuracy of the diagnostic process is greatly influenced by image processing algorithms; hence enhancement of the images is indispensable in order to improve visibility of the details. This paper aims at improving radiograph parameters such as contrast, sharpness, noise level, and brightness to enhance chest radiographs, making use of a triangulation method. Here, contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization technique and noise suppression are simultaneously performed in wavelet domain in a new scheme, followed by morphological top-hat and bottom-hat filtering. A unique implementation of morphological filters allows for adjustment of the image brightness and significant enhancement of the contrast. The proposed method is tested on chest radiographs from Japanese Society of Radiological Technology database. The results are compared with conventional enhancement techniques such as histogram equalization, contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization, Retinex, and some recently proposed methods to show its strengths. The experimental results reveal that the proposed method can remarkably improve the image contrast while keeping the sensitive chest tissue information so that radiologists might have a more precise interpretation. PMID:25709942

  10. Development of computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li, Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Nie, Yongkang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Several clinical trials indicated clearly that pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis is effective for persons with vertebral fractures for preventing subsequent fractures. It is, therefore, important to diagnose vertebral fractures early. Although most vertebral fractures are asymptomatic, they can often be detected on lateral chest radiographs which may be obtained for other purposes. However, investigators have reported that vertebral fractures which were visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or underreported. Therefore, our purpose in this study was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs and to assist radiologists' image interpretation. Our computerized scheme is based on the detection of upper and lower edges of vertebrae on lateral chest images. A curved rectangular area which included a number of visible vertebrae was identified. This area was then straightened such that the upper and lower edges of the vertebrae were oriented horizontally. For detection of vertebral edges, line components were enhanced, and a multiple thresholding technique followed by image feature analysis was applied to the line enhanced image. Finally, vertebral heights determined from the detected vertebral edges were used for characterizing the shape of the vertebrae and for distinguishing fractured from normal vertebrae. Our preliminary results indicated that all of the severely fractured vertebrae in a small database were detected correctly by our computerized method.

  11. [The chest CT findings and pathologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideo

    2009-08-01

    The past research of the radiologic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in Japan was based on morphological pathology of the untreated patient autopsy. I would like to show the chest CT scan of tuberculosis diseases with caseous granuloma at its exudative reaction, proliferative reaction, productive reaction, cirrhotic reaction until self cure. This progress reflects the normal cell mediated immunological responses. Also I would like to show the cavitation of granuloma, which results from liquefaction of caseous materials during the course and results in the formation of the source of infection. And finally I would like to show the morphological differences of acinous lesion, acino-nodular lesion and caseous lobular pneumonia. These differences reflect the amount of bacilli disseminated in the peripheral parts under the lobules. In this study, I do not show old age cases and HIV positive cases, who do not form typical granuloma due to the decreased cell mediated immnunity and whose X ray findings are atypical.

  12. Postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in feline cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Teoh, Wen Tian; Sheikh-Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are commonly performed in judicial investigations to rule out gunshot and fractures. However, there was no available data on radiographic postmortem changes of animals. Forty-one sets of abdominal radiographs of feline cadavers made within 12 h of death were evaluated for postmortem changes. Intravascular gas was detected in 11 of 41 (27%) cadavers. The most common site of intravascular gas was the liver. Intravascular gas was also present in the aorta, femoral artery, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries, and caudal superficial epigastric artery. Intrasplenic gas was detected in two cadavers. Only two cadavers had distended small intestine. One cadaver had pneumatosis coli. The changes detected were most likely due to putrefaction.

  13. Foreign object detection and removal to improve automated analysis of chest radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Hogeweg, Laurens; Sanchez, Clara I.; Melendez, Jaime; Maduskar, Pragnya; Ginneken, Bram van; Story, Alistair; Hayward, Andrew

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Chest radiographs commonly contain projections of foreign objects, such as buttons, brassier clips, jewellery, or pacemakers and wires. The presence of these structures can substantially affect the output of computer analysis of these images. An automated method is presented to detect, segment, and remove foreign objects from chest radiographs.Methods: Detection is performed using supervised pixel classification with a kNN classifier, resulting in a probability estimate per pixel to belong to a projected foreign object. Segmentation is performed by grouping and post-processing pixels with a probability above a certain threshold. Next, the objects are replaced by texture inpainting.Results: The method is evaluated in experiments on 257 chest radiographs. The detection at pixel level is evaluated with receiver operating characteristic analysis on pixels within the unobscured lung fields and an A{sub z} value of 0.949 is achieved. Free response operator characteristic analysis is performed at the object level, and 95.6% of objects are detected with on average 0.25 false positive detections per image. To investigate the effect of removing the detected objects through inpainting, a texture analysis system for tuberculosis detection is applied to images with and without pathology and with and without foreign object removal. Unprocessed, the texture analysis abnormality score of normal images with foreign objects is comparable to those with pathology. After removing foreign objects, the texture score of normal images with and without foreign objects is similar, while abnormal images, whether they contain foreign objects or not, achieve on average higher scores.Conclusions: The authors conclude that removal of foreign objects from chest radiographs is feasible and beneficial for automated image analysis.

  14. Tuberculosis screening in immigrants from high-prevalence countries: interview first or chest radiograph first? A pro/con debate.

    PubMed

    Mor, Zohar; Leventhal, Alex; Diacon, Andreas H; Finger, Rebekka; Schoch, Otto D

    2013-04-01

    Immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) prevalence countries has a substantial impact on the epidemiology of TB in receiving countries with low TB incidence. Cross-border migration offers an ideal opportunity for active case finding that will result in a lower caseload in the host country and a reduced spread of disease to both the indigenous and migrant populations. Screening strategies can start 'offshore', thereby indirectly assisting and empowering public health systems in the source countries, or be performed at ports of entry with or without long-term engagement of 'onshore' facilities and systems to provide either preventive therapy or surveillance for reactivation of latent TB. The chest radiograph seems to be playing a key role in this process, but questions remain regarding when, where and in whom radiographs are best done for optimal yield and cost-effectiveness, and with what other tests they might best be combined to further increase the usefulness of transborder TB control.

  15. Grids and high kilo-volt-peak-setting in bedside chest radiographic examinations.

    PubMed

    Grunert, J H; Boy, B; Busche, D; Groenewold, S K; Herrmann, H; Krahn-Peters, V; Maier, J; Meier, S; Penndorf-Wehner, F; Störl, C; Hendrickx, P

    2000-12-01

    Bedside chest radiographic examinations in intensive care units with grids are impaired by artefacts caused by angulation of the grid (grid cut-off). Two different grids--a grid with a high strip density of 70 lines per cm and the "InSight portable imaging system"--were examined in an intensive care unit with respect to their susceptibility to angulation, image quality and handling of the grid. Five radiologists compared 50 radiographs of each grid considering ten image quality criteria. Using the "InSight portable imaging system" major artefacts were undetectable even at an angulation of 10%; no adjustment of the grid was required, which reduced the amount of time needed to take the radiograph by 26%. The increase in dosage demanded by the employment of the grids at low kilovolt peak setting could be partially compensated by the use of high kilovolt peak setting. The image quality of the "InSight portable imaging system" together with a high kilovolt peak setting is satisfactory, and due to its simplified handling, the portable imaging system has proved to be suitable for bedside chest radiography in intensive care.

  16. Improved texture analysis for automatic detection of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs with bone suppression images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduskar, Pragnya; Hogeweg, Laurens; Philipsen, Rick; Schalekamp, Steven; van Ginneken, Bram

    2013-03-01

    Computer aided detection (CAD) of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs (CXR) is challenging due to over-lapping structures. Suppression of normal structures can reduce overprojection effects and can enhance the appearance of diffuse parenchymal abnormalities. In this work, we compare two CAD systems to detect textural abnormalities in chest radiographs of TB suspects. One CAD system was trained and tested on the original CXR and the other CAD system was trained and tested on bone suppression images (BSI). BSI were created using a commercially available software (ClearRead 2.4, Riverain Medical). The CAD system is trained with 431 normal and 434 abnormal images with manually outlined abnormal regions. Subtlety rating (1-3) is assigned to each abnormal region, where 3 refers to obvious and 1 refers to subtle abnormalities. Performance is evaluated on normal and abnormal regions from an independent dataset of 900 images. These contain in total 454 normal and 1127 abnormal regions, which are divided into 3 subtlety categories containing 280, 527 and 320 abnormal regions, respectively. For normal regions, original/BSI CAD has an average abnormality score of 0.094+/-0.027/0.085+/-0.032 (p - 5.6×10-19). For abnormal regions, subtlety 1, 2, 3 categories have average abnormality scores for original/BSI of 0.155+/-0.073/0.156+/-0.089 (p = 0.73), 0.194+/-0.086/0.207+/-0.101 (p = 5.7×10-7), 0.225+/-0.119/0.247+/-0.117 (p = 4.4×10-7), respectively. Thus for normal regions, CAD scores slightly decrease when using BSI instead of the original images, and for abnormal regions, the scores increase slightly. We therefore conclude that the use of bone suppression results in slightly but significantly improved automated detection of textural abnormalities in chest radiographs.

  17. Analysis of biological tissues in infant chest for the development of an equivalent radiographic phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Pina, D. R.; Souza, Rafael T. F.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Alvarez, Matheus; Miranda, Jose R. A.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present study was to determine the amounts of different tissues in the chest of the newborn patient (age {<=}1 year), with the aim of developing a homogeneous phantom chest equivalent. This type of phantom is indispensable in the development of optimization procedures for radiographic techniques, including dosimetric control, which is a crucial aspect of pediatric radiology. The authors present a systematic set of procedures, including a computational algorithm, to estimate the amounts of tissues and thicknesses of the corresponding simulator material plates used to construct the phantom. Methods: The Gaussian fit of computed tomographic (CT) analysis was applied to classify and quantify different biological tissues. The methodology is summarized with a computational algorithm, which was used to quantify tissues through automated CT analysis. The thicknesses of the equivalent homogeneous simulator material plates were determined to construct the phantom. Results: A total of 180 retrospective CT examinations with anterior-posterior diameter values ranging 8.5-13.0 cm were examined. The amounts of different tissues were evaluated. The results provided elements to construct a phantom to simulate the infant chest in the posterior-anterior or anterior-posterior (PA/AP) view. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the first demonstration of an infant chest phantom dedicated to the radiology of children younger than one year. This phantom is a key element in the development of clinical charts for optimizing radiographic technique in pediatric patients. Optimization procedures for nonstandard patients were reported previously [Pina et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N215-N226 (2004) and Pina et al., Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67, 61-69 (2009)]. The constructed phantom represents a starting point to obtain radiologic protocols for the infant patient.

  18. Microbiology of endotracheal aspirates in intubated pediatric intensive care unit patients: correlations with radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Golden, S E; Shehab, Z M; Bjelland, J C; Ryan, K J; Ray, C G

    1987-07-01

    We studied the utility of Gram-stained smears and semiquantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates (ETAs) in diagnosing pneumonia in intubated patients in a pediatric intensive care unit. The chest radiographs of 35 intubated patients were independently reviewed by a pediatric radiologist and classified into probable, possible and unlikely pneumonias. Concomitant bacteriologic and radiographic information was available in 15 episodes of probable and 13 of possible pneumonia. These findings were compared with the ETAs obtained during the study from patients with no radiographic evidence of pneumonia (N = 21). There was a good correlation between ETA findings and radiographic evidence of pneumonia when ETAs were obtained within 60 minutes of initial intubation. Only a growth of greater than or equal to 3+ of a pathogen was associated with probable pneumonia when ETAs were obtained more than 60 minutes from initial intubation. There was a poor correlation between the microbiologic findings from ETAs and the results of blood cultures and postmortem examinations. Moreover 5 of 10 pairs of ETAs obtained within 18 hours of each other demonstrated discordant results. The ETAs from patients with indwelling endotracheal tubes correlated poorly with radiographic findings and are of questionable value in diagnosing the presence of pneumonia or its etiology in this group. They must be cautiously interpreted in critically ill patients.

  19. A Solitary Feature-based Lung Nodule Detection Approach for Chest X-Ray Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuechen; Shen, Linlin; Luo, Suhuai

    2017-01-31

    Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases. It has a high death rate and its incidence rate has been increasing all over the world. Lung cancer appears as a solitary nodule in chest x-ray radiograph (CXR). Therefore, lung nodule detection in CXR could have a significant impact on early detection of lung cancer. Radiologists define a lung nodule in chest x-ray radiographs as "solitary white nodule-like blob". However, the solitary feature has not been employed for lung nodule detection before. In this paper, a solitary feature-based lung nodule detection method was proposed. We employed stationary wavelet transform and convergence index filter to extract the texture features and used AdaBoost to generate white nodule-likeness map. A solitary feature was defined to evaluate the isolation degree of candidates. Both the isolation degree and the white nodule-likeness were used as final evaluation of lung nodule candidates. The proposed method shows better performance and robustness than those reported in previous research. More than 80% and 93% of lung nodules in the lung field in the JSRT database were detected when the false positives per image was two and five, respectively. The proposed approach has the potential of being used in clinical practice.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis for detection of cardiomegaly in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Takayuki; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Chida, Koichi; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio

    2005-04-01

    The cardio-thoracic ratio (CTR) is commonly measured manually for the evaluation of cardiomegaly. To determine the CTR automatically, we have developed a computerized scheme based on gray-level histogram analysis and an edge detection technique with feature analysis. The database used in this study consisted of 392 chest radiographs, which included 304 normals and 88 abnormals with cardiomegaly. The pixel size and the quantization level of the image were 0.175 mm and 1024, respectively. We performed a nonlinear density correction to maintain consistency in the density and contrast of the image. Initial heart edge detection was performed by selection of a certain range of pixel values in the histogram of a rectangular area at the center of a low-resolution image. Feature analysis with use of an edge gradient and with the orientation obtained by a Sobel operator was applied for accurate identification of the heart edges, which tend to have large edge gradients in a certain range of orientations. In addition, to determine the CTR, we detected the ribcage edges automatically by using image profile analysis. In 94.9% of all of the cases, the heart edges were detected accurately by use of this scheme. The area under the ROC curve (Az value) in distinguishing between normals and abnormals with cardiomegaly based on the CTR was 0.912. Because the CTR is measured automatically and quickly (in less than 1 sec.), radiologists could save reading time. The computerized scheme will be useful for the assessment of cardiomegaly on chest radiographs.

  1. Cavity contour segmentation in chest radiographs using supervised learning and dynamic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Maduskar, Pragnya Hogeweg, Laurens; Sánchez, Clara I.; Ginneken, Bram van; Jong, Pim A. de; Peters-Bax, Liesbeth; Dawson, Rodney; Ayles, Helen

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is often monitored using chest radiography. Monitoring size of cavities in pulmonary tuberculosis is important as the size predicts severity of the disease and its persistence under therapy predicts relapse. The authors present a method for automatic cavity segmentation in chest radiographs. Methods: A two stage method is proposed to segment the cavity borders, given a user defined seed point close to the center of the cavity. First, a supervised learning approach is employed to train a pixel classifier using texture and radial features to identify the border pixels of the cavity. A likelihood value of belonging to the cavity border is assigned to each pixel by the classifier. The authors experimented with four different classifiers:k-nearest neighbor (kNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), GentleBoost (GB), and random forest (RF). Next, the constructed likelihood map was used as an input cost image in the polar transformed image space for dynamic programming to trace the optimal maximum cost path. This constructed path corresponds to the segmented cavity contour in image space. Results: The method was evaluated on 100 chest radiographs (CXRs) containing 126 cavities. The reference segmentation was manually delineated by an experienced chest radiologist. An independent observer (a chest radiologist) also delineated all cavities to estimate interobserver variability. Jaccard overlap measure Ω was computed between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation; and between the reference segmentation and the independent observer's segmentation for all cavities. A median overlap Ω of 0.81 (0.76 ± 0.16), and 0.85 (0.82 ± 0.11) was achieved between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation, and between the segmentations by the two radiologists, respectively. The best reported mean contour distance and Hausdorff distance between the reference and the automatic segmentation were

  2. Computer-aided detection of malpositioned endotracheal tubes in portable chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhimin; Mao, Hongda; Zhang, Jane; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Munn, Samson; Wandtke, John

    2014-03-01

    Portable chest radiographic images play a critical role in examining and monitoring the condition and progress of critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs). For example, portable chest images are acquired to ensure that tubes inserted into the patients are properly positioned for effective treatment. In this paper, we present a system that automatically detects the position of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is inserted into the trachea to assist patients who have difficulty breathing. The computer detection includes the detections of the lung field, spine line, and aortic arch. These detections lead to the identification of regions of interest (ROIs) used for the subsequent detection of the ETT and carina. The detection of the ETT and carina is performed within the ROIs. Our ETT and carina detection methods were trained and tested on a large number of images. The locations of the ETT and carina were confirmed by an experienced radiologist for the purpose of performance evaluation. Our ETT detection achieved an average sensitivity of 85% at less than 0.1 false-positive detections per image. The carina approach correctly identified the carina location within a 10 mm distance from the truth location for 81% of the 217 testing images. We expect our system will assist ICU clinicians to detect malpositioned ETTs and reposition malpositioned ETTs more effectively and efficiently.

  3. A method to produce and validate a digitally reconstructed radiograph-based computer simulation for optimisation of chest radiographs acquired with a computed radiography imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C S; Liney, G P; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer model to produce realistic simulated computed radiography (CR) chest images using CT data sets of real patients. Methods Anatomical noise, which is the limiting factor in determining pathology in chest radiography, is realistically simulated by the CT data, and frequency-dependent noise has been added post-digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation to simulate exposure reduction. Realistic scatter and scatter fractions were measured in images of a chest phantom acquired on the CR system simulated by the computer model and added post-DRR calculation. Results The model has been validated with a phantom and patients and shown to provide predictions of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), tissue-to-rib ratios (TRRs: a measure of soft tissue pixel value to that of rib) and pixel value histograms that lie within the range of values measured with patients and the phantom. The maximum difference in measured SNR to that calculated was 10%. TRR values differed by a maximum of 1.3%. Conclusion Experienced image evaluators have responded positively to the DRR images, are satisfied they contain adequate anatomical features and have deemed them clinically acceptable. Therefore, the computer model can be used by image evaluators to grade chest images presented at different tube potentials and doses in order to optimise image quality and patient dose for clinical CR chest radiographs without the need for repeat patient exposures. PMID:21933979

  4. Automated characterization of perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs: Validation and calibration to observer preference

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, Ehsan; Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Page McAdams, H.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The authors previously proposed an image-based technique [Y. Lin et al. Med. Phys. 39, 7019–7031 (2012)] to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this study, an observer study was designed and conducted to validate the output of the program against rankings by expert radiologists and to establish the ranges of the output values that reflect the acceptable image appearance so the program output can be used for image quality optimization and tracking. Methods: Using an IRB-approved protocol, 2500 clinical chest radiographs (PA/AP) were collected from our clinical operation. The images were processed through our perceptual quality assessment program to measure their appearance in terms of ten metrics of perceptual image quality: lung gray level, lung detail, lung noise, rib–lung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm–lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. From the results, for each targeted appearance attribute/metric, 18 images were selected such that the images presented a relatively constant appearance with respect to all metrics except the targeted one. The images were then incorporated into a graphical user interface, which displayed them into three panels of six in a random order. Using a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions, each of five participating attending chest radiologists was tasked to spatially order the images based only on the targeted appearance attribute regardless of the other qualities. Once ordered, the observer also indicated the range of image appearances that he/she considered clinically acceptable. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer and algorithmic rankings and interobserver variability. An observer-averaged acceptable image appearance was also statistically derived for each quality attribute based on the collected individual acceptable ranges

  5. Computerized methods for determining respiratory phase on dynamic chest radiographs obtained by a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD) system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Matsui, Osamu

    2006-03-01

    Chest radiography using a dynamic flat-panel detector with a large field of view can provide sequential chest radiographs during respiration. These images provide information regarding respiratory kinetics, which is effective for diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. For valid analysis of respiratory kinetics in diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, it is crucial to determine the association between the kinetics and respiratory phase. We developed four methods to determine the respiratory phase based on image information associated with respiration and compared the results in dynamic chest radiographs of 37 subjects. Here, the properties of each method and future tasks are discussed. The method based on the change in size of the lung gave the most stable results, and that based on the change in distance from the lung apex to the diaphragm was the most promising method for determining the respiratory phase.

  6. Morphometric Comparison of Clavicle Outlines from 3D Bone Scans and 2D Chest Radiographs: A Short-listing Tool to Assist Radiographic Identification of Human Skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Carl N.; Amidan, Brett G.; Trease, Harold E.; Guyomarch, Pierre; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Byrd, John E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a computerized clavicle identification system, primarily designed to resolve the identities of unaccounted for US soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Elliptical Fourier analysis is used to quantify the clavicle outline shape from skeletons and postero-anterior antemortem chest radiographs to rank individuals in terms of metric distance. Similar to leading fingerprint identification systems, shortlists of the top matching candidates are extracted for subsequent human visual assessment. Two independent tests of the computerized system using 17 field-recovered skeletons and 409 chest radiographs demonstrate that true positive matches are captured within the top 5% of the sample 75% of the time. These results are outstanding given the eroded state of some field-recovered skeletons and the faintness of the 1950’s photoflurographs. These methods enhance the capability to resolve several hundred cold cases for which little circumstantial information exists and current DNA and dental record technologies cannot be applied.

  7. Incidental Findings on Knee Radiographs in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Gyo; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, Young; Kim, Tae Gyun; Baek, Jeong Kook; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the wide use of knee radiography in children and adolescent patients visiting the outpatient clinic, there has been no analysis about the prevalence and type of incidental findings yet. This study was performed to investigate the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents according to age. Methods A total of 1,562 consecutive patients younger than 18 years of age were included. They who visited Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's outpatient clinic with a chief complaint of knee pain or malalignment between 2010 and 2011. We reviewed the knee radiographs and analyzed the prevalence and type of incidental findings, such as metaphyseal lucent area, epiphyseal cortical irregularity, osteochondroma and Harris growth arrest line. Results The mean age of the patients was 10.2 years (range, 1 month to 18 years). We identified 355 incidental findings in 335 patients (21.4%) and 98 abnormal findings (6.3%). The most common incidental finding was metaphyseal lucent area (131, 8.4%), followed by epiphyseal cortical irregularity (105, 6.7%), Harris growth arrest line (75, 4.8%), and osteochondroma (44, 2.8%). An epiphyseal cortical irregularity tended to have a higher prevalence at younger age (p < 0.001) and the prevalences of metaphyseal lucent area and Harris growth arrest line were also higher at a younger age (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, the osteochondroma tended to have a higher prevalence at an older age (p = 0.004). Conclusions This study describes the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents and provides effective information from a viewpoint of an orthopedic doctor. The authors recommend considering those incidental findings if unfamiliar findings appear on a knee radiograph in the pediatric outpatient clinic. PMID:25177456

  8. CHAOS: Prenatal imaging findings with post mortem contrast radiographic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanika; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Manoharan, Kiruba Shankar; Rajalakshmi, Vaithianathan; Menon, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome is a rare fetal anomaly with characteristic constellation of prenatal findings on ultrasound and MRI. The typical triad of imaging features are enlarged and echogenic lungs, flattening or inversion of diaphragm and fetal hydrops. Early prenatal recognition of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome by ultrasound and/or MRI is mandatory for the appropriate perinatal management. We report a case of a male fetus with typical imaging findings of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome on ultrasound and MRI at 19 weeks of gestation. The role of contrast radiographs of fetal airways, including retrograde laryngogram, in confirming the postnatal diagnosis of this fetal condition is demonstrated. The prenatal imaging findings were correlated with contrast radiographs of upper airways, sonography of aborted fetus and fetal autopsy findings. PMID:27761192

  9. Radiological findings in megaesophagus secondary to Chagas disease: chest X-ray and esophagogram*

    PubMed Central

    Abud, Thiago Giansante; Abud, Lucas Giansante; Vilar, Vanessa Sales; Szejnfeld, Denis; Reibscheid, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify and classify the radiographic patterns of megaesophagus in Chagas disease, as seen on esophagograms and chest X-rays. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study of 35 patients diagnosed with esophageal disease via manometry. The changes found on esophagograms were stratified according to Rezende's classification, divided into four categories (grades I through IV) determined by the degree of dilatation and impairement of esophageal motility. We subsequently correlated that ranking with the chest X-ray findings: gastric air bubble; air-fluid level; and mediastinal widening. Results Among the 35 patients, the esophageal disease was classified as grade I in 9 (25.7%), grade II in 3 (8.6%), grade III in 19 (54.3%), and grade IV in 4 (11.4%). None of the patients with grade I esophageal disease showed changes on chest X-rays. In two of the three patients with grade II disease, there was no gastric air-bubble, although there were no other findings in any of the grade II patients. Of the 19 patients with grade III disease, 15 had abnormal findings on X-rays. All four patients with grade IV disease showed abnormalities. Conclusion The use of Rezende's classification is feasible, encompassing findings ranging from the subtle changes that characterize the initial phases of esophageal disease to the complete akinesia seen in dolicomegaesophagus. Chest X-ray findings are more common in patients with advanced stages of the disease and indicate the degree of esophageal involvement in Chagas disease. PMID:28100930

  10. Routine chest radiographs in the surgical intensive care unit: can we change clinical habits with no proven benefit?

    PubMed

    Velicković, Jelena V; Hajdarević, Sanela A; Palibrk, Ivan G; Janić, Natasa R; Djukanović, Marija; Miljković, Bojana; Velicković, Dejan M; Bumbasirević, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Daily routine chest radiographs (CR) are commonly performed in surgical ICU. Unnecessary CR increase costs and expose the staff and the patients to radiation risk. The goal of our study was to estimate the value of daily routine CR in the ICU and to determine the correlation between CR and physical findings in surgical ICU patients. Prospective observational study was conducted during period of two months at the ICU department at the Clinic for Digestive Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. It included 97 consecutive patients who underwent digestive surgery and stayed at the ICU for at least two days. During their ICU stay, CRs were obtained as a clinical routine or to monitor lung pathology. Patients were followed daily, and CRs (as the proportion of positive findings) were compared with physical examination and clinical presentation. A total of 717 CRs were obtained, median number per patient was 4.0 (2.0-7.0). Proportion of positive findings was significantly higher comparing to auscultation until the sixth day of ICU stay. There was no difference in CR findings from day to day after the sixth day. Therapeutic efficacy of CRs was low as only 56 (7.8%) resulted in a change of patient management. We conclude that daily routine CRs are justified in the first six days of ICU stay, and after that time they show no advantages over clinical examination.

  11. Are daily routine chest radiographs necessary after pulmonary surgery in adult patients?

    PubMed Central

    Reeb, Jeremie; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Olland, Anne; Massard, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether daily routine (DR) chest radiographs (CXRs) are necessary after pulmonary surgery in adult patients. Of the 66 papers found using a report search, seven presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Four of these seven studies specifically addressed post-cardiothoracic adult patients. Three of these seven studies addressed intensive care unit (ICU) patients and included post-cardiothoracic adult patients in well-designed studies. Six of these seven studies compared the DR CXRs strategy to the clinically indicated, on-demand (OD) CXRs strategy. Another study analysed the clinical impact of ceasing to perform the DR, postoperative, post-chest tubes removal CXRs. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, study type, group studied, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are given. We conclude that, on the whole, the seven studies are unanimously in favour of forgoing DR CXRs after lung resection and advocate OD CXRs. One study suggested that hypoxic patients could benefit from a DR CXRs strategy, while other studies failed to identify any subgroup for whom performing DR CXRs was beneficial. Indeed, DR CXRs, commonly taken after thoracic surgery, have poor diagnostic and therapeutic value. Eliminating them for adult patients having undergone thoracic surgery significantly decreases the number of CXRs per patient without increasing mortality rates, length of hospital stays (LOSs), readmission rates and adverse events. Hence, current evidence shows that DR CXRs could be forgone after lung resection because OD CXRs, recommended by clinical monitoring, have a better impact on management and have not been proved to negatively affect patient outcomes. Moreover, an OD CXRs strategy lowers the cost of care. Nevertheless, an OD CXRs strategy requires close clinical monitoring by experienced surgeons and dedicated intensivists. However

  12. Hip arthroplasty. Part 2: normal and abnormal radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Pluot, E; Davis, E T; Revell, M; Davies, A M; James, S L J

    2009-10-01

    This review addresses the normal and abnormal radiographic findings that can be encountered during the follow-up of patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA). The relative significance of different patterns of radiolucency, bone sclerosis, and component position is discussed. The normal or pathological significance of these findings is correlated with design, surface, and fixation of the prosthetic components. It is essential to have a good knowledge of expected and unexpected radiological evolution according to the different types of prostheses. This paper emphasizes the importance of serial studies compared with early postoperative radiographs during follow-up in order to report accurately any sign of prosthetic failure and trigger prompt specialist referral. Basic technical guidelines and schedule recommendations for radiological follow-up are summarized.

  13. Prediction of Anthracofibrosis Based on Clinico-Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Yun; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Jin, Kwang Nam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Because anthracofibrosis (AF) is associated with tuberculosis (TB), detection of AF is clinically relevant in Korea, a TB endemic region. We thus sought to develop and validate a predictive model for AF using clinical radiographic data. Materials and Methods Between January 1, 2008 and March 31, 2014, 3849 adult patients who underwent bronchoscopies were retrospectively included from an observational registry. We dichotomized patients based on the presence (n=167) or absence (n=242) of AF. After analyzing their clinico-radiographic characteristics, a logistic prediction model was developed. An area under the curve (AUC) was drawn using the weighted score in logistic regression model. To evaluate the degree of overfitting of the predictive model, a 5-fold cross-validation procedure was performed. Results In multivariate logistic regression, clinical findings such as age >70 years, female gender, active TB, and computed tomography findings including atelectasis, stenosis, bronchial wall thickening, enlarged and calcified lymph nodes were significant diagnostic predictors for AF. The weighed score had an AUC of 0.939 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.911–0.960], similar to the AUC obtained from internal validation (AUC=0.926, 95% CI=0.896–0.949). Conclusion The prediction model may be helpful for predicting AF based only on clinical and radiographic findings. However, further external validation is necessary. PMID:28120566

  14. The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis (CC) of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint on chest radiographs and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Parperis, Konstantinos; Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mautz, Alan; Dubois, Melissa; Cerniglia, Ross; Ryan, Lawrence M

    2013-09-01

    Digital imaging combined with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) access allows detailed image retrieval and magnification. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages, the cartilage of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint being one such structure. We sought to determine if examination of the AC joints on magnified PACS imaging of chest films would be useful in identifying chondrocalcinosis (CC). Retrospective radiographic readings and chart reviews involving 1,920 patients aged 50 or more who had routine outpatient chest radiographs over a 4-month period were performed. Knee radiographs were available for comparison in 489 patients. Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographics, chest film reports, and diagnoses. AC joint CC was identified in 1.1 % (21/1,920) of consecutive chest films. Patients with AC joint CC were 75 years of age versus 65.4 in those without CC (p < 0.0002). Four hundred eighty-nine patients had knee films. Six of these patients had AC joint CC, and of these, five also had knee CC (83 %). Of the 483 without AC joint CC, 62 (12 %) had knee CC (p = 0.002). Patients with AC joint CC were more likely to have a recorded history of CPPD crystal deposition disease than those without AC joint CC (14 versus 1 %, p = 0.0017). The prevalence of AC joint CC increases with age and is associated with knee CC. A finding of AC joint CC should heighten suspicion of pseudogout or secondary osteoarthritis in appropriate clinical settings and, in a young patient, should alert the clinician to the possibility of an associated metabolic condition.

  15. Application of phase congruency for discriminating some lung diseases using chest radiograph.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Omar Mohd; Ebrahimian, Hossein; Noor, Norliza Mohd; Hussin, Amran; Yunus, Ashari; Mahayiddin, Aziah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A novel procedure using phase congruency is proposed for discriminating some lung disease using chest radiograph. Phase congruency provides information about transitions between adjacent pixels. Abrupt changes of phase congruency values between pixels may suggest a possible boundary or another feature that may be used for discrimination. This property of phase congruency may have potential for deciding between disease present and disease absent where the regions of infection on the images have no obvious shape, size, or configuration. Five texture measures calculated from phase congruency and Gabor were shown to be normally distributed. This gave good indicators of discrimination errors in the form of the probability of Type I Error (δ) and the probability of Type II Error (β). However, since 1 -  δ is the true positive fraction (TPF) and β is the false positive fraction (FPF), an ROC analysis was used to decide on the choice of texture measures. Given that features are normally distributed, for the discrimination between disease present and disease absent, energy, contrast, and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results compared to those using Gabor. Similarly, for the more difficult problem of discriminating lobar pneumonia and lung cancer, entropy and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results relative to Gabor.

  16. Application of Phase Congruency for Discriminating Some Lung Diseases Using Chest Radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Rijal, Omar Mohd; Ebrahimian, Hossein; Noor, Norliza Mohd; Yunus, Ashari; Mahayiddin, Aziah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A novel procedure using phase congruency is proposed for discriminating some lung disease using chest radiograph. Phase congruency provides information about transitions between adjacent pixels. Abrupt changes of phase congruency values between pixels may suggest a possible boundary or another feature that may be used for discrimination. This property of phase congruency may have potential for deciding between disease present and disease absent where the regions of infection on the images have no obvious shape, size, or configuration. Five texture measures calculated from phase congruency and Gabor were shown to be normally distributed. This gave good indicators of discrimination errors in the form of the probability of Type I Error (δ) and the probability of Type II Error (β). However, since 1 −  δ is the true positive fraction (TPF) and β is the false positive fraction (FPF), an ROC analysis was used to decide on the choice of texture measures. Given that features are normally distributed, for the discrimination between disease present and disease absent, energy, contrast, and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results compared to those using Gabor. Similarly, for the more difficult problem of discriminating lobar pneumonia and lung cancer, entropy and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results relative to Gabor. PMID:25918551

  17. Association of Lung Function, Chest Radiographs and Clinical Features in Infants with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Farrell, Philip M.; Kloster, Margaret; Swanson, Jonathan O.; Vu, Thuy; Brumback, Lyndia; Acton, James D.; Castile, Robert G.; Colin, Andrew A.; Conrad, Carol K.; Hart, Meeghan A.; Kerby, Gwendolyn S.; Hiatt, Peter W.; Mogayzel, Peter J.; Johnson, Robin C.; Davis, Stephanie D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimal strategy for monitoring cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease in infancy remains unclear. Objective To describe longitudinal associations between infant pulmonary function tests (iPFTs), chest radiograph (CXR) scores and other characteristics. Methods CF patients ≤ 24 months old were enrolled in a 10-center study evaluating iPFTs 4 times over a year. CXRs ~1 year apart were scored with the Wisconsin and Brasfield systems. Associations of iPFT parameters with clinical characteristics were evaluated with mixed effects models. Results The 100 participants contributed 246 acceptable flow/volume (FEV0.5, FEF75) and 303 acceptable functional residual capacity (FRC) measurements and 171 CXRs. Both Brasfield and Wisconsin CXR scores worsened significantly over the 1 year interval. Worse Wisconsin CXR scores and S. aureus were both associated with hyperinflation (significantly increased FRC) but not with diminished FEV0.5 or FEF75. Parent-reported cough was associated with significantly diminished FEF75 but not with hyperinflation. Conclusions In this infant cohort in whom we previously reported worsening in average lung function, CXR scores also worsened over a year. The significant associations detected between both Wisconsin CXR score and S. aureus and hyperinflation, as well as between cough and diminished flows, reinforce the ability of iPFTs and CXRs to detect early CF lung disease. PMID:23722613

  18. Lung Field Segmentation in Chest Radiographs from Boundary Maps by a Structured Edge Detector.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Liu, Yunbi; Lin, Liyan; Yun, Zhaoqiang; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2017-03-27

    Lung field segmentation in chest radiographs (CXRs) is an essential preprocessing step in automatically analyzing such images. We present a method for lung field segmentation that is built on a high-quality boundary map detected by an efficient modern boundary detector, namely, a structured edge detector (SED). A SED is trained beforehand to detect lung boundaries in CXRs with manually outlined lung fields. Then, an ultrametric contour map (UCM) is transformed from the masked and marked boundary map. Finally, the contours with the highest confidence level in the UCM are extracted as lung contours. Our method is evaluated using the public JSRT database of scanned films. The average Jaccard index of our method is 95.2%, which is comparable with those of other state-of-the-art methods (95.4%). The computation time of our method is less than 0.1 s for a 256 × 256 CXR when executed on an ordinary laptop. Our method is also validated on CXRs acquired with different digital radiography units. The results demonstrate the generalization of the trained SED model and the usefulness of our method.

  19. Spatially varying scatter compensation for chest radiographs using a hybrid Madaline artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Joseph Y.; Baydush, Alan H.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    We developed a hybrid artificial neural network for scatter compensation in digital portable chest radiographs. The network inputs an image region of interest (ROI), and outputs the scatter estimate at the ROI's center. We segmented each image into four regions by relative detected exposure, then trained a separate Adaline (adaptive linear element) or adaptive filter for each region. We produced a spatially varying hybrid Madaline (mulitple Adaline) by combining outputs from weight matrices of different sizes trained for different durations. The network was trained with 20 patient or 1280 examples, then evaluated with another 5 patients or 320 examples. Scatter estimation errors were not very different, ranging from the Adaline's 6.9 percent to the hybrid Madaline's 5.5 percent. Primary errors (more relevant to quantitative radiography techniques like dual energy imaging) were 43 percent for the Adaline, reduced to 27 percent for the Madaline, and further reduced to 19 percent for the hybrid Madaline. The trained weight matrices, which act like convolution filters, resembled the shape and magnitude of scatter point spread functions. All networks outperformed conventional convolution-subraction techniques using analytical kernels. With its spatially varying neural network model, the hybrid Madaline provided the most accurate and robust estimation of scatter and primary exposures.

  20. Radiographic findings in the nail-patella syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome is a rare disorder characterized classically by the tetrad of nail hypoplasia or aplasia, aplastic or hypoplastic patellae, elbow dysplasia, and the presence of iliac horns. Iliac horns are considered pathognomonic, and the presence of hypoplastic or aplastic patellae in conjunction with nail abnormalities is a cardinal feature of diagnosis. Elbow dysplasia is present in most cases and can exhibit features typical of the syndrome. Herein we present the radiographic findings of the elbows, knees, and pelvis of a woman with nail-patella syndrome. PMID:26130880

  1. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-12-15

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  2. Relationships between Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and chest radiographic manifestations in childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiu-ling; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yu-shui

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is one of the most common childhood community-acquired pneumonias, and the chest radiograph usually shows bronchial pneumonia, segmental/lobar pneumonia, or segmental/lobar pneumonia with pleural effusion. The imbalance of Th1/Th2 function after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is an important immunological mechanism of MPP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlations between Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and chest radiographic manifestations in MPP children. Patients and methods A total of 87 children with MPP were retrospectively reviewed in this study. According to the chest radiographic manifestations, they were divided into the following three groups: bronchial MPP group, segmental/lobar MPP group, and segmental/lobar MPP with pleural effusion group. Clinical features and changes in Th1/Th2 cytokines were further analyzed. Results The incidence of tachypnea and cyanosis was higher in children with segmental/lobar MPP with pleural effusion than in those with segmental/lobar or bronchial MPP. The peak body temperature of segmental/lobar MPP was higher than that of bronchial MPP, and the duration of fever and hospitalization was positively correlated with the severity of MPP. MPP children’s chest radiograph showed a relationship with the changes in Th1/Th2 cytokines. Serum interleukin-4, interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of segmental/lobar MPP were significantly higher than those of bronchial MPP, and serum IL-10 (cutoff value: 27.25 pg/mL) can be used as a diagnostic predictor for segmental/lobar MPP. Serum TNF-α and interleukin-6 of segmental/lobar MPP with pleural effusion were significantly higher than those of segmental/lobar MPP without pleural effusion. Serum TNF-α (cutoff value: 60.25 pg/mL) can be used as a diagnostic predictor for segmental/lobar MPP with pleural effusion. Conclusion There were significant correlations between Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles

  3. Hematologic neoplasms: interpreting lung findings in chest computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Calvillo Batllés, P; Carreres Polo, J; Sanz Caballer, J; Salavert Lletí, M; Compte Torrero, L

    2015-01-01

    Lung disease is very common in patients with hematologic neoplasms and varies in function of the underlying disease and its treatment. Lung involvement is associated with high morbidity and mortality, so it requires early appropriate treatment. Chest computed tomography (CT) and the analysis of biologic specimens are the first line diagnostic tools in these patients, and sometimes invasive methods are necessary. Interpreting the images requires an analysis of the clinical context, which is often complex. Starting from the knowledge about the differential diagnosis of lung findings that radiologists acquire during training, this article aims to explain the key clinical and radiological aspects that make it possible to orient the diagnosis correctly and to understand the current role of CT in the treatment strategy for this group of patients.

  4. Dentomaxillofacial manifestations of Gaucher's disease: preliminary clinical and radiographic findings

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, RM; Ribeiro, ALR; Alves-Junior, SM; Tuji, FM; Rodrigues Pinheiro, M das G; Pinheiro, LR; Pinheiro, JJV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A wide variety of manifestations is presented in patients with Gaucher's disease (GD), including bone, haematology and visceral disturbances. This study was conducted to ascertain the main maxillofacial abnormalities by means of clinical survey, panoramic and cone beam CT (CBCT); to compare the patient's group with an age–sex matched control group; and to correlate clinical and radiological data. Methods Ten patients previously diagnosed with GD were submitted to clinical and radiological surveys (CBCT and panoramic radiographs). The examination consisted of anamnesis, extra- and intraoral examinations and analyses of each patient's records. Imaging data were collected from the point of view of 3 observers, and the results compared with a healthy group (20 individuals) by means of statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test). Results Gaucher patients had significantly more manifestations than otherwise healthy carriers. The most prevalent findings were enlarged marrow spaces, generalized osteopenia and effacement of jaw structures (mandibular canal, lamina dura and mental foramen). Here we describe a case in which thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa was observed on CBCT rather than opacification of the sinus as seen on panoramic radiographs. Pathological fractures, root resorption and delay on tooth eruption were not observed. Conclusions A poor relationship could be observed between clinical and radiological data. Patients showed important bone manifestations, which require careful diagnostic and surgical planning whenever necessary. Although panoramic radiographs have shown significant differences, CBCT is more effective in pointing out differences between patients and a control group, thus showing it as an important tool for evaluation of Gaucher patients. PMID:22988312

  5. Validation of an image-based technique to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs with an observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; McAdams, H. Page; Foos, David H.; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a novel image-based quality assessment technique1 to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this paper, an observer study was designed and conducted to systematically validate this technique. Ten metrics were involved in the observer study, i.e., lung grey level, lung detail, lung noise, riblung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm-lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. For each metric, three tasks were successively presented to the observers. In each task, six ROI images were randomly presented in a row and observers were asked to rank the images only based on a designated quality and disregard the other qualities. A range slider on the top of the images was used for observers to indicate the acceptable range based on the corresponding perceptual attribute. Five boardcertificated radiologists from Duke participated in this observer study on a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer ranking orders and the algorithmic ranking orders. Based on the collected acceptable ranges, quality consistency ranges were statistically derived. The observer study showed that, for each metric, the averaged ranking orders of the participated observers were strongly correlated with the algorithmic orders. For the lung grey level, the observer ranking orders completely accorded with the algorithmic ranking orders. The quality consistency ranges derived from this observer study were close to these derived from our previous study. The observer study indicates that the proposed image-based quality assessment technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality of the clinical chest radiographs. The derived quality consistency ranges can be used to automatically predict the acceptability of a clinical chest radiograph.

  6. Abnormal distribution of pulmonary blood flow in aortic valve disease. Relation between pulmonary function and chest radiograph.

    PubMed

    Goodenday, L S; Simon, G; Craig, H; Dalby, L

    1970-05-01

    Wasted ventilatory volume (V(D)) and its ratio to tidal volume (V(D)/V(T)) were measured at rest and during exertion in 17 patients with aortic valve disease. We considered V(D)/V(T) to indicate abnormal ventilation: perfusion relations if it did not decrease on exertion, or if the exercising value was greater than 40 per cent. Plain chest radiographs were independently examined for evidence of diversion of pulmonary blood to the upper lobes. There was significant agreement (p<0.05) between radiographic and pulmonary function estimations of abnormality. This suggests that the raised pulmonary venous pressure associated with left ventricular failure creates an abnormal pattern of blood flow through the lung, which is responsible for causing inadequate perfusion with respect to ventilation.

  7. Radiographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of radiographer, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of radiographer. The following skill areas are covered in the…

  8. Using Standardized Interpretation of Chest Radiographs to Identify Adults with Bacterial Pneumonia—Guatemala, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wortham, Jonathan M.; Gray, Jennifer; Verani, Jennifer; Contreras, Carmen Lucia; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Moir, Juan Carlos; Reyes Marroquin, Emma Lissette; Castellan, Rigoberto; Arvelo, Wences; Lindblade, Kim; McCracken, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide, but quantifying its burden is difficult due to insensitive diagnostics. Although World Health Organization (WHO) protocol standardizes pediatric chest radiograph (CXR) interpretation for epidemiologic studies of bacterial pneumonia, its validity in adults is unknown. Methods Patients (age ≥15 years) admitted with respiratory infections to two Guatemalan hospitals between November 2007 and March 2012 had urine and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs collected; blood cultures and CXR were also performed at physician clinical discretion. ‘Any bacterial infection’ was defined as a positive urine pneumococcal antigen test, isolation of a bacterial pneumonia pathogen from blood culture, or detection of an atypical bacterial pathogen by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) specimens. ‘Viral infection’ was defined as detection of viral pathogens by PCR of NP/OP specimens. CXRs were interpreted according to the WHO protocol as having ‘endpoint consolidation’, ‘other infiltrate’, or ‘normal’ findings. We examined associations between bacterial and viral infections and endpoint consolidation. Findings Urine antigen and/or blood culture results were available for 721 patients with CXR interpretations; of these, 385 (53%) had endpoint consolidation and 253 (35%) had other infiltrate. Any bacterial infection was detected in 119 (17%) patients, including 106 (89%) pneumococcal infections. Any bacterial infection (Diagnostic Odds Ratio [DOR] = 2.9; 95% confidence Interval (CI): 1.3–7.9) and pneumococcal infection (DOR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.5–10.0) were associated with ‘endpoint consolidation’, but not ‘other infiltrate’ (DOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.7–4.9, and 1.7; 95% CI: 0.7–4.9 respectively). Viral infection was not significantly associated with ‘endpoint consolidation’, ‘other infiltrate,’ or ‘normal’ findings

  9. Interpretations of the chest roentgenogram

    SciTech Connect

    Landay, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen brief chapters cover basic principles, techniques, and normal appearance of the lungs, hili, mediastinum, pleura, thoracic cage, and extrathoracic structures as seen in chest radiographs. Common pathologic findings are described and copiously illustrated. Four brief concluding chapters highlight findings in the neck, intensive care radiographs with special reference to tubes and catheters, clues to indicate site of disease, and a brief summary.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of the patient with chest pain of suspected myocardial origin

    SciTech Connect

    Green, C.E.; Satler, L.F.; Elliott, L.P.

    1984-11-01

    The evaluation of the patient with suspected angina pectoris is discussed and an approach presented which makes use of radiologic tests in conjunction with exercise testing to quickly and efficiently determine the likelihood and severity of coronary artery disease. The relative merits and limitations of chest radiography, cardiac fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and coronary arteriography are discussed.

  11. 78 FR 53645 - Black Lung Benefits Act: Standards for Chest Radiographs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office... final rule; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) published a direct... providing parallel standards for submission of digital radiographs in connection with claims filed under...

  12. Traumatic pericarditis in cattle: clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2009-11-01

    Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium with accumulation of serous or fibrinous inflammatory products. In cattle, it is almost always attributable to a reticular foreign body that has penetrated the reticular wall, diaphragm and pericardial sac. The lead signs of pericarditis are tachycardia, muffled heart sounds, asynchronous abnormal heart sounds, distension of the jugular veins and submandibular, brisket and ventral abdominal oedema. The glutaraldehyde test is an important diagnostic tool because it is positive in >90% of affected cattle. Other common laboratory findings are leukocytosis and hyperfibrinogenaemia (indicating inflammation), and elevation of liver enzyme activity (reflecting hepatic congestion). Radiographs of the thorax and reticulum often show a foreign body cranial to the reticulum. In the majority of cases, massive fibrinopurulent adhesions obscure the cardiophrenic angle, cardiac silhouette and ventral diaphragm. Ultrasonography is the method of choice for diagnosis and characterisation of pericardial effusion. Echogenic deposits and strands of fibrin are seen on the epicardium, and the ventricles are compressed by the effusion. Severe pleural effusion is usually evident. In cattle with distension of the jugular veins and tachycardia, the differential diagnosis includes right-sided cardiac insufficiency attributable to other causes. Distension of the jugular veins without signs of right-sided cardiac insufficiency may occur with obstruction or compression of the cranial vena cava. The prognosis is poor, and pericardiocentesis or pericardiotomy are inadequate methods of treatment. Thus, prompt and humane euthanasia is indicated for cattle with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Because a definitive diagnosis of traumatic reticuloperitonitis is not always possible based on clinical signs alone, radiography and ultrasonography of the thorax and reticulum are indicated in doubtful cases.

  13. Cystic Fibrosis Chest X-Ray Findings: A Teaching Analog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    tram-track sign” has been used as a descriptive radiographic term. For example, there is “tram- tracking” of the optic nerve meninges that can...congenital, or secondary to severe infection, or secondary to an obstructive process. The most common infectious causes in adults are tuberculosis ...Mycobacterium (i.e. Tuberculosis ) MRSA TORCHES Fungal Infection Obstructive Foreign Body Aspiration Bronchial Stricture Airway Mass/Tumor

  14. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  15. A parameterized logarithmic image processing method with Laplacian of Gaussian filtering for lung nodule enhancement in chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Yao, Liping; Chen, Bao

    2016-11-01

    The enhancement of lung nodules in chest radiographs (CXRs) plays an important role in the manual as well as computer-aided detection (CADe) lung cancer. In this paper, we proposed a parameterized logarithmic image processing (PLIP) method combined with the Laplacian of a Gaussian (LoG) filter to enhance lung nodules in CXRs. We first applied several LoG filters with varying parameters to an original CXR to enhance the nodule-like structures as well as the edges in the image. We then applied the PLIP model, which can enhance lung nodule images with high contrast and was beneficial in extracting effective features for nodule detection in the CADe scheme. Our method combined the advantages of both the PLIP algorithm and the LoG algorithm, which can enhance lung nodules in chest radiographs with high contrast. To test our nodule enhancement method, we tested a CADe scheme, with a relatively high performance in nodule detection, using a publically available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs enhanced through our nodule enhancement method. The CADe scheme attained a sensitivity of 81 and 70 % with an average of 5.0 frame rate (FP) and 2.0 FP, respectively, in a leave-one-out cross-validation test. By contrast, the CADe scheme based on the original image recorded a sensitivity of 77 and 63 % at 5.0 FP and 2.0 FP, respectively. We introduced the measurement of enhancement by entropy evaluation to objectively assess our method. Experimental results show that the proposed method obtains an effective enhancement of lung nodules in CXRs for both radiologists and CADe schemes.

  16. Organ dose and effective dose estimation in paediatric chest radiographic examinations by using pin silicon photodiode dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Toshio; Aoyama, Takahiko; Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo; Fujii, Keisuke; Koyama, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    Organ and effective doses during paediatric chest radiographic examination were investigated for various tube voltages between 60 and 110 kV at a constant milliampere-second value and focus-to-film distance by using an in-phantom dose measuring system and a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation software (PCXMC), where the former was composed of 32 photodiode dosemeters embedded in various tissue and organ sites within a 6-y-old child anthropomorphic phantom. Lung doses obtained ranged from 0.010 to 0.066 mGy and effective doses from 0.004 to 0.025 mSv, where these doses varied by a factor of 6 with the change in the tube voltage. Effective doses obtained using the MC simulation software agreed with those obtained using the dose measuring system within 23 %, revealing the usefulness of PCXMC software for evaluating effective doses. The present study would provide helpful dose data for the selection of technical parameters in paediatric chest radiography in Japan.

  17. Impact of bone suppression imaging on the detection of lung nodules in chest radiographs: analysis of multiple reading sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalekamp, S.; van Ginneken, B.; Schaefer-Prokop, C. M.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2013-03-01

    Observer studies are frequently performed to test new modalities. Correct study design is important to generate reliable results. Two most frequently used observer study designs are the sequential and the independent reading design. We investigated the effect of different observer study designs on reader performance results and statistical power. The study included multiple assessments of chest radiographs (CXR) with bone suppression images (BSI) for the detection of lung nodules. In a fully crossed study design 8 observers assessed first radiographs without and with BSI sequentially. Secondly they scored radiographs independently having BSI available from the beginning. Five months later, the same readers scored the same cases again in an independent reading session, completing the three scorings for CXRs with BSI. Observer performance was compared using multi reader multi case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristics (ROC). To estimate reader variance, Dorfman, Berbaum, Metz (DBM) variance component estimates were calculated. No significant difference between the sequential and the independent reading sessions could be found (p=0.51; p=0.61). Both reading designs showed increased performance with BSI, with a significant increase for the sequential and the independent reading session after five months (p=0.002; p=0.007). Total observer variance between sequential and independent reading design remained the same. A strong increase of uncorrelated components was found in the independent reading sessions, masking the ability to demonstrate differences in observer performance across modalities. In conclusion, results of the sequential and the independent study design did not show a significant difference. The independent study design had less power compared to the sequential study design due to a strong increase of uncorrelated variance components.

  18. [Radiographic diagnosis of abdominal diseases in foals and ponys. II. Pathologic findings in 60 cases].

    PubMed

    Gerhards, H; Klein, H J; Offeney, F

    1990-08-01

    A diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic examinations for evaluation of young foals and small ponies with acute abdominal discomfort is presented. Standing right to left lateral abdominal radiographs were taken of 54 foals and 6 ponies using a previously described technique. Interpretation of the radiographs was in conjunction with all clinical and laboratory findings and patient management. Using this approach, the site and cause of acute abdominal discomfort could be diagnosed accurately in 55 of 60 (91%) patients as confirmed by clinical, surgical or necropsy findings. Typical radiographs and photographs taken at surgery or at necropsy are presented. Typical radiographic findings, their interpretation and possible underlying gastrointestinal diseases are listed. The incorporation of standing lateral abdominal radiography in the clinical evaluation of foals and ponies with acute abdominal diseases gives findings of high diagnostic significance and should contribute to clinical decision-making. Abdominal radiography can replace data from rectal palpation in foals and ponies.

  19. A comparative study for chest radiograph image retrieval using binary texture and deep learning classification.

    PubMed

    Anavi, Yaron; Kogan, Ilya; Gelbart, Elad; Geva, Ofer; Greenspan, Hayit

    2015-08-01

    In this work various approaches are investigated for X-ray image retrieval and specifically chest pathology retrieval. Given a query image taken from a data set of 443 images, the objective is to rank images according to similarity. Different features, including binary features, texture features, and deep learning (CNN) features are examined. In addition, two approaches are investigated for the retrieval task. One approach is based on the distance of image descriptors using the above features (hereon termed the "descriptor"-based approach); the second approach ("classification"-based approach) is based on a probability descriptor, generated by a pair-wise classification of each two classes (pathologies) and their decision values using an SVM classifier. Best results are achieved using deep learning features in a classification scheme.

  20. Preliminary validation of a new methodology for estimating dose reduction protocols in neonatal chest computed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Steven; Whiting, Bruce R.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Sehnert, W. James; Ellinwood, Jacquelyn S.; Töpfer, Karin; Masoumzadeh, Parinaz; Kraus, Richard A.; Kronemer, Keith A.; Herman, Thomas; McAlister, William H.

    2006-03-01

    The risk of radiation exposure is greatest for pediatric patients and, thus, there is a great incentive to reduce the radiation dose used in diagnostic procedures for children to "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA). Testing of low-dose protocols presents a dilemma, as it is unethical to repeatedly expose patients to ionizing radiation in order to determine optimum protocols. To overcome this problem, we have developed a computed-radiography (CR) dose-reduction simulation tool that takes existing images and adds synthetic noise to create realistic images that correspond to images generated with lower doses. The objective of our study was to determine the extent to which simulated, low-dose images corresponded with original (non-simulated) low-dose images. To make this determination, we created pneumothoraces of known volumes in five neonate cadavers and obtained images of the neonates at 10 mR, 1 mR and 0.1 mR (as measured at the cassette plate). The 10-mR exposures were considered "relatively-noise-free" images. We used these 10 mR-images and our simulation tool to create simulated 0.1- and 1-mR images. For the simulated and original images, we identified regions of interest (ROI) of the entire chest, free-in-air region, and liver. We compared the means and standard deviations of the ROI grey-scale values of the simulated and original images with paired t tests. We also had observers rate simulated and original images for image quality and for the presence or absence of pneumothoraces. There was no statistically significant difference in grey-scale-value means nor standard deviations between simulated and original entire chest ROI regions. The observer performance suggests that an exposure >=0.2 mR is required to detect the presence or absence of pneumothoraces. These preliminary results indicate that the use of the simulation tool is promising for achieving ALARA exposures in children.

  1. Acute non-traumatic gastrothorax: presentation of a case with chest pain and atypical radiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepwant; Mackeith, Pieter; Gopal, Dipesh Pravin

    2016-03-23

    A previously well 71-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department with acute-onset left-sided chest pain. She was haemodynamically stable with unremarkable systemic examination. Her electrocardiogram and troponin were within normal limits and her chest radiograph showed a raised left hemi-diaphragm. Two hours after admission, this woman became acutely breathless, and suffered a pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there was a return of spontaneous circulation and regained consciousness. A repeat clinical assessment revealed a new left-sided dullness to percussion with contralateral percussive resonance on respiratory examination. CXR revealed a left pan-hemi-thoracic opacity whilst better definition using CT-pulmonary angiography (CTPA) indicated an acute tension gastrothorax secondary to a large left-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Nasogastric (NG) tube insertion was used to decompress the stomach and the patient underwent uncomplicated emergency laparoscopic hernia reduction. She remained well at 1-year follow-up.

  2. Comparison of two methods for evaluating image quality of chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, C.; Sund, P.; Tingberg, A.; Keddache, S.; Mansson, L. G.; Almen, A.; Mattsson, S.

    2000-04-01

    The Imix radiography system (Oy Imix Ab, Finland) consists of an intensifying screen, optics, and a CCD camera. An upgrade of this system (Imix 2000) with a red-emitting screen and new optics has recently been released. The image quality of Imix (original version), Imix 2000, and two storage-phosphor systems, Fuji FCR 9501 and Agfa ADC70 was evaluated in physical terms (DQE) and with visual grading of the visibility of anatomical structures in clinical images (141 kV). PA chest images of 50 healthy volunteers were evaluated by experienced radiologists. All images were evaluated on Siemens Simomed monitors, using the European Quality Criteria. The maximum DQE values for Imix, Imix 2000 Agfa and Fuji were 11%, 14%, 17% and 19%, respectively (141 kV, 5 (mu) Gy). Using the visual grading, the observers rated the systems in the following descending order: Fuji, Imix 2000, Agfa, and Imix. Thus, the upgrade to Imix 2000 resulted in higher DQE values and a significant improvement in clinical image quality. The visual grading agrees reasonably well with the DQE results; however, Imix 2000 received a better score than what could be expected from the DQE measurements.

  3. Radiographic findings in the jaws of clinically edentulous old people living at home in Helsinki, Finland.

    PubMed

    Soikkonen, K; Ainamo, A; Wolf, J; Xie, Q; Tilvis, R; Valvanne, J; Erkinjuntti, T

    1994-08-01

    In the present survey the radiographic findings in the jaws of 124 clinically edentulous old people living at home in Helsinki, Finland, were studied, using panoramic radiography supplemented by intraoral radiographs. Only 9% of the subjects had root remains. Impacted teeth were found in 4%, radiolucent lesions in 3%, and radiopaque findings in 13%. Deviations from normal condylar structure were found in 17% and mucosal thickenings in the maxillary sinuses in 7%. The mental foramen was situated at the top of the residual ridge in 42% of the subjects. Topically situated mental foramen and condylar changes were commoner in women. The radiographic oral health status of the population studied was good.

  4. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH...

  5. Prevalence of Pathologic Findings in Panoramic Radiographs: Calcified Carotid Artery Atheroma

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Jéssica Rodrigues da Silva Noll; Yamada, Juliana Laís Yoshie; Berrocal, Cristina; Westphalen, Fernando Henrique; Franco, Ademir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of images suggestive of calcified carotid artery atheromas (ISCCAA) in panoramic radiographs of patients under dental treatment. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 8.338 panoramic radiographs from female (n=5.049) and male (n=3.289) patients under dental treatment between 4 and 94 years of age. The panoramic radiographs were evaluated searching for ISCCAA. The obtained findings were statistically associated with sex and age. Results ISCCAA were found in 579 radiographs (6.9%). No statistically significant differences were observed between females and males (p>0.05). ISCCAA were more prevalent in patients having a mean age of 50 (p<0.05). Conclusion The potential cases of ISCCAA that were assessed on panoramic radiographs are of utmost clinical significance because they can ensure early and correct diagnosis. PMID:27847396

  6. Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of uterine neoplasms in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Patsikas, Michail; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Papaioannou, Nikolaos G; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi L; Soultani, Christina B; Chryssogonidis, Ioannis A; Kouskouras, Konstantinos A; Tziris, Nikolaos E; Charitanti, Afroditi A

    2014-01-01

    The records of nine female intact dogs with histologically confirmed uterine tumors were reviewed retrospectively, and the related radiographic and ultrasonographic signs of the lesions detected were recorded. Radiography revealed a soft-tissue opacity between the urinary bladder and colon in six of seven dogs with uterine body and/or cervical tumors, and a soft-tissue opacity in the midventral abdomen in two dogs with uterine horn tumors. Ultrasonography revealed masses in all dogs with uterine body/cervical tumors and could delineate the origin of the mass in one of two dogs with uterine horn tumors. The mass was characterized ultrasonographically as solid in three dogs (all leiomyomas), solid with cystic component in four dogs (two adenocarcinomas, one leiomyoma, and one fibroleiomyoma), and cystic in two (both leiomyomas). Hyperechoic foci in the mass were observed in three dogs. Ultrasonography was a useful method for demonstrating uterine body and/or cervical tumors. However, it was not possible to ascertain sonographically that a mass originated in a uterine horn unless there was associated evidence of uterine horn to which the mass could be traced. The ultrasonographic appearance of uterine tumors was variable, and the type of neoplasm could only be determined by taking biopsies of the mass.

  7. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant...

  8. Autoimmune Pancreatitis: A Case of Atypical Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Shawhin; Bharill, Parth

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare pancreatic disorder that can present as a manifestation of a broader systemic inflammatory disease known as immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IGG4-RSD). AIP is divided into two subtypes based on clinical, radiological, and histological findings. The disease can be mistaken for pancreatic cancer because of overlapping clinical and radiological findings, but early recognition can help avoid unnecessary surgery. We present a case of a 65-year-old female with suspected acute gallstone pancreatitis found to have AIP based on serology, radiological findings, and response to steroids. PMID:27920645

  9. Improved computerized detection of lung nodules in chest radiographs by means of 'virtual dual-energy' radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Suzuki, K.; MacMahon, H.

    2011-03-01

    Major challenges in current computer-aided detection (CADe) of nodules in chest radiographs (CXRs) are to detect nodules that overlap with ribs and to reduce the frequent false positives (FPs) caused by ribs. Our purpose was to develop a CADe scheme with improved sensitivity and specificity by use of "virtual dual-energy" (VDE) CXRs where ribs are suppressed with a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN). To reduce rib-induced FPs and detect nodules overlapping with ribs, we incorporated VDE technology in our CADe scheme. VDE technology suppressed ribs in CXR while maintaining soft-tissue opacity by use of an MTANN that had been trained with real DE imaging. Our scheme detected nodule candidates on VDE images by use of a morphologic filtering technique. Sixty-four morphologic and gray-level-based features were extracted from each candidate from both original and VDE CXRs. A nonlinear support vector classifier was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. A publicly available database containing 126 nodules in 126 CXRs was used for testing of our CADe scheme. Twenty nine percent (36/126) of the nodules were rated "extremely subtle" or "very subtle" by a radiologist. With the original scheme, a sensitivity of 76.2 (96/126) with 5 (630/126) FPs per image was achieved. By use of VDE images, more nodules overlapping with ribs were detected and the sensitivity was improved substantially to 84.1% (106/126) at the same FP rate in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the literature shows that other CADe schemes achieved sensitivities of 66.0% and 72.0% at the same FP rate.

  10. Adynamic ileus after caesarean section mimicking intestinal obstruction: findings on abdominal radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kammen, B F; Levine, M S; Rubesin, S E; Laufer, I

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of findings and the frequency of apparent distal colonic obstruction on abdominal radiographs in women with obstructive symptoms following Caesarean section. A search of radiology files yielded 21 patients who had abdominal radiographs because of obstructive symptoms during the early post-operative period. The radiographs were reviewed retrospectively to characterize the bowel gas patterns in these patients. Medical records were also reviewed to determine the treatment and patient course. Abdominal radiographs showed findings suggestive of distal colonic obstruction in 15 patients (71%), small bowel obstruction in 2 (10%), adynamic ileus in 3 (14%) and a normal bowel gas pattern in 1 (5%). In all 15 patients with apparent distal colonic obstruction, there was minimal or no gas in the rectosigmoid, with an associated pelvic mass representing the enlarged post-partum uterus, which compressed the rectosigmoid and prevented it from filling with gas. All 21 patients had rapid clinical or radiographic improvement on conservative management, indicating a transient post-operative ileus. Radiologists should be aware of the limitations of abdominal plain radiographs following Caesarean section so that a post-operative ileus is not mistaken for a distal colonic obstruction and conservative measures can be undertaken to decompress the bowel until the ileus resolves.

  11. Wassel's Type V Polydactyly with Plain Radiographic and CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mete, Berna Dirim; Altay, Canan; Gursoy, Merve; Oyar, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the thumb is the most common polydactyly of the hand. Wassel's classification is frequently used to classify the polydactyly of the hand. His classification was based on the level of duplication and the number of bones in the thumb, and has seven groups (Types I–VII) according to the level of the bifurcation, except for his Type VII. The most common type is the bifurcation at the metacarpophalangeal joint (Type IV). In this paper, we report a very rare case of Type V thumb polydactyly in a 42-year-old man, who presented with swan neck deformity of the radial thumb and discuss the plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) findings. Kumar recently reported plain radiography findings in a case of bifid first metacarpal in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with swan neck deformity of the left thumb. To our knowledge, our case is the second presented case that has a swan neck deformity with bifid metacarpal. PMID:25861550

  12. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  13. Bone Disease in the Common Marmoset: Radiographic and Histological Findings.

    PubMed

    Olson, E J; Shaw, G C; Hutchinson, E K; Schultz-Darken, N; Bolton, I D; Parker, J B; Morrison, J M; Baxter, V K; Pate, K A Metcalf; Mankowski, J L; Carlson, C S

    2015-09-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that is used in biomedical research due to its small size and relative ease of handling compared with larger primates. Although bone disease in common marmosets is well recognized, there are very few detailed descriptions in the literature that cover the range of lesions seen in these animals. For all animals used to model human disease, it is important to be aware of background lesions that may affect the interpretation of study findings. This retrospective study details bone diseases encountered in marmoset breeding colonies at 2 different institutions. Affected marmosets at Johns Hopkins University had lesions compatible with diagnoses of rickets, fibrous osteodystrophy and osteopenia. Affected marmosets at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center exhibited severe lesions of osteoclastic bone resorption and remodeling that had an unusual distribution and were not easily categorized into a known disease entity. The purpose of this report is to document these naturally occurring skeletal lesions of common marmosets and suggest an approach to evaluating skeletal disease in prospective studies of these animals that will allow the most accurate diagnoses.

  14. Chondrosarcoma of the maxilla: panoramic radiographic and computed tomographic with multiplanar reconstruction findings.

    PubMed

    Hayt, M W; Becker, L; Katz, D S

    1998-03-01

    Chondrosarcomas are extremely rare tumors of which approximately 10% are found in the maxillofacial region. In this report, we present the imaging findings of a maxillary chondrosarcoma on a panoramic radiograph of the jaws and computed tomography with multiplanar reconstructions. We recommend the latter as an excellent way to image evolving or suspected lesions of the maxilla, particularly for surgical treatment planning.

  15. Development of CAD based on ANN analysis of power spectra for pneumoconiosis in chest radiographs: effect of three new enhancement methods.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Eiichiro; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ishida, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    We have been developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pneumoconiosis based on a rule-based plus artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of power spectra. In this study, we have developed three enhancement methods for the abnormal patterns to reduce false-positive and false-negative values. The image database consisted of 2 normal and 15 abnormal chest radiographs. The International Labour Organization standard chest radiographs with pneumoconiosis were categorized as subcategory, size, and shape of pneumoconiosis. Regions of interest (ROIs) with a matrix size of 32 × 32 were selected from normal and abnormal lungs. Three new enhanced methods were obtained by window function, top-hat transformation, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis. We calculated the power spectrum (PS) of all ROIs by Fourier transform. For the classification between normal and abnormal ROIs, we applied a combined analysis using the ruled-based plus the ANN method. To evaluate the overall performance of this CAD scheme, we employed ROC analysis for distinguishing between normal and abnormal ROIs. On the chest radiographs of the highest categories (severe pneumoconiosis) and the lowest categories (early pneumoconiosis), this CAD scheme achieved area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.93 ± 0.02 and 0.72 ± 0.03. The combined rule-based plus ANN method with the three new enhanced methods obtained the highest classification performance for distinguishing between abnormal and normal ROIs. Our CAD system based on the three new enhanced methods would be useful in assisting radiologists in the classification of pneumoconiosis.

  16. Radiographic Findings in Patients with Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Carolina Arrabal; Curra, Cláudia; Fernandes, Luciana Maria Paes da Silva Ramos; Franzolin, Solange de Oliveira Braga; Júnior, Joel Santiago Ferreira; De Antoni, Carlos César; Curi, Marcos Martins

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of the records and panoramic radiographs of 35 patients treated with bisphosphonates (BP) and diagnosed with MRONJ. Panoramic radiography was used for evaluation, by two examiners, the following findings were subject of search: osteolysis (OT), cortical bone erosion (EC), bone sclerosis focal (FS) and diffuse (DS), bone sequestration (BS), thickening of lamina dura (TD), prominence of the inferior alveolar nerve canal (IAN), persisting alveolar sockets (SK), and the presence of a pathological fracture (PF). Medical information and staging were also recorded in order to correlate with radiographic findings. Bone sclerosis was the most frequent alteration, followed by OT and TD. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. There was no significant difference between genders or significant correlation between the number of injuries with age and duration of BP usage. Considering the association between the radiographic findings and MRONJ staging, EC was predominant in stage 3 and DS in stage 2. IAN and PF demonstrated greater association with stage 3. In conclusion, the higher the clinical staging, the greater the severity of the bone alteration. Panoramic radiographic examination is a useful screening tool in patients submitted to antiresorptive therapy. PMID:28352284

  17. Radiographic, computed tomographic, and ultrasonographic findings with migrating intrathoracic grass awns in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Ryan M; Zwingenberger, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical, radiographic, and computed tomographic findings in dogs and cats with migrating intrathoracic grass awns. Thirty-five dogs and five cats with visual confirmation of a grass awn following surgery, endoscopy or necropsy, and histology were assessed. The medical records and all diagnostic imaging studies were reviewed retrospectively. Labrador Retrievers or English Pointers < 5 years of age, with a history of coughing and hyperthermia, were the most common presentations. Seventeen animals had an inflammatory leukogram of which 14 had a left shift or toxic neutrophils. Radiographs were performed in 38 animals and computed tomography (CT) in 14. Thoracic radiographs were characterized by focal pulmonary interstitial to alveolar opacities (n = 26) that occurred most commonly in the caudal (n = 19) or accessory lobes (n = 8). Additional findings included pneumothorax (n = 9), pleural effusion (n = 8), and pleural thickening (n = 7). Pulmonary opacities identified on radiographs correlated to areas of pneumonia and foreign body location. CT findings included focal interstitial to alveolar pulmonary opacities (n = 12) most commonly in the right caudal lung lobe (n = 9), pleural thickening (n = 11), mildly enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes (n = 10), soft tissue tracking (n = 7) with enhancing margins (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 6), pleural effusion (n = 4), and foreign body visualization (n = 4). Histologic diagnoses included pulmonary and mediastinal granulomas or abscesses, bronchopneumonia, and pleuritis. Migrating intrathoracic grass awns should be considered as a differential diagnosis in coughing, febrile animals with focal interstitial to alveolar pulmonary opacities, pleural effusion, pleural thickening, and/or pneumothorax on radiographs or CT.

  18. WE-G-204-07: Automated Characterization of Perceptual Quality of Clinical Chest Radiographs: Improvements in Lung, Spine, and Hardware Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J; Zhang, L; Samei, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate more robust methods for automated lung, spine, and hardware detection in AP/PA chest images. This work is part of a continuing effort to automatically characterize the perceptual image quality of clinical radiographs. [Y. Lin et al. Med. Phys. 39, 7019–7031 (2012)] Methods: Our previous implementation of lung/spine identification was applicable to only one vendor. A more generalized routine was devised based on three primary components: lung boundary detection, fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering, and a clinically-derived lung pixel probability map. Boundary detection was used to constrain the lung segmentations. FCM clustering produced grayscale- and neighborhood-based pixel classification probabilities which are weighted by the clinically-derived probability maps to generate a final lung segmentation. Lung centerlines were set along the left-right lung midpoints. Spine centerlines were estimated as a weighted average of body contour, lateral lung contour, and intensity-based centerline estimates. Centerline estimation was tested on 900 clinical AP/PA chest radiographs which included inpatient/outpatient, upright/bedside, men/women, and adult/pediatric images from multiple imaging systems. Our previous implementation further did not account for the presence of medical hardware (pacemakers, wires, implants, staples, stents, etc.) potentially biasing image quality analysis. A hardware detection algorithm was developed using a gradient-based thresholding method. The training and testing paradigm used a set of 48 images from which 1920 51×51 pixel{sup 2} ROIs with and 1920 ROIs without hardware were manually selected. Results: Acceptable lung centerlines were generated in 98.7% of radiographs while spine centerlines were acceptable in 99.1% of radiographs. Following threshold optimization, the hardware detection software yielded average true positive and true negative rates of 92.7% and 96.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Updated

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Radiographic Jaw Findings in Young Women; Prevalence and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    El Khateeb, Sara M.; Abu-Hammad, Osama; Fadel, Hani; Dar-Odeh, Najla

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and types of jaw pathologic findings as detected in panoramic radiographs of a sample of young women attending a teaching hospital in Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, and to determine the most important factors that predict the occurrence of jaw pathologic findings. Materials and Methods: The electronic clinical files of a representative sample of female patients who attended the outpatient dental clinics were retrieved. Patients were aged 18 to 25 years. Types of pathologic radiographic jaw findings and their prevalence were determined through screening of panoramic radiographs. Data were analyzed using the statistical analysis software [SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp.)]. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the significance of some types of dental lesions as predictor variables for the occurrence of jaw pathologic findings. Results: A total of 190 patients (mean age, 22.4 ± 2.46 years) were included in the study. Periapical lesions, retained roots, and alveolar bone loss were detected in 53.6%, 24.8%, and 17.4% of the participants, respectively. Other odontogenic abnormalities such as supernumerary and impacted teeth (6.4% and 33.7%, respectively) were also detected. Patients' age was found to be a good predictor for alveolar bone loss and number of periapical lesions (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: A high prevalence of periapical lesions, retained roots, and alveolar bone loss was found among a sample of young female dental attendees, as shown by their panoramic radiographs. Further studies are needed to explore potential risk factors for such a noticeable trend of poor oral health, and the needed strategies to counteract this trend. PMID:28316945

  20. Talocalcaneal coalition: A focus on radiographic findings and sites of bridging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Hyuck; Park, Hyung Jun; Yeo, Eui Dong; Lee, Young Koo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Verifying the exact location of talocalcaneal (TC) coalition is important for surgery, but the complicated anatomy of the subtalar joint makes it difficult to visualize on radiographs. No study has used computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to verify the radiological characteristics of TC coalition or those of different facet coalitions. Therefore, this study verified the radiological findings used to identify TC coalitions and those of different facet coalitions using CT and MRI. Materials and Methods: Plain with/without weight bearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, CT, and MRI of 43 feet in 39 patients with TC coalitions were reviewed retrospectively. CT or MRI was used to verify the location of the TC coalition. Secondary signs for the presence of a coalition in the anteroposterior and lateral plain radiographs, including talar beak, humpback sign, duck-face sign, and typical or deformed C-sign, were evaluated. Three independent observers evaluated the radiographs twice at 6-week intervals to determine intraobserver reliability. They examined the radiographs for the secondary signs, listed above, and coalition involved facets. Results: The average rates from both assessments were as follows: Middle facet 5%, middle and posterior facets 27%, and posterior facet 68%. The deformed C-sign is more prevalent in posterior facet coalitions. The posterior facet has the highest prevalence of involvement in TC coalitions, and the deformed C-sign and duck-face sign have high correlations with TC coalitions in the posterior subtalar facet. Conclusion: A posterior facet is the most prevalent for TC coalition, and the C-sign is useful for determining all types of TC coalition. PMID:27904223

  1. Histological evaluation of pulp tissue from second primary molars correlated with clinical and radiographic caries findings

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Anwar, Khurshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Managing dental caries in young children is demanding due to the elusions present on the right diagnostic criteria for treatment. The present study evaluated the histological status of pulp tissues extracted from primary second molar with caries involvement. Histological findings are correlated with clinical and radiographic assessment. Materials and Methods: Simple experimental study was conducted on upper or lower second primary molars with occlusal (22 teeth) or proximal (22 teeth) dental caries. Selected children were below 6 years of age. Percentage of caries involvement, residual dentin thickness (RDT), radiographic assessment of interradicular and periapical areas, clinical caries depth and signs and symptoms are the parameters considered for comparing with the histological findings. The specimens were grouped based on the nature of the inflammatory process as acute or chronic. The data were analyzed by Student t-test to compare histological types of inflammation with clinical parameters. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Four cases revealed severe acute inflammation in coronal and relatively mild acute inflammation in radicular pulp. In the rest of the specimen coronal and radicular pulp had similar acute or chronic inflammatory changes. Histological evidence of pulpitis correlated with dental caries depth of ≥80%, RDT of ≤1 mm, radiographic rarefactions in the interradicular regions and symptoms of pain. Conclusion: Primary second molars with more than two-third caries involvement with symptoms of pain histologically showed inflammation of both coronal and radicular pulp tissues in all cases. PMID:24932190

  2. An 81-year-old man with an abnormal right-sided heart shadow on chest radiograph.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rahman; Khan, M Rehan; Fan, Tai-Hwang M; Ruff, Genina; Ramanathan, Kodangudi B

    2015-02-01

    An 81-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of dry cough. He also complained of mild dyspnea, wheezing, and low-grade fever. He denied hemoptysis, fever, rashes, or chest pain. The patient's medical history included coronary artery bypass surgery, hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and COPD. The patient was a retired welder and an ex-smoker.

  3. Pre-radiographic MRI findings are associated with onset of knee symptoms: the most study

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, M. K.; Lynch, J. A.; Tolstykh, I.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Aliabadi, P.; McCulloch, C.; Curtis, J.; Felson, D.; Lane, N. E.; Torner, J.; Nevitt, M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greater sensitivity to detect osteoarthritis (OA) damage than radiographs but it is uncertain which MRI findings in early OA are clinically important. We examined MRI abnormalities detected in knees without radiographic OA and their association with incident knee symptoms. Method Participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) without frequent knee symptoms (FKS) at baseline were eligible if they also lacked radiographic features of OA at baseline. At 15 months, knees that developed FKS were defined as cases while control knees were drawn from those that remained without FKS. Baseline MRIs were scored at each subregion for cartilage lesions (CARTs); osteophytes (OST); bone marrow lesions (BML) and cysts. We compared cases and controls using marginal logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), previous injury and clinic site. Results 36 case knees and 128 control knees were analyzed. MRI damage was common in both cases and controls. The presence of a severe CART (P = 0.03), BML (P = 0.02) or OST (P = 0.02) in the whole knee joint was more common in cases while subchondral cysts did not differ significantly between cases and controls (P > 0.1). Case status at 15 months was predicted by baseline damage at only two locations; a BML in the lateral patella (P = 0.047) and at the tibial subspinous subregions (P = 0.01). Conclusion In knees without significant symptoms or radiographic features of OA, MRI lesions of OA in only a few specific locations preceded onset of clinical symptoms and suggest that changes in bone play a role in the early development of knee pain. Confirmation of these findings in other prospective studies of knee OA is warranted. PMID:19919856

  4. Desmoplastic Fibroma of Bone in a Toe: Radiographic and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Ji Yeon; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Choo, Hye Jung; Lee, Sun Joo; Lee, In Sook; Suh, Kyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare benign primary bone tumor that is histologically similar to the soft tissue desmoid tumor. It most often involves the mandible, large long bone or iliac bone. Desmoplastic fibroma in a toe has been extremely rarely reported. Authors report a rare case of desmoplastic fibroma of bone occurring in the distal phalanx of a foot, with descriptions of the radiographic and MRI findings, correlation of the radiologic and pathologic findings, and discussion on the differential diagnosis of the tumor. PMID:24265574

  5. Development of a computerized scheme for detection of very subtle lung nodules located in opaque areas on chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-03-01

    The detection of lung nodules located in opaque areas including the mediastinum, retrocardiac lung, and lung projected below or on the diaphragm has been very difficult, because the contrast of these nodules is usually extremely low, and sometimes radiologists may not pay attention to these locations. In this study, we have developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme designed specifically for the detection of these difficult-to-detect lung nodules located in opaque areas. We used 1,000 chest images with 1,076 lung nodules, which included 73 very difficult lung nodules in these opaque areas. In this new computerized scheme, opaque areas within a chest image were segmented by use of an adaptive multi-thresholding method based on edge-gradient values, and then the gray level and contrast of the chest image were adjusted for the opaque areas. Initial candidates were identified by use of the nodule-enhanced image obtained with the average radial-gradient (ARG) filtering technique based on radial gradient values. We employed a total of 35 image features for sequential application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to reduce the number of false-positive candidates. The ANNs were trained and tested by use of a k-fold cross-validation test method (k=100), in which each of 100 different combinations of training and test image data sets included 990 and 10 chest images, respectively. The overall performance determined from the results of 100 test data sets indicated that the average sensitivity in detecting lung nodules was 52.1% with 1.89 false positives per image, which was considered "acceptable", because these nodules were very subtle and difficult to detect. By combination of this advanced CAD scheme with our standard CAD scheme for lung-nodule detection, the clinical usefulness of the CAD scheme would be improved significantly.

  6. Clinical evolution and radiographic findings of feline heartworm infection in asymptomatic cats.

    PubMed

    Venco, L; Genchi, C; Genchi, M; Grandi, G; Kramer, L H

    2008-12-10

    Clinical manifestations of heartworm disease in cats are variable; most cats seem to tolerate the infection well for extended periods. Heartworm-infected cats may undergo spontaneous self-cure due to the natural death of parasites without any symptomatology, or they may suddenly show dramatic and acute symptoms. Sudden death in apparently healthy cats is not a rare event. Thoracic radiographs are important tool for the diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. However, thoracic abnormalities are often absent or transient and highly variable in heartworm-infected cats. Findings, such as enlargement of the peripheral branches of the pulmonary arteries, with a varying degree of pulmonary parenchymal disease and hyperinflation, are the most typical features consistent with infection. A field study was performed for cats referred to the Veterinary Hospital Città di Pavia from January 1998 to December 2001 for routine health examinations and procedures to evaluate the clinical evolution and radiographic findings of feline heartworm infection. Thirty-four asymptomatic cats diagnosed with feline heartworm infection by antibody and antigen tests together with an echocardiogram that allowed worm visualization were included in the follow-up study. Cats were routinely examined every 3 months from the time of heartworm diagnosis until the outcome (self-cure or death). Self-cure was defined as no positive serology for heartworm antigens and no visualization of worms by echocardiography. A final examination for antibodies was carried after 12 months as a final confirmation of self-cure. Twenty-eight cats (82.4%) self-cured; including 21 that showed no clinical signs of infection throughout the study. Six cats died. The most common clinical features observed were acute respiratory symptoms and sudden death. Infection lasted over 3 years in the majority of the cats enrolled in the study. Thoracic radiograph appearance was variable, and the most commonly observed findings were focal

  7. Multifocal Eosinophilic Granuloma of Jaws and Skull with Classical and Unusual Radiographic/Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Venkata, Suman; Shaik, Sameulla; Kodadala, Amrutha; Kakarla, Prashanti

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is basically a disorder of reticuloendothelial system and is one of the variants of langerhans cell histiocytosis. Multifocal eosinophilic granuloma affecting jaws and skull is relatively a rare disorder. We hereby report a case of multifocal eosinophilic granuloma involving mandible, maxilla and several skull bones. The present case has mixture of classical floating teeth appearance and an unusual radiographic/imaging finding of periosteal remodeling, which is rarely seen in adult patients of eosinophilic granuloma and pseudo-multilocular appearance in anterior mandibular region in coronal sections and moth-eaten appearance of skull was appreciated in axial slices of Computed Tomography (CT). PMID:28274065

  8. Management-related outcomes and radiographic findings of idiopathic condylar resorption: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Raghav, M; Mallya, S M; Karjodkar, F

    2015-02-01

    Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR) is progressive resorption of the condyle of unknown aetiology. There is no consensus on the approaches for diagnostic imaging and management of this disease. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the best practices for imaging and to appraise the success of surgical and non-surgical therapy of ICR. Eleven search engines were queried via explicit literature searches for studies describing ICR, published until 2012. Two authors independently extracted data using predetermined characteristics. Studies that identified patients as having either ICR or progressive condylar resorption and that described the radiographic findings or treatment options were included. Seventeen studies contributing 178 cases met the eligibility criteria. The major radiographic findings, as assessed mostly by two-dimensional imaging, included decreased ramus height, decreased condylar height, altered volume of the condyle, decreased SNB angle and mandibular plane angle, and a retrognathic profile. Treatments included occlusal splints with orthodontic treatment, condylectomy with costochondral graft, and other surgical approaches. This systematic review was limited by the lack of meta-analysis. Nevertheless, we identified the need for future investigations: characterization of findings on three-dimensional imaging and its contribution to treatment planning, outcomes of non-surgical and pharmacological management of ICR, and randomized trials and comparative studies with longer follow-up periods.

  9. Desmoid Tumor of the Chest Wall Mimicking Recurrent Breast Cancer: Multimodality Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyeong A; An, Yeong Yi

    2016-01-01

    Desmoid tumor of breast is a rare benign, locally aggressive tumor with a high recurrence rate. It has been associated with scar from previous breast surgery or trauma. Especially in breast cancer patients with previous operation history, it may simulate recurrent breast cancer clinically and radiologically. We presented multimodality imaging findings (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography) of chest wall desmoid tumor mimicking recurrent breast cancer in a 38-year-old patient with a history of left modified mastectomy. The desmoid tumor is a rare benign tumor that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignant local tumor recurrence after breast cancer operation. Biopsy was required for accurate diagnosis and wide local excision was its appropriate surgical management. PMID:27895871

  10. A health survey of granite workers in Finland: radiographic findings, respiratory function, hearing, electric sensory thresholds of the fingers and subjective symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ahlman, K; Backman, A L; Partanen, T

    1975-06-01

    Results from a health survey of 777 granite workers, exposed to quartz dust, noise and/or machine vibration, and 122 unexposed "controls" are reported. The survey included chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, a hearing examination, the determination of the electric sensory thresholds of the fingers, and questionnaires on the subjective symptoms of the respiratory system and upper limbs. The exposed workers' radiographic findings (except for a 2.6 % rate of silicosis), respiratory functions, and sensory thresholds did not differ significantly from those of the controls. Granite drillers had a high prevalence of hearing defects. Respiratory symptoms were common among drillers and sandblasters, and subjective symptoms of the upper limbs due to vibration occurred among the granite dressing workers who used pneumatic hammers. Both primary and secondary measures of prevention are strongly recommended for the granite industry, primarlily for quartz dust exposure and its health effects.

  11. Are magnetic resonance imaging or radiographic findings correlated with clinical prognosis in spinal cord neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Neshat Halati, Fatemeh; Vajhi, Alireza; Molazem, Mohammad; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Ansari, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Dogs presented to the Small Animal Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran were included in the present study if spinal or intervertebral disc involvement was suspected. Clinical signs were recorded as well as general information of the patient such as age, breed and sex. Sixty dogs were examined radiographically and two standard orthogonal lateral and ventrodorsal projections were taken from the suspected region. Then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for all patients. Agreement between MRI and radiographic findings, comparison of sex and breed with diagnostic imaging grades, comparison between diagnostic imaging grades and mean age, recovery rate after surgery or medical treatment, effects of diagnostic imaging severity grades on surgical or medical referrals were evaluated statistically. There were no significant association between age, sex and breed and frequency of the intervertebral disk disease. Intervertebral disc involvements between L2-L3 and T13-L1 were estimated as the most frequent sites of involvements. Sensitivity and specificity of radiography were evaluated 90.0% and 46.0%, respectively, by considering the MRI as a gold standard modality. There was a significant association between severity of disease in the MRI with referral to surgery and medical treatment. The recovery rate after surgery was significantly higher than medical treatment. These results can be used as a foundation for other studies with more focuses on details of injury and larger group of patients. PMID:27872724

  12. Computer aided detection of lung cancer in the absence of the cancer on chest radiographs: effect of the computer-aided detection on radiologists' performance on cancer-free cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osicka, Teresa; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Lure, Fleming; Xu, Xin-Wei; Lin, Jesse; Zhang, Ron; Zhao, Hui

    2005-04-01

    Using data from a clinical trial of a commercial CAD system for lung cancer detection we separately analyzed the location, if any, selected on each film by 15 radiologists as they interpreted chest radiographs, 160 of which did not contain cancers. On the cancer-free cases, the radiologists showed statistically significant difference in decisions while using the CAD (p-value 0.002). Average specificity without computer assistance was 78%, and with computer assistance 73%. In a clinical trial with CAD for lung cancer detection there are multiple machine false positives. On chest radiographs of older current or former smokers, there are many scars that can appear like cancer to the interpreting radiologists. We are reporting on the radiologists' false positives and on the effect of machine false positive detections on observer performance on cancer-free cases. The only difference between radiologists occurred when they changed their initial true negative decision to false positive (p-value less than 0.0001), average confidence level increased, on the scale from 0.0 to 100.0, from 16.9 (high confidence of non-cancer) to 53.5 (moderate confidence cancer was present). We are reporting on the consistency of misinterpretation by multiple radiologists when they interpret cancer-free radiographs of smokers in the absence of CAD prompts. When multiple radiologists selected the same false positive location, there was usually a definite abnormality that triggered this response. The CAD identifies areas that are of sufficient concern for cancer that the radiologists will switch from a correct decision of no cancer to mark a false positive, previously overlooked, but suspicious appearing cancer-free area; one that has often been marked by another radiologist without the use of the CAD prompt. This work has implications on what should be accepted as ground truth in ROC studies: One might ask, "What a false positive response means?" when the finding, clinically, looks like cancer

  13. Computer-aided diagnostic scheme for the detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs: localized search method based on anatomical classification.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Suzuki, Kenji; Engelmann, Roger; Doi, Kunio

    2006-07-01

    We developed an advanced computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of various types of lung nodules on chest radiographs intended for implementation in clinical situations. We used 924 digitized chest images (992 noncalcified nodules) which had a 500 x 500 matrix size with a 1024 gray scale. The images were divided randomly into two sets which were used for training and testing of the computerized scheme. In this scheme, the lung field was first segmented by use of a ribcage detection technique, and then a large search area (448 x 448 matrix size) within the chest image was automatically determined by taking into account the locations of a midline and a top edge of the segmented ribcage. In order to detect lung nodule candidates based on a localized search method, we divided the entire search area into 7 x 7 regions of interest (ROIs: 64 x 64 matrix size). In the next step, each ROI was classified anatomically into apical, peripheral, hilar, and diaphragm/heart regions by use of its image features. Identification of lung nodule candidates and extraction of image features were applied for each localized region (128 x 128 matrix size), each having its central part (64 x 64 matrix size) located at a position corresponding to a ROI that was classified anatomically in the previous step. Initial candidates were identified by use of the nodule-enhanced image obtained with the average radial-gradient filtering technique, in which the filter size was varied adaptively depending on the location and the anatomical classification of the ROI. We extracted 57 image features from the original and nodule-enhanced images based on geometric, gray-level, background structure, and edge-gradient features. In addition, 14 image features were obtained from the corresponding locations in the contralateral subtraction image. A total of 71 image features were employed for three sequential artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to reduce the number of false

  14. Computer-aided diagnostic scheme for the detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs: Localized search method based on anatomical classification

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Suzuki, Kenji; Engelmann, Roger; Doi, Kunio

    2006-07-15

    We developed an advanced computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of various types of lung nodules on chest radiographs intended for implementation in clinical situations. We used 924 digitized chest images (992 noncalcified nodules) which had a 500x500 matrix size with a 1024 gray scale. The images were divided randomly into two sets which were used for training and testing of the computerized scheme. In this scheme, the lung field was first segmented by use of a ribcage detection technique, and then a large search area (448x448 matrix size) within the chest image was automatically determined by taking into account the locations of a midline and a top edge of the segmented ribcage. In order to detect lung nodule candidates based on a localized search method, we divided the entire search area into 7x7 regions of interest (ROIs: 64x64 matrix size). In the next step, each ROI was classified anatomically into apical, peripheral, hilar, and diaphragm/heart regions by use of its image features. Identification of lung nodule candidates and extraction of image features were applied for each localized region (128x128 matrix size), each having its central part (64x64 matrix size) located at a position corresponding to a ROI that was classified anatomically in the previous step. Initial candidates were identified by use of the nodule-enhanced image obtained with the average radial-gradient filtering technique, in which the filter size was varied adaptively depending on the location and the anatomical classification of the ROI. We extracted 57 image features from the original and nodule-enhanced images based on geometric, gray-level, background structure, and edge-gradient features. In addition, 14 image features were obtained from the corresponding locations in the contralateral subtraction image. A total of 71 image features were employed for three sequential artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to reduce the number of false-positive candidates. All

  15. Effect of Picture Archiving and Communication System Image Manipulation on the Agreement of Chest Radiograph Interpretation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Denise A.; Naqvi, Asad Ahmed; Vandenkerkhof, Elizabeth; Flavin, Michael P.; Manson, David; Soboleski, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Variability in image interpretation has been attributed to differences in the interpreters’ knowledge base, experience level, and access to the clinical scenario. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has allowed the user to manipulate the images while developing their impression of the radiograph. The aim of this study was to determine the agreement of chest radiograph (CXR) impressions among radiologists and neonatologists and help determine the effect of image manipulation with PACS on report impression. Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study included 60 patients from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit undergoing CXRs. Three radiologists and three neonatologists reviewed two consecutive frontal CXRs of each patient. Each physician was allowed manipulation of images as needed to provide a decision of “improved,” “unchanged,” or “disease progression” lung disease for each patient. Each physician repeated the process once more; this time, they were not allowed to individually manipulate the images, but an independent radiologist presets the image brightness and contrast to best optimize the CXR appearance. Percent agreement and opposing reporting views were calculated between all six physicians for each of the two methods (allowing and not allowing image manipulation). Results: One hundred percent agreement in image impression between all six observers was only seen in 5% of cases when allowing image manipulation; 100% agreement was seen in 13% of the cases when there was no manipulation of the images. Conclusion: Agreement in CXR interpretation is poor; the ability to manipulate the images on PACS results in a decrease in agreement in the interpretation of these studies. New methods to standardize image appearance and allow improved comparison with previous studies should be sought to improve clinician agreement in interpretation consistency and advance patient care. PMID:27274414

  16. Male Pectoral Implants: Radiographic Appearance of Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Damitz, Lynn; Burke, Rachael; Hwang, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There has been a significant surge in aesthetic chest surgery for men in the last several years. Male chest enhancement is performed with surgical placement of a solid silicone pectoral implant. In the past, male chest correction and implantation were limited to the treatment of men who had congenital absence or atrophy of the pectoralis muscle and pectus excavatum deformity. But today, the popularization of increased chest and pectoral size fostered by body builders has more men desiring chest correction with implantation for non-medical reasons. We present a case of a 44-year-old, male with a displaced left pectoral implant with near extrusion and with an associated peri-implant soft tissue mass and fluid collection. While the imaging of these patients is uncommon, our case study presents the radiographic findings of male chest enhancement with associated complications. PMID:27200162

  17. Computed chest tomography in an animal model for decompression sickness: radiologic, physiologic, and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Reuter, M; Tetzlaff, K; Brasch, F; Gerriets, T; Weiher, M; Struck, N; Hirt, S; Hansen, J; Müller, K M; Heller, M

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the early pulmonary effects of acute decompression in an animal model for human decompression sickness by CT and light microscopy. Ten test pigs were exposed to severe decompression stress in a chamber dive. Three pigs were kept at ambient pressure to serve as controls. Decompression stress was monitored by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure and arterial and venous Doppler recording of bubbles of inert gas. Chest CT was performed pre- and postdive and in addition the inflated lungs were examined after resection. Each lung was investigated by light microscopy. Hemodynamic data and bubble recordings reflected severe decompression stress in the ten test pigs. Computed tomography revealed large quantities of ectopic gas, predominantly intravascular, in three of ten pigs. These findings corresponded to maximum bubble counts in the Doppler study. The remaining test pigs showed lower bubble grades and no ectopic gas by CT. Sporadic interstitial edema was demonstrated in all animals--both test and control pigs--by CT of resected lungs and on histologic examination. A severe compression-decompression schedule can liberate large volumes of inert gas which are detectable by CT. Despite this severe decompression stress, which led to venous microembolism, CT and light microscopy did not demonstrate changes in lung structure related to the experimental dive. Increased extravascular lung water found in all animals may be due to infusion therapy.

  18. Effect of Preoperative Stress Radiographic Findings on Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes of the Modified Broström Procedure for Chronic Ankle Instability.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Bi O; Kim, Tae Yong; Song, Wook Jae

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate whether findings of instability on preoperative stress radiographs of patients with chronic ankle instability affects the radiographic and clinical outcomes after a modified Broström procedure. A total of 45 consecutive patients (45 ankles) who had undergone the modified Broström procedure for unilateral ankle joint instability and were followed up for ≥2 years were selected. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the results of the preoperative stress radiographs: 1 group with positive findings (35 [77.8%] patients; stress-positive group) and 1 group with negative findings (10 [22.2%] patients; stress-negative group). The radiographic and clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. The mean preoperative talar tilt measured on the stress radiograph was 14.4° ± 4.2° and 4.8° ± 2.6° in the stress-positive and stress-negative groups, respectively, a statistically significant difference. Postoperative talar tilt improved in both groups, with a mean final talar tilt of 5.4° ± 3.4° in the stress-positive group (p < .001) and 3.0° ± 1.5° in the stress-negative group (p = .038). The average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score in the stress-positive and stress-negative groups improved from 65.1 ± 14.6 to 90.0 ± 6.3 (p < .001) and 72.5 ± 9.3 to 92.6 ± 7.8 (p = .007), respectively. The mean postoperative satisfaction rate was 83.9 ± 11.9 and 85.0 ± 11.8 in the 2 groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in the preoperative and postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scores or in postoperative satisfaction rates between the 2 groups.

  19. Spontaneous Crenosoma vulpis infection in 10 dogs: laboratory, radiographic and endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Unterer, S; Deplazes, P; Arnold, P; Flückiger, M; Reusch, C E; Glaus, T M

    2002-04-01

    Crenosoma (C.) vulpis infection was diagnosed in 10 dogs aged between 0.5 and 12 years (median 4 years) during a 4-year period. The predominant clinical sign in all dogs was coughing which lasted from 1 day to > 4 months. Hematological abnormalities included eosinophilia in 5/9 dogs, basophilia in 3/9 dogs, and mild monocytosis in 6/9 dogs. Thoracic radiographs (n = 9) were normal in 1 dog, showed a mild bronchial or interstitial pattern in 4 dogs, and moderate to marked changes (bronchial-interstitial to alveolar) in 4 dogs. Endoscopic findings (n = 9) varied from mild erythematous bronchitis (n = 3) to marked bronchitis with accumulation of large amounts of mucus (n = 2), irregular nodular mucosal surface (n = 2), accumulation of pus (n = 1), and bronchial hemorrhage (n = 1). Adult worms were observed in 2 dogs. Bronchial lavage cytology revealed inflammation with predominance of eosinophils in 7/10 dogs, eosinophils and neutrophils in 2/10 dogs, and neutrophils in 1/10 dogs. C. vulpis larvae were identified in the BAL of 5/10 dogs. Fecal examinations with the Baermann technique was the most sensitive method and positive in all 10 dogs. C. vulpis infection has to be considered in the differential diagnosis in dogs of all ages presenting with acute or chronic cough.

  20. Specific Radiological Findings of Traumatic Gastrointestinal Tract Injuries in Patients With Blunt Chest and Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kokabi, Nima; Harmouche, Elie; Xing, Minzhi; Shuaib, Waqas; Mittal, Pardeep K; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal hollow viscus injury after blunt chest and abdominal trauma is uncommon and complicates 0.6%-1.2% of all cases of trauma. Early recognition of such injuries significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Since physical examination is not accurate in detecting such injuries, contrast-enhanced computed tomography has been the mainstay for diagnosis in many emergency departments. This pictorial essay aims to review the incidence, mechanisms, and signs of gastrointestinal hollow viscus injuries in the setting of blunt chest and abdominal trauma.

  1. Deficiency of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist syndrome: a rare auto-inflammatory condition that mimics multiple classic radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Paul G; Binkovitz, Larry A; Thomas, Kristen B

    2012-04-01

    Deficiency of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (DIRA) syndrome is a newly identified inflammatory disease of the skeleton and appendicular soft tissues presenting in early infancy that has yet to be reported in the radiology literature. The radiological manifestations of DIRA syndrome include multifocal osteitis of the ribs and long bones, heterotopic ossification and periarticular soft-tissue swelling. Thus, the pediatric radiologist should be made aware of this novel disease because its radiographic findings can mimic multiple other disease entities. With knowledge of the unique clinical presentation of DIRA syndrome and its multiple radiographic manifestations, the pediatric radiologist may be the first to suggest the correct diagnosis.

  2. Classification of radiological errors in chest radiographs, using support vector machine on the spatial frequency features of false- negative and false-positive regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Donovan, Tim; Brennan, Patrick C.; Dix, Alan; Manning, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Aim: To optimize automated classification of radiological errors during lung nodule detection from chest radiographs (CxR) using a support vector machine (SVM) run on the spatial frequency features extracted from the local background of selected regions. Background: The majority of the unreported pulmonary nodules are visually detected but not recognized; shown by the prolonged dwell time values at false-negative regions. Similarly, overestimated nodule locations are capturing substantial amounts of foveal attention. Spatial frequency properties of selected local backgrounds are correlated with human observer responses either in terms of accuracy in indicating abnormality position or in the precision of visual sampling the medical images. Methods: Seven radiologists participated in the eye tracking experiments conducted under conditions of pulmonary nodule detection from a set of 20 postero-anterior CxR. The most dwelled locations have been identified and subjected to spatial frequency (SF) analysis. The image-based features of selected ROI were extracted with un-decimated Wavelet Packet Transform. An analysis of variance was run to select SF features and a SVM schema was implemented to classify False-Negative and False-Positive from all ROI. Results: A relative high overall accuracy was obtained for each individually developed Wavelet-SVM algorithm, with over 90% average correct ratio for errors recognition from all prolonged dwell locations. Conclusion: The preliminary results show that combined eye-tracking and image-based features can be used for automated detection of radiological error with SVM. The work is still in progress and not all analytical procedures have been completed, which might have an effect on the specificity of the algorithm.

  3. Correlation of chest computed tomography findings with dyspnea and lung functions in post-tubercular sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananya; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Sharma, Raju; Mohan, Anant; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Kalaimannan, Umasankar; Upadhyay, Ashish Dutt

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study the correlation between dyspnea, radiological findings, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Materials and Methods: Clinical history, chest computed tomography (CT), and PFT of patients with post-TB sequelae were recorded. Dyspnea was graded according to the Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale. CT scans were analyzed for fibrosis, cavitation, bronchiectasis, consolidation, nodules, and aspergilloma. Semi-quantitative analysis was done for these abnormalities. Scores were added to obtain a total morphological score (TMS). The lungs were also divided into three zones and scores added to obtain the total lung score (TLS). Spirometry was done for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC. Results: Dyspnea was present in 58/101 patients. A total of 22/58 patients had mMRC Grade 1, and 17/58 patients had Grades 2 and 3 dyspnea each. There was a significant difference in median fibrosis, bronchiectasis, nodules (P < 0.01) scores, TMS, and TLS (P < 0.0001) between dyspnea and nondyspnea groups. Significant correlations were obtained between grades of dyspnea and fibrosis (r = 0.34, P = 0.006), bronchiectasis (r = 0.35, P = 0.004), nodule (r = 0.24, P = 0.016) scores, TMS (r = 0.398, P = 0.000), and TLS (r = 0.35, P = 0.0003). PFTs were impaired in 78/101 (77.2%) patients. Restrictive defect was most common in 39.6% followed by mixed in 34.7%. There was a negative but statistically insignificant trend between PFT and fibrosis, bronchiectasis, nodule scores, TMS, and TLS. However, there were significant differences in median fibrosis, cavitation, and bronchiectasis scores in patients with normal, mild to moderate, and severe respiratory defects. No difference was seen in TMS and TLS according to the severity of the respiratory defect. Conclusion: Both fibrosis and bronchiectasis correlated with dyspnea and with PFT. However, this correlation was not

  4. Correlation of Histopathologic Features with Demographic, Gross and Radiographic Findings in Giant Cell Granulomas of the Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Aghbali, Amirala; Sina, Mahmood; Vahid Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi; Emamverdizadeh, Parya; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Mahmoudi, Seyyed Mostafa; Janani, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. The correlation between morphology of giant cells in peripheral granulomas of the jaws and the aggressive behavior of the lesion is unknown. This study investigated the correlation between the histopathologic features with demographic, gross and radiographic findings in giant cell granulomas. Materials and methods. In this analytical study, data from 23 cases of central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and 42 cases of peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) were analyzed, focusing on age, gender, location, and gross and radiographic features. For each patient, microscopic slides were assessed in terms of histologic features of giant cells and stroma. Results. No significant differences were found in the mean number of nuclei or the size of nuclei and giant cell distribution patterns between the jaws and genders in both lesions (P >0.05). Correlation between the mean number of nuclei and age was positively significant and correlation between the size of nuclei and age was negatively significant (P < 0.05). In addition, correlation between the mean number and size of nuclei and the size of the lesion was significant (P < 0.05). Correlation between stroma and aggressiveness of CGCGs was not statistically significant. Correlation between histopathologic features and radiographic findings was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion. There were correlations between the mean number of nuclei per giant cell and the size of the lesion and age, and between the size of nuclei and size of the lesion. No relation was observed between histopathologic and radiographic features. PMID:24578821

  5. The role of postoperative chest radiography in pediatric tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Sulek, M; de Jong, A; Friedman, E M

    2001-07-30

    A postoperative chest radiograph has traditionally been obtained after tracheotomies to evaluate for the presence of a pneumothorax and to assess tube position. Several recent studies in adults have questioned the usefulness of routine postoperative chest radiography in uncomplicated cases, but the role of post-operative chest radiography in pediatric patients has not been previously reviewed. We performed this study to examine the clinical utility of post-tracheotomy chest radiography in pediatric patients and determine if this routine practice impacts patient management enough to merit continued usage. A retrospective review was performed of 200 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent tracheotomies by the otolaryngology service in a tertiary care pediatric hospital from January 1994 to June 1999. All patients received postoperative chest radiographs. Five of 200 patients had a new postoperative radiographic finding, with three requiring interventions. Two patients required chest tube placement for pneumothorax, and one patient required tracheostomy tube change for repositioning. Fifty-one patients, including both pneumothoraces, exhibited clinical signs of pneumothorax (decreased breath sounds or oxygen saturation) in the immediate postoperative period. Chest X-ray ruled out a pneumothorax in the remaining 49 patients. The majority of these 51 patients were less than 2 years old (94%, P=0.002) or weighed less than 17 kg (89%, P=0.004). Postoperative chest X-rays yielded clinically relevant information in 168 patients that fell into one or more of four high risk categories: age less than 2, weight less than 17 kg, emergent procedures, or concomitant central line placement. Avoiding chest X-rays in the remaining 32 patients would have resulted in potential savings of $5000, which does not reflect the actuarial cost of a missed complication. Since the majority of our patients (84%) fell into a high-risk category, we feel it would be prudent to continue

  6. A comparison of MRI, radiographic and clinical findings of the position of the TMJ articular disc following open treatment of condylar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Alexander; Zahnert, Diana; Klengel, Steffen; Loukota, Richard; Eckelt, Uwe

    2007-10-01

    We examined the position and function of the articular disc after open treatment of condylar fractures by comparing magnetic resonance images (MRI) and radiographs with clinical data. MRI and radiographs were taken after treatment of 28 patients with 33 fractures of the mandibular condyles. In all cases, the disc was located in the fossa after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The MRI, radiographic and clinical findings did not correlate, and damage to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) could be seen more clearly on MRI than on clinical or radiographic examination. Damage to soft tissues seen on MRI after treatment was more pronounced in dislocated than in displaced fractures.

  7. Reliability of Assessing Hand Osteoarthritis on Digital Photographs and Associations With Radiographic and Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Michelle; Jonsson, Helgi; Helgadottir, Gudrun P; Nicholls, Elaine; van der Windt, Danielle; Myers, Helen; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reliability and construct validity of an atlas for grading hand osteoarthritis (OA) on photographs in a separate younger community-dwelling population than the development cohort. Methods Participants were community-dwelling adults (ages ≥50 years) in North Staffordshire, UK with hand pain or hand problems in the last year who attended a research clinic. High-quality photographs were taken in a standardized position. A photographic atlas was used to score hand joints (second and third distal interphalangeal [DIP], second and third proximal interphalangeal [PIP], and first carpometacarpal [CMC] joints) and joint groups (DIP, PIP, and CMC joints) for OA on a 0–3 scale. Hand radiographs were graded for OA using the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grading system. Clinical features (nodes, bony enlargement, and deformity) were determined by physical examination. Associations of photographic hand OA grades with radiographic OA and clinical features were determined to assess construct validity. Results In total, 558 participants (mean age 64 years, 62% women) were included in the analyses. Reliability for scoring OA on the photographs was good (mean intrarater intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.77 and mean interrater ICC 0.71). At the joint level, photographic hand OA grade was positively associated with radiographic OA grade (Spearman's ρ = 0.19–0.57, P < 0.001) and the number of clinical features (Spearman's ρ = 0.36–0.59, P < 0.001). At the person level, individuals with higher global photographic OA scores had higher summed K/L scores and higher percentages meeting the American College of Rheumatology clinical hand OA criteria. Conclusion This photographic scoring system was reliable and a good indicator of hand OA in a separate younger community-dwelling population than the development cohort. This method of data collection offers researchers a feasible alternative to physical examination and radiography. PMID:26259552

  8. [Recommendations for reporting benign asbestos-related findings in chest X-ray and CT to the accident insurances].

    PubMed

    Kraus, T; Borsch-Galetke, E; Elliehausen, H J; Frank, K; Hering, K G; Hieckel, H G; Hofmann-Preiss, K; Jacques, W; Jeremie, U; Kotschy-Lang, N; Mannes, E; Otten, H; Raab, W; Raithel, H J; Schneider, W D; Tuengerthal, S

    2009-12-01

    Asbestos-related diseases still play an important role in occupational medicine. The detection of benign asbestos-related diseases is one condition for the compensation of asbestos-related lung cancer in Germany. Due to the increasing use of computed tomography, asbestos-related diseases are more frequently detected in the early stages. The present article proposes recommendations for the findings which have to be reported as suspicious for being asbestos-related based on a) chest X-rays and b) computed tomography using the International Classification System for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD).

  9. Clinical and radiographic findings in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia caused by MATN3 mutations: description of 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, Outi; Mortier, Geert R; Czarny-Ratajczak, Malwina; Wright, Michael J; Suri, Mohnish; Rogala, Piotr; Freund, Margarida; Jackson, Gail C; Jakkula, Eveliina; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Briggs, Michael D; Cole, William G

    2004-03-15

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is characterized by pain and stiffness in joints and delayed and irregular ossification of epiphyses. Causative mutations have been recognized in six different genes. We have identified disease-causing mutations in the gene encoding matrilin-3, an extracellular matrix protein, in seven families with autosomal dominant MED. Review of the clinical and radiographic features in 12 of the affected family members shows a uniform pattern of skeletal anomalies in all patients with considerable degree of variability in severity, both between and within families. The characteristic clinical findings are onset of symptoms in early childhood with predominance of knee and hip related complaints, normal stature, and early-onset osteoarthritis. Radiographs show small and irregular epiphyses and mild metaphyseal irregularities and striations, especially at the knees and hips and mild spinal changes. Despite overlap, both clinically and radiographically, with other forms of MED, the described features may help to differentiate this particular form from other entities within the MED spectrum.

  10. Colon in the Chest: An Incidental Dextrocardia

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek; Shehab, Abdullah; Elnour, Asim A.; Al Nuaimi, Saif K.; Baghdady, Shazly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diaphragmatic injury is an uncommon traumatic injury (<1%). Although most diaphragmatic injuries can be obvious (eg, herniation of abdominal contents on chest radiograph), some injuries may be subtle and imaging studies can be nondiagnostic in many situations. Patients with diaphragmatic hernia either traumatic or nontraumatic may initially have no symptoms or signs to suggest an injury to the diaphragm. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old woman diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome –associated dominant constipation, presented with shortness of breath, cough, expectoration, tachycardia, and chest pain. Dextrocardia was an incidental finding, diagnosed by electrocardiography, chest radiograph, and CT chest. Parts of the colon, small intestine, and stomach were within the thorax in the left side due to left diaphragmatic hernia of a nontraumatic cause. Acquired incidental dextrocardia was the main problem due to displacement of the heart to contralateral side by the GI (gastrointestinal) viscera (left diaphragmatic hernia). The patient was prepared for the laparoscopic surgical repair, using a polyethylene mesh 20 cm to close the defect, and the patient recovered with accepted general condition. However, 5 days postoperative, the patient passed away suddenly due to unexplained cardiac arrest. Intrathoracic herniation of abdominal viscera should be considered in patients presented with sudden chest pain concomitant with a history of increased intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:25674744

  11. An investigation of the chest radiographs in a controlled trial of busulphan, cyclophosphamide, and a placebo after resection for carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Stott, H; Stephens, R; Fox, W; Simon, G; Roy, D C

    1976-01-01

    A standard series of radiographs of 588 patients allocated at random to treatment with busulphan (B patients), cyclophosphamide (C patients), or a placebo (P patients) for two years after surgery for bronchial carcinoma were viewed in three stages (following procedures which avoided bias) by an independent assessor, unaware of the allocated treatment of any patient, with a view to identifying pulmonary changes due to busulphan. Radiographic appearances consistent with busulphan lung were not reported in any of the 195 B patients (receiving a mean dosage of 464 mg of busulphan over 301 days) or of the 192 C patients but were present in one of the 201 patients receiving placebo. PMID:781905

  12. Acute chest pain in emergency room. Preliminary findings with 40-64-slice CT ECG-gated of the whole chest.

    PubMed

    Coche, E

    2007-01-01

    ECG-gated MDCT of the entire chest represents the latest technical advance in the diagnostic work-up of atypical chest pain. The authors report their preliminary experience with the use of 40 and 64-slice CT in the emergency room and recommend to study only patients with moderate likelihood of coronary artery disease. ECG-gated MDCT of the entire chest will be preferentially performed on 64-slice MDCT rather than 40-slice MDCT because it enable to reduce the scan time (18 seconds versus 28 seconds acquisition time), the volume of contrast medium (82 mL + 15 mL versus 97 mL + 15 mL of highly concentrated contrast agent for a patient of 70 kgs) and radiation exposure (17 mSv versus 19 mSv). Approximately 1500 to 2000 of images are produced and need to be analysed on a dedicated workstation by a radiologist expert in cardiac and thoracic disorders. At the present time, only a few studies exist in the literature showing some promising results but further large clinical studies are needed before to implement such sophisticated protocol in emergency room.

  13. Can chest high-resolution computed tomography findings diagnose pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis?*

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Flávia Angélica Ferreira; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Silva, Claudio S.; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at retrospectively reviewing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in order to evaluate the frequency of tomographic findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients (9 females and 4 males; age, 9 to 59 years; mean age, 34.5 years) were included in the present study. The HRCT images were independently evaluated by two observers whose decisions were made by consensus. The inclusion criterion was the presence of abnormalities typical of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis at HRCT, which precludes lung biopsy. However, in 6 cases lung biopsy was performed. Results Ground-glass opacities and small parenchymal nodules were the predominant tomographic findings, present in 100% of cases, followed by small subpleural nodules (92.3%), subpleural cysts (84.6%), subpleural linear calcifications (69.2%), crazy-paving pattern (69.2%), fissure nodularity (53.8%), calcification along interlobular septa (46.2%) and dense consolidation (46.2%). Conclusion As regards distribution of the lesions, there was preferential involvement of the lower third of the lungs. No predominance of distribution in axial and anteroposterior directions was observed. PMID:26379317

  14. Morbidity and mortality of vermiculite miners and millers exposed to tremolite-actinolite: Part III. Radiographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Amandus, H.E.; Althouse, R.; Morgan, W.K.; Sargent, E.N.; Jones, R.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the exposure-response relationship for tremolite-actinolite fiber exposure and radiographic findings among 184 men employed at a Montana vermiculite mine and mill. Workers were included if they had been employed during 1975-1982 and had achieved at least 5 years tenure at the Montana site. Past fiber exposure was associated with an increased prevalence of parenchymal and pleural radiographic abnormalities. Smoking was not significantly related to the prevalence of small opacities. However, the number of workers who had never smoked was small, and this prevented measurement of the smoking effect. Under control for smoking and age, the prevalence of small opacities was significantly greater for vermiculite workers with greater than 100 fiber/cc-years exposure than for comparison groups (cement workers, blue collar workers, and coal miners) who had no known occupational fiber exposure. A logistic model predicted an increase of 1.3% in the odds ratio for small opacities at an additional exposure of 5 fiber-years.

  15. Pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii: findings on computed tomography of the chest*

    PubMed Central

    Mogami, Roberto; Goldenberg, Telma; de Marca, Patricia Gomes Cytrangulo; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the main tomography findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of computed tomography scans of 19 patients with pulmonary infection by M. kansasii. Results Of the 19 patients evaluated, 10 (52.6%) were male and 9 (47.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range, 33-76 years). Computed tomography findings were as follows: architectural distortion, in 17 patients (89.5%); reticular opacities and bronchiectasis, in 16 (84.2%); cavities, in 14 (73.7%); centrilobular nodules, in 13 (68.4%); small consolidations, in 10 (52.6%); atelectasis and large consolidations, in 9 (47.4%); subpleural blebs and emphysema, in 6 (31.6%); and adenopathy, in 1 (5.3%). Conclusion There was a predominance of cavities, as well as of involvement of the small and large airways. The airway disease was characterized by bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis presenting as centrilobular nodules. PMID:27777472

  16. [Confusing injury findings in a suicidal gunshot fired to the chest from a carbine with a sawed-off barrel].

    PubMed

    Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Bohnert, Michael; Braunwarth, Roland; Pollak, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The stellate bullet entrance wound is one of the facultative features of a contact shot. For the formation of a star-shaped wound two factors are of special importance: first, an extensive bony support underlying the skin in the entrance region, and second, a strong propellant charge of the cartridge fired. Contact shots to the precordial region usually do not cause stellate entrance wounds, even if high-powered rifle ammunition is used. In the reported case, an injury pattern was observed that was not in line with normal findings and seemed confusing at first. Following a suicidal gunshot to the chest from a sawed-off carbine 98a (cal. 8 x 57 Js), a 4.5 cm wide, gaping bullet entrance wound with radiating tears was found. Instead of the usual pocket, the anterior thoracic wall showed a fist-sized area of destruction with extensive undermining of the subcutis. Not far from the entrance hole, a rib fragment had become displaced retrogradely thus perforating the skin from the inside out. The unusual pattern of findings could be explained by the fact that the barrel had been sawed off: as a result of this manipulation, a considerable part of the propellant charge had been converted outside the barrel, i.e. in the initial section of the bullet path.

  17. Large-Bowel Obstruction in the Adult: Classic Radiographic and CT Findings, Etiology, and Mimics.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Tracy; Thompson, William M

    2015-06-01

    Large-bowel obstruction is an abdominal emergency with high morbidity and mortality rates if left untreated. Although abdominal radiography is usually the initial imaging study performed in patients suspected of having large-bowel obstruction, it may not be sufficient to distinguish obstruction from other causes of colonic dilatation. Computed tomography is the imaging method of choice as it can establish the diagnosis and cause of large-bowel obstruction. A contrast agent enema may be used to confirm or exclude large-bowel obstruction. In this review, the imaging findings in multiple causes of large-bowel obstruction are illustrated and compared with acute colonic pseudo-obstruction.

  18. Pure neuritic leprosy presenting as ulnar nerve neuropathy: a case report of electrodiagnostic, radiographic, and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Payne, Russell; Baccon, Jennifer; Dossett, John; Scollard, David; Byler, Debra; Patel, Akshal; Harbaugh, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Hansen's disease, or leprosy, is a chronic infectious disease with many manifestations. Though still a major health concern and leading cause of peripheral neuropathy in the developing world, it is rare in the United States, with only about 150 cases reported each year. Nevertheless, it is imperative that neurosurgeons consider it in the differential diagnosis of neuropathy. The causative organism is Mycobacterium leprae, which infects and damages Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, leading first to sensory and then to motor deficits. A rare presentation of Hansen's disease is pure neuritic leprosy. It is characterized by nerve involvement without the characteristic cutaneous stigmata. The authors of this report describe a case of pure neuritic leprosy presenting as ulnar nerve neuropathy with corresponding radiographic, electrodiagnostic, and histopathological data. This 11-year-old, otherwise healthy male presented with progressive right-hand weakness and numbness with no cutaneous abnormalities. Physical examination and electrodiagnostic testing revealed findings consistent with a severe ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse thickening and enhancement of the ulnar nerve and narrowing at the cubital tunnel. The patient underwent ulnar nerve decompression with biopsy. Pathology revealed acid-fast organisms within the nerve, which was pathognomonic for Hansen's disease. He was started on antibiotic therapy, and on follow-up he had improved strength and sensation in the ulnar nerve distribution. Pure neuritic leprosy, though rare in the United States, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of those presenting with peripheral neuropathy and a history of travel to leprosy-endemic areas. The long incubation period of M. leprae, the ability of leprosy to mimic other conditions, and the low sensitivity of serological tests make clinical, electrodiagnostic, and radiographic evaluation necessary for diagnosis

  19. Sarcoidosis: a diagnostic challenge in atypical radiologic findings of unilateral lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Meillier, Andrew; Commodore, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic disease with a wide array of clinical findings. Given that the clinical symptoms are not pathognomonic, chest radiographs have become essential to the initial diagnosis and choice of treatment modality. Diagnosis hinges on ruling out alternative diagnoses; sometimes, advanced radiologic techniques and histopathology are required. On this occasion, we present a case of a patient with generalized symptoms, no significant chest radiograph findings and lymphadenopathy where advanced imaging and pathology assisted in the diagnosis. PMID:26719811

  20. Use of chest sonography in acute-care radiology().

    PubMed

    De Luca, C; Valentino, M; Rimondi, M R; Branchini, M; Baleni, M Casadio; Barozzi, L

    2008-12-01

    Diagnosis of acute lung disease is a daily challenge for radiologists working in acute-care areas. It is generally based on the results of chest radiography performed under technically unfavorable conditions. Computed tomography (CT) is undoubtedly more accurate in these cases, but it cannot always be performed on critically ill patients who need continuous care.The use of thoracic ultrasonography (US) has recently been proposed for the study of acute lung disease. It can be carried out rapidly at the bedside and does not require any particularly sophisticated equipment. This report analyzes our experience with chest sonography as a supplement to chest radiography in an Emergency Radiology Unit. We performed chest sonography - as an adjunct to chest radiography - on 168 patients with acute chest pathology. Static and dynamic US signs were analyzed in light of radiographic findings and, when possible, CT. The use of chest US improved the authors' ability to provide confident diagnoses of acute disease of the chest and lungs.

  1. New developed DR detector performs radiographs of hand, pelvic and premature chest anatomies at a lower radiation dose and/or a higher image quality.

    PubMed

    Precht, Helle; Tingberg, Anders; Waaler, Dag; Outzen, Claus Bjørn

    2014-02-01

    A newly developed Digital Radiography (DR) detector has smaller pixel size and higher fill factor than earlier detector models. These technical advantages should theoretically lead to higher sensitivity and higher spatial resolution, thus making dose reduction possible without scarifying image quality compared to previous DR detector versions. To examine whether the newly developed Canon CXDI-70C DR detector provides an improved image quality and/or allows for dose reductions in hand and pelvic bone examinations as well as premature chest examinations, compared to the previous (CXDI-55C) DR detector version. A total of 450 images of a technical Contrast-Detail phantom were imaged on a DR system employing various kVp and mAs settings, providing an objective image quality assessment. In addition, 450 images of anthropomorphic phantoms were taken and analyzed by three specialized radiologists using Visual Grading Analysis (VGA). The results from the technical phantom studies showed that the image quality expressed as IQFINV values was on average approximately 45 % higher with the CXDI-70C detector compared to the CXDI-55C detector. Consistently, the VGA results from the anatomical phantom studies indicated that by using the CXDI-70C detector, diagnostic image quality could be maintained at a dose reduction of in average 30 %, depending on anatomy and kVp level. This indicates that the CXDI-70C detector is significantly more sensitive than the previous model, and supports a better clinical image quality. By using the newly developed DR detector a significant dose reduction is possible while maintaining image quality.

  2. Canine prostatic disease--comparison of radiographic appearance with morphologic and microbiologic findings: 30 cases (1981-1985).

    PubMed

    Feeney, D A; Johnston, G R; Klausner, J S; Perman, V; Leininger, J R; Tomlinson, M J

    1987-04-15

    A retrospective analysis was made of radiographs from 24 clinically normal young adult male Beagles used in previously reported base-line research on the distal male urinary tract. The ventrodorsal and craniocaudal prostate gland dimensions were measured, as visualized on the lateral radiographic view, and expressed as a ratio of the distance between the cranial aspect of the public bone and the sacral promontory. In 17 of these 24 dogs, there was sufficient image clarity to permit confident measurement of prostatic dimensions. From these data, the largest acceptable prostatic dimension, as visualized on the lateral radiographic view, was 70% of the public-promontory distance. A retrospective analysis was made of 30 cases of canine prostatic disease, with the objective of identifying the radiographic (survey and distention retrograde urethrocystogram) appearance most often associated with the various spontaneous prostatic diseases. Prostatomegaly was not specific for the cause of prostatic disease, except if the apparent parenchymal dimensions were greater than or equal to 90% of the public-promontory distance wherein neoplasia, abscess, and paraprostatic cysts (readily differentiated from diffuse intraparenchymal disease by ultrasonography) were the principle considerations. Multifocal, irregularly shaped, parenchymal mineral densities were observed only in dogs with prostatic carcinoma (4/7 cases) or prostatitis (1 case of chronic prostatitis). Narrowing of the prostatic portion of the urethra was observed only in association with abscess, neoplasm, or noninflammatory nonneoplastic disease (possibly benign hypertrophy/hyperplasia), whereas widening of this part of the urethra was not observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Chest MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Aneurysm Chest CT Scan Chest X Ray Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Pulmonary Hypertension Send a ... X Ray Clinical Trials Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Pacemaker Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Pulmonary Hypertension Rate This ...

  4. Impact of chest X-ray before discharge in asymptomatic children after cardiac surgery--prospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Daniel; Knirsch, Walter; Niesse, Oliver; Schraner, Thomas; Dave, Hitendu; Kretschmar, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In many paediatric cardiac units chest radiographs are performed routinely before discharge after cardiac surgery. These radiographs contribute to radiation exposure. To evaluate the diagnostic impact of routine chest X-rays before discharge in children undergoing open heart surgery and to analyze certain risk factors predicting pathologic findings. This was a prospective (6 months) single-centre observational clinical study. One hundred twenty-eight consecutive children undergoing heart surgery underwent biplane chest X-ray at a mean of 13 days after surgery. Pathologic findings on chest X-rays were defined as infiltrate, atelectasis, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, or signs of fluid overload. One hundred nine asymptomatic children were included in the final analysis. Risk factors, such as age, corrective versus palliative surgery, reoperation, sternotomy versus lateral thoracotomy, and relevant pulmonary events during postoperative paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay, were analysed. In only 5.5 % (6 of 109) of these asymptomatic patients were pathologic findings on routine chest X-ray before discharge found. In only three of these cases (50 %), subsequent noninvasive medical intervention (increasing diuretics) was needed. All six patients had relevant pulmonary events during their PICU stay. Risk factor analysis showed only pulmonary complications during PICU stay to be significantly associated (p = 0.005) with pathologic X-ray findings. Routine chest radiographs before discharge after cardiac surgery can be omitted in asymptomatic children with an uneventful and straightforward perioperative course. Chest radiographs before discharge are warrantable if pulmonary complications did occur during their PICU stay, as this is a risk factor for pathologic findings in chest X-rays before discharge.

  5. Psychogenic Dyspnea and Therapeutic Chest Radiograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kenneth R.; Endres, Jennifer K.; Kaufman, Nathaniel D.

    2007-01-01

    Conversion disorders, the physical expression of unresolved psychological pain, can be associated with mourning. This case report is third in a series of articles by the authors on childhood mourning reflecting the effects of multiple losses (K. R. Kaufman & N. D. Kaufman, 2005; K. R. Kaufman & N. D. Kaufman, 2006). In this case report, perception…

  6. Enhancement of chest radiographs with gradient operators.

    PubMed

    Daponte, J S; Fox, M D

    1988-01-01

    Reference is made to the Sobel and Roberts gradient operators used to enhance image edges. Overall, the Sobel operator was found to be superior to the Roberts operator in edge enhancement. A theoretical explanation for the superior performance of the Sobel operator was developed based on the concept of analyzing the x and y Sobel masks as linear filters. By applying pill-box, Gaussian, or median filtering prior to applying a gradient operator, noise was reduced. The pill-box and Gaussian filters were more computationally efficient than the median filter with approximately equal effectiveness in noise reduction.

  7. Evaluation of Patellar Position before and After Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Radiographic and Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Moghtadaei, Mehdi; Otoukesh, Babak; Bodduhi, Bahram; Ahmadi, Keyvan; Yeganeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Genovarum is a common orthopedic problem. Its optimal prompt treatment is an issue of importance. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the radiographic changes in patella bone before and after open wedge high tibial osteotomy. Material and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 43 patients were enrolled and underwent open wedge high tibial osteotomy and the radiographic and CT-scan indices including Q-Angle, Congruence Angle, Insall-Salvati index, and TTTG were measured and compared before and after surgery. Results: The result revealed that all indices including Q-Angle, Congruence Angle, Insull-Salvati index, and TTTG were not significantly differed across the study (P > 0.05). There was no difference between DLFA values before and after the operation (P> 0.05), while MPTA values were significantly different before and after operation (p <0.001). Conclusions: Totally it may be concluded that imaging indices are not differed after open wedge high tibial osteotomy and monitoring for them is not necessary and they would have no prognostic role. PMID:27703292

  8. Surgical Management of Minimally Invasive Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Stand-Alone Interbody Cage for L4-5 Degenerative Disorders: Clinical and Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hironaka, Yasuo; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment for degenerative spinal disorders is controversial, although lumbar fusion is considered an acceptable option for disabling lower back pain. Patients underwent instrumented minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (mini-ALIF) using a retroperitoneal approach except for requiring multilevel fusions, severe spinal canal stenosis, high-grade spondylolisthesis, and a adjacent segments disorders. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and radiographs of 142 patients who received mini-ALIF for L4-5 degenerative lumbar disorders between 1998 and 2010. We compared preoperative and postoperative clinical data and radiographic measurements, including the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, visual analog scale (VAS) score for back and leg pain, disc height (DH), whole lumbar lordosis (WL), and vertebral wedge angle (WA). The mean follow-up period was 76 months. The solid fusion rate was 90.1% (128/142 patients). The average length of hospital stay was 6.9 days (range, 3–21 days). The mean blood loss was 63.7 ml (range, 10–456 ml). The mean operation time was 155.5 min (range, 96–280 min). The postoperative JOA and VAS scores for back and leg pain were improved compared with the preoperative scores. Radiological analysis showed significant postoperative improvements in DH, WL, and WA, and the functional and radiographical outcomes improved significantly after 2 years. The 2.8% complication rate included cases of wound infection, liquorrhea, vertebral body fractures, and a misplaced cage that required revision. Mini-ALIF was found to be associated with improved clinical results and radiographic findings for L4-5 disorders. A retroperitoneal approach might therefore be a valuable treatment option. PMID:24140782

  9. Cash's textbook of chest, heart and vascular disorders for physiotherapists

    SciTech Connect

    Downie, P.A.; Innocenti, D.M.; Jackson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book includes a chapter on chest radiographs. A very high proportion of the patients treated by physiotherapy will have had a chest radiograph (x-ray) either because their primary disease is pulmonary or there is some long standing heart or lung illness which should be taken into account during the management of an acute problem. The chapter outlines the principles involved in reading the radiograph.

  10. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for lung nodule detection in chest radiographs by means of two-stage nodule enhancement with support vector classification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji; MacMahon, Heber

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) scheme for nodules in chest radiographs (CXRs) with a high sensitivity and a low false-positive (FP) rate. Methods: The authors developed a CADe scheme consisting of five major steps, which were developed for improving the overall performance of CADe schemes. First, to segment the lung fields accurately, the authors developed a multisegment active shape model. Then, a two-stage nodule-enhancement technique was developed for improving the conspicuity of nodules. Initial nodule candidates were detected and segmented by using the clustering watershed algorithm. Thirty-one shape-, gray-level-, surface-, and gradient-based features were extracted from each segmented candidate for determining the feature space, including one of the new features based on the Canny edge detector to eliminate a major FP source caused by rib crossings. Finally, a nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) with a Gaussian kernel was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. Results: To evaluate and compare the scheme to other published CADe schemes, the authors used a publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs. The CADe scheme based on the SVM classifier achieved sensitivities of 78.6% (110/140) and 71.4% (100/140) with averages of 5.0 (1165/233) FPs/image and 2.0 (466/233) FPs/image, respectively, in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the CADe scheme based on a linear discriminant analysis classifier had a sensitivity of 60.7% (85/140) at an FP rate of 5.0 FPs/image. For nodules classified as ''very subtle'' and ''extremely subtle,'' a sensitivity of 57.1% (24/42) was achieved at an FP rate of 5.0 FPs/image. When the authors used a database developed at the University of Chicago, the sensitivities was 83.3% (40/48) and 77.1% (37/48) at an FP rate of 5.0 (240/48) FPs/image and 2.0 (96/48) FPs /image, respectively. Conclusions: These results compare favorably to those described for

  11. Association of Cartilage Defects, and other MR Findings with Pain and Function in Individuals with Mild-Moderate Radiographic Hip Osteoarthritis and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Wyatt, Cory R.; Lee, Sonia; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of hip radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) and MR findings of cartilage lesions, labral tears, bone marrow edema like lesions (BMEL) and subchondral cysts with self-reported and physical function. Design Eighty five subjects were classified as controls (n= 55, KL 0, 1) or having mild-moderate ROA (n = 30, KL 2, 3). T2-weighted MR images at 3-Tesla were graded for presence of cartilage lesions, labral tears, BMELs and subchondral cysts. Posterior wall sign, cross-over sign, center-edge angle and alpha angle were also recorded. Function was assessed using Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), Timed-Up and Go (TUG) test and Y-Balance Test (YBT). Analysis compared function between subjects with and without ROA and those with and without femoral or acetabular cartilage lesions, adjusted for age. Non-parametric correlations were used to assess the relationship between radiographic scores, MR scores and function. Results Subjects with acetabular cartilage lesions had worse HOOS (Difference = 5–10%, P = 0.036–0.004), but not TUG or YBT, scores. Acetabular cartilage lesions, BMELs and subchondral cysts were associated with worse HOOS scores (ρ= 0.23–0.37, P = 0.041–0.001). Differences in function between subjects with and without ROA or femoral cartilage lesions were not significant. Other radiologic findings were not associated with function. Conclusions Acetabular cartilage defects, but not femoral cartilage defects or ROA, were associated with greater self-reported pain and disability. BMELs and subchondral cysts were related to greater hip related self-reported pain and disability. None of the radiographic or MR features were related to physical function. PMID:23948977

  12. Comparison of chest CT findings in nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases vs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung disease in HIV-negative patients with cavities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cherry; Park, So Hee; Oh, Sang Young; Kim, Sung-Soo; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Shim, Tae Sun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This article focuses on the differences between CT findings of HIV-negative patients who have cavities with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease and those with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections (TB). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 128 NTM disease patients (79 males and 49 females) with cavities in chest CT, matched for age and gender with 128 TB patients in the same period. Sputum cultures of all patients were positive for pathogens. Two independent chest radiologists evaluated the characteristics of the largest cavity and related factors. Results Interobserver agreement was excellent (κ value, 0.853–0.938). Cavity walls in NTM disease were significantly thinner (6.9±4 mm vs 10.9±6 mm, P<0.001) and more even (the ratio of thickness, 2.6±1 vs 3.7±2, P<0.001) than those in TB. The thickening of adjacent pleura next to the cavity was also significantly thicker in NTM than TB (P<0.001). However, in the multivariate analysis, thickening of adjacent pleura was the only significant factor among the representative cavity findings (Odds ratio [OR], 6.49; P<0.001). In addition, ill-defined tree-in-bud nodules (OR, 8.82; P<0.001), number of non-cavitary nodules (≥10mm) (OR, 0.72; P = 0.003), and bronchiectasis in the RUL (OR, 5.3; P = 0.002) were significantly associated ancillary findings with NTM disease in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions The major cavities in NTM disease generally have thinner and more even walls than those in TB. When cavities are associated with adjacent pleural thickening, ill-defined satellite tree-in-bud nodules, or fewer non-cavitary nodules ≥10 mm, these CT findings are highly suggestive of NTM disease rather than TB. PMID:28346488

  13. Morphological variations of the anterior thoracic skeleton and their forensic significance: radiographic findings in a Spanish autopsy sample.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, P James; Lucena, Joaquín

    2014-08-01

    The anterior thoracic skeleton may exhibit a number of morphological variations or anomalies, including accessory ossicles, atypical fusion or nonfusion of bony segments, and accessory foramina. Awareness of these minor skeletal variants is important in forensic medicine given that they may be mistakenly identified as pathological or traumatic lesions. The identification of subtle morphological anomalies may also aid in the process of individualization by serving as points of similarity if their occurrence was recorded antemortem. This study assessed the prevalence of anatomical variants of the sternum and ribs in a modern population from Spain, since the frequency of these skeletal anomalies differs between population groups. The occurrence of sternal clefts and foramina, bifurcated ribs, fusion of the manubriosternal and sternoxiphoidal junctions, and type of xiphoid process end was evaluated on posterior-anterior digital radiographs. None of the morphological variations were associated with sex or age, with the exception of two traits related to the xiphoid process. The xiphoid process was absent more often in younger individuals, particularly specimens below the age of 30 years, whereas, complete fusion of the sternoxiphoidal junction was more often observed in individuals above 50 years of age. However, these morphological variants are highly variable in the study sample and thus they have limited utility in forensic age estimation in the Spanish population. Nonetheless, the presence of various morphological anomalies such as sternal foramina, bifid ribs, and triple-ended xiphoid processes may provide information useful for establishing a personal identification.

  14. Chest Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes Chest pain can also be caused by: Panic attack. If you have periods of intense fear accompanied ... fear of dying, you may be experiencing a panic attack. Shingles. Caused by a reactivation of the chickenpox ...

  15. Chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Budassi, S A

    1978-09-01

    For any patient with obvious or suspected chest trauma, one must first assure an adequate airway and adequate ventilation. One should never hesitate to administer oxygen to a victim with a chest injury. The nurse should be concerned with adequate circulation--this may mean the administration of intravenous fluids, specifically volume expanders, via large-bore cannulae. Any obvious open chest wound should be sealed, and any fractures should be splinted. These patients should be rapidly transported to the nearest Emergency Department capable of handling this type of injury. The majority of patients who arrive in the Emergency Department following blunt or penetrating trauma should be considered to be in critical condition until proven otherwise. On presentation, it is essential to recognize those signs, symptoms, and laboratory values that identify the patient's condition as life-threatening. Simple recognition of these signs and symptoms and early appropriate intervention may alter an otherwise fatal outcome.

  16. Lung Ultrasound in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Ventilator Associated Pneumonia before Any Radiographic or Laboratory Changes

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Bioumy, Nouran; El-Sharkawy, Sonya

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal pneumonia is reported to be the primary cause of neonatal respiratory failure and one of the common causes of neonatal hospitalization and death in developing countries. Chest X-ray was considered the gold standard for diagnosis of neonatal pneumonia. Lung ultrasonography has been described as a valuable noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of many neonatal pulmonary diseases. We report a case of ventilation associated neonatal pneumonia with very early diagnosis using lung ultrasound before any significant radiographic changes in chest X-ray or laboratory findings suggestive of infection. PMID:27891280

  17. An unusual case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a previously healthy pregnant patient: radiographic, CT, and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Paruthikunnan, Samir; Shankar, Balasubramanyam; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Jain, Harshwardhan

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous protozoal infection that during pregnancy commonly affects the fetus severely, with maternal infection usually being mild self-limiting. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a healthy pregnant woman has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. We present a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis involving pulmonary, central nervous system, and lymph nodes in a pregnant woman and imaging findings on radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Prevalence of radiographic findings in individuals with chronic low back pain screened for a randomized controlled trial: secondary analysis and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Vining, Robert D.; Potocki, Eric; McLean, Ian; Seidman, Michael; Morgenthal, A. Paige; Boysen, James; Goertz, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence of graded disc degeneration, spondylolisthesis, transitional segmentation and the distribution of sacral slope in patients 21 to 65 years of age with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods This retrospective study analyzed 247 digital lumbar radiographic series obtained during a randomized controlled trial of chiropractic patients with CLBP. CLBP was defined as pain in the low back lasting 12 weeks or longer. Radiographic findings of disc degeneration, spondylolisthesis, and lumbosacral transitional segmentation were graded by 2 authors using established classification criteria. Sacral slope was measured with a digital tool contained within imaging software. Results Lumbosacral transitional segments graded I – IV (Castellvi classification) were present in 14% of cases. Lumbar disc degeneration was most prevalent at L3-4 (49%) followed by L4-5 (42%), L2-3 (41%), L5-S1 (37%), and L1-2 (29%). Isthmic spondylolisthesis was present in 5% of cases with L5 the most common location. Degenerative spondylolisthesis demonstrated a prevalence rate of 18%, most commonly occurring at L4. The prevalence of degenerative spondylolisthesis was 51% for females aged 50–59 and 24% for males in the same age range. Conclusions Moderate-severe disc degeneration, multi-level disc narrowing, and degenerative spondylolisthesis were common in individuals with CLBP over age 40. Isthmic spondylolisthesis was not more prevalent than what has been reported in other populations. Transitional segmentation was identified in a minority of participants with some of these exhibiting accessory joints or fusion. Mean sacral slope in individuals with CLBP was not substantially different from mean slopes reported in other populations. PMID:25455834

  19. Chest X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  20. Musculoskeletal chest wall pain

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

    1985-01-01

    The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

  1. Interpretation of the neonatal chest X-ray.

    PubMed

    Barnes, N; Pilling, D W

    1999-11-01

    Most neonatal X-rays are seen initially by a paediatrician without formal training in interpretation of chest X-rays. This article aims to help improve the information obtained from these X-rays which are often complex. Many factors affect accurate interpretation of the neonatal chest X-ray, including good quality radiographs, appropriate viewing conditions and thorough education.

  2. Physiological interpretations of radiographic findings on malformations of small veins: seriality of cisterns, communications to systemic veins and relationship to muscles

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Nobuo; Terada, Tomoaki; Sato, Morio; Sonomura, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To re-evaluate the fluoroscopic findings of venous malformation by cine mode cisternography. Methods Using direct injection cine-cisternography, we studied 49 venous malformation lesions in the head and neck of 30 patients who were scheduled to undergo ethanol sclerotherapy. The diameter of definitively measurable 46 lesions was 21.7 ± 10.5 mm (mean ± SD, range: 6.0–48.0 mm). The injection was continued until the draining veins were clearly observed. Outflow communications between cisterns and systemic veins were classified into Type 1, no visible drainage; Type 2, draining into a normal venous system; and Type 3, with abnormally ectatic draining veins. The topological relationships of the lesions to surrounding structures were addressed using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonogram. Treatment results were evaluated. Results The direct injection cine-cisternography showed the typical ‘bunch of grapes’ pattern, and revealed serial cisternal, followed by the appearance of outflow/draining veins in all lesions. There were no Type 1, 47 Type 2 and two Type 2 outflow pattern. Satellite lesions emerged via the communicating veins in six lesions. Of the all 49 lesions, 48 were located in or on the muscle fascia. Sclerotherapy was safely completed in all Type 2 lesions with satisfactory results, but for the Type 3 lesions treatment was limited to be partial to avoid complications. Conclusions The present study suggested that communications from venous malformation to the systemic vein are fluoroscopically confirmable. These radiographic findings were thought explainable in relation to developmental nature or facilitating process of venous malformation. PMID:23223003

  3. Development of functional chest imaging with a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Fujimura, Masaki; Yasui, Masahide; Nakayama, Kazuya; Matsui, Takeshi; Hayashi, Norio; Matsui, Osamu

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic FPD permits the acquisition of distortion-free radiographs with a large field of view and high image quality. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of functional imaging for evaluating the pulmonary sequential blood distribution with an FPD, based on changes in pixel values during cardiac pumping. Dynamic chest radiographs of seven normal subjects were obtained in the expiratory phase by use of an FPD system. We measured the average pixel value in each region of interest that was located manually in the heart and lung areas. Subsequently, inter-frame differences and differences from a minimum-intensity projection image, which was created from one cardiac cycle, were calculated. These difference values were then superimposed on dynamic chest radiographs in the form of a color display, and sequential blood distribution images and a blood distribution map were created. The results were compared to typical data on normal cardiac physiology. The clinical effectiveness of our method was evaluated in a patient who had abnormal pulmonary blood flow. In normal cases, there was a strong correlation between the cardiac cycle and changes in pixel value. Sequential blood distribution images showed a normal pattern at determined by the physiology of pulmonary blood flow, with a symmetric distribution and no blood flow defects throughout the entire lung region. These findings indicated that pulmonary blood flow was reflected on dynamic chest radiographs. In an abnormal case, a defect in blood flow was shown as defective in color in a blood distribution map. The present method has the potential for evaluation of local blood flow as an optional application in general chest radiography.

  4. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  5. CT angiography - chest

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography angiography - thorax; CTA - lungs; Pulmonary embolism - CTA chest; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - CTA chest; Venous thromboembolism - CTA lung; Blood clot - CTA lung; Embolus - CTA lung; CT ...

  6. Interpretation of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of dental radiographs is fairly straightforward, with a handful of common patterns making up the majority of pathology. This article covers normal radiographic anatomy, endodontic disease, periodontal disease, neoplastic changes, tooth resorption, caries, and radiographic signs of oral trauma.

  7. Cleidocranial Dysplasia: A Clinico-radiographic Spectrum with Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Purva Prakash; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Humbe, Jayanti G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the clavicles, characteristic craniofacial malformations, and the presence of numerous supernumerary and unerupted teeth. It affects bones derived from both intra-membranous and endochondral ossification. Incidence has been reported as 1 in 10,00,000. It is caused by mutation in the gene encoding transcription factor Core Binding Factor Subunit Alpha l (CBFAl) or Runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Case Report: This presentation discusses the clinical and radiographic features of a familial case of cleidocranial dysplasia occurring in a father and a child. All the clinical and radiographic features, except that of the chest x-ray, were more prominent in the child than the father. This supports the fact that CCD is transmitted by an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance with high penetrance and variable expressivity. It is sporadic in about 40% of cases. Each child of an individual with CCD has a 50% chance of in heriting the mutation. Conclusion: Diagnosis is mostly made on the basis of clinical and radiographic features. Molecular genetic testing such as sequence analysis or deletion analysis can be used in cleidocranial dysplasia. Some cases are diagnosed through incidental findings by physicians, treating patients for unrelated conditions. Treatment of these patients requires a multidisciplinary approach which includes orthopaedic and dental corrections along with management of any complications of cleidocranial dysplasia. PMID:27299035

  8. Digital Paper Prints as Replacement for LASER Films: A Study of Intra-Observer Agreement for Wrist Radiographic Findings in Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhinav; Anand, Surinder Pal Singh; Dang, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Replacement of conventional LASER films with digital paper prints as supplement to radiology reports may serve as an economical and environment friendly method. However, it is essential that such a change does not compromise patient’s intended diagnostic outcome. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and acceptability of digital paper prints for the radiographic images by the treating physicians and radiologists. Materials and Methods This observational analytical study was done at a tertiary care hospital of New Delhi, India. A total of 58 consecutively ordered wrist radiographs of paediatric patients (6 months to 12 years of age) for ruling out rickets were retrieved from the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). These 58 radiographs, out of which 21 (36.2%) had radiological evidence of rickets over PACS were printed on two different media i.e., LASER films and glossy photographic paper. An objective scoring for the severity of rickets was done on both LASER films and paper prints by six observers independently. Overall comfort level with paper prints was rated on a 1-5 point Likert scale. Data was analysed using STATA 14.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX). Results Intra-observer percentage agreement and value of Cohen’s kappa for PACS vs. LASER films and PACS vs. paper prints was equal i.e., 98.3% and 0.97, respectively. Intra-observer agreement between LASER films and paper prints for all six observers was excellent, ranging from 0.92 to 1.00; percentage agreement ranging from 94.8% to 100%. Fracture of ulna/radius present in 4 sets of the X-rays was well demonstrated in both LASER films and paper prints. Comfort level with paper prints was rated as 5 out of 5 by all due to no requirement of any special illuminated view box and dark room. Conclusion This study concludes that the use of paper prints may serve as a reliable alternative to LASER films to communicate the report of wrist radiographs for the treating

  9. [Development of breathing chest radiography: study of exposure timing].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-08-01

    The flat-panel detector (FPD) has been introduced into clinical practice. A modified FPD, which has the ability to obtain dynamic chest radiographs, was introduced into our hospital, and clinical testing is ongoing. Both the inspiratory and expiratory phases have to be included in dynamic chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most appropriate chest radiography signal for observation of the respiratory process. We prepared ten protocol patterns that differed in terms of respiratory phase at X-ray exposure, exposure duration, and signal multiplicity. We also performed preliminary experiments and administered several questionnaires to ten volunteers. The volunteers breathed according to vocal and visual signals, and their respiratory waves were recorded by spirometer. The most appropriate protocol was similar to the method used for conventional chest radiography.

  10. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of... the property of NIOSH. (1) When the radiograph is digital, the image file for each radiograph... when it has received the image files and forms from the examination. After this notification,...

  11. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of... the property of NIOSH. (1) When the radiograph is digital, the image file for each radiograph... when it has received the image files and forms from the examination. After this notification,...

  12. Evaluation of prediagnosis emergency department presentations in patients with active tuberculosis: the role of chest radiography, risk factors and symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, S C; Connell, D W; Singanayagam, A; Bradley, P; Pan, D; Sanderson, F; Cleaver, B; Rahman, A; Kon, O M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction London has a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) with 2572 cases reported in 2014. Cases are more common in non-UK born, alcohol-dependent or homeless patients. The emergency department (ED) presents an opportunity for the diagnosis of TB in these patient groups. This is the first study describing the clinico-radiological characteristics of such attendances in two urban UK hospitals for pulmonary TB (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the London TB Register (LTBR) and hospital records to identify patients who presented to two London ED's in the 6 months prior to their ultimate TB diagnosis 2011–2012. Results 397 TB cases were identified. 39% (154/397) had presented to the ED in the 6 months prior to diagnosis. In the study population, the presence of cough, weight loss, fever and night sweats only had prevalence rates of 40%, 34%, 34% and 21%, respectively. Chest radiography was performed in 76% (117/154) of patients. For cases where a new diagnosis of TB was suspected, 73% (41/56) had an abnormal radiograph, compared with 36% (35/98) of patients where it was not. There was an abnormality on a chest radiograph in 73% (55/75) of PTB cases and also in 40% (21/52) of EPTB cases where a film was requested. Conclusions A large proportion of patients with TB present to ED. A diagnosis was more likely in the presence of an abnormal radiograph, suggesting opportunities for earlier diagnosis if risk factors, symptoms and chest radiograph findings are combined. PMID:28123749

  13. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  14. Radiographic parenchymal opacity, matching perfusion defect, and normal ventilation: a sign of pulmonary embolism. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, E.B.; Sostman, H.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1987-05-01

    By conventional criteria, perfusion defects that correspond to radiographic parenchymal opacities of similar size have less diagnostic significance for pulmonary embolism (PE) than perfusion defects in areas that are radiographically clear, regardless of the findings on ventilation scan. It was proposed that the demonstration of normal ventilation in areas with matched radiographic opacity and perfusion defects does support the diagnosis of PE. To test this hypothesis, a retrospective review was done of selected cases from a consecutive series of 85 pulmonary angiography studies. Cases were reviewed if the following criteria were met: chest radiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and angiography of the relevant regions had all been performed within 24 hours of one another, and there was a radiographic opacity corresponding to the perfusion defect. Sixteen cases fulfilled these criteria. Six patients had normal ventilation in the regions of the radiographic infiltrate and perfusion defect, and all had PE. No patient had an area of opacity and perfusion defect and normal ventilation without PE.

  15. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for chest x-rays consists of ... tube is positioned about six feet away. The equipment may also be arranged with the x-ray ...

  16. Gallium-67 scans of the chest in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.; Garay, S.M.; Greene, J.B.; Tiu, S.; Banner, H.; McCauley, D.I.

    1987-07-01

    Eighty-six (/sup 67/Ga)citrate chest scans were performed in 71 adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Forty-five of these patients also had Kaposi's sarcoma. Only 29 of 57 abnormal scans were correlated with abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiographs were negative for 27 scans and unavailable for one. Several scan patterns were seen. Diffusely increased lung uptake was seen most commonly with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, but also other infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. Focal uptake corresponding to regional lymph node groups occurred most often with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare but aslo with lymphoma. Localized intrapulmonary uptake was seen in bacterial pneumonias. Perihilar activity occurred in two cases. When chest radiographs were abnormal and /sup 67/Ga scans negative, the most common diagnosis was pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.

  17. Ultrasound for Localization of Central Venous Catheter: A Good Alternative to Chest X-Ray?

    PubMed Central

    Kamalipour, Hamid; Ahmadi, Sedigheh; Kamali, Karmella; Moaref, Alireza; Shafa, Masih; Kamalipour, Parsa

    2016-01-01

    Background Chest radiography after central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is the main method of verifying the catheter location. Despite the widespread use of radiography for detecting catheter position, x-ray may not always be readily available, especially in the operating room. Objectives We aimed to compare contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and chest radiography for detecting the correct location of CVCs. Methods One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with indications for CVC before cardiac surgery were enrolled in this observational study. After catheter insertion, CEUS was performed. Portable radiography was obtained postoperatively in the intensive care unit. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were determined by comparing the ultrasonography results with radiographic findings as a reference standard. Results Chest radiography revealed 16 CVC misplacements: two cases of intravascular and 14 cases of right atrium (RA) misplacement. CEUS detected 11 true catheter malpositionings in the RA, while it could not recognize seven catheter placements correctly. CEUS showed two false RA misplacements and five falsely correct CVC positions. A sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 69% were achieved for CEUS in detecting CVC misplacements. Positive and negative predictive values were 95% and 85%, respectively. The interrater agreement (kappa) between CEUS and radiography was 0.72 (P < 0.001). Conclusions Despite close concordance between ultrasonography and chest radiography, CEUS is not a suitable alternative for standard chest radiography in detecting CVC location; however, considering its high sensitivity and acceptable specificity in our study, its usefulness as a triage method for detecting CVC location on a real-time basis in the operating room cannot be ignored. PMID:27847699

  18. Visual simulation of radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-18

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made.

  19. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: an important differential in acute chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Francesca; McCullough, Chris; Rahman, Asif

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with pleuritic chest pain that was present on waking and localised to the left costal margin with no radiation. He was otherwise asymptomatic and denied preceding trauma, heavy lifting, coughing or recent vomiting. Observations and examination were unremarkable; however, a chest radiograph showed a pneumomediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition that tends to follow a benign clinical course. A CT of the chest is generally only indicated if the chest X-ray fails to show an SPM in patients for whom there is a high index of clinical suspicion. A contrast-enhanced swallow study is only indicated if there is suspicion of an oesophageal tear or rupture. Evidence suggests that patients with SPM can be managed conservatively and observed for 24 h. PMID:25432910

  20. Radiographic appearance of nosocomial legionnaires' disease after erythromycin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, C; Roig, J; Planas, F; Bechini, J; Tenesa, M; Morera, J

    1991-01-01

    Radiographic features of 71 patients (48 men, 23 women) with nosocomial Legionella pneumophila pneumonia were assessed and compared with those of other nosocomial series of L pneumophila pneumonia. Sixteen patients were assessed retrospectively and 55 prospectively. Chest radiographs were assessed at the onset of the illness, 10 days later, and at 3 months. Erythromycin was given to 67 patients at the time of the diagnosis and to the remaining four at a later stage. Forty eight patients were over the age of 60. On the initial chest radiograph 53 of the 71 patients had unilateral shadowing (23 of them in the right lung); 35 had unilobar shadowing and the remaining 36 had more than one affected lobe. Pleural effusion was present in 24 cases and cavitation in 2. One patient had evidence of a pericardial effusion. At 10 days 21 patients had evidence of radiographic progression (14 ipsilateral), but 28 had improved. At 3 months 36 patients had an abnormal radiograph, 30 showing residual scarring, 15 loss of volume, six pleural shadows and two cavitation. Our series shows a lesser incidence of unilateral shadowing and pleural effusion than other nosocomial series and a lesser tendency to progression, but more patients had radiographic abnormalities at long term follow up. PMID:1948796

  1. Impact of resolution and noise characteristics of digital radiographic detectors on the detectability of lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Robert S; Samei, Ehsan; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2004-06-01

    One of the unanswered questions in digital radiography is the connection between physical image quality metrics and clinical detection performance. In this paper, we examine the impact of two physical metrics, resolution and noise, on the detectability of nodules in a pulmonary background for specific digital radiographic detectors. A detection experiment was performed on a simulated image set using anatomical backgrounds from a high-quality lung radiograph and three different simulated nodule sizes (2-3.5 mm). The resolution and noise of the resulting images were modified using existing routines to simulate a selenium-based and a cesium iodide-based flat-panel detector at comparable exposures. A location-known-exactly (LKE) observer performance experiment was performed in which four experienced chest radiologists and three physicists specializing in chest radiology scored the images. The data from the observer experiment were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. The detectability, as measured by the parameter Az, was higher for the selenium detector than the cesium iodide detector for all nodule sizes by an average of 8.5%. For one nodule size (2.75 mm), the difference between detectors was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The findings indicate that for the particular task studied, the superior resolution performance of the selenium-based detector provided better detectability of subtle lung nodules even though the images had greater noise than images obtained with the cesium iodide detector.

  2. Chest CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the scanner. For some diagnoses, a contrast dye, often iodine-based, may be injected into a ... your arm before the imaging test. This contrast dye highlights areas inside your chest and creates clearer ...

  3. Chest tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Topics Chest Injuries and Disorders Collapsed Lung Critical Care Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders A.D.A. ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  4. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... your neck and your abdomen. It includes the ribs and breastbone. Inside your chest are several organs, ... and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders of the mediastinum, the ...

  5. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be done if you have signs of tuberculosis , lung cancer , or other chest or lung diseases . ... the blood vessels Pneumonia Scarring of lung tissue Tuberculosis In the heart: Problems with the size or ...

  6. Radiographic film package

    SciTech Connect

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  7. A method to optimize the processing algorithm of a computed radiography system for chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Liney, G P; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2007-09-01

    A test methodology using an anthropomorphic-equivalent chest phantom is described for the optimization of the Agfa computed radiography "MUSICA" processing algorithm for chest radiography. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lung, heart and diaphragm regions of the phantom, and the "system modulation transfer function" (sMTF) in the lung region, were measured using test tools embedded in the phantom. Using these parameters the MUSICA processing algorithm was optimized with respect to low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution. Two optimum "MUSICA parameter sets" were derived respectively for maximizing the CNR and sMTF in each region of the phantom. Further work is required to find the relative importance of low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution in chest images, from which the definitive optimum MUSICA parameter set can then be derived. Prior to this further work, a compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was applied to a range of clinical images. A group of experienced image evaluators scored these images alongside images produced from the same radiographs using the MUSICA parameter set in clinical use at the time. The compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was shown to produce measurably better images.

  8. Radiographic Findings Associated with Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Masand, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of patients with vascular tumors and malformations has been sufficiently refined to answer pertinent questions when making treatment decisions in this challenging subgroup of pediatric patients. The imaging modalities at hand include conventional radiography, Doppler ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging with time-resolved, contrast-material enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. This review article will focus on the characteristic imaging features of some focal and diffuse vascular lesions, which have been classified by their clinical history and physical exam, and further labeled as a vascular tumor or slow-flow versus high-flow vascular malformation based on the updated classification system proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. The recent advances in knowledge regarding the biology of these vascular anomalies have led to increased awareness of the current nomenclature. Moreover, with better understanding of the imaging features, the radiologist has become a key player in the multidisciplinary approach offered at various institutions where appropriate treatment algorithms and interventional strategies are put together. This is crucial in avoiding misdiagnosis and improper management. PMID:25045332

  9. Clinical Utility of Chest Computed Tomography in Patients with Rib Fractures CT Chest and Rib Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Brandon C.; Overbey, Douglas M.; Tesfalidet, Feven; Schramm, Kristofer; Stovall, Robert T.; French, Andrew; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Burlew, Clay C.; Barnett, Carlton; Moore, Ernest E.; Pieracci, Fredric M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chest CT is more sensitive than a chest X-ray (CXR) in diagnosing rib fractures; however, the clinical significance of these fractures remains unclear. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the added diagnostic use of chest CT performed after CXR in patients with either known or suspected rib fractures secondary to blunt trauma. Methods Retrospective cohort study of blunt trauma patients with rib fractures at a level I trauma center that had both a CXR and a CT chest. The CT finding of ≥ 3 additional fractures in patients with ≤ 3 rib fractures on CXR was considered clinically meaningful. Student’s t-test and chi-square analysis were used for comparison. Results We identified 499 patients with rib fractures: 93 (18.6%) had CXR only, 7 (1.4%) had chest CT only, and 399 (79.9%) had both CXR and chest CT. Among these 399 patients, a total of 1,969 rib fractures were identified: 1,467 (74.5%) were missed by CXR. The median number of additional fractures identified by CT was 3 (range, 4 - 15). Of 212 (53.1%) patients with a clinically meaningful increase in the number of fractures, 68 patients underwent one or more clinical interventions: 36 SICU admissions, 20 pain catheter placements, 23 epidural placements, and 3 SSRF. Additionally, 70 patients had a chest tube placed for retained hemothorax or occult pneumothorax. Overall, 138 patients (34.5%) had a change in clinical management based upon CT chest. Conclusions The chest X-ray missed ~75% of rib fractures seen on chest CT. Although patients with a clinical meaningful increase in the number of rib fractures were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit, there was no associated improvement in pulmonary outcomes. PMID:28144607

  10. Reader characteristics linked to detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs: ROC vs. JAFROC analyses of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Akshay; Robinson, John W.; Ryan, John; McEntee, Mark F.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether reader characteristics are linked to heightened levels of diagnostic performance in chest radiology using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and jackknife free response ROC (JAFROC) methodologies. A set of 40 postero-anterior chest radiographs was developed, of which 20 were abnormal containing one or more simulated nodules, of varying subtlety. Images were independently reviewed by 12 boardcertified radiologists including six chest specialists. The observer performance was measured in terms of ROC and JAFROC scores. For the ROC analysis, readers were asked to rate their degree of suspicion for the presence of nodules by using a confidence rating scale (1-6). JAFROC analysis required the readers to locate and rate as many suspicious areas as they wished using the same scale and resultant data were used to generate Az and FOM scores for ROC and JAFROC analyses respectively. Using Pearson methods, scores of performance were correlated with 7 reader characteristics recorded using a questionnaire. JAFROC analysis showed that improved reader performance was significantly (p<=0.05) linked with chest specialty (p<0.03), hours per week reading chest radiographs (p<0.03) and chest readings per year (p<0.04). ROC analyses demonstrated only one significant relationship, hours per week reading chest radiographs (p<0.02).The results of this study have shown that radiologist's performance in the detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs is significantly linked to chest specialty, hours reading per week and number of radiographs read per year. Also, JAFROC is a more powerful predictor of performance as compared to ROC.

  11. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  12. A Rare Case of Hamartoma Chest Wall Following Trauma in a 42-year-old Man

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Mojtaba; Pour, Asghar Alie; Hosseini, Peyman Khadem; Hashemian, Amir Masoud; Ahmadi, Koorosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma (CWH) is a distinct and extremely rare tumor-like lesion of the thorax. It usually presents in the neonatal period or in infancy. The common presentation is in the form of a visible chest wall mass with or without respiratory distress. Case presentation: A 42-year-old man with a history of chest wall trauma since 5 years ago was admitted with a swelling of the anterior of the chest wall and during this period has grown slowly. Physical examination showed a left anterior chest wall deformity. Chest radiographs and chest CT showed a left anterolateral chest wall mass involving the fourth and fifth ribs. Thoracotomy was performed. The tumor and involved ribs were resected with a 5cm safe margin. The histopathologic examination showed hamartoma. The patient has been fallowed up since 60 month ago, and has not had any complaints in this time. Result: Despite the rarity of chest wall hematoma, this side effect must always be taken into consideration while studying the chest wall injuries especially in the case of trauma history due to other differential diagnosis and her side effects such as respiratory problems. Conclusion: Although rare, this condition ought to be kept in mind while dealing with hamartoma Chest wall following trauma in order to avoid its complications such as respiratory problems. Surgical excision is usually curative in combination with conservative therapy if possible. PMID:27994306

  13. Aspects of chest imaging in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cascade, P N; Kazerooni, E A

    1994-04-01

    Timely performance and accurate interpretation of portable chest radiographs in the ICU setting are fundamental components of quality care. Teamwork between intensive care clinicians and radiologists is necessary to assure that the appropriate studies, of high technical quality, are obtained. By working together to integrate available clinical information with systematic comprehensive analysis of images, accurate diagnoses can be made, optimal treatment instituted, and successful outcomes optimized.

  14. Chest X-Ray

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Anal Cancer Facet Joint Block Video: Lung Cancer Screening Video: Upper GI Tract X-ray Video: ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  15. Non-Cardiac Chest Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... No other specific risk factors have been identified. Diagnosis What do I do if I’ve been treated for chest pain, but told I didn’t have a heart attack? Patients suffering from chest pain must have thorough ...

  16. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matos, António P.; Mascarenhas, Vasco; Herédia, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall. PMID:25295188

  17. Multidetector computer tomography: evaluation of blunt chest trauma in adults.

    PubMed

    Palas, João; Matos, António P; Mascarenhas, Vasco; Herédia, Vasco; Ramalho, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  18. Radiographic total lung capacity determination aided by a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Bencowitz, H A; Shigeoka, J W

    1980-11-01

    This report describes a method that was used to determine total lung capacity from routine chest radiographs, using a programmable calculator to facilitate computation. The results correlated closely with those obtained by a computerized method. The technique was rapid, inexpensive (the necessary equipment cost less than $400), and could be used in any pulmonary laboratory or office. The program is listed, and an example provided.

  19. Weld radiograph enigmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemian, Wartan A.

    1986-01-01

    Weld radiograph enigmas are features observed on X-ray radiographs of welds. Some of these features resemble indications of weld defects, although their origin is different. Since they are not understood, they are a source of concern. There is a need to identify their causes and especially to measure their effect on weld mechanical properties. A method is proposed whereby the enigmas can be evaluated and rated, in relation to the full spectrum of weld radiograph indications. Thie method involves a signature and a magnitude that can be used as a quantitive parameter. The signature is generated as the diference between the microdensitometer trace across the radiograph and the computed film intensity derived from a thickness scan along the corresponding region of the sample. The magnitude is the measured difference in intensity between the peak and base line values of the signature. The procedure is demonstated by comparing traces across radiographs of a weld sample before and after the introduction of a hole and by a system based on a MacIntosh mouse used for surface profiling.

  20. Role of Cross Sectional Imaging in Isolated Chest Wall Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Shantiranjan; Sharma, Barun K.; Prakash, Arjun; Dhingani, Dhabal D.; Bora, Karobi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Isolated chest wall tuberculosis though a rare entity, the incidence of it has been on rise among immunocompromised population making it an important challenging diagnosis for the physicians. Its clinical presentation may resemble pyogenic chest wall abscess or chest wall soft tissue tumour. Sometimes it is difficult to detect clinically or on plain radiograph. Aim The present study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the common sites and varying appearances of isolated chest wall tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in Assam Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary care centre in North East India. The study group comprise of 21 patients (n=15 male and n=6 females) with isolated chest wall tuberculosis without associated pulmonary or spinal involvement who were subjected to Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CT/MRI) of the thorax following initial Ultrasonogram (USG) evaluation of the local site. Pathological correlation was done from imaging guided sampling of the aspirate or surgery. Results Variable sites of involvement were seen in the chest wall in our patients (n=21), with chest wall abscess formation being the most common presentation and rib being the most common bony site affected in the thoracic cage. Bony sclerosis was noted in 11 patients (52.4%), periosteal reaction in 10 patients (47.6%) and sequestration in five patients (23.8%). CT/MRI not only localized the exact site and extent of the abscesses which facilitated guided aspirations, but also helped in detecting typical bony lesions thereby, differentiating from pyogenic osteomyelitis besides ruling out associated pulmonary or pleural involvement in such patients. Conclusion Cross-sectional imaging plays an important role by giving a wholesome picture of both soft tissue and bony pathology. It is important to have adequate understanding of the radiologic manifestations of the chest wall involvement and

  1. Significant efficiency findings while controlling for the frequent confounders of CAI research in the PlanAlyzer project's computer-based, self-paced, case-based programs in anemia and chest pain diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lyon, H C; Healy, J C; Bell, J R; O'Donnell, J F; Shultz, E K; Wigton, R S; Hirai, F; Beck, J R

    1991-04-01

    Richard E. Clark in his widely published comprehensive studies and meta-analyses of the literature on computer assisted instruction (CAI) has decried the lack of carefully controlled research, challenging almost every study which shows the computer-based intervention to result in significant post-test proficiency gains over a non-computer-based intervention. We report on a randomized study in a medical school setting where the usual confounders found by Clark to plague most research, were carefully controlled. PlanAlyzer is a microcomputer-based, self-paced, case-based, event-driven system for medical education which was developed and used in carefully controlled trials in a second year medical school curriculum to test the hypothesis that students with access to the interactive programs could integrate their didactic knowledge more effectively and/or efficiently than with access only to traditional textual "nonintelligent" materials. PlanAlyzer presents cases, elicits and critiques a student's approach to the diagnosis of two common medical disorders: anemias and chest pain. PlanAlyzer uses text, hypertext, images and critiquing theory. Students were randomized, one half becoming the experimental group who received the interactive PlanAlyzer cases in anemia, the other half becoming the controls who received the exact same content material in a text format. Later in each year there was a crossover, the controls becoming the experimentals for a similar intervention with the cardiology PlanAlyzer cases. Preliminary results at the end of the first two full trials shows that the programs have achieved most of the proposed instructional objectives, plus some significant efficiency and economy gains. 96 faculty hours of classroom time were saved by using PlanAlyzer in their place, while maintaining high student achievement. In terms of student proficiency and efficiency, the 328 students in the trials over two years were able to accomplish the project's instructional

  2. Role of HRCT Chest in Post Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Suspected of Pulmonary Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R Ravi; Sharma, Ajay; Pannu, S K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stem cell transplantation is today’s procedure of choice for management of various hematopoietic malignant and severe immunogenic disorders. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a common technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary complications in stem cell transplant recipients. There are a large number of complications which can complicate the post-transplant period. Aim To study the role of HRCT chest in stem cell transplant patients developing pulmonary complications, detect any evidence of infection, detect clinical signs of lung infections, Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) or other regimen related toxicities outlined earlier, detect any evidence of GvHD and correlate these clinical signs with radiological changes in the lungs. Materials and Methods The study was a prospective study of 52 participants with indication of stem cell transplantation. The study included recipients of HSCT transplant and the exclusion criteria was patients who failed for engraftment and having an associated history of pulmonary embolism. Patients were screened for pre-transplant chemotherapy, clinical examination, laboratory investigations including blood and biochemical examinations, imaging by ultrasound, chest radiography, baseline HRCT and a follow-up for post-transplant infections and complications with 16 slice Siemens CT scan. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results Four patients among the total 56 were excluded due to non-engraftment. The most common associated findings in decreasing order are (these patients died): consolidation, pancytopenia and gastrointestinal tract symptoms with VOD (Veno-Occlusive Disease). These findings were seen on HRCT as consolidation, cavities, ground glass opacities, fibrotic changes, bronchiectatic changes and tree in bud appearance. Conclusion The study highlights the significant positive findings on the HRCT which were missed on routine chest radiograph and can be used for early diagnoses

  3. Angina - when you have chest pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain; ACS - chest pain; Heart attack - chest pain; Myocardial infarction - chest pain; MI - chest pain ... AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: executive summary: a report of the American College ...

  4. Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle of the left lung (seen on the ... defined borders. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include lung abscesses, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic ...

  5. Suppression of translucent elongated structures: applications in chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Hogeweg, Laurens; Sanchez, Clara I; van Ginneken, Bram

    2013-11-01

    Projection images, such as those routinely acquired in radiological practice, are difficult to analyze because multiple 3-D structures superimpose at a single point in the 2-D image. Removal of particular superimposed structures may improve interpretation of these images, both by humans and by computers. This work therefore presents a general method to isolate and suppress structures in 2-D projection images. The focus is on elongated structures, which allows an intensity model of a structure of interest to be extracted using local information only. The model is created from profiles sampled perpendicular to the structure. Profiles containing other structures are detected and removed to reduce the influence on the model. Subspace filtering, using blind source separation techniques, is applied to separate the structure to be suppressed from other structures. By subtracting the modeled structure from the original image a structure suppressed image is created. The method is evaluated in four experiments. In the first experiment ribs are suppressed in 20 artificial radiographs simulated from 3-D lung computed tomography (CT) images. The proposed method with blind source separation and outlier detection shows superior suppression of ribs in simulated radiographs, compared to a simplified approach without these techniques. Additionally, the ability of three observers to discriminate between patches containing ribs and containing no ribs, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), reduced from 0.99-1.00 on original images to 0.75-0.84 on suppressed images. In the second experiment clavicles are suppressed in 253 chest radiographs. The effect of suppression on clavicle visibility is evaluated using the clavicle contrast and border response, showing a reduction of 78% and 34%, respectively. In the third experiment nodules extracted from CT were simulated close to the clavicles in 100 chest radiographs. It was found that after

  6. Test of radiologist performance in interpreting bedside chest examinations on a workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Nelson, Martha C.; Reagan, Kathleen; Horii, Steven C.; Mun, Seong K.

    1992-05-01

    A book cassette containing both a conventional film-screen radiographic system (FR) and a phosphor storage radiographic plate (SR) was used to obtain simultaneous bedside chest images in 22 patients in the Post Operative Cardiac and Surgical Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Twenty-five potential findings of normal structures, lung and pleural disease, and life support devices were recorded for each image in a five point rating format. The FR images are all considered of good diagnostic quality. The original FR films, the laser digitized FR images (DF) displayed on a workstation (WS), and the SR images displayed on a WS were compared. The WS viewing was on a 1 K X 1.2 K, 8 bit monitor. Free adjustment of window level, window width, and black-white inversion was allowed. Magnification allowed access to the 2 K data set. ROC analysis supports the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the diagnostic yield of good quality bedside obtained FR, DF made from good quality FR viewed on a workstation, and SR viewed on a workstation. Analysis of the subset of interstitial and airspace edema indicated that readers gave higher scores for interstitial disease on the WS for both false positive and true positive findings.

  7. TU-CD-BRA-11: Application of Bone Suppression Technique to Inspiratory/expiratory Chest Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, R; Sanada, S; Sakuta, K; Kawashima, H; Kishitani, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The bone suppression technique based on advanced image processing can suppress the conspicuity of bones on chest radiographs, creating soft tissue images normally obtained by the dual-energy subtraction technique. This study was performed to investigate the usefulness of bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of pulmonary function in inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography. Methods: Commercial bone suppression image processing software (ClearRead; Riverain Technologies) was applied to paired inspiratory/expiratory chest radiographs of 107 patients (normal, 33; abnormal, 74) to create corresponding bone suppression images. The abnormal subjects had been diagnosed with pulmonary diseases, such as pneumothorax, pneumonia, emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. After recognition of the lung area, the vectors of respiratory displacement were measured in all local lung areas using a cross-correlation technique. The measured displacement in each area was visualized as displacement color maps. The distribution pattern of respiratory displacement was assessed by comparison with the findings of lung scintigraphy. Results: Respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings (soft tissues) was able to be quantified separately from the rib movements on bone suppression images. The resulting displacement map showed a left-right symmetric distribution increasing from the lung apex to the bottom region of the lung in many cases. However, patients with ventilatory impairments showed a nonuniform distribution caused by decreased displacement of pulmonary markings, which were confirmed to correspond to area with ventilatory impairments found on the lung scintigrams. Conclusion: The bone suppression technique was useful for quantitative analysis of respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings without any interruption of the rib shadows. Abnormal areas could be detected as decreased displacement of pulmonary markings. Inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography combined

  8. Comparison Of Digital Radiographic Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yen

    1986-06-01

    A total PACS will be inevitable for radiology practice within several years. To achieve a total PACS for radiology, a satisfactory digital radiographic unit is required, because approximately 65% of digital data for PACS comes from digital radiographs. There are several possibilities for producing digital radiographs, and 3 - 4 companies have been marketing digital radiographic devices. Some data regarding the digital radiographic units on the market are compared. It will aid in assessing the current status and availability of this aspect of development, as well as providing a summary of further development of digital radiographic technology.

  9. Neutron radiographic viewing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leysath, W.; Brown, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Neutron radiographic viewing system consisting of camera head and control processor is developed for use in nondestructive testing applications. Camera head consists of neutron-sensitive image intensifier system, power supply, and SEC vidicon camera head. Both systems, with their optics, are housed on test mount.

  10. Susuk - black magic exposed "white" by dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    F, Arishiya Thapasum; Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-07-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was "exposed" by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a "hidden secret" thereby avoiding misdiagnosis.

  11. Viewing Another Person's Eye Movements Improves Identification of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest X-Ray Inspection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Damien; Ball, Linden J.; Donovan, Tim; Manning, David J.; Crawford, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Double reading of chest x-rays is often used to ensure that fewer abnormalities are missed, but very little is known about how the search behavior of others affects observer performance. A series of experiments investigated whether radiographers benefit from knowing where another person looked for pulmonary nodules, and whether the expertise of…

  12. Comparison of Computed Tomography and Chest Radiography in the Detection of Rib Fractures in Abused Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Walton, John W.; Rosas, Angela J.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Rogers, Kristen K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Chest radiographs (CXR) are the standard method for evaluating rib fractures in abused infants. Computed tomography (CT) is a sensitive method to detect rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare CT and CXR in the evaluation of rib fractures in abused infants. Methods: This retrospective study included all 12 abused infants…

  13. Outpatient radiographic exposure in the first five years of life

    SciTech Connect

    Fosarelli, P.D.; DeAngelis, C.

    1987-06-01

    Young children receive a variety of diagnostic radiographs over time. In some cases the exposure to radiation may be unwarranted because the films may yield confusing results, or may also need to be repeated because of poor technical quality. Even when the results are clearly negative, the subsequent treatment may proceed as if the film had been positive because of the child's clinical condition. The cumulative effect of such low-dose radiation on infants and children over time is unknown. The number and types of outpatient radiographs received by a cohort of poor children from a hospital-based continuity clinic during their first 5 years of life were reviewed. Also noted were the reason for obtaining the film, whether it was positive for that reason or another, whether the child had a chronic condition that prompted the use of radiograph, and the child's sex, race, and age when the film was obtained. Of the 218 children, 132 (60.6%) received 349 sets of films in their first 5 years. There was no difference in the number of films by race or sex. Chest and posttrauma bone or joint films accounted for 315 sets of films or 90.3% of the total. Overall, 25.8% of the 267 chest films were positive; this varied by age. Only 15% of the chest films were positive in the first year compared with 29 to 49% in the second through fifth years (p less than 0.001). Cough was the respiratory symptom most reliably associated with a positive chest film, both for the cohort (p less than 0.0001) and for children in the first year of life (p less than 0.01).

  14. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  15. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzler, Daniel E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Ewert, Uwe E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Müller, Christina E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-31

    The radiographic testing (RT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method capable of finding volumetric and open planar defects depending on their orientation. The radiographic contrast is higher for larger penetrated length of the defect in a component. Even though, the detectability of defects does not only depend on the contrast, but also on the noise, the defect area and the geometry of the defect. The currently applied Probability of Detection (POD) approach uses a detection threshold that is only based on a constant noise level or on a constant contrast threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the lateral area and shape of the indication. This work shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data of different defect types, such as ASTM E 476 EPS plates, flat bottom holes and notches. Additional experiments with different operators confirm that the depth of a defect, the lateral area and shape of its indication contribute with different weight to the detectability of the defect if evaluated by human operators on monitors.

  16. A rare cause of misdiagnosis in chest X-ray

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Chest X-ray is a usual tool for family physicians; however, unexpected findings in chest X-ray are a frequent challenge. We present a rare case of pulmonary hilar nodule misdiagnosis in a chest X-ray. An 84-year-old woman was sent with a diagnosis of a right pulmonary hilum nodule. She had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; so in a chest X-ray, her family physician discovered a “nodule” in her right lung hilum. Her physical exam was not relevant. In our hospital, a thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan verified the mass in the right pulmonary hilum; nevertheless, in a coronal CT scan, the “hilum lump” was the tortuous descending aorta that created an angle. This case illustrates how anatomical changes associated with vascular aging may cause this exceptional pitfall in chest X-ray. PMID:28217605

  17. Radiologists remember mountains better than radiographs, or do they?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Karla K.; Marom, Edith M.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.; Palacio, Diana; Sagebiel, Tara; Cuellar, Sonia Betancourt; McEntee, Mark; Tian, Charles; Brennan, Patrick C.; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists’ memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists’ memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes. Radiologists’ memory was better than novices for images of expertise but no different for everyday scenes. With the heterogeneity of image sets equated, radiologists’ expertise with radiographs afforded them better memory for the musculoskeletal radiographs than forest scenes. Enhanced memory for images of expertise disappeared over time, resulting in chance level performance for both image sets after weeks of delay. Expertise with the material is important for visual memorability but not to the same extent as idiosyncratic detail and variability of the image set. Similar memory decline with time for images of expertise as for everyday scenes further suggests that extended familiarity with an image is not a robust factor for visual memorability. PMID:26870748

  18. Radiologists remember mountains better than radiographs, or do they?

    PubMed

    Evans, Karla K; Marom, Edith M; Godoy, Myrna C B; Palacio, Diana; Sagebiel, Tara; Cuellar, Sonia Betancourt; McEntee, Mark; Tian, Charles; Brennan, Patrick C; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2016-01-01

    Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists' memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists' memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes. Radiologists' memory was better than novices for images of expertise but no different for everyday scenes. With the heterogeneity of image sets equated, radiologists' expertise with radiographs afforded them better memory for the musculoskeletal radiographs than forest scenes. Enhanced memory for images of expertise disappeared over time, resulting in chance level performance for both image sets after weeks of delay. Expertise with the material is important for visual memorability but not to the same extent as idiosyncratic detail and variability of the image set. Similar memory decline with time for images of expertise as for everyday scenes further suggests that extended familiarity with an image is not a robust factor for visual memorability.

  19. Radiographic appearance of confirmed pulmonary lymphoma in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Nicole E; Reichle, Jean K; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro; Williams, Jamie; Goggin, Justin M; Leach, Lesley; Hanson, Jennifer; Hill, Steve; Axam, Tasha

    2010-01-01

    Herein we describe the thoracic radiographic appearance of confirmed pulmonary lymphoma. Patients with thoracic radiographs and cytologically or histologically confirmed pulmonary lymphoma were sought by contacting American College of Veterinary Radiology members. Seven cats and 16 dogs met the inclusion criteria, ranging in age from 4 to 15 years. Method of diagnosis was via ultrasound-guided cytology (four), surgical biopsy (two), ultrasound-guided biopsy (one), and necropsy (16). Radiographic findings varied but ranged from normal (one) to alveolar (six) and/or unstructured interstitial infiltrates (11), nodules and/or masses (eight), and bronchial infiltrates (four). Additional thoracic radiographic findings included pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. The results of this evaluation indicate a wide variability in thoracic radiographic abnormalities in cats and dogs with pulmonary lymphoma.

  20. Pulmonary imaging of pandemic influenza H1N1 infection: relationship between clinical presentation and disease burden on chest radiography and CT

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, L; Quartin, A; Morris, M I; Saigal, G; Ariza-Heredia, E; Mariani, P; Rodriguez, O; Muñoz-Price, L S; Ferrada, M; Ramee, E; Rosas, M I; Gonzalez, I A; Fishman, J

    2010-01-01

    The potential for pulmonary involvement among patients presenting with novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) is high. To investigate the utility of chest imaging in this setting, we correlated clinical presentation with chest radiographic and CT findings in patients with proven H1N1 cases. Subjects included all patients presenting with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 between 1 May and 10 September 2009 to one of three urban hospitals. Clinical information was gathered retrospectively, including symptoms, possible risk factors, treatment and hospital survival. Imaging studies were re-read for study purposes, and CXR findings compared with CT scans when available. During the study period, 157 patients presented with subsequently proven H1N1 infection. Hospital admission was necessary for 94 (60%) patients, 16 (10%) were admitted to intensive care and 6 (4%) died. An initial CXR, carried out for 123 (78%) patients, was abnormal in only 40 (33%) cases. Factors associated with increased likelihood for radiographic lung abnormalities were dyspnoea (p<0.001), hypoxaemia (p<0.001) and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.023). Chest CT was performed in 21 patients, and 19 (90%) showed consolidation, ground-glass opacity, nodules or a combination of these findings. 4 of 21 patients had negative CXR and positive CT. Compared with CT, plain CXR was less sensitive in detecting H1N1 pulmonary disease among immunocompromised hosts than in other patients (p = 0.0072). A normal CXR is common among patients presenting to the hospital for H1N1-related symptoms without evidence of respiratory difficulties. The CXR may significantly underestimate lung involvement in the setting of immunosuppression. PMID:20551254

  1. Findings from an evaluation of PlanAlyzer's double cross-over trials of computer-based, self-paced, case-based programs in anemia and chest pain diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, H. C.; Healy, J. C.; Bell, J. R.; O'Donnell, J. F.; Shultz, E. K.; Wigton, R. S.; Hirai, F.; Beck, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    We report on three years of research trials of the PlanAlyzer I Project--a carefully controlled research study using a microcomputer-based, self-paced, case-based, event-driven system for medical education. PlanAlyzer presents cases, elicits and critiques a second year student's approach to the diagnosis of anemias and chest pain. PlanAlyzer uses text, hypertext, images and critiquing theory. Students were randomized, one half becoming the experimental group who received the interactive PlanAlyzer cases in anemia, the other half becoming the controls who received the exact same content material in a text format. Later in each year there was a crossover, the controls becoming the experimentals for a similar intervention with the cardiology PlanAlyzer cases. Results at the end of the first two years of trials show that the programs have achieved some significant efficiency and economy gains. 96 faculty hours of classroom time were saved by using PlanAlyzer in their place, with no loss in student achievement. In terms of student proficiency and efficiency, combining the anemia and cardiology trials, the 328 students in the two years of full scale trials were able to accomplish the project's instructional objectives. The experimentals accomplished this in 43% less time than the controls. On the average, for both the anemia and chest pain programs, this amounted to students spending 7.5 hours longer on the 30 text cases than on the same 30 computer cases to achieve the same level of mastery. There have been no significant proficiency differences (as measured by current post-tests) between the experimental and control groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1807738

  2. Talc: understanding its manifestations in the chest.

    PubMed

    Feigin, D S

    1986-02-01

    Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. The first form, talcosilicosis, is caused by talc mined with high-silica-content mineral. Findings in this form are identical with those of silicosis. Talcoasbestosis closely resembles asbestosis and is produced by crystalline talc, generally inhaled with asbestos fibers. Pathologic and radiographic abnormalities are virtually identical with those of asbestosis, including calcifications and malignant tumor formation. The third form, talcosis, caused by inhalation of pure talc, may include acute or chronic bronchitis as well as interstitial inflammation; radiographically, it appears as interstitial reticulations or small, irregular nodules, typical of small-airway obstruction. The fourth form, due to intravenous administration of talc, is usually associated with abuse of oral medications and production of vascular granulomas manifested by consolidations, large nodules, and masses. Radiographic abnormalities associated with talc can be predicted when there is sufficient history of the nature of exposure, including the region of origin of the talc in cases of inhalation. Radiographic changes, such as diaphragmatic plaques, often attributed to both talc and asbestos have not been documented to be caused by talc alone. The author provides review of 18 well-documented cases.

  3. Respiratory distress in newborn: evaluation of chest X-rays.

    PubMed

    Roggini, M; Pepino, D; D'Avanzo, M; Andreoli, G M; Ceccanti, S; Capocaccia, P

    2010-06-01

    We discuss the anatomic and pathophysiological patterns of preterm and term newborn. Particular attention is directed to technical artefacts relating to the interpretation of chest radiography. We analyze the reading of chest X-Ray of preterm with low birth weight and poor lung maturation. Are also taken into account X-Ray features relating to alveolar "recruitment" and radiographic changes after surfactant's administration. We highlight the most important paintings of bruncopulmonary dysplasia and its evolution. The most frequent neonatal pulmonary inflammation and thoraco-pulmonary malformation, that may affect more the neonatologist, are mentioned. We discuss the new diagnostic approach with non invasive techniques (ultrasound) in the neonatal distress. Some easily recognizable congenital heart disease are finally describes.

  4. Algorithm of chest wall keloid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xiao; Zhang, Mingzi; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Ru; Wang, Youbin; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Keloids are common in the Asian population. Multiple or huge keloids can appear on the chest wall because of its tendency to develop acne, sebaceous cyst, etc. It is difficult to find an ideal treatment for keloids in this area due to the limit of local soft tissues and higher recurrence rate. This study aims at establishing an individualized protocol that could be easily applied according to the size and number of chest wall keloids. A total of 445 patients received various methods (4 protocols) of treatment in our department from September 2006 to September 2012 according to the size and number of their chest wall keloids. All of the patients received adjuvant radiotherapy in our hospital. Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was used to assess the treatment effect by both doctors and patients. With mean follow-up time of 13 months (range: 6–18 months), 362 patients participated in the assessment of POSAS with doctors. Both the doctors and the patients themselves used POSAS to evaluate the treatment effect. The recurrence rate was 0.83%. There was an obvious significant difference (P < 0.001) between the before-surgery score and the after-surgery score from both doctors and patients, indicating that both doctors and patients were satisfied with the treatment effect. Our preliminary clinical result indicates that good clinical results could be achieved by choosing the proper method in this algorithm for Chinese patients with chest wall keloids. This algorithm could play a guiding role for surgeons when dealing with chest wall keloid treatment. PMID:27583896

  5. Computer enhancement of radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekaney, A.; Keane, J.; Desautels, J.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of three relevant noise processes and the image degradation associated with Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) X-ray/scanning system was conducted for application to computer enhancement of radiographs using MSFC's digital filtering techniques. Graininess of type M, R single coat and R double coat X-ray films was quantified as a function of density level using root-mean-square (RMS) granularity. Quantum mottle (including film grain) was quantified as a function of the above film types, exposure level, specimen material and thickness, and film density using RMS granularity and power spectral density (PSD). For various neutral-density levels the scanning device used in digital conversion of radiographs was examined for noise characteristics which were quantified by RMS granularity and PSD. Image degradation of the entire pre-enhancement system (MG-150 X-ray device; film; and optronics scanner) was measured using edge targets to generate modulation transfer functions (MTF). The four parameters were examined as a function of scanning aperture sizes of approximately 12.5 25 and 50 microns.

  6. Inflammation and Rupture of a Congenital Pericardial Cyst Manifesting Itself as an Acute Chest Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Benjamin Y.C.; Lufschanowski, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a remote history of supraventricular tachycardia and hyperlipidemia, who presented with recurrent episodes of acute-onset chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed no evidence of acute coronary syndrome. A chest radiograph revealed a prominent right-sided heart border. A suspected congenital pericardial cyst was identified on a computed tomographic chest scan, and stranding was noted around the cyst. The patient was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and the pain initially abated. Another flare-up was treated similarly. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was then performed after symptoms had resolved, and no evidence of the cyst was seen. The suspected cause of the patient's chest pain was acute inflammation of a congenital pericardial cyst with subsequent rupture and resolution of symptoms. PMID:28100978

  7. Incentive spirometry versus routine chest physiotherapy for prevention of pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hall, J C; Tarala, R; Harris, J; Tapper, J; Christiansen, K

    1991-04-20

    We entered 876 patients into a clinical trial aimed at preventing pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery. Patients either received conventional chest physiotherapy or were encouraged to perform maximal inspiratory manoeuvres for 5 min during each hour while awake, using an incentive spirometer. The incidence of pulmonary complications did not differ significantly between the groups: incentive spirometry 68 of 431 (15.8%, 95% CI 14.0-17.6%), and chest physiotherapy 68 of 445 (15.3%, CI 13.6-17.0%). Nor was there a difference between the groups in the incidence of positive clinical signs, pyrexia, abnormal chest radiographs, pathogens in sputum, respiratory failure (PO2 less than 60 mm Hg), or length of stay in hospital. We conclude that prophylactic incentive spirometry and chest physiotherapy are of equivalent clinical efficacy in the general management of patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  8. Male chest enhancement: pectoral implants.

    PubMed

    Benito-Ruiz, J; Raigosa, J M; Manzano-Surroca, M; Salvador, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the pectoral muscle implant for male chest enhancement in 21 patients. The markings and technique are thoroughly described. The implants used were manufactured and custom made. The candidates for implants comprised three groups: group 1 (18 patients seeking chest enhancement), group 2 (1 patient with muscular atrophy), and group 3 (2 patients with muscular injuries). Because of the satisfying results obtained, including significant enhancement of the chest contour and no major complications, this technique is used for an increasing number of male cosmetic surgeries.

  9. Cervical angina: an overlooked source of noncardiac chest pain.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Walter I; Makovitch, Steven A; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I; Phadke, Jayant

    2015-01-01

    Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina.

  10. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively.

  11. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  12. Textbook of radiographic science

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    This book has been written to provide an outline of scientific background of specialized radiologic procedures for candidates studying for the higher examination of the College of Radiographers (United Kingdom). The book contains nine chapters on various areas such as emergency/trauma; pediatrics; neurologic, angiographic, and urodynamic studies; and a final chapter on research. An index concludes the book. Information on historical and scientific procedural background, equipment, anatomic and pathologic correlates, and positioning of the patient is organized and presented. Scientific data are inserted in the text where appropriate. Metrizamide is given an extensive write-up as the contrast medium of choice for imaging of the spinal cord and is said to be ''less toxic than other forms of water-soluble contrast.''

  13. Dynamic Radiographic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, A.; Turley, D.; Veeser, L.; Lukyanov, N.; Yegorov, N.; Baker, S.A.; Mirenko, V.; Lewis, W.; Kuropatkin, Y.

    1999-06-01

    A radiographic system recently developed by American and Russian collaborators is designed to capture multiple images of a dynamic event lasting less than 10 microseconds. Various optical and electro-optical components were considered and their performance compared. The final system employed a solid crystal of lutetium oxyorthosilicate doped with cerium (LSO:Ce or LSO) for X-ray-to-light conversion with a coherent fiber optic bundle to relay the scintillator image to a streak camera with charge coupled device (CCD) readout. Resolution and sensitivity studies were carried out for this system on two different sources of X-rays: a 20 MeV microtron and a 70 MeV betatron.

  14. Chest drainage systems in use

    PubMed Central

    Zisis, Charalambos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Lazaridis, George; Lampaki, Sofia; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A chest tube is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space or mediastinum. It is used to remove air in the case of pneumothorax or fluid such as in the case of pleural effusion, blood, chyle, or pus when empyema occurs from the intrathoracic space. It is also known as a Bülau drain or an intercostal catheter. Insertion of chest tubes is widely performed by radiologists, pulmonary physicians and thoracic surgeons. Large catheters or small catheters are used based on each situation that the medical doctor encounters. In the current review we will focus on the chest drain systems that are in use. PMID:25815304

  15. American College of Chest Physicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 10, 2017 CHEST Foundation and Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research campaign aims to raise awareness of little-known condition, sarcoidosis To coincide with National Sarcoidosis Awareness Month in ...

  16. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back Pain? Other Reasons for Having an X-ray What ... rays? What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the use of X-rays to determine ...

  17. Pitfalls and variants in pediatric chest imaging.

    PubMed

    García Asensio, D; Fernández Martín, M

    2016-05-01

    Most pitfalls in the interpretation of pediatric chest imaging are closely related with the technique used and the characteristics of pediatric patients. To obtain a quality image that will enable the correct diagnosis, it is very important to use an appropriate technique. It is important to know how technical factors influence the image and to be aware of the possible artifacts that can result from poor patient cooperation. Moreover, radiologists need to be familiar with the normal anatomy in children, with the classic radiologic findings, and with the anatomic and developmental variants to avoid misinterpreting normal findings as pathological.

  18. Chest CT Features of North American Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Travis S.; Lane, Michael A.; Weil, Gary J.; Bailey, Thomas C.; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to characterize the chest CT findings of North American paragonimiasis due to Paragonimus kellicotti in the largest (to our knowledge) case series reported to date and to compare the findings with those reported for paragonimiasis infections in other regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review was performed of chest CT examinations of eight patients with North American paragonimiasis treated at our institution between 2006 and 2010. Findings were characterized by site of involvement, including lungs and pleura, heart and pericardium, lymph nodes, and upper abdomen. RESULTS The most common chest CT findings in this case series were pleural effusions and internal mammary and cardiophrenic lymphadenopathy. Pulmonary parenchymal findings included peripheral lung nodules of 1–3.5 cm in size with surrounding ground-glass opacity; many nodules had a linear track to the pleural surface that may correspond to the worm’s burrow tunnel. Pericardial involvement (5/8 patients) and omental inflammation (5/7 patients), which are uncommon in Asian paragonimiasis, were common in this series. CONCLUSION Pleural and pulmonary features of North American paragonimiasis are generally similar to those reported from Asia. The presence of a track between a pulmonary nodule and the pleura may help distinguish paragonimiasis from mimickers, including chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, tuberculosis, fungal infection, or malignancy. Pericarditis, lymphadenopathy, and omental inflammation were more common in our series than in reports on paragonimiasis from other regions. These differences may be related to the infecting parasite species or to the fact that radiologic examinations in the present series were performed relatively early in the course of infection. PMID:22528896

  19. Diagnostic implications of Ga-67 chest-scan patterns in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.H.; Garay, S.M.; Grossman, R.J.; Tiu, S.; Banner, H.

    1989-03-01

    Consecutive gallium-67 scans (n = 237) of 180 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients with suspected pulmonary infections were evaluated for intensity and pattern of gallium distribution. Scan findings were correlated with the history, chest radiographic findings, and clinicopathologic diagnoses. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) occurred significantly more often with heterogeneous diffuse uptake than with homogeneous diffuse uptake. Heterogeneous diffuse uptake had an 87% positive predictive value for PCP, which was higher than that of other patterns. Localized pulmonary uptake was most commonly due to bacterial pneumonia or PCP; ill-defined, perihilar uptake, to cytomegalovirus or PCP; and focal (lymph node) uptake, to tuberculosis or lymphoma. The positive predictive value of any pulmonary uptake for lung pathology was 93%, and the negative predictive value of a negative scan was 96%. These findings confirm the utility of gallium scanning in the detection of lung pathology related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, particularly PCP. Furthermore, identification of a diffuse pattern may permit the use of a less invasive test more specifically directed at the confirmation of a diagnosis of PCP.

  20. Newer imaging methods in chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Wandtke, J C

    1990-01-01

    In recent years the application of computers to chest radiography has resulted in a wide variety of innovative research. Major research efforts have resulted in the development of new types of x-ray detectors, such as storage phosphor technology, for use with computers. Storage phosphor imaging is one of the most promising new techniques, and almost 100 systems have been installed worldwide. Radiologists are quickly evaluating the image quality provided by this new detector system, which has the potential to improve image quality. It has wide latitude and is coupled with a computer to perform image processing. Another promising technology, originally studied in the form of scan equalization radiography, is now commercially available in the form of advanced multiple-beam equalization radiography. This film technique uses computers to modulate the x-ray exposure to take maximum advantage of the imaging capabilities of radiographic film. Digital solid-state detectors have been studied in conjunction with computerized image enhancement systems. These currently show improvement in nodule detection and quantification of the calcium content of a lesion. Application of large image intensifiers to a digital image system is being studied, but there are currently limitations on spatial resolution.

  1. Progressive dyspnea associated with a crazy-paving appearance on a chest computed tomography scan

    PubMed Central

    Maimon, Nimrod; Paul, Narinder; Downey, Gregory P

    2006-01-01

    A ‘crazy-paving’ appearance of the lungs on computed tomography scanning of the chest was first described nearly 20 years ago in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and was thought to be characteristic of this condition. However, this pattern has subsequently been reported in a variety of pulmonary diseases and is now considered to be nonspecific. The present report describes a case of a 74-year-old man in whom congestive heart failure presented with a crazy-paving appearance of the lungs on a chest computed tomography scan. This uncommon association illustrates the importance of the correlation of clinical and radiographic information. PMID:16896429

  2. Heimlich valve for chest drainage.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, H J

    1983-01-01

    The Heimlich chest drainage valve was developed so that the process of draining the pleural cavity could be accomplished in a safe, relatively simple, and efficient manner. Replacing the cumbersome underwater drainage bottle system, the Heimlich valve connects to chest tubing and allows fluid and air to pass in one direction only. The valve, which functions in any position, need never be clamped, and regulated suction can be attached to it if necessary. The valve drains into a plastic bag that can be held at any level, allowing the patient undergoing chest drainage to be ambulatory simply by carrying the bag. The construction and function of the valve is easily understood by medical and nursing staffs. It is presterilized, stored in a sterile package, and readily utilized on emergency vehicles and in the operating room.

  3. [Chest ultrasonography in pleurapulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gallego Gómez, M P; García Benedito, P; Pereira Boo, D; Sánchez Pérez, M

    2014-01-01

    Although the initial diagnosis and follow-up of pleuropulmonary disease are normally done with plain chest films and the gold standard for chest disease is computed tomography, diverse studies have established the usefulness of chest ultrasonography in the diagnosis of different pleuropulmonary diseases like pleural effusion and lung consolidation, among others. In this article, we show the different ultrasonographic patterns for pleuropulmonary disease. The availability of ultrasonography in different areas (ICU, recovery areas) makes this technique especially important for critical patients because it obviates the need to transfer the patient. Moreover, ultrasonography is noninvasive and easy to repeat. On the other hand, it enables the direct visualization of pleuropulmonary disease that is necessary for interventional procedures.

  4. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  5. Comparison of dual and single exposure techniques in dual-energy chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Ho, J T; Kruger, R A; Sorenson, J A

    1989-01-01

    Conventional chest radiography is the most effective tool for lung cancer detection and diagnosis; nevertheless, a high percentage of lung cancer tumors are missed because of the overlap of lung nodule image contrast with bone image contrast in a chest radiograph. Two different energy subtraction strategies, dual exposure and single exposure techniques, were studied for decomposing a radiograph into bone-free and soft tissue-free images to address this problem. For comparing the efficiency of these two techniques in lung nodule detection, the performances of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of residual tissue contrast, energy separation, and signal-to-noise ratio. The evaluation was based on both computer simulation and experimental verification. The dual exposure technique was found to be better than the single exposure technique because of its higher signal-to-noise ratio and greater residual tissue contrast. However, x-ray tube loading and patient motion are problems.

  6. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  7. Assessment of low-contrast detectability for compressed digital chest images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Larry T.; Insana, Michael F.; McFadden, Michael A.; Hall, Timothy J.; Cox, Glendon G.

    1994-04-01

    The ability of human observers to detect low-contrast targets in screen-film (SF) images, computed radiographic (CR) images, and compressed CR images was measured using contrast detail (CD) analysis. The results of these studies were used to design a two- alternative forced-choice (2AFC) experiment to investigate the detectability of nodules in adult chest radiographs. CD curves for a common screen-film system were compared with CR images compressed up to 125:1. Data from clinical chest exams were used to define a CD region of clinical interest that sufficiently challenged the observer. From that data, simulated lesions were introduced into 100 normal CR chest films, and forced-choice observer performance studies were performed. CR images were compressed using a full-frame discrete cosine transform (FDCT) technique, where the 2D Fourier space was divided into four areas of different quantization depending on the cumulative power spectrum (energy) of each image. The characteristic curve of the CR images was adjusted so that optical densities matched those of the SF system. The CD curves for SF and uncompressed CR systems were statistically equivalent. The slope of the CD curve for each was - 1.0 as predicted by the Rose model. There was a significant degradation in detection found for CR images compressed to 125:1. Furthermore, contrast-detail analysis demonstrated that many pulmonary nodules encountered in clinical practice are significantly above the average observer threshold for detection. We designed a 2AFC observer study using simulated 1-cm lesions introduced into normal CR chest radiographs. Detectability was reduced for all compressed CR radiographs.

  8. Utility of Chest Radiography in Emergency Department Patients Presenting with Syncope

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Matthew L.; Chiu, David; Shapiro, Nathan I; Grossman, Shamai A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syncope has myriad etiologies, ranging from benign to immediately life threatening. This frequently leads to over testing. Chest radiographs (CXR) are among these commonly performed tests despite their uncertain diagnostic yield. The objective is to study the distribution of normal and abnormal chest radiographs in patients presenting with syncope, stratified by those who did or did not have an adverse event at 30 days. Methods We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort of consecutive patients presenting to an urban tertiary care academic medical center with a chief complaint of syncope from 2003–2006. The frequency and findings for each CXR were reviewed, as well as emergency department and hospital discharge diagnoses, and 30-day outcome. Results There were 575 total subjects, 39.7% were male, and the mean age was 57.2 (SD 24.6). Of the 575 subjects, 403 (70.1%) had CXRs performed, and 116 (20.2%) had an adverse event after their syncope. Of the 116 people who had an adverse event, 15 (12.9%) had a positive CXR, 81 (69.8%) had a normal CXR, and 20 (17.2%) did not have a CXR as part of the initial evaluation. Among the 459 people who did not have an adverse event, 3 (0.7%) had a positive CXR, 304 (66.2%) had a normal CXR, and 152 (33.1%) did not have a CXR performed. Fifteen of the 18 patients (83.4%) with an abnormal CXR had an adverse event. Eighty-one of the 385 patients (21.0%) with a normal CXR had an adverse event. Among those who had a CXR performed, an abnormal CXR was associated with increased odds of adverse event (OR: 18.77 (95% CI= [5.3–66.4])). Conclusion Syncope patients with abnormal CXRs are likely to experience an adverse event, though the majority of CXRs performed in the work up of syncope are normal. PMID:27833675

  9. Reconstruction of chest wall defects.

    PubMed

    Hasse, J

    1991-12-01

    A series of 61 consecutive procedures of chest wall resection and reconstruction in 58 patients during the period between August, 1986 and December, 1990 is reported. The ages ranged between 6-77 years. The chest wall resection was indicated for malignant affections in 54 cases. Among these, there were 24 patients with bronchial carcinoma invading the chest wall, 17 patients with primary or metastatic sarcoma, 11 patients with recurrent breast cancer and 3 with cancer metastases of varying origin. Pulmonary resection included pneumonectomy in 8 cases, lobectomy in 19, segmental and wedge resections in 26. In the majority of resections, the reconstruction was accomplished without implants. In cases with full thickness removal of the chest wall, the plane of the rib cage and/or the sternum was reconstructed using Vicryl mesh (n = 7), PTFE soft tissue patch (n = 11), marlex-mesh (n = 1), or methyl-methacrylate (n = 3). There was one case of hospital mortality, 6 weeks postoperatively, due to neurological failure from an independent preoperatively undiagnosed brain tumor. There were 4 reoperations: one early and one late (4 months) infection, one case of limited superficial necrosis of a flap and one with chronic lymphous drainage from a large myocutaneous flap. In no instance was primary postoperative ventilation therapy necessary. Mechanical ventilation was instituted only on day 8 in the patient who accounts for the mortality in this series. In the presence of primary infection, the greater omentum was used for the restoration of the integument.

  10. Device Assists Cardiac Chest Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichstadt, Frank T.

    1995-01-01

    Portable device facilitates effective and prolonged cardiac resuscitation by chest compression. Developed originally for use in absence of gravitation, also useful in terrestrial environments and situations (confined spaces, water rescue, medical transport) not conducive to standard manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques.

  11. Radiographically Severe but Clinically Mild Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema following Decompression of a Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Harner, William E.; Crawley, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    The case is a 48-year-old female who presented with mild dyspnea on exertion and cough with unremarkable vital signs and was found to have a large right sided pneumothorax. She underwent small bore chest tube decompression with immediate reexpansion of the collapsed lung. However, she rapidly developed moderate hypoxemia and radiographic evidence of reexpansion pulmonary edema (REPE) on both the treated and contralateral sides. Within a week, she had a normal chest X-ray and was asymptomatic. This case describes a rare complication of spontaneous pneumothorax and highlights the lack of correlation between symptoms, sequelae, and radiographic severity of pneumothorax and reexpansion pulmonary edema. Proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms include increased production of reactive oxygen species with subsequent loss of surfactant and increased vascular permeability, and loss of vasoregulatory tone. PMID:25165607

  12. Radiographic appearance of the sternomanubrial joint in arthritis and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Parker, V S; Malhotra, C M; Ho, G; Kaplan, S R

    1984-11-01

    The sternomanubrial joint (SMJ) was evaluated on the lateral chest radiograph in 177 patients with rheumatic disease and 69 non-rheumatic controls. Abnormalities were categorized as inflammatory changes, proliferative changes, or bone fusion. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or gout were found to have an increased incidence of inflammatory changes. Rheumatoid variants predisposed to early fusion of the SMJ. Patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) exhibited massive and unique hyperostotic changes.

  13. Tonsillolith: a panoramic radiograph presentation.

    PubMed

    Babu B, Balaji; Tejasvi M L, Avinash; Avinash, C K Anulekha; B, Chittaranjan

    2013-10-01

    Tonsilloliths are calcifications within a tonsillar crypt, involve primarily the palatine tonsil caused by dystrophic calcification as a result of chronic inflammation. Tonsilloliths are very uncommon and are microscopic. Tonsillar concretions sometimes produce symptoms which include non-specific chronic halitosis, irritable cough, dysphagia, otalgia and foreign body-like sensation or foul taste. Patients with tonsillolithiasis may also be asymptomatic, with their lesions being discovered incidentally on panoramic radiographs. This article presents an unusual case of multiple bilateral and asymptomatic tonsilloliths which were found during a routine panoramic radiographic examination.

  14. The Electrocardiogram of an ER Patient With Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, Arunkumar; Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2011-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is an essential investigation in the evaluation of chest pain in the emergency room (ER). Correct interpretation of the ECG findings, determines the diagnosis and management strategy. This ECG spot diagnosis will improve the skills of the residents and physicians working in ER.

  15. Radiographic abnormalities and mortality in subjects with exposure to crocidolite.

    PubMed Central

    de Klerk, N H; Musk, A W; Cookson, W O; Glancy, J J; Hobbs, M S

    1993-01-01

    Plain chest radiographs from a one in six random sample of the workforce of the asbestos industry at Wittenoom, Western Australia between 1943 and 1966 have been classified for degree of profusion and pleural thickening by two independent observers according to the 1980 UICC-ILO Classification of Radiographs for the pneumoconioses to clarify the effect of degree of radiological abnormality on survival. A total of 1106 subjects were selected. Each subject's age, cumulative exposure to crocidolite, and time since first exposure were determined from employment records, the results of a survey of airborne concentrations of fibres > 5 mu in length conducted in 1966, and an exposure rating by an industrial hygienist and an ex-manager of the mine and mill at Wittenoom. By the end of 1986 193 subjects had died. Conditional logistic regression was used to model the relative risk of death in five separate case-control analyses in which the outcomes were deaths from: (1) all causes, (2) malignant mesothelioma, (3) lung cancer, (4) asbestosis, and (5) other causes excluding cancer and asbestosis. Up to 20 controls per case were randomly chosen from all men of the same age who were not known to have died before the date of death of the index case. After adjustment for exposure and time since first exposure, there were significant and independent effects of radiographic profusion and pleural thickening on all cause mortality. The effect of profusion was largely a result of the effect on mortality from malignant mesothelioma and asbestosis but not lung cancer. The effect of pleural thickening was greatest on mortality from other causes, mainly ischaemic heart disease. This study has shown that degree of radiographic abnormality has an independent effect on mortality from malignant mesothelioma, asbestosis, and all causes even after allowing for the effects of age, degree of exposure, and time since first exposure. PMID:8217849

  16. [Cardiac causes of chest pain].

    PubMed

    Wächter, C; Markus, B; Schieffer, B

    2017-01-01

    Because of the life-threatening character and a high prevalence in emergency rooms, cardiac causes are important differential diagnoses of acute chest pain with the need for rapid clarification. In this context the working diagnosis "acute coronary syndrome" (ACS) plays a major role. In a synopsis of the clinical presentation, medical history, electrocardiogram and analysis of cardiac biomarkers, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina pectoris can be specified as entities of ACS. The treatment of ACS consists of an immediate anti-ischemic therapy, anti-thrombotic therapy and invasive coronary diagnostics with subsequent interventional or operative revascularization therapy. The timing of invasive management is essentially determined by the individual patient risk, with the exception of STEMI where interventional revascularization must be undertaken within 120 min of diagnosis. In this context the GRACE 2.0 and TIMI risk score have become established as reliable tools. Another rare but fatal cause of acute chest pain is aortic dissection. An abrupt onset of tearing and sharp chest pains, deficits in pulse as well as the presence of high-risk factors, such as advanced age, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, known collagenosis and previous aortic or coronary artery procedures are highly indicative for aortic dissection and additional diagnostic imaging and the highly sensitive D‑dimer should be undertaken. Additionally, inflammatory diseases, such as pericarditis and myocarditis can be associated with chest pains and mimic the character of ACS and should also be considered in the differential diagnostics.

  17. Dual-source CT for chest pain assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Alexander; Leber, Alexander W.; Rist, Carsten; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Christoph R.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive CT angiography protocols offering a simultaneous evaluation of pulmonary embolism, coronary stenoses and aortic disease are gaining attractiveness with recent CT technology. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a specific dual-source CT protocol for chest pain assessment. One hundred nine patients suffering from acute chest pain were examined on a dual-source CT scanner with ECG gating at a temporal resolution of 83 ms using a body-weight-adapted contrast material injection regimen. The images were evaluated for the cause of chest pain, and the coronary findings were correlated to invasive coronary angiography in 29 patients (27%). The files of patients with negative CT examinations were reviewed for further diagnoses. Technical limitations were insufficient contrast opacification in six and artifacts from respiration in three patients. The most frequent diagnoses were coronary stenoses, valvular and myocardial disease, pulmonary embolism, aortic aneurysm and dissection. Overall sensitivity for the identification of the cause of chest pain was 98%. Correlation to invasive coronary angiography showed 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value for coronary stenoses. Dual-source CT offers a comprehensive, robust and fast chest pain assessment. PMID:18034246

  18. [The management of chest injuries].

    PubMed

    Reshad, K; Hirata, T; Itoi, K; Takahashi, Y; Muro, K

    1989-10-01

    The mortality from chest injuries is so high due to severe physiologic imbalance that an immediate and accurate diagnosis of the injured organ and prompt treatment can salvage the patient from the strategy. This study comprises 1329 injured cases including 145 patients with crushed chests. The cause of injury was traffic accident in 537 cases (40.5%), fall or degradation in 332 cases (25%). There was a correlation between the cause of injury and age, as that traffic accident was a major one in young aged and fall in elders. Treatment against crushed patients included 150 surgical operations, 206 plaster bandages, 56 drainage of thoracic, peritoneal and cranial cavities. Thoracotomies performed in patients with flail chest (2), lung contusion (4), rupture of the bronchi and diaphragm (each 1) and for evacuation of clotted hemothorax in 3 patients. The prognosis of all these patients was good. Lastly we conclude that since the prognosis of injured patients depends on how fast the patient can be carried to the hospital and how quickly the physician or surgeon can evaluate the trauma and institute a prompt treatment, the education of the primary staff is the most important.

  19. System for definition of the central-chest vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate definition of the central-chest vasculature from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. For instance, the aorta and pulmonary artery help in automatic definition of the Mountain lymph-node stations for lung-cancer staging. This work presents a system for defining major vascular structures in the central chest. The system provides automatic methods for extracting the aorta and pulmonary artery and semi-automatic methods for extracting the other major central chest arteries/veins, such as the superior vena cava and azygos vein. Automatic aorta and pulmonary artery extraction are performed by model fitting and selection. The system also extracts certain vascular structure information to validate outputs. A semi-automatic method extracts vasculature by finding the medial axes between provided important sites. Results of the system are applied to lymph-node station definition and guidance of bronchoscopic biopsy.

  20. Chest wall reconstruction after extended resection

    PubMed Central

    Seder, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive chest wall resection and reconstruction is a challenging procedure that requires a multidisciplinary approach, including input from thoracic surgeons, plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and radiation oncologists. The primary goals of any chest wall reconstruction is to obliterate dead space, restore chest wall rigidity, preserve pulmonary mechanics, protect intrathoracic organs, provide soft tissue coverage, minimize deformity, and allow patients to receive adjuvant radiotherapy. Successful chest wall reconstruction requires the re-establishment of skeletal stability to prevent chest wall hernias, avoids thoracoplasty-like contraction of the operated side, protects underlying viscera, and maintain a cosmetically-acceptable appearance. After skeletal stability is established, full tissue coverage can be achieved using direct closure, skin grafts, local advancement flaps, pedicled myocutaneous flaps, or free flaps. This review examines the indications for chest wall reconstruction and describes techniques for establishment of chest wall rigidity and soft tissue coverage. PMID:27942408

  1. Reference for radiographic film interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Reference of X-ray film images provides examples of weld defects, film quality, stainless steel welded tubing, and acceptable weld conditions. A summary sheet details the discrepancies shown on the film strip. This reference aids in interpreting and evaluating radiographic film of weldments.

  2. Improved radiographic image amplifier panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L., Sr.

    1968-01-01

    Layered image amplifier for radiographic /X ray and gamma ray/ applications, combines very high radiation sensitivity with fast image buildup and erasure capabilities by adding a layer of material that is both photoconductive and light-emitting to basic image amplifier and cascading this assembly with a modified Thorne panel.

  3. Chemical intensification of dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.

    1983-04-01

    The potential applications of chemical intensification in dental radiography are explored. Three standard photographic intensifiers and three methods designed for radiographic use are evaluated. One of these methods is shown to be capable of reducing radiation dose to one half, without loss of diagnostic quality. Further work is necessary to achieve a system sufficiently practicable to deserve widespread use in routine clinical dental radiography.

  4. Development of pulmonary blood flow evaluation method with a dynamic flat-panel detector: quantitative correlation analysis with findings on perfusion scan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Fujimura, Masaki; Yasui, Masahide; Hayashi, Norio; Tsuji, Shiro; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Nanbu, Yuko; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary blood flow is reflected in dynamic chest radiographs as changes in X-ray translucency, i.e., pixel values. Thus, decreased blood flow should be observed as a reduction of the variation of X-ray translucency. We performed the present study to investigate the feasibility of pulmonary blood flow evaluation with a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Sequential chest radiographs of 14 subjects were obtained with a dynamic FPD system. The changes in pixel value in each local area were measured and mapped on the original image by use of a gray scale in which small and large changes were shown in white and black, respectively. The resulting images were compared to the findings in perfusion scans. The cross-correlation coefficients of the changes in pixel value and radioactivity counts in each local area were also computed. In all patients, pulmonary blood flow disorder was indicated as a reduction of changes in pixel values on the mapping image, and a correlation was observed between the distribution of changes in pixel value and those in radioactivity counts (0.7 chest radiography.

  5. Comparison of patient specific dose metrics between chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT for adult patients of wide ranging body habitus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yakun; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Given the radiation concerns inherent to the x-ray modalities, accurately estimating the radiation doses that patients receive during different imaging modalities is crucial. This study estimated organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices for the three clinical chest x-ray imaging techniques (chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT) using 59 anatomically variable voxelized phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation methods. Methods: A total of 59 computational anthropomorphic male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) adult phantoms were used in this study. Organ doses and effective doses were estimated for a clinical radiography system with the capability of conducting chest radiography and tomosynthesis (Definium 8000, VolumeRAD, GE Healthcare) and a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). A Monte Carlo dose simulation program (PENELOPE, version 2006, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) was used to mimic these two clinical systems. The Duke University (Durham, NC) technique charts were used to determine the clinical techniques for the radiographic modalities. An exponential relationship between CTDI{sub vol} and patient diameter was used to determine the absolute dose values for CT. The simulations of the two clinical systems compute organ and tissue doses, which were then used to calculate effective dose and risk index. The calculation of the two dose metrics used the tissue weighting factors from ICRP Publication 103 and BEIR VII report. Results: The average effective dose of the chest posteroanterior examination was found to be 0.04 mSv, which was 1.3% that of the chest CT examination. The average effective dose of the chest tomosynthesis examination was found to be about ten times that of the chest posteroanterior examination and about 12% that of the chest CT examination. With increasing patient average chest diameter, both the effective dose and risk index for CT increased considerably in an exponential fashion, while these two dose

  6. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  11. Radiographic techniques for investigating cereal grains

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    Radiographic examination of cereal grain can determine nondestructively the presence of internal structural damage and other defects, which can be correlated to associated problems such as disease and infestation. Radiographs of several representative grains demonstrate the capabilities of the radiographic technique to detect structural deviations in the grains.

  12. Accuracy and Reliability of Postoperative Radiographic Evaluation of First Metatarsal-Phalangeal Joint Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Kelly M; Meyr, Andrew J

    2017-03-03

    The clinical value of routine postoperative radiographic evaluation after orthopedic procedures has recently been called into question. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the ability of foot and ankle surgeons to accurately and reliably assess postoperative radiographs after first metatarsal-phalangeal joint arthrodesis. Thirty sets of digital radiographs from 11 patients who had undergone first metatarsal-phalangeal joint arthrodesis were retrospectively evaluated by 5 podiatric physicians board-certified in foot surgery. The surgeons were asked to answer several questions, including whether the radiograph appeared to be >4 or <4 postoperative weeks; whether the radiograph appeared to be >8 or <8 postoperative weeks; their estimation of the postoperative week; and whether they would allow the patient to begin weightbearing based on the radiographic findings. With respect to whether the radiographs were >4 or <4 postoperative weeks, surgeons made accurate assessments 63.33% of the time (95 of 150; range 56.67% to 73.33%), with a kappa of 0.220. With respect to whether the radiographs were >8 or <8 postoperative weeks, surgeons made accurate assessments 60.0% of the time (90 of 150; range 53.33% to 70.0%), with a kappa of 0.203. With respect to the estimation of the postoperative week of the radiograph, surgeons accurately assessed the radiographs within a 4-week period 34.0% of the time (54 of 150; range 26.67% to 46.67%), with a kappa of 0.425. With respect to allowing the patient to bear weight according to the radiographic findings, the surgeons were in complete agreement 26.67% of the time (8 of 30), with a kappa of 0.251. These results provide evidence against the serial routine use of postoperative radiographs for the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint arthrodesis in the absence of a specific clinical indication.

  13. An atypical cause of atypical chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Zaheen, Ahmad; Siemieniuk, Reed A; Gudgeon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The present report describes a case involving a 57-year-old HIV-positive man who presented with acute retrosternal chest pain accompanied by 24 h of fever. Septic arthritis of the manubriosternal joint was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance imaging findings in addition to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. To the authors’ knowledge, the present case is only the 12th reported case of manubriosternal septic arthritis, and the first in an HIV-positive patient. Early diagnosis and treatment can circumvent the need for surgical intervention. Based on the present case report and review of the literature, the authors summarize the epidemiology, appropriate imaging and suggestions for antibiotic therapy for this rare presentation. PMID:25371686

  14. Noncardiac chest pain: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Schey, Ron; Villarreal, Autumn; Fass, Ronnie

    2007-04-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is very common, affecting up to 25% of the adult population in the United States. Treatment for NCCP has markedly evolved in the past decade and is presently focused on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and visceral hypersensitivity. Aggressive treatment with proton pump inhibitors has become the standard of care for GERD-related NCCP. Pain modulators such as tricyclics, trazodone, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are considered the mainstay of therapy for non-GERD-related NCCP Other therapeutic modalities such as botulinum toxin injections and hypnotherapy have demonstrated promise in small clinical trials.

  15. [Chest modelling and automotive accidents].

    PubMed

    Trosseille, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Automobile development is increasingly based on mathematical modeling. Accurate models of the human body are now available and serve to develop new means of protection. These models used to consist of rigid, articulated bodies but are now made of several million finite elements. They are now capable of predicting some risks of injury. To develop these models, sophisticated tests were conducted on human cadavers. For example, chest modeling started with material characterization and led to complete validation in the automobile environment. Model personalization, based on medical imaging, will permit studies of the behavior and tolerances of the entire population.

  16. Measurement of Clavicle Fracture Shortening Using Computed Tomography and Chest Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Omid, Reza; Kidd, Chris; Villacis, Diego; White, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonoperative management of midshaft clavicle fractures has resulted in widely disparate outcomes and there is growing evidence that clavicle shortening poses the risk of unsatisfactory functional outcomes due to shoulder weakness and nonunion. Unfortunately, the literature does not clearly demonstrate the superiority of one particular method for measuring clavicle shortening. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of clavicle shortening measurements based on plain radiographs with those based on computed tomography (CT) reconstructed images of the clavicle. Methods A total of 51 patients with midshaft clavicle fractures who underwent both a chest CT scan and standardized anteroposterior chest radiography on the day of admission were included in this study. Both an orthopedic surgeon and a musculoskeletal radiologist measured clavicle shortening for all included patients. We then determined the accuracy and intraclass correlation coefficients for the imaging modalities. Bland-Altman plots were created to analyze agreement between the modalities and a paired t-test was used to determine any significant difference between measurements. Results For injured clavicles, radiographic measurements significantly overestimated the clavicular length by a mean of 8.2 mm (standard deviation [SD], ± 10.2; confidence interval [CI], 95%) compared to CT-based measurements (p < 0.001). The intraclass correlation was 0.96 for both plain radiograph- and CT-based measurements (p = 0.17). Conclusions We found that plain radiograph-based measurements of midshaft clavicle shortening are precise, but inaccurate. When clavicle shortening is considered in the decision to pursue operative management, we do not recommend the use of plain radiograph-based measurements. PMID:27904717

  17. 42 CFR 37.42 - Chest radiograph specifications-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must conform to the following components of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard (incorporated by reference, see § 37.10): (A) DICOM Standard PS 3.3-2011, Annex A—Composite... Grayscale Softcopy Presentation State Information Object Definition. (B) DICOM Standard PS3.4-2011, Annex...

  18. 42 CFR 37.42 - Chest radiograph specifications-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard (incorporated by reference, see § 37.10): (A) DICOM Standard PS 3.3-2011, Annex A—Composite Information Object Definitions, sections: Computed... Object Definition. (B) DICOM Standard PS3.4-2011, Annex B—Storage Service Class; Annex...

  19. [Delayed hemothorax due to blunt chest trauma].

    PubMed

    Saito, Gaku; Sakaizawa, Takao; Takasuna, Keiichiro; Eguchi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Nobutaka; Hyougotani, Akira; Hamanaka, Kazutoshi; Shiina, Takayuki; Kurai, Makoto; Kondo, Ryouichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Amano, Jun

    2010-03-01

    We report 2 cases of delayed hemothorax due to blunt chest trauma. A 48-year-old man who fell down and got a blow at the right chest had a checkup with a 1st aid outpatient. By the X-rays at the time of the 1st examination, the hemothorax was not noted. The next day, He has been transported to our hospital for atypical absence. Hemothorax was suggested by computed tomography (CT) and chest drainage was enforced. A 79-year-old man got a blow at the anterior chest by traffic accident and had a checkup in the 1st hospital. The abnormality was not recognized in the chest CT at that time. For the left hemiparesis, he was transported to our hospital the next day. Hemothorax was suggested by CT and chest drainage was enforced.

  20. HADES, A Radiographic Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B.; Slone, D.M.; Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    2000-08-18

    We describe features of the HADES radiographic simulation code. We begin with a discussion of why it is useful to simulate transmission radiography. The capabilities of HADES are described, followed by an application of HADES to a dynamic experiment recently performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. We describe quantitative comparisons between experimental data and HADES simulations using a copper step wedge. We conclude with a short discussion of future work planned for HADES.

  1. Non-Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Eshed, Iris

    2015-12-01

    The term non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nrAxSpA) was coined for patients who have a clinical picture of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but do not exhibit radiographic sacroiliitis. The ASAS classification criteria for nrAxSpA, ensuring the recruitment of homogenous study cohorts, were accepted in 2009, although the respective diagnostic criteria for daily clinical practice have not yet been developed. The clinical diagnosis should be based on the composite of clinical symptoms and signs of the disease, HLA B27 status, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sacroiliac joints. Notably, a negative MRI or HLA B27 does not exclude the diagnosis in patients with a high clinical suspicion for nrAxSpA. The prevalence of nrAxSpA is similar to that of AS, but the former has a higher female preponderance. The rate of progression of nrAxSpA to the radiographic stage of disease (AS) ranges from 10% to 20% over 2 years. Current treatment strategies for nrAxSpA are the same as for AS and include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. While this review summarizes the current achievements in the field of nrAxSpA, further understanding of the epidemiology and natural history of the disease and, particularly, mechanisms of inflammation and subsequent new bone formation is essential for the development of new treatment strategies for nrAxSpA patients.

  2. Hydatid disease of the chest

    PubMed Central

    Xanthakis, D.; Efthimiadis, M.; Papadakis, G.; Primikirios, N.; Chassapakis, G.; Roussaki, A.; Veranis, N.; Akrivakis, A.; Aligizakis, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Ninety-one cases of hydatid disease of the chest are reported. Eighty-eight were involving the lung, two the chest wall, and one the mediastinum. All the patients were treated surgically. Conservative operations (simple removal of the parasite and closure of the remaining cavity) were performed in 78 patients, 37 unruptured and 41 ruptured cysts. Late postoperative complications occurred in eleven. In 10 patients, recurrent haemoptysis was the main symptom due to residual cavity in four, bronchiectatic changes in two, and unknown aetiology in four. In one patient, recurrence of multiple cysts occurred in the affected lobe. Radical operations were carried out in 10 patients, including segmental resection in four and lobectomy in six. Conservative operations were performed in all cases of unruptured cysts, with the exception of a giant cyst in which resection was the operation of choice. For ruptured cysts with mild infection conservative operation was also performed. Resection was necessary only in patients with ruptured cysts with suppuration, bronchiectatic changes, and giant cysts replacing a whole lobe. There was no mortality. We believe that conservative operation is the treatment of choice for hydatid disease of the lung. Indications for resection are very limited. Images

  3. Breathing chest radiography using a dynamic flat-panel detector combined with computer analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Suzuki, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Matsui, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Yoshihisa, Nakano

    2004-08-01

    Kinetic information is crucial when evaluating certain pulmonary diseases. When a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD) can be used for a chest examination, kinetic information can be obtained simply and cost-effectively. The purpose of this study was to develop methods for analyzing respiratory kinetics, such as movement of the diaphragm and lung structures, and the respiratory changes in x-ray translucency in local lung fields. Postero-anterior dynamic chest radiographs during respiration were obtained with a modified FPD, which provided dynamic chest radiographs at a rate of 3 frames/s. Image registration for correction of physical motion was followed by measurement of the distance from the lung apex to the diaphragm. Next, we used a cross-correlation technique to measure the vectors of respiratory movement in specific lung areas. Finally, the average pixel value for a given local area was calculated by tracing the same local area in the lung field. This method of analysis was used for six healthy volunteers and one emphysema patient. The results reported here represent the initial stage in the development of a method that may constitute a new method for diagnosing certain pulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibroid lung, and pneumonia. A clinical evaluation of our method is now in progress.

  4. Dynamic chest radiography with a flat-panel detector (FPD): ventilation-perfusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Fujimura, M.; Yasui, M.; Tsuji, S.; Hayashi, N.; Okamoto, H.; Nanbu, Y.; Matsui, O.

    2011-03-01

    Pulmonary ventilation and blood flow are reflected in dynamic chest radiographs as changes in X-ray translucency, i.e., pixel values. This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) study based on the changes in pixel value. Sequential chest radiographs of a patient with ventilation-perfusion mismatch were obtained during respiration using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD) system. The lung area was recognized and average pixel value was measured in each area, tracking and deforming the region of interest. Inter-frame differences were then calculated, and the absolute values were summed in each respiratory phase. The results were visualized as ventilation, blood flow, V/Q ratio distribution map and compared to distribution of radioactive counts on ventilation and perfusion scintigrams. In the results, abnormalities were appeared as a reduction of changes in pixel values, and a correlation was observed between the distribution of changes in pixel value and those of radioactivity counts (Ventilation; r=0.78, Perfusion; r=0.77). V/Q mismatch was also indicated as mismatch of changes in pixel value, and a correlation with V/Q calculated by radioactivity counts (r=0.78). These results indicated that the present method is potentially useful for V/Q study as an additional examination in conventional chest radiography.

  5. Quantitative analysis of rib kinematics based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Sakuta, Keita; Kawashima, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    An image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs has been developed. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 16 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector and processed to create bone images by using commercial software (Clear Read BS, Riverain Technologies). Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as a reduced rib velocity field, resulting in an asymmetrical distribution of rib movement. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left/right symmetric distributions of the velocity field, whereas those in abnormal cases showed asymmetric distributions because of locally limited rib movements. Dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements. The present method has a potential for an additional functional examination in chest radiography.

  6. Relevant surgical anatomy of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Babu V; Rajesh, Pala B

    2010-11-01

    The chest wall, like other regional anatomy, is a remarkable fusion of form and function. Principal functions are the protection of internal viscera and an expandable cylinder facilitating variable gas flow into the lungs. Knowledge of the anatomy of the whole cylinder (ribs, sternum, vertebra, diaphragm, intercostal spaces, and extrathoracic muscles) is therefore not only important in the local environment of a specific chest wall resection but also in its relation to overall function. An understanding of chest wall kinematics might help define the loss of function after resection and the effects of various chest wall substitutes. Therefore, this article is not an exhaustive anatomic description but a focused summary and discussion.

  7. Chest wall hypoplasia--principles and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Oscar Henry

    2015-01-01

    The chest is a dynamic structure. For normal movement it relies on a coordinated movement of the multiple bones, joints and muscles of the respiratory system. While muscle weakness can have clear impact on respiration by decreasing respiratory motion, so can conditions that cause chest wall hypoplasia and produce an immobile chest wall. These conditions, such as Jarcho-Levin and Jeune syndrome, present significantly different challenges than those faced with early onset scoliosis in which chest wall mechanics and thoracic volume may be much closer to normal. Because of this difference more aggressive approaches to clinical and surgical management are necessary.

  8. Penetrating wounds to the anterior chest. Analysis of thoracotomy and laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Borlase, B C; Metcalf, R K; Moore, E E; Manart, F D

    1986-12-01

    This study of the records of 193 consecutive patients admitted for penetrating anterior chest wounds was carried out to specifically define the need for emergent thoracotomy or laparotomy. The mechanism of injury was a stab wound in 119 patients and a gunshot wound in 74 patients. Seventy-three of the patients (38 percent) required either early thoracotomy (21 percent) or laparotomy (17 percent). In the upper chest region, 83 percent of the operations were thoracotomies, whereas in the lower chest region, 81 percent were laparotomies. Pericardial tamponade, chest tube output, and hypovolemic shock comprised 91 percent of the decisive signs for thoracotomy. The predominant reason for laparotomy was diagnostic peritoneal lavage (63 percent of patients). Plain abdominal roentgenograms were helpful to confirm diaphragmatic missile traverse. Our findings support selective operative management of anterior chest wounds as guided by injury mechanism and entrance location.

  9. Validation of a novel technique for creating simulated radiographs using computed tomography datasets.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Patricia; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Carmel, Eric N; Fournier, Eric; Mai, Wilfried; Alexander, Kate; Winter, Matthew D; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Thrall, Donald E; Theoret, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Understanding radiographic anatomy and the effects of varying patient and radiographic tube positioning on image quality can be a challenge for students. The purposes of this study were to develop and validate a novel technique for creating simulated radiographs using computed tomography (CT) datasets. A DICOM viewer (ORS Visual) plug-in was developed with the ability to move and deform cuboidal volumetric CT datasets, and to produce images simulating the effects of tube-patient-detector distance and angulation. Computed tomographic datasets were acquired from two dogs, one cat, and one horse. Simulated radiographs of different body parts (n = 9) were produced using different angles to mimic conventional projections, before actual digital radiographs were obtained using the same projections. These studies (n = 18) were then submitted to 10 board-certified radiologists who were asked to score visualization of anatomical landmarks, depiction of patient positioning, realism of distortion/magnification, and image quality. No significant differences between simulated and actual radiographs were found for anatomic structure visualization and patient positioning in the majority of body parts. For the assessment of radiographic realism, no significant differences were found between simulated and digital radiographs for canine pelvis, equine tarsus, and feline abdomen body parts. Overall, image quality and contrast resolution of simulated radiographs were considered satisfactory. Findings from the current study indicated that radiographs simulated using this new technique are comparable to actual digital radiographs. Further studies are needed to apply this technique in developing interactive tools for teaching radiographic anatomy and the effects of varying patient and tube positioning.

  10. Simulation of radiographic images for quality and dose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Mark P.

    A software package, Virtual Photographic Radiographic Imaging Simulator (ViPRIS), has been developed for optimizing x-ray radiographic imaging. A tomographic phantom, VIP-Man, constructed from Visible Human anatomical color images is used to simulate the scattered portion of an x-ray system and to compute organ doses using the ESGnrc Monte Carlo code. The primary portion of an x-ray image is simulated using the projection ray-tracing method through the Visible Human CT data set. To produce a realistic image, the software simulates quantum noise, blurring effects, lesions, detector absorption efficiency, and other imaging artifacts. The primary and scattered portions of an x-ray chest image are combined to form a final image for observer studies using computerized simulated observers. Absorbed doses in organs and tissues of the segmented VIP-Man phantom were also obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations to derive effective dose, which is a radiation risk indicator. Approximately 2000 simulated images and 200,000 vectorized image data files were analyzed using ROC/AUC analysis. Results demonstrated the usefulness of this approach and the software for studying x-ray image qualify and radiation dose.

  11. A clinical and radiographic study of coir workers.

    PubMed Central

    Uragoda, C G

    1975-01-01

    Processing of coir, which is the fibre obtained from the husk of the coconut, is a dusty procedure; 779 workers in two coir processing factories in Sri Lanka were examined clincally and radiographically for evidence of respiratory disease. Respiratory symptoms were present in 20 (2-6%) of them, which is no higher than in the general population. Respiratory disease such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, byssinosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis which may occur from occupational exposures were considered, but there was no evidence to suggest a definite association between these conditions and coir dust. Twenty-two workers had abnormal chest radiographs, but when compared with a control group of 591 workers from an engineering firm where lesions were found in 20 cases, there was no significant difference. In the opinion of the medical officer, management and workers of the large factory investigated, coir dust does not produce any respiratory disability. The chemical composition of coir dust is similar to that of sisal which is also relatively inert. PMID:1125129

  12. Incidentally detected breast lesions on chest CT with US correlation: a pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jung Hee; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Song, Jong Woon; Baek, Hye Jin; Doo, Kyung Won; Kim, Woogyeong; Kim, Yeon Mee; Kim, Woon Won; Lee, Jung Sun; Cho, Een Young

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing use of computed tomography (CT), incidental breast lesions are detected more frequently. When interpreting chest CT findings, it is important for radiologists to carefully review the breast to recognize any abnormal findings that could affect patient management. The purpose of this study is to discuss incidental breast lesions on chest CT with ultrasonography correlation that may be encountered in routine clinical practice. PMID:27707680

  13. High-Throughput Classification of Radiographs Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Rajkomar, Alvin; Lingam, Sneha; Taylor, Andrew G; Blum, Michael; Mongan, John

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to determine if computer vision techniques rooted in deep learning can use a small set of radiographs to perform clinically relevant image classification with high fidelity. One thousand eight hundred eighty-five chest radiographs on 909 patients obtained between January 2013 and July 2015 at our institution were retrieved and anonymized. The source images were manually annotated as frontal or lateral and randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets. Training and validation sets were augmented to over 150,000 images using standard image manipulations. We then pre-trained a series of deep convolutional networks based on the open-source GoogLeNet with various transformations of the open-source ImageNet (non-radiology) images. These trained networks were then fine-tuned using the original and augmented radiology images. The model with highest validation accuracy was applied to our institutional test set and a publicly available set. Accuracy was assessed by using the Youden Index to set a binary cutoff for frontal or lateral classification. This retrospective study was IRB approved prior to initiation. A network pre-trained on 1.2 million greyscale ImageNet images and fine-tuned on augmented radiographs was chosen. The binary classification method correctly classified 100 % (95 % CI 99.73-100 %) of both our test set and the publicly available images. Classification was rapid, at 38 images per second. A deep convolutional neural network created using non-radiological images, and an augmented set of radiographs is effective in highly accurate classification of chest radiograph view type and is a feasible, rapid method for high-throughput annotation.

  14. Evaluation of routine postoperative chest roentgenogram for determination of the correct position of permanent central venous catheters tip

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Fereshteh; Hekmatnia, Ali; Shahabi, Javad; Keshavarzian, Amir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proper placement of central venous catheter (CVC) tip could reduce early and late catheter-related complications. Although the live fluoroscopy is standard of care for placement of the catheter, it is not available in many centers. Therefore, the present study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of bedside chest X-ray (CXR) for proper positioning of the catheter tip. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled CVC were enrolled in this study during 2010-2012. The catheter tip position was evaluated by postoperative bedside chest radiographs as well as trans-thoracic echocardiogram as definite diagnostic tool. The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium both in CXR or echocardiography. Finally, CXRs interpreted by expert radiologist. Thus findings were compared by echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The patients were 57.37 ± 18.91 years of age, weighed 65.79 ± 15.58 kg and were 166.36 ± 9.91 cm tall. Sensitivity and specificity of CXR for proper catheter tip position were 74.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.2% and 28%. In addition accuracy, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 71.9%, 1.78, and 2.27 respectively. Conclusion: Bedside CXR alone does not reliably predict malpositioning after CVC placement. PMID:25767527

  15. A More Efficient, Radiation-Free Alternative to Systematic Chest X-Ray for the Detection of Embolized Seeds to the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Morrier, Janelle; Chretien, Mario; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Beaulieu, Luc

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a seed-migration detector and to compare its performance to fluoroscopy and postoperative chest radiographs. Methods and Materials: A gamma scintillation survey meter was converted to a seed-migration detector by adding a shield on the probe detection window. The detector response to three {sup 125}I seed activities was characterized for different source-to-detector distances in water. The detector was used to perform a chest evaluation on 737 patients at their first postoperative visit. When the detector showed positive activity, seed migration was confirmed by taking a chest radiograph and by looking at the region with fluoroscopy. Results: One hundred and three patients (14.0%) presented at least one embolized seed. This accounts for 123 of the 39,887 seeds. Eighty-seven, 12, and 4 patients had respectively one, two, and three seed embolization. Compared with the seed-migration detector, detection based on fluoroscopy would have led to 13 false-negative detections (of 103, or 12.6%), and the radiograph would have resulted in 31 or 30.1%. More important, standard chest X-ray would have required a survey and extra radiation dose to lung to 100% of the patients, rather than the 14% who required it. Conclusions: The usual recommendation to perform chest radiographs at the first follow-up visit to scan lungs for embolized seeds should be revised because of the high false-negative rate. Scintillator-based gamma counter detector provides superior detection sensitivity and should be adopted as a standard of practice. Chest X-ray could be limited to documenting cases of positive migration.

  16. Material identification with multichannel radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Noelle; Jimenez, Edward S.; Thompson, Kyle R.

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to validate previous exploratory work done to characterize materials by matching their attenuation profiles using a multichannel radiograph given an initial energy spectrum. The experiment was performed in order to evaluate the effects of noise on the resulting attenuation profiles, which was ignored in simulation. Spectrum measurements have also been collected from various materials of interest. Additionally, a MATLAB optimization algorithm has been applied to these candidate spectrum measurements in order to extract an estimate of the attenuation profile. Being able to characterize materials through this nondestructive method has an extensive range of applications for a wide variety of fields, including quality assessment, industry, and national security.

  17. Radiographic characterization of the os penis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Piola, Valentina; Posch, Barbara; Aghte, Petra; Caine, Abby; Herrtage, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The os penis in the cat has not been described radiographically, as compared with the dog. However, a small linear bony radiopacity is sometimes detected in the perineal area of male cats. We hypothesized that the feline os penis might be visible on survey radiographs of the pelvis, and we aimed to investigate the frequency of its visualization using analog and computed radiography (CR) system. One hundred radiographs of the pelvis of 99 male cats were reviewed retrospectively (50 were obtained with a CR system and 50 with an analog system). Age, breed, neutering status, and reason for presentation were recorded, as well as the visualization of the os penis. An os penis was detected in 19/50 (38%) cats with CR and in eight of 50 (16%) cats with analog radiography; this difference was statistically significant. With CR, the median age of cats with a visible os penis was significantly higher than in cats where the os penis was not seen. In one cat with a visible os penis examined with CR and analog radiography, the os penis was only visible on CR images. The penile tissues were examined histopathologically in one cat and well-differentiated bone was found but there were no pathologic findings detected in surrounding tissues. Thus, the os penis can be detected on radiographs of cats and this should not be mistaken for a pathologic finding such as urolithiasis or dystrophic mineralization.

  18. [Wooden chests for the midwife's equipment].

    PubMed

    Carlén-Nilsson, C

    1993-01-01

    In the museum of medical history in Lund there are several wooden chests containing partly identical instruments apparently belonging to a midwife. The instruments dated from before 1900, e.g. lancets and horn cups for blood-letting, a pewter enema syringe, a wooden stethoscope, a "tobacco pipe" and glass bottles. The use of the tobacco pipe was first puzzling, but it appeared to be a breast reliver. What do we know about the date of the chests? One chest has belonged to Kjersti Nilsdotter, a midwife educated in Lund 1872-1873. Her certificate was in the chest. From Ronnie Hunt, Minnesota we have got information about another chest of the same type. That belonged to Nelly Gustafsson, a midwife educated in Lund probably about 1870. She emigrated to USA and was a practising midwife in Lindstrom, Minnesota from about 1900.

  19. Radiological findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in indigenous patients in Dourados, MS, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Lachi, Tatiana; Nakayama, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the radiological findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in indigenous patients from the city of Dourados, MS, Brazil, according to age and sex. Materials and Methods Chest radiographic images of 81 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, acquired in the period from 2007 to 2010, were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists in consensus for the presence or absence of changes. The findings in abnormal radiographs were classified according to the changes observed and they were correlated to age and sex. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results The individuals’ ages ranged from 1 to 97 years (mean: 36 years). Heterogeneous consolidations, nodules, pleural involvement and cavities were the most frequent imaging findings. Most patients (55/81 or 67.9%) were male, and upper lung and right lung were the most affected regions. Fibrosis, heterogeneous consolidations and involvement of the left lung apex were significantly more frequent in males (p < 0.05). Presence of a single type of finding at radiography was most frequent in children (p < 0.05). Conclusion Based on the hypothesis that indigenous patients represent a population without genetically determined resistance to tuberculosis, the present study may enhance the knowledge about how the pulmonary form of this disease manifests in susceptible individuals. PMID:26543277

  20. The Importance of Esophageal and Gastric Diseases as Causes of Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun Jung; Kim, Nam Su; Lee, Young Ho; Nam, Eun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric chest pain is considered to be idiopathic or caused by benign diseases. This study was to find out how much upper gastrointestinal (UGI) diseases are major causes of chest pain in pediatric patients. Methods The records of 75 children (42 boys and 33 girls, aged 3-17 years old) who have presented with mainly chest pain from January 1995 to March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Chest X-ray and electrocardiography (ECG) were performed in all aptients. Further cardiologic and gastrointestinal (GI) evaluations were performed in indicated patients. Results Chest pain was most common in the children of 6 and 9 to 14 years old. Esopha-gogastric diseases were unexpectedly the most common direct causes of the chest pain, the next are idiopathic, cardiac diseases, chest trauma, respiratory disease, and psychosomatic disease. Even though 21 showed abnormal ECG findings and 7 showed abnormalities on echocardiography, cardiac diseases were determined to be the direct causes only in 9. UGI endoscopy was performed in 57 cases, and esophago-gastric diseases which thereafter were thought to be causative diseases were 48 cases. The mean age of the children with esophago-gastric diseases were different with marginal significance from that of the other children with chest pain not related with esophago-gastric diseases. All the 48 children diagnosed with treated with GI medicines based on the diagnosis, and 37 cases (77.1%) subsequently showed clinical improvement. Conclusion Diagnostic approaches to find out esophageal and gastric diseases in children with chest pain are important as well as cardiac and respiratory investigations. PMID:26770901

  1. Computerized Classification of Pneumoconiosis on Digital Chest Radiography Artificial Neural Network with Three Stages.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Eiichiro; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ishida, Takayuki

    2017-01-20

    It is difficult for radiologists to classify pneumoconiosis from category 0 to category 3 on chest radiographs. Therefore, we have developed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on a three-stage artificial neural network (ANN) method for classification based on four texture features. The image database consists of 36 chest radiographs classified as category 0 to category 3. Regions of interest (ROIs) with a matrix size of 32 × 32 were selected from chest radiographs. We obtained a gray-level histogram, histogram of gray-level difference, gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM) feature image, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCOM) feature image in each ROI. For ROI-based classification, the first ANN was trained with each texture feature. Next, the second ANN was trained with output patterns obtained from the first ANN. Finally, we obtained a case-based classification for distinguishing among four categories with the third ANN method. We determined the performance of the third ANN by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of the highest category (severe pneumoconiosis) case and the lowest category (early pneumoconiosis) case were 0.89 ± 0.09 and 0.84 ± 0.12, respectively. The three-stage ANN with four texture features showed the highest performance for classification among the four categories. Our CAD system would be useful for assisting radiologists in classification of pneumoconiosis from category 0 to category 3.

  2. SU-E-I-48: The Behavior of AEC in Scan Regions Outside the Localizer Radiograph FOV: An In Phantom Study of CT Systems From Four Vendors

    SciTech Connect

    Supanich, M; Bevins, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This review of scanners from 4 major manufacturers examines the clinical impact of performing CT scans that extend into areas of the body that were not acquired in the CT localizer radiograph. Methods: Anthropomorphic chest and abdomen phantoms were positioned together on the tables of CT scanners from 4 different vendors. All of the scanners offered an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) option with both lateral and axial tube current modulation. A localizer radiograph was taken covering the entire extent of both phantoms and then the scanner's Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis (CAP) study was performed with the clinical AEC settings employed and the scan and reconstruction range extending from the superior portion of the chest phantom through the inferior portion of the abdomen phantom. A new study was then initiated with a localizer radiograph extending the length of the chest phantom (not covering the abdomen phantom). The same CAP protocol and AEC settings were then used to scan and reconstruct the entire length of both phantoms. Scan parameters at specific locations in the abdomen phantom from both studies were investigated using the information contained in the DICOM metadata of the reconstructed images. Results: The AEC systems on all scanners utilized different tube current settings in the abdomen phantom for the scan completed without the full localizer radiograph. The AEC system behavior was also scanner dependent with the default manual tube current, the maximum tube current and the tube current at the last known position observed as outcomes. Conclusion: The behavior of the AEC systems of CT scanners in regions not covered by the localizer radiograph is vendor dependent. To ensure optimal image quality and radiation exposure it is important to include the entire planned scan region in the localizer radiograph.

  3. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, M.; Tanimoto, K.; Wada, T.

    1986-06-01

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes.

  4. DIGITAL SPALL RADIOGRAPH ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CURTIS L. HARRIS - LATA

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress on work to develop a cost effective, rapid response system for measuring Technology Assessment National Laboratory. momentum and kinetic energy of span for the Advanced Center (ATAC) Armor/Anti-Armor (As) program at Los Alamos The system will exploit data contained in two sets of simultaneous co-planar flash radiographs taken along the center line of anticipated span motion. Data contained in each set (which is proportional to the mass and z-number of the span material intersected by the exposing x-ray at each point) is digitized and used to construct a three dimensional model (called the reconstructed span image) that approximates the original span cloud. From the model the mass of span fragments is computed. The two sets of radiographs, separated in time, represent the span configuration at two instants of time. Span fragments from the first instant are matched with those from the second instant to determine velocity. Evaluation of the fidelity of candidate reconstruction algorithms is the highest priority task in. this development program for the obvious reason that the efficacy of the projected span analysis system depends upon the fidelity of the reconstruction techniques.

  5. Digital processing of radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  6. [Screening chest X-ray examination with kinetic analysis using flat-panel detector].

    PubMed

    Sanada, Shigeru; Tanaka, Rie; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-11-01

    We are developing dynamic screening radiography to provide kinetic information for lung respiratory examination using a flat-panel-detector (FPD) system. We modified the FPD system (CANON CXDI-22) to take sequential images for a short period of time (10 seconds, 3 frames/sec). Sequential chest radiographs from full inspiration to expiration were taken and analyzed for diaphragm movement and density changes in local lung areas to objectively detect respiratory anomalies. Our methods derived some respiratory functions such as regional air passage and lung structure movement, and suggested that the degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial pneumonia could be evaluated quantitatively.

  7. [Chest pains in the dental environment].

    PubMed

    Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Findler, M; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Elad, S; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Chest pain does not necessarily indicate cardiac disease. The most common causes of acute chest pain encountered in dental situations include hyperventilation, pulmonary embolism, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Stress and fear often cause rapid breathing or hyperventilation. This usually occurs in young adults and although the hyperventilating patient often complains of chest pain, this is rarely a manifestation of cardiac disease. Pulmonary embolism usually indicates the occlusion of a pulmonary artery causing severe chest pain. The primary clinical manifestation of angina pectoris is chest pain. Although most instances of anginal pain are easily terminated, the dentist must always consider the possibility that the supposed anginal attack is actually a sign of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AMI is a clinical syndrome caused by a deficient coronary arterial blood supply to a region of myocardium that results in cellular death. There is a high incidence of mortality among AMI with death often occurring within 2 hours of the onset of signs and symptoms. The initial clinical manifestations of all types of chest pain can be similar. Therefore the dentist must develop proficiency in constituting a differential diagnosis and an efficient management protocol. As in most medical situations prevention is the most powerful tool. However, if chest pains do occur, measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, coronary artery dilation, analgesis and in extreme cases, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.

  8. Correlating the clinical assessment of impacted mandibular third molars with panoramic radiograph and intraoral periapical radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Vani; Nasyam, Fazil A.; Ramprasad, M.; Penumatsa, Narendra V.; Akifuddin, Syed; Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aims And Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the clinical assessment of impacted third molars of mandible with panaromic radiograph (OPG) and intraoral periapical radiograph (IOPA) and to assess the efficacy of IOPA and. Moreover, we corroborated the OPG and IOPA findings of impacted mandiblar third molar root apex to inferior alveolar canal. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients with pericoronitis were examined who were indicated for surgical extraction, among which 50 patients were selected for the study. All the patients underwent a radiographic survey with a digital OPG and IOPA of impacted mandibular third molars, along with clinical survey for anatomic relationship, type of impaction, space available, position in relation to second molar, number of roots, root curvature, and proximity of nerve canal. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 4.0.1 software was used for analyzing the collected data. Results: The study revealed that IOPA was more accurate in determining a majority of the factors affecting the third molar surgery, including relationship of the external oblique ridge (IOPA vs OPG = 96%:90%), anteroposterior relation with ramus (IOPA vs OPG = 70%:66%), vertical depth of impaction (IOPA vs OPG = 72%:68%), number of roots (P = 0.013), morphology of roots (IOPA vs OPG = 96%:90%); however, OPG was found to be accurate in evaluating the type of impaction (IOPA vs OPG = 88%:94%), canal relation, along with root of impacted molar (IOPA vs OPG = 74%:86%). Conclusion: To conclude, although IOPA has a marginal angle over OPG in assessing various parameters, only the number of roots have a greater accuracy (P < 0.0013) in IOPA than with OPG. However, the OPG is the better choice to be considered when the patient is associated with trismus. PMID:28217540

  9. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-12-15

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR.

  10. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). Purpose To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Methods Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Results Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Conclusions Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR. PMID:26229619

  11. Elbow clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic study in patients with inflammatory joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Uson, Jacqueline; Miguélez-Sánchez, Roberto; de Los Riscos, Marina; Martínez-Blasco, María Jesús; Fernández-Espartero, Cruz; Villaverde-García, Virginia; Garrido, Jesús; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to investigate the relationship between clinical, ultrasonographic (US) and radiographic elbow features in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD). The secondary objective was to evaluate the association between regional clinical elbow diagnoses and imaging findings. Consecutive patients with IJD attending follow-up visits were assessed for elbow pain and standardized elbow examination. Seven regional clinical diagnoses were defined. Digital elbow radiographs were read for 9 abnormalities. A standardized elbow grayscale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) scan recorded 13 defined abnormalities. Analysis encompassed 361 clinical, 361 US and 340 radiographic elbow assessments from 181 patients. US and clinical assessments showed an overall higher agreement than radiographic and clinical assessments (68.8 vs 59.1%, p = 0.001). When structural US abnormalities were compared with radiographic findings, agreement was slightly higher than when comparing all US abnormalities with radiographic findings (77.3%, k 0.533 and 73.5%, k 0.492). Enthesophytes, the most common abnormalities, were not associated with clinical findings. Subclinical US-synovitis and US-enthesopathy were found, respectively, in 17.3 and 14.1% of the clinically normal elbows. Clinical elbow arthritis prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) agreement was good for radiographic fat pad sign, PD-synovitis and GS-synovitis. Clinical elbow enthesopathy PABAK agreement was moderate for GS-enthesopathy and radiographic calcifications. US showed acceptable agreement with clinical and radiographic assessments for detecting elbow inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with IJD. Because US detected more abnormalities than radiography and has the capability to detect more subclinical abnormalities, US may be potentially used as a first-line elbow diagnostic tool in this clinical setting.

  12. Impacts to the chest of PMHSs - Influence of impact location and load distribution on chest response.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Kristian; Svensson, Mats Y; Davidsson, Johan; Gutsche, Andreas; Tomasch, Ernst; Darok, Mario; Ravnik, Dean

    2016-02-01

    The chest response of the human body has been studied for several load conditions, but is not well known in the case of steering wheel rim-to-chest impact in heavy goods vehicle frontal collisions. The aim of this study was to determine the response of the human chest in a set of simulated steering wheel impacts. PMHS tests were carried out and analysed. The steering wheel load pattern was represented by a rigid pendulum with a straight bar-shaped front. A crash test dummy chest calibration pendulum was utilised for comparison. In this study, a set of rigid bar impacts were directed at various heights of the chest, spanning approximately 120mm around the fourth intercostal space. The impact energy was set below a level estimated to cause rib fracture. The analysed results consist of responses, evaluated with respect to differences in the impacting shape and impact heights on compression and viscous criteria chest injury responses. The results showed that the bar impacts consistently produced lesser scaled chest compressions than the hub; the Middle bar responses were around 90% of the hub responses. A superior bar impact provided lesser chest compression; the average response was 86% of the Middle bar response. For inferior bar impacts, the chest compression response was 116% of the chest compression in the middle. The damping properties of the chest caused the compression to decrease in the high speed bar impacts to 88% of that in low speed impacts. From the analysis it could be concluded that the bar impact shape provides lower chest criteria responses compared to the hub. Further, the bar responses are dependent on the impact location of the chest. Inertial and viscous effects of the upper body affect the responses. The results can be used to assess the responses of human substitutes such as anthropomorphic test devices and finite element human body models, which will benefit the development process of heavy goods vehicle safety systems.

  13. Radiographical evaluation of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Parakkal; Bruining, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographical modalities have become important diagnostic tools in cases of ulcerative colitis (UC). Imaging can be used non-invasively to determine the extent of involvement, severity of disease and to detect disease-related complications and extra-intestinal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) manifestations. While abdominal X-rays and barium enemas still retain their relevance in specific clinical settings, the use of computed tomography enterography (CTE) or magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) are now used as first-line investigations to exclude active small bowel disease in IBD patients and can be utilized to detect active colonic inflammation. Additionally, CT colonography and MR colonography are emerging techniques with potential applications in UC. Ultrasonography, leukocyte scintigraphy and positron emission tomography are novel abdominal imaging modalities currently being explored for IBD interrogations. This plethora of radiological imaging options has become a vital component of UC assessments. PMID:24843072

  14. Radiographic Comparison of Human Lung Shape During Normal Gravity and Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, D. B.; Friedman, P. J.; West, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Chest radiographs in five seated normal volunteers at 1 G and 0 G were made with a view toward comparing human lung shape during normal gravity and weightlessness. Lung shape was assessed by measuring lung heights and widths in upper, middle and lower lung regions. No significant differences were found between any of the 1-G and 0-G measurements, although there was a slight tendency for the lung to become shorter and wider at 0 G. The evidence that gravity causes regional differences in ventilation by direct action on the lung is consistent with the theoretical analysis of West and Matthews (1972).

  15. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  16. Radiographic simulations and analysis for ASCI

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.; Stone, D.; VonWittenau, A.

    1998-12-18

    In this paper, the authors describe their work on developing quantitatively accurate radiographic simulation and analysis tools for ASCI hydro codes. they have extended the ability of HADES, the code which simulates radiography through a mesh, to treat the complex meshes used in ASCI calculations. The ultimate goal is to allow direct comparison between experimental radiographs and full physics simulated radiographs of ASCI calculations. They describe the ray-tracing algorithm they have developed for fast, accurate simulation of dynamic radiographs with the meshes used in ALE3D, an LLNL ASCI code. Spectral effects and material compositions are included. In addition to the newness of the mesh types, the distributed nature of domain decomposed problems requires special treatment by the radiographic code. Because of the size of such problems, they have parallelized the radiographic simulation, in order to have quick turnaround time. presently, this is done using the domain decomposition from the hydro code. They demonstrate good parallel scaling as the size of the problem is increased. They show a comparison between an experimental radiograph of a high explosive detonation and a simulated radiograph of an ALE3D calculation. They conclude with a discussion of future work.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  2. Abdominal Plain Radiograph in Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G Raghavendra; Aziz, Amtul

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive all-inclusive resource on plain radiograph in neonatal intestinal obstruction is presented. This is an attempt to develop a protocol and to regain expertise in evaluating a plain radiograph that most often yields more than enough clues to diagnose and to decide a plan of action. PMID:28083492

  3. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  4. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  5. Fluoroscopic chest tube insertion and patient care.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Disher, A. C.; Miller, T. Q.

    1992-01-01

    Catheters and chest tubes may be placed under fluoroscopic control to reduce pleural effusions. This procedure has been adopted as a routine procedure at the UCLA School of Medicine in Los Angeles, California to improve patient care. This technique was modified for the placement of large chest tubes, which can be placed by a radiologist without multiple attempts or complications. Our experience with 2234 patients who underwent this procedure between 1977 and 1990 is described. PMID:1404463

  6. Obesity Increases the Risk of Chest Wall Pain From Thoracic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, James; Thomas, Jimmy; Shah, Deep; Allen, Pamela K.; Wei, Xiong; Mitchell, Kevin; Gao, Song; Balter, Peter; Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly being used to treat thoracic tumors. We attempted here to identify dose-volume parameters that predict chest wall toxicity (pain and skin reactions) in patients receiving thoracic SBRT. Patients and Methods: We screened a database of patients treated with SBRT between August 2004 and August 2008 to find patients with pulmonary tumors within 2.5 cm of the chest wall. All patients received a total dose of 50 Gy in four daily 12.5-Gy fractions. Toxicity was scored according to the NCI-CTCAE V3.0. Results: Of 360 patients in the database, 265 (268 tumors) had tumors within <2.5 cm of the chest wall; 104 (39%) developed skin toxicity (any grade); 14 (5%) developed acute pain (any grade), and 45 (17%) developed chronic pain (Grade 1 in 22 cases [49%] and Grade 2 or 3 in 23 cases [51%]). Both skin toxicity and chest wall pain were associated with the V{sub 30}, or volume of the chest wall receiving 30 Gy. Body mass index (BMI) was also strongly associated with the development of chest pain: patients with BMI {>=}29 had almost twice the risk of chronic pain (p = 0.03). Among patients with BMI >29, diabetes mellitus was a significant contributing factor to the development of chest pain. Conclusion: Safe use of SBRT with 50 Gy in four fractions for lesions close to the chest wall requires consideration of the chest wall volume receiving 30 Gy and the patient's BMI and diabetic state.

  7. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  8. Angiosarcoma in the chest: radiologic–pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Tomassetti, Sara; Sanna, Stefano; Ravaglia, Claudia; Carloni, Angelo; Gurioli, Christian; Gurioli, Carlo; Colby, Thomas V.; Poletti, Venerino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Angiosarcomas are rare, malignant vascular tumors. Patient concerns: They represents about 2% of all soft tissue sarcoma, which can often metastasize through the hematogenous route. The radiological features have been analyzed in 4 patients with metastatic angiosarcoma in the chest. Diagnoses: The main radiologic findings included nodules, cysts, nodules with halo sign, and vascular tree-in-bud. Morphologic features, as observed in the histologic specimen, have been correlated with radiologic appearance. Lessons: Metastatic angiosarcomas to the lung are characterized by a wide variety of radiologic appearances that can be very characteristic. Computed tomographic findings observed include bilateral solid nodules, cystic, and bullous lesions sometimes associated with spontaneous hemopneumothoraces. PMID:27902593

  9. Estimated Probabililty of Chest Injury During an International Space Station Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Milo, Eric A.; Brooker, John E.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to spaceflight mission planners and medical system designers when assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM project maintains a database of medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight. The IMM project is in the process of assigning an incidence rate, the associated functional impairment, and a best and a worst case end state for each condition. The purpose of this work was to develop the IMM Chest Injury Module (CIM). The CIM calculates the incidence rate of chest injury per person-year of spaceflight on the International Space Station (ISS). The CIM was built so that the probability of chest injury during one year on ISS could be predicted. These results will be incorporated into the IMM Chest Injury Clinical Finding Form and used within the parent IMM model.

  10. [Chest ultrasound in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in a pregnant patient - a case report].

    PubMed

    Małek, Grzegorz; Drygalska, Alicja; Kober, Jarosław; Wawrzyńska, Liliana; Debski, Romuald; Dabrowski, Marek; Torbicki, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy is a risk factor for both pulmonary embolism (PE), and an incorrect diagnostic assessment in cases of suspected PE with potentially dangerous consequences for the mother and foetus. The major concern is ionising radiation utilized by diagnostic tests and its potential negative effect on foetal safety. This paper presents diagnostic difficulties encountered in a 31-year-old patient at 20 weeks of gestation who was admitted to hospital with non-specific chest pain and suspected PE as a complication of right lower limb venous thrombosis. The case study reminds of chest ultrasound as a useful tool in the diagnosis of PE. The official clinical practice guidelines do not recommend the use of chest ultrasound for diagnosing of PE due to lack of a sufficient number of published studies. This case report may encourage further, prospective studies in the hope to define whether and when chest ultrasound might find its place in the diagnostic strategy of PE, especially in pregnant women.

  11. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  12. Dynamic chest radiography: flat-panel detector (FPD) based functional X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic chest radiography is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. The large field of view (FOV) of FPDs permits real-time observation of the entire lungs and simultaneous right-and-left evaluation of diaphragm kinetics. Most importantly, dynamic chest radiography provides pulmonary ventilation and circulation findings as slight changes in pixel value even without the use of contrast media; the interpretation is challenging and crucial for a better understanding of pulmonary function. The basic concept was proposed in the 1980s; however, it was not realized until the 2010s because of technical limitations. Dynamic FPDs and advanced digital image processing played a key role for clinical application of dynamic chest radiography. Pulmonary ventilation and circulation can be quantified and visualized for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Dynamic chest radiography can be deployed as a simple and rapid means of functional imaging in both routine and emergency medicine. Here, we focus on the evaluation of pulmonary ventilation and circulation. This review article describes the basic mechanism of imaging findings according to pulmonary/circulation physiology, followed by imaging procedures, analysis method, and diagnostic performance of dynamic chest radiography.

  13. An artificial neural network for estimating scatter exposures in portable chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Lo, J Y; Floyd, C E; Baker, J A; Ravin, C E

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive linear element (Adaline) was developed to estimate the two-dimensional scatter exposure distribution in digital portable chest radiographs (DPCXR). DPCXRs and quantitative scatter exposure measurements at 64 locations throughout the chest were acquired for ten radiographically normal patients. The Adaline is an artificial neural network which has only a single node and linear thresholding. The Adaline was trained using DPCXR-scatter measurement pairs from five patients. The spatially invariant network would take a portion of the image as its input and estimate the scatter content as output. The trained network was applied to the other five images, and errors were evaluated between estimated and measured scatter values. Performance was compared against a convolution scatter estimation algorithm. The network was evaluated as a function of network size, initial values, and duration of training. Network performance was evaluated qualitatively by the correlation of network weights to physical models, and quantitatively by training and evaluation errors. Using DPCXRs as input, the network learned to describe known scatter exposures accurately (7% error) and estimate scatter in new images (< 8% error) slightly better than convolution methods. Regardless of size and initial shape, all networks adapted into radial exponentials with magnitude of 0.75, perhaps implying an ideal point spread function and average scatter fraction, respectively. To implement scatter compensation, the two-dimensional scatter distribution estimated by the neural network is subtracted from the original DPCXR.

  14. Zebrafish Caudal Haematopoietic Embryonic Stromal Tissue (CHEST) Cells Support Haematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Anja; Aggio, Julian; Campbell, Clyde; Wright, Francis; Marquez, Gabriel; Traver, David; Stachura, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Haematopoiesis is an essential process in early vertebrate development that occurs in different distinct spatial locations in the embryo that shift over time. These different sites have distinct functions: in some anatomical locations specific hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are generated de novo. In others, HSPCs expand. HSPCs differentiate and renew in other locations, ensuring homeostatic maintenance. These niches primarily control haematopoiesis through a combination of cell-to-cell signalling and cytokine secretion that elicit unique biological effects in progenitors. To understand the molecular signals generated by these niches, we report the generation of caudal hematopoietic embryonic stromal tissue (CHEST) cells from 72-hours post fertilization (hpf) caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT), the site of embryonic HSPC expansion in fish. CHEST cells are a primary cell line with perivascular endothelial properties that expand hematopoietic cells in vitro. Morphological and transcript analysis of these cultures indicates lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid differentiation, indicating that CHEST cells are a useful tool for identifying molecular signals critical for HSPC proliferation and differentiation in the zebrafish. These findings permit comparison with other temporally and spatially distinct haematopoietic-supportive zebrafish niches, as well as with mammalian haematopoietic-supportive cells to further the understanding of the evolution of the vertebrate hematopoietic system. PMID:28300168

  15. Principles of image processing in digital chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Mathias; Neitzel, Ulrich; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2003-07-01

    Image processing has a major impact on image quality and diagnostic performance of digital chest radiographs. Goals of processing are to reduce the dynamic range of the image data to capture the full range of attenuation differences between lungs and mediastinum, to improve the modulation transfer function to optimize spatial resolution, to enhance structural contrast, and to suppress image noise. Image processing comprises look-up table operations and spatial filtering. Look-up table operations allow for automated signal normalization and arbitrary choice of image gradation. The most simple and still widely applied spatial filtering algorithms are based on unsharp masking. Various modifications were introduced for dynamic range reduction and MTF restoration. More elaborate and more effective are multi-scale frequency processing algorithms. They are based on the subdivision of an image in multiple frequency bands according to its structural composition. This allows for a wide range of image manipulations including a size-independent enhancement of low-contrast structures. Principles of the various algorithms will be explained and their impact on image appearance will be illustrated by clinical examples. Optimum and sub-optimum parameter settings are discussed and pitfalls will be explained.

  16. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet... for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  18. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet... for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  19. Unusual radiographic appearance of adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Michele; Montalti, Maurizio; Bosco, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Boriani, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare tumor with an indolent course that occurs most commonly in the tibia. It is locally aggressive, and local recurrences are described after resection. Pain is the most common symptom. Since the lesion is typically slow growing, the pain can be present for many years before the patient seeks medical attention. Microscopically, adamantinoma consists of islands of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma. Nuclear atypia is minimal, and mitotic figures are rare. The most common radiographic appearance is that of multiple sharply demarcated radiolucent lesions surrounded by areas of dense, sclerotic bone. This tumor most often affects the tibial diaphysis and produces lytic lesions that can cause fractures. A 31-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing lytic lesion of the distal tibia. On histological examination, many areas of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma were identified. Diagnosis of adamantinoma was performed. The lesion was treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with distal tibia allograft and ankle arthrodesis with retrograde nail. At 2-year follow-up, there were no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence of disease.

  20. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  1. Hemophilus influenzae pneumonia in the adult: radiographic appearance with clinical correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlberg, J.; Haggar, A.M.; Saravolatz, L.; Beute, G.H.; Popovich, J.

    1984-04-01

    Hemophilus influenzae septicemia is an important cause of life-threatening pneumonia in an immunocompromised patient. Eleven cases proved by blood culture were analyzed. Multilobar involvement with lobar or segmental consolidation pleural effusion were common radiographic findings, but there were no signs of lobar expansion, bulging fissures, or cavitation. In general, predisposing factors such as alcoholism and chemotherapy place patients at risk. Radiographic response to therapy is variable but often lags behind clinical improvement.

  2. Quantitative kinetic analysis of lung nodules by temporal subtraction technique in dynamic chest radiography with a flat panel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; Kodera, Yoshie; Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru

    2007-03-01

    Early detection and treatment of lung cancer is one of the most effective means to reduce cancer mortality; chest X-ray radiography has been widely used as a screening examination or health checkup. The new examination method and the development of computer analysis system allow obtaining respiratory kinetics by the use of flat panel detector (FPD), which is the expanded method of chest X-ray radiography. Through such changes functional evaluation of respiratory kinetics in chest has become available. Its introduction into clinical practice is expected in the future. In this study, we developed the computer analysis algorithm for the purpose of detecting lung nodules and evaluating quantitative kinetics. Breathing chest radiograph obtained by modified FPD was converted into 4 static images drawing the feature, by sequential temporal subtraction processing, morphologic enhancement processing, kinetic visualization processing, and lung region detection processing, after the breath synchronization process utilizing the diaphragmatic analysis of the vector movement. The artificial neural network used to analyze the density patterns detected the true nodules by analyzing these static images, and drew their kinetic tracks. For the algorithm performance and the evaluation of clinical effectiveness with 7 normal patients and simulated nodules, both showed sufficient detecting capability and kinetic imaging function without statistically significant difference. Our technique can quantitatively evaluate the kinetic range of nodules, and is effective in detecting a nodule on a breathing chest radiograph. Moreover, the application of this technique is expected to extend computer-aided diagnosis systems and facilitate the development of an automatic planning system for radiation therapy.

  3. Computer assisted measurement of femoral cortex thickening on radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Yixun; Chen, Foster; Summers, Ronald M.; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Radiographic features such as femoral cortex thickening have been frequently observed with atypical subtrochanteric fractures. These features may be a valuable finding to help prevent fractures before they happen. The current practice of manual measurement is often subjective and inconsistent. We developed a semi-automatic tool to consistently measure and monitor the progress of femoral cortex thickening on radiographs. By placing two seed points on each side of the femur, the program automatically extracts the periosteal and endosteal layers of the cortical shell by active contour models and B-spline fitting. Several measurements are taken along the femur shaft, including shaft diameter, cortical thickness, and integral area for medial and lateral cortex. The experiment was conducted on 52 patient datasets. The semi-automatic measurements were validated against manual measurements on 52 patients and demonstrated great improvement in consistency and accuracy (p<0.001).

  4. [Conventional radiology, digital radiology with photostimulable phosphor, laser digitalization of thoracic radiographic films at the bedside. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Miceli, M; Stamati, R; Burci, P; Guidarelli, G; Sartoni Galloni, S

    1992-10-01

    The bedside chest images obtained with conventional radiology and with "on line" and "off line" digital modalities were compared to evaluate the respective capabilities in visualizing chest anatomical structures. Seventy patients were submitted to bedside chest examinations with a portable unit; both a conventional film and a digital system (PCR Graphics 1, Philips) with photostimulable phosphor imaging plate were fitted in the radiographic cassette. The former was digitized using an "off line" laser beam unit (FD 2000, Dupont); the latter was subsequently postprocessed by modifying contrast, optical density and spatial frequencies. Thus, 4 different viewing modalities were obtained for each examination: a) conventional radiography; b) standard digital radiography; c) postprocessed digital radiography; d) digitized conventional radiography. Detectability rates of chest anatomical structures were analyzed by 4 independent radiologists on the different images and expressed by a score 1-4. The values were always higher with digital modalities than with the conventional one and the differences were statistically significant (Student's t-test modified by Bonferroni). In particular, the greatest difference was found between c) and a) in retrocardiac lung parenchyma and in skeletal structures, in favour of c). Concerning the comparative adequacy of the various digital modalities, higher detectability rates of chest anatomical structures were obtained with c), but also with b), than with d).

  5. Occlusal interferences related to dental panoramic radiographic changes in subjects treated with fixed prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ettala-Ylitalo, U M; Syrjänen, S; Markkanen, H

    1987-09-01

    Because of contradictory reports between clinical and radiographic findings, occlusal analysis correlated to dental panoramic findings was completed in 147 patients treated with fixed prosthesis. Both occlusal interferences and radiographic changes in the TMJ area and/or in dentition were frequently discovered. Dysfunction and occlusal indices gave statistically significant correlations to radiographic changes (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05, respectively) in the TMJ area. Periodontal changes with vertical bone pocket formation and sclerotic lamina dura seem to be early radiographic findings and occlusal interferences were the only means to give a clear-cut correlation to the radiographic changes (P less than 0.001). However, if periodontal tissues with supporting bone structure fail to respond to occlusal trauma, changes in the TMJ area will probably appear. From the clinical changes the deviation on mouth opening, tenderness to palpation of TMJ, and slide from retrusion to intercuspidation (RP-IP) explained most of the radiological TMJ changes when tested by the discriminant analysis. The value of radiographic follow-up of subjects following prosthetic treatment is emphasized.

  6. Use of a titanium alloy (Chest Way) in the surgical stabilization of flail chest.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tomoki; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Aruga, Naohiro; Imamura, Naoko; Hamanaka, Rurika; Ikoma, Yoichiro; Masuda, Ryota; Iwazaki, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    To avoid the complications of internal pneumatic stabilization for flail chest, we performed stabilization of the chest wall with a metal bar using the Nuss procedure. Here, we used a highly elastic lightweight biocompatible titanium alloy Chest Way (Solve Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan), enabling magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was a 37-year-old man who sustained injuries in a car crash. Gradually increasing subcutaneous emphysema was present. Bilateral pleural drainage and tracheal intubation were conducted on the scene, and a peripheral venous line was established. The patient was then transferred to our hospital by helicopter. A titanium alloy Chest Way was inserted to manage his flail chest accompanied by multiple rib fractures on the left side. Two days later, artificial respiration was no longer required.

  7. A Review of Esophageal Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Coss-Adame, Enrique; Rao, Satish S C

    2015-11-01

    Noncardiac chest pain is a term that encompasses all causes of chest pain after a cardiac source has been excluded. This article focuses on esophageal sources for chest pain. Esophageal chest pain (ECP) is common, affects quality of life, and carries a substantial health care burden. The lack of a systematic approach toward the diagnosis and treatment of ECP has led to significant disability and increased health care costs for this condition. Identifying the underlying cause(s) or mechanism(s) for chest pain is key for its successful management. Common etiologies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal hypersensitivity, dysmotility, and psychological conditions, including panic disorder and anxiety. However, the pathophysiology of this condition is not yet fully understood. Randomized controlled trials have shown that proton pump inhibitor therapy (either omeprazole, lansoprazole, or rabeprazole) can be effective. Evidence for the use of antidepressants and the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline is fair. Psychological treatments, notably cognitive behavioral therapy, may be useful in select patients. Surgery is not recommended. There remains a large unmet need for identifying the phenotype and prevalence of pathophysiologic mechanisms of ECP as well as for well-designed multicenter clinical trials of current and novel therapies.

  8. [Diagnosis and management of esophageal chest pain].

    PubMed

    Hong, Su Jin

    2010-04-01

    Esophageal pain that manifests as heartburn or chest pain, is a prevalent problem. Esophageal chest pain is most often caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but can also result from inflammatory processes, infections involving the esophagus, and contractions of the esophageal muscle. The mechanisms and pathways of esophageal chest pain are poorly understood. Vagal and spinal afferent pathways carry sensory information from the esophagus. Recently, esophageal hypersensitivity is identified as an important factor in the development of esophageal pain. A number of techniques are available to evaluate esophageal chest pain such as endoscopy and/or proton-pump inhibitor trial, esophageal manometry, a combined impedance-pH study, and esophageal ultrasound imaging. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have the huge success in the treatment of GERD. Other drugs such as imipramine, trazadone, sertraline, tricyclics, and theophylline have been introduced for the control of esophageal chest pain in partial responders to PPI and the patients with esophageal hypersensitivity. Novel drugs which act on different targets are anticipated to treat esophageal pain in the future.

  9. Changes of nodule detection after radiologists read bone opacity suppressed chest radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.

    2012-03-01

    A bone opacity suppressed technique using shape-index processing approach has been developed for frontal chest radiography. The image function preserves original lung image textures but equalizing the image contrast of the lungs as a part of post-processing. To determine the benefit of this computerized processing, particular on the investigation of the effect of the bone opacity removal, we conducted a reader study where radiologists read standard chest radiograph alone (unaided) followed by bone opacity suppressed image (aided). Posterioranterior (PA) standard chest radiographs in 368 subjects (122 had confirmed lung cancer) were used for this study. Fifteen Board Certified radiologists participated in the reader study. Each radiologist interpreted the standard image and then the bone suppressed image. Each reader recorded the location of the most suspicious nodule, if any, their level of suspicion and recommendation for clinical action. Detailed analyses were performed to evaluate the observers' performance by tabulating changes of nodule detection inclusive of false-negative turned to true-positive (FN->TP), true-positive turned to false-negative (TP->FN), false-positive turned to turn-negative (FP->TN), and turn-negative turned to false-positive (TN- >FP). Our results indicated that changing rates of FN->TP was 12.35%, TP->FN was 1.37%, FP->TN was 1.14%, and TN->FP was 4.82%, respectively. We also found that 81.85% of the FN->TP events occurred at nodules significantly covered by the rib (50% or more area overlapped with bone opacity). Two major situations caused TP->FN events: (1) other nodule like areas were also enhanced and (2) non-solid nodules were well preserved but less suspicious with the contract equalization.

  10. Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

  11. Radiographic Evaluation of Valvular Heart Disease With Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Correlation.

    PubMed

    Lempel, Jason K; Bolen, Michael A; Renapurkar, Rahul D; Azok, Joseph T; White, Charles S

    2016-09-01

    Valvular heart disease is a group of complex entities with varying etiologies and clinical presentations. There are a number of imaging tools available to supplement clinical evaluation of suspected valvular heart disease, with echocardiography being the most common and clinically established, and more recent emergence of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as additional supportive techniques. Yet even with these newer and more sophisticated modalities, chest radiography remains one of the earliest and most common diagnostic examinations performed during the triage of patients with suspected cardiac dysfunction. Recognizing the anatomic and pathologic features of cardiac radiography including the heart's adaptation to varying hemodynamic changes can provide clues to the radiologist regarding the underlying etiology. In this article, we will elucidate several principles relating to chamber modifications in response to pressure and volume overload as well as radiographic appearances associated with pulmonary fluid status and cardiac dysfunction. We will also present a pattern approach to optimize analysis of the chest radiograph for valvular heart disease, which will help guide the radiologist down a differential diagnostic pathway and create a more meaningful clinical report.

  12. Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szepesi, Z.

    1971-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

  13. Radiographic selection criteria: new guidelines, old challenges.

    PubMed

    Horner, K

    2013-02-01

    Radiographic selection criteria are a legal requirement for any establishment using ionising radiation for medical purposes, including dental practices. The Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) pioneered the development of radiographic selection criteria for dentistry in the UK in 1998 and followed this with a second edition in 2004. This year will see a third edition, updated by new research evidence and developments in X-ray imaging for dentistry, including cone beam computed tomography (CT). Radiographic selection criteria are not rules but are one form of clinical guideline designed to help in clinical decision making. There are many influences on the use of radiography in dental practice including non-clinical factors. Evidence-based radiographic selection criteria can help to reinforce good practice, but require a multi-faceted implementation strategy including incorporation into clinical audit, easy availability to users and education.

  14. Film adhesive enhances neutron radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Resolution of neutron radiographic images of thermally conductive film is increased by replacing approximately 5 percent of aluminum powder, which provides thermal conductivity, with gadolinium oxide. Oxide is also chemically stable.

  15. Method prevents secondary radiation in radiographic inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struckus, A. A.

    1967-01-01

    Thin-walled neoprene containers prevent secondary radiation, scatter, and undercut during radiographic inspection. The containers are filled with a mixture of barium sulfate, red lead, and petroleum jelly that achieves the required absorption rate.

  16. The forensic importance of frontal sinus radiographs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Caputo, Isamara Geandra Cavalcanti; Devito, Karina Lopes; Botelho, Tessa de Luscena; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The identification of unidentified human remains through the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs has found wide acceptance in recent years. Reported here is the forensic case of an unidentified adult male who had died as the result of a traffic accident, after which the body was identified by matching images of ante- and postmortem radiographs of the frontal sinus. A general discussion on identification using frontal sinus radiographs is presented, highlighting the reliability of this method, in reference to the uniqueness of the frontal sinus in humans. However, it also notes a few difficulties, especially in reference to the X-ray technique in cases where antemortem radiographs are available and a potentially larger number of anatomical, pathological or traumatic features are present. The comparison of frontal sinus outlines is recommended when it may become necessary to provide quantitative substantiation for forensic identification based on these structures.

  17. Deep learning with non-medical training used for chest pathology identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, Yaniv; Diamant, Idit; Wolf, Lior; Greenspan, Hayit

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we examine the strength of deep learning approaches for pathology detection in chest radiograph data. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) deep architecture classification approaches have gained popularity due to their ability to learn mid and high level image representations. We explore the ability of a CNN to identify different types of pathologies in chest x-ray images. Moreover, since very large training sets are generally not available in the medical domain, we explore the feasibility of using a deep learning approach based on non-medical learning. We tested our algorithm on a dataset of 93 images. We use a CNN that was trained with ImageNet, a well-known large scale nonmedical image database. The best performance was achieved using a combination of features extracted from the CNN and a set of low-level features. We obtained an area under curve (AUC) of 0.93 for Right Pleural Effusion detection, 0.89 for Enlarged heart detection and 0.79 for classification between healthy and abnormal chest x-ray, where all pathologies are combined into one large class. This is a first-of-its-kind experiment that shows that deep learning with large scale non-medical image databases may be sufficient for general medical image recognition tasks.

  18. Lead Scales for X-Radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Adams, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Indentations made by typing on lead tape. Lead scales for inclusion in x-radiographs as length and position references created by repeatedly imprinting character like upper-case I, L, or V, or lower-case L into lead tape with typewriter. Character pitch of typewriter serves as length reference for scale. Thinning of tape caused by impacts of type shows up dark in radiograph.

  19. The one-leg standing radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7). 33%, 47.4% and 23.1% of the knees diagnosed with a KL grade of I, II and III in the both-legs standing views were changed to KL grade II, III and IV in the one-leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299

  20. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected.

  1. Improvement of the clinical use of computed radiography for mobile chest imaging: Image quality and patient dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rill, Lynn Neitzey

    Chest radiography is technically difficult because of the wide variation of tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Mobile chest radiography, performed bedside on hospital inpatients, presents additional difficulties due to geometrical and equipment limitations inherent to mobile x-ray procedures and the severity of illness in patients. Computed radiography (CR) offers a new approach for mobile chest radiography by utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. Photostimulable phosphors are more efficient in absorbing lower-energy x-rays than standard intensifying screens and overcome some image quality limitations of mobile chest imaging, particularly because of the inherent latitude. This study evaluated changes in imaging parameters for CR to take advantage of differences between CR and screen-film radiography. Two chest phantoms, made of acrylic and aluminum, simulated x-ray attenuation for average-sized and large- sized adult chests. The phantoms contained regions representing the lungs, heart and subdiaphragm. Acrylic and aluminum disks (1.9 cm diameter) were positioned in the chest regions to make signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements for different combinations of imaging parameters. Disk thicknesses (contrast) were determined from disk visibility. Effective dose to the phantom was also measured for technique combinations. The results indicated that using an anti-scatter grid and lowering x- ray tube potential improved the SNR significantly; however, the dose to the phantom also increased. An evaluation was performed to examine the clinical applicability of the observed improvements in SNR. Parameter adjustments that improved phantom SNRs by more than 50% resulted in perceived image quality improvements in the lung region of clinical mobile chest radiographs. Parameters that produced smaller improvements in SNR had no apparent effect on clinical image quality. Based on this study, it is recommended that a 3:1 grid be used for

  2. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest.

    PubMed

    Winge, Rikke; Berg, Jais O; Albret, Rikke; Krag, Christen

    2012-05-29

    A large aterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC®) resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient's need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU). This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation.

  3. Prephonatory chest wall posturing in stutterers.

    PubMed

    Baken, R J; McManus, D A; Cavallo, S A

    1983-09-01

    The possibility that prephonatory chest wall posturing is abnormal in stutterers was explored by observing rib cage and abdominal hemicircumference changes during the interval between the presentation of a stimulus and the production of/alpha/by a group of stutterers (N = 5). It was found that the patterns of chest wall adjustment for phonation were qualitatively identical in the stutterers and in a comparable group of normal men studied previously. There was, however, a significant difference in the way in which lung volume changed during the execution of the chest wall adjustment. This was considered to be indicative of delayed glottal closure among the stutterers rather than representative of a primary ventilatory disturbance.

  4. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Bellows, J

    1993-08-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats.

  5. Evaluation and treatment of musculoskeletal chest pain.

    PubMed

    Ayloo, Amba; Cvengros, Teresa; Marella, Srimannarayana

    2013-12-01

    This article summarizes the evaluation and treatment of musculoskeletal causes of chest pain. Conditions such as costochondritis, rib pain caused by stress fractures, slipping rib syndrome, chest wall muscle injuries, fibromyalgia, and herpes zoster are discussed, with emphasis on evaluation and treatment of these and other disorders. Many of these conditions can be diagnosed by the primary care clinician in the office by history and physical examination. Treatment is also discussed, including description of manual therapy and exercises as needed for some of the conditions.

  6. Tracheal rupture caused by blunt chest trauma: radiological and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Kunisch-Hoppe, M; Hoppe, M; Rauber, K; Popella, C; Rau, W S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess radiomorphologic and clinical features of tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma. From 1992 until 1998 the radiomorphologic and clinical key findings of all consecutive tracheal ruptures were retrospectively analyzed. The study included ten patients (7 men and 3 women; mean age 35 years); all had pneumothoraces which were persistent despite suction drainage. Seven patients developed a pneumomediastinum as well as a subcutaneous emphysema on conventional chest X-rays. In five patients, one major hint leading to the diagnosis was a cervical emphysema, discovered on the lateral cervical spine view. Contrast-media-enhanced thoracic CT was obtained in all ten cases and showed additional injuries (atelectasis n = 5; lung contusion n = 4; lung laceration n = 2; hematothorax n = 2 and hematomediastinum n = 4). The definite diagnosis of tracheal rupture was made by bronchoscopy, which was obtained in all patients. Tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma occurs rarely. Key findings were all provided by conventional chest X-ray. Tracheal rupture is suspected in front of a pneumothorax, a pneumomediastinum, or a subcutaneous emphysema on lateral cervical spine and chest films. Routine thoracic CT could also demonstrate these findings but could not confirm the definite diagnosis of an tracheal rupture except in one case; in the other 9 cases this was done by bronchoscopy. Thus, bronchoscopy should be mandatory in all suspicious cases of tracheal rupture and remains the gold standard.

  7. Radiographic characterization of primary lung tumors in 74 dogs.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Laura E; Pollard, Rachel E; Zwingenberger, Allison; Zierenberg-Ripoll, Alexandra; Skorupski, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    Primary pulmonary neoplasia is well recognized in dogs and prognosis depends upon the tumor type. The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize the radiographic appearance of different primary lung tumors with the goal of establishing imaging criteria to separate the different types. Three-view thoracic radiographs of 74 dogs with histologically confirmed pulmonary anaplastic carcinoma (n = 2), adenocarcinoma (n = 31), bronchioalveolar carcinoma (n = 19), histiocytic sarcoma (n = 21), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1) were evaluated. Radiographs were assessed for tumor volume, affected lobe, location within lobe, overall pulmonary pattern, presence of cavitation, mineralization, air bronchograms, lymphadenomegaly, and pleural fluid. Histiocytic sarcomas were significantly larger than other tumor types (271 cm(3); P = 0.009) and most likely to be found in the left cranial (38%; 8/21) and right middle (43%; 9/21) lung lobes, whereas adenocarcinomas were most likely to be found in the left caudal (29%; 9/31) lung lobe. Fifty-seven percent (12/21) of histiocytic sarcomas had an internal air bronchogram. Findings indicate that a large mass in the periphery or affecting the whole lobe of the right middle or left cranial lung lobe with an internal air bronchogram is likely to be an histiocytic sarcoma.

  8. Rapid Skeletal Turnover In A Radiographic Mimic Of Osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P.; Madson, Katherine L.; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H.; Novack, Deborah V.; Blair, Jo C.; Helliwell, Timothy R.; Stolina, Marina; Abernethy, Laurence J.; Shaw, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Among the high bone mass disorders, the osteopetroses reflect osteoclast failure that prevents skeletal resorption and turnover leading to reduced bone growth and modeling and characteristic histopathological and radiographic findings. We report an 11-year-old boy with a new syndrome that radiographically mimics osteopetrosis but features rapid skeletal turnover. He presented at age 21 months with a parasellar, osteoclast-rich giant cell granuloma. Radiographs showed a dense skull, generalized osteosclerosis, and cortical thickening, medullary cavity narrowing, and diminished modeling of tubular bones. His serum alkaline phosphatase was > 5,000 IU/L (normal < 850). After partial resection, the granuloma re-grew but then regressed and stabilized during three years of uncomplicated pamidronate treatment. His hyperphosphatasemia transiently diminished but all bone turnover markers, especially those of apposition, remained elevated. Two years after pamidronate therapy stopped, BMD z-scores reached + 9.1 and + 5.8 in the lumbar spine and hip, respectively, and iliac crest histopathology confirmed rapid bone remodeling. Serum multiplex biomarker profiling was striking for low sclerostin. Mutation analysis was negative for activation of LRP4, LRP5, or TGFβ1 and for defective SOST, OPG, RANKL, RANK, SQSTM1, or sFRP1. Microarray showed no notable copy number variation. Studies of his non-consanguineous parents were unremarkable. The etiology and pathogenesis of this unique syndrome are unknown. PMID:24919763

  9. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-01-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities. PMID:14594627

  10. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-11-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities.

  11. Broncholithiasis in a cat: clinical findings, long-term evolution and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Jesus; del Palacio, María Josefa Fernandez; Bayon, Alejandro; Buendia, Antonio J; Sanchez, Joaquin

    2008-02-01

    A 14-year-old neutered male Persian cat was evaluated because of an acute exacerbation of a chronic cough of 2-3 years of duration. Physical examination was normal except for the auscultation of accentuated breath sounds and wheezes cranially on both sides of the chest. Complete blood count, biochemical parameters and urinalysis were normal. Thoracic radiographs showed a generalised nodular pattern with multiple mineral opacities. Oral prednisone and doxycycline were prescribed. Two weeks later, the frequency of the cough was significantly reduced. Terbutaline was recommended for relief of acute exacerbations. Three years later the cat was evaluated again due to a non-related disease that led to the euthanasia of the cat. Concerning its respiratory disease, the cat had experienced nearly asymptomatic periods of 3-6 weeks of duration punctuated by acute exacerbation periods of 7-10 days, during which terbutaline was useful to relieve the cough. Thoracic radiographs showed a mild increase in the size and extent of the pulmonary mineralisation. Histopathologically, mild bronchitis and bronchiectasis were evident, accompanied by calcified bronchial plugs and marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the seromucinous glands. Based on clinical and pathoanatomical findings, a final diagnosis of miliary broncholithiasis and bronchiectasis was made. Broncholithiasis should be considered in differential diagnosis of pulmonary mineralisation in cats. When no concomitant diseases are present, this rare disease appears to have a slowly progressive evolution that does not appear to carry a bad prognosis and may be satisfactorily managed with combinations of bronchodilators and corticosteroids.

  12. Reducing missing fracture clinic radiographs by entrusting them to patients.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Peter R.; Hynes, Matthew C.; Goodier, W. David

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Missing radiographs in fracture clinics may compromise fracture management and lead to inappropriate use of clerical resources. METHODS: We prospectively compared the number of missing radiographs in two hospitals over a period of two months. In hospital A the radiographs were retained and in hospital B they were entrusted to the patients. RESULTS: At the completion of the study, entrusting patients with their radiographs resulted in statistically less radiographs missing from the clinic. PMID:15333169

  13. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD. PMID:22281125

  14. Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall

    PubMed Central

    Tonziello, Gilda; Valentinotti, Romina; Arbore, Enrico; Cassetti, Paolo; Luzzati, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall Symptoms: — Medication: Ciprofloxacin Clinical Procedure:— Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Non-typhoid Salmonella extra-intestinal infections usually develop in infants and in adult patients with pre-existing predisposing conditions. Blood stream infections and urinary tract infections are the most common clinical presentations, but other sites of infection may be involved as well. Case Report: We describe a case of invasive salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium involving the chest wall in a 73-year-old man. The patient had suffered from gastroenteritis followed by left basal pneumonia with pleural effusion 7 weeks before. The CT scan of the chest wall showed a pericostal abscess with shirt-stud morphology near the left last cartilaginous arch. The abscess was surgically drained and patient was cured after a 40-day ciprofloxacin treatment. Conclusions: A review of the literature on extra-intestinal non-typhoid salmonellosis shows that pleuropulmonary and soft-tissue infections are uncommon. We argue that non-typhoid Salmonella might be considered as a possible cause of chest wall abscess in individuals with recent history of gastroenteritis complicated by pneumonia and pleural effusion. PMID:24298305

  15. When to Remove a Chest Tube.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Nuria M; Jiménez, Marcelo F; Varela, Gonzalo

    2017-02-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge about the pleural physiology after lung resection, most practices around chest tube removal are dictated by personal preferences and experience. This article discusses recently published data on the topic and suggests opportunities for further investigation and future improvements.

  16. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  17. Computerized scheme for detection of diffuse lung diseases on CR chest images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Roberto R., Jr.; Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Feng; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for detection of diffuse lung disease in computed radiographic (CR) chest images. One hundred ninety-four chest images (56 normals and 138 abnormals with diffuse lung diseases) were used. The 138 abnormal cases were classified into three levels of severity (34 mild, 60 moderate, and 44 severe) by an experienced chest radiologist with use of five different patterns, i.e., reticular, reticulonodular, nodular, air-space opacity, and emphysema. In our computerized scheme, the first moment of the power spectrum, the root-mean-square variation, and the average pixel value were determined for each region of interest (ROI), which was selected automatically in the lung fields. The average pixel value and its dependence on the location of the ROI were employed for identifying abnormal patterns due to air-space opacity or emphysema. A rule-based method was used for determining three levels of abnormality for each ROI (0: normal, 1: mild, 2: moderate, and 3: severe). The distinction between normal lungs and abnormal lungs with diffuse lung disease was determined based on the fractional number of abnormal ROIs by taking into account the severity of abnormalities. Preliminary results indicated that the area under the ROC curve was 0.889 for the 44 severe cases, 0.825 for the 104 severe and moderate cases, and 0.794 for all cases. We have identified a number of problems and reasons causing false positives on normal cases, and also false negatives on abnormal cases. In addition, we have discussed potential approaches for improvement of our CAD scheme. In conclusion, the CAD scheme for detection of diffuse lung diseases based on texture features extracted from CR chest images has the potential to assist radiologists in their interpretation of diffuse lung diseases.

  18. Quantitative kinetic analysis of lung nodules using the temporal subtraction technique in dynamic chest radiographies performed with a flat panel detector.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; Kodera, Yoshie; Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru

    2009-04-01

    Early detection and treatment of lung cancer is one of the most effective means of reducing cancer mortality, and to this end, chest X-ray radiography has been widely used as a screening method. A related technique based on the development of computer analysis and a flat panel detector (FPD) has enabled the functional evaluation of respiratory kinetics in the chest and is expected to be introduced into clinical practice in the near future. In this study, we developed a computer analysis algorithm to detect lung nodules and to evaluate quantitative kinetics. Breathing chest radiographs obtained by modified FPD and breath synchronization utilizing diaphragmatic analysis of vector movement were converted into four static images by sequential temporal subtraction processing, morphological enhancement processing, kinetic visualization processing, and lung region detection processing. An artificial neural network analyzed these density patterns to detect the true nodules and draw their kinetic tracks. Both the algorithm performance and the evaluation of clinical effectiveness of seven normal patients and simulated nodules showed sufficient detecting capability and kinetic imaging function without significant differences. Our technique can quantitatively evaluate the kinetic range of nodules and is effective in detecting a nodule on a breathing chest radiograph. Moreover, the application of this technique is expected to extend computer-aided diagnosis systems and facilitate the development of an automatic planning system for radiation therapy.

  19. Quality assessment of digital X-ray chest images using an anthropomorphic chest phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodovatov, A. V.; Kamishanskaya, I. G.; Drozdov, A. A.; Bernhardsson, C.

    2017-02-01

    The current study is focused on determining the optimal tube voltage for the conventional X-ray digital chest screening examinations, using a visual grading analysis method. Chest images of an anthropomorphic phantom were acquired in posterior-anterior projection on four digital X-ray units with different detector types. X-ray images obtained with an anthropomorphic phantom were accepted by the radiologists as corresponding to a normal human anatomy, hence allowing using phantoms in image quality trials without limitations.

  20. Development of a Chest Wall Protector Effective in Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death by Chest Wall Impact (Commotio Cordis)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kartik; Mandleywala, Swati N.; Gannon, Michael P.; Estes, Nathan Anthony Mark; Weinstock, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Commotio cordis, sudden death with chest impact, occurs clinically despite chest wall protectors worn in sports. In an experimental model of commotio cordis, commercially available chest wall protectors failed to prevent ventricular fibrillation (VF). The goal of the current investigation was to develop a chest wall protector effective in the prevention of commotio cordis. Design: In the Tufts experimental model of commotio cordis the ability of chest protectors to prevent VF was assessed. Impacts were delivered with a 40-mph lacrosse ball, timed to the vulnerable period for VF. Intervention: A chest wall protector or no chest wall protector (control) was randomly assigned to be placed over the chest. Four iterative series of 2 to 4 different chest wall material combinations were assessed. Materials included 3 different foams (Accelleron [Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA], closed cell high density foam; Airilon [Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA], closed cell low density soft foam; and an open cell memory foam) that were adhered to a layer of TriDur (Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA), a flexible elastomeric coated aramid that was bonded to a semirigid polypropylene polymer (ImpacShield, Unequal Technologies, Glen Mills, PA). Main Outcome Measure: Induction of VF by chest wall impact was the primary outcome. Results: Of 80 impacts without chest protectors, 43 (54%) resulted in VF. Ventricular fibrillation with chest protectors ranged from a high of 60% to a low of 5%. Of 12 chest protectors assessed, only 3 significantly lowered the risk of VF compared with impacts without chest protectors. These 3 chest protectors were combinations of Accelleron, Airilon, TriDur, and ImpacShield of different thicknesses. Protection increased linearly with the thicker combinations. Conclusions: Effective protection against VF with chest wall protection can be achieved in an experimental model of commotio cordis. Clinical Relevance: Chest protector designs

  1. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  2. The impact of clinical indications on visual search behaviour in skeletal radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, A.; McEntee, M. F.; Rainford, L.; O'Grady, M.; McCarthy, K.; Butler, M. L.

    2011-03-01

    The hazards associated with ionizing radiation have been documented in the literature and therefore justifying the need for X-ray examinations has come to the forefront of the radiation safety debate in recent years1. International legislation states that the referrer is responsible for the provision of sufficient clinical information to enable the justification of the medical exposure. Clinical indications are a set of systematically developed statements to assist in accurate diagnosis and appropriate patient management2. In this study, the impact of clinical indications upon fracture detection for musculoskeletal radiographs is analyzed. A group of radiographers (n=6) interpreted musculoskeletal radiology cases (n=33) with and without clinical indications. Radiographic images were selected to represent common trauma presentations of extremities and pelvis. Detection of the fracture was measured using ROC methodology. An eyetracking device was employed to record radiographers search behavior by analysing distinct fixation points and search patterns, resulting in a greater level of insight and understanding into the influence of clinical indications on observers' interpretation of radiographs. The influence of clinical information on fracture detection and search patterns was assessed. Findings of this study demonstrate that the inclusion of clinical indications result in impressionable search behavior. Differences in eye tracking parameters were also noted. This study also attempts to uncover fundamental observer search strategies and behavior with and without clinical indications, thus providing a greater understanding and insight into the image interpretation process. Results of this study suggest that availability of adequate clinical data should be emphasized for interpreting trauma radiographs.

  3. Tube thoracostomy; chest tube implantation and follow up

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Porpodis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an urgent medical situation that requires urgent treatment. We can divide this entity based on the etiology to primary and secondary. Chest tube implantation can be performed either in the upper chest wall or lower. Both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can place a chest tube with minimal invasive techniques. In our current work, we will demonstrate chest tube implantation to locations, methodology and tools. PMID:25337405

  4. A radiographic scanning technique for cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, G.W.; Dorsey, M.E.; Woods, J.C.; Miller, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A radiographic scanning technique (RST) can produce single continuous radiographs of cores or core sections up to 1.5 m long and up to 30 cm wide. Changing a portable industrial X-ray unit from the normal still-shot mode to a scanning mode requires simple, inexpensive, easily constructed, and highly durable equipment. Additional components include a conveyor system, antiscatter cylinder-diaphragm, adjustable sample platform, developing tanks, and a contact printer. Complete cores, half cores, sample slabs or peels may be scanned. Converting the X-ray unit from one mode to another is easy and can be accomplished without the use of special tools. RST provides the investigator with a convenient, continuous, high quality radiograph, saves time and money, and decreases the number of times cores have to be handled. ?? 1979.

  5. Centric relation determinations: clinical and radiographic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Carwell, M L; McFall, W T

    1981-07-01

    This study investigated variations in occlusal prematurities and condylar positions using different methods of determining centric relation. Thirty patients were randomly placed into three groups of 10. In Group I a clinical analysis of occlusal patterns using bilateral mandibular manipulation (BMM) was compared to results with a chin point (CPM) method. Group II compared CPM to an anterior guidance jig (CPJ) method. Group III compared BMM to CPJ. Standardized transcranial oblique radiographs were taken of each temporomandibular joint using CPM and BMM on 10 patients. Condylar position was determined with tracing evaluations and direct measurements of the radiographs. Clinical results indicated that the initial point of contact was located most accurately with CPJ. Both initial contact points and secondary points were disclosed with CPM. The BMM disclosed the most tooth contacts. Contacts were most prevalent on the premolars. Radiographic analyses of condylar positions were inconclusive.

  6. Diabetic mastopathy as a radiographically occult palpable breast mass.

    PubMed

    Thanarajasingam, Uma; Chen, Beiyun; Tortorelli, Cindy L; Jakub, James W; Ghosh, Karthik

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy is an uncommon, benign disease of the breast that can occur in women with diabetes and clinically mimic breast cancer. We describe a patient with long-standing type 1 diabetes who presented with a palpable breast mass with negative imaging findings on mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MRI. Surgical biopsy and histopathology confirmed diabetic mastopathy. We use this case to highlight the recognition, radiographic features, pathology, and management of this benign breast condition and emphasize that, in diabetic patients, the differential diagnosis of a new breast mass should include diabetic mastopathy.

  7. Fractures of the hook of hamate: radiographic signs

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.; Nelson, J.; Green, S.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated fractures of the hamulus, formerly considered rare, are being seen more frequently. Many of these injuries are sports related, particularly in golf, tennis, racquetball and baseball players. Failure to make an early diagnosis can result in severe pain and sometimes incapacitating disability. The authors studied the clinical and radiological findings in 12 patients who had fracture of the hook of the hamate. The proposed three radiographic signs of fracture that are readily seen on routine PA projections: absence of the hook of the hamate; sclerosis of the hook; and lack of cortical density, i.e., barely visible outline, of the hamulus.

  8. Automated matching of corresponding seed images of three simulator radiographs to allow 3D triangulation of implanted seeds.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, M D; Kassaee, A

    1997-02-01

    To match corresponding seed images in different radiographs so that the 3D seed locations can be triangulated automatically and without ambiguity requires (at least) three radiographs taken from different perspectives, and an algorithm that finds the proper permutations of the seed-image indices. Matching corresponding images in only two radiographs introduces inherent ambiguities which can be resolved only with the use of non-positional information obtained with intensive human effort. Matching images in three or more radiographs is an 'NP (Non-determinant in Polynomial time)-complete' problem. Although the matching problem is fundamental, current methods for three-radiograph seed-image matching use 'local' (seed-by-seed) methods that may lead to incorrect matchings. We describe a permutation-sampling method which not only gives good 'global' (full permutation) matches for the NP-complete three-radiograph seed-matching problem, but also determines the reliability of the radiographic data themselves, namely, whether the patient moved in the interval between radiographic perspectives.

  9. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chest roentgenograms (X-rays). 718.102... roentgenograms (X-rays). (a) A chest roentgenogram (X-ray) shall be of suitable quality for proper classification...-rays as described in Appendix A. (b) A chest X-ray to establish the existence of pneumoconiosis...

  10. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chest roentgenograms (X-rays). 718.102... roentgenograms (X-rays). (a) A chest roentgenogram (X-ray) shall be of suitable quality for proper classification...-rays as described in Appendix A. (b) A chest X-ray to establish the existence of pneumoconiosis...

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  13. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  14. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  15. Method of radiographic inspection of wooden members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Maggie L. (Inventor); Berry, Robert F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method to be used for radiographic inspection of a wooden specimen for internal defects which includes the steps of introducing a radiopaque penetrant into any internal defects in the specimen through surface openings; passing a beam of radiation through a portion of the specimen to be inspected; and making a radiographic film image of the radiation passing through the specimen, with the radiopaque penetrant in the specimen absorbing the radiation passing through it, thereby enhancing the resulting image of the internal defects in the specimen.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and its role in the detection of latent TB infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Piccazzo, Riccardo; Paparo, Francesco; Garlaschi, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    In this systematic review we evaluate the role of chest radiography (CXR) in the diagnostic flow chart for tuberculosis (TB) infection, focusing on latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients requiring medical treatment with biological drugs. In recent findings, patients scheduled for immunomodulatory therapy with biologic drugs are a group at risk of TB reactivation and, in such patients, detection of LTBI is of great importance. CXR for diagnosis of pulmonary TB has good sensitivity, but poor specificity. Radiographic diagnosis of active disease can only be reliably made on the basis of temporal evolution of pulmonary lesions. In vivo tuberculin skin test and ex vivo interferon-γ release assays are designed to identify development of an adaptive immune response, but not necessarily LTBI. Computed tomography (CT) is able to distinguish active from inactive disease. CT is considered a complementary imaging modality to CXR in the screening procedure to detect past and LTBI infection in specific subgroups of patients who have increased risk for TB reactivation, including those scheduled for medical treatment with biological drugs.

  17. Morbidity of "DSM-IV" Axis I Disorders in Patients with Noncardiac Chest Pain: Psychiatric Morbidity Linked with Increased Pain and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kamila S.; Raffa, Susan D.; Jakle, Katherine R.; Stoddard, Jill A.; Barlow, David H.; Brown, Timothy A.; Covino, Nicholas A.; Ullman, Edward; Gervino, Ernest V.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined current and lifetime psychiatric morbidity, chest pain, and health care utilization in 229 patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP), angina-like pain in the absence of cardiac etiology. Diagnostic interview findings based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV"; American…

  18. A case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, which presented an acute interstitial pneumonia-like image on chest CT scan.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohiro; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Susaki, Kentaro; Danjo, Junichi; Nakashima, Shusaku; Shimada, Hiromi; Izumikawa, Miharu; Takeuchi, Yohei; Mitsunaka, Hiroki; Bandoh, Shuji; Imataki, Osamu; Nose, Masato; Matsunaga, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) complicated with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). A female patient was diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) with MCTD by chest CT scan. Corticosteroid therapy was refractory for lung involvement, and she died due to acute respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed that AIP was compatible with lung involvement of CAPS. We therefore suggest that chest CT might reveal AIP-like findings in CAPS patients whose condition is complicated with pulmonary manifestations.

  19. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

  20. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Cancer.gov

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  1. What is the effect of chest physiotherapy in hospitalized children with pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Damiani, Felipe; Adasme, Rodrigo

    2015-10-19

    Chest physiotherapy is applied in clinical practice for the treatment of pneumonia. However, its use is still controversial. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified one systematic review including two relevant randomized controlled trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is unclear whether chest physiotherapy increases or decreases the length of hospitalization, severity, or the time to clinical improvement in children with pneumonia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  2. Proportionality between chest wall resistance and elastance.

    PubMed

    Barnas, G M; Stamenović, D; Fredberg, J J

    1991-02-01

    Fredberg and Stamenovic (J. Appl. Physiol. 67: 2408-2419, 1989) demonstrated a relatively robust phenomenological relationship between resistance (R) and elastance (E) of lung tissue during external forcing. The relationship can be expressed as omega R = eta E, where omega = 2 pi times forcing frequency and eta is hysteresivity; they found eta to be remarkably invariant under a wide range of circumstances. From data gathered in previous experiments, we have tested the adequacy and utility of this phenomenological description for the chest wall (eta w) and its major compartments, the rib cage (eta rc), diaphragm-abdomen (eta d-a), and belly wall (eta bw+). For forcing frequencies and tidal volumes within the normal range of breathing, we found that eta w remained in a relatively narrow range (0.27-0.37) and that neither eta w nor the compartmental eta's changed much with frequency or tidal volume. Compared with eta w, eta rc tended to be slightly low, whereas eta d-a tended to be slightly higher than eta w. However, at higher frequencies (greater than 1 Hz) all eta's increased appreciably with frequency. During various static nonrespiratory maneuvers involving use of respiratory muscles, eta w increased up to twofold. We conclude that in the normal ranges of breathing frequency and tidal volume 1) elastic and dissipative processes within the chest wall appear to be coupled, 2) eta's of the various component parts of the chest wall are well matched, 3) respiratory muscle contraction increases the ratio of cyclic dissipative losses to energy storage, and 4) R of the relaxed chest wall can be estimated from E.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  4. Surface Chest Motion Decomposition for Cardiovascular Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Shafiq, Ghufran; Veluvolu, Kalyana C.

    2014-01-01

    Surface chest motion can be easily monitored with a wide variety of sensors such as pressure belts, fiber Bragg gratings and inertial sensors, etc. The current applications of these sensors are mainly restricted to respiratory motion monitoring/analysis due to the technical challenges involved in separation of the cardiac motion from the dominant respiratory motion. The contribution of heart to the surface chest motion is relatively very small as compared to the respiratory motion. Further, the heart motion spectrally overlaps with the respiratory harmonics and their separation becomes even more challenging. In this paper, we approach this source separation problem with independent component analysis (ICA) framework. ICA with reference (ICA-R) yields only desired component with improved separation, but the method is highly sensitive to the reference generation. Several reference generation approaches are developed to solve the problem. Experimental validation of these proposed approaches is performed with chest displacement data and ECG obtained from healthy subjects under normal breathing and post-exercise conditions. The extracted component morphologically matches well with the collected ECG. Results show that the proposed methods perform better than conventional band pass filtering. PMID:24865183

  5. Detecting objects in radiographs for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Snyder, Hans

    2005-05-01

    We present a general scheme for segmenting a radiographic image into polygons that correspond to visual features. This decomposition provides a vectorized representation that is a high-level description of the image. The polygons correspond to objects or object parts present in the image. This characterization of radiographs allows the direct application of several shape recognition algorithms to identify objects. In this paper we describe the use of constrained Delaunay triangulations as a uniform foundational tool to achieve multiple visual tasks, namely image segmentation, shape decomposition, and parts-based shape matching. Shape decomposition yields parts that serve as tokens representing local shape characteristics. Parts-based shape matching enables the recognition of objects in the presence of occlusions, which commonly occur in radiographs. The polygonal representation of image features affords the efficient design and application of sophisticated geometric filtering methods to detect large-scale structural properties of objects in images. Finally, the representation of radiographs via polygons results in significant reduction of image file sizes and permits the scalable graphical representation of images, along with annotations of detected objects, in the SVG (scalable vector graphics) format that is proposed by the world wide web consortium (W3C). This is a textual representation that can be compressed and encrypted for efficient and secure transmission of information over wireless channels and on the Internet. In particular, our methods described here provide an algorithmic framework for developing image analysis tools for screening cargo at ports of entry for homeland security.

  6. Radiographic applications of spatial frequency multiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macovski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of spacial frequency encoding techniques which allow different regions of the X-ray spectrum to be encoded on conventional radiographs was studied. Clinical considerations were reviewed, as were experimental studies involving the encoding and decoding of X-ray images at different energies and the subsequent processing of the data to produce images of specific materials in the body.

  7. TECHNICAL TRAINING FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHERS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDEN, H.D.

    TO OFFSET THE PROBLEM OF A SHORTAGE OF QUALIFIED TECHNICIANS TO SERVE AS RADIOGRAPHERS IN INDUSTRY, 19 STUDENTS WERE TRAINED IN TWO CLASSES, THE FIRST CONSISTING OF 19, AND THE SECOND OF EIGHTEEN 30-HOUR WEEKS. ORGANIZED FORMAL OR LECTURE-TYPE INSTRUCTION WAS PRESENTED IN SOME SUBJECT AREAS, BUT THE MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON LABORATORY EXPERIENCES…

  8. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  9. The Design of Radiographic Enhancement Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    reco Inc., 547 St. Thomas, Longueuil , Quebec, Canada J4H 3A7 9 S. I",, . % . . ,. . - . % % .,, . -.- . . . .d- . - ,. , - - .,, - ,. - ..- , .S...34: the IED safe. Samples of original and enhanced radiographs made with the P-1700 scanner are shown in Figures 5 and 6. The improvement in image

  10. Panoramic radiographic demonstration of bilateral tonsilloliths.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Carlo; Mandel, Louis

    2011-04-01

    Calcifications can develop within the crypts of the palatine tonsil. During routine dental panoramic radiography, these tonsillar calcifications, or tonsilloliths, may be visualized superimposed upon the mandibular ramus. Their anatomic location and radiographic appearance are such that confusion with parotid sialolithiasis may occur. This report defines the symptomatology and differential diagnosis of these tonsilloliths.

  11. Survey of Radiographic Requirements and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Shawkat, Abdul H.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of dental schools revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. There was a high degree of variability as to what constituted a full radiographic survey, which has implications concerning the maximum limits to patient exposure to radiation. (Author/MLW)

  12. Pulp size in molars: underestimation on radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, N P; Ford, T R Pitt; Monteith, B D

    2004-08-01

    The aim was to determine whether radiographs provide a clinically useful indication of pulp size in diseased/restored human first molar teeth, and to investigate accessibility of pulp tissue for diagnostic testing using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Extracted teeth of known age were collected. Restorative materials were removed and teeth with evidence of pulp exposures excluded. Fifty-six teeth were radiographed from buccal and mesial aspects, and then their crowns were sectioned axiobuccolingually and photographed. Images were digitally scanned and measurements made of the total pulp area (above a line across the most superior part of the pulpal floor) and the pulp area in the clinical crown (superior to a line between the amelocemental junctions). The pulp width at the cervix and the highest point of the pulp were also recorded. Data were analysed using Pearson correlations. Pulp areas within the clinical crowns were significantly larger than indicated by radiographs, by 23% in the case of the clinically attainable buccal view (P < 0.05). Pulps may be more accessible to flowmeter testing than they appear. Absence of pulp tissues in the crown was recorded in equal numbers of teeth on radiographs and sections, but with agreement for only one tooth. Sixteen per cent of the teeth had no pulp area in the clinical crown when sectioned, but might still be suitable for testing using LDF.

  13. Radiographic evaluation and assessment of paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, E S; Palestro, C; Vaheesan, K

    2001-10-01

    Radiographic imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of paragangliomas. Diagnosis and treatment should be performed as a team effort, with all the involved disciplines working together to provide the best possible individualized work-up and treatment plan for the patient.

  14. Radiographic Differentiation of Advanced Fibrocystic Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akira, Masanori

    2017-03-01

    The concept of end-stage lung disease suggests a final common pathway for most diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. In accordance with this concept, end-stage disease is characterized radiographically and pathologically by the presence of extensive honeycombing. However, sequential computed tomographic (CT) scans obtained from patients with chronic diffuse lung disease evolve over time to show various advanced lung disease patterns other than honeycombing. In addition, several radiographically distinct honeycomb patterns, including microcystic, macrocystic, mixed, and combined emphysema and honeycombing, differentiate one advanced lung disease from another. For example, usual interstitial pneumonia (IP) usually shows mixed microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing. In contrast, CT images of long-standing fibrotic nonspecific IP typically show only small, scattered foci of honeycombing; instead, most enlarged airspaces observed in the advanced stage of this disease represent dilatation of bronchioles. In desquamative IP and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, focal opacities typically evolve into emphysema-like lesions seen on CT imaging. In combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema and sarcoidosis, the cysts tend to be larger than those observed in usual IP. Sequential CT scans in other chronic, diffuse lung diseases also show various distinctive changes. This article highlights radiographic patterns of lung destruction that belie a single common pathway to end-stage lung disease. Recognition of distinct radiographic patterns of lung destruction can help differentiate diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, even in advanced stages of disease evolution.

  15. [A case of postcardiac injury syndrome with repeated pleuritis after blunt chest trauma].

    PubMed

    Namba, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Nawa, Takeshi; Endo, Katuyuki

    2009-12-01

    A 59-year-old man suffered blunt injury to the left chest during a fall in August 2004. He had 5 repeated episodes of back and left chest pain in three years since August 2005. Since these symptoms were accompanied by left pleural effusion and serum inflammatory reaction, the tentative diagnosis was pleuritis. Although examinations of pleural effusion showed exudation with marked augmentation of inflammatory cells, there were no findings that suggested the cause of repetitive pleuritis. All symptoms were relieved within one or two weeks following administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgical thoracoscopy was carried out to investigate the cause of repeated pleuritis, and an acquired deficit of the left pericardium was noted. We considered this case to be postcardiac injury syndrome causing repeated pleuritis following blunt chest injury.

  16. Undisclosed cocaine use and chest pain in emergency departments of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; López, Beatriz; León, Juan María Borreguero; Sánchez, Miquel Sánchez; González, Martin García; Rodriguez, Alberto Domínguez; Afonso, Eva Vallbona; Sosa, Alejandro Jiménez; Mirò, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Aims Illicit cocaine consumption in Spain is one of the highest in Europe. Our objective was to study the incidence of undisclosed cocaine consumption in patients attending in two Spanish Emergency Departments for chest pain. Methods We analysed urine samples from consenting consecutive patients attending ED for chest pain to determine the presence of cocaine, and other drugs, by semiquantative tests with fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Results Of 140 cases, 15.7 presented positive test for drugs, and cocaine was present in 6.4%. All cocaine-positive patients were younger (p < 0.001); none was admitted to Hospital (p = 0.08). No significant differences in ED stay or need for hospitalization were found between cocaine-positive and negative patients. Conclusion This finding in chest pain patients who consented to urine analysis suggests that the true incidence of cocaine use leading to such ED visits may be higher. PMID:19254377

  17. Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma radiographically mimicking an odontogenic tumor: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Leorik Pereira; Serpa, Marianna Sampaio; da Silva, Luiz Arthur Barbosa; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras

    2016-01-01

    Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMC) of the jaw bones is a rare malignant salivary gland tumor of unknown pathogenesis, comprising about 4% of all mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs). Most cases are histologically classified as a low-grade tumor and radiographically appear as a well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesion. Block resection or wide local excisions are the treatment of choice and patients usually show a good overall prognosis although a long-term follow-up is necessary. This report describes a case of a 28-year-old male with MEC in the posterior region of the mandible and discusses its clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Although rare, CMC may be considered a differential diagnosis in cases of proliferative and osteolytic lesions in the oral cavity even when its clinical and/or radiographic findings do not suggest malignancy. PMID:27721620

  18. Age-related thoracic radiographic changes in golden and labrador retriever muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Labruyère, Julien J; Thibaud, Jean Laurent; Barthélémy, Inès; Leperlier, Dimitri; Saunders, Jimmy H; Blot, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Golden retriever and Labrador retriever muscular dystrophy are inherited progressive degenerative myopathies that are used as models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in man. Thoracic lesions were reported to be the most consistent radiographic finding in golden retriever dogs in a study where radiographs were performed at a single-time point. Muscular dystrophy worsens clinically over time and longitudinal studies in dogs are lacking. Thus our goal was to describe the thoracic abnormalities of golden retriever and Labrador retriever dogs, to determine the timing of first expression and their evolution with time. To this purpose, we retrospectively reviewed 390 monthly radiographic studies of 38 golden retrievers and six Labrador retrievers with muscular dystrophy. The same thoracic lesions were found in both golden and Labrador retrievers. They included, in decreasing frequency, flattened and/or scalloped diaphragmatic shape (43/44), pulmonary hyperinflation (34/44), hiatal hernia (34/44), cranial pectus excavatum (23/44), bronchopneumonia (22/44), and megaesophagus (14/44). The last three lesions were not reported in a previous radiographic study in golden retriever dogs. In all but two dogs the thoracic changes were detected between 4 and 10 months and were persistent or worsened over time. Clinically, muscular dystrophy should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with a combination of these thoracic radiographic findings.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 34 - Radiographer Certification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Pt. 34, App. A Appendix A to Part 34—Radiographer Certification I... Agreement State requirements; 2. Written in a multiple-choice format; 3. Have test items drawn from...

  20. Reliability of Panoramic Radiographs in the Localization of Mandibular Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of panoramic radiographs in the localization of mandibular foramen. Materials and Methods Twenty five Indian dry human adult mandibles constituted the study material. Ten measurements were carried on each of them to evaluate the location of mandibular foramen with respect to adjacent anatomic landmarks. Panoramic radiographs were then made of the mandibles. Same distances were measured on the traced images of the radiographs. Paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were applied to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of panoramic radiographs in localization of mandibular foramen. Results The mean distances measured on dry mandibles and panoramic radiographs showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was strong positive correlation between the measurements on dry mandible and panoramic radiographs. Conclusion The panoramic radiographs can serve as a guide in locating the anterosuperior point of mandibular foramen on panoramic radiographs. PMID:26155559

  1. Aspiration cytology of mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Taweevisit, Mana; Trinavarat, Panruethai; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a rare tumor-like lesion of infancy and childhood. The few available descriptions of the findings on fine needle aspiration list spindle-shaped cells and cartilage or chondromyxoid material as essential features for this diagnosis. An aggressive appearance on imaging studies and a lack of familiarity with this lesion, can lead the pathologist to misdiagnose the cytologic findings as malignancy. We reported a 5-month-old male presenting with a mass of the right chest wall progressively for 2 months. Radiologic studies showed a mixed solid and cystic mass originating from the third, fourth and fifth ribs, and a diagnosis of malignancy was favored. Fine needle aspiration recovered only spindle-shaped cells and a few multinucleated giant cells of osteoclast type. After a review of the imaging, a diagnosis of mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall was raised. This diagnosis was confirmed by pathologic examination of the subsequently resected mass. This is the sixth report of a mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall diagnosed by fine needle aspiration. This case illustrates that this diagnosis can be suspected in the absence of cartilage or chondromyxoid material, given appropriate clinical and radiologic findings.

  2. Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma: effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun Gu; Lee, Yunjung

    2016-01-01

    Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influencing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractures. The two modalities were compared in terms of effectiveness based on simple radiographic readings and US examination results. We also investigated the factors that influenced the effectiveness of US examination. Rib fractures were detected on radiography in 69 patients (34.3%) but not in 132 patients. Rib fractures were diagnosed by using US examination in 160 patients (84.6%). Of the 132 patients who showed no rib fractures on radiography, 92 showed rib fractures on US. Among the 69 patients of rib fracture detected on radiography, 33 had additional rib fractures detected on US. Of the patients, 76 (37.8%) had identical radiographic and US results, and 125 (62.2%) had fractures detected on US that were previously undetected on radiography or additional fractures detected on US. Age, duration until US examination, and fracture location were not significant influencing factors. However, in the group without detected fractures on radiography, US showed a more significant effectiveness than in the group with detected fractures on radiography (P=0.003). US examination could detect unnoticed rib fractures on simple radiography. US examination is especially more effective in the group without detected fractures on radiography. More attention should be paid to patients with chest trauma who have no detected fractures on radiography. PMID:28119889

  3. Radiographic and electrocardiographic evaluation of cardiac morphology and function in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Juergen; Snyder, Patti; Citino, Scott B; Bennett, R Avery; Dvorak, Laura D

    2003-12-01

    In a prospective study, eight (four males and four females) healthy, adult captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) were immobilized with a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (4 mg/kg, i.m.), administered with a remote drug delivery system, to define normal cardiac morphology and function. Standard lateral and ventrodorsal (VD) radiographs were then taken to measure heart and thorax using a metric and vertebral scale system. Standard six-lead electrocardiograms were obtained with the animals in right lateral recumbency under isoflurane anesthesia. Mean chest depth and width was 18.7 +/- 1.3 cm and 13.0 +/- 0.6 cm, respectively. The mean lateral cardiac short axis (X) was 9.1 +/- 0.6 cm. the mean cardiac long axis (Y) was 13.6 +/- 0.7 cm, and the mean lateral heart sum (X + Y) was 22.6 +/- 1.2 cm. In the VD projection, mean cardiac short axis (V) was 10.1 +/- 0.7 cm, mean cardiac long axis (W) was 14.9 +/- 1.2 cm, and the heart sum (V + W) was 24.9 +/- 1.8 cm. The vertebral heart size was 8.2 +/- 0.9. All cheetahs had sinus rhythm, and no arrhythmias were noted. Mean heart rate was 126 +/- 15 beats/min, and the mean electrical axis was 82 + 5 degrees. P waves were always positive on lead II and had a width of 0.04 +/- 0.01 sec and a height between 0.1 and 0.3 mV. PR intervals were 0.11 +/- 0.01 sec. The height of the QRS complex was 1.25 +/- 0.24 mV and the width 0.06 +/- 0.01 sec. The ST segment was 0.04 sec, and the T wave (height: 0.25 +/- 0.05 mV) was positive in all cheetahs examined. Although these cardiac and thoracic measurements were larger than those of domestic cats (Felis catus), ratios of cardiac parameters were similar in both species. Electrocardiographic findings were similar to those reported from domestic cats.

  4. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Båth, Magnus Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  5. Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Furniss, C; Carstens, A; van den Berg, S S

    2011-12-01

    This study involves the evaluation of pre-purchase radiographic studies of South African Thoroughbred yearlings. Radiographic changes were recorded and compared with similar international studies. The study differs from other studies in that a lower prevalence of pedal osteitis (1.26%), dorsal osteochondral fragmentation of the metatarsophalangeal joint (1.60%), distal metacarpal sagittal ridge changes (15.7%), ulnar carpal bone lucencies (8.33%), carpal osteophytes (1.19%), distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joint radiographic changes (9.92%), tarsal osteochondrosis lesions (4.40%) and stifle osteochondrosis lesions (0.4%) was found. The prevalence of dorsal osteochondral fragments in the metacarpophalangeal joint was similar to other studies (1.60%). A higher prevalence of vascular channels as well as irregular borders and lucencies was evident in the proximal sesamoid bones. There was a higher prevalence of palmar metacarpophalangeal and plantar metatarsophalangeal osteochondral fragments (2% and 7.10% respectively). Palmar metacarpal disease, metacarpal supracondylar lysis, proximal sesamoid bone fractures and carpal osteochondral fragmentation were absent in the current study. Additional findings recorded in the current study were proximal interphalangeal joint hyperextension (left front 15.13%, right front 18.91%), the solar angle (right front 2.38 degrees, left front 2.79 degrees), the prevalence of carpal bone 1 (30.95%) and carpal bone 5 (1.59%). Management, nutrition and genetics in the various groups of Thoroughbred yearlings should be further investigated in order to explain the reasons for the differences recorded in the current study.

  6. [Panoramic radiograph in edentulous and partially edentulous patients].

    PubMed

    Angulo, F

    1989-01-01

    A group of two hundred patients from the School of Dentistry, UCV were study using panoramic RX, in order to determined the incidence of impacted roots, impacted teeth, radiographic feature (radiolucent and radiopaque) and foreign body. From the 200 patient 118 (59%) were edentulous and 82 (415) partially edentulous, from of clinically point of view; 40 (20%) were male and 160 (80%) female. From the total sample only 77 (38.5%) showed radiographic feature meanwhile 123 (61.5%) had not any present. Only the patients with radiographic feature were considered and the result according the age were the following: 18 patients 20-40 years old (23.4%); 41 patients 41-60 years old (53.2%) and 18 patients 61-80 years old (23.4%). The higher numbers of feature were observed in the range of age 41-60 years old. In relation to the form there was a predominance of diffuse form (53.3%). However, the size was greater of 5 mm. (43.3%). On the other hand, the higher numbers of feature were observed in the area 456 in the mandible (50%). This findings are in agreement with the result found by Jones & et al (1985) (J. Prosthet Dent 53:535-539). This values are in the same range 20-60% founded in other countries. No significant difference were founded between the partially or totally edentulous patients. This work suggest the important of the panoramic RX as a diagnostic aid before a prosthetic treatment.

  7. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  13. Herniation pits in the femoral neck: a radiographic indicator of femoroacetabular impingement?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ah; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Ryu, Kyungnam

    2011-02-01

    The purpose was to assess the significance of herniation pits in the femoral neck for radiographic diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Eighty hips in 62 patients (bilateral in 18) with neutral pelvic orientation were enrolled. Herniation pits were diagnosed when they were located at the anterosuperior femoral neck, close to the physis, and with a diameter of >3 mm. The five radiographic signs of FAI were used: lateral center edge angle (LCE) >39°, acetabular index (AI) ≤0, extrusion index (EI) <25%, acetabular retroversion, and pistol-grip deformity. Patients with radiographs suggesting FAI were retrospectively correlated with their clinical symptoms. Positive radiographic signs were observed in 7 hips with LCE, 7 with AI, and 80 with EI criteria. Only 3 hips out of 80 (3.8%) showed all of the signs. The acetabular retroversion and pistol-grip deformity were seen in 12/80 and 3/80 hips, respectively. The total number of hips that met radiographic criteria for FAI, including pincer type and cam type, was 18 (23%). However, none of these hips were clinically diagnosed with FAI. All symptomatic hips (11/80) presented only with nonspecific pain, and 2 hips out of 11 showed radiographic signs of FAI. The low frequency of positive radiographic signs suggesting FAI with related symptoms among patients with herniation pits suggests that herniation pits have limited significance in the diagnosis of FAI. Therefore it can be concluded that an incidental finding of herniation pits does not necessarily imply a correlation with FAI.

  14. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Traumatized Immature Permanent Necrotic Teeth after Revascularization/Revitalization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A.; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Lin, Louis M.; Gibbs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Revascularization treatment is rapidly becoming an accepted alternative for the management of endodontic pathology in immature permanent teeth with necrotic dental pulps. However, the success and timing of clinical resolution of symptoms and of radiographic outcomes of interest, such as continued hard tissue deposition within the root, are largely unknown. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 20 teeth were treated with a standardized revascularization treatment protocol, and monitored for clinical and radiographic changes for one year. Standardized radiographs were collected at regular intervals and radiographic changes were quantified. Results All 20 treated teeth survived during the 12 month follow up period and all 20 also met the clinical criteria for success at 12 months. As a group, the treated teeth demonstrated a statistically significant increase in radiographic width and length, and a decrease in apical diameter, although the changes in many cases were quite small such that the clinical significance is unclear. The within-case percent change in apical diameter after 3 months was 16% and had increased to 79% by 12 months, with 55% (11/20) showing complete apical closure. The within-case percent change in root length averaged less than 1% at 3 months and increased to 5% at 12 months. The within-case percent change in root thickness averaged 3% at 3 months and 21% at 12 months. Conclusions Although clinical success was highly predictable with this procedure, clinically meaningful radiographic root thickening and lengthening is less predictable at one year of follow up. Apical closure is the most consistent radiographic finding. PMID:25443280

  15. Baseline sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and male sex predict the development of radiographic sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Akar, Servet; Isik, Sibel; Birlik, Bilge; Solmaz, Dilek; Sari, Ismail; Onen, Fatos; Akkoc, Nurullah

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the baseline sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the development of radiographic sacroiliitis and tested their prognostic significance in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. Patients who had undergone an SIJ MRI at the rheumatology department were identified. Individuals for whom pelvic X-rays were available after at least 1 year of MRI were included in the analysis. All radiographs and MRI examinations were scored by two independent readers. Medical records of the patients were reviewed to obtain potentially relevant demographic and clinical data. We identified 1,069 SIJ MRIs, and 328 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Reliability analysis revealed moderate to good inter- and intra-observer agreement. On presentation data, 14 cases were excluded because they had unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis at baseline. After a mean of 34.8 months of follow-up, 24 patients developed radiographic sacroiliitis. The presence of active sacroiliitis (odds ratio (OR) 15.1) and structural lesions on MRI (OR 8.3), male sex (OR 4.7), fulfillment of Calin's inflammatory back pain criteria (P = 0.001), and total MRI activity score (P < 0.001) were found to be related to the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. By regression modeling, the presence of both active inflammatory and structural damage lesions on MRI and male sex were found to be predictive factors for the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. Our present results suggest that the occurrence of both active inflammatory and structural lesions in SIJs revealed by MRI is a significant risk factor for radiographic sacroiliitis, especially in male patients with early inflammatory back pain.

  16. A Description of Skeletal Manifestation in Adult Case of Morquio Syndrome: Radiographic and MRI Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Annalisa; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Moffa, Stefano; Teresa, Paolucci; Luca, Innocenzi; Giombini, Arrigo

    2012-01-01

    We report on a rare case of Morquio syndrome, an autosomal recessive mucopolysaccharidosis including type IVA, a deficiency of N-acetylgalctosamine-6-sulfatase and type IVB a deficiency of β-galactosidase. A 43-year-old female patient affected by IVB Morquio syndrome underwent instrumental investigation. Conventional plain films of the entire spine, pelvis, chest and knees together with magnetic resonance imaging of the entire column, hip, knees, and ankles demonstrated the characteristics of skeletal changes of this disease. The main abnormalities were platyspondily and hypoplasia of the odontoid process, genua valga deformity and severe multiple degenerative changes of the hips, knees, and ankle joints. Radiographs and above all magnetic resonance imaging are crucial to provide substantial information about the gravity, evolution of the skeletal and joints changes, and the rehabilitation strategies to be followed. PMID:22829837

  17. Laser reflectance imaging of human chest for localization of internal organs.

    PubMed

    Pandian, P S; Kumaravel, M; Singh, Megha

    2010-05-01

    The normalized backscattered intensity (NBI) profiles at various locations of human thorax by multiprobe laser reflectometer are obtained. These data after digitization, interpolation, and filtering are color-coded and displayed as images on the outline of the human thorax. For optical characterization of tissues in terms of their parameters, scattering and absorption coefficients and the anisotropy parameter (g) are obtained by matching the measured NBI profile with that as obtained by Monte Carlo simulation procedure. Corresponding to the variation of the NBI over the various regions, the optical parameters show their respective changes. The maximum absorption and minimum scattering coefficients are observed at the areola, clavicle, sternum, scapula, and vertebral column. The minimum absorption and maximum scattering coefficients are observed at the pectoralis major of chest and rectus abdominis of abdomen regions, as compared to the other regions, attributed to their tissue compositional variations. To visualize the various tissues in lower regions of the thorax, the color-coded scheme of the NBI variation, as measured by the third fiber, is further expanded. By this procedure, the outlines of the heart and lungs, as detected through intercostals regions, are observed, which is in good agreement with that as determined by the chest radiograph of the same subject taken in PA position. Similarly the lower sections of the liver and stomach, due to their distinct optical parameters, are also observed.

  18. Homogeneous Canine Chest Phantom Construction: A Tool for Image Quality Optimization.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Ana Luiza Menegatti; Rosa, Maria Eugênia Dela; Giacomini, Guilherme; Bacchim Neto, Fernando Antonio; Yamashita, Seizo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa; Miranda, José Ricardo de Arruda; de Pina, Diana Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is increasing in veterinary practice. The use of radiation demands responsibility to maintain high image quality. Low doses are necessary because workers are requested to restrain the animal. Optimizing digital systems is necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure, causing the phenomenon known as dose creep. Homogeneous phantoms are widely used to optimize image quality and dose. We developed an automatic computational methodology to classify and quantify tissues (i.e., lung tissue, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, and bone) in canine chest computed tomography exams. The thickness of each tissue was converted to simulator materials (i.e., Lucite, aluminum, and air). Dogs were separated into groups of 20 animals each according to weight. Mean weights were 6.5 ± 2.0 kg, 15.0 ± 5.0 kg, 32.0 ± 5.5 kg, and 50.0 ± 12.0 kg, for the small, medium, large, and giant groups, respectively. The one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all simulator material thicknesses (p < 0.05) quantified between groups. As a result, four phantoms were constructed for dorsoventral and lateral views. In conclusion, the present methodology allows the development of phantoms of the canine chest and possibly other body regions and/or animals. The proposed phantom is a practical tool that may be employed in future work to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures.

  19. Homogeneous Canine Chest Phantom Construction: A Tool for Image Quality Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is increasing in veterinary practice. The use of radiation demands responsibility to maintain high image quality. Low doses are necessary because workers are requested to restrain the animal. Optimizing digital systems is necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure, causing the phenomenon known as dose creep. Homogeneous phantoms are widely used to optimize image quality and dose. We developed an automatic computational methodology to classify and quantify tissues (i.e., lung tissue, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, and bone) in canine chest computed tomography exams. The thickness of each tissue was converted to simulator materials (i.e., Lucite, aluminum, and air). Dogs were separated into groups of 20 animals each according to weight. Mean weights were 6.5 ± 2.0 kg, 15.0 ± 5.0 kg, 32.0 ± 5.5 kg, and 50.0 ± 12.0 kg, for the small, medium, large, and giant groups, respectively. The one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all simulator material thicknesses (p < 0.05) quantified between groups. As a result, four phantoms were constructed for dorsoventral and lateral views. In conclusion, the present methodology allows the development of phantoms of the canine chest and possibly other body regions and/or animals. The proposed phantom is a practical tool that may be employed in future work to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures. PMID:27101001

  20. [Reproducibility of dynamic chest radiography with a flat-panel detector - respiratory changes in pixel value].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hiroki; Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru

    2009-06-20

    Dynamic chest radiography using a flat panel detector (FPD) with a large field of view is expected to be a useful pulmonary functional evaluation method based on the respiratory changes in pixel value. For clinical use as a follow-up and therapeutic evaluation tool, the system must have a high degree of reproducibility in measurements of pixel values. The present study was performed to investigate the reproducibility of respiratory changes in pixel values. Dynamic chest radiographs of five normal subjects and one patient were obtained. Imaging was performed twice in each subject. The slope (X-ray translucency variation) was then calculated from the changes in pixel value from distance lung apex-diaphragm, and the slopes of two sequences were compared. The results showed there were no significant differences in changes in pixel value between the two sequences in all normal subject (5 males, p>0.05). The results indicated that the present method has reproducibility for measuring pulmonary function and also has potential as a tool for follow-up and therapeutic evaluation.

  1. Radiographic union score for hip substantially improves agreement between surgeons and radiologists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the prominence of hip fractures in orthopedic trauma, the assessment of fracture healing using radiographs remains subjective. The variability in the assessment of fracture healing has important implications for both clinical research and patient care. With little existing literature regarding reliable consensus on hip fracture healing, this study was conducted to determine inter-rater reliability between orthopedic surgeons and radiologists on healing assessments using sequential radiographs in patients with hip fractures. Secondary objectives included evaluating a checklist designed to assess hip fracture healing and determining whether agreement improved when reviewers were aware of the timing of the x-rays in relation to the patients’ surgery. Methods A panel of six reviewers (three orthopedic surgeons and three radiologists) independently assessed fracture healing using sequential radiographs from 100 patients with femoral neck fractures and 100 patients with intertrochanteric fractures. During their independent review they also completed a previously developed radiographic checklist (Radiographic Union Score for Hip (RUSH)). Inter and intra-rater reliability scores were calculated. Data from the current study was compared to the findings from a previously conducted study where the same reviewers, unaware of the timing of the x-rays, completed the RUSH score. Results The agreement between surgeons and radiologists for fracture healing was moderate for “general impression of fracture healing” in both femoral neck (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.71) and intertrochanteric fractures (0.50, 95% CI: 0.33-0.62). Using a standardized checklist (RUSH), agreement was almost perfect in both femoral neck (ICC = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82-0.87) and intertrochanteric fractures (0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90). We also found a high degree of correlation between healing and the total RUSH score using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, there was

  2. The patterns of false positive lesions for chest radiography observer performance: insights into errors and locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R.; Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2014-03-01

    To examine the lobar distribution of false positives on a set of nodule-free and nodule-containing chest radiographs when radiologists are requested to perform an unframed task (oral report) compared to a framed task (nodule/s identification). A set of 40 chest images, 21 nodule-free (NF) and 19 nodule-containing (NC), was used. Ten radiologists participated in the study; first an oral clinical report was performed (unframed task, UFT) naming any abnormality seen, a confidence score and the location of reported abnormalities. The second (framed task, FT) had the same images randomly presented and radiologists were asked to locate any lung nodule/s and record their confidence and location of nodules. There was no statistical difference between the mean number of false positives (FPs) per lobe per case type (UFT or FT) with the exception of the right lower lobe (RLL) P=0.021. When the comparison of FPs for tasks and case types was carried out there were significant changes. For the NF cases there are significant differences for right upper lobe (RUL) P=0.0003, left upper lobe (LUL) P=0.0412; for NC cases there are significant differences for RUL P=0.009, RLL P=0.0112, LUL P=0.0337 and left lower lobe (LLL) P=0.0209. There was no significant correlation between the presence of a nodule in a given lobe and the occurrence of a FP in that lobe. The number and lobar location of FPs identified on a chest image by a radiologist is influenced by the task and case type.

  3. Validation of the North American Chest Pain Rule in Prediction of Very Low-Risk Chest Pain; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

    PubMed Central

    Valadkhani, Somayeh; Jalili, Mohammad; Hesari, Elham; Mirfazaelian, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome accounts for more than 15% of the chest pains. Recently, Hess et al. developed North American Chest Pain Rule (NACPR) to identify very low-risk patients who can be safely discharged from emergency department (ED). The present study aimed to validate this rule in EDs of two academic hospitals. Methods: A prospective diagnostic accuracy study was conducted on consecutive patients 24 years of age and older presenting to the ED with the chief complaint of acute chest pain, during March 2013 to June 2013. Chest pain characteristics, cardiac history, electrocardiogram findings, and cardiac biomarker measurement of patients were collected and screening performance characteristics of NACPR with 95% confidence interval were calculated using SPSS 21. Results: From 400 eligible patients with completed follow up, 69 (17.25 %) developed myocardial infarction, 121 (30.25%) underwent coronary revascularization, and 4 (2%) died because of cardiac or unidentifiable causes. By using NACPR, 34 (8.50%) of all the patients could be considered very low- risk and discharged after a brief ED assessment. Among these patients, none developed above-mentioned adverse outcomes within 30 days. Sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value, and negative prediction value of the rule were 100% (95% CI: 87.35 - 100.00), 45.35 (95% CI: 40.19 - 50.61), 14.52 (95% CI: 10.40 – 19.85), and 100 (95% CI: 97.18 - 100.00), respectively. Conclusions: The present multicenter study showed that NACPR is a good screening tool for early discharge of patients with very low-risk chest pain from ED. PMID:28286818

  4. Lumbar spine radiographic features and demographic, clinical, and radiographic knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Adam P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Renner, Jordan B.; Carey, Timothy S.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Irwin, Debra E.; Stürmer, Til; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the prevalence of lumbar spine individual radiographic features (IRF) of disc space narrowing (DSN), osteophytes (OST) and facet joint osteoarthritis (FOA). 2) To describe the frequencies of demographic, clinic and radiographic knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis (OA) across lumbar spine IRF. 3) To determine factors associated with lumbar spine IRF. Methods A cross-sectional study of 840 participants enrolled in the Johnston County OA Project (2003-4). Sample-based prevalence estimates were generated for each lumbar spine IRF. Associations between lumbar spine IRF and demographic, clinical and peripheral joint OA were determined with logistic regression models. Results Sample-based prevalence estimates were similar for DSN (57.6%) and FOA (57.9%) but higher for OST (88.1%) with significant differences across race and gender. Hand and knee OA frequencies increased across IRF whereas the effect was absent for hip OA. African Americans had lower odds of FOA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.45 (95% CI 0.32, 0.62)) while there was no racial association with DSN and OST. Low back symptoms were associated with DSN (aOR=1.37 (95% CI 1.04, 1.80)) but not OST or FOA. Knee OA was associated with OST (aOR=1.62 (95% CI 1.16, 2.27)) and FOA (aOR=1.69 (95% CI 1.15, 2.49)) but not DSN. Hand OA was associated with FOA (aOR=1.67 (95% CI 1.20, 2.28)) but not with DSN or OST. No associations were found with hip OA. Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of analyzing lumbar spine IRF separately as the associations with demographic, clinic and radiographic knee, hip and hand OA differ widely. PMID:22556059

  5. Acute Chest Pain: Emergency Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Walker, David M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Since cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders have significant morbidity and mortality, triage of patients who complain of chest pain is paramount. The less sophisticated the triage system, the more important the protocol should be to have these patients evaluated immediately. History and physical are still the most important diagnostic tools; information should be gathered from all available sources. Advanced cardiac life support training is most useful. Eight diagnostic classifications are described, together with the distinctions of onset, duration, location, radiation, precipitating and relieving factors, character and associated symptoms. The protocol for initial management is outlined, emphasizing coincident management wherever possible. Imagesp2005-a PMID:21286539

  6. Image processing of digital chest ionograms.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, J R; Moores, B M

    1988-10-01

    A number of image-processing techniques have been applied to a digital ionographic chest image in order to evaluate their possible effects on this type of image. In order to quantify any effect, a simulated lesion was superimposed on the image at a variety of locations representing different types of structural detail. Visualization of these lesions was evaluated by a number of observers both pre- and post-processing operations. The operations employed included grey-scale transformations, histogram operations, edge-enhancement and smoothing functions. The resulting effects of these operations on the visualization of the simulated lesions are discussed.

  7. Reporting of dental status from full-arch radiographs: Descriptive analysis and methodological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Huettig, Fabian; Axmann, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To identify standards, how entities of dental status are assessed and reported from full-arch radiographs of adults. METHODS: A PubMed (Medline) search was performed in November 2011. Literature had to report at least one out of four defined entities using radiographs: number of teeth or implants; caries, fillings or restorations; root-canal fillings and apical health; alveolar bone level. Cohorts included to the study had to be of adult age. Methods of radiographic assessment were noted and checked for the later mode of report in text, tables or diagrams. For comparability, the encountered mode of report was operationalized to a logical expression. RESULTS: Thirty-seven out of 199 articles were evaluated via full-text review. Only one article reported all four entities. Eight articles reported at the maximum 3 comparable entities. However, comparability is impeded because of the usage of absolute or relative frequency, mean or median values as well as grouping. Furthermore the methods of assessment were different or not described sufficiently. Consequently, established sum scores turned out to be highly questionable, too. The amount of missing data within all studies remained unclear. It is even so remissed to mention supernumerary and aplased teeth as well as the count of third molars. CONCLUSION: Data about dental findings from radiographs is, if at all possible, only comparable with serious limitations. A standardization of both, assessing and reporting entities of dental status from radiographs is missing and has to be established within a report guideline. PMID:25325067

  8. Interpretation by radiologists of orthopedic total joint radiographs: Is it necessary or cost-effective?

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, K. Naresh K.; Rorabeck, Cecil H.; Bourne, Robert B.; Mulliken, Brian; Robinson, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Objective To examine the necessity and cost-effectiveness of interpretation by radiologists of orthopedic radiographs obtained for patients who undergo total hip or knee replacement. Design A prospective study. Serial preoperative and postoperative x-ray films of the joint in patients scheduled to undergo total hip or knee joint replacement during one calendar year were interpreted by both radiology and orthopedic department staff and compared. Intraoperative findings were used to confirm the radiologic interpretation. The follow-up was 1 year. Setting A university teaching hospital. Interventions Primary or revision total hip or knee replacement. Main Outcome Measures Differences in interpretation of radiographs by radiologists and orthopedic surgeons for any of the four procedures. A change in orthopedic management. Results For preoperative radiographs, there were no discrepancies between the radiologists and orthopedic surgeons with respect to primary joint replacement. For 100 revision procedures there were 15 discrepancies, but in all cases the orthopedic surgeon’s interpretation proved to be correct. For the postoperative radiographs, there were no discrepancies in the group of revision hip replacements. For the other three groups there were a total of six discrepancies and in all cases the orthopedic surgeon’s interpretation was correct. In two cases conditions were present that were not recognized by staff from either the radiology department or orthopedic department. Conclusion Interpretation by radiologists of total joint radiographs in patients who undergo primary or revision total hip or knee replacement arthroplasty is not necessary or cost-effective. PMID:8857988

  9. Iterative Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bingham, Philip R; Gregor, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Use of a coded source facilitates high-resolution neutron imaging but requires that the radiographic data be deconvolved. In this paper, we compare direct deconvolution with two different iterative algorithms, namely, one based on direct deconvolution embedded in an MLE-like framework and one based on a geometric model of the neutron beam and a least squares formulation of the inverse imaging problem.

  10. Video enhancement of dental radiographic films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dis, M.L.; Beck, F.M.; Miles, D.A. )

    1989-08-01

    A prototype video image display system, a real-time analog enhancer (RAE), was compared to conventional viewing conditions with the use of nonscreen dental films. When medium optical density films were evaluated, there was no significant difference in the number of radiographic details detected. Conventional viewing conditions allowed perception of more details when dark films were evaluated; however, the RAE unit allowed the perception of more details when light films were viewed.

  11. Contiguous autogenous transplant--nineteen years' clinical and radiographic follow-up: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sperling, I; Kozlovsky, A; Tal, H

    1994-08-01

    Contiguous autogenous transplant, also known as the bone-swaging procedure, is a technique aimed at regenerating lost periodontium. Clinical healing of bony defects after bone swaging has been satisfactory, but the relationship and mode of attachment between the bone graft and the root surface have not been fully investigated. A 19-year clinical and radiographic follow-up of a bony defect treated with the bone-swaging technique is presented. A significant coronal increase in bone height and a gain in clinical probing depth were achieved postsurgery and remained unchanged during the first 6 years. The long-term clinical and radiographic findings, however, indicated that the attachment developed at the root-bone interface may not have been a true attachment and may have been more vulnerable to pathogenic local agents. These observations may help the clinician to interpret the clinical and radiographic changes that occur in the area of a bony defect following the use of a bone graft.

  12. A multi-observer study examining the radiographic visibility of fishbone foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Ell, S R; Sprigg, A; Parker, A J

    1996-01-01

    The use of plain radiographs to localize a suspected fishbone foreign body is the subject of controversy. Accordingly radiographs of 14 species of fishbone, impacted in a soft tissue phantom, were assessed by a series of observers from the ENT department (consultant surgeons, senior registrars and house officers). The agreement was assessed by graphical description of the data and tested by a Spearman's rank correlation test. The overall results showed that, for the clinician, radiography is very useful to detect the bones of: cod, haddock, lemon sole, cole fish, grey mullet and plaice; useful for red snapper, monk fish, gurnard and salmon; and unhelpful in detecting bones from herring, pike, mackerel and trout. The use of radiographs to locate these impacted fishbones can be rationalized in the light of these findings.

  13. Clinical and radiographic maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nilton; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review of the literature to determine the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis emphasizing the main aspects of interest to the dentist in order to make them fit for the proper treatment of this population. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to plan the treatment more suitable to provide a better life’s quality to the patients. The most frequent clinical maxillofacial features were: grooved palate, midfacial hypoplasia, mandibular hypoplasia and enamel hypoplasia. The most common radiographic maxillofacial features were: obtuse mandibular angle, frontal/parietal/occiptal bossing, open fontanels and sutures, multiple impacted teeth. The earlier diagnostic of pycnodysostosis has a fundamental role in general health of the patients. We consider that is very important that the dentist know recognize the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis, which allows correct treatment planning avoiding risks and ensuring better life’s quality to the patients. PMID:24753741

  14. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark

    2014-09-15

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system.

  15. The forensic radiographer: a new member in the medicolegal team.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Chevallier, Christine; Dominguez, Alejandro; Bruguier, Christine; Elandoy, Cristèle; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke

    2012-03-01

    Multidetector computed tomography is becoming more widespread in forensic medicine. In most services, autopsy assistants perform the radiological examination. We introduced professional radiographers into the legal medicine service and hypothesized they would also be able to take over duties currently reserved for other specialists. The aims of this study were to evaluate if radiographers could be trained as "forensic radiographers" by (1) integrating graduated medical radiographers into the legal medicine service, (2) investigating the advantages of this collaboration, and (3) defining the duties of the forensic radiographers.The study was performed prospectively on a group of 8 recruited radiographers who underwent a testing period with special training. They learned the basics of medicolegal case treatment, the autonomous execution of postmortem computed tomography angiography, and postprocessing of data. Seven of 8 radiographers finished the training and were integrated into our service. Although all radiographers were able to fulfill the duties demanded after the training period, some radiographers could not enter or complete the program because they were unable to work with dead bodies.Our study presents the advantages of integrating radiographers into the medicolegal team and proposes how to train the forensic radiographers. In addition, the duties and responsibilities of these new specialists are defined.

  16. Usefulness of low dose chest CT for initial evaluation of blunt chest trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Jung; Bista, Anjali Basnyat; Min, Young Gi; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Kyung Joo; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Sun, Joo Sung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance and inter-observer consistency between low dose chest CT (LDCT) and standard dose chest CT (SDCT) in the patients with blunt chest trauma. A total of 69 patients who met criteria indicative of blunt chest trauma (77% of male; age range, 16–85) were enrolled. All patients underwent LDCT without intravenous (IV) contrast and SDCT with IV contrast using parameters as following: LDCT, 40 mAs with automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) and 100 kVp (BMI <25, n = 51) or 120 kVp (BMI>25, n = 18); SDCT, 180 mAs with ATCM and 120 kVp. Transverse, coronal, sagittal images were reconstructed with 3-mm slice thickness without gap and provided for evaluation of 3 observers. Reference standard images (transverse, coronal, sagittal) were reconstructed using SDCT data with 1-mm slice thickness without gap. Reference standard was established by 2 experienced thoracic radiologists by consensus. Three observers independently evaluated each data set of LDCT and SDCT. Multiple-reader receiver operating characteristic analysis for comparing areas under the ROC curves demonstrated that there was no significant difference of diagnostic performance between LDCT and SDCT for the diagnosis of pulmonary injury, skeletal trauma, mediastinal injury, and chest wall injury (P > 0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient was measured for inter-observer consistency and revealed that there was good inter-observer consistency in each examination of LDCT and SDCT for evaluation of blunt chest injury (0.8601–1.000). Aortic and upper abdominal injury could not be appropriately compared as LDCT was performed without using contrast materials and this was limitation of this study. The effective radiation dose of LDCT (average DLP = 1.52 mSv⋅mGy−1 cm−1) was significantly lower than those of SDCT (7.21 mSv mGy−1 cm−1). There is a great potential benefit to use of LDCT for initial evaluation of blunt chest trauma

  17. Computer Assisted Diagnosis of Chest Pain. Preliminary Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-27

    addition, chest pain has been reported to be one of the most frequent causes of medical evacuation from submarines. The Naval Submarine Medical...having potentially fatal outcomes. In addition, chest pain has been reported to be one of the most frequent causes of medical evacuation from submarines...serious causes of acute chest pain . The 5 illnesses which are considered by the conputer are MY0CARD1AL INFARCTION, ANGINA, NON-SPECIFIC CNEST PAIN

  18. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pompe, E.; van der Bruggen, T.; van Rhenen, A.; Lammers, J. W. J.; Wessels, F.; Sprengers, R. W.; de Jong, P. A.; Minnema, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4%) had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197). Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose. PMID:28235014

  19. Identification of entry-level competencies for associate degree radiographers as perceived by primary role definers

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify those competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers when they assume employment as entry-level practitioners. A second purpose of the study was to rank order the identified competencies within the role delineations recognized by the Essentials and Guidelines of an Accredited Educational Program for the Radiographer. These role delineations include: radiation protection, exercise discretion and judgment, emergency and life saving techniques, patient care and interpersonal communication, and role as professional member. A third purpose of the study was to examine the degree of consensus on role definition of entry-level competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers as perceived by primary role definers (such as employers, employees, and educators), and by other selected variables: age, sex, length of experience in radiologic technology, level of formal education, and place of employment. A major finding of this study was that respondents did not differ significantly in their ranking of entry-level competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers when the responses were analyzed according to position, age, sex, length of experience, level of education, or place of employment. Another important finding was that respondents considered all of the 63 competencies as important and needed by Associate Degree Radiographers upon initial employment.A major conclusion and recommendation of this study, in view of the high agreement on the rank ordering of competencies, was that these competencies should be included in a competency-based education model. It was further recommended that a three-way system of communication between employers, employees, and educators be considered in order to pool resources and to increase understanding of each position group's contribution and influence on entry-level Associate Degree Radiographers.

  20. Esophageal hypersensitivity in noncardiac chest pain.

    PubMed

    Min, Yang Won; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2016-09-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is an often-encountered clinical problem. Although many patients suffer from persistent or recurrent chest pain, treatment remains a challenge owing to its various possible etiologies. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common cause of NCCP. In GERD-related NCCP, proton pump inhibitor treatment appears to be effective. However, the pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated in NCCP patients without GERD. Treatment for non-GERD-related NCCP has been aimed at esophageal motility disorders and visceral hypersensitivity. As there is growing evidence that esophageal visceral hypersensitivity plays a role in NCCP, pain modulators have become the mainstay of therapy in patients with non-GERD-related NCCP. However, there is an unmet need for the treatment of esophageal hypersensitivity in NCCP due to modest evidence for the benefit of pain modulators, including antidepressants, in non-GERD-related NCCP. Recent studies have demonstrated that esophageal mast cell infiltration and impaired mucosal integrity are related to visceral hypersensitivity in patients with NCCP. Thus, esophageal mast cell stabilization and restoration of esophageal mucosal integrity could be considered potential therapeutic targets in selected NCCP patients with hypersensitivity. However, further observations are necessary to shed light on esophageal hypersensitivity in NCCP.