Science.gov

Sample records for chestnut castanea dentata

  1. The Silvics of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh., American chestnut, Fagaceae (Beech Family)

    Treesearch

    G. Geoff Wang; Benjamin O. Knapp; Stacy L. Clark; Bryan T. Mudder

    2013-01-01

    This report describes how the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was ecologically extirpated due to an exotic pathogen, the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), and describes current restoration efforts. The habitat, life history, special uses, and genetics of the American chestnut are detailed. The American chestnut was...

  2. Making history: Field testing of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in the Southern Region

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; A.M. Saxton; Fred V. Hebard

    2011-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh.) was decimated by an exotic fungus (chestnut blight [Cryphonectria parasitica Murr. Bar]) in the early part of the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation (TACF) uses a back-cross breeding program to produce a tree that is predicted to be American chestnut in character...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut (Castanea dentata)-dominated community in Western Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; Thomas J. Volk

    2008-01-01

    Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut blight...

  4. Soil preparation methods promoting ectomycorrhizal colonization and American chestnut Castanea dentata establishment in coal mine restoration

    Treesearch

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv Hiremath; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate soil subsurface methods that may aid in seedling establishment and encourage root colonization from a diverse group of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi during restoration projects. American chestnut Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh. and backcrossed chestnuts seedlings were planted on a reclaimed coal mine site...

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) using fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Treesearch

    MN Islam Faridi; CD Nelson; PH Sisco; TL Kubisiak; FV Hebard; RL Paris; RL Phillips

    2009-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata), once known as ‘The King of the Forest’ in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, has been all but extirpated by chestnut blight disease caused by an Asiatic bark fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. A group of scientists at The American Chestnut Foundation has been working since 1983 to...

  6. Decomposition rates of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) wood and implications for coarse woody debris pools

    Treesearch

    Arjan de Bruijn; Eric J. Gustafson; Daniel M. Kashian; Harmony J. Dalgleish; Brian R. Sturtevant; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the rapid growth and slow decomposition of American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) suggest that its reintroduction could enhance terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. A suite of decomposition models was fit with decomposition data from coarse woody debris (CWD) sampled in Wisconsin and Virginia, U.S. The optimal (two-...

  7. The first research plantings of third-generation, third-backcross American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Stacy Clark; S.E. Schlarbaum; F,V Saxton

    2014-01-01

    Production of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) resistant to the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) is being conducted currently through traditional breeding and genetic transformation. Sufficient material for field testing is currently available from The American Chestnut Foundation’s backcross breeding program. We planted approximately 4500 chestnut...

  8. The influence of silvicultural treatments and site conditions on American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedling establishment in eastern Kentucky, USA

    Treesearch

    Chuck Rhoades; David Loftis; Jeffrey Lewis; Stacy Clark

    2009-01-01

    After more than 50 years of research and selective breeding, blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata) trees will soon be available for planting into the species' pre-blight range. Increased understanding of the regeneration requirements of pure American chestnut (C. dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) will increase the...

  9. Lessons from the field: The first tests of restoration American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings planted in the Southern Region

    Treesearch

    Stacy Clark; Scott Schlarbaum; John Saxton; Fred Hebard; John Blanton; David Casey; Barbara Crane; Russ MacFarlane; Jason Rodrigue; Stelick Jim

    2012-01-01

    An exotic fungus, the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica Murr. Barr), decimated the American chestnut tree (Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh.) throughout eastern North America in the first half of the 20th century. The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (FS), The University of Tennessee, and The American...

  10. Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) in response to the chestnut blight infection

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Abdelali; DiLoreto, Denis S; Zhang, Yi; Smith, Chris; Baier, Kathleen; Powell, William A; Wheeler, Nicholas; Sederoff, Ron; Carlson, John E

    2009-01-01

    Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important resource to the scientific

  11. Islands of Chestnut Trees Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surrarrer, T. C.; Laurence, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of conserving the genetic pool of the American chestnut stock. Readers are encouraged to seek sprouts and plant them in islands so they can grow and survive. The authors describe the diseases that have effected the chestnut tree. (PR)

  12. Nursery quality and first-year response of american chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings planted in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Luben D. Dimov; Frederick V. Hebard

    2010-01-01

    We examined nursery seedling quality and 1-yr field performance of American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.] seedlings planted in Alabama (AL study) and Tennessee (TN study). Root-collar diameter (RCD) had the highest correlations to nursery seedling quality and first-year fleld performance for both studies. Survival was low in the...

  13. The Forest Health Initiative, American chestnut (Castanea dentata) as a model for forest tree restoration: Biological Research Program

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; W.A. Powell; C.A. Maynard; K.M. Baier; A. Newhouse; S.A. Merkle; C.J. Nairn; L. Kong; J.E. Carlson; C. Addo-Quaye; M.E. Staton; F.V. Hebard; L.L. Georgi; A.G. Abbott; B.A. Olukolu; T. Zhebentyayeva

    2013-01-01

    The Forest Health Initiative (FHI) was developed and implemented to test the hypothesis that a coordinated effort in biotechnology research could lead to resistant trees capable of restoring a species in a relevant time frame. As a test case, the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was chosen for study as it is an iconic forest tree species in the eastern United...

  14. Facilitation of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedling establishment by Pinus virginiana in mine restoration

    Treesearch

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh.) Borkh.) on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were used to identify...

  15. Long-term changes in forest composition and diversity following early logging (1919-1923) and the decline of American chestnut (Castanea dentata)

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank

    2008-01-01

    Chestnut blight fungus (Endothia parasitica [Murr.] P.I. And. & H.W. And. is a classic example of an invasive species, which severely damaged populations of its host, Castanea dentata, and had widespread and long-term impacts on eastern North American forests. Concurrently, forests were further disturbed by lumbering, which was common across the...

  16. Establishment of American chestnuts (Castanea dentata) bred for blight (Cryphonectria parasitica ) resistance: influence of breeding and nursery grading

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Arnold M. Saxton; Frederick V. Hebard

    2016-01-01

    European and American chestnut species (Castanea) have been decimated by exotic species, most notably chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), since the early nineteenth century. Backcross breeding programs that transfer blight disease resistance from Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima) into American...

  17. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  18. Twolined Chestnut Borer

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Robert E. Acciavatti

    1992-01-01

    The twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber), belongs to the beetle family Buprestidae. The word "chestnut" refers to the beetle's past status as a principal pest of American chestnut, Castanea dentata. The twolined chestnut borer is found from the Maritime Provinces of Canada, west to the Rocky Mountains, and south to Florida and Texas.

  19. Genetics and silvicultural treatments influence the growth and shoot winter injury of American chestnut in Vermont

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Saielli; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Kendra M. Gurney

    2014-01-01

    The backcross breeding of American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) with Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) may provide an effective method to increase resistance against chestnut blight and help restore American chestnut throughout its historic range. However, the comparative adaptation (e.g., cold hardiness...

  20. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  1. Nut cold hardiness as a factor influencing the restoration of American chestnut in northern latitudes and high elevations

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Saielli; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Kendra M. Gurney

    2012-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was functionally removed as a forest tree by chestnut blight (caused by the fungal pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr). Hybrid-backcross breeding between blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and American chestnut is used to...

  2. The American Chestnut Foundation breeding program

    Treesearch

    F.V. Hebard

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut blight, incited by Cryphonectria parasistica, devastated American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Borkh.) Marsh) in the first half of the 20th century, killing approximately 4 billion dominant and codominant trees. Millions of small sprouts still persist throughout the botanical range of C. dentata. Most are not infected...

  3. Mapping resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in chestnut (Castanea sp.)

    Treesearch

    Bode A. Olukolu; C. Dana Nelson; Albert G. Abbott

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora crown and root rot, or ink disease) is now known to infect several hundred plant species in the world and is especially linked to the widespread death of mature chestnut (Castanea) and evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees in southeast United States. With an expanding...

  4. Growth of American chestnut and incidence of chestnut blight in the forest understory

    Treesearch

    Amy. Milo

    2010-01-01

    Three hundred individuals of American chestnut, Castanea dentata, at Mountain Lake Biological Station, elevation 1,160 m, were monitored over two field seasons for incidence and growth of cankers caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica.

  5. Restoring the American chestnut tree

    Treesearch

    Bryan Burhans; Fredrick V. Hebard

    2012-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was a dominate hardwood tree in the eastern United States. Its historic range extended from Maine south to the northern parts of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and west to the Ohio River Valley. In 1904, an exotic Asian fungus responsible for the death of American chestnut trees was first identified at the Bronx Zoo (New York...

  6. American chestnut as an allelopath in the southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    D.B. Vandermast; David H. van Lear; B.D. Clinton

    2002-01-01

    Prior to the chestnut blight (Crypkonectria parasitica), American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was the most common overstory tree in eastern deciduous forests. Chestnut's dominance has often been attributed to its resistance to fire and subsequent propensity to sprout vigorously and grow rapidly. Its role as an allelopath has...

  7. Current status of chestnut in eastern US forests

    Treesearch

    William H. McWiliams; Tonya W. Lister; Elizabeth B. LaPoint; Anita K. Rose; John S. Vissage

    2006-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program provides the opportunity to assess the current distribution of American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh) and prospective trends. Assessing chestnut using the FIA data was challenging because of the coarse nature of the FIA sample and chestnut's rarity in natural...

  8. The importance of site quality to backcross chestnut establishment success

    Treesearch

    C.C. Pinchot; A.A. Royo; M.P. Peters; S.E. Schlarbaum; S.L. Anagnostakis

    2017-01-01

    Short-term studies show that American chestnut (Castanea dentata) grows faster on mesic compared to xeric sites. Long-term impacts of site quality and corresponding moisture and nutrient availability on backcross chestnut establishment success and resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, however, have...

  9. Status and future of breeding disease-resistant American chestnut

    Treesearch

    J. Westbrook; F.V. Hebard; S.F. Fitzsimmons; J. Donahue

    2017-01-01

    The American Chestnut Foundation (TACF) has worked since 1983 to introduce genetic resistance to the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) into an American chestnut (Castanea dentata) population. As part of a broader goal for species restoration, TACF seeks to instill within that population sufficient diversity so as to enable the...

  10. Winter Iinjury of American chestnut seedlings grown in a common garden at the species' northern range limit

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg; Thomas M. Saielli; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Kendra M. Gurney

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) with Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), followed by backcrossing to American chestnut, is conducted to increase the resistance of resulting stock to chestnut blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. Backcross breeding is...

  11. Three American tragedies: chestnut blight, butternut canker, and Dutch elm disease

    Treesearch

    Scott E. Schlarbaum; Frederick Hebard; Pauline C. Spaine; Joseph C. Kamalay

    1998-01-01

    Three North American tree species, American chestnut (Castanea dentata), butternut (Juglans cinerea), and American elm (Ulmus americana), have been devastated by exotic fungal diseases over the last century. American chestnut was eliminated from eastern forests as a dominant species by chestnut blight (...

  12. The implications of American chestnut reintroduction on landscape dynamics and carbon storage

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Arjan de Bruijn; Nathanael Lichti; Douglass F. Jacobs; Brian R. Sturtevant; Jane Foster; Brian R. Miranda; Harmony J. Dalgleish

    2017-01-01

    In the eastern United States, American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was historically a major component of forest communities, but was functionally extirpated in the early 20th century by an introduced pathogen, chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Because chestnut is fast-growing, long-lived, and resistant to decay,...

  13. Genetic and genomic resources for mapping resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in chestnut

    Treesearch

    T. Zhebentyayeva; A. Chandra; A.G. Abbott; M.E. Staton; B.A. Olukolu; F.V. Hebard; L.L. Georgi; S.N. Jeffers; P.H. Sisco; J.B. James; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Root rot (caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi) and chestnut blight (caused by Cryphonectria parasitica) are the two most destructive diseases affecting American chestnut, Castanea dentata. Therefore, breeding for resistance to both pathogens simultaneously is essential before the American chestnut can be restored to its full native range. Using combined genetic and...

  14. An improved genetic map for Castanea mollissima/Castanea dentata and its relationship to the genetic map of Castanea sativa

    Treesearch

    P.H. Sisco; T.L. Kubisiak; M. Casasoli; T. Barreneche; A. Kremer; C. Clark; R.R. Sederoff; F.V. Hebard; F. Villani

    2005-01-01

    We have added 275 AFLP and 24 SSR markers and the 5SrDNA locus to a previously published genetic map based on a hybrid cross between Castanea mollissima and C. denata. The SSR markers, 5SrDNA locus, and one isozyme locus also permitted us to correlate the linkage groups in the published genetic map of C. sativa...

  15. Abundance and frequency of the Asiatic oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and defoliation on American, Chinese, and hybrid chestnut ( Castanea )

    Treesearch

    Ashley E. Case; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Barbara C. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (...

  16. Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern U.S. forest soils for American chestnut: results from field and laboratory bioassays

    EPA Science Inventory

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in the eastern United States but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree...

  17. American Chestnut Growth and Survival Five Years after Planting in Two Silvicultural Treatments in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Henry Mcnab; David Loftis; Stanley Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    The ability to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata) through the planting of blight-resistant (Cryphonectria parasitica) trees is currently being tested. Forest-based research on the species’ silvicultural requirements and chestnut blight development are lacking. Pure American chestnut seedlings were planted in a two-age...

  18. American Chestnut, Rhododendron, and the Future Of Appalachian Cove Forests

    Treesearch

    David H. van Lear; D.B. Vandermast; C.T. Rivers; T.T. Baker; C.W. Hedman; B.D.. Clinton; T.A. Waldrop

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - By the mid 1930s, the southern Appalachians had been heavily cutover and the dominant hardwood, American chestnut (Castanea dentata), had succumbed to the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Forests that had been burned on a frequent basis for millennia were now protected and fire was excluded in large degree. We estimated the pre-...

  19. The American chestnut and fire: 6-year research results

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer; Mike R. Saunders; Ethan P. Belair; Scott J. Torreano; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata Marsh. (Borkh.)] is an iconic species with important ecological and utilitarian values, but was decimated by the mid-20th century by exotic fungal species fromAsia. Successful restoration will require sustainable silvicultural methods to maximize survival and afford chestnut a competitive advantage over natural vegetation. The study...

  20. Does Gnomoniopsis castanea contribute to the natural biological control of chestnut gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Vettraino, AnnaMaria; Martignoni, Diana; Morales-Rodriguez, Carmen; Contarini, Mario; Caccia, Romina; Paparatti, Bruno; Speranza, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Gnomoniopsis castanea has been reported as the causal agent of necrosis of chestnut wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) galls. The fungus is frequently observed on galls in chestnut stands infested by the insect in Italy. In the present study the impact of gall necrosis and the dynamic of its development have been studied in mature and young Castanea sativa stands in Central Italy during spring and early summer, before the D. kuriphilus adult flies. Results suggest that gall necrosis develops from resident endophytic inoculum of G. castanea. During the 2 y of monitoring, no differences were found in incidence and severity of the disease. Gall necrosis increased exponentially during the season, reaching 75,4% of galls totally necrotized in the investigated site in mid July. Gall necrosis was shown to have a severe impact on D. kuriphilus vitality, mostly impacting the adults inside the galls. Gall necrosis by G. castanea appears to efficiently control gall wasp in chestnut stands, although the high virulence of the fungus to chestnut fruits precludes its use as biocontrol agent in biological control strategies. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin E profile as a reliable authenticity discrimination factor between chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2009-06-24

    In this study, the profile of tocopherols and tocotrienols in chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) kernel oil was evaluated. Four Portuguese chestnut varieties were selected: Aveleira, Boaventura, Judia, and Longal. The vitamin E determination had already been applied to similar matrices, but, to the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that chestnut kernel oil has been evaluated. The prevalent vitamer was gamma-tocopherol, often present in trace amounts in other natural products. Due to the high commercial value of chestnut, a statistical analysis of the obtained results was also conducted to define the tocopherol and tocotrienol profile as a reliable indicator of a specific chestnut variety. To achieve this objective, an analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each variety. A discriminant analysis was also carried out revealing quite satisfactory results. Four varieties were clustered in four individual groups through the definition of two discriminant analysis dimensions.

  3. Shoot winter injury and nut cold tolerance: Possible limitations for American chestnut restoration in cold environments? In: Sniezko, Richard A.; Yanchuk, Alvin D.; Kliejunas, John T.; Palmieri, Katharine M.; Alexander, Janice M.; Frankel, Susan J., tech

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Saielli; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Kendra M. Gurney

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100 years ago, American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was rapidly removed as an overstory tree by the fungal pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica (the causal agent of chestnut blight). Currently, the most effective method of restoration involves the hybridization of American chestnut with the...

  4. Silvicultural and logistical considerations associated with the pending reintroduction of American chestnut

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Traditional breeding for blight resistance has led to the potential to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) to Eastern United States forests using a blight resistant hybrid chestnut tree. With prospects of pending wide-scale reintroduction, restoration strategies based on ecological and biological characteristics of the...

  5. Inadequate cold tolerance as a possible limitation to American chestnut restoration in the northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Kendra M. Gurney; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary Hawley; John B. Shane

    2011-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.), once a major component of eastern forests from Maine to Georgia, was functionally removed from the forest ecosystem by chestnut blight (an exotic fungal disease caused by Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr), first identified at the beginning of the twentieth century....

  6. Nursery performance of American and Chinese chestnuts and backcross generations in commercial tree nurseries

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Arnold M. Saxton; Fred V. Hebard

    2012-01-01

    The American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.] was decimated by an exotic fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr] in the early 1900s. Breeding efforts with American and Chinese chestnuts (C. mollissima Blume) produced putatively blight-resistant progeny (BC3F3) in 2007. We compared two nut size...

  7. Effects of simulated prescribed fire on American chestnut and northern red oak regeneration

    Treesearch

    Ethan P. Belair; Mike R. Saunders; Stacy L. Clark

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) was a dominant species in the forests of eastern North America prior to the importation of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica [Murr.] Barr) in the early 1900s and ink disease (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands) in the 1800s (Anagnostakis 2012). Historical...

  8. Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.

    PubMed

    De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

    2010-08-15

    Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Low molecular weight organic compounds of chestnut wood (Castanea sativa L.) and corresponding aged brandies.

    PubMed

    Canas, S; Leandro, M C; Spranger, M I; Belchior, A P

    1999-12-01

    Oak and chestnut species have been largely used for the aging of brandies, but nowadays chestnut is rarely used. There have been no previous studies regarding the cooperage utilization of chestnut wood. This study provides, for the first time, specific information about the characterization of the northern Portuguese Castanea sativa wood and examines the influence of this wood and its heat treatment on the chemical composition of two-year-aged brandies, by the quantitative determination (HPLC) of low molecular weight phenolic compounds. The predominance of gallic acid among the analyzed extractable compounds both in chestnut wood and in the corresponding aged brandies was remarkable. The heat treatment has a very significant influence on the majority of extractable compounds analyzed. Thus, it could be responsible for the related sensorial properties of aged brandies and greatly affect their general balance.

  10. Starch characterization in seven raw, boiled and roasted chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, A P; Oliveira, I; Silva, M E; Guedes, C M; Borges, O; Magalhães, B; Gonçalves, B

    2016-01-01

    Changes occurring in seven chestnut (Castanea sativa sp.) cultivars, caused by boiling and roasting, on starch content, cell and starch granules dimension were evaluated, and morphological changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Three clear patterns of variation were detected after processing, namely: i) decrease of starch content with processing; ii) starch increase with the applied treatments; iii) increase of starch with boiling and decrease with roasting. Starch granules of raw chestnuts presented round, oval or elliptical form, external smooth surface and eccentric hilum, with rather ellipsoid-shaped growth rings. Processing resulted in modifications of the granules, with fusion of individual granules, and gelatinization taking place with the formation of elongated clusters. The present results indicate that boiling and roasting, besides changing the starch content of chestnut, causes important modifications in the starch granules, which can affect the sensory, rheological and chemical characteristics of chestnuts.

  11. Incidence of Craesus castaneae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) on Chestnut Seedlings Planted in the Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Arnold M. Saxton; Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer; David R. Smith; Alex. Mangini; Frederick V. Hebard

    2011-01-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentate (Marshall) Borkhausen, Fagales: Fagaceae] was a dominant forest tree in the eastern forests of the U.S. until it was eliminated as a canopy tree species by 2 exotic pathogens. Ink disease, a root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands (Pythiales: Pythiaceae), began to destroy chestnut populations on bottomland and poorly-drained...

  12. Is nut cold tolerance a limitation to the restoration of American chestnut in the northeastern United States?

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg; Kendra M. Gurney; Benjamin R. Janes; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley

    2009-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant hardwood species in the eastern United States, growing from Maine to Georgia and west to the Ohio Valley (Harlow et al. 1979). Arguably, American chestnut may have been the most important hardwood species in North America, renowned for its quick growth, massive size, and great utility (Harlow...

  13. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships

    Treesearch

    Amy C. Miller; Keith E. Woeste; Sandra L. Anagnostakis; Doutlass F. Jacobs

    2014-01-01

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut...

  14. Betaines and related ammonium compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Paolucci, Marina; Siano, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Chestnut fruits, being poor of simple sugars and consisting mainly of fibers and starch, are among the constituents of Mediterranean diet. While numerous studies report on content of proteins and amino acids in chestnut, no one has appeared so far on betaines, an important class of nitrogen compounds ubiquitous in plants for their protective action in response to abiotic stress. In this study, we analyzed by HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry, in fruits and flours of varieties of chestnut cultivated in Italy, the composition of betaines and ammonium compounds intermediates of their biosynthesis. Besides the parent amino acids, the compounds quantified were choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glycine betaine, N-methylproline, proline betaine (stachydrine), β-alanine betaine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, trigonelline, N,N,N-trimethyllysine. Interestingly, some uncommon derivatives of pipecolic acid, such as N-methylpipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpipecolic acid were identified for the first time in chestnut samples and characterized by MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral allergy syndrome induced by chestnut (Castanea sativa)

    PubMed

    Antico, A

    1996-01-01

    Oral allergy syndrome is a distinctive type of allergy to food resulting from direct contact between food and the oral mucosa. Normally, it affects patients who are allergic to pollens. It can be challenged by testing for hypersensitivity to fresh fruit or vegetables in well-known associations. Oral allergy syndrome rarely occurs in patients with other types of allergies, or to food not associated with pollens. Only occasionally does chestnut cause hypersensitivity. There are only a few reported cases, depending on cross-reactivity in previously latex-hypersensitive patients. Oral allergy syndrome to chestnut in a patient with respiratory allergy to Dermatophagoides is therefore unusual and worth reporting. To describe the clinical features and their differences from previously reported cases and to analyze the techniques and methodologic problems related to in vivo and in vitro diagnosis. Case report. Skin tests with commercial and freshly made extracts and by the prick-by-prick method. Challenge test. Specific IgE antibody assay. Prausnitz-Küstner reaction. The challenge with fresh food confirmed an oral allergy syndrome to chestnut. Clear symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma set in as well. Skin tests with several commercial extracts and the prick-by-prick test were negative and so was specific IgE assay in serum by RAST and other immunoenzymatic methods. Skin prick test with a freshly prepared extract of fresh chestnut and the passive transfer reaction were positive. The case of oral allergy syndrome to chestnut reported here appears to be a manifestation of immediate IgE-dependent hypersensitivity.

  16. Performance of container-grown seedlings of American chestnut backcross hybrids BC3 F3 generation in central Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Stacy L. Clark; Scott Schlarbaum; Daniel C. Dey; Daniel J. Leduc

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings from two families of the BC3F3 backcross generation of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima) were cultured in 2013 in Missouri using the Root Production Method®, a container-based system used to avoid disease problems associated with...

  17. Genetic Variation in Natural Populations of American Chestnut

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak; James H. Roberds

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the blight epidemic, American chestnut (Castanea dentata Borkh.) was one of the most important timber and nut-producing tree species in eastern North America (U.S. Census Bureau 1908). Its native range extended from southern Maine and Ontario in the north to Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi in the south (Sargent 1905). It now exists...

  18. Chemical composition and functional properties of native chestnut starch (Castanea sativa Mill).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Bruno R; Abraão, Ana S; Lemos, André M; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-04-15

    Starch isolation methods can change their physico-chemical and functional characteristics hindering the establishment of a starch-food functionality relation. A simple high yield and soft isolation method was applied for chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) starch consisting in steeping and fruit disintegration in a 25 mM sodium bisulfite solution and purification by sedimentation. Starch integrity, physico-chemical composition, morphology and functional properties were determined, being observed significant differences from previous described methods for chestnut starch isolation. The X-ray pattern was of B-type, with a degree of crystallinity ranging from 51% to 9%, dependent on the starch moisture content. The onset, peak, and conclusion gelatinization temperatures were 57.1°C, 61.9°C and 67.9°C, respectively. Total amylose content was 26.6%, and there was not found any evidence for lipid complexed amylose. Swelling power at 90°C was 19 g/g starch, and the amount of leached amylose was 78% of the total amylose content. Native chestnut starch presents a type B pasting profile similar to corn starch but with a lower gelatinization (56.1°C) and peak viscosity (79.5°C) temperatures, making native chestnut starch a potential technological alternative to corn starch, especially in application where lower processing temperatures are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of washing treatments in the reduction of postharvest decay of chestnuts (Castanea crenata 'Tsukuba') during storage

    Treesearch

    Uk Lee; Sukhyun Joo; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the influence of different washing treatments (i.e., tap water, ozone, microbubbles, and ozone combined with microbubbles) on post-harvest decay of chestnuts (Castanea crenata ‘Tsukuba’) during storage. Overall, treatments with ozone and microbubbles significantly reduced the decay frequency and the associated microbial populations (...

  20. Aerobiology of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in north-west Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrga, Ivana; Mitić, Bozena; Alegro, Antun; Dragojlović, Dragoslav; Stjepanović, Barbara; Puntarić, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both study areas, the seasons of chestnut pollination were similar and lasted from June to the end of July, which is comparable to other European cities. A general rule was noticed--the shorter the main pollen season, the higher the pollen peak concentration. Although the pollen season of Fagales pollen is prolonged to summer in the area of inland west-north Croatia due to the genus Castanea summer pollination, the number of days with pollen air concentration higher than 50 per m3 was low and was not likely to have any major effects in allergic individuals. Airborne pollen concentration of Castanea showed positive statistically significant correlation with air temperature and negative non-significant correlation with precipitation. Because of the non-significant differences between the two stations, for a possible long-term forecast model for Fagales airborne pollen for this part of north-west Croatia, aerobiological data obtained from only one station are sufficient.

  1. Effects of temporal dynamics, nut weight and nut size on growth of American chestnut, Chinese chestnut and backcross generations in a commercial nursery

    Treesearch

    Cornelia Pinchot; Stacy Clark; Scott Schlarbaum; Arnold Saxton; Shi-Jean Sung; Frederick. Hebard

    2015-01-01

    Blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata) may soon be commercially available, but few studies have tested methods to produce high quality seedlings that will be competitive after planting. This study evaluated the performance of one American, one Chinese (C. mollissima), one second-generation backcross (BC3...

  2. Cytotoxic triterpenoids isolated from sweet chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa) and their health benefits implication.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2017-11-01

    For centuries wood containers have been used in aging of wines and spirits, due to the pleasant flavors they give to the beverages. Together with oak, sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) have been often used for such purpose. The maturation process involves the transfer of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolics, from the wood to the liquid. At the same time, other metabolites, such as triterpenoids and their glycosides, can also be released. Searching for the extractable triterpenoids from sweet chestnut heartwood (C. sativa), two new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named chestnoside A (1) and chestnoside B (2), together with two known oleanen-type analogs (3 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was tested against two cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7), and normal lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were more affected by tested compounds than prostate cancer cells (PC3). Chestnoside B (2) exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity with an IC 50 of 12.3 μM against MCF-7 cells, lower than those of positive controls, while it was moderately active against normal lymphocytes (IC 50  = 67.2 μM). These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoid saponins in sweet chestnut heartwood and their potential for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of inoculated and native ectomycorrhizal fungi on morphology, physiology and survival of American chestnut

    Treesearch

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of five different species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on root colonization of native fungi on putatively blight resistant chestnut hybrids (Castanea dentata x C. mollissima) in a reclaimed mine site in central Ohio. The five species were Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Laccaria bicolor,...

  4. American chestnut restoration in New England - cold damage as an added challenge

    Treesearch

    Paul Schaberg; Paula Murakami; Gary J. Hawley; Kendra. Collins

    2017-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once an ecological and economic keystone species in the eastern United States, and once comprised up to 50% of the basal area in portions of the Appalachian hardwood forest (Braun 1950). Its stature was impressive (some over 120 feet tall) and it grew remarkably fast (up to an inch in diameter per year...

  5. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi among seedlings from backcross families of hybrid american chestnut

    Treesearch

    Steven N. Jeffers; Inga M. Meadows; Joseph B. James; Paul H. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) once was a primary hardwood species in forests of the eastern United States. Sometime during the late 18th century, it is speculated that Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR) on many woody plant species, was introduced to the southeast region of...

  6. Genetic variation patterns of American chestnut populations at EST-SSRs

    Treesearch

    Oliver Gailing; C. Dana Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of genetic variation at genic expressed sequence tag - simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and at chloroplast DNA markers in populations of American chestnut (Castanea dentata Borkh.) to assist in conservation and breeding efforts. Allelic diversity at EST-SSRs decreased significantly from southwest to northeast along...

  7. Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world’s forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ...

  8. Germplasm conservation for species restoration: Examples from efforts to restore the American chestnut

    Treesearch

    S.F. Fitzsimmons; K.M. Collins; J. Westbrook; T.M. Saielli; M.D. Brinckman

    2017-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a foundational species in much of its native range, especially in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States. Unfortunately, the species was driven to functional extinction by the accidental importation of an exotic fungal pathogen (Cryphonectria parasitica), the causal...

  9. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks = 0.4–0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  10. Physico-chemical, rheological and antioxidant properties of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) as affected by pan and microwave roasting.

    PubMed

    Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Hamid, Humaira; Hamdani, Afshan Mumtaz; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill. ) belongs to the family Fagaceae and sub family Castaneoideae. Bioactive components such as tannins are present in sweet chestnut in high proportion giving astringent bitter taste and reducing their palatability. Roasting reduces the anti-nutritional factors in chestnut. This study was conducted to compare the effects of pan and microwave roasting on physicochemical, functional, rheological and antioxidant properties of sweet chestnut. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH inhibition activity, reducing power, and total phenolic content. Structural analysis was carried out using FT-IR analysis. Protein, fat, and ash contents displayed insignificant ( P  > 0.05) variations. " L " value decreased from 90.66 to 81.43, whereas, " a " and " b " values increased from 0.02 to 0.90 and 11.99 to 20.5, respectively, upon roasting. Significant ( P  < 0.05) increase in water absorption capacity (1.32-3.39 g/g), oil absorption capacity (1.22-1.63 g/g), and antioxidant properties was observed following roasting. Flour obtained from roasted chestnuts exhibited a significant decrease in light transmittance, foaming, and pasting properties. Higher gelatinization temperatures and lower enthalpies were reported in microwave and pan roasted chestnut flours. Roasting also reduced the viscoelastic behavior of native sweet chestnut and changed the transmittance of identical functional groups as revealed by FT-IR analysis.

  11. Native mycorrhizal fungi replace introduced fungal species on Virginia pine and American chestnut planted on reclaimed mine sites of Ohio

    Treesearch

    Shivanand Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbe community dynamics influence the natural succession of plant species where pioneer vegetation facilitates the establishment of a distantly related, later successional plant species. This has been observed in the case of restoration of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) on abandoned mine land where Virginia pine (Pinus...

  12. Consequences of shifts in abundance and distribution of American chestnut for restoration of a foundation forest tree

    Treesearch

    Harmony Dalgleish; C. Dana Nelson; John Scrivani; Douglass Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of foundation species, such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) that was devastated by an introduced fungus, can restore ecosystem function. Understanding both the current distribution as well as biogeographic patterns is important for restoration planning. We used United States Department of Agriculture Forest...

  13. Recovery of bioactive molecules from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by-products through extraction by different solvents.

    PubMed

    Vella, Filomena Monica; Laratta, Bruna; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2017-09-18

    The underutilised forest and industrial biomass of Castanea sativa (Mill.) is generally discarded during post-harvest and food processing, with high impact on environmental quality. The searching on alternative sources of natural antioxidants from low-cost supplies, by methods involving environment-friendly techniques, has become a major goal of numerous researches in recent times. The aim of the present study was the set-up of a biomolecules extraction procedure from chestnut leaves, burs and shells and the assessing of their potential antioxidant activity. Boiling water was the best extraction solvent referring to polyphenols from chestnut shells and burs, whereas the most efficient for leaves resulted 60% ethanol at room temperature. Greatest polyphenol contents were 90.35, 60.01 and 17.68 mg gallic acid equivalents g -1 in leaves, burs and shells, respectively. Moreover, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were assessed on the best extract obtained from each chestnut by-product.

  14. Substantial genome synteny preservation among woody angiosperm species: comparative genomics of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) and plant reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Staton, Margaret; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Olukolu, Bode; Fang, Guang Chen; Nelson, Dana; Carlson, John E; Abbott, Albert G

    2015-10-05

    Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) has emerged as a model species for the Fagaceae family with extensive genomic resources including a physical map, a dense genetic map and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chestnut blight resistance. These resources enable comparative genomics analyses relative to model plants. We assessed the degree of conservation between the chestnut genome and other well annotated and assembled plant genomic sequences, focusing on the QTL regions of most interest to the chestnut breeding community. The integrated physical and genetic map of Chinese chestnut has been improved to now include 858 shared sequence-based markers. The utility of the integrated map has also been improved through the addition of 42,970 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequences spanning over 26 million bases of the estimated 800 Mb chestnut genome. Synteny between chestnut and ten model plant species was conducted on a macro-syntenic scale using sequences from both individual probes and BAC end sequences across the chestnut physical map. Blocks of synteny with chestnut were found in all ten reference species, with the percent of the chestnut physical map that could be aligned ranging from 10 to 39 %. The integrated genetic and physical map was utilized to identify BACs that spanned the three previously identified QTL regions conferring blight resistance. The clones were pooled and sequenced, yielding 396 sequence scaffolds covering 13.9 Mbp. Comparative genomic analysis on a microsytenic scale, using the QTL-associated genomic sequence, identified synteny from chestnut to other plant genomes ranging from 5.4 to 12.9 % of the genome sequences aligning. On both the macro- and micro-synteny levels, the peach, grape and poplar genomes were found to be the most structurally conserved with chestnut. Interestingly, these results did not strictly follow the expectation that decreased phylogenetic distance would correspond to increased levels of genome

  15. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-08

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting.

  16. Study on Woody Species Diversity in the Chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) Forests, Guilan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorbabaei, Hassan; Faghir, Marzia B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study diversity of woody species in the Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) forests, Guilan, north of Iran. These forests are located in the Shafaroud and Emamzadeh Ebrahim regions. The Emamzadeh Ebrahim region is consisted of Visroud, Kishkhaleh, Askeh Koh, Male Lab, Doroudkhan, Galeroudkhan, Siahmazgy and Mali Anbar sites. Sampling was done in a selective manner in each site with a plot area of 50 m×50 m for tree and shrub layers and a circle 1000 m2 for tree saplings. In each plot, all trees ⩾10 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) were identified and the DBH was measured, and shrub and tree sapling species were identified and recorded. In total, 68 sampling plots were taken using GPS device in the two regions. The results revealed that the mean richness, Simpson's index, Hill's N2, Shannon Wiener's function and N1 were higher in the Shafaroud region than other sites in tree, shrub and tree sapling layers. The highest and lowest mean values of evenness were obtained in the Kishkhaleh and Askekoh sites, respectively in tree layer, and similarly were in the Askekoh and Visroud in the shrub layer. The highest and lowest mean values of evenness were obtained in the Male Lab and Askeh Koh, respectively in the tree sapling layer.

  17. Reinvigoration of mature chestnut (Castanea sativa) by repeated graftings and micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Alessio; Giannini, Raffaello

    2000-12-01

    Gradual reinvigoration of adult chestnut (Castanea sativa M. cv. Montemarano) shoots was obtained by serial grafting onto juvenile rootstocks. The phenomenon was evaluated on the basis of percentage of primary nodes regenerating axillary shoots and length and number of shoots (> 10 mm) per primary node. In vitro growth of explants from serially grafted shoots was significantly lower than that of explants from seedlings at the end of the establishment phase. Only microshoots from seedlings and plants that had been serially grafted four times could be subcultured on proliferation medium. Repeated subculture on medium containing a low cytokinin concentration induced progressive reinvigoration of microshoots derived from plants that had been serially grafted four times. The number of axillary shoots per explant increased significantly after six subcultures. After 12 subcultures, microshoots from serially grafted plants showed an increase in stem elongation, rooting and plantlet survival. After in vitro stabilization, there was no difference in in vitro performance between microshoots derived from seedlings and serially grafted plants. Microshoots multiplied from serially grafted plants displayed only a transitory appearance of juvenile traits.

  18. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. New Gall Wasp Species Attacking Chestnut Trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry’s chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167

  20. Leaf physiology and morphology of Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh., Castanea mollissima Blume, and three backcross breeding generations planted in the southern Appalachians, USA

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Stacy L Clark; Lauren S. Pile; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2014-01-01

    Backcross breeding programs have been used to transfer disease resistance and other traits from one forest tree species to another in order to meet restoration objectives. Evaluating the field performance of such material is critical for determining the success of breeding programs. In eastern North America, The American Chestnut Foundation has a backcross breeding...

  1. [Effects of biological organic fertilizer on microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Gu, Jie; Hu, Ting; Gao, Hua; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Qin, Qing-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Zhashui County of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China in 2011 to study the effects of biological organic fertilizer on the microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Three treatments were installed, i. e., control, compound fertilizer, and biological organic fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at harvest, and the metabolic activity was tested by Biolog method. In the treatment of biological organic fertilizer, the average well color development, Shannon evenness, richness, and McIntosh indices of microbial community were all significantly higher than the other two treatments. As compared with the control, applying biological organic fertilizer improved the ability of soil microbes in utilizing the carbon sources of carbohydrates and polymers, while applying compound fertilizer was in opposite. The principal component analysis demonstrated that there was an obvious difference in the soil microbial community among different treatments, mainly depending on the species of carbohydrates and amino acids.

  2. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  3. Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-10-01

    Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay, reducing power by the Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay, and lipid peroxidation inhibition by β-carotene/linoleate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. The analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids was performed by spectrophotometric assays. Irradiated samples preserved total phenolics content (but not flavonoids) and revealed higher antioxidant activity (lower EC50 values) than the control samples. The most indicated doses to maintain antioxidants content, and to increase antioxidant activity were 1 and 3 kGy for electron beam and gamma radiation, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tannin analysis of chestnut bark samples (Castanea sativa Mill.) by HPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Comandini, Patrizia; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2014-08-15

    In the present investigation, an HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS method for the complete analysis of tannins and other phenolic compounds of different commercial chestnut bark samples was developed. A total of seven compounds (vescalin, castalin, gallic acid, vescalagin, 1-O-galloyl castalagin, castalagin and ellagic acid) were separated and quantified, being 1-O-galloyl castalagin tentatively identified and found for the first time in chestnut bark samples. Thus, this method provided information regarding the composition and quality of chestnut bark samples, which is required since these samples are commercialised due to their biochemical properties as ingredients of food supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-08-08

    Chestnuts are a widely consumed fruit around the world, with Portugal being the fourth biggest producer in Europe. Storage of these nuts is an important step during processing, and the most widely used fumigant was banned in the European Union under the Montreal Protocol because of its toxicity. Recently, radiation has been introduced as a cheap and clean conservation method. Previous studies of our research group proved that γ radiation had no negative effect on the nutritional value of chestnuts; in fact, storage time had a much bigger influence on the chestnut quality. In the present study, we report the effect of a less ionizing radiation, electron beam, with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy in the nutritional value of chestnuts (ash, energy, fatty acids, sugars, and tocopherols), previously stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The storage time seemed to reduce fat and energetic values but reported a tendency for higher values of dry matter. With regard to fatty acids, there was a higher detected quantity of C20:2 in non-irradiated samples and four fatty acids were only detected in trace quantities (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0). γ-Tocopherol decreased during storage time but did not alter its quantity for all of the radiation doses (as like α-, β-, and δ-tocopherol); in fact, these compounds were present in higher concentrations in the irradiated samples. Sucrose and total sugars were lower in non-irradiated samples, and raffinose was only detected in irradiated samples. Electron-beam irradiation seems to be a suitable methodology, because the effects on chemical and nutritional composition are very low, while storage time seems to be quite important in chestnut deterioration.

  7. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

    2007-05-02

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant.

  8. The breakdown and decomposition of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf litter in two deciduous woodland soils : I. Breakdown, leaching and decomposition.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J M

    1973-09-01

    Weight losses from sweet chestnut and beech leaves, attributable to biotic and abiotic breakdown processes, leaching and microbial decomposition have been studied using tethered leaves and litter bags. The experimental sites were two adjacent areas of deciduous woodland. In one area (the Castanea site) a mor-like moder humus form has developed under a stand dominated by coppiced chestnut, in the other a mull-like moder underlies a stand of coppiced beech (the Fagus site).Chestnut leaves in the Castanea site are primarily comminuted by abiotic processes (wind, rain, hygroscopic movements, etc.) and soil animals make a relatively small contribution to leaf litter breakdown. After 31 months in the field 36.03% of the initial weight of chestnut leaves remained in the fine mesh bags against 22.82% in the coarse mesh bags. Weight losses from the coarse and fine mesh bags containing beech litter were not significantly different after 31 months when a mean weight of 57.10% of the litter remained.In the Fagus site, leaf litter breakdown was mainly due to the feeding activities of earthworms. However, chestnut leaves were more readily selected than beech leaves. After 8 months in the field nearly 45% more chestnut leaf material had been lost from the coarse mesh bags than from the fine mesh bags. Weight losses from the coarse and fine mesh bags containing beech litter were not significantly different after 31 months, when a mean weight of 43.30% of the litter remained.The leaching and decomposition rates of either type of leaves were not significantly different in the two sites. Chestnut leaves in fine mesh bags lost weight at twice the rate of beech leaves under similar conditions during the first 20 months of the study; however, most of the weight losses from beech and up to 75% of the losses from chestnut were attributable to leaching rather than to microbial decomposition. The rates of weight losses from the chestnut litter in fine mesh bags declined over the last year

  9. Ectomycorrhizal community structure in a healthy and a Phytophthora-infected chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) stand in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Maarten; Vannini, Andrea; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Hale, Michael D; Godbold, Douglas L

    2009-11-01

    Ink disease caused by Phytophthora cambivora is a major disease of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). In two C. sativa stands in central Italy, one (Montesanti) that is infected with P. cambivora and the trees showing symptoms of ink disease and another healthy stand (Puzzella), the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure was investigated. On the roots of the surviving trees of the diseased stand, 29 different ECM species were determined compared to 23 in the healthy stand. Eleven ECM species were common to both stands; however, a number of species were unique to one of the stands. Cenococcum geophilum was dominant at both sites, but the percentage colonisation was much higher at Montesanti (40.8%) compared to Puzzella (27.2%). There was a switch in species from Russula vesca, Russula lepida and Russula azurea at Puzzella to Russula nigricans, R. lepida and Russula delica at Montesanti. Both R. vesca and R. azurea were found only at the Puzzella site. At the diseased site, the ECMs formed had a smaller root tip diameter, and the ECM at the healthy site had more abundant extramatrical hyphae.

  10. Identification and expression analysis of starch branching enzymes involved in starch synthesis during the development of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Yanyan; Jiang, Yichen; Zhang, Qing; Cao, Qingqin; Fang, Kefeng; Xing, Yu; Qin, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) is native to China and distributes widely in arid and semi-arid mountain area with barren soil. As a perennial crop, chestnut is an alternative food source and acts as an important commercial nut tree in China. Starch is the major metabolite in nuts, accounting for 46 ~ 64% of the chestnut dry weight. The accumulation of total starch and amylopectin showed a similar increasing trend during the development of nut. Amylopectin contributed up to 76% of the total starch content at 80 days after pollination (DAP). The increase of total starch mainly results from amylopectin synthesis. Among genes associated with starch biosynthesis, CmSBEs (starch branching enzyme) showed significant increase during nut development. Two starch branching enzyme isoforms, CmSBE I and CmSBE II, were identified from chestnut cotyledon using zymogram analysis. CmSBE I and CmSBE II showed similar patterns of expression during nut development. The accumulations of CmSBE transcripts and proteins in developing cotyledons were characterized. The expressions of two CmSBE genes increased from 64 DAP and reached the highest levels at 77 DAP, and SBE activity reached its peak at 74 DAP. These results suggested that the CmSBE enzymes mainly contributed to amylopectin synthesis and influenced the amylopectin content in the developing cotyledon, which would be beneficial to chestnut germplasm selection and breeding. PMID:28542293

  11. Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results.

  12. Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) bark extract: cardiovascular activity and myocyte protection against oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Alberto; Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Budriesi, Roberta; Ioan, Pierfranco; Lenzi, Monia; Fimognari, Carmela; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Comandini, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1  μ M) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect.

  13. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alberto; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; Fimognari, Carmela; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Comandini, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect. PMID:23533692

  14. Extracts and compounds with anti-diabetic complications and anti-cancer activity from Castanea mollissina Blume (Chinese chestnut).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Gao, Hui-yuan; Baba, Masaki; Okada, Yoshihito; Okuyama, Toru; Wu, Li-jun; Zhan, Li-bin

    2014-10-28

    Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut), as a food product is known for its various nutrients and functional values to the human health. The present study was carried out to analyze the anti-diabetic complications and anti-cancer activities of the bioactive compounds present in C. mollissima. The kernels (CK), shells (CS) and involucres (CI) parts of C. Blume were extracted with 90% alcohol. The water suspension of these dried alcohol extracts were extracted using EtOAc and n-BuOH successively. The n-BuOH fraction of CI (CI-B) was isolated by silica gel column, Sephadex LH 20 column and preparative HPLC. The isolated compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMBC, HMQC and ESI-Q-TOF MS, All the fractions and compounds isolated were evaluated on human recombinant aldose reductase (HR-AR) assay, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation assay and human COLO 320 DM colon cancer cells inhibitory assay. CI-B was found to show a significant inhibitory effect in above biological screenings. Six flavonoids and three polyphenolic acids were obtained from CI-B. They were identified as kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-[2''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-[2", 6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and kaempferol-3-O-[2", 6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside (6), casuariin (7), casuarinin (8) and castalagin (9). Compounds 2-9 were found to show higher activity than quercetin (positive control) in the AR assay. Compounds 3-6, 8, and 9 showed stronger inhibitory effects than amino guanidine (positive control) on AGEs production. Compounds 4-6, 7, and 8 showed much higher cytotoxic activity than 5-fluorouracil (positive control) against the human COLO 320 DM colon cancer cells. Our results suggest that flavonoids and polyphenolic acids possesses anti-diabetes complications and anti

  15. Conductimetric analysis of the ion binding properties of three leaf extracts of chestnut (Castanea sativa), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and oak (Quercus robur).

    PubMed

    Rey, F; Pérez-Asenjo, M; Machado, A A; Facal, P; Ferreira, M A; Toja, A

    1995-12-01

    Humic materials extracted from tree leaves of chestnut (Castanea sativa), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and oak (Quercus robur) were analyzed by performing conductimetric titrations. Values between about 84 and 236 muS cm(-1) for the molar conductivity and between 0.42 and 0.74 for the charge distribution parameter were obtained when the concentrations of the extract are increased from 40 to 100 mg 1(-1). These variations were explained by using the counterion condensation theory, and the distance between the charged groups of the polyions, the volume of the counterion condensation and the Debye-Hückel potential were also calculated.

  16. Antioxidant activities of chestnut nut of Castanea sativa Mill. (cultivar 'Judia') as function of origin ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Oliveira, Maria Manuela; Almeida, José; Costa, Rita; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Peixoto, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of different ecotypes of chestnut nut (cv. Judia) were studied. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also determinated. Total phenolics amount ranged from 9.6mg/g of GAE (hottest ecotype, Murça) to 19.4mg/g of GAE (coldest ecotype, Valpaços). Gallic and ellagic acid were the predominant compounds and Valpaços had the highest values while, Murça had the lowest ones. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extracts were evaluated through several biochemical essays: ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) and inhibition of oxidative haemolysis in erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of each ecotype, the EC50 values were calculated. Once again Valpaços revealed the best antioxidant properties, presenting much lower EC50 values. Climatic conditions influence seems to be a limiting factor for production of phenolic compounds and consequently for the antioxidant properties of chestnut nuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Osmotic dehydration effects on major and minor components of chestnut (Castanea sativaMill.) slices.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Teresa; Pereira, José Alberto; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Casal, Susana

    2017-08-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration (OD) conditions (temperature, time and sucrose concentration) on some nutritional parameters, soluble sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and vitamin E composition of chestnut slices was studied. Temperature at 60 °C and contact time of 7.5 h decreased significantly both protein (in 20 and 15%) and fat (in 25 and 20%) contents when compared to 30 °C and contact time of 2.5 h, simultaneously with the incorporation of sugars from the osmotic medium. An increase in temperature from 30 to 60 °C and contact time from 2.5 to 7.5 h also changed amylose percentage from 12 to 17 g/100 g of starch, suggesting modifications on starch conformation. Concerning organic acids, an increase in temperature from 30 to 60 °C induced thermal degradation of citric (54% of loss), malic (36% of loss) and ascorbic (23% of loss) acids. Temperature and sugar concentration did not affect significantly fat composition, particularly PUFA, the main fatty acid class, while contact times of 7.5 h led to the partial oxidation of linolenic acid (17% of loss when compared to 2.5 h). A 50% decrease was also observed on vitamin E content when temperature increased from 30 to 60 °C. Thus, OD might cause changes on the chemical composition of chestnut slices, requiring low temperature and contact times to avoid loss of important bioactive components such as ω-3 fatty acids (ex. linolenic acid) and vitamin E.

  18. Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Laranjo, José; Peixoto, Francisco; Wong Fong Sang, Harro W; Torres-Pereira, José

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of temperature in three chestnut cultivars, Aveleira, Judia and Longal. For this purpose, gas exchange, thylakoid membrane potential, photosynthetic pigment and lipid content data in July, September and October under different temperatures (31, 26 and 18 degrees C) were determined. With respect to gas exchanges, significant changes in photosynthesis rate of Aveleira were observed between July and September (7mumol CO2m(-2)s(-1)). In contrast, Judia and Longal showed a strong increase in this period, 6.1-8.5 and 4.9-6.7 micromol CO2m(-2)s(-1), for Judia and Longal, which represent an increase of about 15% and 43%, respectively. Similar patterns were detected in daylight photosynthesis measurements for Judia and Longal, in which an almost 60% decrease was observed, in contrast to 40% for Aveleira, from morning to midday, when temperatures increased from 27 to 34 degrees C. In addition to high photosynthetic rates in the hottest month, Aveleira was also the sunniest cultivar according its highest value on chlorophyll a/b ratio (3.65). Cultivars also presented maximal thylakoid membrane potential at different temperatures, with their values being 20.8, 17.8 and 17.2 degrees C for Aveleira, Longal and Judia, respectively. These results were also supported by thylakoid fatty acid composition which indicated that the unsaturation index of Aveleira (158) was the lowest in comparison with other two cultivars, 168 and 175, for Longal and Judia, respectively.

  19. Chestnut resistance to the blight disease: insights from transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A century ago, Chestnut Blight Disease (CBD) devastated the American chestnut. Backcross breeding has been underway to introgress resistance from Chinese chestnut into surviving American chestnut genotypes. Development of genomic resources for the family Fagaceae, has focused in this project on Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) and Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh (American chestnut) to aid in the backcross breeding effort and in the eventual identification of blight resistance genes through genomic sequencing and map based cloning. A previous study reported partial characterization of the transcriptomes from these two species. Here, further analyses of a larger dataset and assemblies including both 454 and capillary sequences were performed and defense related genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in canker versus healthy stem tissues were identified. Results Over one and a half million cDNA reads were assembled into 34,800 transcript contigs from American chestnut and 48,335 transcript contigs from Chinese chestnut. Chestnut cDNA showed higher coding sequence similarity to genes in other woody plants than in herbaceous species. The number of genes tagged, the length of coding sequences, and the numbers of tagged members within gene families showed that the cDNA dataset provides a good resource for studying the American and Chinese chestnut transcriptomes. In silico analysis of transcript abundance identified hundreds of GDTA in canker versus healthy stem tissues. A significant number of additional DTA genes involved in the defense-response not reported in a previous study were identified here. These DTA genes belong to various pathways involving cell wall biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscissic acid (ABA), and hormone signalling. DTA genes were also identified in the hypersensitive response and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. These DTA genes are candidates

  20. Sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa) leaves as a bio-indicator of volcanic gas, aerosol and ash deposition onto the flanks of Mt Etna in 2005-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.; Watt, S. F. L.; Day, J. A.; Collins, S. J.; Wright, T. E.; Aiuppa, A.; Calabrese, S.

    2009-01-01

    Sweet chestnut leaves ( Castanea sativa) collected from the flanks of Mt Etna volcano in 2005-2007 were analysed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of element concentrations. The aim of this work was to determine whether these leaves are a bio-indicator for volcanic gas, aerosol and ash deposition and to gain new insights into the environmental effects of quiescent and eruptive volcanic plumes. Results show a positive correlation between sample variability in the concentration of elements in Castanea sativa and enrichment factors of elements in the plume. The spatial and temporal variability of chalcophilic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Tl, Zn) is consistent with prevailing winds transporting eruptive plumes to the south-east of the summit, resulting in enhanced plume deposition onto the flanks of the volcano. Similar spatial and temporal variability was found for the halide-forming elements (Cs, K, Rb) and intermediate elements (Al, Co, Mn). The spatial variability of chalcophilic, intermediate and halide-forming elements during quiescent periods was diminished (relative to eruptive periods) and could not be explained by plume deposition. In contrast, the concentrations of lithophilic elements (Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr) did not show any clear spatial variability even during eruptive periods. Comparisons between enrichment factors for elements in Castanea sativa and literature values for enrichment factors of the volcanic plume, groundwater and lichen were made. Whilst Castanea sativa offers insights into the spatial and temporal variability of deposition, the species may not be a bio-indicator for plume composition due to biological fractionation.

  1. Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already

  2. Effect of cooking on total vitamin C contents and antioxidant activity of sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M; Gonçalves, Berta; Bennett, Richard N; Silva, Ana Paula

    2011-09-01

    In this work the total vitamin C contents (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chestnuts was evaluated. The vitamin C contents of raw chestnuts varied significantly between the different cultivars (cv) studied and it varied from 400mg/kg dry weight (cv Lada) to 693mg/kg dry weight (cv Martaínha). The different cultivars behave differently during the cooking process concerning the loss of vitamin C. A significant decrease in the vitamin C content of the chestnuts was observed, 25-54% for the boiling process and 2-77% for the roasting process. Boiled and roasted chestnuts can be good sources of vitamin C since it may represent 22.4%, 16.2%, 26.8% and 19.4%, respectively, of the recommended dietary intake for an adult man and woman. The cooking process significantly changed the antioxidant activity of the chestnuts. A difference was observed between the cultivars during the cooking processes, concerning the antioxidant activity. For the raw chestnuts the variation in vitamin C content of the chestnuts explains 99% of the antioxidant activity variation but for the roasted and boiled chestnuts this percentage significantly decreases to 51% and 88%, respectively. Although a high antioxidant activity is still present in the cooked chestnuts, the cause for this antioxidant activity is less dependent on the vitamin C content of the chestnuts, probably due to the conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. The increase in gallic acid during the cooking process, presumably transferred from the peels to the fruit, also contributes to the high antioxidant activity observed for the cooked chestnuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Lyles, James T.; Kavanaugh, Jeffery S.; Nelson, Kate; Parlet, Corey P.; Crosby, Heidi A.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes), against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr) alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56–25 μg mL-1), as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract’s lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies. PMID:26295163

  5. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance.

    PubMed

    Quave, Cassandra L; Lyles, James T; Kavanaugh, Jeffery S; Nelson, Kate; Parlet, Corey P; Crosby, Heidi A; Heilmann, Kristopher P; Horswill, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes), against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr) alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56-25 μg mL-1), as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract's lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies.

  6. Resistance of chestnut trees to Asia chestnut gall wasp

    Treesearch

    S. Anagnostakis; S.L. Clark; H. McNab

    2011-01-01

    Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphihus) was introduced into Georgia (USA) in 1975 and has been spreading north throughout the range of American chestnut (Castanea dentate). This pest is now present throughout most of Tennessee. In 2003, it was found near Cleveland, Ohio and has been spreading south from there. In 1995, hybrid chestnuts with C. dentate female...

  7. Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-05-01

    Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soluble material secreted from Penicillium chrysogenum isolate exhibits antifungal activity against Cryphonectria parasitica- the causative agent of the American Chestnut Blight

    PubMed Central

    Florjanczyk, Aleksandr; Barnes, Rebecca; Kenney, Adam; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once the dominant canopy tree along the eastern region of the United States. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, was introduced from Asia in the early 1900's, and obliterated the chestnut population within 50 years. We sought to identify environmental microbes capable of producing factors that were fungicidal or inhibited growth of C. parasitica in the hopes developing a biological control of chestnut blight. We isolated a filamentous fungus that significantly inhibited the growth of C. parasitica upon co-cultivation. Extracellular fractions of this fungal isolate prevented C. parasitica growth, indicating that a potential fungicide was produced by the novel isolate. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA identified this inhibitory fungus as Penicillium chrysogenum. Furthermore, these extracellular fractions were tested as treatments for blight in vivo using chestnut saplings. Scarred saplings that were treated with the P. chrysogenum extracellular fractions healed subjectively better than those without treatment when inoculated with C. parasitica. These data suggest that material secreted by P. chrysogenum could be used as a treatment for the American chestnut blight. This work may assist the reclamation of the American chestnut in association with breeding programs and blight attenuation. Specifically, treatment of small groves under the right conditions may allow them to remain blight free. Future work will explore the mechanism of action and specific target of the extracellular fraction. PMID:27274909

  9. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination.

  10. Beneficial effects of water-soluble chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) tannin extract on chicken small intestinal epithelial cell culture.

    PubMed

    Brus, M; Gradišnik, L; Trapecar, M; Škorjanc, D; Frangež, R

    2018-02-12

    Feed and water supplementation with powdered hydrolyzable tannins from chestnut represents a valuable alternative strategy to antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we evaluated the effects and safety of a water-soluble form of chestnut tannin (WST) in an in vitro model of chicken small intestinal epithelial cells (CSIEC). A chicken cell culture was established, and WST in concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% were tested for cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, metabolic activity, production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidative potential, genotoxicity, and influence on the epithelia cell cycle. The tested concentrations showed a significant (P < 0.05) greater proliferative effect on CSIEC than the control medium (maximal proliferation at 0.1% WST as determined by optical density measurements). The 0.2% concentration of WST was cytotoxic, causing significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production but with no short-term genotoxicity. Although increasing the concentration caused a decline in the metabolism of challenged cells (the lowest at 0.1% WST), metabolic activity remained higher than that in control cells. The antioxidant potential was 75% better and significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the 0.1% WST cultured cells compared to control. In conclusion, the cultured CSIEC are useful tools in basic and clinical research for the study of intestinal physiology, as they retain physiological and biochemical properties and epithelial morphology close to the original tissue and, in many ways, reflect the in vivo state. Our results indicate that WST exert a beneficial effect on intestinal epithelia, since they: i) stimulate proliferation of enterocytes; ii) increase antioxidative potential; iii) have no genotoxic effect; and iv) do not affect cellular metabolism. Our results reinforce the importance of WST as promising candidates for further evaluation and use in commercial broiler farm production. © 2017

  11. In vivo skin irritation potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) leaf extract, a putative natural antioxidant for topical application.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Isabel F; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Pereira, Teresa M; Amaral, M Helena; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2008-11-01

    Topical application of natural antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against ultraviolet-mediated oxidative damage and provides a straightforward way to strengthen the endogenous protection system. However, natural products can provoke skin adverse effects, such as allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Skin irritation potential of Castanea sativa leaf ethanol:water (7:3) extract was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 20 volunteers. Before performing the irritation test, the selection of the solvent and extraction method was guided by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging test and polyphenols extraction (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay). Iron-chelating activity and the phenolic composition (high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection) were evaluated for the extract obtained under optimized conditions. The extraction method adopted consisted in 5 short extractions (10 min.) with ethanol:water (7:3), performed at 40 degrees. The IC(50) found for the iron chelation and DPPH scavenging assays were 132.94 +/- 9.72 and 12.58 +/- 0.54 microg/ml (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively. The total phenolic content was found to be 283.8 +/- 8.74 mg GAE/g extract (mean +/- S.E.M.). Five phenolic compounds were identified in the extract, namely, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside. The patch test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, this extract can be regarded as safe for topical application.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of chestnut (Castanea sativa) tree buds suggests a putative role for epigenetic control of bud dormancy.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, María Estrella; Rodríguez, Roberto; Cañal, María Jesús; Toorop, Peter E

    2011-09-01

    Recent papers indicated that epigenetic control is involved in transitions in bud dormancy, purportedly controlling gene expression. The present study aimed to identify genes that are differentially expressed in dormant and non-dormant Castanea sativa buds. Two suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were constructed to characterize the transcriptomes of dormant apical buds of C. sativa, and buds in which dormancy was released. A total of 512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated in a forward and reverse subtractive hybridization experiment. Classification of these ESTs into functional groups demonstrated that dormant buds were predominantly characterized by genes associated with stress response, while non-dormant buds were characterized by genes associated with energy, protein synthesis and cellular components for development and growth. ESTs for a few genes involved in different forms of epigenetic modification were found in both libraries, suggesting a role for epigenetic control in bud dormancy different from that in growth. Genes encoding histone mono-ubiquitinase HUB2 and histone acetyltransferase GCN5L were associated with dormancy, while a gene encoding histone H3 kinase AUR3 was associated with growth. Real-time RT-PCR with a selection of genes involved in epigenetic modification and stress tolerance confirmed the expression of the majority of investigated genes in various stages of bud development, revealing a cyclical expression pattern concurring with the growth seasons for most genes. However, senescing leaves also showed an increased expression of several of the genes associated with dormancy, implying pleiotropy. Furthermore, a comparison between these subtraction cDNA libraries and the poplar bud dormancy transcriptome and arabidopsis transcriptomes for seed dormancy and non-dormancy indicated a common basis for dormancy in all three systems. Bud dormancy and non-dormancy in C. sativa were characterized by distinct sets of genes

  13. Transcriptome analysis of chestnut (Castanea sativa) tree buds suggests a putative role for epigenetic control of bud dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, María Estrella; Rodríguez, Roberto; Cañal, María Jesús; Toorop, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent papers indicated that epigenetic control is involved in transitions in bud dormancy, purportedly controlling gene expression. The present study aimed to identify genes that are differentially expressed in dormant and non-dormant Castanea sativa buds. Methods Two suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were constructed to characterize the transcriptomes of dormant apical buds of C. sativa, and buds in which dormancy was released. Key Results A total of 512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated in a forward and reverse subtractive hybridization experiment. Classification of these ESTs into functional groups demonstrated that dormant buds were predominantly characterized by genes associated with stress response, while non-dormant buds were characterized by genes associated with energy, protein synthesis and cellular components for development and growth. ESTs for a few genes involved in different forms of epigenetic modification were found in both libraries, suggesting a role for epigenetic control in bud dormancy different from that in growth. Genes encoding histone mono-ubiquitinase HUB2 and histone acetyltransferase GCN5L were associated with dormancy, while a gene encoding histone H3 kinase AUR3 was associated with growth. Real-time RT-PCR with a selection of genes involved in epigenetic modification and stress tolerance confirmed the expression of the majority of investigated genes in various stages of bud development, revealing a cyclical expression pattern concurring with the growth seasons for most genes. However, senescing leaves also showed an increased expression of several of the genes associated with dormancy, implying pleiotropy. Furthermore, a comparison between these subtraction cDNA libraries and the poplar bud dormancy transcriptome and arabidopsis transcriptomes for seed dormancy and non-dormancy indicated a common basis for dormancy in all three systems. Conclusions Bud dormancy and non-dormancy in C

  14. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Treesearch

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  16. Effectiveness of a detached‐leaf assay as a proxy for stem inoculations in backcrossed chestnut (Castanea) blight resistance breeding populations

    Treesearch

    N. R. LaBonte; J.R. McKenna; K. Woeste

    2016-01-01

    A recently developed detached-leaf blight resistance assay has generated interest because it could reduce the amount of time needed to evaluate backcrossed hybrid trees in the American chestnut blight resistance breeding programme. We evaluated the leaf inoculation technique on a sample of advanced progeny from the Indiana state chapter American Chestnut Foundation...

  17. Multi-cropping edible truffles and sweet chestnuts: production of high-quality Castanea sativa seedlings inoculated with Tuber aestivum, its ecotype T. uncinatum, T. brumale, and T. macrosporum.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Lafuente, Amaya; Benito-Matías, Luis F; Peñuelas-Rubira, Juan L; Suz, Laura M

    2018-01-01

    The plantation and management of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) orchards is a common and traditional land use system in many areas of Europe that offers the advantage of simultaneous production of nuts and timber. During the last decades, sweet chestnut has declined dramatically in many regions because of the profound social changes in rural areas coupled with pathogen attacks. Truffles, the hypogeous ascocarps of the ectomycorrhizal genus Tuber, are currently cultivated using host trees inoculated with these fungi for improving production in truffle orchards. The production of good forestry quality chestnut seedlings inoculated with European truffles in nurseries is essential for multi-cropping plantation establishment, but so far, it has not been implemented in agroforestry practices. Moreover, it is necessary to assess the physiological condition of the seedlings due to the high calcium amendment needed for the growth of Tuber spp. mycelium that can become toxic for the host plants. In this study, seedlings of C. sativa were inoculated with Tuber aestivum and its ecotypes T. uncinatum, T. brumale, and T. macrosporum and were grown in a greenhouse using culture conditions favorable for the production of high-quality plants for forestry purposes. At the end of the assay, levels of root colonization and morphological and physiological parameters of the seedlings were measured. The colonization of C. sativa with T. aestivum, its ecotype T. uncinatum, and T. brumale was successful, and the seedlings showed normal growth. Inoculation protocols with T. macrosporum need to be improved. Tuber species formed well-developed ectomycorrhizae on C. sativa in nursery conditions.

  18. Descriptor data of Castanea accessions at the University of Missouri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chestnut, Castanea L., trees were propagated and planted in repositories at the Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center, New Franklin, Missouri in 1996, 2002, 2009 with additional accessions acquired annually. Trees have been pruned, fertilized, irrigated, and pests controlled following Unive...

  19. Dietary Effects of Oregano (Origanum Vulgaris L.) Plant or Sweet Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Mill.) Wood Extracts on Microbiological, Chemico-Physical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Cooked ham During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Dino; Trabalza-Marinucci, Massimo; Acuti, Gabriele; Codini, Michela; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Forte, Claudio; Branciari, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill.) or oregano (Origanum vulgaris L.) extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL), with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR) and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW), respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20) and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C). Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days). At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORACFL assay) and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: total microbial count (TMC), lactic acid bacteria count (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes, pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*), total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN) and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORACFL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORACFL, a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW. PMID:27800421

  20. Dietary Effects of Oregano (Origanum VulgarisL.) Plant or Sweet Chestnut (Castanea SativaMill.) Wood Extracts on Microbiological, Chemico-Physical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Cooked ham During Storage.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Trabalza-Marinucci, Massimo; Acuti, Gabriele; Codini, Michela; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Forte, Claudio; Branciari, Raffaella

    2015-11-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood ( Castanea sativa Mill.) or oregano ( Origanum vulgaris L.) extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL), with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR) and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW), respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20) and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C). Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days). At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORAC FL assay) and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: total microbial count (TMC), lactic acid bacteria count (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes , pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*), total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN) and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORAC FL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORAC FL , a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW.

  1. The emission of corrosive vapours by wood. Sweet-chestnut (Castanea sativa) and wychelm (Ulmus glabrau) O-acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylans extracted with dimethyl sulphoxide

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, G. C.; Gray, J. D.; Arni, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. O-Acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans were isolated from sweet chestnut and wych elm, either green or incubated at 48° and 100% relative humidity for 36 weeks. 2. The chlorine–ethanolamine method of delignification resulted in a 50% loss of O-acetyl groups from green wych elm compared with an 18% loss from green sweet chestnut. 3. The acid–chlorite method gave an acceptable loss of O-acetyl groups in three cases, but incubated sweet chestnut showed a 44·6% loss. However, it is believed that this is due to the loss of simple O-acetylated xylose sugars resulting from glycosidic hydrolysis, rather than removal of O-acetyl groups by direct hydrolysis. Assuming that this occurs in a random manner, it is unlikely to have much structural significance. 4. Dimethyl sulphoxide extraction of chestnut holocellulose and elm holocellulose, green and incubated, yielded O-acetyl glucuronoxylans containing 10·2, 3·8, 13·1 and 7·7% O-acetyl groups respectively. 5. The location of these O-acetyl groups was determined by Bouveng's method in which phenyl isocyanate is used as a blocking group. PMID:5808312

  2. The emission of corrosive vapours by wood. Sweet-chestnut (Castanea stiva) and wych-elm (Ulmusglabrau) O-acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylans extracted with dimethyl sulphoxide.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, G C; Gray, J D; Arni, P C

    1969-06-01

    1. O-Acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans were isolated from sweet chestnut and wych elm, either green or incubated at 48 degrees and 100% relative humidity for 36 weeks. 2. The chlorine-ethanolamine method of delignification resulted in a 50% loss of O-acetyl groups from green wych elm compared with an 18% loss from green sweet chestnut. 3. The acid-chlorite method gave an acceptable loss of O-acetyl groups in three cases, but incubated sweet chestnut showed a 44.6% loss. However, it is believed that this is due to the loss of simple O-acetylated xylose sugars resulting from glycosidic hydrolysis, rather than removal of O-acetyl groups by direct hydrolysis. Assuming that this occurs in a random manner, it is unlikely to have much structural significance. 4. Dimethyl sulphoxide extraction of chestnut holocellulose and elm holocellulose, green and incubated, yielded O-acetyl glucuronoxylans containing 10.2, 3.8, 13.1 and 7.7% O-acetyl groups respectively. 5. The location of these O-acetyl groups was determined by Bouveng's method in which phenyl isocyanate is used as a blocking group.

  3. A comparative study of the antihyaluronidase, antiurease, antioxidant, antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of different unifloral degrees of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) honeys.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Karaoglu, Sengul Alpay

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate some physicochemical and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of three different degrees of unifloral characters of chestnut honeys. Antihyaluronidase, antiurease and antimicrobial activities were evaluated as anti-inflammatory characteristics. Total phenolic contents, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic profiles, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), scavenging activities of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS + ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals were evaluated as antioxidant properties. Color, optical rotation, conductivity, moisture, pH and ash content were evaluated as physicochemical parameters, and some sugars content, prolin, diastase, HMF and minerals (Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn) were evaluated as chemical and biochemical parameters. All studied physicochemical and biological active properties were changed in line with the unifloral character of the chestnut honeys. A higher unifloral character was found associated with greater apitherapeutic capacity of the honey, as well as biological active compounds.

  4. Low dose γ-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-28

    Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients.

  5. Antiamnesic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) inner skin on Aβ(25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Heo, Ho Jin

    2012-12-01

    To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Antiamnesic Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) Inner Skin on Aβ25–35-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H2O2 only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)–induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23134459

  7. In vivo antioxidant potential of Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract in young growing pigs exposed to n-3 PUFA-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Frankič, Tamara; Salobir, Janez

    2011-06-01

    Farm animals in intensive farming systems are frequently exposed to oxidative stress, which demands adequate antioxidant protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different concentrations of Sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW; 0.75, 1.5 and 3 g kg⁻¹) in case of n-3 PUFA-induced oxidative stress in young pigs. The highest concentration (3 g kg⁻¹) of SCW decreased malondialdehyde excretion in urine by 31.7%, but had no effect on plasma malondialdehyde. A linear trend towards decrease of urine isoprostanes iPF(2α)-VI was observed with the addition of SCW. All three concentrations of SCW efficiently protected blood lymphocytes from DNA damage and lowered plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. The antioxidative and antigenotoxic effect of 3 g SCW kg⁻¹ feed was comparable to the effect of 90.4 mg kg⁻¹ of added vitamin E. The results from this study show that, besides being known as antihelmintic, antimicrobial and antiviral agent, Sweet chestnut wood extract could also be considered as a promising natural antioxidant in animal nutrition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Nutritional characteristics and quality of eggs from laying hens fed on a diet supplemented with chestnut tannin extract (Castanea sativa Miller).

    PubMed

    Minieri, S; Buccioni, A; Serra, A; Galigani, I; Pezzati, A; Rapaccini, S; Antongiovanni, M

    2016-12-01

    The trial was performed with 80 laying hens belonging to two Tuscan autochthonous breeds: 40 birds of the Mugellese (MU) breed and 40 of the White Leghorn (WL) breed. The animals were allotted to 4 groups of individually caged 20 hens each: two groups were fed on a commercial diet and worked as the control groups (MUC and WLC); the other two groups received the same diet, integrated with 2 g of chestnut tannin (CT) extract per kg of diet (MUT and WLT). A sample of 70 eggs were randomly collected and analysed for cholesterol content, fatty acid (FA) profile, weight, thickness of shell and colour of yolk. Physical parameters, including yolk colour, and indices of egg quality were not affected by the treatments. The concentration of unsaturated FAs increased, whereas cholesterol was significantly decreased: -17% in WLT and -9% in MUT. Dietary supplementation with CT extract resulted in a modification of lipid composition, towards a more healthy quality of eggs.

  9. Effects of light acclimation on photosynthesis, growth, and biomass allocation in america chestnut seedlings

    Treesearch

    G. Geoff Wang; William L. Bauerle; Bryan T. Mudder

    2006-01-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentate(Marshall) Borkh.] was a widely distributed tree species in the Eastern U.S., comprising an estimated 25 percent of native eastern hardwood forests. Chestnut blight eradicated American chestnut from the forest canopy by the 1950s, and now it only persists as understory sprouts. However, blight-resistant hybrids with...

  10. Blight-resistant American chestnut trees: selection of progeny from a breeding program

    Treesearch

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Fred Hebard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica into North America in early 1900s resulted in the demise of the American chestnut, which was once the most dominant forest tree in the eastern United States. While the American chestnut (Castanea dentate) is susceptible, its counterpart from Asia, the Chinese chestnut, is...

  11. Cooperative test plots produce some promising Chinese and hybrid chestnut trees

    Treesearch

    Jesse D. Diller; Russell B. Clapper; Richard A. Jaynes

    1964-01-01

    In attempts to find a chestnut tree that is resistant to the blight fungus Endothia parasitica, Asiatic chestnuts have been imported and grown in this country, and tree breeders have worked to produce hybrid trees that might be suitable substitutes for the blight-susceptible American chestnut, Castanea dentate, in timber and nut...

  12. Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini?

    PubMed

    Peintner, Ursula; Iotti, Mirco; Klotz, Petra; Bonuso, Enrico; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2007-04-01

    A study was conducted in a Castanea sativa forest that produces large quantities of the edible mushroom porcini (Boletus edulis sensu lato). The primary aim was to study porcini mycelia in the soil, and to determine if there were any possible ecological and functional interactions with other dominant soil fungi. Three different approaches were used: collection and morphological identification of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae by rDNA-ITS sequence analyses and molecular identification of the soil mycelia by ITS clone libraries. Soil samples were taken directly under basidiomes of Boletus edulis, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus aereus and Boletus pinophilus. Thirty-nine ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified on root tips whereas 40 fungal species were found in the soil using the cloning technique. The overlap between above- and below-ground fungal communities was very low. Boletus mycelia, compared with other soil fungi, were rare and with scattered distribution, whereas their fruiting bodies dominated the above-ground fungal community. Only B. aestivalis ectomycorrhizae were relatively abundant and detected as mycelia in the soil. No specific fungus-fungus association was found. Factors triggering formation of mycorrhizae and fructification of porcini appear to be too complex to be simply explained on the basis of the amount of fungal mycelia in the soil.

  13. Airborne castanea pollen forecasting model for ecological and allergological implementation.

    PubMed

    Astray, G; Fernández-González, M; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; López, D; Mejuto, J C

    2016-04-01

    Castanea sativa Miller belongs to the natural vegetation of many European deciduous forests prompting impacts in the forestry, ecology, allergological and chestnut food industry fields. The study of the Castanea flowering represents an important tool for evaluating the ecological conservation of North-Western Spain woodland and the possible changes in the chestnut distribution due to recent climatic change. The Castanea pollen production and dispersal capacity may cause hypersensitivity reactions in the sensitive human population due to the relationship between patients with chestnut pollen allergy and a potential cross reactivity risk with other pollens or plant foods. In addition to Castanea pollen's importance as a pollinosis agent, its study is also essential in North-Western Spain due to the economic impact of the industry around the chestnut tree cultivation and its beekeeping interest. The aim of this research is to develop an Artificial Neural Networks for predict the Castanea pollen concentration in the atmosphere of the North-West Spain area by means a 20years data set. It was detected an increasing trend of the total annual Castanea pollen concentrations in the atmosphere during the study period. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) implemented in this study show a great ability to predict Castanea pollen concentration one, two and three days ahead. The model to predict the Castanea pollen concentration one day ahead shows a high linear correlation coefficient of 0.784 (individual ANN) and 0.738 (multiple ANN). The results obtained improved those obtained by the classical methodology used to predict the airborne pollen concentrations such as time series analysis or other models based on the correlation of pollen levels with meteorological variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Allozyme and RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Geographic Variation in Wild Populations of the American Chestnut (Fagaceae)

    Treesearch

    Hongwen Huang; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1998-01-01

    Genetic variation among 12 populations of the American chestnut (Custanea dentata) was investigated. Population genetic parameters estimated from allozyme variation suggest that C. dentata at both the population and species level has narrow genetic diversity as compared to other species in the genus. Average expected heterozygosity...

  15. Testing ecological interactions between Gnomoniopsis castaneae and Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lione, Guglielmo; Giordano, Luana; Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto; Gonthier, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    An emerging nut rot of chestnut caused by the fungus Gnomoniopsis castaneae was reported soon after the invasion of the exotic gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy. The goal of this work was to assess the association between the spread of the fungal pathogen and the infestation of the pest by testing if: I) viable inoculum of G. castaneae can be carried by adults of D. kuriphilus; II) the fungal colonization is related to the number of adults inhabiting the galls; III) the fungal colonization of chestnut buds and the oviposition are associated. Fungal isolations and PCR-based molecular assays were performed on 323 chestnut galls and on their emerging D. kuriphilus adults, whose number was compared between galls colonized and not colonized by G. castaneae. To test the association between fungal colonization and oviposition, Monte Carlo simulations assuming different scenarios of ecological interactions were carried out and validated through isolation trials performed on 597 and 688 chestnut buds collected before and after oviposition, respectively. Although DNA of G. castaneae was detected in a sample of 40% of the adults developed in colonized galls, the fungus could never be isolated from insects, suggesting that the pest is an unlikely vector of viable inoculum. On average, the emerging adults were significantly more abundant from galls colonized by G. castaneae than from not colonized ones (3.76 vs. 2.54, P < 0.05), indicating a possible fungus/pest synergy. The simulations implying no interaction between G. castaneae and D. kuriphilus after fungal colonization were confirmed as the most likely. In fact, G. castaneae was present in 33.8% of the buds before oviposition, while no association was detected between fungal colonization and oviposition (odds ratio 0.98, 0.71-1.33 95% CI). These findings suggest that the fungus/pest synergy is asymmetrically favorable to the pest and occurs after oviposition.

  16. Detection of mold-damaged chestnuts by near-infrared spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mold infection is a significant postharvest problem for processors of chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller).Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting tec...

  17. Bur and nut production on three chestnut cultivars

    Treesearch

    Michele Warmund; Darin J. Enderton; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize bur and nut development on shoots of young chestnut (Castanea sp.) trees over a two year period and to determine the effect of secondary (2°) bur removal on subsequent bur and nut production. Terminal shoots of 'Peach' trees with primary (1°) and 2° burs (PS) grew longer and...

  18. Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

  19. First interspecific genetic linkage map for Castanea sativa x Castanea crenata revealed QTLs for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carmen; Nelson, Charles Dana; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Machado, Helena; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata) carries resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the destructive and widespread oomycete causing ink disease. The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), carrying little to no disease resistance, is currently threatened by the presence of the oomycete pathogen in forests, orchards and nurseries. Determining the genetic basis of P. cinnamomi resistance, for further selection of molecular markers and candidate genes, is a prominent issue for implementation of marker assisted selection in the breeding programs for resistance. In this study, the first interspecific genetic linkage map of C. sativa x C. crenata allowed the detection of QTLs for P. cinnamomi resistance. The genetic map was constructed using two independent, control-cross mapping populations. Chestnut populations were genotyped using 452 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism molecular markers derived from the available chestnut transcriptomes. The consensus genetic map spans 498,9 cM and contains 217 markers mapped with an average interval of 2.3 cM. For QTL analyses, the progression rate of P. cinnamomi lesions in excised shoots inoculated was used as the phenotypic metric. Using non-parametric and composite interval mapping approaches, two QTLs were identified for ink disease resistance, distributed in two linkage groups: E and K. The presence of QTLs located in linkage group E regarding P. cinnamomi resistance is consistent with a previous preliminary study developed in American x Chinese chestnut populations, suggesting the presence of common P. cinnamomi defense mechanisms across species. Results presented here extend the genomic resources of Castanea genus providing potential tools to assist the ongoing and future chestnut breeding programs. PMID:28880954

  20. First interspecific genetic linkage map for Castanea sativa x Castanea crenata revealed QTLs for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carmen; Nelson, Charles Dana; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Machado, Helena; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Costa, Rita Lourenço

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata) carries resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the destructive and widespread oomycete causing ink disease. The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), carrying little to no disease resistance, is currently threatened by the presence of the oomycete pathogen in forests, orchards and nurseries. Determining the genetic basis of P. cinnamomi resistance, for further selection of molecular markers and candidate genes, is a prominent issue for implementation of marker assisted selection in the breeding programs for resistance. In this study, the first interspecific genetic linkage map of C. sativa x C. crenata allowed the detection of QTLs for P. cinnamomi resistance. The genetic map was constructed using two independent, control-cross mapping populations. Chestnut populations were genotyped using 452 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism molecular markers derived from the available chestnut transcriptomes. The consensus genetic map spans 498,9 cM and contains 217 markers mapped with an average interval of 2.3 cM. For QTL analyses, the progression rate of P. cinnamomi lesions in excised shoots inoculated was used as the phenotypic metric. Using non-parametric and composite interval mapping approaches, two QTLs were identified for ink disease resistance, distributed in two linkage groups: E and K. The presence of QTLs located in linkage group E regarding P. cinnamomi resistance is consistent with a previous preliminary study developed in American x Chinese chestnut populations, suggesting the presence of common P. cinnamomi defense mechanisms across species. Results presented here extend the genomic resources of Castanea genus providing potential tools to assist the ongoing and future chestnut breeding programs.

  1. Phylogeny of Castanea (Fagaceae) based on chloroplast trnT-L-F sequence data

    Treesearch

    Ping Lang; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2005-01-01

    Species in the genus Castanea are widely distributed in the deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere from Asia to Europe and North America. They show floristic similarity but differences in chestnut blight resistance especially among eastern Asian and eastern North American species. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted in this study using...

  2. Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean liveweight: 42.9 kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests.

  3. Castanea sativa by-products: a review on added value and sustainable application.

    PubMed

    Braga, Nair; Rodrigues, Francisca; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. is a species of the family Fagaceae abundant in south Europe and Asia. The fruits (chestnut) are an added value resource in producing countries. Chestnut economic value is increasing not only for nutritional qualities but also for the beneficial health effects related with its consumption. During chestnut processing, a large amount of waste material is generated namely inner shell, outer shell and leaves. Studies on chestnut by-products revealed a good profile of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective properties. These agro-industrial wastes, after valorisation, can be used by other industries, such as pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics, generating more profits, reducing pollution costs and improving social, economic and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this review is to provide knowledge about the type of chestnut by-products produced, the studies concerning its chemical composition and biological activity, and also to discuss other possible applications of these materials.

  4. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

  5. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany. PMID:26869743

  6. Early results of a chestnut planting in eastern Kentucky illustrate reintroduction challenges

    Treesearch

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Jennifer A. Franklin; David S. Buckley; Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer; Arnold M. Saxton; Frederick V. Hebard

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the first year results from a silvicultural study of American, hybrid (BC2F3) and Chinese chestnut seedlings (Castanea spp. Mill.) on the Daniel Boone National Forest in southeastern Kentucky. After one year, no significant differences in growth were found among the silvicultural...

  7. Potential of ultrasonic pulse velocity for evaluating the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood

    Treesearch

    Turker Dundar; Xiping Wang; Nusret As; Erkan Avci

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of ultrasonic velocity as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) that are commonly used in flooring industry. Ultrasonic velocity, specific gravity, and radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkages...

  8. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

    2002-03-01

    The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

  9. Descriptive sensory analysis and free sugar contents of chestnut cultivars grown in North America.

    PubMed

    Warmund, Michele R; Elmore, Janelle R; Adhikari, Koushik; McGraw, Sherry

    2011-08-30

    Various chestnut (Castanea) species and cultivars are currently produced and marketed in North America including Peach, Qing, AU-Homestead, Eaton, Marrone di Castel del Rio, and Colossal. In spite of their availability in the marketplace, similarities in sensory characteristics of chestnuts, as well as their unique attributes, have not been explored. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate texture and flavor attributes of commonly grown chestnut cultivars using descriptive sensory analysis and to quantify their free sugar content by gas-liquid chromatography. Twenty-three sensory terms were used for descriptive analysis of roasted chestnuts. All but two attributes (raw impression and fermented) were common to all chestnut cultivars. Peelability, initial firmness, dissolvability, and mustard, sweet, and sour flavors varied among cultivars. Sucrose, the predominant free sugar in chestnuts, was greatest in Colossal chestnuts from California, while those of Peach had the lowest content. Glucose, fructose and maltose were also present in chestnuts. This study demonstrated that cultivars of various chestnut species share several common sensory attributes, but differ in intensity ratings of six descriptors. Of these attributes, sweetness has been associated with consumer acceptance and can be promoted in the marketplace. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The Sutton (13MA266) Site and the Townsites of Percy (13MA347) and Dunreath (13MA449): Data Recovery at Three Historic Sites, Lake Red Rock, Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    recovered and identified U from phase II excavations. These included hickory, American chestnut ( Castanea dentata), American beech (Faqus crandifolia...Hickory Castanea dentata 1 0.05 American chestnut Faqus grandifolia 1 0.10 American beech Fraxinus sp. 4 0.25 Ash m Gleditsia triacanthos 1 0.15 Honey...and 1985 I Seasons (Roper et al. 1986). 6 I I b. DACW25-85-C-0037: required a comprehensive geomorphological study of Lake Red Rock with Holocene

  11. Early results from a pilot test of planting small American chesnut seedlings under a forest canopy

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; Steven Patch; A. Amelia Nutter

    2003-01-01

    Successful development of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) hybrids that are resistant to chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) will require information about methods for effective and economical reintroduction of this species in forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains (Boucher 2000) American chestnut regenerates...

  12. Impact of the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), on the Chestnut Component of Honey in the Southern Swiss Alps.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Eric; Kast, Christina; Kilchenmann, Verena; Bieri, Katharina; Gehrig, Regula; Pezzatti, Gianni B; Conedera, Marco

    2018-02-09

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW; Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) is considered as one of the most dangerous pests of the genus Castanea. In southern Switzerland, repeated heavy ACGW attacks prevented chestnut trees from vegetating normally for years before the arrival and spread of the biological control agent Torymus sinensis (Kamijo, Hymenoptera, Torymidae). This resulted in a greatly reduced green biomass and flower production. In this paper, we analyze the impact of such an ecosystem alteration of the environment on the composition of produced honey. Six beekeepers were chosen from sites with different densities of chestnut trees, each of which providing series of honey samples from 2010 to 2016. We determined the chestnut component in the honeys via a combined chemical and sensory approach, and correlated the obtained results with the degree of yearly ACGW-induced crown damage and weather conditions during the period in question in the surrounding chestnut stands. The chestnut component in the analyzed honey sample series showed a strong correlation with the degree of ACGW-induced crown damage, whereas meteorological conditions of the corresponding year had a very marginal effect. Decreases in the chestnut component of the honey were statistically significant starting from a ACGW infestation level of 30%. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Molecular evidence for an Asian origin and a unique westward migration of species in the genus Castanea via Europe to North America

    Treesearch

    Ping Lang; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Hongwen Huang

    2007-01-01

    The genus Castanea (Fagaceae) is widely distributed in the deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere. The striking similarity between the Xoras of eastern Asia and those of eastern North America and the divergence in chestnut blight resistance among species has been of interest to botanists for a century. To infer the biogeographical history of...

  14. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

  15. The emission of corrosive vapours by wood. Hot - water - extracted O - acetylated hemicelluloses from sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) and wych elm (Ulmus glabrau) and a discussion of O-acetyl-group changes occurring in these woods during incubation at 48° and 100% relative humidity

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, G. C.; Gray, J. D.; Arni, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. O-Acetylated polysaccharides were obtained from green wood of both sweet chestnut and wych elm by treatment of the residue remaining after dimethyl sulphoxide extraction with water at 98°. This gives a mixture of polysaccharides containing xylose, galactose, glucose and uronic acids. Analysis of these and their fractionated products suggest that only xylans in green sweet chestnut and green wych elm are O-acetylated. 2. The isolated O-acetylated xylans are not representative of the total O-acetylated xylans occurring in sweet chestnut and wych elm. 3. Application of the method developed by Bouveng for the location of O-acetyl groups to all four O-acetylated xylans obtained in this series of investigations by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction showed that those from sweet chestnut and wych elm, under the same conditions of incubation, lost: 74·2 and 43·4% of acetyl groups respectively, at C-2; 58·0 and 28·5% of acetyl groups respectively at C-3; 41·8 and 82·2% of acetyl groups respectively at C-2 and C-3. 4. A consideration of electronic and steric factors indicates that there does not appear to be a purely chemical reason for the difference in loss of O-acetyl groups between sweet chestnut and wych elm. It is suggested that the location of O-acetylated xylans in the wood cell walls and the presence of extractive may play some part in this difference. PMID:5808313

  16. Earlywood vessels of Castanea sativa record temperature before their formation.

    PubMed

    Fonti, Patrick; Solomonoff, Natalie; García-González, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the climatic signal contained in the earlywood vessel size of the ring-porous chestnut (Castanea sativa) and the physiological processes involved in the underlying mechanisms. In order to assign the encoded signal to a specific physiological process, bud phenology and vessel formation were monitored along an elevation transect and chronologies of the size of the first row of earlywood vessels were retrospectively correlated with 40 yr of early spring temperatures. The first vessels appeared in late April to early May, after encoding both a negative temperature signal in February-March (during tree quiescence) and a positive temperature signal in early April (at the time of resumption of shoot growth). We hypothesize that February and March temperatures affect cambial sensitivity to auxin, preconditioning tree responses later in the season. Furthermore, April temperature is related to tree activation whereby new hormone production fosters vessel expansion.

  17. Potential of ultrasonic pulse velocity for evaluating the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Türker; Wang, Xiping; As, Nusret; Avcı, Erkan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of ultrasonic velocity as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) that are commonly used in flooring industry. Ultrasonic velocity, specific gravity, and radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkages were measured on seventy-four 20×20×30-mm(3) specimens obtained from freshly cut oak and chestnut stems. The ultrasonic velocities of the specimens decreased with increasing moisture content (MC). We found that specific gravity was not a good predictor of the transverse shrinkages as indicated by relatively weak correlations. Ultrasonic velocity, on the other hand, was found to be a significant predictor of the transverse shrinkages for both oak and chestnut. The best results for prediction of shrinkages of oak and chestnut were obtained when the ultrasonic velocity and specific gravity were used together. The multiple regression models we developed in this study explained 77% of volumetric shrinkages in oak and 72% of volumetric shrinkages in chestnut. It is concluded that ultrasonic velocity coupled with specific gravity can be employed as predicting parameters to evaluate the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood during manufacturing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cotyledon storage proteins as markers of the genetic diversity in Castanea sativa Miller.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J B; Muñoz-Diez, C; Martín-Cuevas, A; Lopez, S; Martín, L M

    2003-08-01

    This study has been to analyse the useful nut globulin proteins as a marker of the genetic diversity in Castanea sativa. The evaluated populations were highly polymorphic for the globulins, being detected up to 35 polymorphic bands with a wide distribution among all the evaluated populations. Taken together for populations from all the chestnut regions, about 39.3% of total allelic variation was distributed among the populations. The estimates of genetic similarity between populations were clearly associated with the collecting site. This method of analysis of the nut storage proteins (globulins) could be a useful tool for the evaluation of genetic diversity in this and other species of the Fagaceae.

  19. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  20. Castanea spp. buds as a phytochemical source for herbal preparations: botanical fingerprint for nutraceutical identification and functional food standardisation.

    PubMed

    Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bonvegna, Luca; Bounous, Giancarlo

    2014-11-01

    Many plant species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and health benefits: Castanea spp. is among the most commonly used herbal medicines. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of chestnut bud preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main bioactive compounds, and to obtain a specific chemical fingerprint to evaluate the single class contribution to the herbal preparation phytocomplex. The analyses were performed using a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a diode array detector. Castanea spp. was identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: the observed analytical fingerprint demonstrated that these bud preparations represent a rich source of bioactive compounds (104.77 ± 1.14 g kg(-1) FW) in relation to different genotypes, specific sampling sites and several phenological stages. This study showed that the observed analytical fingerprint can be considered an important tool for assessing the chemical composition and bioactivities of the chestnut-derived products, considering the Castanea genus as a new source of natural health-promoting compounds. This study allowed the development of an effective tool for quality control by fingerprinting the bud preparation in order to develop a new generation of standardised preparations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Amino Acids Content in Germinating Seeds and Seedlings from Castanea sativa L

    PubMed Central

    Desmaison, Anne Marie; Tixier, Marie

    1986-01-01

    During germination the chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) var ecotype 33 accumulates a large amount of asparagine in the cotyledons. This compound also accumulates in the growing axis:shoots and roots. In the cotyledons, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) represents a major amino compound during germination and early seedling growth. In young seedlings, 35 days old, arginine predominates over the other soluble amino acids, particularly in roots. Five enzymic activities involved in arginine and GABA have been measured in the storage organ of the seed: arginase and ornithine carbamyltransferase decrease during germination indicating the slowing down of the urea cycle. In contrast, ornithine aminotransferase increases. Glutamate decarboxylase is particularly active about 21 days after imbibition and GABA aminotransferase activity decreases during germination. These two activities are in good agreement with the likely transport of GABA from cotyledons to growing axis. Asparagine, arginine, and GABA are the three amino compounds obviously involved in the mobilization of nitrogen reserves in the germinating chestnut seeds Castanea sativa. PMID:16664882

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Casteanea sativa Miller chestnut honey produced on Mount Etna (Sicily).

    PubMed

    Ronsisvalle, Simone; Lissandrello, Edmondo; Fuochi, Virginia; Petronio Petronio, Giulio; Straquadanio, Claudia; Crascì, Lucia; Panico, Annamaria; Milito, Marcella; Cova, Anna Maria; Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2017-12-13

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant properties of Monofloral Etna Castanea sativa Miller honeys. Escherichia coli ATCC 25,922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27,853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29,211 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29,213 were investigated for their susceptibilities to two different honeys. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC, NO scavenger assays, FRAP and DPPH. Antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties were compared with chestnut honeys from different geographical areas and with Manuka honey. UPLC-MS/MS was used for major components characterisation.

  3. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight.

  4. Testing resistance to chestnut blight of hybrid chestnuts

    Treesearch

    Cécile Robin; Xavier Capdevielle; Gille Saint-Jean; Teresa Barreneche

    2012-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. is an ecologically and economically important species in Europe, not only as a forest tree, but also as a fruit tree. It is dramatically threatened by ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp., introduced during the nineteenth century. To limit its impact, C. mollissima and C....

  5. Microsatellite markers reveal a strong geographical structure in European populations of Castanea sativa (Fagaceae): evidence for multiple glacial refugia.

    PubMed

    Mattioni, Claudia; Martin, M Angela; Pollegioni, Paola; Cherubini, Marcello; Villani, Fiorella

    2013-05-01

    Large-scale studies on the genetic diversity of forest trees are relevant for the inventory, conservation, and management of genetic resources and provide an insight into the geographical origins of the species. This approach is appropriate to use with Castanea sativa, a tree of great economic importance and the only species from the genus Castanea in Europe. The history of C. sativa was deduced from fossil pollen data, but the large-scale genetic structure of this species needs to be elucidated. We evaluated the genetic diversity of C. sativa to define previously unclarified genetic relationships among the populations from Turkey and those from Greece and western Europe. The influence of natural events such as glaciations and human impact in terms of species distribution are discussed. • Wild chestnut trees (779) were sampled in 31 European sites. Six polymorphic microsatellites were used for the analysis. A set of measures of intra- and interpopulation genetic statistics were calculated. The population structure was inferred by using a Bayesian approach. • The population structure showed a genetic divergence between the eastern (Greek and Turkish) and western (Italian and Spanish) populations. Two gene pools and a zone of gene introgression in Turkey were revealed. • The inferred population structure shows a strong geographical correspondence with the hypothesized glacial refugia and rules out the migration of the chestnut from Turkey and Greece to Italy. The homogeneous gene pool observed in Italy and Spain could have been originated from common refugia along with human-mediated colonization.

  6. Castanea sativa Mill. leaves as new sources of natural antioxidant: an electronic spin resonance study.

    PubMed

    Calliste, Claude-Alain; Trouillas, Patrick; Allais, Daovy-Paulette; Duroux, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-26

    The antioxidant potential of Castanea sativa Mill. leaf (sweet chestnut) was explored as a new source of active extracts. The capacity of the different fractions issued from aqueous, methanol, and ethyl acetate extracts to inhibit the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical was measured by electronic spin resonance. Their scavenging potential was analyzed versus their amount of phenolic compounds. Among the active fractions, the most effective one was A6, an ethyl acetate fraction, which contained a high level of total phenolic compounds (29.1 g/100 g). Thus, a different extraction procedure was performed to concentrate the active compounds of A6 in the new C. sativa leaf extract (CSLE). Compared to reference antioxidants (quercetin and vitamin E) and standard extracts (Pycnogenol, from French Pinus maritima bark, and grape marc extract), it was observed that A6 and CSLE have high antioxidant potentials, equivalent to at least those of reference compounds.

  7. Can our chestnut survive another invasion?

    Treesearch

    Lynne K. Rieske; W. Rodney. Cooper

    2011-01-01

    Plant breeders and land managers have been actively pursuing development of an American chestnut with desirable silvicultural characteristics that demonstrates resistance to the chestnut blight fungus. As progress towards development of a blight-resistant chestnut continues, questions arise as to how these plants will interact with pre-existing stresses. The Asian...

  8. Soil compaction and chestnut ink disease

    Treesearch

    T.F. Fonseca; C.G. Abreu; B.R. Parresol

    2004-01-01

    Chestnut ink disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soil-borne pathogen of world-wide distribution, accounts for the majority of disease problems on chestnuts in Portugal, limiting yield in a large number of stands and impeding establishment of trees in new areas. A survey was carried out in 32 chestnut stands in the Padrela...

  9. Hydrolyzable Tannins from Sweet Chestnut Fractions Obtained by a Sustainable and Eco-friendly Industrial Process.

    PubMed

    Campo, Margherita; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extracts, rich in Hydrolyzable Tannins (HTs), are traditionally used in the tanning and textile industries, but recent studies suggest additional uses. The aim of this work is the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS characterization of Sweet Chestnut aqueous extracts and fractions obtained through a membrane separation technology system without using other solvents, and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiradical activities. Total tannins range between 2.7 and 138.4 mM; gallic acid ranges between 6% and 100%; castalagin and vescalagin range between 0% and 40%. Gallic Acid Equivalents, measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu test, range between 0.067 and 56.99 g/100 g extract weight; ORAC test results for the marketed fractions are 450.4 and 3050 µmol/g Trolox Equivalents/extract weight. EC₅₀ values, measured with the DPPH test, range between 0.444 and 2.399 µM. These results suggest a new ecofriendly and economically sustainable method for obtaining chestnut fractions with differentiated, stable and reproducible chemical compositions. Such fractions can be marketed for innovative uses in several sectors.

  10. Environmental Inventory: Little South Fork Cumberland River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    TABLE 5 THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE Age of beginning, in millions of years before the Era Period Epoch present Quaternary Holocene 0.011 Pleistocene 2.5...and lock (T canadensis). Chestnut ( Castanea dentata), unti’Fecimated by the c€ utTblght,was also a dominant in the Mixed Mesophytic Forest. Today, it

  11. Effect of competitive interactions between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi on Castanea sativa performance.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Eric; Coelho, Valentim; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Baptista, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In Northeast of Portugal, the macrofungal community associated to chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.) is rich and diversified. Among fungal species, the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius and the saprotroph Hypholoma fasciculare are common in this habitat. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the interaction between both fungi on growth, nutritional status, and physiology of C. sativa seedlings. In pot experiments, C. sativa seedlings were inoculated with P. tinctorius and H. fasciculare individually or in combination. Inoculation with P. tinctorius stimulated the plant growth and resulted in increased foliar-N, foliar-P, and photosynthetic pigment contents. These effects were suppressed when H. fasciculare was simultaneously applied with P. tinctorius. This result could be related to the inhibition of ectomycorrhizal fungus root colonization as a result of antagonism or to the competition for nutrient sources. If chestnut seedlings have been previously inoculated with P. tinctorius, the subsequent inoculation of H. fasciculare 30 days later did not affect root colonization, and mycorrhization benefits were observed. This work confirms an antagonistic interaction between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi with consequences on the ectomycorrhizal host physiology. Although P. tinctorius is effective in promoting growth of host trees by establishing mycorrhizae, in the presence of other fungi, it may not always be able to interact with host roots due to an inability to compete with certain fungi.

  12. Antioxidant potential of polyphenols and tannins from burs of Castanea mollissima Blume.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan; Liu, Jie Yuan; Chen, Si Yu; Shi, Ling Ling; Liu, Yu Jun; Ma, Chao

    2011-10-12

    Spiny burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) are usually discarded as industrial waste during post-harvesting processing. The objective of this study was to establish an extraction and isolation procedure for tannins from chestnut burs, and to assess their potential antioxidant activity. Aqueous ethanol solution was used as extraction solvent, and HPD 100 macroporous resin column was applied for isolation. The influence of solvent concentration in the extraction and elution process on extraction yield, tannins and polyphenols content, as well as antioxidant potential, including DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power ability and cellular antioxidant ability were assessed. In both the extraction and isolation process, 50% aqueous ethanol led to superior total tannins and polyphenols content as well as significantly higher antioxidant activity. In addition, the antioxidant activity and the total tannins content in extracts and fractions had a positive linear correlation, and the predominant components responsible for antioxidant activities were characterized as hydrolysable tannins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the enrichment of tannins from burs of C. mollissim using macroporous resin chromatography, and to assess the cellular antioxidant activity of them.

  13. Proliferation, maturation and germination of Castanea sativa Mill. Somatic embryos originated from leaf explants.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, E; Ballester, A; Vieitez, A M

    2003-07-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the influence of proliferation medium on the maintenance of embryogenic competence and on repetitive embryogenesis in Castanea sativa Mill. somatic embryos derived from leaf explants. Somatic embryo proliferation was carried out by both direct secondary embryogenesis and by the culture of nodular callus tissue originated from cotyledons of somatic embryos. Both systems led to the production of cotyledonary somatic embryos on Murashige and Skoog proliferation medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 benzyladenine and 0.1 mg l-1 naphthaleneacetic acid. Carbon source and concentration had a marked influence on maturation and subsequent germination ability of chestnut somatic embryos. Plantlet conversion was achieved in embryos matured on media with 6 % sucrose, and on 3 or 6 % maltose, whereas mean shoot length, root length and leaf number of produced plants were not significantly affected by these maturation media. Overall, the best results were obtained with 3 % maltose-matured somatic embryos, giving rise to 6 % plant recovery in addition to 33 % of embryos exhibiting only shoot development. The application of a 2-month cold treatment at 4 degrees C to somatic embryos matured on medium with 3 % maltose was necessary for achieving plant conversion, while partial desiccation did not appear to influence this response. A total of 39 % of embryos eventually produced plants either through conversion to plantlets or indirectly through rooting of shoots. Shoots formed by somatic embryos could be excised, multiplied and rooted following the micropropagation procedures previously developed for chestnut.

  14. Chloroplast DNA polymorphism reveals little geographical structure in Castanea sativa Mill. (Fagaceae) throughout southern European countries.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, S; Taurchini, D; Villani, F; Vendramin, G G

    2000-10-01

    The distribution of haplotypic diversity of 38 European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) populations was investigated by PCR/RFLP analysis of regions of the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes in order to shed light on the history of this heavily managed species. The rapid expansion of chestnut starting from 3000 years ago is strongly related to human activities such as agricultural practice. This demonstrates the importance of human impact, which lasted some thousands of years, on the present-day distribution of the species. No polymorphism was detected for the single mitochondrial analysed region, while a total of 11 different chloroplast (cp) haplotypes were scored. The distribution of the cpDNA haplotypes revealed low geographical structure of the genetic diversity. The value of population subdivision, as measured by GSTc, is strikingly lower than in the other species of the family Fagaceae investigated. The actual distribution of haplotypic diversity may be explained by the strong human impact on this species, particularly during the Roman civilization of the continent, and to the long period of cultivation experienced during the last thousand years.

  15. The Castanea sativa bur as a new potential ingredient for nutraceutical and cosmetic outcomes: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Diana; Rodrigues, Francisca; Braga, Nair; Santos, Joana; Pimentel, Filipa B; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2017-01-25

    Chestnuts are a common food product in Mediterranean countries, being recognized also for their beneficial effects on human health. Nevertheless, during processing, these fruits generate a large amount of food by-products, such as shells and burs. In the present work, the macronutrient composition, vitamin E profile and amino acid content of the burs were determined in samples from three different Portuguese regions (Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The nutritional composition was similar for all samples, being characterised by a high moisture content and low fat amounts. All essential amino acids were present in considerable amounts. Concerning vitamin E, the predominant vitamer was α-tocopherol for the Minho and Beira-Alta samples. The total phenolic compounds were quantified, and the antioxidant activity evaluated in different extracts using two biochemical assays (DPPH˙ and FRAP). All bur extracts showed a high total phenolic content, the highest obtained being that for the Beira-Alta samples. The chestnut bur from Minho showed the highest antioxidant activity in both assays. This study aims to demonstrate the potential of the Castanea sativa bur as a cosmetic and nutraceutical ingredient.

  16. The protective effect of a mix of Lactarius deterrimus and Castanea sativa extracts on streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress and pancreatic β-cell death.

    PubMed

    Grdović, Nevena; Dinić, Svetlana; Arambašić, Jelena; Mihailović, Mirjana; Uskoković, Aleksandra; Marković, Jelena; Poznanović, Goran; Vidović, Senka; Zeković, Zoran; Mujić, Aida; Mujić, Ibrahim; Vidaković, Melita

    2012-10-01

    Pancreatic β-cell death or dysfunction mediated by oxidative stress underlies the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we tested extracts from the edible mushroom Lactarius deterrimus and the chestnut Castanea sativa, as well as their mixture (MIX Ld/Cs), for potential beneficial effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced pancreatic β-cell death. Analysis of chelating effects, reducing power and radical-scavenging assays revealed strong antioxidant effects of the C. sativa extract and MIX Ld/Cs, while the L. deterrimus extract displayed a weak to moderate effect. The antioxidative effect of the chestnut extract corresponds with the high content of phenolics and flavonoids identified by HPLC analysis. In contrast, the mushroom extract contains relatively small amounts of phenols and flavonoids. However, both extracts, and especially their combination MIX Ld/Cs, increased cell viability after the STZ treatment as a result of a significant reduction of DNA damage and improved redox status. The chestnut extract and MIX Ld/Cs significantly lowered the STZ-induced increases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, while the mushroom extract had no impact on the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. However, the L. deterrimus extract exhibited good NO-scavenging activity. Different mechanisms that underlie antioxidant effects of the mushroom and chestnut extracts were discussed. When combined as in the MIX Ld/Cs, the extracts exhibited diverse but synergistic actions that ultimately exerted beneficial and protective effects against STZ-induced pancreatic β-cell death.

  17. Preliminary report on the segregation of resistance in chestnuts to infestation by oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Treesearch

    S Anagnostakis; Stacy Clark; Henry Mcnab

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.),where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ispresent. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the

  18. Expression Profiling of Castanea Genes during Resistant and Susceptible Interactions with the Oomycete Pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi Reveal Possible Mechanisms of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carmen; Duarte, Sofia; Tedesco, Sara; Fevereiro, Pedro; Costa, Rita L.

    2017-01-01

    The most dangerous pathogen affecting the production of chestnuts is Phytophthora cinnamomi a hemibiotrophic that causes root rot, also known as ink disease. Little information has been acquired in chestnut on the molecular defense strategies against this pathogen. The expression of eight candidate genes potentially involved in the defense to P. cinnamomi was quantified by digital PCR in Castanea genotypes showing different susceptibility to the pathogen. Seven of the eight candidate genes displayed differentially expressed levels depending on genotype and time-point after inoculation. Cast_Gnk2-like revealed to be the most expressed gene across all experiments and the one that best discriminates between susceptible and resistant genotypes. Our data suggest that the pre-formed defenses are crucial for the resistance of C. crenata to P. cinnamomi. A lower and delayed expression of the eight studied genes was found in the susceptible Castanea sativa, which may be related with the establishment and spread of the disease in this species. A working model integrating the obtained results is presented. PMID:28443110

  19. Expression Profiling ofCastaneaGenes during Resistant and Susceptible Interactions with the Oomycete PathogenPhytophthora cinnamomiReveal Possible Mechanisms of Immunity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carmen; Duarte, Sofia; Tedesco, Sara; Fevereiro, Pedro; Costa, Rita L

    2017-01-01

    The most dangerous pathogen affecting the production of chestnuts is Phytophthora cinnamomi a hemibiotrophic that causes root rot, also known as ink disease. Little information has been acquired in chestnut on the molecular defense strategies against this pathogen. The expression of eight candidate genes potentially involved in the defense to P. cinnamomi was quantified by digital PCR in Castanea genotypes showing different susceptibility to the pathogen. Seven of the eight candidate genes displayed differentially expressed levels depending on genotype and time-point after inoculation. Cast_Gnk2-like revealed to be the most expressed gene across all experiments and the one that best discriminates between susceptible and resistant genotypes. Our data suggest that the pre-formed defenses are crucial for the resistance of C. crenata to P. cinnamomi . A lower and delayed expression of the eight studied genes was found in the susceptible Castanea sativa , which may be related with the establishment and spread of the disease in this species. A working model integrating the obtained results is presented.

  20. Suppression of Nrf2 Activity by Chestnut Leaf Extract Increases Chemosensitivity of Breast Cancer Stem Cells to Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yaejin; Oh, Jisun; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Due to metastatic potential and drug resistance, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have become a critical target for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies showed that CSCs highly express NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes and thereby retain relatively low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since anticancer agents usually utilize ROS as an arsenal for killing cancer cells, we hypothesized that inhibition of Nrf2 activity could increase the sensitivity of CSCs to anticancer drugs, and thus enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. We found that MCF-7-derived CSCs with a CD44high/CD24low phenotype formed mammospheres and highly expressed Nrf2 compared to the adherent parental MCF-7 cells. In a separate experiment, we screened 89 different edible plant extracts for inhibitory activity against the Nrf2 signaling pathway by using an antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase assay system. Among those extracts, Castanea crenata (chestnut) leaf extract significantly decreased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes in MCF-7-derived CSCs. The combined treatment of the CSCs with chestnut leaf extract and paclitaxel resulted in more effective cell death than the treatment with paclitaxel alone. These findings suggest that the chestnut leaf extract or its constituents could increase the susceptibility of breast CSCs to an anticancer drug, paclitaxel, through inhibition of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, and could be utilized as an adjuvant for chemotherapy. PMID:28718813

  1. Outlook for blight-resistant American chestnut trees

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Sisco

    2009-01-01

    Culminating 20 years of breeding efforts, in spring 2008, The American Chestnut Foundation (TACF) delivered its first 500 chestnuts to the USDA Forest Service for testing on National Forest lands. The expectation is that these seedlings will be more resistant to chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) than are pure American chestnut trees (

  2. Proliferation, Maturation and Germination of Castanea sativa Mill. Somatic Embryos Originated from Leaf Explants

    PubMed Central

    CORREDOIRA, E.; BALLESTER, A.; VIEITEZ, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the influence of proliferation medium on the maintenance of embryogenic competence and on repetitive embryogenesis in Castanea sativa Mill. somatic embryos derived from leaf explants. Somatic embryo proliferation was carried out by both direct secondary embryogenesis and by the culture of nodular callus tissue originated from cotyledons of somatic embryos. Both systems led to the production of cotyledonary somatic embryos on Murashige and Skoog proliferation medium supplemented with 0·1 mg l–1 benzyladenine and 0·1 mg l–1 naphthaleneacetic acid. Carbon source and concentration had a marked influence on maturation and subsequent germination ability of chestnut somatic embryos. Plantlet conversion was achieved in embryos matured on media with 6 % sucrose, and on 3 or 6 % maltose, whereas mean shoot length, root length and leaf number of produced plants were not significantly affected by these maturation media. Overall, the best results were obtained with 3 % maltose‐matured somatic embryos, giving rise to 6 % plant recovery in addition to 33 % of embryos exhibiting only shoot development. The application of a 2‐month cold treatment at 4 °C to somatic embryos matured on medium with 3 % maltose was necessary for achieving plant conversion, while partial desiccation did not appear to influence this response. A total of 39 % of embryos eventually produced plants either through conversion to plantlets or indirectly through rooting of shoots. Shoots formed by somatic embryos could be excised, multiplied and rooted following the micropropagation procedures previously developed for chestnut. PMID:12763755

  3. Structural characterization and cytotoxic properties of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan from Castanea sativa.

    PubMed

    Moine, Charlotte; Krausz, Pierre; Chaleix, Vincent; Sainte-Catherine, Odile; Kraemer, Michel; Gloaguen, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    A glucuronoxylan was purified from a delignified holocellulose alkaline extract of Castanea sativa (Spanish chestnut) and its structure analyzed by means of FT-IR, GC of the per-trimethylsilylated methylglycoside derivatives, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results supported a structure based on a linear polymer of xylopyranose units linked with beta(1-->4) bonds in which, on average, one out of every six units is substituted at C-2 by a 4-O-methylglucuronic acid unit; this structure is typical of a hardwood acidic 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (MGX) with an estimated degree of polymerization of 200. The MGX from C. sativa inhibited the proliferation of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 50 microM. In addition, this xylan inhibited A431 cell migration and invasion. Preliminary experiments showing that secretion of metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 by A431 tumor cells was inhibited by the purified C. sativa MGX strongly suggest that this mechanism of action may play a role in its antimigration and anti-invasive properties.

  4. Evaluation of chestnut test plantings in the Eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1980-01-01

    Between 1947 and 1955, 15 plots were established in the Eastern United States to evaluate chestnut hybrids under forest conditions. During the 1978 field season these test plots were reassessed and all living chestnut trees critically examined. Ten percent of the 250 surviving hybrid chestnuts were blight resistant, and had the timber form and rapid growth of the...

  5. Impact of silvicultural treatment on chestnut seedling growth and survival

    Treesearch

    C.C. Pinchot; S.E. Schlarbaum; S.L. Clark; C.J. Schweitzer; A.M. Saxton; F. V. Hebard

    2014-01-01

    Putatively blight-resistant advanced backcross chestnut seedlings will soon be available for outplanting on a regional scale. Few studies have examined the importance of silvicultural treatment or seedling quality to chestnut reintroduction in the U.S. This paper examines results from a silvicultural study of high-quality chestnut seedlings on the Cumberland Plateau of...

  6. Comparison of Quantitative Trait Loci for Adaptive Traits Between Oak and Chestnut Based on an Expressed Sequence Tag Consensus Map

    PubMed Central

    Casasoli, Manuela; Derory, Jeremy; Morera-Dutrey, Caroline; Brendel, Oliver; Porth, Ilga; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Villani, Fiorella; Kremer, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    A comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of the two species. Fifty-one and 45 STSs were mapped in oak and chestnut, respectively. These STSs, added to SSR markers previously mapped in both species, provided a total number of 55 orthologous molecular markers for comparative mapping within the Fagaceae family. Homeologous genomic regions identified between oak and chestnut allowed us to compare QTL positions for three important adaptive traits. Colocation of the QTL controlling the timing of bud burst was significant between the two species. However, conservation of QTL for height growth was not supported by statistical tests. No QTL for carbon isotope discrimination was conserved between the two species. Putative candidate genes for bud burst can be identified on the basis of colocations between EST-derived markers and QTL. PMID:16204213

  7. Molecular mapping of resistance to blight in an interspecific cross in the genus Castanea

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak; F.V. Hebard; C. Dana Nelson; Jiansu Zhang; R. Bernatzky; H. Huang; S.L. Anagnostakis; R.L. Doudrick

    1997-01-01

    A three-generation American chestnut x Chinese chestnut pedigree was used to construct a genetic linkage map for chestnut and to investigate the control of resistance to Endothia parasitica (chestnut blight fungus). DNA genotypes for 241 polymorphic markers (eight isozymes, 17 restriction fragment length polymorphisms [RFLPs], and 216 random...

  8. Anti-inflammatory properties of phenolic compounds and crude extract from Porphyra dentata.

    PubMed

    Kazłowska, Katarzyna; Hsu, Todd; Hou, Chia-Chung; Yang, Wen-Chin; Tsai, Guo-Jane

    2010-03-02

    Porphyra dentata, a red edible seaweed, has long been used worldwide in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as hypersensitivity, lymphadenitis, bronchitis. To clarify the anti-inflammatory role of Porphyra dentata crude extract and its identified phenolic compounds by investigating their effect on the nitric oxide (NO)/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcription pathway in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Porphyra dentata crude extract was prepared with methanol. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and UV detection were utilized to analyze the extract fingerprints. Nitrite measurement, iNOS promoter activity and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) enhancer activity were used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged mouse RAW 264.7 cell line. Phenolic compounds (catechol, rutin and hesperidin) were identified in the crude extract of Porphyra dentata. The crude extract and the phenolic compounds inhibited the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Catechol was a more potent suppressor of the up-regulation of iNOS promoter and NF-kappaB enhancer than rutin and yet, hesperidin alone failed to inhibit either activity. Our results indicate that catechol and rutin, but not hesperidin, are primary bioactive phenolic compounds in the crude extract to suppress NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-kappaB-dependent iNOS gene transcription. The data also explain the anti-inflammatory use and possible mechanism of Porphyra dentata in iNOS implicated diseases. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Assessment of Previous Archaeological Surveys at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    frequency by sugar maple (Acer saccharum), beech (F. grandifolia), and chestnut ( Castanea dentata). Understory species include dogwood (Cornus sp...The mid- Holocene Hypsithermal Interval (Deevey and Flint 1957), between about 8500 and 4500 B.P., is characterized by the onset of warmer and drier...settlement behav- iors. With the onset of the late Holocene about 4000 B.P., the climate within the region is be- lieved to have moderated in

  10. Archeological Test Excavations at the Proposed Dry Boat Storage Facility and Archeological Survey of the Neal Road Extension Corridor, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-19

    In the chert belt, oaks (Quercus alba and Q. falcata), pines (Pinus echinata and P. Taeda) and historically chestnut ( Castanea dentata), are the...eriod CitLain 200BP Late Holocene Modern Climate Mixed Hardwoods 5,000BP Mid Holocene Warm Climate Oak, Hickory, and Southern Pine 10,000BP Early... Holocene Cool, Moist Climate Mixed Hardwoods 14,000 BP Late Glacial Cool, Minor Warming Mixed Conifers and Northern Hardwoods 18,000 BP Full Glacial Much

  11. The reintroduction of the American Chestnut

    Treesearch

    Stacy L Clark

    2013-01-01

    Successful reintroduction of the American chestnut will require far more than blight resistance. The greatest challenge will be the ability of blight-resistant seedlings to survive and reproduce in a forest that presents both native and non-native threats

  12. Testing American chestnuts for blight resistance

    Treesearch

    Jesse D. Diller

    1957-01-01

    It has now been over half a century since chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Endothia parasitica (Murr.) A. & A., was introduced into America from the Orient. In that time the blight has spread relentlessly and has destroyed all of our commercial stands of this once most valuable hardwood species of the East.

  13. Paenibacillus castaneae sp. nov., isolated from the phyllosphere of Castanea sativa Miller.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Angel; Peix, Alvaro; Rivas, Raúl; Velázquez, Encarna; Salazar, Sergio; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Claudino; Igual, José M

    2008-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated Ch-32(T), was isolated from the phyllosphere of Castanea sativa in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus within the same subgroup as Paenibacillus xinjiangensis and Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, with similarities of 96.3 and 96.8 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization values for strain Ch-32(T) with these two species were lower than 20 %. The novel isolate was a Gram-variable, motile, sporulating rod. It produced catalase and oxidase and hydrolysed cellulose, gelatin and aesculin. Acetoin and urease production, nitrate reduction and starch hydrolysis were negative. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 0) were the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 46 mol%. Phylogenetic, DNA relatedness and phenotypic analyses showed that strain Ch-32(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus castaneae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Ch-32(T) (=CECT 7279(T)=DSM 19417(T)).

  14. A new pyrrole alkaloid from seeds of Castanea sativa.

    PubMed

    Hiermann, Alois; Kedwani, Samir; Schramm, Hans Wolfgang; Seger, Christoph

    2002-02-01

    A new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl-(5-formyl-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-4-hydroxybutyrate (1), was isolated from sweet chestnut seeds and its structure elucidated on the basis of data from NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with synthetic analogues.

  15. Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, Phung Thi; Xuan, Tran Dang; Tu Anh, Truong Thi; Mai Van, Truong; Ahmad, Ateeque; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang

    2018-02-07

    This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut ( Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc), a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and Raphanus sativus (radish). Laboratory and greenhouse trials showed that leaves of C. crenata appeared as a promising material to manage weeds, especially the dicot weeds. By GC-MS and HPLC analyses, gallic, protocatechuic, p -hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, ferulic, ellagic, and cinnamic acids were identified and quantified, of which ellagic acid was present in the highest quantity (2.36 mg/g dried leaves). By column chromatography and spectral data (¹H- and 13 C-NMR, IR, and LC-MS) analysis, a compound identified as 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid ( 1 ) was purified from the methanolic leaf extract of C. crenata (0.93 mg/g dried leaves). This constituent showed potent inhibition on growth of E. crus-galli , a problematic weed in agricultural practice. The inhibition of the compound 1 (IC 50 = 2.62 and 0.41 mM) was >5 fold greater than that of p -hydroxybenzoic acid (IC 50 = 15.33 and 2.11 mM) on shoot and root growth of E. crus-galli , respectively. Results suggest that the isolated the compound 1 has potential to develop natural herbicides to manage E. crus-galli . This study is the first to isolate and identify 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid in a plant and report its plant growth inhibitory potential.

  16. DNA methylation during sexual embryogenesis and implications on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Castanea sativa Miller.

    PubMed

    Viejo, M; Rodríguez, R; Valledor, L; Pérez, M; Cañal, M J; Hasbún, R

    2010-12-01

    From anthesis to mature seed formation, burrs from cross-pollinated adult Castanea sativa Miller trees were characterized and seven developmental stages defined based on macro and micromorphological traits. In order to get an insight into the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in sexual embryogenesis and to define somatic embryogenesis induction capability, global DNA methylation and the somatic embryogenic competence were quantified. On cross-pollinated trees once fertilization takes place, at least one ovule per ovary becomes dominant, and transient DNA demethylation occurs coinciding with the start of the sexual embryogenic programme. Unfertilized ovules from the same cluster, which maintain their prior size, increase their methylation level and undergo degeneration. These results were validated using non-cross-pollinated trees and the asynchrony of flower receptivity. When testing in vitro somatic embryogenesis response of isolated dominant ovules and axes from zygotic embryos under cross-pollinated conditions, the highest competence was found for reaching seed maturity. Thus, a "developmental window" of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut has been characterized. It includes from fertilization to embryo maturity, and a transient decrease in methylation is necessary after fertilization for the development of the somatic embryogenesis response.

  17. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Properties in Bark, Flower, Inner Skin, Kernel and Leaf Extracts of Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc

    PubMed Central

    Tuyen, Phung Thi; Xuan, Tran Dang; Khang, Do Tan; Ahmad, Ateeque; Quan, Nguyen Van; Tu Anh, Truong Thi; Anh, La Hoang; Minh, Truong Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    In this study, different plant parts (barks, flowers, inner skins, kernels and leaves) of Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut) were analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching methods. The highest total phenolic and tannin contents were found in the inner skins (1034 ± 7.21 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 253.89 ± 5.59 mg catechin equivalent/g extract, respectively). The maximum total flavonoid content was observed in the flowers (147.41 ± 1.61 mg rutin equivalent/g extract). The inner skins showed the strongest antioxidant activities in all evaluated assays. Thirteen phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were detected and quantified for the first time. Major phenolic acids were gallic, ellagic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids, while the principal flavonoids were myricetin and isoquercitrin. The inner skin extract was further fractionated by column chromatography to yield four fractions, of which fraction F3 exhibited the most remarkable DPPH scavenging capacity. These results suggest that C. crenata provides promising antioxidant capacities, and is a potential natural preservative agent in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28475126

  18. Involvement of reactive oxygen species during early stages of ectomycorrhiza establishment between Castanea sativa and Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Paula; Martins, Anabela; Pais, Maria Salomé; Tavares, Rui M; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2007-05-01

    Evidence for the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) establishment is lacking. In this paper, we evaluated ROS production and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during the early contact of the ECM fungus Pisolithus tinctorius with the roots of Castanea sativa (chestnut tree). Roots were placed in contact with P. tinctorius mycelia, and ROS production was evaluated by determining the levels of H(2)O(2) and O(2) (.-) during the early stages of fungal contact. Three peaks of H(2)O(2) production were detected, the first two coinciding with O(2) (.-) bursts. The first H(2)O(2) production peak coincided with an increase in SOD activity, whereas CAT activity seemed to be implicated in H(2)O(2) scavenging. P. tinctorius growth was evaluated in the presence of P. tinctorius-elicited C. sativa crude extracts prepared during the early stages of fungal contact. Differential hyphal growth that matched the H(2)O(2) production profile with a delay was detected. The result suggests that during the early stages of ECM establishment, H(2)O(2) results from an inhibition of ROS-scavenging enzymes and plays a role in signalling during symbiotic establishment.

  19. Characterization of sck1, a Novel Castanea mollissima Mutant with the Extreme Short Catkins and Decreased Gibberellin

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xu-Wei; Shen, Yuan-Yue; Xing, Yu; Cao, Qing-Qin; Qin, Ling

    2012-01-01

    A novel Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.) mutant with extreme short catkins, here was named sck1 and has been characterized in the present study. This sck1 caused 6-fold shorter than wild-type catkins. Endogenous gibberellic acids markedly decreased in the mutant, and application of exogenous GA3 could partially restore the sck1 phenotype to the wild-type phenotype. Paclobutrazol (PP333), an antagonist of GAs biosynthesis, could significantly inhibit the wild-type catkins growth, and lead to a short catkins phenotype similar to the sck1. In addition, compared to the wild-type catkins, the mRNA expression level of ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), a gibberellin biosynthsis key gene, was significantly down-regulated (P<0.01) in the sck1. Importantly, transient over-expression of a normal CmKAO gene in short catkins also could partially restore the wild-type phenotype. Real-time PCR and semi-quantitative analysis showed that the mRNA expression level of KAO was significantly up-regulated. In addition, transient RNA interference of CmKAO in wild-type catkins led the mRNA expression level of KAO decrease significantly and inhibited the wild-type catkins elongation strongly. Taken together, our results suggest that the lower gibberellic acids content that is due to decreased CmKAO expression level may contribute to the generation of the extreme short male catkins, sck1. PMID:22905227

  20. 342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  1. Detection of a hypersensitive reaction in the chestnut hybrid 'Bouche de Bétizac' infested by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu.

    PubMed

    Dini, Francesca; Sartor, Chiara; Botta, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was the identification of the mechanisms of resistance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in the hybrid-resistant cultivar 'Bouche de Bétizac' (Castanea sativa × Castanea crenata). Larvae and eggs of the insect are found in the buds of this cultivar at the end of winter, but there is no gall development after budburst. The hypothesis of the presence of a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the buds was tested using diaminobenzidine (DAB) to detect H(2)O(2) and by Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) to evaluate the expression of a germin-like protein gene. HR in plants is elicited by the production of reactive oxygen compounds, such as H(2)O(2), and results in the programmed cell death. The DAB test was applied to buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac' and of the susceptible cultivar 'Madonna' (C. sativa) at different stages of budburst. The DAB staining produced brown areas in the swelling buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac', indicating the presence of H(2)O(2). On the contrary, all uninfested buds, as well as the infested buds of 'Madonna', appeared whitish. Papers report that germin and germin-like proteins (GLP) with oxalate oxidase activity are discrete markers of stress-responsive gene products. A strong expression of the chestnut GLP gene was detected by RT-PCR at bud swelling in infested 'Bouche de Bétizac' buds but not in 'Madonna' ones. The results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of an HR in 'Bouche de Bétizac' as response to the cynipid infestation, resulting in cell and larvae death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth, survival, and competitive ability of chestnut (Castanea Mill.) seedlings planted across a gradient of light levels

    Treesearch

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Stacy L. Clark; Arnold M. Saxton; Ami M. Sharp; Callie J. Schweitzer; Frederick V. Hebard

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in tree breeding for resistance to exotic pests and pathogens, however relatively little research has focused on the reintroduction of these tree species. Understanding the durability of resistance in field settings and the field performance of improved trees is critical for successful species reintroduction. To evaluate methods for...

  3. 97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, Negative No. 6032 (Photographer and date unknown) THIS GHOST FOREST OF BLIGHTED CHESTNUTS ONCE STOOD APPROXIMATELY AT THE LOCATION OF THE BYRD VISITOR CENTER. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  4. Molecular markers linked to resistance to Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1996-01-01

    Kubisiak describes how he came to work on the chestnut blight problem. He touches on the underlying theory behind recombinational linkage mapping, mentions some current results in work with chestnut, and discusses how these results compare to prior knowledge regarding the suspected pattern of inheritance of blight resistance. Finally, the author looks ahead and...

  5. Using DNA Markers to Distinguish Among Chestnut Species and Hybrids

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1999-01-01

    Identification of American chestnut trees in the wild for inclusion in breeding programs is currently done using morphological traits. Distinguishing traits include leafshape, stipule size, presence or absence of leaf and stem trichomes, and stem color. Application of these traits is reasonably clear if the trees are pure American chestnut, but identitication of...

  6. Restoration of chestnuts as a timber crop in Connecticut

    Treesearch

    S.L. Anagnostakis; C.C. Pinchot

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut trees were an important source of timber in Connecticut until chestnut blight disease reduced them to understory shrubs. Breeding begun in 1930 has now produced trees with enough resistance to initiate field trials in the forest. Biological control by hypovirulence viruses is being used in the plots in an effort to keep native trees alive. If native...

  7. Reintroduction of American Chestnut in the National Forest System

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Cornelia C. Pinchot; Sandra L. Anagnostakis; Michael R. Saunders; Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Paul Schaberg; James McKenna; Jane F. Bard; Paul C. Berrang; David M. Casey; Chris E. Casey; Barbara Crane; Brian D. Jackson; Jeff D. Kochenderfer; Russ MacFarlane; Robert Makowske; Mark D. Miller; Jason A. Rodrigue; Jim Stelick; Christopher D. Thornton; Tyler S. Williamson

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut restoration depends on a multitude of biological, administrative, and technological factors. Germplasm traditionally bred for resistance to the chestnut blight disease caused by the exotic pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica has been deployed on national forests in the Eastern and Southern Regions of the National Forest System (NFS) since 2009. Trees...

  8. American chestnut persistence in southwestern Virginia 80 years after chestnut blight introduction

    Treesearch

    Katie L. Burke

    2010-01-01

    Forest disease noticeably alters spatial patterns of a species' distribution and this alteration is complex when host mortality is affected by site qualities. In the 1930s, chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) spread through southwestern Virginia, after its introduction to New York in 1904.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera dentata leaf extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deenadayalan Ashok; Palanichamy, V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2014-06-05

    A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs using Alternanthera dentata (A. dentata) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 430nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by A. dentata extract was completed within 10min. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy; Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The extracellular silver nanoparticles synthesis by aqueous leaf extract demonstrates rapid, simple and inexpensive method comparable to chemical and microbial methods. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and, Enterococcus faecalis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera dentata leaf extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deenadayalan Ashok; Palanichamy, V.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2014-06-01

    A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs using Alternanthera dentata (A. dentata) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 430 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by A. dentata extract was completed within 10 min. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy; Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The extracellular silver nanoparticles synthesis by aqueous leaf extract demonstrates rapid, simple and inexpensive method comparable to chemical and microbial methods. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and, Enterococcus faecalis.

  11. Microscopic characters of the leaf and stem of Lavandula dentata L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    do Rocio Duarte, Márcia; Carvalho de Souza, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    Lavandula dentata L. is an aromatic plant used in folk medicine for different purposes and, for this reason, phytochemical surveys have been carried out in the search for bioactive substances aiming to support its uses. Since there is little knowledge on the structural aspects of L. dentata, this work has studied the anatomical characters of the leaf and stem using light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to assist the species identification. As a result, there are different types of trichomes: capitate glandular with uni- or bicellular head, peltate glandular with multicellular head, and branched non-glandular. The leaf is hypostomatic showing diacytic stomata. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with striate cuticle. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib is concave-convex and traversed by a single collateral vascular bundle. The stem is quadrangular and has alternating strands of collenchyma and cortical parenchyma as well as a typical endodermis in the cortex. The phloem and xylem cylinders are traversed by narrow rays and there is an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath adjoining the phloem. These results are a novelty for the species and contribute to distinguish it from other lavenders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Serotonin modulates worker responsiveness to trail pheromone in the ant Pheidole dentata.

    PubMed

    Muscedere, Mario L; Johnson, Natalie; Gillis, Brendan C; Kamhi, J Frances; Traniello, James F A

    2012-03-01

    As social insect workers mature, outside-nest tasks associated with foraging and defense are typically performed at higher frequencies. Foraging in ants is often a pheromonally mediated collective action performed by mature workers; age-dependent differences in olfactory response thresholds may therefore proximately regulate task repertoire development. In the ant Pheidole dentata, foraging activity increases with chronological age in minor workers, and is chemically controlled. The onset of foraging in minor workers is accompanied by marked neuroanatomical and neurochemical changes, including synaptic remodeling in olfactory regions of the brain, proliferation of serotonergic neurons, and increased brain titers of monoamines, notably serotonin. We examined the linkage of serotonin and olfactory responsiveness by assaying trail-following performance in mature P. dentata minor workers with normal serotonin levels, or serotonin levels experimentally lowered by oral administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor α-methyltryptophan (AMTP). By assessing responsiveness to standardized pheromone trails, we demonstrate that trail-following behaviors are significantly reduced in serotonin-depleted workers. AMTP-treated individuals were less likely to initiate trail following, and oriented along pheromone trails for significantly shorter distances than untreated, similar-age workers. These results demonstrate for the first time that serotonin modulates olfactory processes and/or motor functions associated with cooperative foraging in ants.

  13. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects of Lactarius deterrimus and Castanea sativa Extracts on Hepatorenal Injury in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Jelena Arambašić; Mihailović, Mirjana; Uskoković, Aleksandra S.; Grdović, Nevena; Dinić, Svetlana; Poznanović, Goran; Mujić, Ibrahim; Vidaković, Melita

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of the treatment with extracts from the edible mushroom Lactarius deterrimus (Ld) and the chestnut Castanea sativa (Cs), separately and in combination (MIX Ld/Cs), on oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-mediated hepatorenal injury in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes by examining pathways responsible for maintenance of redox homeostasis. An experimental model of diabetes was induced in rats by the administration of 40 mg/kg STZ intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. The examined extracts were applied separately at a dose of 60 mg/kg i.p. and in combination (60 mg/kg each extract; i.p.) for 4 weeks, starting from the last day of STZ administration. The improvement of hepatorenal function in diabetic rats treated with the extracts was associated with an improved glycemic and lipid status and suppression of oxidative stress and thereby oxidative damage of lipids and DNA. Besides the fact that both extracts inhibited protein glycation and AGE formation in vitro, they also reduced non-enzymatic glycosylation in diabetic rats in vivo. The observed antiglycation activity of the examined extracts (separately and in combination) was accompanied with the inhibition of CML-mediated RAGE/NF-κB activation and reduction of enzymatic O-GlcNAcylation in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats. Taken together, these results reveal that the administration of chestnut and mushroom extracts, either individually or together, activates a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced hepatorenal injury not only through recovery of the antioxidant defense system of the cell, but also through a marked antiglycation activity. PMID:29163175

  14. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects ofLactarius deterrimusandCastanea sativaExtracts on Hepatorenal Injury in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Jelena Arambašić; Mihailović, Mirjana; Uskoković, Aleksandra S; Grdović, Nevena; Dinić, Svetlana; Poznanović, Goran; Mujić, Ibrahim; Vidaković, Melita

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of the treatment with extracts from the edible mushroom Lactarius deterrimus (Ld) and the chestnut Castanea sativa (Cs), separately and in combination (MIX Ld/Cs), on oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-mediated hepatorenal injury in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes by examining pathways responsible for maintenance of redox homeostasis. An experimental model of diabetes was induced in rats by the administration of 40 mg/kg STZ intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. The examined extracts were applied separately at a dose of 60 mg/kg i.p. and in combination (60 mg/kg each extract; i.p.) for 4 weeks, starting from the last day of STZ administration. The improvement of hepatorenal function in diabetic rats treated with the extracts was associated with an improved glycemic and lipid status and suppression of oxidative stress and thereby oxidative damage of lipids and DNA. Besides the fact that both extracts inhibited protein glycation and AGE formation in vitro , they also reduced non-enzymatic glycosylation in diabetic rats in vivo. The observed antiglycation activity of the examined extracts (separately and in combination) was accompanied with the inhibition of CML-mediated RAGE/NF-κB activation and reduction of enzymatic O -GlcNAcylation in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats. Taken together, these results reveal that the administration of chestnut and mushroom extracts, either individually or together, activates a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced hepatorenal injury not only through recovery of the antioxidant defense system of the cell, but also through a marked antiglycation activity.

  15. Life in the cold - another challenge to American chestnut restoration?

    Treesearch

    Kenda Gurney; Paul Schaberg

    2010-01-01

    The restoration of the American chestnut is a goal that uniltes chestnut enthusiasts from Maine to Georgia, from the East Coast to the Ohio River, and even beyond the boundaries of this majestic species' native range. But while our goal is the same--to restore this tree to its former place in the forest--the obstacles vary with each location this effort is...

  16. The chestnut oak forests of the anthracite region

    Treesearch

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham

    1947-01-01

    The chestnut oak forests occur mostly on poor sites along the tops and southern slopes of ridges in the central and southern parts of the Anthracite Region (see map). This forest type is not of much commercial value. It contains some saw timber and mine timber, but most of the chestnut oak stands are of seedling-and-sapling size. Furthermore, many of them are in...

  17. Proceedings, USDA Forest Service American Chestnut cooperators' meeting

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; William L. MacDonald

    1982-01-01

    The American chestnut was an important tree in the history of the United States. The fruit of chestnut was not only important to man and his domesticated animals but to the wildlife of the eastern forests. The tree comprised over 25 percent of the eastern hardwood forest and its natural range included at least 200 million acres. On good sites, the tree often grew 1...

  18. Chestnut pellicle for the recovery of gold.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Durga; Adhikari, Chaitanya Raj; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Yamada, Sayaka; Ohto, Keisuke; Inoue, Katsutoshi

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid medium by using crosslinked chestnut pellicle (CCP) gel was studied. Strong selectivity was observed for Au(III) showing negligible affinity for other precious metals and some base metal ions tested. The adsorption isotherm study exhibited the maximum loading capacity of the gel as high as 10.6 mol or about 2.1 kg gold per kg dry weight of gel. The reduction of Au(III) ion to elemental form during adsorption process is expected to be the reason of high selectivity and high capacity for Au(III). Kinetic studies at various temperatures confirm an endothermic adsorption process following the pseudo-first order rate law.

  19. Feasibility study of effect of ultrasound on water chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junru; Wu, Meiyin

    2006-04-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.), an annual aquatic plant with floating leaves was first introduced into North America in 1874. Since then, wild populations have quickly become established in many locations within Northeastern USA. Due to its detrimental effects on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, millions of dollars have been spent to control the water chestnut infestations in the North America through mechanical harvesting and manual removal, with limited success. The potential for continued expansion of the infestations demonstrates an urgent need for an effective control method. This study examined the potential of ultrasound application as an alternative control strategy for water chestnut management. Various frequencies and amplitudes of ultrasound generated by submerged transducers were applied directly to water chestnuts harvested from Lake Champlain. Substantial damages on water chestnut cells as well as penetrated petitoles were observed at the following tested frequencies of ultrasound, 20 kHz, 187 kHz, 469 kHz, 519 kHz and 2.34 MHz. Among them, 20 kHz ultrasound of 1.9 MPa acoustic pressure amplitude demonstrated the most significant damages within 10 s of ultrasound exposure. The treated plants started to die within 72 h and the mortality rate of water chestnut plants treated with the ultrasound application was 100%.

  20. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Lavandula dentata L. and Lavandula stoechas L.

    PubMed

    Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Garrido-Mesa, Jose; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Utrilla, M Pilar; González-Tejero, M Reyes; Casares-Porcel, Manuel; Molero-Mesa, Joaquin; Del Mar Contreras, Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Pérez-Palacio, José; Diaz, Caridad; Vergara, Noemí; Vicente, Francisca; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2016-08-22

    Plants from genus Lavandula have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs in Mediterranean traditional medicine. Nowadays, there is a growing interest for complementary medicine, including herbal remedies, to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To test the anti-inflammatory properties of Lavandula dentata and Lavandula stoechas extracts in two inflammatory experimental models: TNBS model of rat colitis and the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, in order to mimic the intestinal conditions and the extra-intestinal manifestations of human IBD, respectively. The extracts were characterized through the qualitative HPLC analysis. Then, they were assayed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed in BMDMs and CMT-93 epithelial cells with different concentrations of the extracts (ranging from 0.1 to 100µg/ml). The extracts were tested in vivo in the TNBS model of rat colitis (10 and 25mg/kg) and in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (10, 25 and 100mg/kg). L. dentata and L. stoechas extracts displayed immunomodulatory properties in vitro down-regulating different mediators of inflammation like cytokines and nitric oxide. They also showed anti-inflammatory effects in the TNBS model of colitis as evidenced by reduced myeloperoxidase activity and increased total glutathione content, indicating a decrease of neutrophil infiltration and an improvement of the oxidative state. Besides, both extracts modulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and ameliorated the altered epithelial barrier function. They also displayed anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, since a significant reduction of the paw thickness was observed. This was associated with a down-regulation of the expression of different inducible enzymes like MMP-9, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, all involved in the maintenance of the inflammatory condition. L. dentata and L. stoechas extracts showed intestinal anti

  2. Structural characterization and cytotoxic properties of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan from castanea sativa. 2. Evidence of a structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Barbat, Aline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Moine, Charlotte; Sainte-Catherine, Odile; Kraemer, Michel; Rogniaux, Hélène; Ropartz, David; Krausz, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Xylans were purified from delignified holocellulose alkaline extracts of Castanea sativa (Spanish chestnut) and Argania spinosa (Argan tree) and their structures analyzed by means of GC of their per-trimethylsilylated methylglycoside derivatives and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The structures deduced were characteristic of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (MGX) and a homoxylan (HX), respectively, with degrees of polymerization ranging from 182 to 360. In the case of MGX, the regular or random distribution of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid along the xylosyl backbone--determined by MALDI mass spectrometry after autohydrolysis of the polysaccharide--varied and depended both on the botanical source from which they were extracted and on the xylan extraction procedure. The MGX also inhibited in different ways the proliferation as well as the migration and invasion capability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. These biological properties could be correlated with structural features including values of the degree of polymerization, 4-O-MeGlcA to xylose ratios, and distribution of 4-O-MeGlcA along the xylosyl backbone, giving evidence of a defined structure-activity relationship.

  3. Coming of age in an ant colony: cephalic muscle maturation accompanies behavioral development in Pheidole dentata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Traniello, James F. A.; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2011-09-01

    Although several neurobiological and genetic correlates of aging and behavioral development have been identified in social insect workers, little is known about how other age-related physiological processes, such as muscle maturation, contribute to task performance. We examined post-eclosion growth of three major muscles of the head capsule in major and minor workers of the ant Pheidole dentata using workers of different ages with distinct task repertoires. Mandible closer muscle fibers, which provide bite force and are thus critical for the use of the mandibles for biting and load carrying, fill the posterio-lateral portions of the head capsule in mature, older workers of both subcastes. Mandible closer fibers of newly eclosed workers, in contrast, are significantly thinner in both subcastes and grow during at least the next 6 days in minor workers, suggesting this muscle has reduced functionality for a substantial period of adult life and thus constrains task performance capability. Fibers of the antennal muscles and the pharynx dilator, which control antennal movements and food intake, respectively, also increase significantly in thickness with age. However, these fibers are only slightly thinner in newly eclosed workers and attain their maximum thickness over a shorter time span in minors. The different growth rates of these functionally distinct muscles likely have consequences for how adult P. dentata workers, particularly minors, develop their full and diverse task repertoire as they age. Workers may be capable of feeding and interacting socially soon after eclosion, but require a longer period of development to effectively use their mandibles, which enable the efficient performance of tasks ranging from nursing to foraging and defense.

  4. Chapter 12: Reestablishing American chestnut on mined lands in the Appalachian coalfields

    Treesearch

    Michael French; Chris Barton; Brian McCarthy; Carolyn Keiffer; Jeff Skousen; Carl Zipper; Patrick. Angel

    2017-01-01

    American chestnut was formerly a major component of forests throughout the Appalachian coalfields and beyond. Chestnut's strong, lightweight wood was naturally rot-resistant, making it a preferred timber tree for many purposes. Unlike many nut-producing trees that flower early in the year, American chestnuts flower in June and July, so they were less susceptible...

  5. The efficiency of introduced pisolithus tinctorius inoculum on backcrossed chestnut germination and survival

    Treesearch

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2012-01-01

    American chestnut was eliminated as a canopy tree from the Appalachian region of North America with the introduction of chestnut blight in the early 1900s. Breeding programs initiated in the 1980s have produced seedling lines that display the pure American morphology with potential resistance to chestnut blight. More work is required to assess their field performance...

  6. Plumage coloration and reproductive success in male chestnut-sided warblers

    Treesearch

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Curtice R. Griffin

    2001-01-01

    We studied Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica) to determine whether there exists any relationship between plumage coloration and reproductive success in this species. We observed that males with more extensive chestnut breast coloration initiated nests significantly earlier than males with less chestnut, and had marginally larger...

  7. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  8. [Effect of bamboo leaf biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux and labile organic carbon pool in a Chinese chestnut plantation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Lei; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux in a typical Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) plantation in Lin'an, Zhejiang Province, China was investigated from July 2012 to July 2013 by the static closed chamber-GC technique. Soil temperature, soil moisture, WSOC and MBC concentrations were determined as well. Results showed that soil CO2 efflux exhibited a strong sea- sonal pattern. Compared with the control (without biochar application), the biochar treatment increased the soil CO2 efflux only in the first month since application, and then the effect diminished thereafter. There were no significant differences in the annual cumulative value of soil CO2 efflux between the biochar and control treatments. The annual mean value in soil MBC concentration (362 mg · kg(-1)) in the biochar treatment was higher than that (322 mg · kg(-1)) in the control. However, no significant difference in the soil WSOC concentration was found between the biochar and control treatments. Strong exponential relationships between soil temperature and soil CO2 efflux were observed regardless of the treatment and soil layer. The apparent temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil CO2 efflux in the biochar treatment was higher than that in the control. Soil CO2 efflux was related to soil WSOC concentration but not with soil MBC or moisture content. To conclude, the application of bamboo leaf biochar did not affect the annual cumulative CO2 emission in the Chinese chestnut plantation but increased the Q10, and the CO2 efflux was predominantly controlled by the soil temperature and soil WSOC level.

  9. Basic Endochitinases Are Major Proteins in Castanea sativa Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Collada, Carmen; Casado, Rosa; Fraile, Aurora; Aragoncillo, Cipriano

    1992-01-01

    Basic endochitinases are abundant proteins in Castanea sativa Mill. cotyledons. Three basic chitinases were purified with molecular masses of 25, 26, and 32 kD (Ch1, Ch2, and Ch3) and with isoelectric points between 8 and 9.5. Antibodies raised against Ch1 cross-reacted with Ch2 and Ch3. However, Ch3 showed differences when compared with the other two enzymes, especially in its higher cysteine content. The size, amino acid composition, and N-terminal sequence of Ch1 indicate that it is a class II endochitinase and, therefore, has no cysteine-rich hevein domain. Ch1 inhibits the growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride. The biological role of these endochitinases is discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16653058

  10. Antibacterial and allelopathic activity of extract from Castanea sativa leaves.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Giordano, S; Ricciardi, L; Ferrara, S; Montesano, D; Castaldo Cobianchi, R; Vuotto, M L; Ferrara, L

    2000-08-01

    Following the extraction of Castanea sativa with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid (pH 3.0), the ethyl acetate soluble fraction was tested for its antibacterial and allelopathic activity. The extract was shown to have pronounced antibacterial effects against seven of the eight strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used (MIC in the range of 64-256 microg/ml and MBC in the range of 256-512 microg/ml). The active fraction was analyzed by TLC and HPLC showing the presence of rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, apigenin, morin, naringin, galangin and kaempferol. Standards of the identified flavonoids were tested against the same bacterial strains. The highest activity was shown by quercetin, rutin and apigenin. The allelopathic effect was tested against Raphanus sativus seed germination. The extract, quercetin, rutin and apigenin caused a decrease in the percentage of seed germination and root and epicotyl growth.

  11. The chapter breeding program of the American Chestnut Foundation

    Treesearch

    Sara Fitzsimmons; Kendra Gurney; William White; Katy McCune

    2012-01-01

    A unique feature of the American Chestnut Foundation breeding program is the use of volunteers to conduct most of the regional breeding that will help increase genetic diversity and preserve local adaptation in the products of our program. This effort is coordinated by the four authors of this abstract, who are employees of the Foundation. The Foundation has...

  12. U. S. Forest Service American Chestnut Cooperators' Meeting

    Treesearch

    Clay H. Smith

    1981-01-01

    On January 8 and 9, 1980, a 2-day meeting of U.S. Forest Service American chestnut cooperators was held at Pipestem State Park, Pipestem, West Virginia. A total of 43 talks were given a t this meeting. All speakers provided short abstracts of their talks; these abstracts are presented here.

  13. 75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... 1987, pers. comm.). Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis is generally fire tolerant, but sprouts may be damaged by fire (Kral 1983, p. 287). Due to blight, dead sprouts and dead stump wood may act as a fuel for fire and affect the remaining live sprouts. Distribution and Status Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis is...

  14. Antilithic effects of extracts from Urtica dentata hand on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Shasha; Lu, Jingli; Li, Lulu; Hou, Wenrui; Xie, Mingxing; Zeng, Ying

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential antilithic effects of a traditional Chinese medicine Urtica dentata Hand (UDH) in experimental rats and screened the optimal extract of UDH as a possible therapeutic agent for kidney stones. The rat model of urinary calcium oxalate stones was induced by intragastric (i.g.) administration of 2 mL of 1.25% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for 28 days and was confirmed by Color Doppler ultrasound imaging. The rats in different experimental groups were then intragastrically given petroleum ether extract (PEE), N-butanol extract (NBE), aqueous extract (AqE) of UDH, Jieshitong (positive control drug), and saline, respectively. Treatment with NBE significantly reduced the elevated levels of urinary calcium, uric acid, phosphate, as well as increased urinary output. Accordingly, the increased calcium, oxalate levels and the number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits were remarkably reverted in the renal tissue of NBE-treated rats. In addition, NBE also prevented the impairment of renal function to decrease the contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Taken together, these data suggest that NBE of UDH has a beneficial effect on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats by flushing the stones out and protecting renal function.

  15. Cytotoxic and ACAT-inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones from the root of Ixeris dentata forma albiflora.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eun-Mi; Bang, Myun-Ho; Song, Myoung-Chong; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hwa-Young; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Baek, Nam-In

    2006-11-01

    Ixeris dentata forma albiflora was extracted with 80% aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH and H2O. Eight sesquiterpenes were isolated through repeated silica gel and octadecyl silica gel (C18, ODS) column chromatography of the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions. Physicochemical analysis using NMR, MS and IR revealed the chemical structures of the sesquiterpenes, which were zaluzanin (1), 9a-hydroxyguaian-4(15),10(14),11(13)-triene-6,12-olide (2), 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8beta-hydroxyguaian-4(15),10(14)-diene-6,12-olide (3), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8beta-hydroxyguauan-10(14)-ene-6,12-olide (4), ixerin M (5), glucozaluzanin C (6), crepiside I (7), and ixerin D (8). This is the first time that these sesquiterpene lactones have been isolated from this plant. Compounds 1, 2 and 7 revealed relatively high cytotoxicities on human colon carcinoma cell and lung adenocarcinoma cell, while compounds 5 and 7 showed acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitory activity.

  16. Comparative mapping between quercus and castanea using simple-sequence repeats (SSRs).

    PubMed

    Barreneche, T; Casasoli, M; Russell, K; Akkak, A; Meddour, H; Plomion, C; Villani, F; Kremer, A

    2004-02-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from Quercus and Castanea were used for comparative mapping between Quercus robur (L.) and Castanea sativa (Mill.). We tested the transferability of SSRs developed in Quercus to Castanea and vice-versa. In total, 47% (25) of the Quercus SSRs and 63% (19) of the Castanea SSRs showed a strong amplification product in the non-source species. From these 44 putative comparative anchor tags, 19 (15 from Quercus and 4 from Castanea) were integrated in two previously established genetic linkage maps for the two genera. SSR loci were sequenced to confirm the orthology of the markers. The combined information from both genetic mapping and sequence analysis were used to determine the homeology between seven linkage groups, aligned on the basis of pairs or triplets of common markers, while two additional groups were matched using a single microsatellite marker. Orthologous loci identified between Q. robur and C. sativa will be useful as anchor loci for comparative mapping studies within the Fagaceae family.

  17. Lipid composition of Castanea sativa Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum fruit oils.

    PubMed

    Zlatanov, Magdalen D; Antova, Ginka A; Angelova-Romova, Maria J; Teneva, Olga T

    2013-02-01

    Sweet and horse chestnut fruit contain carbohydrates, fibers, proteins, lipids, vitamins, glycosides and coumarin. The lipids are rich in biologically active substances as fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols and tocopherols. The fruit has been used as food, and for medicinal purposes to treat inflammatory and vascular problems. The fruits of sweet and horse chestnut contain 20 and 81 g kg(-1) glyceride oil respectively. The content of phospholipids in the oils was 49 and 3 g kg(-1). Sterols were found to be 8 and 12 g kg(-1). In the tocopherol fraction (1920 and 627 mg kg(-1)) γ-tocopherol predominated in the sweet chestnut oil (927 g kg(-1)); γ-tocopherol (591 g kg(-1)) and α-tocopherol (402 g kg(-1)) in horse chestnut oil. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids predominated in the triacylglycerols. Higher quantities of palmitic and oleic acids were established in the phospholipids and sterol esters. The fruits of horse and sweet chestnut have a close lipid composition. The oils are rich in essential fatty acids, such as linoleic and linolenic, as well as biologically active substances: phospholipids, sterols and tocopherols. This fact determines the good food value of sweet chestnut fruit and the possibilities for use of horse chestnuts in pharmacy and for technical purposes. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Allozyme Variation in Endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila

    PubMed Central

    FU, YUQING; DANE, FENNY

    2003-01-01

    Allozyme genetic variation in 12 populations of the endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila (Allegheny chinkapin), sampled across the natural range of the species in the United States, was evaluated using 11 loci from seven enzyme systems. At the species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci (Ps) was 72·7 %, the mean number of alleles per locus (As) was 1·9, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (APs) was 2·3, the effective number of alleles per locus (Aes) was 1·5 and the genetic diversity (Hes) was 0·296. At the population level, Pp = 49·2 %, Ap = 1·5, Aep = 1·4, APp = 2·1 and Hep = 0·21. Most of the allozyme variation (70 %) in C. pumila var. pumila occurred within populations. Wright’s gene flow rate [Nm(W)] was as low as 0·57. Population differentiation along the species range was not detected. Populations of C. pumila var. pumila in Florida had the most variable levels of genetic diversity, but populations in Virginia and Mississippi also showed high levels. Based on the results of this study, conservation management strategies are discussed. PMID:12829445

  19. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.

    PubMed

    Sćiban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbić, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L.

  20. Floral Origin Markers of Chestnut and Lime Tree Honeys.

    PubMed

    Guyot; Bouseta; Scheirman; Collin

    1998-02-16

    The apiculture industry is more and more interested in finding typical markers to authenticate floral origin of honeys. With this aim, some reliable volatile compounds were proposed to identify origin of lime tree and chestnut samples. A dichloromethane extraction followed by a Likens-Nickerson simultaneous steam distillation/solvent extraction led to representative honey extracts. About 400 volatile compounds were separated by gas chromatography, but only a few authenticated the floral origin of honeys. Chestnut honeys are distinguishable from other origins by high concentrations of acetophenone, 1-phenylethanol (>88 ppb), and 2-aminoacetophenone (>154 ppb). Lime tree honeys are characterized by enhanced amounts of shikimate pathway derivatives (ethylmethylphenol isomer (>31 ppb), 4-tert-butylphenol, estragole (>51 ppb), and p-methylacetophenone but also by high concentrations of monoterpene-derived compounds (menthol, thymol, 8-p-menthene-1,2-diol, and carvacrol (>76 ppb)) and methyl(1-methylethenyl)benzene.

  1. Multitemporal WorldView satellites imagery for mapping chestnut trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, F.; Arbelo, M.; Moreno-Ruíz, J. A.; Hernández-Leal, P. A.; Alonso-Benito, A.

    2017-10-01

    Chestnuts have been part of the landscape and popular culture of the Canary Islands (Spain) since the sixteenth century. Many crops of this species are in state of abandonment and an updated mapping for its study and evaluation is needed. This work proposes the elaboration of this cartography using two satellite images of very high spatial resolution captured on two different dates and representing well-differentiated phenological states of the chestnut: a WorldView-2 image of March 10th, 2015 and a WorldView-3 image of May 12th, 2015 (without and with leaves respectively). Two study areas were selected within the municipality of La Orotava (Tenerife Island). One of the areas contains chestnut trees dispersed in an agricultural and semi-urban environment and in the other one, the specimens are grouped forming a forest merged with Canarian pines and other species of Monteverde. The Maximum Likelihood (ML), the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification algorithms were applied to the multi-temporal image resulting from the combination of both dates. The results show the benefits of using the multi-temporal image for Pinolere with the ANN algorithm and for Chasna area with ML algorithm, in both cases providing an overall accuracy close to 95%.

  2. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol agents. The present study is to evaluate adulticidal activity of Clausena dentata plant extract against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest mortality was found in acetone extracts against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 4.1783 mg/ml (3.8201-7.1026), 9.3884 mg/ml (7. 8258-13.1820) and 4.2451 mg/ml (3.8547-8.0254), 12.3214 mg/ml (10.9287-16.2220), respectively. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min, and the mortality data were recorded. Result shows that Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus are 85 ± 2 and 89 ± 1.5, respectively. A mortality of 100 % was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. dentata have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  3. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models. PMID:22938545

  4. The effects of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on biochemical indices and apoptosis in partially hepatectomized liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Nazan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Ili, Pinar

    2012-08-01

    Crataegus species have been widely used in herbal medicine, especially for the hearth diseases. In the present study, the effect of Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract on partially hepatectomized rats was investigated with biochemical and TUNEL apoptosis assays. The extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the two experimental groups including partially hepatectomized rats for 42 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the liver tissue was used for TUNEL assay. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant decrease in the levels of serum ALT and AST in the experimental groups. On the other hand, the plant extract did not cause any significant changes in the level of GGT in these groups. In apoptosis assay, TUNEL positive hepatocytes could not be detected in both experimental groups. The present findings can suggest that Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz extract can decrease the levels of serum ALT and AST and play a role in apoptosis of hepatocytes in the liver of partially hepatectomized rats. However, further studies are required to confirm the effects of the plant extract on hepatoprotection and apoptosis in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in animal models.

  5. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.; Mulvihill, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to x rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. The authors report here how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate timesmore » on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. The hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured. These data suggest that radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata produces task-dependent behavioral deficits that change as a function of subject age and/or behavioral testing.« less

  6. Survey for the presence of Phytophthora cinnamomi on reclaimed mined lands in Ohio chosen for restoration of the American chestnut

    Treesearch

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2013-01-01

    We have been planting blight resistant American chestnut seedlings on reclaimed coal mined areas in Southeastern Ohio, which was once within the natural range of the American chestnut. Towards the goal of restoring the American chestnut, we are testing suitable sites that can aid survival, growth and establishment of planted seedlings pre-inoculated with...

  7. Quantification and identification of microorganisms found on shell and kernel of fresh edible chestnuts in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Donis-González, Irwin R; Guyer, Daniel E; Fulbright, Dennis W

    2016-10-01

    Chestnut is a relatively new cultivated crop for Michigan, and postharvest loss due to decay has been problematic as production has increased each year. In 2007, more than 25% of chestnuts were lost to postharvest decay, equivalent to approximately 5300 kg of fresh product. To determine the organisms responsible for decay, a microbiological survey was performed in 2006 and 2007 to identify microorganisms involved in postharvest shell (external surface) mold and internal kernel (edible portion) decay of chestnuts. Filamentous fungi including Penicillium expansum, Penicillium griseofulvum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Coniophora puteana, Acrospeira mirabilis, Botryosphaeria ribis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botryotinia fuckeliana (anamorph Botrytis cinerea) and Gibberella sp. (anamorph Fusarium sp.) were the predominant microorganisms that negatively impacted fresh chestnuts. Populations of microorganisms varied between farms, harvesting methods and chestnut parts. Chestnuts harvested from the orchard floor were significantly (P < 0.05) more contaminated than chestnuts harvested directly from the tree, by more than 2 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) . In addition, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the microbial population was seen between chestnuts submitted by different growers, with average count ranges of fungi, mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and yeasts equal to 4.75, 4.59 and 4.75 log CFU g(-1) respectively. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  9. Searching for American chestnut: the estimation of rare species attributes in a national forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch; William H. McWilliams

    2007-01-01

    American chestnut, once a dominant tree species in forests of the Northeastern United States, has become extremely rare. It is so rare, in fact, that on completion of 80 percent of the plot measurements of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's most recent inventory in Pennsylvania, only 33 American chestnut trees with a diameter at breast height !Y 1...

  10. Searching for American chestnut: the estimation of rare species attributes in a national forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch; William H. McWilliams

    2005-01-01

    American chestnut, once a dominant tree species in forests of the Northeastern United States, has become extremely rare. It is so rare, in fact, that on completion of 80 percent of the plot measurements of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's most recent inventory in Pennsylvania, only 33 American chestnut trees with a diameter at breast height 2: 1...

  11. Mortality, early growth, and blight occurrence in hybrid, Chinese, and American chestnut seedlings in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Jane Bard; Jeff Kochenderfer; Paul. Berrang

    2017-01-01

    Two plantings of second (BC3F2) and third (BC3F3) backcross generations of hybrid American chestnuts established in east-central West Virginia were assessed after 4 years to determine family effects on growth and survival. Pure American and pure Chinese chestnut seedlings were...

  12. Microsatellite-based characterization of the Castanea sativa cultivar heritage of southern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Gobbin, Davide; Hohl, Leandro; Conza, Lisa; Jermini, Mauro; Gessler, Cesare; Conedera, Marco

    2007-12-01

    Southern Switzerland has a long tradition of chestnut cultivation as a staple food. Local inhabitants constantly selected varieties according to the ripening period, the type of use, and the adaptability to the territory. As a result, the panorama of chestnut varieties is very complex, as reflected by more than 120 different variety names in an area of 26,000 ha. Since 1994, 47 varieties have been conserved in the chestnut germplasm of southern Switzerland (CSS), including Marroni, Euro-Japanese, and French varieties. A selection of 164 individuals from the CSS was analysed by 8 SSR markers (4 of which were developed in this study). Microsatellite analysis indicated that the CSS was accurately established, as 86% of the individuals grafted were correctly labeled. The identification of 98 genotypes, 10 clonal chestnut groups, 4 synonym groups, and 12 homonym groups reflected the complex ethnogeographical structure of the chestnut distribution. The 17 Marroni individuals considered clustered in 2 differentiated genetic groups instead of only 1 as expected. The fundamental problem of the frequent cases of homonymy and synonymy is discussed, as is the need for criteria for discriminating between polyclonal varieties and distinct homonymous varieties.

  13. Effects of long-term supplementation of chestnut and valonea extracts on methane release, digestibility and nitrogen excretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wischer, G; Greiling, A M; Boguhn, J; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Hartung, K; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-06-01

    The long-term effects of adding chestnut (CHE; Castanea sativa) and valonea (VAL; Quercus valonea) tannin-rich extracts to sheep feed were investigated. In Experiment 1, sheep (65 kg BW) were fed 842 g/day of a ryegrass-based hay. The control-treated animals (CON) received 464 g/day of concentrate, and tannin-treated animals received the same amount of concentrate additionally containing 20 g of the respective tannin-rich extract. Hay and concentrates were offered together in one meal. After the onset of treatment, methane release was measured in respiration chambers for 23.5-h intervals (nine times) in a 190-days period. Faeces and urine were collected three times (including once before the onset of the tannin treatment) to assess digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Based on the results obtained from Experiment 1, a second experiment (Experiment 2) was initiated, in which the daily tannin dosage was almost doubled (from 0.9 (Experiment 1) to 1.7 g/kg BW0.75). With the exception of the dosage and duration of the treatment (85 days), Experiment 2 followed the same design as Experiment 1, with the same measurements. In an attempt to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of tannin supplementation, the same substrates and tannin treatments were examined in the Hohenheim gas test. In vitro methane production was not significantly different between treatments. None of the tannin-rich extract doses induced a reduction in methane in the sheep experiments. On the 1st day of tannin feeding in both experiments, tannin inclusion tended to decrease methane release, but this trend disappeared by day 14 in both experiments. In balance period 3 of Experiment 1, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility was noted for tannin treatments. The digestibility of CP, but not NDF or ADF, was reduced in both experiments. A significant shift in N excretion from urine to faeces was observed for both tannin-rich extracts in both experiments, particularly in

  14. Go West: A One Way Stepping-Stone Dispersion Model for the Cavefish Lucifuga dentata in Western Cuba.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Damir; Casane, Didier; Chevalier-Monteagudo, Pedro; Bernatchez, Louis; García-Machado, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the limited dispersal capacity of most troglobitic animals, almost all Lucifuga cavefish species have very narrow geographic distribution in Cuba. However, one species, L. dentata, has a wide but disjointed distribution over 300 km in the west of the island. In order to estimate the relative role of vicariance and dispersal in the unexpected L. dentata distribution, we obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and control region (CR), and then applied Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), based on the identification of five genetic and geographic congruent groups of populations. The process that best explains the distribution of genetic diversity in this species is sequential range expansion from east Matanzas to the western Pinar del Río provinces, followed by isolation of groups of populations. We found relative high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity in all but the Havana group, which has high values for both diversity parameters, suggesting that this group has been demographically stable over time. For two groups of populations (Cayuco and Bolondrón), the mismatch distribution analyses suggests past demographic expansion. In the case of the Cayuco region, the star like relationships of haplotypes in the network suggests a recent founding event, congruent with other evidence indicating that this is the most recently colonized region. Over all, the results suggest that a combination of habitat availability, temporal interconnections, and possibly the biological properties of this species, may have enabled its dispersal and range expansion compared to other species of the genus, which are more geographically restricted.

  15. Go West: A One Way Stepping-Stone Dispersion Model for the Cavefish Lucifuga dentata in Western Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier-Monteagudo, Pedro; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the limited dispersal capacity of most troglobitic animals, almost all Lucifuga cavefish species have very narrow geographic distribution in Cuba. However, one species, L. dentata, has a wide but disjointed distribution over 300 km in the west of the island. In order to estimate the relative role of vicariance and dispersal in the unexpected L. dentata distribution, we obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and control region (CR), and then applied Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), based on the identification of five genetic and geographic congruent groups of populations. The process that best explains the distribution of genetic diversity in this species is sequential range expansion from east Matanzas to the western Pinar del Río provinces, followed by isolation of groups of populations. We found relative high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity in all but the Havana group, which has high values for both diversity parameters, suggesting that this group has been demographically stable over time. For two groups of populations (Cayuco and Bolondrón), the mismatch distribution analyses suggests past demographic expansion. In the case of the Cayuco region, the star like relationships of haplotypes in the network suggests a recent founding event, congruent with other evidence indicating that this is the most recently colonized region. Over all, the results suggest that a combination of habitat availability, temporal interconnections, and possibly the biological properties of this species, may have enabled its dispersal and range expansion compared to other species of the genus, which are more geographically restricted. PMID:27082117

  16. Natural rubber latex and chestnut allergy: cross-reactivity or co-sensitization?

    PubMed

    Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Kespohl, S; Crespo, J F; Rodriguez, J; Feliu, A; Brüning, Th; Rihs, H P

    2007-11-01

    Chestnut and natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy are often associated in the latex-fruit syndrome. To establish whether the concurrent NRL and chestnut IgE antibody reactivity are the results of co-sensitization or cross-reactivity. Sera from 19 patients with chestnut- and NRL-specific IgE were selected and tested for reactivity with recombinant (r) latex allergens. Cross-reactivity was explored by IgE-inhibition experiments using chestnut or NRL allergens as solid phase on ImmunoCAP. IgE-antibodies were detected to rHev b 6.01 (prohevein) in 58% of the sera, to rHev b 5 in 32%, to rHev b 12 in four of 13 sera, to rHev b 7.02 and rHev b 11 in four, and to rHev b 1 in two of 19 sera. rHev b 8-IgE antibodies were found in nine sera (47%), whereas six displayed mono-sensitization to rHev b 8 with regard to our test panel. Three of 16 sera showed IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. In most sera recognizing rHev b 5 and/or rHev b 6.01 as major allergens the IgE-reactivity to NRL remained unaffected by chestnut extract and chestnut-IgE remained unaffected by NRL extract. Conversely, in sera with rHev b 8 as dominant allergen IgE-binding to NRL was nearly completely inhibited by chestnut and vice versa. IgE-binding to rHev b 8 was abolished by chestnut extract. Although patients have concomitant IgE antibody reactivity to chestnut and NRL, cross-reactivity could be demonstrated mainly in those patients with IgE to Hev b 8 (profilin) from NRL.

  17. Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry determination of six pharmaceuticals in vegetal biota. Uptake study in Lavandula dentata.

    PubMed

    Barreales-Suárez, Sofía; Callejón-Mochón, Manuel; Azoulay, Stéphane; Bello-López, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Torres, Rut

    2018-05-01

    A procedure based on microwave assisted extraction for the determination of 6 pharmaceuticals in samples of Lavandula dentata, Salicornia ramosissima and Juncus sp. by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS) was optimized and validated. Best results were obtained using microwave assisted extraction of 1.0g of homogeneous lyophilized samples and 5mL of a mixture ACN:H 2 O (1:1 v/v) as extracting solvent. Analytical recoveries ranged from 60 to 107% with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 15%. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the 6 pharmaceuticals flumequine (FLM), carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CPR), enrofloxacin (ENR), diclofenac (DCL), and ibuprofen (IBU) were in the range 20.8-125ngg -1 . The method was satisfactory applied for an uptake study in Lavandula dentata samples finding quantifying concentrations of FLM and CBZ in roots, leaf and stem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of dyes extracted from Alternanthera dentata leaves and Musa acuminata bracts as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A. M.; Ludin, Norasikin A.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd. Amir H.; Mukhlus, Abduljabbar

    2018-03-01

    The natural dyes anthocyanin and chlorophyll were extracted from Musa acuminata bracts and Alternanthera dentata leaves, respectively. The dyes were then applied as sensitizers in TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The ethanol extracts of the dyes had maximum absorbance. High dye yields were obtained under extraction temperatures of 70 to 80 °C, and the optimal extraction temperature was approximately 80 °C. Moreover, dye concentration sharply decreased under extraction temperatures that exceeded 80 °C. High dye concentrations were obtained using acidic extraction solutions, particularly those with a pH value of 4. The DSSC fabricated with anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts had a conversion efficiency of 0.31%, short-circuit current (Isc) of 0.9 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.58 V, and fill factor (FF) of 62.22%. The DSSC sensitized with chlorophyll from A. dentata leaves had a conversion efficiency of 0.13%, Isc of 0.4 mA/cm- 2,Voc of 0.54 V, and FF of 67.5%. The DSSC sensitized with anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts had a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 42%, which was higher than that of the DSSC sensitized with chlorophyll from A. dentata leaves (23%). Anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts exhibited the best photosensitization effects.

  19. Chestnut Lodge and the psychoanalytic approach to psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kafka, John S

    2011-02-01

    The study of psychosis has a long history in psychoanalysis, as does the debate over the suitability of psychoanalysis for treating schizophrenia. For decades, Chestnut Lodge was not only a hospital but also a clinical research and educational institution. A unique patient-staff ratio--about twenty analytic therapists for a hundred patients--made possible prolonged and intense clinical work with schizophrenic and other severely disturbed patients. Interstaff discussions were encouraged and facilitated. This quasi-academic approach to in-depth individual case studies led to clinical findings and theoretical formulations that had a significant impact on developments in psychoanalysis, both here and abroad. Many of these findings and theoretical formulations are relevant to current studies and treatments of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients.

  20. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  1. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  2. Bacterial expression of an active class Ib chitinase from Castanea sativa cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Allona, I; Collada, C; Casado, R; Paz-Ares, J; Aragoncillo, C

    1996-12-01

    Ch3, an endochitinase of 32 kDa present in Castanea sativa cotyledons, showed in vitro antifungal properties when assayed against Trichoderma viride. The characterization of a cDNA clone corresponding to this protein indicated that Ch3 is a class Ib endochitinase that is synthesized as a preprotein with a signal sequence preceding the mature polypeptide. Bacterial expression of mature Ch3 fused to the leader peptide of the periplasmic protein ompT resulted in active Ch3 enzyme. A plate assay was adapted for semi-quantitative determination of chitinase activity secreted from cultured bacteria, which should facilitate the identification of mutants with altered capacity to hydrolyse chitin.

  3. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similarly to light treatments? Growth and biomass

    Treesearch

    Joanne Rebbeck; Kurt Gottschalk; Amy. Scherzer

    2011-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling growth has been extensively studied. White oak (Quercus alba L.) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), however, are far less investigated despite their importance among upland oak species in eastern North American forests. We characterized white and chestnut oak...

  4. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of phytohormone biosyntheis and signaling genes in the flowers of Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi) nut provides a rich source of starch and nutrient elements as food and feed, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of female to male flowers (1/2000-1/3000). Little is known about the developmental programs underlying the sex differentiation of the flowe...

  5. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zeng-Yu; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-04-22

    Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3) with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Fe(2+)-chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O₂·(-) scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants.

  7. Phytochemicals Analysis and Medicinal Potentials of Hydroalcoholic Extract from Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm Stem Bark

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, Sunday Oyewole; Oyedemi, Blessing Ogochukwuamaka; Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    Curtisia dentata (CD) is a vulnerable medicinal plant used for the treatment of stomach ailments in South Africa. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was estimated using standard assay methods while its antibacterial activity was determined by the agar dilution method against selected bacteria. The antioxidant activity of the extract was done using ferric reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The cytotoxicity assay of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test with LC50 value of 0.302 mg/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extract demonstrated an appreciable broad spectrum activity against the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges between 5000 and 0.5 mg/L. Both phenol and flavonoid concentrations were 14.86 mg tannic acid equivalent/g and 13.64 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The percentage composition of saponins (13.26) was highest, followed by steroids (1.42), while alkaloids and tannins had the same value of 0.51. Similarly, IC50 values of the extract against DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, LPO and NO were 0.017, 0.018, 0.159, 0.06 and 0.052 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Our data suggest that the 70% ethanol extract from the CD extract has antibacterial and antioxidant properties due to the presence of bio-active compounds and thus support its folkloric use in the treatment of diseases. PMID:22754358

  8. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.; Mulvihill, M.A.

    1989-07-01

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gymore » total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured.« less

  9. Excitatory-inhibitory relationship in the fascia dentata in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Belichenko, Pavel V; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Masliah, Eliezer; Wu, Chengbiao; Takimoto-Kimura, Ryoko; Salehi, Ahmad; Mobley, William C

    2009-02-01

    the fascia dentata of Ts65Dn mice. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. New formulation and delivery method of Cryphonectria parasitica for biological control of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Kunova, A; Pizzatti, C; Cerea, M; Gazzaniga, A; Cortesi, P

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons but also because the current manual application of hypovirulent strains on adult plants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose an improved formulation and more effective mode of application of hypovirulent strains, which could boost chestnut blight biocontrol. The Cp 4.2H hypovirulent strain was formulated as mycelium discs with polyethylene glycol and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, loaded into lead-free pellets that are used as carriers to inoculate cankers on chestnut stems by shooting. The formulation of mycelium did not hamper its viability which was stable, with an estimated shelf life of 72 days at 6 ± 1°C. The inoculum effectiveness was confirmed ex planta and in planta in a small-scale pilot study in field, where formulated mycelium discs of hypovirulent strain Cp 4.2H were inoculated by airgun shot method into the chestnut bark. In planta, Cp 4.2H was recovered in 37% of bark samples taken around the inoculated points 1 year after the treatment. We demonstrated that the proposed airgun shooting inoculation method of C. parasitica hypovirulent strain formulated as mycelium discs is suitable for treatment of adult chestnut trees. The proposed method could be a valid alternative to the traditional manual technique of chestnut biocontrol. The main advantages are the cost-effectiveness and the ease to treat high-positioned, otherwise unreachable cankers both in orchards and forests. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. )

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Selective reinnervation of hippocampal area CA1 and the fascia dentata after destruction of CA3-CA4 afferents with kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Nadler, J V; Perry, B W; Cotman, C W

    1980-01-20

    Intraventricular injections of kainic acid were used to destroy the hippocampal CA3-CA4 cells, thus denervating the inner third of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata and stratum radiatum and stratum oriens of area CA1. The responses of intact afferents to such lesions were then examined histologically. The hippocampal mossy fibers densely reinnervated the inner portion of the dentate molecular layer after bilateral destruction of CA4 neurons and to a lesser extent after unilateral destruction. Septohippocampal fibers replaced CA4-derived fibers in the dentate molecular layer only after particularly extensive bilateral CA4 lesions. Medial perforant path fibers showed no anatomical response to any of these lesions. Neither septohippocampal, temporoammonic nor mossy fibers proliferated in or grew into the denervated laminae of area CA1. These results show a preferential ordering in the reinnervation of dentate granule cells which is not readily explained by proximity to the degenerating fibers and also that removal of CA3-CA4-derived innervation more readily elicits translaminar growth in the fascia dentata than in area CA1. These results may be relevant to clinical situations in which neurons of the hippocampal end-blade are lost.

  13. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with Tmax<28°C will generally decrease in both scenarios, while the changes in the number of days with 24°Cchestnut in Europe, in some areas of production. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: "Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland". Proceedings of the

  14. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately,more » develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.« less

  15. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  16. Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness of pigskin gelatin films incorporated with hydrolysable chestnut tannin.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodriguez, Cristina; Martucci, Josefa F; Neira, Laura M; Arbelaiz, Aitor; Eceiza, Arantxa; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the incorporation of 10% w/w of hydrolyzable chestnut tannin into pigskin gelatin (G) films plasticized with glycerol (Gly) on the physicochemical properties as well as the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness against food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus was investigated. A higher tendency to both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) coloration characterized gelatin films incorporated with chestnut tannin. The reduced lightness (L) and transparency of gelatin-chestnut tannin films plasticized with 30% w/w Gly might be associated with certain degree of phase separation which provoked the migration of the plasticizer to the film surface. The incorporation of chestnut tannin and glycerol affected the chemical structure of the resultant films due to the establishment of hydrogen interactions between components as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These interactions reduced gelatin crystallinity and seemed to be involved in the substantial decrease of the water uptake of films with tannin, irrespective of the glycerol level. Such interactions had minor effect on tensile properties being similar to those of the control films (without chestnut tannin) at the same glycerol level. Films modified with 10% w/w chestnut tannin showed significant (P < 0.05) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ca. from 0 ± 0.033 to 87.1 ± 0.002% for chestnut tannin-free and chestnut tannin-containing gelatin films. The limited inhibitory activity of films incorporated with 10% w/w chestnut tannin against the selected bacteria evidenced by disk diffusion method probably resulted from the interactions within the film restricting the diffusion of the active agent into the agar medium. The more modest protective effect observed against a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus) was also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Genetic structure of American chestnut populations based on neutral DNA markers

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak; James H. Roberds

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellite and RAPD markers suggest that American chestnut exists as a highly variable species. Even at the margins of its natural range, with a large proportion of its genetic variability occurring within populations (~95%). A statistically significant proportion also exists among population. Although genetic differentiation among populations has taken place, no...

  18. Ecophysiology of horse chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) in degraded and restored urban sites

    Treesearch

    Jacek Oleksyn; Brian D. Kloeppel; Szymon Lukasiewicz; Piotr Karolewski; Peter B. Reich

    2007-01-01

    We explored changes in growth, phenology, net CO2 assimilation rate, water use efficiency, secondary defense compounds, substrate and foliage nutrient concentration of a degraded urban horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) site restored for three years using mulching (tree branches including foliage) and fertilization (...

  19. Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Treesearch

    J. E. Davis; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. G. Milgroom

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the population biology of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, have previously been carried out with dominant restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting markers. In this study, we described the development of 11 condominant markers from randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). RAPD fragments were...

  20. Hydroponic production of Chinese water chestnut corms for potential use as a functional vegetable

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinese water chestnut is used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many or healthy corms when grown in plastic pots containing flooded sand in Griffin, GA. This study was conducted to use a drip irriga...

  1. Screening for Phytophthora cinnamomi in reclaimed mined lands targeted for American chestnut restoration projects

    Treesearch

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Annemarie Nagle; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2011-01-01

    We are working toward restoring the American chestnut in southeastern Ohio, which was once part of the tree's natural range. Some of these lands have been severely affected by excessive mining operations for several decades. Therefore, we are planning and testing use of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the restoration efforts. Mycorrhizal fungi may play a vital role in...

  2. Response of chestnut oak and red oak to drought and fertilization: growth and physiology

    Treesearch

    M.D. Kleiner; M.D. Abrams; J.C. Schultz

    1991-01-01

    Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings were grown for two seasons under two nutrient regimes: fertilizer + (NPK) and fertilizer - (No NPK). Beginning two weeks after budbreak, water was withheld for 10 weeks during the second growing season. Leaf water potentials, gas exchange measurements and...

  3. A forest transect of pine mountain, Kentucky: changes since E. Lucy Braun and chestnut blight

    Treesearch

    Tracy S. Hawkins

    2006-01-01

    In 1997, forest composition and structure were determined for Hi Lewis Pine Barrens State Nature Preserve, a 68-ha tract on the south slope of Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Kentucky. Data collected from 28 0.04-ha plots were used to delineate forest types. Percent canopy compositions were compared with those reported by Dr. E. Lucy Braun prior to the peak of chestnut...

  4. Ectomycorrhizae of Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum with Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shan-Ping; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Tang, Li; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yun; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum are common commercial white truffles in China that belong to the Rufum and Puberulum groups of the genus Tuber, respectively. Their mycorrhizae were successfully synthesized with two native trees--Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii--under greenhouse conditions. The identities of the mycorrhizae were confirmed through internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, and their morphological characteristics were described. All of the obtained mycorrhizae have an interlocking pseudoparenchymatous mantle, which is a typical feature of truffle mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae of T. huidongense on the two trees have hyaline branched emanating hyphae, similar to the documented mycorrhizae of the Rufum group. The unramified, spiky, and hyaline cystidia on the mycorrhizae of T. liyuanum with both C. mollissima and P. armandii further confirmed that this characteristic is constant for the mycorrhizae of the Puberulum group. The successful mycorrhizal syntheses on the two nut-producing trees will be of economic importance in the cultivation of the two truffles.

  5. An ecological and syntaxonomical overview of Castanea sativa and a new association in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ketenoglu, O; Tug, G N; Kurt, L

    2010-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. is thought to be originated from Turkey. It is an important deciduous angiosperm with edible fruits and valuable wood. It has a wide distribution from east Black sea to Marmara and Aegean Regions. Because of its wide distribution, C. sativa grows on different ecological, geological, climatic and edaphic condition and these results in different associations with different companion species evaluated in different upper units. In this paper, the status of Turkish C. sativa forests, their ecological and syntaxonomical characteristics were overviewed. The C. sativa associations described so far and a new one from Black Sea region were grouped in various alliances of two distinct classes, Querco-Fagetea and Quercetea pubescentis.

  6. Phenolics from Castanea sativa leaves and their effects on UVB-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Antonietta; Masullo, Milena; Mari, Angela; Balato, Anna; Filosa, Rosanna; Lembo, Serena; Napolitano, Assunta; Piacente, Sonia

    2017-05-25

    The phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Castanea sativa Mill., source of the Italian PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) product 'Marrone di Roccadaspide' (Campania region) afforded as main compounds crenatin (1), chestanin (2), gallic acid (3), cretanin (4), 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid (5), p-methylgallic acid (6) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (7). To quantify the isolated compounds a LC-ESI(QqQ)MS method working with a very sensitive and selective mass tandem experiment called Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) has been developed. Moreover the antioxidant capacity by TEAC assay and the ability of compounds 1-7 to protect HaCaT human keratinocytes from UVB-induced damage has been investigated.

  7. Light energy management in micropropagated plants of Castanea sativa, effects of photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Patricia L; Bravo, León A; Latsague, Mirtha I; Toneatti, Marcelo J; Sánchez-Olate, Manuel; Ríos, Darcy G

    2013-03-01

    The limited development of photoprotective mechanisms, specifically heat dissipation capacity, found in micropropagated plants may be the result of low xanthophyll cycle pigment content and reduced de-epoxidation capacity making them highly susceptible to photodamage. The effects of gradual or sudden increase of light on Castanea sativa in vitro cultured and during their ex vitro transference was evaluated. The results were compared with those determined in nursery-grown plants. In vitro plants responded poorly to gradual increase in irradiance, exhibiting a low electron transport rate (ETR) agreeing with low non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and a limited de-epoxidation capacity, not synthesizing detectable amounts of zeaxanthin (Z). Regarding a sudden increase in light (photoinhibition treatment, PhT); post-PhT as in vitro as well nursery plants showed a significant decrease in their maximal efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), but in vitro the decrease was very drastic (around 0.2) different from that observed in nursery (around 0.69). In vitro, NPQ was mainly determined by the slow relaxing component, NPQ(s) (80.8%), concomitant with a pronounced decrease of D1 protein post-PhT, and a lack of de-epoxidation capacity. During ex vitro transfer, PhT lead to death of some plants, specifically during root induction. The photoprotective mechanisms were activated over time in ex vitro conditions, indicating that micropropagated Castanea sativa display a potential for light acclimation, adjusting their photosynthetic apparatus to the ambient growth irradiance. Understanding the mechanisms that micropropagated plants deployed and how they face high light intensity events, will allow us to search for strategies to improve performance to possible light fluctuations that normally occur in ex vitro conditions during plant acclimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  9. Hepatoprotective Potential of Chestnut Bee Pollen on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Özlem; Yuluğ, Esin; Öztürk, Ferhat; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolaylı, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87 mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07 mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71 mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9 mg β-carotene/100 g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries. PMID:24250716

  10. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion Power Partners, LLC; Sundevil Power...

  11. Environmental variation shifts the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders along the continuum from mutualism to antagonism.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, Gina M; Goldberg, Adam S; Steele, Michael A; Dalgleish, Harmony J

    2018-02-13

    The conditional mutualism between scatterhoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time, space, and among species. We examined four tree species (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Q. alba], American chestnut [Castanea dentata] and hybrid chestnut [C. dentata x C. mollissima) across five sites and three years to quantify the variability in this conditional mutualism. We used a published model to compare the rates of seed emergence with and without burial to the probability that seeds will be cached and left uneaten by scatterhoarders in order to quantify variation in the conditional mutualism that can be explained by environmental variation among sites, years, species, and seed provenance within species. All species tested had increased emergence when buried. However, comparing benefits of burial to the probability of caching by scatterhoarders indicated a mutualism in red oak, while white oak was nearly always antagonistic. Chestnut was variable around the boundary between mutualism and antagonism indicating a high degree of context dependence in the relationship with scatterhoarders. We found that different seed provenances did not vary in their potential for mutualism. Temperature did not explain microsite differences in seed emergence in any of the species tested. In hybrid chestnut only, emergence on the surface declined with soil moisture in the fall. By quantifying the variation in the conditional mutualism that was not caused by changes in scatterhoarder behavior, we show that environmental conditions and seed traits are an important and underappreciated component of the variation in the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant effect of aromatic volatiles emitted by Lavandula dentata, Mentha spicata, and M. piperita on mouse subjected to low oxygen condition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zenghui; Wang, Chunling; Shen, Hong; Zhang, Kezhong; Leng, Pingsheng

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the antioxidant effect of aromatic volatiles of three common aromatic plants, Lavandula dentata, Mentha spicata, and M. piperita. In this study, kunming mice subjected to low oxygen condition were treated with the volatiles emitted from these aromatic plants through inhalation administration. Then the blood cell counts, and the activities and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes in different tissues were tested. The results showed that low oxygen increased the counts of red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets of mice, and aromatic volatiles decreased their counts. Exposure to aromatic volatiles resulted in decreases in the malonaldehyde contents, and increases in the activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in different tissues under low oxygen. In addition, as the main component of aromatic volatiles, eucalyptol was the potential source that imparted positive antioxidant effect.

  13. Optimization of preparation process of activated carbon from chestnut burs assisted by microwave and pore structural characterization analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhong; Yang, Fangxia; Li, Peiqin; Yang, Xiuping; He, Jialin; Wang, Hongzhe; Lv, Pinghui

    2015-11-01

    In this study, activated carbon was prepared from Chinese chestnut burs assisted by microwave irradiation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as activator, and the process conditions were optimized employing Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized variables were irradiation time, impregnation time, and mass ratio of alkali-to-carbon, and the iodine adsorption value was used to evaluate the adsorption property of activated carbon. The optimal preparation conditions were determined as follows: irradiation time 17 min, impregnation time 240 min, and mass ratio of alkali-to-char 1.5:1. Meanwhile, the relatively high iodine adsorption value (1141.4 mg/g) was also obtained. Furthermore, the pore structural characterization of activated carbon was analyzed. The analyzed results showed a larger Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area (1254.5 m(2)/g) and a higher microporosity ratio (87.2%), a bigger total pore volume (0.6565 m(3)/g), but a smaller average pore size (2.093 nm), which demonstrated the obtained activated carbon possessed strong adsorption capacity and well-developed microporous structure. This research could not only establish the foundation of utilizing chestnut burs to prepare activated carbon, but also provide the basis for exploitation of Chinese chestnut by-products. Because Chinese chestnut burs are the by-products and usually discarded upon harvesting subsequently, the utilization of chestnut burs as a potential source of activated carbon is of great profit to the chestnut processing industries.

  14. Chestnut flowers as functionalizing agents to enhance the antioxidant properties of highly appreciated traditional pastry.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-11-01

    Some studies have proven the antioxidant and antimicrobial potency of chestnut flowers both in the raw matrix and after extraction, and the consumption of their decoctions has been related to beneficial effects towards health. In recent years, due to controversy and ambiguous legislation of chemical conservatives, plant extracts have been successfully used as functionalizing agents in different matrixes by displaying their various beneficial effects towards the foodstuff and/or the consumer. In this paper, decoctions of chestnut flowers as well as the dried flower were added to Portuguese traditional cakes that were then stored for 15 and 30 days, after which they were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The results were analysed by means of a 2 way ANOVA and a linear discriminant analysis, concluding that storage time had a slightly higher influence on alteration of the antioxidant activity. DPPH and TBARS were the most improved parameters, regardless of the concentration added.

  15. Alcoholic chestnut fermentation in mixed culture. Compatibility criteria between Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Murado, Miguel Anxo; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Vázquez, José Antonio; Mirón, Jesús; González, María Pilar

    2008-10-01

    The main objective of the present work consisted in the transfer to the case of the chestnut of a rice fermentative process that carried out to the Japanese traditional way to lead to an alcoholic bagasse, the moromi, capable of obtaining distilled. This way, selection assays of amylolitic Aspergillus oryzae strains and studies of compatibility between microfungi and yeast were carried out. These mixed cultivations were performed operating in batch submerged culture. Later on, using solid state system (chestnut, microfungi, yeast), a fermentative fed-batch process (koji, moto, moromi) was defined. By means of this approach a yield of 70% was reached in the conversion of total carbohydrates in ethanol. Also, the time required by the traditional operation was reduced in half.

  16. Partial structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a phenolic-xylan from Castanea sativa hardwood.

    PubMed

    Renault, Emmanuel; Barbat-Rogeon, Aline; Chaleix, Vincent; Calliste, Claude-Alain; Colas, Cyril; Gloaguen, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    4-O-Methylglucuronoxylans (MGX) were isolated from chestnut wood sawdust using two different procedures: chlorite delignification followed by the classical alkaline extraction step, and an unusual green chemistry process of delignification using phthalocyanine/H2O2 followed by a simple extraction with hot water. Antioxidant properties of both MGX were evaluated against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by electronic spin resonance (ESR). IC50 of water-extracted MGX was found to be less than 225 μg mL(-1), in contrast with alkali-extracted MGX for which no radical scavenging was observed. Characterization of extracts by colorimetric assay, GC, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy provided some clues to understanding structure-function relationships of MGX in connection with their antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional, fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles of Castanea sativa Mill. cultivars: a compositional and chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2009-04-08

    Four Portuguese chestnut cultivars from the "Castanha da Terra Fria" protected designation of origin were selected: Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal. The nutritional parameters (moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrates, ash and energy) as well as fibers (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and cellulose) were characterized. Moisture was the major component followed by carbohydrates, protein and fat, resulting in an energetic value lower than 195 kcal/100 g of fresh fruit. In order to find significant differences among cultivars, the lipidic fraction was studied in detail. Fatty acids (FA) were determined by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection, revealing a clear prevalence of C18:1 and C18:2, two FA very well-known due to their beneficial effects on human health, e.g., in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. A triacylglycerols (TAG) profile was obtained by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection. TAG analysis is very important because it furnishes highly specific information due to genetic control of the stereospecific distribution of FA on the glycerol molecule. OLL, PLL, OOL and POL were the major compounds. As far as we know this is the first complete characterization of TAG in chestnut. The obtained data were screened through an analysis of variance (to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each cultivar) and a discriminant analysis (DA), which gave good results, once that, in some cases, the four cultivars were clustered in four individual groups, obtained through the definition of two DA dimensions.

  18. Anti-MalasseziaActivity ofCastanea crenataShell and Oil-SolubleGlycyrrhizaExtracts.

    PubMed

    Han, Song Hee; Hur, Min Seok; Kim, Min Jung; Jung, Won Hee; Park, Minji; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Hong Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2017-06-01

    A new shampoo with anti- Malassezia properties obtained from various plants is required to provide seborrheic dermatitis patients with a wider range of treatment options. The aim of this study was to obtain in vitro susceptibility profiles of Malassezia restricta and M. globosa , the most important pathogenic organisms in the development of seborrheic dermatitis, to the plant extracts used in commercial anti-dandruff shampoos. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for eight candidate plant extracts and two plant-derived natural products diluted with Leeming and Notman medium to final concentrations of 0.016 to 1 mg/ml. Castanea crenata shell, Camellia sinensis leaf, and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts presented relatively low MIC values (≤0.5 mg/ml) against both strains. The C. crenata shell and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts demonstrated especially high anti-Malassezia activity, suggesting their potential use in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The extracts also showed fungistatic activity against other common facultative pathogenic yeasts, Cryptococcus and Candida . C. crenata shell and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts could potentially be used as active ingredients in anti-seborrheic and anti-dandruff shampoo formulations. They could be helpful for repeated treatments and regular prophylaxis of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  19. In Vitro Anti-Malassezia Activity of Castanea crenata Shell and Oil-Soluble Glycyrrhiza Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Han, Song Hee; Hur, Min Seok; Kim, Min Jung; Jung, Won Hee; Park, Minji; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Hong Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2017-01-01

    Background A new shampoo with anti-Malassezia properties obtained from various plants is required to provide seborrheic dermatitis patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective The aim of this study was to obtain in vitro susceptibility profiles of Malassezia restricta and M. globosa, the most important pathogenic organisms in the development of seborrheic dermatitis, to the plant extracts used in commercial anti-dandruff shampoos. Methods Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for eight candidate plant extracts and two plant-derived natural products diluted with Leeming and Notman medium to final concentrations of 0.016 to 1 mg/ml. Results Castanea crenata shell, Camellia sinensis leaf, and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts presented relatively low MIC values (≤0.5 mg/ml) against both strains. The C. crenata shell and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts demonstrated especially high anti-Malassezia activity, suggesting their potential use in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The extracts also showed fungistatic activity against other common facultative pathogenic yeasts, Cryptococcus and Candida. Conclusion C. crenata shell and oil-soluble Glycyrrhiza extracts could potentially be used as active ingredients in anti-seborrheic and anti-dandruff shampoo formulations. They could be helpful for repeated treatments and regular prophylaxis of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:28566909

  20. Mycorrhizal synthesis of Tuber indicum with two indigenous hosts, Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    PubMed

    Geng, Li-Ying; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Shi, Xiao-Fei; Xie, Xue-Dan; Liu, Pei-Gui; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2009-09-01

    Tuber indicum is one of the most renowned commercialized fungi in China. Mycorrhizal investigations, however, have been carried out mainly with exotic trees. Up to now there is no detailed description of morphology of the mycorrhizae formed with the indigenous hosts of T. indicum. Containerized seedlings of two indigenous hosts of the fungus in southwestern China, Pinus armandii and Castanea mollissima, were inoculated with aqueous spore suspension of T. indicum in two kinds of substrates. Mycorrhizae began to form 4 months after inoculation and were harvested at 9 months. The contributing fungus of the mycorrhizae was confirmed to be T. indicum by morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analyses. The morphology of emanating hyphae and epidermoid-like mantle appearance was similar to the mycorrhizae obtained with some European trees. The high morphological variation and the similarity to that of Tuber melanosporum makes it difficult to distinguish the mycorrhizae of the two species by morphology alone. The synthesis of mycorrhizae of T. indicum with its indigenous hosts will be of great significance for planned cultivation of the Asian black truffles.

  1. Castanea sativa Mill. bark extract exhibits chemopreventive properties triggering extrinsic apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Monia; Malaguti, Marco; Cocchi, Veronica; Hrelia, Silvana; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2017-05-05

    Chemoprevention represents the possibility to prevent, stop or reverse the cancerogenetic process. In this context the interest towards natural extracts and botanical drugs has constantly grown due to their phytochemical content. Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) extracts showed to exert positive effect in the prevention/counteraction of chronic/degenerative diseases, therefore, we evaluated the potential chemopreventive effect of CSM bark extract. Flow cytometry (FCM) analyses of Jurkat cells treated with CSM bark extract (0-500 μg·mL -1 ) for 24-72 h allowed evaluating its cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptosis through the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways. Moreover, to evaluate CSM bark extract selectivity towards cancer cells, its cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect was also evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). CSM bark extract induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner activating the extrinsic pathways as evidenced by the increase of activated caspase-8 positive cells. Moreover, IC 50 calculated after 24 h treatment resulted 304 and 128 μg·mL -1 in PBL and Jurkat cells respectively. Our data suggest that CSM bark extract might be considered an interesting potential anti-cancer agent, since it induces apoptosis in cancer cells without appreciable cytotoxic effects on non-transformed cells.

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Subjected to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Brizi, Claudia; Santulli, Chiara; Micucci, Matteo; Budriesi, Roberta; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldinucci, Carlo; Frosini, Maria

    2016-02-01

    One of the major features of neurodegenerative disease is the selective vulnerability of different neuronal populations that are affected in a progressive and often stereotyped manner. Despite the susceptible neuronal population varies between diseases, oxidative stress is implicated as the major pathogenic process in all of them. Natural Extract of Castanea sativa Mill. bark (ENC), recently characterized in its phenolic composition, acts as antioxidant and cardioprotective agent. Its neuroprotettive properties, however, have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess neuroprotection of ENC in in vitro models of oxidative-stress-mediate injury. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with glutamate (50 mM for 24 h) or hydrogen peroxide (25 μM for 1 h followed by 24 with medium) were used. The results showed that the addition of ENC (1-50 μg/ml) to cell medium before the neuronal damage provided neuroprotection in both experimental models used, while its addition after the injury was ineffective. In conclusion, the present results suggest that ENC could be a valuable support as dietary supplement, combining beneficial preventive neuroprotettive effects with a high antioxidant activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Extracellular superoxide production, viability and redox poise in response to desiccation in recalcitrant Castanea sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Colville, Louise; Whitaker, Claire; Chen, Hongying; Bailly, Christophe; Kranner, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in seed death following dehydration in desiccation-intolerant 'recalcitrant' seeds. However, it is unknown if and how ROS are produced in the apoplast and if they play a role in stress signalling during desiccation. We studied intracellular damage and extracellular superoxide (O(2)(.-)) production upon desiccation in Castanea sativa seeds, mechanisms of O(2)(.-) production and the effect of exogenously supplied ROS. A transient increase in extracellular O(2)(.-) production by the embryonic axes preceded significant desiccation-induced viability loss. Thereafter, progressively more oxidizing intracellular conditions, as indicated by a significant shift in glutathione half-cell reduction potential, accompanied cell and axis death, coinciding with the disruption of nuclear membranes. Most hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-dependent O(2)(.-) production was found in a cell wall fraction that contained extracellular peroxidases (ECPOX) with molecular masses of approximately 50 kDa. Cinnamic acid was identified as a potential reductant required for ECPOX-mediated O(2)(.-) production. H(2)O(2), applied exogenously to mimic the transient ROS burst at the onset of desiccation, counteracted viability loss of sub-lethally desiccation-stressed seeds and of excised embryonic axes grown in tissue culture. Hence, extracellular ROS produced by embryonic axes appear to be important signalling components involved in wound response, regeneration and growth.

  4. Metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia castanea Diel f. tomentosa Stib.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongfeng; Ma, Pengda; Liang, Xiao; Liang, Zongsuo; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Shuang; Liu, Hongyun; Liu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Plants of the genus Salvia produce various types of phenolic compounds and tanshinones which are effective for treatment of coronary heart disease. Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib are two important members of the genus. In this study, metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of four samples were employed to identify novel genes potentially involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis, including the red roots from the two species and two tanshinone-free roots from S. miltiorrhiza. The results showed that the red roots of S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib produced high contents of rosmarinic acid (21.77 mg/g) and tanshinone IIA (12.60 mg/g), but low content of salvianolic acid B (1.45 mg/g). The red roots of S. miltiorrhiza produced high content of salvianolic acid B (18.69 mg/g), while tanshinones accumulation in this sample was much less than that in S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. Tanshinones were not detected in the two tanshinone-free samples, which produced high contents of phenolic compounds. A cDNA-AFLP analysis with 128 primer pairs revealed that 2300 transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were differentially expressed among the four samples. About 323 TDFs were sequenced, of which 78 TDFs were annotated with known functions through BLASTX searching the Genbank database and 14 annotated TDFs were assigned into secondary metabolic pathways through searching the KEGGPATHWAY database. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the expression of 9 TDFs was positively correlated with accumulation of phenolic compounds and tanshinones. These TDFs additionally showed coordinated transcriptional response with 6 previously-identified genes involved in biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic compounds in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots treated with yeast extract. The sequence data in the present work not only provided us candidate genes involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis but also gave us

  5. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özbel, Yusuf; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Kalkan, Şaban Orçun; Töz, Seray

    2016-03-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported from 38 provinces of Turkey and dogs are accepted as main reservoir hosts. Kuşadası town, belonging to Aydın province and located in western part of Turkey, is endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum MON1 and MON98. In this study, phlebotomine survey was conducted to determine the vector sand fly species and to identify sand fly blood meal sources. In August and September 2012, 1027 sand fly specimens were caught using CDC light traps. Eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species with the dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi (61.34%) were detected. A total of 622 female sand flies (571 Phlebotomus; 51 Sergentomyia) were checked for Leishmania infection by direct dissection of the midgut. The half of the midgut content was inoculated into NNN culture for isolation of the parasite. Leishmania species-specific ITS1 real time PCR, conventional PCR assays of ITS1 and hsp70 genes and subsequent sequencing were performed from extracted DNAs. A region of cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of vertebrates based PCR was used to determine the source of blood meal of sand flies. In microscopical examinations, two female specimens (0.32%) were found naturally infected with high number and different stages of promastigotes. No growth was observed in NNN culture but Leishmania DNA was obtained from both specimens. First positive specimen was identified as P. tobbi and L. infantum DNA was detected. Second specimen was Sergentomyia dentata, but Leishmania DNA could not be identified on species level. A total of 16 blood-fed female P. tobbi specimens were used for blood meal analysis and eight, three and one specimens were positive for human, dog and mouse, respectively. This is the first detection of Leishmania promastigotes using microscopical examination in P. tobbi and S. dentata in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in western part of Turkey. Our results indicate that, (i) P. tobbi is

  6. Castanea sativa Mill. Flowers amongst the most powerful antioxidant matrices: a phytochemical approach in decoctions and infusions.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-01

    Infusions and decoction of chestnut tree flowers have been used for different medical purposes, but their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity are still mostly unknown. Herein, decoctions and infusions of flowers from the two most appreciated chestnut cultivars (longal and judia) in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, were prepared and characterized with regard to their content in free sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins, and their antioxidant activity. Overall, the decoction of the cultivar judia was the sample with both the highest quantity of flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The phenolic compound with the highest abundance in all samples was trigalloyl-HHDP-glucoside, followed by pentagalloyl glucoside. The sample with the highest quantity of total phenolic compounds was judia infusion, closely followed by longal decoction, which also gave the highest quantities of ellagitannins. Regarding sugars and organic acids, the profiles were more similar. These results corroborate ancestral claims of the health benefits of infusions and decoctions of chestnut flowers.

  7. Castanea sativa Mill. Flowers amongst the Most Powerful Antioxidant Matrices: A Phytochemical Approach in Decoctions and Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Infusions and decoction of chestnut tree flowers have been used for different medical purposes, but their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity are still mostly unknown. Herein, decoctions and infusions of flowers from the two most appreciated chestnut cultivars (longal and judia) in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, were prepared and characterized with regard to their content in free sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins, and their antioxidant activity. Overall, the decoction of the cultivar judia was the sample with both the highest quantity of flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The phenolic compound with the highest abundance in all samples was trigalloyl-HHDP-glucoside, followed by pentagalloyl glucoside. The sample with the highest quantity of total phenolic compounds was judia infusion, closely followed by longal decoction, which also gave the highest quantities of ellagitannins. Regarding sugars and organic acids, the profiles were more similar. These results corroborate ancestral claims of the health benefits of infusions and decoctions of chestnut flowers. PMID:24822186

  8. Characterization of an antioxidant surfactant-free topical formulation containing Castanea sativa leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Isabel F; Maleckova, Jitka; Saffi, Raquel; Monteiro, Helena; Góios, Filipa; Amaral, Maria Helena; Costa, Paulo Cardoso; Garrido, Jorge; Silva, Paulo; Pestana, Nazaré; Bahia, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of antioxidants in topical formulations can contribute to minimize oxidative stress in the skin, which has been associated with photoaging, several dermatosis and cancer. A Castanea sativa leaf extract with established antioxidant activity was incorporated into a semisolid surfactant-free formulation. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of this formulation. Physical, microbiological and functional stability were evaluated during 6 months storage at 20 °C and 40 °C. Microstructure elucidation (cryo-SEM), in vitro release and in vivo moisturizing effect (Corneometer® CM 825) were also assessed. Minor changes were observed in the textural and rheological properties of the formulation when stored at 20 °C for 6 months and the antioxidant activity of the plant extract remained constant throughout the storage period. Microbiological quality was confirmed at the end of the study. Under accelerated conditions, higher modifications of the evaluated parameters were observed. Cryo-SEM analysis revealed the presence of oil droplets dispersed into a gelified external phase. The release rate of the antioxidant compounds (610 ± 70 µgh(-0.5)) followed Higuchi model. A significant in vivo moisturizing effect was demonstrated, that lasted at least 4 h after product's application. The physical, functional and microbiological stability of the antioxidant formulation was established. Specific storage conditions should be recommended considering the influence of temperature on the stability. A skin hydration effect and good skin tolerance were also found which suggests that this preparation can be useful in the prevention or treatment of oxidative stress-mediated dysfunctions.

  9. PtSRR1, a putative Pisolithus tinctorius symbiosis related receptor gene is expressed during the first hours of mycorrhizal interaction with Castanea sativa roots.

    PubMed

    Acioli-Santos, B; Malosso, E; Calzavara-Silva, C E; Lima, C E P; Figueiredo, A; Sebastiana, M; Pais, M S

    2009-04-01

    PtSRR1 EST was previously identified in the first hours of Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa interaction. QRT-PCR confirmed PtSRR1 early expression and in silico preliminary translated peptide analysis indicated a strong probability that PtSRR1 be a transmembrane protein. These data stimulate the PtSRR1 gene research during ectomycorrhiza formation.

  10. PtSRR1, a putative Pisolithus tinctorius symbiosis related receptor gene is expressed during the first hours of mycorrhizal interaction with Castanea sativa roots

    PubMed Central

    Acioli-Santos, B.; Malosso, E.; Calzavara-Silva, C.E.; Lima, C.E.P.; Figueiredo, A.; Sebastiana, M.; Pais, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    PtSRR1 EST was previously identified in the first hours of Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa interaction. QRT-PCR confirmed PtSRR1 early expression and in silico preliminary translated peptide analysis indicated a strong probability that PtSRR1 be a transmembrane protein. These data stimulate the PtSRR1 gene research during ectomycorrhiza formation. PMID:24031360

  11. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Phytohormone Biosynthesis and Signaling Genes in the Flowers of Chinese Chinquapin (Castanea henryi).

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoming; Yuan, Deyi; Tian, Xiaoming; Zhu, Zhoujun; Liu, Meilan; Cao, Heping

    2017-11-29

    Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi) nut provides a rich source of starch and nutrients as food and feed, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of female to male flowers. Little is known about the developmental programs underlying sex differentiation of the flowers. To investigate the involvement of phytohormones during sex differentiation, we described the morphology of male and female floral organs and the cytology of flower sex differentiation, analyzed endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GAs), cytokinins (CKs), and abscisic acid (ABA) in the flowers, investigated the effects of exogenous hormones on flower development, and evaluated the expression profiles of genes related to biosyntheses and signaling pathways of these four hormones using RNA-Seq combined with qPCR. Morphological results showed that the flowers consisted of unisexual and bisexual catkins, and could be divided into four developmental stages. HPLC results showed that CK accumulated much more in the female flowers than that in the male flowers, GA and ABA showed the opposite results, while IAA did not show a tendency. The effects of exogenous hormones on sex differentiation were consistent with those of endogenous hormones. RNA-Seq combined with qPCR analyses suggest that several genes may play key roles in hormone biosynthesis and sex differentiation. This study presents the first comprehensive report of phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling during sex differentiation of C. henryi, which should provide a foundation for further mechanistic studies of sex differentiation in Castanea Miller species and other nonmodel plants.

  12. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents: The role of the cotyledonary petiole.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W; Agosta, Salvatore J; Steele, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak (Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  13. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  14. Native plant growth promoting bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and mixed or individual mycorrhizal species improved drought tolerance and oxidative metabolism in Lavandula dentata plants.

    PubMed

    Armada, E; Probanza, A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluates the responses of Lavandula dentata under drought conditions to the inoculation with single autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (five fungal strains) or with their mixture and the effects of these inocula with a native Bacillus thuringiensis (endophytic bacteria). These microorganisms were drought tolerant and in general, increased plant growth and nutrition. Particularly, the AM fungal mixture and B. thuringiensis maximized plant biomass and compensated drought stress as values of antioxidant activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase APX)] shown. The AMF-bacteria interactions highly reduced the plant oxidative damage of lipids [malondialdehyde (MDA)] and increased the mycorrhizal development (mainly arbuscular formation representative of symbiotic functionality). These microbial interactions explain the highest potential of dually inoculated plants to tolerate drought stress. B. thuringiensis "in vitro" under osmotic stress does not reduce its PGPB (plant growth promoting bacteria) abilities as indole acetic acid (IAA) and ACC deaminase production and phosphate solubilization indicating its capacity to improve plant growth under stress conditions. Each one of the autochthonous fungal strains maintained their particular interaction with B. thuringiensis reflecting the diversity, intrinsic abilities and inherent compatibility of these microorganisms. In general, autochthonous AM fungal species and particularly their mixture with B. thuringiensis demonstrated their potential for protecting plants against drought and helping plants to thrive in semiarid ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid response of leaf photosynthesis in two fern species Pteridium aquilinum and Thelypteris dentata to changes in CO2 measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Keisuke; Kodama, Naomi; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Hanba, Yuko T

    2015-09-01

    We investigated stomatal conductance (g(s)) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) in response to atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] in two primitive land plants, the fern species Pteridium aquilinum and Thelypteris dentata, using the concurrent measurement of leaf gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination. [CO2] was initially decreased from 400 to 200 μmol mol(-1), and then increased from 200 to 700 μmol mol(-1), and finally decreased from 700 to 400 μmol mol(-1). Analysis by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) revealed a rapid and continuous response in g m within a few minutes. In most cases, both ferns showed rapid and significant responses of g m to changes in [CO2]. The largest changes (quote % decrease) were obtained when [CO2] was decreased from 400 to 200 μmol mol(-1). This is in contrast to angiosperms where an increase in g(m) is commonly observed at low [CO2]. Similarly, fern species observed little or no response of g(s) to changes in [CO2] whereas, a concomitant decline of g(m) and g(s) with [CO2] is often reported in angiosperms. Together, these results suggest that regulation of g(m) to [CO2] may differ between angiosperms and ferns.

  16. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Published 2014 SETAC.

  17. Complex of solonetzes and vertic chestnut soils in the manych-gudilo depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. P.; Il'ina, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological, physicochemical, and isotopic properties of a two-member soil complex developed under dry steppe have been studied in the central part of the Manych Depression. The soils are formed on chocolate-colored clayey sediments, and have pronounced microrelief and the complex vegetation pattern. A specific feature of the studied soil complex is the inverse position of its components: vertic chestnut soil occupies the microhigh, while solonetz is in the microlow. The formation of such complexes is explained by the biological factor, i.e., by the destruction of the solonetzic horizon under the impact of vegetation and earth-burrowing animals with further transformation under steppe plants and dealkalinization of the soil in the microhighs. The manifestation of vertic features and shrink-swell process in soils of the complex developing in dry steppe are compared with those in the vertic soils of the Central Pre-Caucasus formed under more humid environment. It is supposed that slickensides in the investigated vertic chestnut soil are relict feature inherited from the former wetter stage of the soil development and are subjected to a gradual degradation at present. In the modern period, vertic processes are weak and cannot be distinctly diagnosed. However, their activation may take place upon an increase of precipitation or the rise in the groundwater level.

  18. Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

    2012-06-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size.

  19. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effect of Castanea sativa and Quercus robur leaf extracts against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Isabel F; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José L F C; Costa, P C; Bahia, M F

    2008-05-29

    Topical natural antioxidants are a useful strategy for the prevention of photoaging and oxidative stress mediated skin diseases. In view of this underlying principle, the screening of natural plant extracts with scavenging activity for pro-oxidant reactive species is a primary requirement for the development of new topical antioxidant formulations. In the present study, an ethanol:water (7:3) extract from Castanea sativa leaves and a ethanol:water (2:3) extract from Quercus robur leaves were evaluated for their putative in vitro scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) namely superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()), peroxyl radical (ROO()), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) as well as on reactive nitrogen species (RNS) namely nitric oxide (()NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The extracts presented a high potency to scavenge the tested reactive species, all the IC(50)s being found at the microg/mL level. IC(50)s (mean+/-SE) for the ROS O(2)(-),HO(),H(2)O(2) and (1)O(2) were 13.6+/-1.8; 216+/-4; 410+/-8; 12.3+/-0.7 microug/mL, respectively, for C. sativa, and 11.0+/-0.5; 285+/-22; 251+/-32; 7.90+/-0.56 microg/mL, respectively, for Q. robur. The ORAC values obtained for ROO() were 1.24+/-0.13 for C. sativa and 1.09+/-0.06 for Q. robur. The IC(50)s (mean+/-SE) for ()NO and ONOO(-) were 3.10+/-0.14 and 1.49+/-0.10 microg/mL, respectively, for C. sativa and 3.13+/-0.11 and 0.95+/-0.02 microg/mL, respectively, for Q. robur. The content of total phenolics for C. sativa and Q. robur were 284+/-9 and 346+/-4 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of lyophilized extract respectively. The observed effects might be of relevance considering the putative interest of these extracts as topical antioxidants.

  1. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Treesearch

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  2. Incidence of twolined chestnut borer and Hypoxylon atropunctatum on dead oaks along an acidic deposition gradient from Arkansas to Ohio

    Treesearch

    R.A. Haack; R.W. Blank

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of twolined chestnut borer (TLCB), Agrilus bilineatus (Weber), and the canker fungus Hypoxylon atropunctatum (Schw. ex Fr.) Cke. was recoreded on dead oak (Quercus) trees !Y7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) along an acidic deposition gradient from Arkansas to Ohio in 1989 and 1990. Approximately...

  3. Biology of the European oak borer in Michigan, United States of America, with comparisons to the native twolined chestnut borer

    Treesearch

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2014-01-01

    In 2010-2011, we studied the European oak borer (EOB), Agrilus sulcicollis Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Michigan, United States of America, and made comparisons with the native twolined chestnut borer (TLCB), Agrilus bilineatus (Weber). EOB adult flight began and peaked before TLCB. More EOB females were captured on...

  4. Ixeris dentata (Thunb. Ex Thunb.) Nakai Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Akt/NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seong-Ah; Lee, Hae-Nim; Choo, Gang-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Jung, Ji-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Ixeris dentata (Thunb. Ex Thunb.) Nakai (ID) exhibits various physiological activities, and its related plant derived-products are expected to represent promising cancer therapeutic agents. However, the anticancer effects of ID extract on breast cancer cells classified as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects and analyzed the molecular mechanism of ID extract in T47D, MCF-7 (ER-, PR-positive, HER2-negative), SK-BR-3(ER-, PR-negative, HER2-positive), and MDA-MB-231 (Triple-negative) through in vitro studies. Additionally, we examined its anti-tumor effects through in vivo studies. Our findings indicated that ID extract-induced apoptosis was mediated via various survival pathways on four breast cancer cells by identifying the factors including Bcl-2 family, phospho-Akt and phospho-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Based on in vitro findings that induced apoptosis via Akt-NF-κB signaling, we investigated the effects of ID extract on mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cells. The results showed that ID extract significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 tumor volume and weight via inducing apoptosis by suppressing phospho-Akt. Overall, these results indicate that ID extract induces apoptosis through the Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and tumors, and it may serve as a therapeutic agent for triple-negative human breast cancer. PMID:28134814

  5. Acetylated H4 histone and genomic DNA methylation patterns during bud set and bud burst in Castanea sativa.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Ma Estrella; Hasbún, Rodrigo; Valera, Ma José; Meijón, Mónica; Valledor, Luis; Rodríguez, Jose L; Toorop, Peter E; Cañal, Ma Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between genomic DNA cytosine methylation, histone H4 acetylation and bud dormancy in Castanea sativa are described. Acetylated H4 histone and genomic DNA methylation patterns showed opposite abundance patterns during bud set and bud burst. Increased and decreased methylation levels in the apical buds coincided with bud set and bud burst, respectively. Intermediate axillary buds were characterized by constant levels of DNA methylation during burst of apical buds and reduced fluctuation in DNA methylation throughout the year, which coincided with the absence of macro-morphological changes. Furthermore, acetylated histone H4 (AcH4) levels from apical buds were higher during bud burst than during bud set, as was demonstrated by immunodetection. Results were validated with three additional C. sativa provenances. Thus, global DNA methylation and AcH4 levels showed opposite patterns and coincided with changes in bud dormancy in C. sativa.

  6. In vitro activity of a partially purified and characterized bark extract of Castanea sativa Mill. (ENC®) against Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed

    Papa, Valentina; Ginocchietti, Laura; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Costa, Roberta; Biondi, Roberta; Cevenini, Roberto; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldini, Rita; Donati, Manuela; Pollini, Gian Matteo; Cenacchi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill (ENC®), containing tannins against 33 Chlamydia strains, was compared to SMAP-29 with inhibitory effect against C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The ENC® activity against Chlamydia spp. was evaluated determining the lowest concentration to achieve more than half reduction of intact chlamydial inclusions versus controls. ENC® reduced all Chlamydia strains tested at 1 µg/mL, while SMAP-29 induced reductions of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infectivity at 10 µg/mL. A great reduction of C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. abortus infectivity was achieved with a 10 µg/mL ENC® concentration, whereas their infectivity was almost inhibited at 100 µg/mL ENC® concentration.

  7. East Chestnut Ridge hydrogeologic characterization: A geophysical study of two karst features

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Permitting and site selection activities for the proposed East Chestnut Ridge landfill, located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, have required additional hydrogeologic studies of two karst features. Geophysical testing methods were utilized for investigating these karst features. The objectives of the geophysical testing was to determine the feasibility of geophysical techniques for locating subsurface karst features and to determine if subsurface anomalies exist at the proposed landfill site. Two karst features, one lacking surface expression (sinkhole) but with a known solution cavity at depth (from previous hydrologic studies), and the other with surface expression were tested with surface geophysical methods. Four geophysical profiles, two crossing and centered over each karst feature were collected using both gravimetric and electrical resistivity techniques.

  8. Health effects of air pollution due to coal combustion in the Chestnut Ridge region of Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.; Golomb, D.

    1985-08-01

    This study used the seventeen monitor air quality network in the Chestnut Ridge region of Pennsylvania to evaluate the effect of pollutant trends and representations on measures of exposure. Data consisted of four and five years of SO/sub 2/ and TSP measurements, respectively, and were considered in deriving exposure models. A cross-sectional study of 4071 children aged 6 to 11 years of age was conducted in the spring of 1979. Standardized children's questionnaires were distributed to the parents and returned by the children to school, where spirometry was performed. The region was divided into low, moderate and high pollution areas on the basis of the 1974-1978, 3 h, 24 h, and annual averages for SO/sub 2/. After adjusting the respiratory symptom response outcomes and the pulmonary function levels for known predictors, no significant association was noted for level of SO/sub 2/. 65 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Total monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition by chestnut honey, pollen and propolis.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, O; Karahalil, F; Can, Z; Sahin, H; Kolayli, S

    2014-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are generally used in the treatment of depressive disorders and some neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the MAO [MAO (E.C.1.4.3.4)] inhibiting effect of various apitherapeutic products, such as chestnut honey, pollen and propolis. Extracts' MAO inhibition was measured using peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay in enzyme isolated from rat liver microsomes, and the values are expressed as the inhibition concentration (IC50) causing 50% inhibition of MAO. The antioxidant activity of the bee products was also determined in terms of total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power in aquatic extracts. All samples exhibited substantial inhibition of MAO, propolis having the highest. Inhibition was related to samples' TPCs and antioxidant capacities. These results show that bee products possess a sedative effect and may be effective in protecting humans against depression and similar diseases.

  10. Engineering super mycovirus donor strains of chestnut blight fungus by systematic disruption of multilocus vic genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nuss, Donald L

    2016-02-23

    Transmission of mycoviruses that attenuate virulence (hypovirulence) of pathogenic fungi is restricted by allorecognition systems operating in their fungal hosts. We report the use of systematic molecular gene disruption and classical genetics for engineering fungal hosts with superior virus transmission capabilities. Four of five diallelic virus-restricting allorecognition [vegetative incompatibility (vic)] loci were disrupted in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica using an adapted Cre-loxP recombination system that allowed excision and recycling of selectable marker genes (SMGs). SMG-free, quadruple vic mutant strains representing both allelic backgrounds of the remaining vic locus were then produced through mating. In combination, these super donor strains were able to transmit hypoviruses to strains that were heteroallelic at one or all of the virus-restricting vic loci. These results demonstrate the feasibility of modulating allorecognition to engineer pathogenic fungi for more efficient transmission of virulence-attenuating mycoviruses and enhanced biological control potential.

  11. Engineering super mycovirus donor strains of chestnut blight fungus by systematic disruption of multilocus vic genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nuss, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of mycoviruses that attenuate virulence (hypovirulence) of pathogenic fungi is restricted by allorecognition systems operating in their fungal hosts. We report the use of systematic molecular gene disruption and classical genetics for engineering fungal hosts with superior virus transmission capabilities. Four of five diallelic virus-restricting allorecognition [vegetative incompatibility (vic)] loci were disrupted in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica using an adapted Cre-loxP recombination system that allowed excision and recycling of selectable marker genes (SMGs). SMG-free, quadruple vic mutant strains representing both allelic backgrounds of the remaining vic locus were then produced through mating. In combination, these super donor strains were able to transmit hypoviruses to strains that were heteroallelic at one or all of the virus-restricting vic loci. These results demonstrate the feasibility of modulating allorecognition to engineer pathogenic fungi for more efficient transmission of virulence-attenuating mycoviruses and enhanced biological control potential. PMID:26858412

  12. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with ∼1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 Å, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an (α/β)8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th α-helix. An active site “gating loop” exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH·ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference. PMID:20558740

  13. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determinedmore » alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.« less

  14. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews All Health Information Research Research Results Results by ... Awards & Opportunities Institutional Training Sites Training Grant Application, Review, and Award Process More Training Resources CME/CEU ...

  15. Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-01-15

    The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight

    PubMed Central

    Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

  17. Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2010-07-18

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack.

  18. Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract Protects U-373 MG Cells and Rat Brain Slices Against Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Santulli, Chiara; Brizi, Claudia; Micucci, Matteo; Del Genio, Ambra; De Cristofaro, Assunta; Bracco, Federica; Pepe, Giuseppina Lucia; di Perna, Ilaria; Budriesi, Roberta; Chiarini, Alberto; Frosini, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic brain injury is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The use of one-drug-multi-target agents based on natural compounds is a promising therapeutic option for cerebral ischemia due to their pleiotropic properties. This study assessed the neuroprotective properties of Castanea sativa Mill. bark extract (ENC) in human astrocytoma U-373 MG cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion and rat cortical slices subjected to ischemia-like conditions or treated with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide. Neuroprotective effects were determined by assessing cells or slices viability (MTT assay), ROS formation (DCFH-DA assay), apoptosis (sub G0/G1 peak), nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation (DAPI staining) as well as changes in lysosomes and mitochondria morphology (Acridine Orange and Rhodamine123 staining, respectively). ENC treatment before injury on U-373 MG cells (5-50 μg/ml) and cortical slices (50-100 μg/ml) provided neuroprotection, while lower or higher concentrations (100 μg/ml U-373 MG cells, 200 μg/ml brain slices) were ineffective. ENC addition during reperfusion or after the injury was not found to be effective. The results suggest that ENC might hold potential as preventive neuroprotective agent, and indicate the importance of further studies exploring its mechanism of action. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 839-850, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Invasion genetics of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Prospero, S; Rigling, D

    2012-01-01

    Cryphonectria parasitica is the best-known example of an invasive forest pathogen in Europe. In southern Switzerland, chestnut blight was first reported in 1948 whereas, north of the Alps, it did not appear until the 1980s. Between 1995 and 2008, we sampled 640 C. parasitica isolates from nine populations south of the Alps and nine north of the Alps. Twelve historical isolates, collected between 1950 and 1972 in the south, were obtained from our collection. All 652 isolates were screened at 10 microsatellite loci to test for the existence of divergent genetic pools and to infer possible origins of haplotypes. In total, 52 haplotypes were identified. Structure software analysis indicated that 43 haplotypes (including all historical haplotypes) belonged to a main cluster, 6 haplotypes belonged to a different cluster, and 3 haplotypes had an intermediate allele pattern. All newly founded populations in northern Switzerland were initiated by one or just a few haplotypes from the main cluster, which probably came directly from the populations south of the Alps. Subsequently, genetic diversity increased through mutations, sexual reproduction, or new migrations. The highest increase in diversity was observed in populations where haplotypes from different genetic pools were encountered.

  20. Effect of infrared and microwave radiations on properties of Indian Horse Chestnut starch.

    PubMed

    Shah, Umar; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Starch extracted from Indian Horse Chestnut (IHCN) was subjected to infrared and microwave radiations for different time intervals (15 s, 30 s, & 45 s) at constant dose. The structural change of MW and IR radiated IHCN starches were determined by Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy. The increased peak intensity at 3240 cm(-1) of treated starch represents more exposure of hydroxyl groups due to radiation. Granule morphology of native starch showed round and elliptical granules with smooth surfaces. However radiation treatment resulted in the development of surface cracks. Effect of radiation on physicochemical properties of starch revealed increase in water absorption capacity and light transmittance and decrease in apparent amylose content, pH, and syneresis. The peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities were significantly reduced with increase in treatment time. Radiated starches displayed significantly lower values of To,Tp, and ΔHgel than native starch. Further antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays. Results showed significant improvement in antioxidant activity of starch by both MW and IR treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Experimental Lead Exposure on Testis of the Chestnut Capped Blackbird Chrysomus ruficapillus.

    PubMed

    Leidens, Danusa; Bianchini, Adalto; Varela Junior, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Rosa, Carlos Eduardo; Bonnel, Josiane; Calabuig, Cecilia Perez; Corcini, Carine Dahl

    2018-03-01

    Lead (Pb) effects on testis histology, as well as sperm quality and oxidative status were evaluated in male Chestnut Capped Blackbird (Chrysomus ruficapillus). Wild blackbirds were captured, immediately sampled (field group) or kept in captivity and treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of saline solution (control) or saline solution with Pb acetate (50 or 100 mg/kg Pb). Seven days after injection, whole blood, ductus deferens and testis samples were collected. Increased Pb concentrations were observed in whole blood and testis of Pb-exposed blackbirds with respect to those from field and control blackbirds. Sperm cells of Pb-exposed blackbirds showed loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial functionality, and DNA integrity. Also, oxidative damage was observed in testis of blackbirds injected with 100 mg/kg Pb. These findings indicate that Pb is accumulated in testis of C. ruficapillus, inducing severe morphological and biochemical injury that can compromise the reproductive performance of male blackbirds. Although the exposure scenario (Pb acetate, high dosage and intraperitoneal injection) tested in the present study would likely not occur in the wild, it was adequate to show potential and relevant toxic effects of Pb in wild birds.

  2. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan edible films.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Yuan, Yilin; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei; Yu, Huaning

    2013-10-01

    The characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC) films containing Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COE 1% w/w), glycerol monolaurate (GML 1% w/w), nisin (10,000 IU/g), pine needle essential oil (PNEO 0.35% v/v), and their combinations were evaluated. Incorporation of COE decreased pH value of the film-forming solution, the moisture content and the water absorption expansion ability (WAEA). GML-incorporated film had lower WAEA, tensile strength, elongation and puncture strength. However, films with nisin displayed good mechanical properties. All the treated films were less transparent and higher in water vapour permeability values. For film microstructure, the presence of PNEO caused discontinuities with lipid droplets or holes embedded in a continuous network and the incorporation of GML led to abaisse-like structures. The COE, GML, nisin, PNEO and their combinations incorporated in the WSC films are effective in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes at different levels. The results showed that WSC films containing COE and GML, GML and nisin, COE and nisin were able to reduce the number of E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. This research has potential applications to the extension of the shelf life of food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Chestnut and Quebracho Tannins on Rumen Microbiota of Bovines

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Claudio; Pin Viso, Natalia Daniela; Colombatto, Darío; Farber, Marisa Diana

    2017-01-01

    The use of phytogenic dietary additives is being evaluated as a means to improve animal productivity. The effect of tannins seems to be the influence not only directly on the digestive process through binding of dietary proteins but also indirectly over their effects on gastrointestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used to analyze the impact of dietary supplementation with a blend of chestnut and quebracho tannins on the rumen microbiota of Holstein steers. Bacterial richness was lower in tannins treated animals, while the overall population structure of rumen microbiota was not significantly disturbed by tannins. The ratio of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, a parameter associated with energy harvesting function, was increased in tannins supplemented animals, essentially due to the selective growth of Ruminococcaceae over members of genus Prevotella. Fibrolytic, amylolytic, and ureolytic bacterial communities in the rumen were altered by tannins, while methanogenic archaea were reduced. Furthermore, ruminal pH was significantly higher in animals supplemented with tannins than in the control group, while urease activity exhibited the opposite pattern. Further work is necessary to assess the relation between tannins impact on rumen microbiota and alteration of rumen fermentation parameters associated with bovine performance. PMID:29445749

  4. Improved efficacy of prebiotic by flaxseed oil and horse chestnut in experimental colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hijova, E; Chmelarova, A; Bomba, A

    2011-01-01

    This experimental work was designed to investigate the efficacy of prebiotic by itself and in combination with Hyppocastani extractum siccum, and Lini oleum virginale on selected parameters in rats with dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer. Rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups of 12 rats each. Rats were fed with high fat (HF) diet containing 10 % of fat, supplemented by prebiotic at a dose of 2 % of HF diet itself and in combination with Hyppocastani extractum siccum at a dose of 1 % of diet and Lini oleum virginale at a dose of 2 % of diet. Two weeks after the start of the diet dimethylhydrazine injections in dose 20 mg/kg b.w. were applied (DMH, Merck, DE), two times at week interval. The activity of beta-glucuronidase, concentration of lipid parameters, bile acids and short chain fatty acids were determined. Prebiotic and its combinations with selected substances significantly decreased the activity of bacterial enzyme beta-glucuronidase (p<0.001). Bile acids concentration was significantly decreased (p<0.01) excepting combination of prebiotic with Horse chestnut. Self applied prebiotic decreased (p<0.001) lipids parameters (total cholesterol and triacylglycerols), and enhanced short chain fatty acids production. Prebiotics have protective effect and may be the useful candidate agents for colon cancer prevention and treatment. The application of selected bioactive food components supported the effect of prebiotics (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 16). Full Text in free PDF www.bmj.sk.

  5. Antitumor, Antioxidant, and Nitrite Scavenging Effects of Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) Peel Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ge; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang; Jiao, Shunshan

    2016-10-01

    The preparation, quantification, and characterization of flavonoid compounds from Chinese water chestnut peel (CWCP) flavonoid extract and ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n-butanol fraction, and water fraction were studied. Among these, EF showed the maximum free radical levels (IC 50 values of 0.36, 0.40, and 0.37 mg/mL for DPPH•, ABTS• + , and •OH, respectively), nitrite scavenging effects (IC 50 = 1.89 mg/mL), and A549 cell inhibitory activities (IC 50 = 776.12 μg/mL) with the highest value of total flavonoid content (TFC, 421.32 mg/g). Moreover, the contents of 8 flavonoids in this fraction were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fisetin, diosmetin, luteolin, and tectorigenin were the 4 major flavonoids with levels of 31.66, 29.91, 13.69, and 12.41 mg/g, respectively. Luteolin produced a greater inhibition of human lung cancer A549 cells (IC 50 = 59.60 μg/mL) than did fisetin, diosmetin, and tectorigenin. Flow cytometry revealed that the cellular mechanisms of luteolin inhibition of A549 cells were achieved via the induction of cell proliferation arrest at G 1 phase and apoptosis/necrosis. Our findings suggest that flavonoids are closely associated with antitumor, antioxidant, and nitrite scavenging effects of CWCP. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. [Acid vacuolar invertase in hibernating and germinating seeds of the horse chestnut].

    PubMed

    Obrucheva, N V; Litiagina, S V

    2009-01-01

    A high water content is maintained in the tissues of the axial organs of horse chestnut seeds after the fruit is shed and down to the time the seeds germinate. The plant cell vacuoles, features of whose metabolism can influence the cells' preparation to initiate growth in germination, are preserved. It was shown that the activity of acid invertase and its capacity to digest both sucrose and raphinose remain stable throughout the period of hibernation and the transition to germination, as do the molecular weight of its subunits (63 and 65 kDa) and multimer (500 to 550 kDa). The activity of the enzyme increases when the seeds swell under optimal conditions for germination; this is associated with the synthesis of new molecules of the enzyme in long-lived mRNA matrices. The storability of the enzyme in the vacuoles of hibernating seeds, together with the increase in its activity when seeds coming out of hibernation swell, ensures the rapid hydrolysis of sucrose issuing from the seeds' cotyledons, thus leading to increased osmotic pressure and, as a result, the beginning of cell elongation, i.e., germination.

  7. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  8. Promising new applications of Castanea sativa shell: nutritional composition, antioxidant activity, amino acids and vitamin E profile.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Santos, Joana; Pimentel, Filipa B; Braga, Nair; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the macronutrient composition and the amino acid and vitamin E profiles of Castanea sativa shell from different production regions of Portugal (Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The nutritional composition was similar for all samples, with a high moisture content and low fat amounts. Arginine and leucine were the predominant essential amino acids (EAA) accounting for 3.55-7.21% and 1.59-2.08%, respectively, for samples of the different production zones. All the shells presented high contents of vitamin E (481.5 mg per 100 g sample, 962.8 mg per 100 g sample and 567.5 mg per 100 g sample, respectively, for Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The predominant vitamer was γ-tocopherol (670 mg per 100 g sample for Trás-os-Montes). The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of C. sativa shell were also determined. Trás-os-Montes extracts displayed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 31.8 ± 1.3 μg mL(-1) for DPPH; 8083.5 ± 164.8 μmol per mg db for FRAP). The total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 241.9 mg to 796.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g db sample, the highest TPC being obtained for Trás-os-Montes. The total flavonoid content (TFC) varied from 31.4 to 43.3 mg of catechin equivalents (CEQ) per g db sample. No antimicrobial activity was observed. The results showed the potentialities of C. sativa shell extracts.

  9. Evaluation of functional stability and batch-to-batch reproducibility of a Castanea sativa leaf extract with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Isabel F; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that free radicals are generated by UV irradiation being responsible for skin injury. In this regard, the topical use of formulations composed of plant extracts with antioxidant activity could represent a useful strategy for the prevention of photoaging and oxidative-stress-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the extraction method and the functional stability of a Castanea sativa leaf extract in view of its application as topical antioxidant. Measurements of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total phenols (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay) and phenolic composition (high-performance liquid chromatography unit coupled to a UV detector) were carried out on three different batches. The influence of pH and temperature on the extract's DPPH scavenging activity was assessed in aqueous and glyceric solutions (0.025% w/v) over a 3-month period. Minor differences were found between the three extract batches for all the evaluated parameters, and therefore the reproducibility of the extraction method can be inferred. pH presented a great influence in the extract functional stability. Major antioxidant activity decrease was found at pH 7.1, while lower changes were observed at pH 5. Glyceric solutions were stable throughout the test period. At 40 degrees C and pH 5, a marked decrease of activity was observed. Again, glyceric solutions were the most stable, even at 40 degrees C. Proper selection of pH and solvent is mandatory to ensure the stability of the studied extract after being incorporated in semisolid forms. In view of these results, glycerine is proposed as the best vehicle for topical formulations incorporating C. sativa leaf extract, which should have a pH around 5.

  10. Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination in six European populations of Castanea sativa Mill. originating from contrasting localities.

    PubMed

    Lauteri, M; Pliura, A; Monteverdi, M C; Brugnoli, E; Villani, F; Eriksson, G

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of physiological performances of Castanea sativa Mill. in relation to drought tolerance, among and within European populations coming from contrasting environmental conditions. Forty-eight open-pollinated families from a stratified sample (temperature/precipitation) of six naturalized populations from Spain, Italy and Greece were grown for one growth period under two temperature regimes (25 and 32 degrees C), in combination with two watering regimes in growth chambers. Complementary to growth traits analysed in a previous study, carbon isotope discrimination (Delta), a complex physiological trait involved in acclimation and adaptive processes, was studied. anova indicated significant Delta variability for C. sativa populations across Europe and, thereby, variation in adaptedness to drought. The European pattern of Delta variability matches the previously reported one for the centre of origin of C. sativa (Ponto-Caucasian region). This suggests that common mechanisms of drought adaptedness, involving both genetic and physiological determinants, give C. sativa the capacity to colonize a wide range of site conditions. The highest Delta values, indicating the lowest water-use efficiency (WUE), were found within each treatment for populations originating from Mediterranean drought-prone sites. These populations also had the highest phenotypic plasticity of Delta. Significant among-family genetic variation in Delta was found. The heritability based on the joint anova was estimated at 0.31 +/- 0.07. The estimates of the coefficients for the additive variance varied in the range 2.6-4.0%, suggesting possibilities for selection on WUE and adaptedness to drought. The genetic correlations between Delta and growth traits were generally strong and negative, especially in the two high temperature treatments.

  11. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20 cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10 μg/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7 ± 2.1 μg/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3 ± 1.5 μg/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120 h for YR07 and at 144 h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the L-tryptophan. 400 μg/ml of L-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains--from 21.6 ± 0.3 to 30.6 ± 0.5 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    SciTech Connect

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  13. Preparation and CO 2 adsorption properties of soft-templated mesoporous carbons derived from chestnut tannin precursors

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Kimberly M.; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-10-09

    This paper presents a soft templating approach for mesoporous carbon using the polyphenolic heterogeneous biomass, chestnut tannin, as the carbon precursor. By varying synthesis parameters such as tannin:surfactant ratio, cross-linker, reaction time and acid catalyst, the pore structure could be controllably modulated from lamellar to a more ordered hexagonal array. Carbonization at 600 °C under nitrogen produced a bimodal micro-mesoporous carbonaceous material exhibiting enhanced hydrogen bonding with the soft template, similar to that shown by soft-templating of phenolic-formaldehyde resins, allowing for a tailorable pore size. By utilizing the acidic nature of chestnut tannin (i.e. gallic and ellagic acid), hexagonal-type mesostructuresmore » were formed without the use of an acid catalyst. The porous carbon materials were activated with ammonia to increase the available surface area and incorporate nitrogen-containing functionality which led to a maximum CO 2 adsorption capacity at 1 bar of 3.44 mmol/g and 2.27 mmol/g at 0 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The ammonia-activated carbon exhibited multiple peaks in the adsorption energy distribution which indicates heterogeneity of adsorption sites for CO 2 capture.« less

  14. Preparation and CO2 adsorption properties of soft-templated mesoporous carbons derived from chestnut tannin precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Kimberly M.; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mayes, Richard T.; Teague, Craig M.; Binder, Andrew J.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Williamson, Ben

    2015-10-09

    This paper presents a soft templating approach for mesoporous carbon using the polyphenolic heterogeneous biomass, chestnut tannin, as the carbon precursor. By varying synthesis parameters such as tannin:surfactant ratio, cross-linker, reaction time and acid catalyst, the pore structure could be controllably modulated from lamellar to a more ordered hexagonal array. Carbonization at 600 °C under nitrogen produced a bimodal micro-mesoporous carbonaceous material exhibiting enhanced hydrogen bonding with the soft template, similar to that shown by soft-templating of phenolic-formaldehyde resins, allowing for a tailorable pore size. By utilizing the acidic nature of chestnut tannin (i.e. gallic and ellagic acid), hexagonal-type mesostructures were formed without the use of an acid catalyst. The porous carbon materials were activated with ammonia to increase the available surface area and incorporate nitrogen-containing functionality which led to a maximum CO2 adsorption capacity at 1 bar of 3.44 mmol/g and 2.27 mmol/g at 0 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The ammonia-activated carbon exhibited multiple peaks in the adsorption energy distribution which indicates heterogeneity of adsorption sites for CO2 capture.

  15. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

  16. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  17. A new approach for the modelling of chestnut wood photo-degradation monitored by different spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, G; Calienno, L; Capobianco, G; Monaco, A Lo; Pelosi, C; Picchio, R; Serranti, S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study the colour and chemical modifications of the surfaces in chestnut wood samples as a consequence of irradiating in a controlled environment. The changes were investigated by a new analytical approach by combining traditional techniques such as reflectance spectrophotometry in the visible range and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with new hyperspectral imaging, in order to obtain forecast models to describe the phenomenon. The statistical elaboration of the experimental data allowed to validate the measurements and to obtain models enabling to relate the investigated parameters; the elaboration of the hyperspectral images by chemometric methods allowed for studying the changes in the reflectance spectra. A result of great importance is the possibility to correlate the oxidation of wood chemical components with the colour change in a totally non-invasive modality. This result is particularly relevant in the field of cultural heritage and in general in the control processes of wooden materials.

  18. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  19. Digestive enzymes activity in subsequent generations of Cameraria ohridella larvae harvested from horse chestnut trees after treatment with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Stygar, Dominika; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Dolezych, Bogdan; Nakonieczny, Miroslaw; Migula, Pawel; Zaak, Maria; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Kukla, Michal; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Buldak, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of chloronicotinoid pesticide (imidacloprid) on the digestive enzymes activity of the Cameraria ohridella larvae after lasting 1 year sublethal exposure to imidacloprid pesticide. Caterpillars - L4 stage (fourth instar, hyperphagic tissue-feeding phase) - were collected from chemically protected white horse chestnut trees 1 year after imidacloprid treatment, and compared with caterpillars collected from non-treated trees in a previous study. Enzymes activity of α-amylase, disaccharidases, glycosidases and proteases was assayed. The presence of pesticide in ingested food changed the digestive enzymes profile of caterpillars. The analysis of correlations between different digestive enzymes showed many significant correlations (P<0.05) among glycolytic activities like β-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activities. Statistically significant correlations for proteolytic activity were found between trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and aminopeptidase activity that occurred only in the 1st generation. PCA distinguished five primary components with eigenvalues higher than 1, from which the first two explain almost 59% of analyzed results. Surprisingly, in the pesticide treated groups significantly higher activities of sucrase and lactase in relation to control were found. In general, glycosidase (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase) activities showed a similar pattern of activity in different generations. These results contrast with those obtained with control larvae, where significant differences in activities of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase may result from the different quantity and quality food intake by subsequent generations of larvae. No inter-generation differences in total proteolytic activity were observed in treated larvae. The absolute value of total proteolytic activity was higher than that in the control group. The pesticide present in the vascular system of the horse chestnut

  20. Castanea sativa Mill. extract contracts gallbladder and relaxes sphincter of Oddi in guinea pig: a natural approach to biliary tract motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; Aldini, Rita; Cevenini, Monica; Alvisi, Vittorio; Ruffilli, Corrado; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-07-01

    Impaired gallbladder motility is a contributing factor to gallstone formation. Since many drugs delaying intestinal motility inhibit gallbladder emptying, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect on gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi motility of a Natural Chestnut Wood Extract (NEC) that reduces intestinal motility. In order to evaluate the effect of the extract in normal- and high-risk gallstone conditions, the investigation was performed using tissues from animals fed normal and lithogenic diet. Fifty guinea pigs were administered either control or lithogenic diet. The spontaneous motility of the gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi were recorded on isolated gallbladder tissues; thereafter, the effect of NEC on motility was tested and compared with carbachol (CCh), potassium chloride (KCl), noradrenaline (NA), and A71623. Compared to controls, the lithogenic diet induced an irregular and disordered motor pattern in both the gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi. NEC increased gallbladder and decreased sphincter of Oddi spontaneous motility independently of cholinergic, adrenergic, and CCK-1 receptor-mediated pathways both in controls and in lithogenic diet-fed animals, although the effect was lower in the latter group. The effect was reversible and mediated by calcium channels. The natural extract of chestnut increasing gallbladder contraction and inducing the relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi can be of benefit in pathological conditions associated with increased transit time at risk of gallstones.

  1. HPCE quantification of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine in genomic DNA: methodological optimization for chestnut and other woody species.

    PubMed

    Hasbún, Rodrigo; Valledor, Luís; Rodríguez, José L; Santamaria, Estrella; Ríos, Darcy; Sanchez, Manuel; Cañal, María J; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of deoxynucleosides using micellar high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) is an efficient, fast and inexpensive evaluation method of genomic DNA methylation. This approach has been demonstrated to be more sensitive and specific than other methods for the quantification of DNA methylation content. However, effective detection and quantification of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine depend of the sample characteristics. Previous works have revealed that in most woody species, the quality and quantity of RNA-free DNA extracted that is suitable for analysis by means of HPCE varies among species of the same gender, among tissues taken from the same tree, and vary in the same tissue depending on the different seasons of the year. The aim of this work is to establish a quantification method of genomic DNA methylation that lends itself to use in different Castanea sativa Mill. materials, and in other angiosperm and gymnosperm woody species. Using a DNA extraction kit based in silica membrane has increased the resolutive capacity of the method. Under these conditions, it can be analyzed different organs or tissues of angiosperms and gymnosperms, regardless of their state of development. We emphasized the importance of samples free of nucleosides, although, in the contrary case, the method ensures the effective separation of deoxynucleosides and identification of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine.

  2. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  3. Assessment of the effect of condensed (acacia and quebracho) and hydrolysable (chestnut and valonea) tannins on rumen fermentation and methane production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hassanat, Fadi; Benchaar, Chaouki

    2013-01-01

    Tannins added to animal diets may have a positive effect on energy and protein utilisation in the rumen. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of different sources and concentrations (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 g kg⁻¹ dry matter (DM)) of condensed (acacia and quebracho) and hydrolysable (chestnut and valonea) tannins on rumen microbial fermentation in vitro. The experiment also included a negative control with no tannins (control) and a positive control with monensin (10 mg L⁻¹). In vitro gas production and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration decreased as tannin concentration increased. Addition of acacia, chestnut or valonea tannins at ≥ 50 g kg⁻¹ or quebracho tannins at ≥ 100 g kg⁻¹ resulted in a decrease (up to 40%) in methane (CH₄) production compared with the control. Valonea tannins were the only tannin source that reduced (-11%) CH₄ production at 50 g kg⁻¹ without affecting VFA concentration. Tannin treatments reduced ammonia (NH₃) and branched-chain VFA concentrations, indicating a reduction in ruminal protein degradation. Monensin reduced CH₄ production (-37%) and NH₃ concentration (-20%) without affecting total VFA concentration. Supplying acacia, chestnut or valonea tannins at 50 g kg⁻¹ has the potential to reduce CH₄ production and ruminal protein degradation with minimum detrimental effects on efficiency of ruminal fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of Dietary Chestnut or Quebracho Tannin Supplementation on Microbial Community and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Dairy Ewes

    PubMed Central

    Buccioni, Arianna; Pallara, Grazia; Pastorelli, Roberta; Bellini, Letizia; Cappucci, Alice; Mannelli, Federica; Minieri, Sara; Roscini, Valentina; Rapaccini, Stefano; Mele, Marcello; Giovannetti, Luciana; Pauselli, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants derived products have a prominent role in diets and economy worldwide; therefore, the capability to control the rumen microbial ecosystem, for ameliorating their quality, is of fundamental importance in the livestock sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with chestnut and quebracho tannins on microbial community and fatty acid profile, in the rumen fluid of dairy ewes. Multivariate analysis of PCR-DGGE profiles of rumen microbial communities showed a correlation among the presence of chestnut or quebracho in the diet, the specific Butyrivibrio group DGGE profiles, the increase in 18:3 cis9, cis12, and cis15; 18:2 cis9 and cis12; 18:2 cis9 and trans11; 18:2 trans11 and cis15; and 18:1 trans11 content, and the decrease in 18:0 concentration. Phylogenetic analysis of DGGE band sequences revealed the presence of bacteria representatives related to the genera Hungatella, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium and unclassified Lachnospiraceae family members, suggesting that these taxa could be affected by tannins presence in the diets. The results of this study showed that tannins from chestnut and quebracho can reduce the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids through changes in rumen microbial communities. PMID:29457028

  5. Evaluation of heavy metal contents in co-composts of poultry manure with barley wastes or chestnut burr/leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Rodríguez, E; Alonso, J; Melgar, M J; Vázquez, M

    2006-12-01

    The presence of heavy metals in composts is a main cause of adverse effects on animal and human health, transmitted through the food chain from the soil, groundwater and plants. In this study, the contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu present in co-composts of poultry manure (liquid or solid) with a co-composting material (barley wastes or chestnut burr/leaf litter) were assessed. A compost of solid manure was used as control because a compost cannot be obtained from the liquid manure. The original solid poultry manure showed a Zn content of 2134+/-75 mg/kg, exceeding the current legal limit in Spain of 1100 mg/kg. In the solid poultry manure co-compost with chestnut burr/leaf litter and barley wastes, Zn content decreased to 813+/-25 mg/kg and 883+/-37 mg/kg, respectively. The contents in heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) of the co-composts were under the maximum limit permitted under the Spanish legislation, excepting for the Zn level in liquid poultry manure co-composted with chestnut burr/leaf litter.

  6. Oak-black bear relationships in southeastern uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Spetich, Martin A.

    2004-01-01

    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern uplands without oak mast. Bear reproductive and mortality rates in the region have been shown to be directly linked with acorn production. Masting is thought to be an adaptation by oaks to satiate predators during good acorn years, thus ensuring that the remainder will germinate. Acorn predator populations, however, cannot respond numerically to increased acorn production because the masting is episodic and synchronous. Consequently, bears have developed physiological, behavioral, and ecological adaptations to cope with such food shortages. Despite such adaptations, upland hardwood forests in the Southeast are of lower quality than they once were. The loss of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), higrading, and soil degradation have markedly decreased the carrying capacity for bears and other wildlife. Other changes such as recent forest management practices, forest fragmentation, invasion by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), and oak decline threaten to further degrade the capability of southeastern uplands to support bears.

  7. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the mainmore » Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.« less

  8. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  9. Salicylic acid induces H2O2 production and endochitinase gene expression but not ethylene biosynthesis in Castanea sativa in vitro model system.

    PubMed

    Harfouche, Antoine L; Rugini, Eddo; Mencarelli, Fabio; Botondi, Rinaldo; Muleo, Rosario

    2008-05-05

    Salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), and wounding are all known to influence plant defense response. Experiments attempting to determine SA's relation to ET biosynthesis and defense gene expression have shown conflicting results. To confront this, we developed an in vitro model system to investigate how SA affects ET biosynthesis, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and endochitinase gene expression in the European chestnut. ET measurements of in vitro shoots indicated a critical time point for SA exogenous application, enabling us to study its effects independent of ET. In addition, ET measurements demonstrated that its own increased biosynthesis was a response to wounding but not to SA treatment. Application of the ET biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), on wounded and SA-treated shoots blocked wounding-induced ET production. Interestingly, SA inhibited ET production, but to a lesser extent than AVG. Additionally, SA also induced the accumulation of endochitinase transcript level. Likewise, a sensitive tissue-print assay showed that SA further increased the level of H(2)O(2). Yet, SA-induced endochitinase gene expression and SA-enhanced H(2)O(2) production levels were independent of ET. The cumulative results indicate that SA acts as an inducer of endochitinase PR gene expression and of H(2)O(2) oxidative burst. This suggests that SA is a component of the signal transduction pathway leading to defense against pathogens in chestnut. Further, the model system developed for this experiment should facilitate the deciphering of defense signaling pathways and their cross-talk. Moreover, it should also benefit the study of trees of long generation time that are known to be recalcitrant to in vitro studies.

  10. Effects of chestnut tannins on the meat quality, welfare, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Ke; Mingbin, Lv; Zhao, Jinshan; Xiong, Benhai

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on the meat quality, welfare and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Lambs in one group were raised at 20°C and fed a basal diet (N), and three other groups (32°C) were fed a basal diet with 0 (CT0), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg. Addition of CT increased the b* and L* values of meat and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum and liver of heat-stressed lambs. The malondialdehyde concentration in meat, serum, and liver of heat-stressed lambs was decreased by dietary CT supplementation. Lambs in the CT0 group had higher cortisol, T3, and T4 levels, creatine kinase activity, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and a lower lymphocyte count than that in the N and CT10 groups. In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activated microporous-mesoporous carbon derived from chestnut shell as a sustainable anode material for high performance microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Pu, Wenhong; Hou, Huijie; Hu, Jingping; Liu, Bingchuan; Li, Jianfeng; Cheng, Kai; Huang, Long; Yuan, Xiqing; Yang, Changzhu; Yang, Jiakuan

    2017-10-16

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising biotechnologies tool to harvest electricity by decomposing organic matter in waste water, and the anode material is a critical factor in determining the performance of MFCs. In this study, chestnut shell is proposed as a novel anode material with mesoporous and microporous structure prepared via a simple carbonization procedure followed by an activation process. The chemical activation process successfully modified the macroporous structure, created more mesoporous and microporous structure and decreased the O-content and pyridinic/pyrrolic N groups on the biomass anode, which were beneficial for improving charge transfer efficiency between the anode surface and microbial biofilm. The MFC with activated biomass anode achieved a maximum power density (23.6 W m -3 ) 2.3 times higher than carbon cloth anode (10.4 W m -3 ). This study introduces a promising and feasible strategy for the fabrication of high performance anodes for MFCs derived from cost-effective, sustainable natural materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehd. tanoak

    Treesearch

    John C. Tappeiner; Philip M. McDonald; Douglass F. Roy

    1990-01-01

    Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), also called tanbark-oak, is an evergreen hardwood that, with other species in the genus, is considered a link between the chestnut, Castanea, and the oak, Quercus (19). Tanoak has flowers like the chestnut and acorns like the oak. This medium-sized tree grows best on the...

  13. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts ofDiospyros kakifolium,Polygonum cuspidatumandCastanea crenatavar.dulcisreduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Mi; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Roh, Nam Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20-50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm 3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin.

  14. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  15. Fungal transcript pattern during the preinfection stage (12 h) of ectomycorrhiza formed between Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa roots, identified using cDNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pessoa, Fernando; Sousa, Lisete; Figueiredo, Andreia; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Baldé, Aladje; Maia, Leonor C; Pais, Maria S

    2008-12-01

    Transcriptional changes in Pisolithus tinctorius leading to ectomycorrhizal formation in P. tinctorius- Castanea sativa were investigated using a 12-h fungal interaction in vitro system. Using a 3107-cDNA clone microarray, 34 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were found to be differentially expressed. These ESTs represent 14 known genes, 5 upregulated and 9 downregulated, and 20 orphan sequences. Some transcripts of upregulated genes (with unknown function) were previously identified in other mycorrhizal Pisolithus spp. associations. ESTs for S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and several orphan sequences were identified in our system. The identified transcript of downregulated genes involved hydrophobins, 5S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, large subunits of ribosomal RNA (mitochondrial gene), and two types of heat shock proteins. This study demonstrates the high complexity of molecular events involved in the preinfection steps and suggests the utilization of different fungal gene repertories before ectomycorrhizal formation. These data constitute a first contribution for the molecular understanding of early signaling events between P. tinctorius and C. sativa roots during ectomycorrhizal formation.

  16. Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

    2010-08-01

    Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (<-17.4 °C). Infrared differential thermal analysis revealed the progress and the two-dimensional pattern of XPC freezing. XPCs did not freeze at once, but rather small cell groups appeared to freeze at random anywhere in the xylem. By IDTA, ice propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions.

  17. Comparison of hydrodistillation and ultrasonic solvent extraction for the isolation of volatile compounds from two unifloral honeys of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Castanea sativa L.

    PubMed

    Jerković, I; Mastelić, J; Marijanović, Z; Klein, Z; Jelić, M

    2007-09-01

    A comparative study of ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with the mixture pentane:ether (1:2) and hydrodistillation (HD) with the same trapping mixture is presented for the isolation of volatile compounds from two unifloral honeys of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Castanea sativa L. All HD isolates contained many thermally derived artefacts (especially phenylacetaldehyde with lower percentages of furfural, cis- and trans-linalool oxides and others). USE method gave the most representative profile of all honey volatiles (without artefacts). In addition, USE enabled extraction of low molecular weight semivolatile markers (especially benzoic, vanillic and phenylacetic acids) that were not extracted by HD. In this regard, low percentage of benzoic acid (0.7-7.4%), vanillic acid (0.0-1.6%) and phenylacetic acid (0.5-4.1%) was determined in Rp USE extracts, while Cs USE extracts contained phenylacetic acid (20.2-23.5%) as the major constituent with low percentage of benzoic acid (2.5-5.5%).

  18. A multi-scale conceptual model of fire and disease interactions in North American forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, J. M.; Kreye, J. K.; Sherriff, R.; Metz, M.

    2013-12-01

    One aspect of global change with increasing attention is the interactions between irruptive pests and diseases and wildland fire behavior and effects. These pests and diseases affect fire behavior and effects in spatially and temporally complex ways. Models of fire and pathogen interactions have been constructed for individual pests or diseases, but to date, no synthesis of this complexity has been attempted. Here we synthesize North American fire-pathogen interactions into syndromes with similarities in spatial extent and temporal duration. We base our models on fire interactions with three examples: sudden oak death (caused by the pathogen Phytopthora ramorum) and the native tree tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus); mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and western Pinus spp.; and hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) on Tsuga spp. We evaluate each across spatial (severity of attack from branch to landscape scale) and temporal scales (from attack to decades after) and link each change to its coincident effects on fuels and potential fire behavior. These syndromes differ in their spatial and temporal severity, differentially affecting windows of increased or decreased community flammability. We evaluate these models with two examples: the recently emergent ambrosia beetle-vectored laurel wilt (caused by the pathogen Raffaelea lauricola) in native members of the Lauraceae and the early 20th century chestnut blight (caused by the pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica) that led to the decline of American chestnut (Castanea dentata). Some changes (e.g., reduced foliar moisture content) have short-term consequences for potential fire behavior while others (functional extirpation) have more complex indirect effects on community flammability. As non-native emergent diseases and pests continue, synthetic models that aid in prediction of fire behavior and effects will enable the research and management community to prioritize mitigation efforts to realized effects.

  19. [Effects of compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 on the chestnut photosynthesis characteristics, growth and fruiting].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shou-le; Sun, Xiao-li; Shen, Guang-ning; Xu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Compound fertilizer can improve the fertilizer use efficiency and tree nutrition status to ensure balanced fertilization. Taking 7 year-old chestnut trees as test material, with (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 being mixed at the different ratios, the effects of different compound fertilizers on the photosynthesis characteristics as well as the growth and fruiting of chestnut were studied quantitatively by trunk injection method. Results showed that compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 induced positive synergistic effects to enhance photosynthetic capacity, yield and quality of chestnut obviously. The content of chlorophyll was decreased by (NH2)2CO and increased by KH2PO4, but increased obviously by the compound fertilizer. The contents of N, P, K of leaf and branch rose under the four compounded fertilization treatments, among which 0.3%(NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 was the best. All fertilizer treatments could advance the photosynthetic parameters, while the compound fertilizer performed better. 0.3% (NH2)2CO + 0.3% KH2PO4 treatment significantly increased the photosynthetic rate, the maximum net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, carboxylation efficiency, instantaneous water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency. Compound fertilizer could promote the growth of branch in diameter and length synchronously, and increase the number of mixed buds, while (NH2)2CO only promoted the growth of branch in length, and did little in the number of mixed buds. The compound fertilizer did better in advancing nuts yield and quality than single fertilization of N or P. The nuts yield, mass and total sugar were increased by 68.2%, 25.5% and 14.9% respectively under 0.3% (NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 treatment compared with the control.

  20. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4.more » Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.« less

  1. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  2. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz; Khan, Saeed Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. The well diffusion method (KB testing) with a concentration of 250 μg/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (P< 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism. The highest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) or gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was exerted by formula number 2 (Table1). The results reveal the presence of antibacterial activities of Acacia catechu, Castanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLAN(Ⓡ)) can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethno-pharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants to treat infectious diseases.

  3. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; shirazi, Mohammad khabaz; Khan, Saeed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. Methods: The well diffusion method (KB testing) with a concentration of 250 μg/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. Results: A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (P< 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism. The highest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) or gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was exerted by formula number 2 (Table1). Conclusion: The results reveal the presence of antibacterial activities of Acacia catechu, Castanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLANⓇ) can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethno-pharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants to treat

  4. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  5. Petrological and Geochemical Studies of Samples from the Nicor Chestnut 18-4 Drill Core, AMES Impact Structure, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.

    1996-03-01

    The near-circular 15-km-diameter Ames structure is located at 36 degrees 15' N and 98 degrees 12' W in southeastern Major County (NW Oklahoma). The structure, which is set in Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle dolomite, consists of two concentric rims, an outer rim, which is about 1.5 to 3 km wide, and an inner "rim". The rocks of the outer rim consist mainly of fractured and brecciated Arbuckle dolomite. The inner "ring" (about 5 km in diameter) seems to be the eroded remnant of a central structural uplift, with rocks comprising brecciated Precambrian granite and Arbuckle dolomite. The depression is covered by Middle Ordovician Oil Creek shale. The structure is penetrated by a number of oil- and gas-producing wells in the crater rim and the central uplift. The production from these wells indicate that Ames represents one of the largest - if not the largest - single oil fields in Oklahoma. Currently the structural disturbance is buried beneath almost 3000 m of sedimentary rock. The origin of the structure has been intensely debated since the discovery of the structural anomaly, but geophysical and geological, as well as petrological and geochemical data provide very good evidence that it was formed by impact, and not by volcanism or even more esoteric processes. In the present study, we analyzed 17 samples, including impact melt breccia, from the Nicor Chestnut 18-4 core. These samples represent the largest and best examples of impact melt breccias and melt rock obtained so far from the Ames structure. One important result of the petrographic analyses is the observation that not all carbonate rocks postdate the impact, but some were clearly present among the target rocks. The chemical composition of the impact melt breccias is similar to that of other melt rocks from the Dorothy 1-19 core, as well as to the target granite, with variable carbonate admixtures. Some impact melt rocks are enriched in siderophile elements, indicating a possible meteoritic component.

  6. Advancing breeding phenology does not affect incubation schedules in chestnut-crowned babblers: Opposing effects of temperature and wind.

    PubMed

    Capp, Elliot; Liebl, Andrea L; Cones, Alexandra G; Russell, Andrew F

    2018-01-01

    Projecting population responses to climate change requires an understanding of climatic impacts on key components of reproduction. Here, we investigate the associations among breeding phenology, climate and incubation schedules in the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a 50 g passerine with female-only, intermittent incubation that typically breeds from late winter (July) to early summer (November). During daylight hours, breeding females spent an average of 33 min on the nest incubating (hereafter on-bouts) followed by 24-min foraging (hereafter off-bouts), leading to an average daytime nest attentiveness of 60%. Nest attentiveness was 25% shorter than expected from allometric calculations, largely because off-bout durations were double the expected value for a species with 16 g clutches (4 eggs × 4 g/egg). On-bout durations and daily attentiveness were both negatively related to ambient temperature, presumably because increasing temperatures allowed more time to be allocated to foraging with reduced detriment to egg cooling. By contrast, on-bout durations were positively associated with wind speed, in this case because increasing wind speed exacerbated egg cooling during off-bouts. Despite an average temperature change of 12°C across the breeding season, breeding phenology had no effect on incubation schedules. This surprising result arose because of a positive relationship between temperature and wind speed across the breeding season: Any benefit of increasing temperatures was canceled by apparently detrimental consequences of increasing wind speed on egg cooling. Our results indicate that a greater appreciation for the associations among climatic variables and their independent effects on reproductive investment are necessary to understand the effects of changing climates on breeding phenology.

  7. Sensory and chemical modifications of wine-brandy aged with chestnut and oak wood fragments in comparison to wooden barrels.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Ilda; Anjos, Ofélia; Portal, Vera; Belchior, A P; Canas, Sara

    2010-02-15

    Wooden barrels are used in the ageing or maturation of many alcoholic beverages, namely brandies and wines. However, the high costs related to ageing in wooden barrels have led to a search for alternative technologies. In this study we examined the application of wood fragments to the beverage in order to promote an accelerated ageing. We evaluated the sensory and chemical modifications in brandy aged in presence of two types of wood fragments, from two different woods (Limousin oak wood and Portuguese chestnut wood), and compared those with a brandy aged in wooden barrels. The results of the analysis of variance revealed more significant effects of wood botanical species than the ageing system on the sensory attributes. Concerning the ageing system, significant differences in brandy colour attributes were found, namely golden, topaz and greenish; olfactory attributes such as alcoholic, toasted and coffee; and the gustatory attribute, bitter. The brandies aged in the presence of wood tablets presented the highest intensities of topaz and greenish colour, toasted and coffee odours, while the brandies aged in wooden barrels presented the highest intensities of golden colour, alcohol odour and bitter taste. However, the overall quality of the brandies was similar. The analysis of odourant compounds showed a great discrimination of the brandies based on the ageing system. The brandies aged in wooden barrels presented the highest levels of several ethyl esters, acids, furanic aldehydes and the lowest levels of volatile phenols. Thus, considering the overall quality of the brandies, these results suggest the use of wood fragments to be an interesting alternative technology. On the other hand, the chemical analysis of the brandies showed the possibility of discriminating the ageing technologies based on odourant compound levels. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Chestnut bur-shaped aggregates of chrysotile particles enable inoculation of Escherichia coli cells with plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, N; Saeki, Y

    2004-10-01

    In the present study, Escherichia coli cells exhibited antibiotic resistance after transformation with exogenous plasmid DNA adsorbed onto chrysotile particles during agar-exposure. We previously demonstrated penetration of E. coli by chrysotile particles during agar-exposure. To further investigate the mechanism by which transformation of E. coli is achieved through the use of chrysotile fibers, the interaction between E. coli cells and chrysotile was examined during agar-exposure. Dispersion of chrysotile particles within the chrysotile solution was analyzed by flow cytometry. A suspension containing E. coli cells expressing blue fluorescence protein and chrysotile particles was exposed to agar using stirring apparatus, which allowed a constant vertical reaction force to be applied to the surface of the gel. Fluorescence microscopy was then used to illustrate the adsorption of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated DNA oligomers to chrysotile. Larger aggregates were observed when increasing concentrations of chrysotile were added to the solution. With prolonged exposure, during which surface moisture diffused into the agar gel, greater concentrations of chrysotile were observed on the agar surface. In addition, chrysotile aggregates exceeding 50 microm developed on the agar surface. They were shaped like a chestnut bur. The chrysotile aggregates penetrated the cell membranes of adherent E. coli cells during agar-exposure due to sliding friction forces generated at the interface of the agar and the stirring stick. E. coli cells thus acquired plasmid DNA and antibiotic resistance, since the plasmid DNA had been adsorbed onto the chrysotile particles. The inoculation of plasmid DNA into E. coli cells demonstrates the usefulness of chrysotile for E. coli transformation.

  9. Effects of chestnut tannins and coconut oil on growth performance, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Vaddella, V; Zhou, D

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) and coconut oil (CO) on growth performance, methane (CH₄) emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep. A total of 48 Rideau Arcott sheep (average body weight 31.5±1.97 kg, 16 wk old) were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with CT and CO as the main effects (8 sheep per group). The treatments were control diet (CTR), 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet (CT10 and CT30), 25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CO25), and 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet+25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CT10CO25 and CT30CO25). After the feeding trial (60 d), all sheep were moved to respiratory chambers to measure CH₄ emission. After CH₄ emission measurements, all sheep were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid samples. Results showed that the addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO had no significant effects on growth performance of sheep but reduced CH₄ emission. Addition of CT reduced the NH₃-N concentration in rumen fluid in CT30. Addition of CO decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. No significant differences were observed in pH and molar proportion of volatile fatty acids among treatments. Addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO significantly decreased methanogen and protozoa populations. Moreover, CO decreased counts of Fibrobacter succinogenes. No significant differences were observed in populations of fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, or Ruminococcus albus among treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of CT and CO seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of CH₄ from sheep by reduction of methanogen and protozoa populations with no negative effect on growth performance. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Variation in Pollen-Donor Composition among Pollinators in an Entomophilous Tree Species, Castanea crenata, Revealed by Single-Pollen Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yoichi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Seiwa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background In plants, reproductive success is largely determined by the composition of pollen (i.e., self-pollen and outcross-pollen from near and distant pollen-donors) transported as a result of pollinator foraging behavior (e.g., pollen carryover). However, little evidence is available on how and to what extent the pollen carryover affects the pollen-donor composition and on which insect taxa are effective outcross-pollen transporters under field conditions. In this study, we explored roles of foraging behavior of insect pollinators on pollen-donor composition and subsequent reproductive success in a woody plant. Methods We performed paternity analyses based on microsatellite genotyping of individual pollen grains found on diurnal pollinators (i.e., bumblebee, small bee, fly, small beetle, and honeybee) visiting Castanea crenata trees. Results The outcross-pollen rate was highest in bumblebees (66%), followed by small bees (35%), flies (31%), and small beetles (18%). The effective number of pollen donors, representing pollen carryover, was greater in bumblebees (9.71) than in flies (3.40), small bees (3.32), and small beetles (3.06). The high percentages of pollen from outside the plot on bumblebees (65.4%) and flies (71.2%) compared to small bees (35.3%) and small beetles (13.5%) demonstrated their longer pollen dispersal distances. Conclusions All of the diurnal insects carried outcross-pollen grains for long distances via pollen carryover. This fact suggests that a wide range of insect taxa are potential outcross-pollen transporters for the self-incompatible C. crenata. PMID:25793619

  11. Quality assurance project plan for the Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization Project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization (CRFAPS) Project will stabilize a 19-m-high (62-ft-high) earthen embankment across Upper McCoy Branch situated along the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge. This task will be accomplished by raising the crest of the embankment, reinforcing the face of the embankment, removing trees from the face and top of the embankment, and repairing the emergency spillway. The primary responsibilities of the team members are: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) will be responsible for project integration, technical support, Title 3 field support, environmental oversight, and quality assurance (QA) oversight of the project; Foster Wheelermore » Environmental Corporation (FWENC) will be responsible for design and home office Title 3 support; MK-Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company (MK-F) will be responsible for health and safety, construction, and procurement of construction materials. Each of the team members has a QA program approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations. This project-specific QA project plan (QAPP), which is applicable to all project activities, identifies and integrates the specific QA requirements from the participant`s QA programs that are necessary for this project.« less

  12. An in vitro evaluation of the effects of a Yucca schidigera extract and chestnut tannins on composition and metabolic profiles of canine and feline faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Carlo; Vecchiato, Carla Giuditta; Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Stefanelli, Claudio; Grandi, Monica; Gatta, Pier Paolo; Biagi, Giacomo

    2017-10-01

    The in vitro effect of a Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) and tannins from chestnut wood on composition and metabolic activity of canine and feline faecal microbiota was evaluated. Four treatments were carried out: control diet, chestnut tannins (CT), YSE and CT + YSE. The YSE was added to canine and feline faecal cultures at 0.1 g/l, while CT were added at 0.3 g/l for a 24-h incubation. A total of 130 volatile compounds were detected by means of headspace-solid phase microextraction gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. Several changes in the metabolite profiles of fermentation fluids were found, including a decrease of alcohols (-19%) and esters (-42%) in feline and canine inoculum, respectively, which was due to the antibacterial properties of tannins. In canine inoculum, after 6 h, YSE + CT caused lower cadaverine concentrations (-37%), while ammonia (-4%) and quinolone (-27%) were reduced by addition of CT. After 24 h, the presence of CT resulted in a decrease of sulphur compounds, such as dimethyl sulphide (-69%) and dimethyl disulphide (-20%). In feline faecal cultures, after 6 h, CT lowered the amount of indole (-48%), whereas YSE tended to decrease trimethylamine levels (-16%). Both in canine and feline inoculum, addition of CT and, to a minor extent, YSE affected volatile fatty acids patterns. In canine faecal cultures, CT exerted a marginal inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli population (-0.45 log 10 numbers of DNA copies/ml), while enterococci were increased (+2.06 log 10 numbers of DNA copies/ml) by YSE. The results from the present study show that YSE and tannins from chestnut wood exert different effects on the composition and metabolism of canine and feline faecal microbiota. In particular, the supplementation of YSE and tannins to diets for dogs and cats may be beneficial due to the reduction of the presence of some potentially toxic volatile metabolites in the animals' intestine.

  13. Gene expressions and metabolomic research on the effects of polyphenols from the involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume on heat-stressed broilers chicks.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Dong, S; Zhao, X; Guo, K J; Gasco, Laura; Zoccarato, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    To study the effects of polyphenolic extract from involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume ( PICB: ), a novel approach using gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction ( REAL-TIME PCR: ) coupled with metabolomic profiling technique was established to explain the mechanism of PICB on heat-stressed broiler chicks. Four thousand 28-day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 5 groups (4 replicates / group, 20 chicks / replicate), in which group 1 was normal control group fed with basic ration; groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were fed with the basic ration with a supplementation of 0.2% Vitamin C ( VC: ), or 0.2%, 0.3%, or 0.4% of PICB respectively. After 1 wk of adaptation, heat stress was applied for 7 consecutive days. On d 3 and d 7 of heat stress, the chicks were sacrificed and sampled. The mRNA expression of heat stress protein 70 (HSP70), glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-PX: ), ornithine decarboxylase ( ODC: ), epidermal growth factor ( EGF: ) and epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR: ) were detected by real-time PCR using samples from jejunum mucosa. The serum and jejunum mucosa metabolomic profiles of PICB group showing best antioxidative effects and control group at d 3 were studied using the method of the gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry ( GT-TOF-MS: ), followed by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis. Potential biomarkers were found using Student's t-test. The results showed mRNA expressions of HSP70, GSH-Px, ODC, EGF, and EGFR were altered by the supplementation of PICB. PICB exhibited antioxidative and growth promoting effects, and 0.3% PICB supplementation level exhibited the best. Three metabolites in the serum and 5 in the jejunum mucosa were identified as potential biomarkers. They were considered to be in accordance with antioxidative and growth promoting effects of PICB, which involved in the energy metabolism (sorbitol, palmitic acid), carbohydrate metabolism, amino

  14. Biparental incubation in the chestnut-vented tit-babbler Parisoma subcaeruleum: Mates devote equal time, but males keep eggs warmer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Biparental care in birds is less common during incubation than in other nesting stages. Males share in incubating eggs in a minority of bird species, and male effort is generally thought to be lower than females when sharing does occur. However, male assistance and incubation efficacy is poorly studied in such species. We examined sex differences in incubation effort in 12 pairs of a species with biparental incubation, the chestnut-vented tit-babbler Parisoma subcaeruleum. Males and females did not differ in the amount of time spent incubating during the day, time of day spent incubating, nor in their ability to rewarm eggs. Yet, males consistently maintained eggs at higher temperatures than their female partners, despite the absence of a brood patch. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  15. The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the ‘Conker Tree Science’ project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people

  16. Petrography, geochemistry, and 40Ar-39Ar ages of impact melt rocks and breccias from the Ames Impact Structure, Oklahoma: The Nicor Chestnut 18-4 drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Kelley, Simon P.

    2001-05-01

    The 15-km-diameter Ames structure in northwestern Oklahoma is located 2.75 km below surface in Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle dolomite, which is overlain by Middle Ordovician Oil Creek Formation shale. The feature is marked by two concentric ring structures, with the inner ring of about 5 km diameter probably representing the collapsed remnant of a structural uplift composed of brecciated Precambrian granite and Arbuckle dolomite. Wells from both the crater rim and the central uplift are oil- and gas-producing, making Ames one of the economically important impact structures. Petrographic, geochemical, and age data were obtained on samples from the Nicor Chestnut 18-4 drill core, off the NW flank of the central uplift. These samples represent the largest and best examples of impact melt breccia obtained so far from the Ames structure. They contain carbonate rocks which, therefore, are derived from the target sequence. The chemical composition of the impact melt breccias is similar to that of target granite, with variable carbonate admixture. Some impact melt rocks are enriched in siderophile elements indicating the possible presence of a meteoritic component. Based on stratigraphic arguments, the age of the crater was estimated at 470 Ma. Previous 40Ar-39Ar dating attempts of impact melt breccias from the Dorothy 1-19 core yielded plateau ages of about 285 Ma, which is in conflict with the stratigraphic age. The new 40Ar-39Ar age data obtained on the melt breccias from the Nicor Chestnut core by UV laser spot analysis, resulted in a range of ages with maxima around 300 Ma. These data could reflect processes related either the regional Nemaha Uplift or resetting due to hot brines active on a midcontinent-wide scale, perhaps in related to the Alleghenian and Ouachita orogenies. The age data indicate an extended burial phase associated with thermal overprint during Late Pennsylvanian-Permian.

  17. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN.

  18. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  19. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  20. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  1. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Bossier and Webster Parishes, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-06

    All exposed sediments in the study area are Pleistocene or Holocene in age (American Association of Petroleum Geologists 1975). Pleistocene sedi...farthest north Picea nigra (= P. mariana) (black Fagus americana (American buck) spruce), farthest north Larix americana (= P. laricina) Castanea ...saccharum (sugar maple) Tsuga canadensis (Canada hemlock) 2-7 01OD - 5 With the exception of chestnuts ( Castanea ), which have been killed by the

  2. The emision of corrosive vapours by wood. Hot-water-extracted O-acetylated hemicelluloses from sweet chestnut (Castnaea sativa) and wych elm (Ulmus glabrau) and a discussion of O-acetyl-group changes occurring in these woods during incubation at 48 degrees and 100 per cent relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, G C; Gray, J D; Arni, P C

    1969-06-01

    1. O-Acetylated polysaccharides were obtained from green wood of both sweet chestnut and wych elm by treatment of the residue remaining after dimethyl sulphoxide extraction with water at 98 degrees . This gives a mixture of polysaccharides containing xylose, galactose, glucose and uronic acids. Analysis of these and their fractionated products suggest that only xylans in green sweet chestnut and green wych elm are O-acetylated. 2. The isolated O-acetylated xylans are not representative of the total O-acetylated xylans occurring in sweet chestnut and wych elm. 3. Application of the method developed by Bouveng for the location of O-acetyl groups to all four O-acetylated xylans obtained in this series of investigations by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction showed that those from sweet chestnut and wych elm, under the same conditions of incubation, lost: 74.2 and 43.4% of acetyl groups respectively, at C-2; 58.0 and 28.5% of acetyl groups respectively at C-3; 41.8 and 82.2% of acetyl groups respectively at C-2 and C-3. 4. A consideration of electronic and steric factors indicates that there does not appear to be a purely chemical reason for the difference in loss of O-acetyl groups between sweet chestnut and wych elm. It is suggested that the location of O-acetylated xylans in the wood cell walls and the presence of extractive may play some part in this difference.

  3. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties Missouri. Item R-752 Lambethville; Crittenden County, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    subsekiuent1v filled with Recent ( Holocene ) all.•ioum. t nL would have beel . A response to a drop In sea level , - -4,,,r , r gb n at the Gl .’exic and...Pollen of Nyssa, Castanea , Mirica type and Ilex type also occurred within the late glacial sequence. The increase in pollen of oak and other deciduous...present today, with the exception of chestnut-, ( Castanea ), which have been killed by the Chestnut Slight. These genera include oaks (Quercus), ashes

  4. Global DNA Methylation in the Chestnut Blight FungusCryphonectria parasiticaand Genome-Wide Changes in DNA Methylation Accompanied with Sectorization.

    PubMed

    So, Kum-Kang; Ko, Yo-Han; Chun, Jeesun; Bal, Jyotiranjan; Jeon, Junhyun; Kim, Jung-Mi; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Huh, Jin Hoe; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    Mutation in CpBck1 , an ortholog of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica resulted in a sporadic sectorization as culture proceeded. The progeny from the sectored area maintained the characteristics of the sector, showing a massive morphogenetic change, including robust mycelial growth without differentiation. Epigenetic changes were investigated as the genetic mechanism underlying this sectorization. Quantification of DNA methylation and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing revealed genome-wide DNA methylation of the wild-type at each nucleotide level and changes in DNA methylation of the sectored progeny. Compared to the wild-type, the sectored progeny exhibited marked genome-wide DNA hypomethylation but increased methylation sites. Expression analysis of two DNA methyltransferases, including two representative types of DNA methyltransferase (DNMTase), demonstrated that both were significantly down-regulated in the sectored progeny. However, functional analysis using mutant phenotypes of corresponding DNMTases demonstrated that a mutant of CpDmt1 , an ortholog of RID of Neurospora crassa , resulted in the sectored phenotype but the CpDmt2 mutant did not, suggesting that the genetic basis of fungal sectorization is more complex. The present study revealed that a mutation in a signaling pathway component resulted in sectorization accompanied with changes in genome-wide DNA methylation, which suggests that this signal transduction pathway is important for epigenetic control of sectorization via regulation of genes involved in DNA methylation.

  5. Balancing selection at nonself recognition loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, demonstrated by trans-species polymorphisms, positive selection, and even allele frequencies.

    PubMed

    Milgroom, Michael G; Smith, Myron L; Drott, Milton T; Nuss, Donald L

    2018-02-10

    Balancing selection has been inferred in diverse organisms for nonself recognition genes, including those involved in immunity, mating compatibility, and vegetative incompatibility. Although selective forces maintaining polymorphisms are known for genes involved in immunity and mating, mechanisms of balancing selection for vegetative incompatibility genes in fungi are being debated. We hypothesized that allorecognition and its consequent inhibition of virus transmission contribute to the maintenance of polymorphisms in vegetative incompatibility loci (vic) in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Balancing selection was demonstrated at two loci, vic2 and vic6, by trans-species polymorphisms in C. parasitica, C. radicalis, and C. japonica and signatures of positive selection in gene sequences. In addition, more than half (31 of 54) of allele frequency estimates at six vic loci in nine field populations of C. parasitica from Asia and the eastern US were not significantly different from 0.5, as expected at equilibrium for two alleles per locus under balancing selection. At three vic loci, deviations from 0.5 were predicted based on the effects of heteroallelism on virus transmission. Twenty-five of 27 allele frequency estimates were greater than or equal to 0.5 for the allele that confers significantly stronger inhibition of virus transmission at three loci with asymmetric transmission. These results are consistent with the allorecognition hypothesis that vegetative incompatibility genes are under selection because of their role in reducing infection by viruses.

  6. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    PubMed

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range.

  7. Effective pretreatment of dilute NaOH-soaked chestnut shell with glycerol-HClO4-water media: structural characterization, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Di, Jun-Hua; Ding, Yun; Gao, Da-Zhou; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Chong, Gang-Gang; Huang, Mei-Zi; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an effective pretreatment of dilute NaOH-soaked chestnut shell (CNS) with glycerol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) media at 130 °C for 30 min was successfully demonstrated. Results revealed that the combination pretreatment removed 66.0 % of lignin and 73.7 % of hemicellulose in untreated CNS. The changes in the structural features (crystallinity, morphology, and porosity) of the solid residue of CNS were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescent microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Biotransformation of glycerol-HClO4-water pretreated-NaOH-soaked CNS (50 g/L) with a cocktail of enzymes for 72 h, the reducing sugars and glucose were 39.7 and 33.4 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the recovered hydrolyzates containing 20 g/L glucose had no inhibitory effects on the ethanol-fermenting microorganism, and the ethanol production was 0.45 g/g glucose within 48 h. In conclusion, this combination pretreatment shows promise as pretreatment solvent for wheat straw, although the in-depth exploration of this subject is needed.

  8. Phenolic composition of vinegars over an accelerated aging process using different wood species (acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak): effect of wood toasting.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Ana B; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Troncoso, Ana M; García-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2014-05-14

    Wood shavings are widely employed in vinegar making to reduce aging time. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate the effects of using shavings from different wood species (acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak) and of toasting on the release of phenolic compounds into vinegar during the aging process. The study involved aging vinegars using previously toasted shavings and untoasted ones, at 0.5% and 1% (w/v), and collecting samples at 15 and 30 days. The phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-DAD during the aging process. As a result, wood markers naringenin and kaempferol (cherry), robinetin and fustin (acacia), and isovanillin (oak) were identified for the first time in vinegars. The results also showed that toasting wood shavings decreases the concentration of most flavonoid wood markers (e.g., (+)-taxifolin, naringenin, and fustin) in vinegar, but that it is essential for the highest releases of aldehyde compounds (syringaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, and vanillin). Remarkably, 15 days was sufficient to obtain the highest increases of most polyphenol compounds in the vinegar. Statistical analysis (linear discriminant analysis) proved that the phenolic compounds identified in vinegars are useful for discriminating vinegars regarding the wood species of the shavings used to accelerate aging.

  9. Valorization of solid wastes from chestnut industry processing: Extraction and optimization of polyphenols, tannins and ellagitannins and its potential for adhesives, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Saavedra, Maria José

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of chestnut peels to produce pomaces enhanced with tannins to be used in the formulations of wood adhesives, leather tanning or as natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. An analytical procedure was planned as 2 factorial design to analyze the influence of solvent (water, Na2SO3 and NaOH at different concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 8% in water) and extraction time (30, 60, and 120, 240, 480 and 960min) on extraction yield, pH, Stiasny index, and tannins. HPLC-diode array detector equipped with an ionization mass spectrophotometer was used to assess the polyphenol composition. Our results showed that both extraction properties and phytochemicals were significantly affected (P<0.001) by all independent factors. The main tannins identified were the hydrolyzable gallic acid, vescalagin castalagin and ellagic acid, and the condensed epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin. The solvent 1% Na2SO3 was more effective to extract the condensed tannins whilst hydrolyzable tannins were extracted efficiently by 1% NaOH. The multivariable analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficients showed a direct association between Stiasny number and the average levels of condensed tannins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecological factors affecting the adrenocortical response to stress in chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs (Calcarius ornatus, Calcarius mccownii).

    PubMed

    Lynn, Sharon E; Hunt, Kathleen E; Wingfield, John C

    2003-01-01

    Secretion of the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) in response to perturbations results in behavior patterns that can maximize survival. Three commonly cited hypotheses suggest that during breeding, there are advantages associated with suppressed (CORT) secretion in (1) the sex that is most important for parental care, (2) individuals in good body condition, and (3) species with a short breeding season and limited renesting opportunities. We addressed these hypotheses in two midlatitude breeders, chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs, by assessing CORT secretion over a 1-h period of handling. These species have congeners that are exclusively arctic breeders, and this provides a unique opportunity to assess adrenocortical responsiveness both within a phylogenetic framework and across environmental variables. In both species, males and females showed similar CORT secretion patterns in response to handling, and body condition was unrelated to CORT secretion. Additionally, although these midlatitude breeders have more opportunities to attempt a renest than their arctic congeners, their hormonal response to stress was similar to that reported for their arctic congeners. We suggest that an attenuated stress response may relate to the severity of the breeding environment and a low likelihood of successful renesting, since these variables are common to both arctic and grassland habitats.

  11. Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Antonio; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Augustin, Sylvie; Lees, David C; Tomov, Rumen; Kenis, Marc; Çota, Ejup; Kullaj, Endrit; Hansson, Christer; Grabenweger, Giselher; Roques, Alain; López-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here, we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in Europe using the COI mitochondrial gene. This marker strongly supports a division into at least five highly differentiated parasitoid complexes, within two of which clades with differing degrees of host specialization were found: a Balkan clade that mainly (but not only) attacks C. ohridella and a more generalist European group that attacks many hosts, including C. ohridella. The divergence in COI (up to 7.6%) suggests the existence of cryptic species, although this is neither confirmed by nuclear divergence nor morphology. We do not find evidence of host tracking. The higher parasitism rates observed in the Balkans and the scarcity of the Balkan-Cameraria haplotypes out of the Balkans open the possibility of using these Balkan haplotypes as biological control agents of C. ohridella elsewhere in Europe.

  12. Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-López, Antonio; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Augustin, Sylvie; Lees, David C; Tomov, Rumen; Kenis, Marc; Çota, Ejup; Kullaj, Endrit; Hansson, Christer; Grabenweger, Giselher; Roques, Alain; López-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here, we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in Europe using the COI mitochondrial gene. This marker strongly supports a division into at least five highly differentiated parasitoid complexes, within two of which clades with differing degrees of host specialization were found: a Balkan clade that mainly (but not only) attacks C. ohridella and a more generalist European group that attacks many hosts, including C. ohridella. The divergence in COI (up to 7.6%) suggests the existence of cryptic species, although this is neither confirmed by nuclear divergence nor morphology. We do not find evidence of host tracking. The higher parasitism rates observed in the Balkans and the scarcity of the Balkan–Cameraria haplotypes out of the Balkans open the possibility of using these Balkan haplotypes as biological control agents of C. ohridella elsewhere in Europe. PMID:25568046

  13. The effect of α-tocopherol, sweet chestnut wood extract and their combination on oxidative stress in vivo and the oxidative stability of meat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Voljč, M; Levart, A; Zgur, S; Salobir, J

    2013-01-01

    1. This study examined the effect of α-tocopherol (α-T), sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW) and their combination on oxidative stress in vivo and oxidative stability of meat in broilers given diets rich in PUFA. 2. A total of 60 male broilers were individually caged and divided into 6 groups of 10. The C-PALM group received a diet with 7·5% palm fat and the other 5 groups with 7·5% linseed oil. The linseed oil groups were either un-supplemented (C-LIN) or supplemented with α-T or/and SCW as follows: αT-85 (C-LIN diet + 68 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg), αT-200 (C-LIN diet + 183 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg), SCW (C-LIN diet + 3 g SCW/kg) and αT-SCW (C-LIN diet + 68 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg + 3 g SCW/kg). Different parameters of oxidative stress were measured. 3. Linseed oil induced DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, while α-T reduced both parameters, and SCW reduced the DNA damage. A combination (αT-SCW) also reduced plasma MDA. Larger antioxidant capacity of lipid soluble compounds were recorded in groups αT-85, αT-200 and αT-SCW than in the controls but there were no differences between these groups in antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status. A combination (αT-SCW) increased tocopherol concentrations in breast muscle and in comparison to the C-LIN group MDA concentrations were reduced in groups αT-85, αT-200 and αT-SCW. 4. It can be concluded that neither of the α-T concentrations were able to prevent all the negative effects of lipid oxidation in vivo and only high concentrations of α-T improved the stability of meat. With the exception of DNA damage, SCW had no impact on in vivo and in vitro measured markers of oxidative stress but may have a sparing or regenerating effect on α-T.

  14. A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

  15. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-846 Caruthersville, Pemiscot County, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Castanea ), which have been killed by the chestnut blight, the migratory forest contained the same genera that are pre- sent today. These genera include...Museum, Springfield. KING, JAMES E. and WILLIAM H. ALLEN, JR. 1977 A Holocene Vegetation Record from the Mississippi River Valley. Southeastern Missouri

  16. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-48.87 A.C. Nash; Missouri, Relief Well Ditches Cape Girardeau and Scott Counties, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Fagus americana. (American B-irch) - buck) 17. Juglans nigra (Black walnut) 15. Quercus alba (White oak) 1 With the exception of chestnuts ( Castanea ...JR. 1977 A Holocene Vegetation Record from the Mississippi River Valley, Southeastern Missouri. Quaternary Research 8:307-323. KING, JAMES E. and E. H

  17. Effect of quebracho-chestnut tannin extracts at 2 dietary crude protein levels on performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen partitioning in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Capozzolo, M C; Lencioni, P; Cabral, C; Wattiaux, M A

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of a tannin mixture extract on lactating cow performance, rumen fermentation, and N partitioning, and whether responses were affected by dietary crude protein (CP). The experiment was conducted as a split-plot with 24 Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation; 669±55kg of body weight; 87±36 d in milk; 8 ruminally cannulated) randomly assigned to a diet of [dry matter (DM) basis] 15.3 or 16.6% CP (whole plot) and 0, 0.45, 0.90, or 1.80% of a tannin mixture in three 4×4 Latin squares within each level of CP (sub-plot). Tannin extract mixture was from quebracho and chestnut trees (2:1 ratio). Dietary CP level did not influence responses to tannin supplementation. A linear decrease in DM intake (25.5 to 23.4kg/d) was found, as well as a linear increase in milk/DM intake (1.62 to 1.75) and a trend for a linear decrease in fat-and-protein-corrected milk (38.4 to 37.1kg/d) with increasing levels of tannin supplementation. In addition, there was a negative linear effect for milk urea N (14.0 to 12.9mg/dL), milk protein yield (1.20 to 1.15kg), and concentration (2.87 to 2.83%). Furthermore, the change in milk protein concentration tended to be quadratic, and predicted maximum was 2.89% for a tannin mixture fed at 0.47% of dietary DM. Tannin supplementation reduced ruminal NH3-N (11.3 to 8.8mg/dL), total branched-chain volatile fatty acid concentration (2.97 to 2.47mol/100mol), DM, organic matter, CP, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Dietary tannin had no effect on intake N (587±63g/d), milk N (175±32g/d), or N utilization efficiency (29.7±4.4%). However, feeding tannin extracts linearly increased fecal N excretion (214 to 256g/d), but reduced urinary N (213 to 177g/d) and urinary urea N (141 to 116g/d) excretion. Decreasing dietary CP did not influence milk production, but increased N utilization efficiency (milk N/N intake; 0.27 to 0.33), and decreased milk urea N (15.4 to 11.8mg/dL), ruminal NH3-N (11.0 to 9.3mg

  18. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1995 from monitoring wells and springs located at or near several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The objectives of the GWPP are to provide the monitoring data necessary for compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. corporate policy. The following evaluation of the data is organized into background regulatory information and site descriptions, an overview of the hydrogeologic framework, a summary of the CY 1995 groundwater monitoring programs and associated sampling and analysis activities, analysis and interpretation of the data for inorganic, organic, and radiological analytes, a summary of conclusions and recommendations, and a list of cited references. Appendix A contains supporting maps, cross sections, diagrams, and graphs; data tables and summaries are in Appendix B. Detailed descriptions of the data screening and evaluation criteria are included in Appendix C.

  19. Tree Diversity Limits the Impact of an Invasive Forest Pest

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Virginie; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Vialatte, Aude; Deconchat, Marc; Selvi, Federico; Bussotti, Filippo; Jactel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The impact of invasive herbivore species may be lower in more diverse plant communities due to mechanisms of associational resistance. According to the “resource concentration hypothesis” the amount and accessibility of host plants is reduced in diverse plant communities, thus limiting the exploitation of resources by consumers. In addition, the “natural enemy hypothesis” suggests that richer plant assemblages provide natural enemies with more complementary resources and habitats, thus promoting top down regulation of herbivores. We tested these two hypotheses by comparing crown damage by the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) on chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) in pure and mixed stands in Italy. We estimated the defoliation on 70 chestnut trees in 15 mature stands sampled in the same region along a gradient of tree species richness ranging from one species (chestnut monocultures) to four species (mixtures of chestnut and three broadleaved species). Chestnut defoliation was significantly lower in stands with higher tree diversity. Damage on individual chestnut trees decreased with increasing height of neighboring, heterospecific trees. These results suggest that conservation biological control method based on tree species mixtures might help to reduce the impact of the Asian chestnut gall. PMID:26360881

  20. Comments on the morphology and biology of Pammene castanicola Trematerra & Clausi, 2009 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Grapholitini).

    PubMed

    Clausi, Mirella; Leone, Diego; Oreste, Monica; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-09-16

    Many insects are reported to damage cultivated chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.; Fagaceae) in Italy, but the most important pests of chestnut fruits are weevils (Curculio elephas Gyll. and Curculio glandium Marsh.; Curculionidae) and tortricid moths (Pammene and Cydia; Tortricidae) (Pollini, 1998, Speranza, 1999). The larvae of the tortricid pests develop internally, tunnelling in the fruits and eating the endocarp (Rotundo et al. 1991), which significantly reduces nut quality and commercial value. The most damaging tortricid moths in the Italian chestnut industry are Pammene fasciana (Linnaeus) (the early chestnut moth), Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) (the intermediate chestnut moth), and Cydia splendana (Hübner) (the late chestnut moth) (Pedrazzoli et al. 2012). Pammene castanicola Trematerra & Clausi, 2009 was recently described from chestnut woods near Etna Vulcan, Sicily (Trematerra and Clausi 2009), and it is known only from the vicinity of the type locality. It is similar to Pammene fasciana in morphological and biological features, and it was previously misidentified as P. fasciana. We provide observations on the biology and larval development and present detailed descriptions and illustrations of the mature larva of P. castanicola, with comments on the differences between P. castanicola and P. fasciana.

  1. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms, Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri Item R-618 Knowlton; Desha County, Arkansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    t1ie last glacial stage, the Late Wisconsin, and was subsequently filled with Recent ( Holocene ) alluviun. This entrenchment would have been in response... Castanea ), which have been killed by the Chestnut Blight. These genera include oaks (Quercus), ashes (Fraxlnus), and hickories (Carya) (Harshberger...1958). King and Allen’s (1977:307-320) analysis of a Holocene peat section from the Old Field, a large swamp within the Morehouse Lowland at the

  2. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay

  3. Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

  4. Occurrence and transmission of mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from dejecta of Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro

    2016-03-01

    The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mast species composition alters seed fate in North American rodent-dispersed hardwoods.

    PubMed

    Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Zhang, Hao; Swihart, Robert K

    2014-07-01

    Interactions between plants and scatter-hoarding animals may shift from mutualism to predation as a function of the resources available to those animals. Because seed species differ in their nutrient content and defenses to predation, resource selection and cache management by scatter-hoarders, and thus seed fate, may also depend on the relative availability of different seed types. We tracked the fates of tagged Castanea dentata, Quercus alba, and Q. rubra seeds presented to rodents in pairwise combinations and found that C. dentata, which has moderate dormancy prior to germination, survived better in the presence of Q. alba (no dormancy) than with Q. rubra (longer dormancy). Decisions made by scatter-hoarders in response to the composition of available seed resources can alter the relationship between masting and seed dispersal effectiveness in individual tree species and may have influenced the evolution of asynchrony among species-specific masting patterns in temperate forests. In theory, preferential allocation of certain seed species to storage or consumption could also result in indirect apparent predation by one seed species on another.

  6. American chestnut: A test case for genetic engineering?

    Treesearch

    Leila. Pinchot

    2014-01-01

    The thought of genetically engineered (GE) trees might conjure images of mutant trees with unnatural and invasive tendencies, but there is much more to the story. GE trees are a new reality that, like it or not, will probably be part of the future of forestry. The basic inclination of most Forest Guild stewards is to reject GE trees as violating our principle to...

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiotic association with the American chestnut

    Treesearch

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma

    2007-01-01

    Because of the ever-increasing demand for wood and other forest products and increased restrictive regulations for harvesting trees from public land, commercial farming of forest trees is becoming a necessity. For this, it will be essential to exploit all the available commercial land, whether or not it is ideal for optimal growth of forest tree species. In addition,...

  8. Responses of primary production, leaf litter decomposition and associated communities to stream eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Dunck, Bárbara; Lima-Fernandes, Eva; Cássio, Fernanda; Cunha, Ana; Rodrigues, Liliana; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2015-07-01

    We assessed the eutrophication effects on leaf litter decomposition and primary production, and on periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates. According to the subsidy-stress model, we expected that when algae and decomposers were nutrient limited, their activity and diversity would increase at moderate levels of nutrient enrichment, but decrease at high levels of nutrients, because eutrophication would lead to the presence of other stressors and overwhelm the subsidy effect. Chestnut leaves (Castanea sativa Mill) were enclosed in mesh bags and immersed in five streams of the Ave River basin (northwest Portugal) to assess leaf decomposition and colonization by invertebrates and fungi. In parallel, polyethylene slides were attached to the mesh bags to allow colonization by algae and to assess primary production. Communities of periphytic algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the trophic state. Primary production decomposition and biodiversity were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Permutation-Randomization Approach to Test the Spatial Distribution of Plant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lione, G; Gonthier, P

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the spatial distribution of plant diseases requires the availability of trustworthy geostatistical methods. The mean distance tests (MDT) are here proposed as a series of permutation and randomization tests to assess the spatial distribution of plant diseases when the variable of phytopathological interest is categorical. A user-friendly software to perform the tests is provided. Estimates of power and type I error, obtained with Monte Carlo simulations, showed the reliability of the MDT (power > 0.80; type I error < 0.05). A biological validation on the spatial distribution of spores of two fungal pathogens causing root rot on conifers was successfully performed by verifying the consistency between the MDT responses and previously published data. An application of the MDT was carried out to analyze the relation between the plantation density and the distribution of the infection of Gnomoniopsis castanea, an emerging fungal pathogen causing nut rot on sweet chestnut. Trees carrying nuts infected by the pathogen were randomly distributed in areas with different plantation densities, suggesting that the distribution of G. castanea was not related to the plantation density. The MDT could be used to analyze the spatial distribution of plant diseases both in agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  10. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans.

  11. Colour measurements of surfaces to evaluate the restoration materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Monaco, Angela; Marabelli, Maurizio; Pelosi, Claudia; Picchio, Rodolfo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper two case studies on the application of colour measurements for the evaluation of some restoration materials are discussed. The materials related to the research are: watercolours employed in restoration of wall paintings and preservative/consolidants for wood artifacts. Commercial watercolours, supplied by Maimeri, Windsor&Newton and Talens factories have been tested. Colour measurements have been performed by means of a reflectance spectrophotometer (RS) before and after accelerated ageing of watercolours at 92% relative humidity (RH) and in a Solar Box chamber. The experimental results show that watercolours based on natural earths and artificial ultramarine undergo the main colour changes, expressed as L*, a* and b* variations and total colour difference (▵E*). In the other cases colour differences depend on both watercolour typology and suppliers. The other example concerns the evaluation of colour change due to surface treatment of Poplar (Populus sp.) and chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) wood samples. The wooden samples have been treated with a novel organic preservative/consolidant product that has been tested also in a real case as comparison. The treated samples have been artificially aged in Solar Box chamber equipped with a 280 nm UV filter. Colour has been measured before and after the artificial ageing by means of a RS. Colour changes have been determined also for the main door of an historical mansion in Viterbo, made of chestnut wood, and exposed outdoors.

  12. Contribution of botanical origin and sugar composition of honeys on the crystallization phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Escuredo, Olga; Dobre, Irina; Fernández-González, María; Seijo, M Carmen

    2014-04-15

    The present work provides information regarding the statistical relationships among the palynological characteristics, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, melezitose and maltose), moisture content and sugar ratios (F+G, F/G and G/W) of 136 different honey types (including bramble, chestnut, eucalyptus, heather, acacia, lime, rape, sunflower and honeydew). Results of the statistical analyses (multiple comparison Bonferroni test, Spearman rank correlations and principal components) revealed the valuable significance of the botanical origin on the sugar ratios (F+G, F/G and G/W). Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus pollen were the variables situated near F+G and G/W ratio, while Castanea sativa, Rubus and Eucalyptus pollen were located further away, as shown in the principal component analysis. The F/G ratio of sunflower, rape and lime honeys were lower than those found for the chestnut, eucalyptus, heather, acacia and honeydew honeys (>1.4). A lower value F/G ratio and lower water content were related with a faster crystallization in the honey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deposition pattern and throughfall fluxes in secondary cool temperate forest, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Gautam, Mukesh; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Song, Byeong-Yeol

    2017-07-01

    Chemistry and deposition fluxes in the rainfall and throughfall of red pine (Pinus densiflora), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and chestnut (Castanea crenata) monocultures, and mixed red pine-black locust-chestnut stands were examined in a nutrient-limited cool temperate forest of central South Korea. Throughfall was enriched in both basic and acidic constituents relative to rainfall, suggesting that both dry deposition and canopy leaching are important sources of throughfall constituents. Net throughfall fluxes (NTFs) of cations and anions significantly differed among four different stands as well as seasonally. Red pine exhibited highest fluxes (TF and NTF) for Ca2+, black locust for K+, mixed stands for Mg2+, and chestnut for Na+. In contrast, NTF of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+was highest in the red pine, intermediate in the chestnut and mixed stands, and lowest in the black locust. In general, canopy uptake of H+ and NH4+ for all stands was higher in summer than in winter. Dry deposition appears to play a major role in atmospheric deposition to this cool temperate forest, especially in summer. Dry deposition for both cations and anions displayed high spatial variability, even though stands were adjacent to one another and experienced identical atmospheric deposition loads. Canopy leaching of K+ (95-78% of NTF), Mg2+ (92-23% of NTF), and Ca2+ (91-12% of NTF) was highest for the black locust, lowest for chestnut, and intermediate for the red pine and mixed stands. The present study documented significant changes in throughfall chemistry and NTF among different forest stands, which presumably be related with the differences in the canopy characteristics and differences in their scavenging capacity for dry deposition and canopy exchange. Difference in the canopy retention of H+ and base cation leaching suggests that canopy exchange was mainly driven by weak acid excretion and lesser by H+ exchange reaction. Our results indicate that despite a high base cation

  14. Prevention of Dengue fever through plant based mosquito repellent Clausena dentata (Willd.) M. Roem (Family: Rutaceae) essential oil against Aedes aegypti l. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S; Jebanesan, A

    2010-03-01

    Plant based repellent against mosquito borne diseases are used recently because synthetic repellents cause side effects like breathing problem, eye irritation, head ache, cough, etc. The use of natural products for dengue control would protect the environment, reduce dependence on expensive synthetic repellents and also generate local employment. Essential oil was isolated by steam distillation which was used against the bites of Aedes aegypti and duration of protection period was assessed. Skin-irritant potential test was also conducted on 25 healthy volunteers by using four-point scale. The increase in the concentrations of essential oil increased the mean protection time against the bites of Aedes aegypti. The lowest mean protection time was 180.0 min for 2.5% and highest time of 255.0 min for 10%. The mean score of zero for skin-irritant potential test for all the concentrations indicated that the essential oil did not cause irritation to human skin. Results indicated that the use of plant based repellent for the control of dengue fever would replace the currently used synthetic repellents which causes many side effects.

  15. An Old Chestnut Revisited: Teachers' Opinions and Attitudes toward Grading within a Competency Based Training Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' opinions with regard to the value and process of grading within a competency based training (CBT) framework, following the introduction of a formalised grading system at a specialist Technical and Further Education centre for hospitality and tourism training The data were gathered using a 16-item…

  16. Fifty-three polymorphic microsatellite loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Treesearch

    T.L. Kubisiak; C. Dutech; M.G. Milgroom

    2006-01-01

    We report on 53 microsatellite loci for use in population genetic or linkage mapping studies in Cryphonectria parasitica . In 40 isolates collected from throughout the Northern Hemisphere, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 14 (mean 5.17) with gene diversity values ranging from 0.049 to 0.859 (mean 0.437). Samples from Asia were more...

  17. Site index curves for black, white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks in the Central States.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1971-01-01

    Stem analyses showed polymorphic patterns of height growth for each species and for different levels of site quality. New site index curves are presented that show better height growth in later years than predicted by older harmonized site index curves.

  18. Amplification of North American Red Oak Microsatellite Markers in European White Oaks and Chinese Chestnut

    Treesearch

    P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...

  19. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Chestnut-collared Longspur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechant, Jill A.; Sondreal, Marriah L.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Goldade, Christopher M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.; Euliss, Betty R.

    1998-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the relative densities of the species in North America, based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America, including areas that could not be mapped using BBS data. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The impact of management depends, in part, upon a species' nesting phenology and biology. The section on breeding-season phenology and site fidelity includes details on spring arrival and fall departure for migratory populations in the Great Plains, peak breeding periods, the tendency to renest after nest failure or success, and the propensity to return to a previous breeding site. The duration and timing of breeding varies among regions and years. Species' response to management summarizes the current knowledge and major findings in the literature on the effects of different management practices on the species. The section on management recommendations complements the previous section and summarizes specific recommendations for habitat management provided in the literature. If management recommendations differ in different portions of the species' breeding range, recommendations are given separately by region. The literature cited contains references to published and unpublished literature on the management effects and habitat requirements of the species. This section is not meant to be a complete bibliography; for a searchable, annotated bibliography of published and unpublished papers dealing with habitat needs of grassland birds and their responses to habitat management, use the Grassland and Wetland Birds Bibliography on the home page of this resource.

  20. 76 FR 37706 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... changed on February 21, 1990 (55 FR 6184), to a category 1 candidate species. On September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51144), the status changed back to a category 2 candidate species for listing until the category 2 list... settlement brought changes to the ecosystem that led to extensive timber harvest and fire suppression. As a...

  1. Comparative mapping in the Fagaceae and beyond with EST-SSRs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for comparative genetic analyses, QTL detection and map-based cloning. A large number of mapping populations have been developed for oak, but few gene-based markers are available for constructing integrated genetic linkage maps and comparing gene order and QTL location across related species. Results We developed a set of 573 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and located 397 markers (EST-SSRs and genomic SSRs) on the 12 oak chromosomes (2n = 2x = 24) on the basis of Mendelian segregation patterns in 5 full-sib mapping pedigrees of two species: Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (sessile oak). Consensus maps for the two species were constructed and aligned. They showed a high degree of macrosynteny between these two sympatric European oaks. We assessed the transferability of EST-SSRs to other Fagaceae genera and a subset of these markers was mapped in Castanea sativa, the European chestnut. Reasonably high levels of macrosynteny were observed between oak and chestnut. We also obtained diversity statistics for a subset of EST-SSRs, to support further population genetic analyses with gene-based markers. Finally, based on the orthologous relationships between the oak, Arabidopsis, grape, poplar, Medicago, and soybean genomes and the paralogous relationships between the 12 oak chromosomes, we propose an evolutionary scenario of the 12 oak chromosomes from the eudicot ancestral karyotype. Conclusions This study provides map locations for a large set of EST-SSRs in two oak species of recognized biological importance in natural ecosystems. This first step toward the construction of a gene-based linkage map will facilitate the assignment of future genome scaffolds to pseudo-chromosomes. This study also provides an indication of the potential utility of new gene-based markers for population genetics and comparative mapping within and beyond the

  2. Overexpression of DEMETER, a DNA demethylase, promotes early apical bud maturation in poplar.

    PubMed

    Conde, Daniel; Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Dervinis, Christopher; Ramos-Sánchez, José M; Kirst, Matias; Perales, Mariano; González-Melendi, Pablo; Allona, Isabel

    2017-11-01

    The transition from active growth to dormancy is critical for the survival of perennial plants. We identified a DEMETER-like (CsDML) cDNA from a winter-enriched cDNA subtractive library in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), an economically and ecologically important species. Next, we characterized this DNA demethylase and its putative ortholog in the more experimentally tractable hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba), under the signals that trigger bud dormancy in trees. We performed phylogenetic and protein sequence analysis, gene expression profiling, and 5-methyl-cytosine methylation immunodetection studies to evaluate the role of CsDML and its homolog in poplar, PtaDML6. Transgenic hybrid poplars overexpressing CsDML were produced and analysed. Short days and cold temperatures induced CsDML and PtaDML6. Overexpression of CsDML accelerated short-day-induced bud formation, specifically from Stages 1 to 0. Buds acquired a red-brown coloration earlier than wild-type plants, alongside with the up-regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis enzymes and accumulation of flavonoids in the shoot apical meristem and bud scales. Our data show that the CsDML gene induces bud formation needed for the survival of the apical meristem under the harsh conditions of winter. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Analysis of the sugar-binding specificity of mannose-binding-type Jacalin-related lectins by frontal affinity chromatography--an approach to functional classification.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Uchiyama, Noboru; Peumans, Willy J; Van Damme, Els J M; Totani, Kiichiro; Ito, Yukishige; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2008-03-01

    The Jacalin-related lectin (JRL) family comprises galactose-binding-type (gJRLs) and mannose-binding-type (mJRLs) lectins. Although the documented occurrence of gJRLs is confined to the family Moraceae, mJRLs are widespread in the plant kingdom. A detailed comparison of sugar-binding specificity was made by frontal affinity chromatography to corroborate the structure-function relationships of the extended mJRL subfamily. Eight mJRLs covering a broad taxonomic range were used: Artocarpin from Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit, Moraceae), BanLec from Musa acuminata (banana, Musaceae), Calsepa from Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed, Convolvulaceae), CCA from Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut, Fagaceae), Conarva from Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed, Convolvulaceae), CRLL from Cycas revoluta (King Sago palm tree, Cycadaceae), Heltuba from Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke, Asteraceae) and MornigaM from Morus nigra (black mulberry, Moraceae). The result using 103 pyridylaminated glycans clearly divided the mJRLs into two major groups, each of which was further divided into two subgroups based on the preference for high-mannose-type N-glycans. This criterion also applied to the binding preference for complex-type N-glycans. Notably, the result of cluster analysis of the amino acid sequences clearly corresponded to the above specificity classification. Thus, marked correlation between the sugar-binding specificity of mJRLs and their phylogeny should shed light on the functional significance of JRLs.

  4. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  5. Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

  6. Site characteristics of American chestnut, oak, and hickory witness trees on the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Michael. Strager

    2011-01-01

    Early metes and bounds surveys of the area that would become the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia were used to create a digital database of corner witness trees. With these electronic and geo-referenced data, physical characteristics were obtained to describe species' locations on the landscape. To characterize the physical environment, variables...

  7. Role of MAPK Signaling Pathways in Regulating the Hydrophobin Cryparin in the Chestnut Blight FungusCryphonectria parasitica.

    PubMed

    So, Kum-Kang; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2017-12-01

    We assessed the regulation of cryparin, a class II hydrophobin, using three representative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in Cryphonectria parasitica . Mutation of the CpSlt2 gene, an ortholog of yeast SLT2 in the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, resulted in a dramatic decrease in cryparin production. Similarly, a mutant of the CpBck1 gene, a MAP kinase kinase kinase gene in the CWI pathway, showed decreased cryparin production. Additionally, mutation of the cpmk 1 gene, an ortholog of yeast HOG1 , showed decreased cryparin production. However, mutation of the cpmk 2 gene, an ortholog of yeast Kss1/Fus3, showed increased cryparin production. The easy-wet phenotype and accumulation of the cryparin transcript in corresponding mutants were consistent with the cryparin production results. In silico analysis of the promoter region of the cryparin gene revealed the presence of binding motifs related to downstream transcription factors of CWI, HOG1, and pheromone responsive pathways including MADS-box- and Ste12-binding domains. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that both CpRlm1 , an ortholog of yeast RLM1 in the CWI pathway, and cpst12 , an ortholog of yeast STE12 in the mating pathway, showed significantly reduced transcription levels in the mutant strains showing lower cryparin production in C. prasitica . However, the transcription of CpMcm1 , an ortholog of yeast MCM1 , did not correlate with that of the mutant strains showing downregulation of cryparin. These results indicate that three representative MAPK pathways played a role in regulating cryparin production. However, regulation varied depending on the MAPK pathways: the CWI and HOG1 pathways were stimulatory, whereas the pheromone-responsive MAPK was repressive.

  8. Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and regeneration of chestnut oak, white oak, and northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Marc E. McDill

    2003-01-01

    A series of substantial field surveys of 38 mixed-oak stands in central Pennsylvania were carried out during 1996-2000. All the stands were surveyed 1 year prior to harvest, and 16 stands have been surveyed 1 year after harvest. Three abiotic factors at stand scale, four abiotic factors at plot scale, and two biotic factors and one abiotic factor at subplot scale was...

  9. Biomass and Nutrient Distribution in 3-Year Old Green Ash and Swamp Chestnut Oak Grown in a Minor Stream Bottom

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy; Bryce E. Schlaegel

    1985-01-01

    After three growing seasons, green ash had produced 7,342 pounds per acre of above-ground dry matter compared to 3,572 for oak. Of the total biomass, ash had 53% in the bole (wood plus bark), 22% in old branches, 21% in leaves and 4% in new growth; oak had 50%, 21%, 24%, and 5% in the same components. These proportions changed after leaf fall. Concentrations of N, P, K...

  10. Discriminating characteristics of suicides. Chestnut Lodge follow-up sample including patients with affective disorder, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Dingman, C W; McGlashan, T H

    1986-07-01

    Diagnostic, demographic, and outcome profiles were compared between psychiatric inpatients and former inpatients who ultimately committed suicide and those who did not. Results showed that the suicide group contained a greater preponderance of males and patients suffering from schizoaffective disorder or unipolar depression, and comparatively fewer patients with borderline personality disorder. The suicide group also had histories or symptoms indicative of affective difficulties, and premorbidly had achieved a higher IQ and higher levels of socioeconomic functioning. They also demonstrated higher levels of psychopathology on admission and their post-hospitalization courses were characterized by lower levels of functioning. The risk of suicide thus appeared to be correlated to illness virulence and to the magnitude of the loss of healthy functioning.

  11. 78 FR 36765 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... following electric corporate filings: Docket Numbers: EC13-116-000. ] Applicants: Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC, Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC. Description: Application of Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC and Chestnut Flats Lessee..., Confidential Treatment and Expedited Consideration. Filed Date: 6/11/13. Accession Number: 20130611-5108...

  12. Quantity and quality of black carbon molecular markers as obtained by two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-DAD) - How do results compare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M. P. W.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Dittmar, T.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2009-04-01

    Chars produced by wildfires are an important source of black carbon (BC) in the environment. After their deposition on the soil surface they can be distributed into rivers, marine waters and sediments. The analysis of benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) as a quantitative measure for black carbon (BC) in soil and sediment samples is a well-established method (Glaser et al., 1998; Brodowski et al., 2005). Briefly, the nitric acid oxidation of fused aromatic ring systems in BC forms eight molecular markers (BPCAs), which can be assigned to BC, and which subsequently can be quantified by GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector). Recently, this method was modified for the quantification of BC in seawater samples using HPLC-DAD (High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector) for the determination of individual BPCAs (Dittmar, 2008). A direct comparison of both analytical techniques is lacking but would be important for future data comparison aimed at the calculation of global BC budgets. Here we present a systematic comparison of the two BPCA quantification methods. We prepared chars under well-defined laboratory conditions. In order to cover a broad spectrum of char properties we used two sources of biomass and a wide range of pyrolysis temperatures. Chestnut hardwood chips (Castanea sativa) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) were pyrolysed at temperatures between 200 and 1000°C under a constant N2 stream. The maximum temperatures were held constant for 5 hours (Hammes et al., 2006). The BC contents of the chars have been analysed using the BPCA extraction method followed by either GC-FID or HPLC-DAD quantification. Preliminary results suggest that both methods yield similar total quantities of BPCA, and also the proportions of the individual markers are similar. Ongoing experiments will allow for a more detailed comparison of the two methods. The BPCA composition of chars formed at different temperatures and from different precursor

  13. Competition between ant species: outcome controlled by parasitic flies.

    PubMed

    Feener, D H

    1981-11-13

    Experimental evidence demonstrates that the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus shifts the competitive balance between the ant species Pheidole dentata and Solenopsis texana by interfering with the defensive behavior of Pheidole dentata major workers (soldiers). This represents one of the first examples of a parasite affecting competitive interactions anmong terrestrial animals in natural communities. Similar complex interactions are probably common in many ant communities.

  14. Updated Subsurface Data Base For Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, And Parts Of Bethel Valley On The U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This document represents a compilation of location, construction, and hydrologic information relating to boreholes, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water locations that have been installed/established at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) through August 2013. To date, a total of 1422 boreholes and wells have been installed in and around the Y-12 area. Of those, 835 existing boreholes and wells continue to be utilized for groundwater monitoring programs, research, remedial investigations, plume characterization and delineation studies, and various other hydrogeologic endeavors. In addition, 215 surface water locations, such as rivers, streams, seeps, springs, lakes, ponds, and building sumps are included in this database. General data about boreholes and wells included in the database are survey coordinates, survey system, elevations, alternative names and well status. Surface water location information (Appendix I) includes name, alias, functional area, northing and easting coordinates, survey system, map number and sampling history. Tabulated construction data include total depth, completion method, borehole diameter, casing and screen materials, casing and screen diameters, casing and screen depths, filter pack depths, open-hole intervals, and open-hole diameters. Hydrogeological data summarized in this document include the aquifer monitored by the completion interval, depth to weathered and fresh bedrock, formations penetrated, well sampling history, and whether rock core and geophysical logs were obtained. This document (which is the sixth revision to Y/TS–881 and the ninth overall update of a previous compilation) is published on a regular basis by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which serves as custodian of drilling records and well construction data for the network of wells and other groundwater monitoring stations at Y-12. The tabulations in this database are arranged in appendices of like information. An example application of the data compiled in this document would be the evaluation of the suitability of wells for continued use in groundwater investigations and monitoring studies. Other uses may include: the siting of hydrogeological characterization activities, background evaluations of sites prior to initiation of new drilling activities, and hydrogeological review of selected sites prior to the initiation of remedial actions or new construction activity. Existing boreholes, wells, and surface water locations are presented on a series of maps (Appendix K). Boreholes and wells that have been plugged and abandoned, destroyed, could not be located, or otherwise are of unknown status/condition appear on a second series of maps of identical coverage (Appendix L).

  15. National Dam Safety Program. Alcyon Lake Dam (NJ 00427) Delaware River Basin, Chestnut Branch-Mantua Creek, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    froma small concreto , platform which extends out from the- culvert fas Ci,). The qate is divided into two section, and is mounted on a steel frame...se(ver al concreto fILurneS that0 e xiend fromn the, nrmcurhli me andI drain baick into the, reiser vo ir . AlIl were o-r i qi n a Iv e% qu i pped( wi

  16. Health effects of air pollution due to coal combustion in the Chestnut Ridge region of Pennsylvania: cross-section survey of children

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Vedal, S.; Batterman, S.; Samet, J.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-03-01

    A cross-sectional study of 4071 children aged 6-11 yr of age from a rural region of Western Pennsylvania was conducted in spring of 1979. Standardized children's questionnaires were distributed to the parents and returned by the children to school, where spirometry was performed. The region was divided into low-, moderate-, and high-pollution areas on the basis of the 1974-1978, 3-hr, 24-hr, and annual averages for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Seventeen monitoring stations in the region and a triangulation procedure were used to estimate centroid levels in each geographic residence area. After adjusting the respiratory symptom response outcomes and the pulmonary function levels for known predictors, no significant association was noted for level of SO/sub 2/. However, the highest exposure categories were only slightly above the present annual and 24-hr National Air Quality Standards for SO/sub 2/. We conclude that at levels of exposure to which these children were exposed, only by study of potentially sensitive subsets or measures of acute response would it be possible to detect respiratory outcomes associated with ambient air pollution.

  17. Ion association in water solution of soil and vadose zone of chestnut saline solonetz as a driver of terrestrial carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batukaev, Abdul-Malik A.; Endovitsky, Anatoly P.; Andreev, Andrey G.; Kalinichenko, Valery P.; Minkina, Tatiana M.; Dikaev, Zaurbek S.; Mandzhieva, Saglara S.; Sushkova, Svetlana N.

    2016-03-01

    The assessment of soil and vadose zone as the drains for carbon sink and proper modeling of the effects and extremes of biogeochemical cycles in the terrestrial biosphere are the key components to understanding the carbon cycle, global climate system, and aquatic and terrestrial system uncertainties. Calcium carbonate equilibrium causes saturation of solution with CaCO3, and it determines its material composition, migration and accumulation of salts. In a solution electrically neutral ion pairs are formed: CaCO30, CaSO40, MgCO30, and MgSO40, as well as charged ion pairs CaHCO3+, MgHCO3+, NaCO3-, NaSO4-, CaOH+, and MgOH+. The calcium carbonate equilibrium algorithm, mathematical model and original software to calculate the real equilibrium forms of ions and to determine the nature of calcium carbonate balance in a solution were developed. This approach conducts the quantitative assessment of real ion forms of solution in solonetz soil and vadose zone of dry steppe taking into account the ion association at high ionic strength of saline soil solution. The concentrations of free and associated ion form were calculated according to analytical ion concentration in real solution. In the iteration procedure, the equations were used to find the following: ion material balance, a linear interpolation of equilibrium constants, a method of ionic pairs, the laws of initial concentration preservation, operating masses of equilibrium system, and the concentration constants of ion pair dissociation. The coefficient of ion association γe was determined as the ratio of ions free form to analytical content of ion γe = Cass/Can. Depending on soil and vadose zone layer, concentration and composition of solution in the ionic pair's form are 11-52 % Ca2+; 22.2-54.6 % Mg2+; 1.1-10.5 % Na+; 3.7-23.8 HCO3-, 23.3-61.6 % SO42-, and up to 85.7 % CO32-. The carbonate system of soil and vadose zone water solution helps to explain the evolution of salted soils, vadose and saturation zones, and landscape. It also helps to improve the soil maintenance, plant nutrition and irrigation. The association of ions in soil solutions is one of the drivers promoting transformation of solution, excessive fluxes of carbon in the soil, and loss of carbon from soil through vadose zone.

  18. From the Bronx to Birmingham: Impact of Chestnut Blight and Management Practices on Forest Health Risks in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    Steven W. Oak

    2002-01-01

    Southern Appalachian forest landscapes evoke images of the primeval forest in many people today. Indeed, most vegetation components in these forests have been present in varying mixtures and distributions for at least 58 million years (Delcourt and Delcourt 1981). However, the only thing constant about these landscapes has been change. Advancing and retreating ice...

  19. Is nutrient uptake by plant roots sensitive to the rate of mass flow? Reappraisal of an old chestnut for spatially distributed root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtrie, R. E.; Näsholm, T.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modelling papers have considered the contribution of mass flow to nutrient uptake by a single plant root, but few have evaluated its contribution at the scale of an entire root system. We derive equations for nitrogen (N) influx per unit root surface area (J) and N uptake by a single root (U) as functions of soil nitrogen supply, root-length density (RLD) and the velocity of water at the root surface (vo). This model of N uptake by a single root can be used to evaluate N uptake by an entire root system if spatial distributions are known for soil N supply, root biomass and water-uptake velocity. In this paper we show that spatial distributions of RLD and vo can be estimated simultaneously under an optimisation hypothesis (MaxNup, McMurtrie et al. 2012), according to which total root mass and total water uptake are distributed vertically in order to maximise total N uptake. The MaxNup hypothesis leads to equations for optimal vertical profiles of RLD, vo, J and U, maximum rooting depth and the fraction of total available soil nitrogen taken up by the root system. Predicted values of vo are enhanced at depths where nitrogen influx per unit root surface area (J) is more sensitive to vo and diminished at depths where J is less sensitive to vo. Predicted vo is largest at the base of the root system where RLD is lowest, and is smallest in upper soil layers where RLD is highest. MaxNup thus predicts that water uptake will be distributed preferentially to soil depths where it will enhance nitrogen uptake U; this tendency will amplify the sensitivity of total N uptake to total water uptake, compared with strategies where vo is the same for all roots, or where vo is elevated for roots in upper soil layers. Reference McMurtrie RE, Iversen CM, Dewar RC, Medlyn BE, Näsholm T, Pepper DA, Norby RJ. 2012. Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging. Ecology and Evolution 2: 1235-1250.

  20. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts shall not be used as meat alternates due to... or other meat alternates based on available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts are...

  1. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts shall not be used as meat alternates due to... or other meat alternates based on available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts are...

  2. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts shall not be used as meat alternates due to... or other meat alternates based on available nutritional data. Acorns, chestnuts, and coconuts are...

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, December, 1959 DETAIL OF WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, December, 1959 DETAIL OF WINDOW AND IRON GRILLE, FIRST FLOOR, CHESTNUT STREET FACADE. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Effects of forest die-off on hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vose, J.; Ford, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Forests in the southern Appalachian region of the eastern U.S. have been impacted by numerous disturbances over the past century. Many of these disturbances have resulted in non-random species losses. For example, in the early 1900s, American chestnut (Castenea dentata) was decimated by the chestnut blight. Severe droughts in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in significant southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis, SPB) outbreaks; and, most of the native pines (Pinus rigida) were killed. These same droughts resulted in a pulse of mortality of older red oaks and extensive SPB infestation of white pine (Pinus strobus) plantations. In the 2000s, the introduction of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) resulted in widespread mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Linking hydrologic responses to partial or complete changes in forest conditions due to die-off is especially challenging in the eastern U.S. because high vegetation diversity and substantial differences in tree-level water use makes it difficult to generalize or predict responses. Gauged watersheds and sapflow monitoring across multiple tree species at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western NC provides a unique opportunity to quantify the impacts of large-scale forest die-off on hydrologic processes. Here, we provide three examples of our efforts to quantify and predict impacts. First, we analyzed long-term streamflow data from WS17, a 53 year old white pine plantation, where approximately 15% of the watershed was killed by SPB in the late 1990s. Second, we examined the effects of losing an individual species (i.e., loss of eastern hemlock from HWA) using sapflow, long-term permanent plot data, and models to scale from the individual tree to the watershed. Third, sapflow data from 11 forest canopy species were used to evaluate the potential impacts of losses of individual species on stand transpiration. Annual streamflow responses are exponentially related to decreases in forest cover (e.g., from

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing recharge to extraction wells at the Drake Chemical Superfund Site, City of Lock Haven and Castanea Township, Clinton County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive remediation of the Drake Chemical Superfund Site has been ongoing since 1983. Contaminated soils were excavated and incinerated on site between 1996 and 1999. After 1999, remedial efforts focused on contaminated ground water. A ground-water remediation system was started in November 2000. The source area of the contaminated ground water was assumed to be the zone 1 area on the Drake Chemical site. The remedial system was designed to capture ground water migrating from zone 1. Also, the remediation system was designed to pump and treat the water in an anoxic environment and re-infiltrate the treated water underground through an infiltration gallery that is hydrologically downgradient of the extraction wells. A numerical ground-water flow model of the surrounding region was constructed to simulate the areas contributing recharge to remedial extraction wells installed on the Drake Chemical site. The three-dimensional numerical flow model was calibrated using the parameter-estimation process in MODFLOW-2000. The model included three layers that represented three poorly sorted alluvial sediment units that were characterized from geologic well and boring logs. Steady-state ground-water flow was simulated to estimate the areas contributing recharge to three extraction wells for three different pumping scenarios--all wells pumping at 2 gallons per minute, at approximately 5 gallons per minute, and at 8 gallons per minute. Simulation results showed the contributing areas to the three extraction wells encompassed 92 percent of zone 1 at a pumping rate of approximately 5 gallons per minute. The contributing areas did not include a very small area in the southwestern part of zone 1 when the three extraction wells were pumped at approximately 5 gallons per minute. Pumping from a fourth extraction well in that area was discontinued early in the operation of the remediation system because the ground water in that area met performance standards. The areas contributing recharge to the three extraction wells did encompass zone 1 at a pumping rate of 8 gallons per minute. At pumping rates of 2 gallons per minute, the contributing areas for the three extraction wells did not encompass zone 1.

  6. Seasonal and vertical changes in leaf angle distribution for selected deciduous broadleaf tree species common to Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan; Sonnentag, Oliver; Annuk, Kalju

    2014-05-01

    Leaf inclination angle distribution is a key parameter in determining the transmission and reflection of radiation by vegetation canopies. It has been previously observed that leaf inclination angle might change gradually from more vertical in the upper canopy and in high light habitats to more horizontal in the lower canopy and in low light habitats [1]. Despite its importance, relatively few measurements on actual leaf angle distributions have been reported for different tree species. Even smaller number of studies have dealt with the possible seasonal changes in leaf angle distribution [2]. In this study the variation of leaf inclination angle distributions was examined both temporally throughout the growing season and vertically at different heights of trees. We report on leaf inclination angle distributions for five deciduous broadleaf species found commonly in several parts of Europe: grey alder (Alnus incana), Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), chestnut (Castanea), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), and aspen (Populus tremula). The angles were measured using the leveled camera method [3], with the data collected at several separate heights and four times during the period of May-September 2013. The results generally indicate the greatest change in leaf inclination angles for spring, with the changes usually being the most pronounced at the top of the canopy. It should also be noted, however, that whereas the temporal variation proved to be rather consistent for different species, the vertical variation differed more between species. The leveled camera method was additionally tested in terms of sensitivity to different users. Ten people were asked to measure the leaf angles for four different species. The results indicate the method is quite robust in providing coinciding distributions irrespective of the user and level of previous experience with the method. However, certain caution must be exercised when measuring long narrow leaves. References [1] G.G. Mc

  7. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects.

    PubMed

    2004-07-01

    The trivial name 'phytoplasma' has been adopted to collectively name wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects, which were formerly known as mycoplasma-like organisms. Although phytoplasmas have not yet been cultivated in vitro, phylogenetic analyses based on various conserved genes have shown that they represent a distinct, monophyletic clade within the class Mollicutes. It is proposed here to accommodate phytoplasmas within the novel genus 'Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma'. Given the diversity within 'Ca. Phytoplasma', several subtaxa are needed to accommodate organisms that share <97.5% similarity among their 16S rRNA gene sequences. This report describes the properties of 'Ca. Phytoplasma', a taxon that includes the species 'Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia' (the prokaryote associated with witches'-broom disease of small-fruited acid lime), 'Ca. Phytoplasma australiense' (associated with Australian grapevine yellows), 'Ca. Phytoplasma fraxini' (associated with ash yellows), 'Ca. Phytoplasma japonicum' (associated with Japanese hydrangea phyllody), 'Ca. Phytoplasma brasiliense' (associated with hibiscus witches'-broom in Brazil), 'Ca. Phytoplasma castaneae' (associated with chestnut witches'-broom in Korea), 'Ca. Phytoplasma asteris' (associated with aster yellows), 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali' (associated with apple proliferation), 'Ca. Phytoplasma phoenicium' (associated with almond lethal disease), 'Ca. Phytoplasma trifolii' (associated with clover proliferation), 'Ca. Phytoplasma cynodontis' (associated with Bermuda grass white leaf), 'Ca. Phytoplasma ziziphi' (associated with jujube witches'-broom), 'Ca. Phytoplasma oryzae' (associated with rice yellow dwarf) and six species-level taxa for which the Candidatus species designation has not yet been formally proposed (for the phytoplasmas associated with X-disease of peach, grapevine flavescence dorée, Central American coconut lethal yellows, Tanzanian lethal decline of coconut, Nigerian

  8. Environmental impact of magmatic fluorine emission in the Mt. Etna area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, Sergio; Aiuppa, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Walter; Parello, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    The sustained and uninterrupted plume degassing at Mount Etna volcano, Southern Italy, represents the troposphere's most prominent natural source of fluorine. Of the ˜ 200 Mg of fluorine (as HF g) emitted daily by the volcano, 1.6 ± 2.7 Mg are deposited by wet and dry deposition. Fluorine-deposition via volcanic ash, here characterised for the first time, can be quite significant during volcanic eruptions (i.e. 60 Mg of fluorine were deposited during the 2001 eruption through volcanic ash, corresponding to ˜ 85% of the total fluorine deposition). Despite the fact that these depositions are huge, the fate of the deposited fluorine and its impact on the environment are poorly understood. We herein present original data on fluorine abundance in vegetation ( Castanea Sativa and P inus Nigra) and andosoils from the volcano's flank, in the attempt to reveal the potential impact of volcanogenic fluorine emissions. Fluorine contents in chestnut leaves and pine needles are in the range 1.8-35 μg/g and 2.1-74 μg/g respectively; they exceed the typical background concentrations in plants growing in rural areas, but fall within the lower range of typical concentrations in plants growing near high fluorine anthropogenic emission sources. The rare plume fumigations on the lower flanks of Mt Etna (distance > 4 km from summit craters) are probably the cause of the "undisturbed" nature of Etnean vegetation: climatic conditions, which limit the growth of vegetation on the upper regione deserta, are a natural limit to the development of more severe impacts. High fluorine contents, associated with visible symptoms, were only measured in pine needles at three sites, located near recently-active (2001 to 2003) lateral eruptive fractures. Total fluorine contents ( FTOT) in the Etnean soils have a range of 112-341 μg/g, and fall within the typical range of undisturbed soils; fluorine extracted with distilled water ( FH2O) have a range of 5.1 to 61 μg/g and accounts for 2-40% of

  9. 76 FR 20049 - Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Vaughan Furniture Company, Inc., B.C. Vaughan Factory/Chestnut Creek Veneer Building, 255 Creekview Drive.../Chestnut Creek Veneer Building (TA-W-74,551A) and T.G. Vaughan Distribution Center (TA-W-74,551B). The... Company, Inc., B.C. Vaughan Factory/Chestnut Creek Veneer Building, Galax, Virginia (TA-W-74,551A), who...

  10. Establishing American Chestnut Test Orchards on two TNARNG Installations: Contributing to the Efforts to Restore an Ecological and Cultural Giant to the Forest Ecosystems of the Eastern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    2008 in order to test the site’s soils for the fungal pathogen Phythopthora cinnamomi. P. cinnamomi is a soil-borne water mold that invades root...plot contained the pathogen because, if present, the trees would likely die or show considerable signs of deterioration within the first growing...seeds, with the only seedlings being the two test seedlings planted in early 2008 to test the soils for the fungal soil pathogen , Phythopthora

  11. 42 CFR 85.3 - Procedures for requesting health hazard evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and Field Studies, NIOSH, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226. (2) Requests from mining industry. Environmental Investigations Branch, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, NIOSH, 944 Chestnut...

  12. 42 CFR 85.3 - Procedures for requesting health hazard evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and Field Studies, NIOSH, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226. (2) Requests from mining industry. Environmental Investigations Branch, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, NIOSH, 944 Chestnut...

  13. 93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF DOG EAR AND TRUSS (BRACKET) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 40 CFR 262.10 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... current hazardous waste accumulation areas Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 120 Chemistry, Biology..., Biology, Psychology, Anthropology, Geology and Earth Sciences, and Environmental, Coastal and Ocean...

  15. 40 CFR 262.10 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... current hazardous waste accumulation areas Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 120 Chemistry, Biology..., Biology, Psychology, Anthropology, Geology and Earth Sciences, and Environmental, Coastal and Ocean...

  16. 40 CFR 262.10 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... current hazardous waste accumulation areas Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 120 Chemistry, Biology..., Biology, Psychology, Anthropology, Geology and Earth Sciences, and Environmental, Coastal and Ocean...

  17. 40 CFR 262.10 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... current hazardous waste accumulation areas Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 120 Chemistry, Biology..., Biology, Psychology, Anthropology, Geology and Earth Sciences, and Environmental, Coastal and Ocean...

  18. 40 CFR 262.10 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... current hazardous waste accumulation areas Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 120 Chemistry, Biology..., Biology, Psychology, Anthropology, Geology and Earth Sciences, and Environmental, Coastal and Ocean...

  19. 23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer December, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer December, 1959 FRONT (SOUTH) ELEVATION. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity screening of wild plant extracts from Saudi Arabia on human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; Abul Farah, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Abou-Tarboush, F M

    2014-05-23

    This study investigated the in vitro anticancer activities of a total of 14 wild angiosperms collected in Saudi Arabia. The cytotoxic activity of each extract was assessed against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using the MTT assay. Among the plants screened, the potential cytotoxic activity exhibited by the extract of Lavandula dentata (Lamiaceae) was identified, and we analyzed its anticancer potential by testing antiproliferative and apoptotic activity. Our results clearly show that ethanolic extract of L. dentata exhibits promising cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 39 μg/mL. Analysis of cell morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis (using an Annexin V assay) also confirmed the apoptotic effect of L. dentata extract, and thus, our data call for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s) and their mechanisms of inducing apoptosis.

  2. Heavy metals concentration in plants growing on mine tailings in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franco-Hernández, M O; Vásquez-Murrieta, M S; Patiño-Siciliano, A; Dendooven, L

    2010-06-01

    Metal concentrations were measured in plants growing on heavily contaminated tailings from a mine active since about 1800 in San Luis Potosí (Mexico). Viguiera dentata (Cav.) Spreng., Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins, Flaveria angustifolia (Cav.) Pers., F. trinervia (Spreng.) C. Mohr. and Sporobolusindicus (L.) R. Br. were tolerant to high As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations. Of those, S.indicus excluded heavy metals from its shoots, while P. bipinnatifidum and F. angustifolia accumulated them. V. dentata and P. bipinnatifidum were accumulators of As, but not hyperaccumulators. It was found that V. dentata,P. bipinnatifidum, F. angustifolia, F. trinervia and S.indicus, could be used to vegetate soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. Ambrosiaartemisifolia could be used to remediate soils contaminated with Zn, S. amplexicaulis those with Cu and F. angustifolia and F. trinervia those with As, as they have a strong capacity to accumulate those metals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Degradational Factors on the Ecosystem of Mount Madra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efe, R.; Soykan, A.; Sönmez, S.; Cürebal, I.

    2009-04-01

    environment of Kozak Plataeu, and in addition to this, quarrying activity has recently begun in the area around Burhaniye. All these activities have led to problems such as erosion, decreased biodiversity, and pollution of water sources on Mount Madra. The forest clearances which have been made, for various reasons, on the northern and southern slopes of Mount Madra, have caused the topsoil to be worn away by surface water. The most striking examples of this can be seen on Mount Şabla (1111m) and on the southern slopes of Maya peak (1344m). The trimming recently carried out by the Forestry Commission on sections of Mount Madra has badly damaged the forest's vegetation and in a short space of time caused irreversible harm to the ecosystem of the mountain. For thousands of years, parts of the top of Mount Madra and the Kozak plateau have been used as summer grounds and, as a result, the forest has been cleared from a wide section. On the north-facing slopes of Mount Madra, the number of chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) found within pine woods is increasing daily. The pine trees around the chestnuts are being chopped down in order to increase the number of chestnut trees, whose fruit are harvested for the economic benefit they bring. The pine forests are, for this reason, in constant decline. Forest roads, both planned and unplanned, have led to further destruction of forest vegetation. Apart from the forest vegetation of the Mountain, other natural resources are under threat; particularly water sources. Facilities for fish farming have been built with no pre-planning or research, leading to the clearance of forest and pollution of the environment. Mount Madra is an important water source for the rivers in the surrounding areas. It is the source of the Madra and Karınca Rivers which flow into the Aegean Sea, the Kocaçay River which feeds Manyas Lake and several tributaries of the Bakırçay River. The protection of Mount Madra and its freshwater sources and biodiversity is

  4. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings

    Treesearch

    Kerry O. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Invasive exotic pest plants, diseases, and insects, have had a dramatic impact on the health and composition of the Eastern forests for many decades. Chestnut blight was discovered in the United States in 1904. Since then, it has virtually destroyed the chestnut population, which once occupied 25 percent of the eastern forest. In the 1860's, the gypsy moth was...

  5. 77 FR 22289 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...: 7220-01-411-1515--3' x 5', Slate/Gray. NSN: 7220-01-411-2979--3' x 5', Chestnut/Dark Brown. NSN: 7220-01-411-2980--4' x 6', Chestnut/Dark Brown. NPA: Wiscraft, Inc., Milwaukee, WI. Contracting Activity...

  6. MODIS Vegetation Indices time series improvement considering real acquisition dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, S.; Borgogno Mondino, E.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite Vegetation Indices (VI) time series images are widely used for the characterization phenology, which requires a high temporal accuracy of the satellite data. The present work is based on the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD13Q1 product - Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 250m, which is generated through a maximum value compositing process that reduces the number of cloudy pixels and excludes, when possible, off-nadir ones. Because of its 16-days compositing period, the distance between two adjacent-in-time values within each pixel NDVI time series can range from 1 to 32 days, thus not acceptable for phenologic studies. Moreover, most of the available smoothing algorithms, which are widely used for phenology characterization, assume that data points are equidistant in time and contemporary over the image. The objective of this work was to assess temporal features of NDVI time series over a test area, composed by Castanea sativa (chestnut) and Fagus sylvatica (beech) pure pixels within the Piemonte region in Northwestern Italy. Firstly, NDVI, Pixel Reliability (PR) and Composite Day of the Year (CDOY) data ranging from 2000 to 2011 were extracted from MOD13Q1 and corresponding time series were generated (in further computations, 2000 was not considered since it is not complete because acquisition began in February and calibration is unreliable until October). Analysis of CDOY time series (containing the actual reference date of each NDVI value) over the selected study areas showed NDVI values to be prevalently generated from data acquired at the centre of each 16-days period (the 9th day), at least constantly along the year. This leads to consider each original NDVI value nominally placed to the centre of its 16-days reference period. Then, a new NDVI time series was generated: a) moving each NDVI value to its actual "acquisition" date, b) interpolating the obtained temporary time series through SPLINE functions, c) sampling such

  7. Application and evaluation of biomagnetic and biochemical monitoring of the dispersion and deposition of volcanically-derived particles at Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, B. M.; Mather, T. A.; Witt, M. L. I.; Maher, B. A.; Mitchell, R.; Martin, R. S.; Calabrese, S.

    2010-03-01

    Biomagnetic monitoring, using tree leaves as passive surfaces for particle collection, has been shown to be a promising technique for assessing the dispersion and deposition of particles in the context of anthropogenic pollution. By comparing leaves' magnetic properties with trace metal levels measured in the leaves, we here assess the utility of the biomagnetic technique as a sensitive, fast and inexpensive method for assessment of volcanic plume deposition. Samples of sweet chestnut leaves ( Castanea sativa) were collected from the area surrounding Mt. Etna volcano in Sicily during the 2008 growing season when the volcano was displaying mild eruptive activity. Previous work has shown that the trace metal concentrations of these leaves show promise as a bio-indicator of volcanic gas, aerosol and ash deposition on the flanks of Mt. Etna. For 2008, ICP-MS analysis of the elemental abundances within the leaves showed that As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Tl, K, B, Al and Co displayed elevated concentrations downwind of the volcanic source, to the E-ESE, but with overall reduced concentrations relative to 2007. Less explosive activity than 2007 and a broader, more easterly wind field may have distributed the volcanic plume over a wider area, both of which would account for reduced trace element concentrations in 2008. Correspondence of elevated concentrations in both years (2007 and 2008) with their respective wind fields suggests that plume deposition is the controlling factor rather than variability in the soils and that these leaves do indeed have potential as bio-indicators of the plume's dispersion. Magnetic analysis of the leaves shows that the spatial distribution of saturation isothermal remanent magnetisation (SIRM) and magnetic susceptibility ( χlf) values display a strong correlation with the wind-influenced plume transport direction for 2008, with elevated concentrations of magnetic minerals on the eastern flanks, in broad agreement with the ICP-MS data. This spatial

  8. A new Zanclognatha from eastern North America and a preliminary key to the larvae of the genus (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Herminiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, David L.; McCabe, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The adult of a widespread but previously undescribed species of Zanclognatha Lederer is described from eastern North America. Images of the mature larva and life history datafor Zanclognatha dentata sp. n. are included, along with a preliminary key to the larvae of ten eastern North American Zanclognatha species. PMID:22207796

  9. Seedling emergence, growth and trace elements tolerance and accumulation by Lamiaceae species in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Zornoza, R; Conesa, E; Gómez-López, M D; Faz, A

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of three Laminaceae species (Lavandula dentata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) for the phytostabilisation of a trace elements contaminated (acid) soil has been evaluated. These species were grown in mine tailing soil unamended (TS) and amended with calcium carbonate and pig manure (ATS), and unpolluted substrate for control (CT); plant growth, root characterisation, soil trace elements contents and their accumulation in plants were measured. Results indicated that seed emergence was independent from substrate characteristics, but seedlings died in TS with 40% survival in ATS. The biomass of L. dentata and T. vulgaris and root development in R. officinalis were negatively affected when grown in TS but without differences between ATS and CT. Applicating amendments reduced soil exchangeable and extractable fractions concentrations of trace elements in ATS compared with TS. The establishment of L. dentata and R. officinalis were related to trace elements immobilisation. Trace element concentrations in plants grown in tailing soils were similar to those reported for control, although applicating amendments reduced Zn accumulation in all species, and favoured increased absorption and aerial translocation of As and Pb by L. dentata and T. vulgaris; nonetheless, levels were below toxicity thresholds. Thus, these species fulfill the criteria for phytostabilisation purposes, aided by employing amendments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of the leafhopper genus Alnetoidia Dlabola (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of  two new species.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanghui; Yang, Meixia; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-11-17

    Generic characteristics of genus Alnetoidia Dlabola are revised based on study of nine species from China, including two new species: A. (Alnetoidia) gracilis, A. (Alnella) dentata spp. nov., and four new records to China. A key to species for identification of Chinese adult males is provided.

  11. A contribution to Asian Afidentula Kapur (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachnini)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingmin; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Ren, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Afidentula, Afidentula dentata sp. n. and Afidentula jinpingensis sp. n. are described from China. Afissa siamensis Dieke is moved to Afidentula comb. n.. All three species are described and illustrated, and a distribution map is given. A key to Asian species of Afidentula is updated. Diagnostic similarities and differences between Afidentula and Afidenta are discussed and illustrated. PMID:26312018

  12. Prenatal Protein Malnutrition Affects the Density of GABAergic Interneurons During Hippocampus Development in Rats.

    PubMed

    González-Maciel, Angélica; Romero-Velázquez, Rosa María; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Uribe-Escamilla, Rebeca; Vargas-Sánchez, Javier; de la Garza-Montaño, Paloma; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal protein malnutrition disrupts the pattern of maturation and development of the hippocampus and its neuroanatomy and increases inhibition of the granular cell layer of the fascia dentata. If local gamma-aminobutyric acid inter-neurons are partly responsible for inhibition of the hippocampus, it is reasonable to assume that there may be an increase in the gamma-aminobutyric acid cell population of prenatal protein malnutrition rats. This experimental study was conducted to ascertain the effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on the density of GABAergic interneurons at the cornus ammonis and fascia dentata in rats. Animals were investigated under two nutritional conditions: (i) prenatal protein malnutrition group fed 6% protein, and (ii) well-nourished control group fed 25% protein. Using an antibody for gamma-aminobutyric acid, immunoreactive cells (GABAergic) were assessed in the rostral-caudal direction of the dorsal hippocampus at four levels. (i) In 30-day-old rats with prenatal malnutrition, the fascia dentata had an average of 27% more GABAergic cells than the control group; this higher amount was not detectable at 90 days. (ii) There was a significant 18% increase in GABAergic neurons at level 1 of the cornus ammonis at 90 days of age. There was an increase in the population of interneurons in the fascia dentata and cornus ammonis in prenatal protein malnutrition rats. We conclude that prenatal hypoprotein malnutrition produces changes at 30 days in the fascia dentata. Results suggest that prenatal malnutrition also produces a delay in the programmed chronology of gamma-aminobutyric acid interneurons. Finally, in cornus ammonis, at 90 days of age, prenatal protein malnutrition showed an increase only at level 1; this effect may be evidenced in the long term, despite postnatal rehabilitation.

  13. Master Plan: Lake Barkley, Cumberland River, Kentucky - Tennessee.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    plunging sycline) of Paleozoic rocks in which sediments ranging in age from Jurassic to Holocene have been deposited. Most of the embayment has been...1976):124-129 Clebsch, Alfred. "Bryo-hvtes of Land Between the Lakes, Kentucky-Tennessee". Castanea . 39(1974):295-339. Ellis, W. H., Wofford, L. S., and...Chester, W. "A preliminary checklist of flowering plants of Land Between the Lakes". Castanea . 36(1971):229-246. Etnier, D. A. "A Checklist of the

  14. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, October 15, 1957 EAST WING DETAIL SHOWING GOTHIC PANELLING IN DOORS AND HARDWARE. - Jayne Building, 242-244 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 1. Photocopy of lithograph (from Annual Report of the Supervising ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of lithograph (from Annual Report of the Supervising Architect to the Secretary for the Calendar Year Ending December 31, 1888) GENERAL VIEW, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Old U.S. Mint, Chestnut & Juniper Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. SOUTH (WEST) ELEVATION, CLOCK DETAIL. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (WEST) ELEVATION, CLOCK DETAIL. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-S(W)-7 157.4646. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. WEST ELEVATION, UPPER MIDDLE (CLOCK FACE). Glass plate stereopair number ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION, UPPER MIDDLE (CLOCK FACE). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-W-8 157.4666. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. WEST ELEVATION, UPPER MIDDLE (CLOCK FACE). Glass plate stereopair number ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION, UPPER MIDDLE (CLOCK FACE). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-W-8 157.4666. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. SOUTH (WEST) ELEVATION, CLOCK DETAIL. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (WEST) ELEVATION, CLOCK DETAIL. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-S(W)-7 157.4646. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. A Practical Field Method of Site Evaluation for Commercially Important Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; W.M. Broadfoot

    1979-01-01

    A new method of evaluating sites for planted cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, green ash, hackberry, sugarberry, pecan, yellow poplar and Nuttall, water, willow, swamp chestnut, Shumard and cherrybark oaks is presented.