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Sample records for chick embryo limb

  1. Dlx-5 in limb initiation in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, D; Harrington, A; Dealy, C N; Kosher, R A

    1999-09-01

    Dlx-5 is a vertebrate homolog of the Drosophila Distal-less gene, one of the first genetic signals for limb formation in the fly. In the present study we have explored the possible role of Dlx-5 in limb initiation in the chick embryo. At stage 14 which is well before the initial formation of limb buds Dlx-5 is highly and specifically expressed in the ectoderm of the presumptive wing and leg forming regions of the lateral plate, but not in the intervening non-limb forming prospective flank. Thus, Dlx-5 expression distinguishes the limb-forming territories prior to limb budding, and is one of the first molecular markers of vertebrate limb initiation. Furthermore, Dlx-5 expression is induced in the non-limb-forming flank within 12 hours after implantation of an FGF2-soaked bead, a procedure that results in the induction of an ectopic limb. The rapid induction of Dlx-5 expression in response to a signal which ultimately leads to supernumerary limb formation is consistent with a role for Dlx-5 in limb initiation. We have also examined the expression of Dlx-5 in the limb buds of amelic limbless mutant chick embryos, which undergo normal limb formation but do not form an AER and thus fail to undergo further outgrowth. Dlx-5 is transiently expressed by the ectoderm of emergent limbless limb buds, consistent with a role for Dlx-5 in limb initiation. Together, our results suggest that Dlx-5 may be involved in the specification of the limb territories of the lateral plate, and in the initial formation of the limb bud from these regions. Dev Dyn 1999;216:10-15.

  2. The development of functional innervation in the hind limb of the chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L; Morris, D G

    1975-01-01

    1. The development of functional motor innervation was studied in the hind limb of chick embryos from Stages 25 to 43 by observing contraction of individual muscles and by recording the resultant tension when individual spinal nerves were electrically stimulated. 2. At later developmental stages (35-43) a given muscle always received functional innervation from specific spinal nerves. This pattern, with respect to the craniocaudal position of motoneurones, was similar to those described for amphibians and mammals. 3. The observed pattern was similar throughout development from the time that movement could first be elicited at Stages 27-28. There was no indication that motoneurones form initial synapses with inappropriate muscles. 4. Recordings from muscle nerves during excitation of individual spinal nerves gave results similar to the tension recordings, showing that even at early developmental stages muscle nerves did not contain substantial numbers of inappropriate axons. 5. Most limb muscles or primitive muscle masses became functionally innervated at the same time with no clearly defined proximo-distal sequence of limb innervation. 6. It appears that chick motoneurones are initially specified with respect to their peripheral destination and grow out selectively to synapse with appropriate muscles from the outset. PMID:1177095

  3. IGF-I, insulin and FGFs induce outgrowth of the limb buds of amelic mutant chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Dealy, C N; Kosher, R A

    1996-04-01

    IGF-I, insulin, FGF-2 and FGF-4 have been implicated in the reciprocal interactions between the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and underlying mesoderm required for outgrowth and patterning of the developing limb. To study further the roles of these growth factors in limb outgrowth, we have examined their effects on the in vitro morphogenesis of limb buds of the amelic mutant chick embryos wingless (wl) and limbless (ll). Limb buds of wl and ll mutant embryos form at the proper time in development, but fail to undergo further outgrowth and subsequently degenerate. Wl and ll limb buds lack thickened AERs capable of promoting limb outgrowth, and their thin apical ectoderms fail to express the homeobox-containing gene Msx-2, which is highly expressed by normal AERs and has been implicated in regulating AER activity. Here we report that exogenous IGF-I and insulin, and, to a lesser extent, FGF-2 and FGF-4 induce the proliferation and directed outgrowth of explanted wl and ll mutant limb buds, which in vitro, like in vivo, normally fail to undergo outgrowth and degenerate. IGF-I and insulin, but not FGFs, also cause the thin apical ectoderms of wl and ll limb buds to thicken and form structures that grossly resemble normal AERs and, moreover, induce high level expression of Msx-2 in these thickened AER-like structures. Neither IGF-I, insulin nor FGFs induce expression of the homeobox-containing gene Msx-1 in the subapical mesoderm of wl or ll limb buds, although FGFs, but not IGF-I or insulin, maintain Msx-1 expression in normal (non-mutant) limb bud explants lacking an AER. The implications of these results to the relationships among the wl and ll genes, IGF-I/insulin, FGFs, Msx-2 and Msx-1 in the regulation of limb outgrowth is discussed.

  4. Altered expression of the chicken homeobox-containing genes GHox-7 and GHox-8 in the limb buds of limbless mutant chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Coelho, C N; Krabbenhoft, K M; Upholt, W B; Fallon, J F; Kosher, R A

    1991-12-01

    It has been suggested that the reciprocal expression of the chicken homeobox-containing genes GHox-8 and GHox-7 by the apical ectodermal ridge and subjacent limb mesoderm might be involved in regulating the proximodistal outgrowth of the developing chick limb bud. In the present study the expression of GHox-7 and GHox-8 has been examined by in situ and dot blot hybridization in the developing limb buds of limbless mutant chick embryos. The limb buds of homozygous mutant limbless embryos form at the proper time in development (stage 17/18), but never develop an apical ectodermal ridge, fail to undergo normal elongation, and eventually degenerate. At stage 18, which is shortly following the formation of the limb bud, the expression of GHox-7 is considerably reduced (about 3-fold lower) in the mesoderm of limbless mutant limb buds compared to normal limb bud mesoderm. By stages 20 and 21, as the limb buds of limbless embryos cease outgrowth, GHox-7 expression in limbless mesoderm declines to very low levels, whereas GHox-7 expression increases in the mesoderm of normal limb buds which are undergoing outgrowth. In contrast to GHox-7, expression of GHox-8 in limbless mesoderm at stage 18 is quantitatively similar to its expression in normal limb bud mesoderm, and in limbless and normal mesoderm GHox-8 expression is highly localized in the anterior mesoderm of the limb bud. In normal limb buds, GHox-8 is also expressed in high amounts by the apical ectodermal ridge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Interactions between FGF18 and retinoic acid regulate differentiation of chick embryo limb myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Mok, Gi Fay; Cardenas, Ryan; Anderton, Helen; Campbell, Keith H S; Sweetman, Dylan

    2014-12-15

    During limb development Pax3 positive myoblasts delaminate from the hypaxial dermomyotome of limb level somites and migrate into the limb bud where they form the dorsal and ventral muscle masses. Only then do they begin to differentiate and express markers of myogenic commitment and determination such as Myf5 and MyoD. However the signals regulating this process remain poorly characterised. We show that FGF18, which is expressed in the distal mesenchyme of the limb bud, induces premature expression of both Myf5 and MyoD and that blocking FGF signalling also inhibits endogenous MyoD expression. This expression is mediated by ERK MAP kinase but not PI3K signalling. We also show that retinoic acid (RA) can inhibit the myogenic activity of FGF18 and that blocking RA signalling allows premature induction of MyoD by FGF18 at HH19. We propose a model where interactions between FGF18 in the distal limb and retinoic acid in the proximal limb regulate the timing of myogenic gene expression during limb bud development.

  6. In ovo temperature manipulation differentially influences limb musculoskeletal development in two lines of chick embryos selected for divergent growth rates.

    PubMed

    Al-Musawi, Sara L; Stickland, Neil C; Bayol, Stéphanie A M

    2012-05-01

    Selective breeding has led to diverging phenotypic evolution in layer and broiler chickens through genomic and epigenetic modifications. Here we show that in ovo environmental manipulation differentially influences embryonic limb muscle phenotype in these two breeds. We demonstrate that raising incubation temperature from 37.5 to 38.5°C between embryonic days (ED) 4 and 7 increased motility and body mass in both layer and broiler embryos. In layers, this was accompanied by gastrocnemius muscle hypertrophy, increased fibre and nuclei numbers and a higher nuclei to fibre ratio (ED18), preceded by increased hindlimb Myf5 (ED5-8), Pax7 (ED5-10), BMP4 (ED6-9) and IGF-I (ED9-10, ED18) mRNAs. In broilers, the same temperature treatment led to reduced gastrocnemius cross-sectional area with fewer fibres and nuclei and an unchanged fibre to nuclei ratio (ED18). This was preceded by a delay in the peak of hindlimb Myf5 expression, increased Pax7 (ED5, ED7-10) and BMP4 (ED6-8) but reduced IGF-I (ED8-10) mRNAs. Rather than promoting myogenesis as in layer embryos, the temperature treatment promoted gastrocnemius intramuscular fat deposition in broilers (ED18) preceded by increased hindlimb PPARγ mRNA (ED7-10). The treatment increased tibia/tarsus bone length as well as femur cross-sectional area in both breeds, but femur length and bone to cartilage ratio in the femur and tibia/tarsus were only increased in treated layers (ED18). We conclude that in ovo temperature manipulation differentially affected the molecular regulation of hindlimb myogenic, adipogenic and growth factor expression in broiler and layer embryos, leading to differential changes in muscle phenotype. The underlying interactive mechanisms between genes and the environment need further investigation.

  7. Application of sonic hedgehog to the developing chick limb.

    PubMed

    Tiecke, Eva; Tickle, Cheryll

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe methods for applying Sonic hedgehog (Shh) to developing chick limbs. The Sonic hedgehog gene is expressed in the polarizing region, a signaling region at the posterior margin of the limb bud and application of Shh-expressing cells or Shh protein to early limb buds mimics polarizing region signaling. The polarizing region (or zone of polarizing activity) is involved in one of the best known cell-cell interactions in vertebrate embryos and is pivotal in controlling digit number and pattern. At later stages of limb development, the application of Shh protein to the regions between digit primordia can induce changes in digit morphogenesis.

  8. A Chick Embryo in-Vitro Model of Knee Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Edward K.; Munasinghe, Jeeva

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this feasibility study, a mechanically loaded in-vitro tissue culture model of joint morphogenesis using the isolated lower extremity of the 8 day old chick embryo was developed to assess the effects of mechanical loading on joint morphogenesis. Methods: The developed in-vitro system allows controlled flexion and extension of the chick embryonic knee with a range of motion of 20 degrees from a resting position of 90-100 degrees of flexion. Joint morphogenesis at 2, 3, 4 and 7 days of culture was assessed by histology and micro MRI in 4 specimen types: undisturbed in-ovo control embryos, in-ovo paralyzed embryos, in-vitro unloaded limb cultures, and in-vitro loaded limb cultures. Relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration across the joint was assessed with an MRI technique referred to as dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage) where T1 is proportional to glycosaminoglycan concentration. Results: Average T1 over the entire tissue image for the normal control (IC) knee was 480 msec; for the 4 day loaded specimen average T1 was 354 msec; and for the 7 day loaded specimens T1 was 393 msec. The 4 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 279 msec while the 7 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 224 msec. The higher T1 values in loaded than unloaded specimens suggest that more glycosaminoglycan is produced in the loaded culture than in the unloaded preparation. Conclusion: Isolated limb tissue cultures under flexion-extension load can be viable and exhibit more progression of joint differentiation and glycosaminoglycan production than similarly cultured but unloaded specimens. However, when compared with controls consisting of intact undisturbed embryos in-ovo, the isolated loaded limbs in culture do not demonstrate equivalent amounts of absolute growth or joint differentiation. PMID:27200386

  9. Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0 mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6 μmol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5 μmol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

  10. EXPERIMENTAL VIBRIO INFECTIONS OF DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYOS

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Armine T.

    1946-01-01

    Developing chick embryos are highly susceptible to infection with strains on V. cholerae representing Gardner and Venkatraman's 6 groups and the types Inaba and Ogawa. There is a moderate decrease in susceptibility with advancing age of the embryo. The influence of dosage on survival rates is not marked, probably because a minimal dose, consisting of a very few organisms, is sufficient to produce death rapidly. Passive protection of a low order is conferred on the embryos by the introduction of inactivated specific immune serum at the time of inoculation of vibrios. This protective influence is enormously enhanced by the previous or simultaneous administration of guinea pig complement. The antigens of group I organisms which give rise to embryo-protective and bacteriolytic antibodies are dual in character. One antigen is shared by all members of the group and is productive of antibodies which will protect against infections with all strains of the group, of whatever type. The other antigen is type-specific, and its antibodies are protective and lytic only for organisms of the homologous type. PMID:19871571

  11. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

  12. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-06-01

    During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Moreover, being naturally immunodeficient, the chick embryo may receive transplantations from different tissues and species, without immune responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Hensen's node and retinoic acid in secondary axis induction in the early chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Solursh, M

    1992-10-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and Hensen's node, the organizer center in the chick embryo, have been shown to have polarizing activity when applied or grafted into the chick limb bud. Here we investigate and compare the effects of RA and grafted Hensen's node on the early chick embryo. Anion exchange beads soaked with RA at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 ng/ml and implanted on the anterior side or on the left side of the host anteroposterior axis of a stage 4 chick embryo in ovo have the ability to induce secondary axis formation, while beads soaked with RA of the same concentration and implanted on the right side or on the posterior side of the host axis are unable to induce the secondary axis. All of the induced axes contain trunk-tail structures. Hensen's node from quail embryos implanted into the early chick blastoderm could also cause the formation of secondary axes in addition to self-differentiation of the graft into a secondary axis. Both RA and grafted Hensen's node caused the inhibition of forebrain development with an increase in hindbrain development and the host heart to loop in an abnormal direction. The results support the hypothesis that Hensen's node is a source of RA which is involved in early embryogenesis. Alternatively, RA might stimulate the formation of Hensen's nodal properties in adjacent tissue.

  14. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, A. S.; Charlton, B. G.; Hutchinson, J. R.; Gustafsson, T.; McGonnell, I. M.; Timmons, J. A.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development. PMID:28165010

  15. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement.

    PubMed

    Pollard, A S; Charlton, B G; Hutchinson, J R; Gustafsson, T; McGonnell, I M; Timmons, J A; Pitsillides, A A

    2017-02-06

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development.

  16. Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

  17. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  18. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  19. CULTIVATION OF CHICKEN POX VIRUS IN DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYOS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The virus of chicken pox adapts readily and multiplies in the chorio- allantoic membranes of a chick embryo. A virus which has undergone several...passages on chorioallantoic membrane causes macroscopic changes in it. The chicken pox virus possesses a hemagglutinating capacity.

  20. Culturing Chick Embryos--A Simplification of New's Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simplified version of New's method for culturing early chick embryos. The technique allows continuous observation of the critical first three days of development and the conditions for setting up successful cultures are also presented to help both teachers and students. (HM)

  1. THE LETHAL EFFECT OF ENDOTOXINS ON THE CHICK EMBRYO

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard T.; Thomas, Lewis

    1956-01-01

    Inoculation of the CAM of the 10-day chick embryo with endotoxin preparations derived from the meningococcus and other Gram-negative microorganisms has been shown to result in multiple hemorrhages and death of the embryo within a few hours. Evidence has been presented to indicate that this lethal effect is specific for the general class of endotoxins derived from Gram-negative bacteria. Susceptibility to endotoxin was maximal in 10-day old embryos, and younger or older embryos showed little or no response. The optimal incubation temperature for the effect of endotoxin was 39.5°C., and embryos incubated at 28°C. were completely protected. The lethal effect was prevented by small amounts of cortisone, hydrocortisone, and 9-alpha fluorohydrocortisone, but not by cholesterol, desoxycorticosterone, or 1-dehydrocortisone. PMID:13345967

  2. Application of the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane in Neurosurgery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Wu, Wei; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane. Because of its ease of accessibility, extensive vascularization and immunodeficient environment, the CAM has been broadly used in the oncology, biology, pharmacy, and tissue regeneration research. The present review summarizes the application of the CAM in neurosurgery disease research. We focused on the use of the CAM as an assay for the research of glioma, vascular anomalies, Moyamoya Disease, and the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25419173

  3. Studies on Weak Electromagnetic Fields Effects in Chick Embryos.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-31

    of them for the field exposed eggs , the other for the controls. In the first one called "Experimental incubator", are located cylindric coils or...of fertilized chicken eggs in these experimental conditions. In our previous and present studies of EMFs effects on chick embryos development, the...of 34C for eggs in- F30. DISTISUTIONIAVAILAPUTY 00 "ITRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION UCkSSPION~oumITED 03 SAMES As apt. DOI USERS(U

  4. Comparison of Iroquois gene expression in limbs/fins of vertebrate embryos

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Laura A; Gerrelli, Dianne; Fok, Yvonne; Hurst, Laurence D; Tickle, Cheryll

    2010-01-01

    In Drosophila, Iroquois (Irx) genes have various functions including the specification of the identity of wing veins. Vertebrate Iroquois (Irx) genes have been reported to be expressed in the developing digits of mouse limbs. Here we carry out a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate Irx genes and compare expression in developing limbs of mouse, chick and human embryos and in zebrafish pectoral fin buds. We confirm that the six Irx gene families in vertebrates are well defined and that Clusters A and B are duplicates; in contrast, Irx1 and 3, Irx2 and 5, and Irx4 and 6 are paralogs. All Irx genes in mouse and chick are expressed in developing limbs. Detailed comparison of the expression patterns in mouse and chick shows that expression patterns of genes in the same cluster are generally similar but paralogous genes have different expression patterns. Mouse and chick Irx1 are expressed in digit condensations, whereas mouse and chick Irx6 are expressed interdigitally. The timing of Irx1 expression in individual digits in mouse and chick is different. Irx1 is also expressed in digit condensations in developing human limbs, thus showing conservation of expression of this gene in higher vertebrates. In zebrafish, Irx genes of all but six of the families are expressed in early stage pectoral fin buds but not at later stages, suggesting that these genes are not involved in patterning distal structures in zebrafish fins. PMID:20408909

  5. Comparison of Iroquois gene expression in limbs/fins of vertebrate embryos.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Laura A; Gerrelli, Dianne; Fok, Yvonne; Hurst, Laurence D; Tickle, Cheryll

    2010-06-01

    In Drosophila, Iroquois (Irx) genes have various functions including the specification of the identity of wing veins. Vertebrate Iroquois (Irx) genes have been reported to be expressed in the developing digits of mouse limbs. Here we carry out a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate Irx genes and compare expression in developing limbs of mouse, chick and human embryos and in zebrafish pectoral fin buds. We confirm that the six Irx gene families in vertebrates are well defined and that Clusters A and B are duplicates; in contrast, Irx1 and 3, Irx2 and 5, and Irx4 and 6 are paralogs. All Irx genes in mouse and chick are expressed in developing limbs. Detailed comparison of the expression patterns in mouse and chick shows that expression patterns of genes in the same cluster are generally similar but paralogous genes have different expression patterns. Mouse and chick Irx1 are expressed in digit condensations, whereas mouse and chick Irx6 are expressed interdigitally. The timing of Irx1 expression in individual digits in mouse and chick is different. Irx1 is also expressed in digit condensations in developing human limbs, thus showing conservation of expression of this gene in higher vertebrates. In zebrafish, Irx genes of all but six of the families are expressed in early stage pectoral fin buds but not at later stages, suggesting that these genes are not involved in patterning distal structures in zebrafish fins.

  6. Titration of vaccinia virus by intravenous injection of chick embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, C.

    1960-01-01

    The final test of a smallpox vaccine is its capacity to prevent the disease from developing in inoculated individuals. This capacity, however, cannot be measured directly, so that other methods of assessing the efficacy of vaccine have had to be developed. A laboratory method—pock counting on the chorio-allantoic membrane of chick embryos—has recently been shown to provide a reasonably reliable estimate of the number of infective units in a given vaccine. In this paper, the author compares this pock-counting method with another method—titration by intravenous injection of chick embryos. He concludes that, although the reproducibility of titrations by intravenous injection compares very favourably with that obtained by chorio-allantoic inoculation, the former method would not be advantageous for the assay of vaccines, since it is very time-consuming and since differences in virulence might obscure comparisons between the efficacy of vaccines. PMID:14404376

  7. Myogenic potential of chick limb bud mesenchyme in micromass culture.

    PubMed

    Archer, C W; Langille, R M; Teran, M A; Solursh, M

    1992-01-01

    The myogenic potential of chick limb mesenchyme from stages 18-25 was assessed by micromass culture under conditions conductive to myogenesis, and was measured as the proportion of differentiated (muscle myosin-positive) mononucleated cells detected. It was found that similar myogenic potentials existed in mesenchyme from whole limbs between stages 18 and 19, but this potential was halved by stage 20. At stage 21, proximal mesenchyme showed significantly more myogenesis than distal mesenchyme, but this difference was abolished by stage 22. Thereafter, myogenesis was increasingly restricted from the distal mesenchyme, whilst the potential in more proximal regions did not significantly increase after stage 23. When the ratio between total limb myoblasts which differentiated on days 1 and 4 of culture was analysed, it was found that two distinct peaks existed at stages 20 and 23. The significance of these ratio peaks is unclear, but may be related to different proliferative potentials of the pre-myoblasts at these stages.

  8. Distinct modes of floor plate induction in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Patten, Iain; Kulesa, Paul; Shen, Michael M; Fraser, Scott; Placzek, Marysia

    2003-10-01

    To begin to reconcile models of floor plate formation in the vertebrate neural tube, we have performed experiments aimed at understanding the development of the early floor plate in the chick embryo. Using real-time analyses of cell behaviour, we provide evidence that the principal contributor to the early neural midline, the future anterior floor plate, exists as a separate population of floor plate precursor cells in the epiblast of the gastrula stage embryo, and does not share a lineage with axial mesoderm. Analysis of the tissue interactions associated with differentiation of these cells to a floor plate fate reveals a role for the nascent prechordal mesoderm, indicating that more than one inductive event is associated with floor plate formation along the length of the neuraxis. We show that Nr1, a chick nodal homologue, is expressed in the nascent prechordal mesoderm and we provide evidence that Nodal signalling can cooperate with Shh to induce the epiblast precursors to a floor-plate fate. These results indicate that a shared lineage with axial mesoderm cells is not a pre-requisite for floor plate differentiation and suggest parallels between the development of the floor plate in amniote and anamniote embryos.

  9. Using the amniotic cavity of the developing chick embryo for the in vivo culture of early-stage mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Blakewood, E G; Jaynes, J M; Johnson, W A; Godke, R A

    1989-12-01

    The fertile chicken egg may provide an effective, inexpensive method for promoting the development of early-stage embryos from other species. Presently, the loss of viability associated with the in vitro culture of mammalian embryos is hindering the use of in vitro fertilization with farm animals. Consequently, alternative in vitro laboratory methods are needed for the culture of mammalian embryos. A new method has been developed that involves the culture of mammalian embryos in the amniotic cavity of a developing chick embryo. Chick embryos were placed into shell-less incubation (37 C) at the 72-h developmental stage. After 24 h of shell-less incubation, agarose-embedded mammalian embryos were injected into the amniotic cavity of the chick embryo. The mammalian embryos were first placed into a drop of liquid agarose. One to four embryos were then aspirated into a beveled injection pipette and cooled, allowing the agarose to harden. Following penetration of the amnion with the beveled pipette, the agarose cylinder containing the embryos was expelled into the amniotic cavity. The shell-less culture system was then returned to incubation at 37 C for an additional 72 to 96 h. Following incubation, the amniotic cavity containing both chick and mammalian embryos was isolated and the agarose-embedded mammalian embryos were harvested. Significantly more embryos developed in the chick embryo amnion than in the control medium alone. Results obtained using this method on laboratory animals (mice) and on domestic mammals (goats and cattle) indicate that the chick-embryo amnion can support the development of early-stage, mammalian embryos to the blastocyst stage of development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Peritoneal dialysis in the chick embryo with gastroschisis].

    PubMed

    López de Torre, B; Tovar, J A; Uriarte, S; Aldazabal, P

    1992-10-01

    The ever increasing possibilities of prenatal diagnosis and intra-uterine treatment of malformations has created the need for simple and reproducible experimental models on which to build a better knowledge of the biology of the abnormal fetus. Using our own model of experimental gastroschisis (GX) in the chick embryo, we have undertaken to study whether transperitoneal exchanges of water and solutes take place after prolonged visceral exposure to the mixture of amniotic and allantoic fluids which has a greater content in Potassium, Urea, and Proteins and less sodium, chloride and glucose than fetal blood. After surgical evisceration of bowel on the 14th day, incubation was resumed until the 19th day and the embryos were then recovered for weighing and for blood sampling biochemical analysis. The chicks with GX had significantly increased serum Potassium and minimally increased Urea whereas Sodium and Chloride were moderately decreased. Our data confirm that a real peritoneal dialysis with transperitoneal exchange of water and solutes between extraembryonal fluids and the fetal internal environment does indeed take place in this model.

  11. MicroRNA processing machinery in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Carraco, Gil; Gonçalves, Ana N; Serra, Carlos; Andrade, Raquel P

    2014-11-01

    Gene expression regulation during embryo development is under strict regulation to ensure proper gene expression in both time and space. The involvement of microRNAs (miRNA) in early vertebrate development is documented and inactivation of different proteins involved in miRNA synthesis results in severe malformations or even arrests vertebrate embryo development. However, there is very limited information on when and in what tissues the genes encoding these proteins are expressed. Herein, we report a detailed characterization of the expression patterns of DROSHA, DGCR8, XPO5 and DICER1 in the developing chick embryo, from HH1 (when the egg is laid) to HH25 (5-days incubation), using whole mount in situ hybridization and cross-section analysis. We found that these genes are co-expressed in multiple tissues, mostly after stage HH4. Before early gastrulation DICER1 expression was never detected, suggesting the operation of a Dicer-independent pathway for miRNA synthesis. Our results support an important role for miRNAs in vertebrate embryo development and provide the necessary framework to unveil additional roles for these RNA processing proteins in development.

  12. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Choi, Hee Jung; Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Young Min; Rengaraj, Deivendran; Nagai, Hiroki; Sheng, Guojun; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  13. Expression of the short stature homeobox gene Shox is restricted by proximal and distal signals in chick limb buds and affects the length of skeletal elements.

    PubMed

    Tiecke, Eva; Bangs, Fiona; Blaschke, Rudiger; Farrell, Elizabeth R; Rappold, Gudrun; Tickle, Cheryll

    2006-10-15

    SHOX is a homeobox-containing gene, highly conserved among species as diverse as fish, chicken and humans. SHOX gene mutations have been shown to cause idiopathic short stature and skeletal malformations frequently observed in human patients with Turner, Leri-Weill and Langer syndromes. We cloned the chicken orthologue of SHOX, studied its expression pattern and compared this with expression of the highly related Shox2. Shox is expressed in central regions of early chick limb buds and proximal two thirds of later limbs, whereas Shox2 is expressed more posteriorly in the proximal third of the limb bud. Shox expression is inhibited distally by signals from the apical ectodermal ridge, both Fgfs and Bmps, and proximally by retinoic acid signaling. We tested Shox functions by overexpression in embryos and micromass cultures. Shox-infected chick limbs had normal proximo-distal patterning but the length of skeletal elements was consistently increased. Primary chick limb bud cell cultures infected with Shox showed an initial increase in cartilage nodules but these did not enlarge. These results fit well with the proposed role of Shox in cartilage and bone differentiation and suggest chick embryos as a useful model to study further the role of Shox in limb development.

  14. Release of acetylcholine by chick embryo heart before innervation

    PubMed Central

    Coraboeuf, E.; Le Douarin, G.; Obrecht-Coutris, G.

    1970-01-01

    1. In chick embryo hearts, 3-day-old and not yet innervated, repetitive direct stimulation causes a transitory inhibition of the spontaneous rhythm. 2. The degree of post-stimulation inhibition depends on the frequency and duration of the artificial stimulation and on the concentration of K and Ca ions in the extracellular solution. 3. After treatment with atropine (10-5 g/ml.) post-stimulation inhibition is no longer observed. The spontaneous rhythm is accelerated by atropine. The findings therefore suggest that an ACh-like substance is released from the non-innervated embryonic heart during activity. 4. By use of the dorsal muscle of the leech for biological assay the liberation of an ACh-like substance from the non-innervated embryonic heart was confirmed. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:5498489

  15. Cytoskeletal elements of chick embryo fibroblasts revealed by detergent extraction.

    PubMed

    Brown, S; Levinson, W; Spudich, J A

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of chick embryo fibroblasts with 0.5% Triton X-100 extracts most of the cell protein, leaving an organized part of the cell structure attached to the tissue culture dish. This "Triton cytoskeleton" consists largely of intermediate-sized filaments and bundles of microfilaments. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that this cytoskeleton is made up of three main proteins. One protein component is 42,000 daltons and co-migrates with muscle actin. The other two components are 52,000 and 230,000 daltons and remain quantitatively associated with the cytoskeleton during the detergent extraction. The possible identity of these three protein components and their organization into a supramolecular structure is discussed.

  16. Creatine regulation in the embryo and growing chick

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Oscar; Calva, Edmundo; Trejo, Augusto

    1970-01-01

    1. The absence of creatine was demonstrated enzymically in the hen's-egg yolk and in the albumin contrary to former reports. 2. A comparison of the results obtained by enzymic and colorimetric methods to measure creatine is presented. 3. Creatine phosphate was not detected in the yolk extracts. 4. The content of free arginine enzymically assayed was 15.7μmol in the yolk and 3.38μmol in the albumin. Arginine amounts to practically all of the guanidine compounds in the yolk and one-half of those in the albumin. 5. No glycine amidinotransferase activity was found in the egg-yolk homogenates. 6. The heart of the chick embryo does not receive creatine from the egg and the creatine kinase activity present in this organ starting from the 27th hour of incubation suggests that the enzyme is a constitutive one working probably as an adenosine triphosphatase in a way similar to the kinase isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. 7. Liver glycine amidinotransferase activity appeared clearly after day 5 of incubation. The specific activity reached a maximum at day 12 and then declined; however, the activity per total mass of liver increased steadily during all the prenatal period. Concomitantly with this steady increase a rise in the creatine content of the whole embryo was observed. An analogous increasing relationship between total liver amidinotransferase activity and liver creatine content was also detected during the postnatal period. 8. Repression of amidinotransferase by creatine cannot be accepted as occurring under physiological conditions since an inverse relationship between the two parameters was not observed. 9. Repression of liver amidinotransferase is observed only when pharmacological concentrations of the exogenous creatine are present in the chick liver. PMID:5493509

  17. How the embryo makes a limb: determination, polarity and identity.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2015-10-01

    The vertebrate limb with its complex anatomy develops from a small bud of undifferentiated mesoderm cells encased in ectoderm. The bud has its own intrinsic polarity and can develop autonomously into a limb without reference to the rest of the embryo. In this review, recent advances are integrated with classical embryology, carried out mainly in chick embryos, to present an overview of how the embryo makes a limb bud. We will focus on how mesoderm cells in precise locations in the embryo become determined to form a limb and express the key transcription factors Tbx4 (leg/hindlimb) or Tbx5 (wing/forelimb). These Tbx transcription factors have equivalent functions in the control of bud formation by initiating a signalling cascade involving Wnts and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and by regulating recruitment of mesenchymal cells from the coelomic epithelium into the bud. The mesoderm that will form limb buds and the polarity of the buds is determined with respect to both antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes of the body. The position in which a bud develops along the antero-posterior axis of the body will also determine its identity - wing/forelimb or leg/hindlimb. Hox gene activity, under the influence of retinoic acid signalling, is directly linked with the initiation of Tbx5 gene expression in the region along the antero-posterior axis of the body that will form wings/forelimbs and determines antero-posterior polarity of the buds. In contrast, Tbx4 expression in the regions that will form legs/hindlimbs is regulated by the homeoprotein Pitx1 and there is no evidence that Hox genes determine antero-posterior polarity of the buds. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling determines the region along the dorso-ventral axis of the body in which both wings/forelimbs and legs/hindlimbs develop and dorso-ventral polarity of the buds. The polarity of the buds leads to the establishment of signalling regions - the dorsal and ventral ectoderm, producing Wnts and BMPs

  18. Actin organization in chick embryo fibroblasts after influenza virus infection. I. Isolation and characterization of actin from chick embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Krizanová, O; Závodská, E; Solariková, L; Ciampor, F; Kocisková, D

    1984-05-01

    Comparison of two starting materials for actin purification has shown that preparation of actin from aceton-dried cytoskeleton was more effective than from native chick embryos (CE). The isolated actin formed a single band of Mr = 42-43000 in SDS-PAGE; less purified samples revealed additional faint bands. G form of actin (non-polymerized) inhibited the activity of DNase I, electron microscopy showed actin filaments and bundles formed upon its polymerization. The freshly purified homogeneous actin has not lost its DNase I-inhibiting activity when incubated for 60 min at 35 degrees or 45 degrees C. Older or less purified actin samples kept under similar conditions showed 18-25% decrease of their DNase I-inhibiting activity and a loss of their polymerization ability. Digestion with trypsin caused a decrease of DNase I-inhibiting activity of fresh as well as for older actin samples.

  19. Respiratory gas exchange of high altitude adapted chick embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangensteen, O. D.; Rahn, H.; Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Study of gas exchange by embryos from chickens acclimatized to an altitude of 3800 m. The oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure differences across the egg shell were measured and found to be less than the values previously reported for sea-level eggs by about a factor of two. Further measurements of embryonic oxygen consumption and shell conductivity to oxygen indicated that, compared to eggs at sea level, oxygen consumption was reduced by a factor of 0.58 while conductivity to oxygen was increased only by a factor of 1.07 in the high-altitude eggs. These independent measurements predict the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell of the high-altitude eggs to be only 0.54 times that of sea-level eggs; the directly measured factor was 0.53. The authors conclude that at high altitude, a major adaptation of the chick embryo is a reduced metabolism which decreases the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell since its gas conductivity remains essentially unchanged.

  20. Respiratory gas exchange of high altitude adapted chick embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangensteen, O. D.; Rahn, H.; Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Study of gas exchange by embryos from chickens acclimatized to an altitude of 3800 m. The oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure differences across the egg shell were measured and found to be less than the values previously reported for sea-level eggs by about a factor of two. Further measurements of embryonic oxygen consumption and shell conductivity to oxygen indicated that, compared to eggs at sea level, oxygen consumption was reduced by a factor of 0.58 while conductivity to oxygen was increased only by a factor of 1.07 in the high-altitude eggs. These independent measurements predict the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell of the high-altitude eggs to be only 0.54 times that of sea-level eggs; the directly measured factor was 0.53. The authors conclude that at high altitude, a major adaptation of the chick embryo is a reduced metabolism which decreases the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell since its gas conductivity remains essentially unchanged.

  1. The chick embryo as an expanding experimental model for cancer and cardiovascular research

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Kristin H.; Miller, James W.I.; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Thomason, Rebecca T.; Lewis, John D.; Bader, David M.; Barnett, Joey V.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-01-01

    A long and productive history in biomedical research defines the chick as a model for human biology. Fundamental discoveries, including the description of directional circulation propelled by the heart and the link between oncogenes and the formation of cancer, indicate its utility in cardiac biology and cancer. Despite the more recent arrival of several vertebrate and invertebrate animal models during the last century, the chick embryo remains a commonly used model for vertebrate biology and provides a tractable biological template. With new molecular and genetic tools applied to the avian genome the chick embryo is accelerating the discovery of normal development and elusive disease processes. Moreover, progress in imaging and chick culture technologies is advancing real-time visualization of dynamic biological events, such as tissue morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. A rich background of information, coupled with new technologies and relative ease of maintenance suggest an expanding utility for the chick embryo in cardiac biology and cancer research. PMID:24357262

  2. High frequency ultrasound imaging of the growth and development of the normal chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Schellpfeffer, Michael A; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to delineate with high frequency ultrasound imaging the normal growth and development of the chick embryo throughout its incubation period. White Leghorn chick embryos were imaged through an opening in the egg air cell from incubation day 0-19 (Hamburger & Hamilton stage 1-45) using a 13 MHz clinical high frequency linear small parts transducer. Multiple anatomic growth parameters were measured. Normal growth was confirmed with Hamburger and Hamilton staging. A timeline was constructed showing when each anatomic growth parameter could be visualized. Means and standard deviations of each parameter were plotted against incubation days studied to create nomograms and numerical tables of normal growth and development of the chick embryo. With this set of data, abnormal growth and development of the chick embryo can now be assessed.

  3. The effects of solcoseryl on the growth and multiplication of chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated "in vitro".

    PubMed

    Brasseur, R; De Paermentier, F

    1979-01-01

    The action of Solcoseryl, a free protein extract of calf blood, was studied on chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated in vitro. Solcoseryl stimulates the permitotic DNA synthesis and increases the number of mitoses.,

  4. The expression of Flrt3 during chick limb development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Terence G; Tickle, Cheryll

    2006-01-01

    The Flrt3 (Fibronectin-Leucine-Rich Transmembrane protein) gene encodes a fibronectin and leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein whose expression is controlled by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). FLRT3 has been implicated in neurite outgrowth after nerve damage, as a positive regulator of FGF signalling and in homotypic cell adhesion. Here we describe Flrt3 expression during chick embryonic limb development using whole-mount in situ hybridization. We found very dynamic expression during apical ridge formation and limb bud outgrowth. Initially Flrt3 is expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme, but then becomes restricted to the dorsal and ventral sides of the apical ridge as a twin stripe. At later stages, abundant expression is seen in the hindlimb and in both the pectoral and pelvic girdle-forming regions. FLRT3 may have a crucial role in regulating cellular adhesion between the epithelial apical ridge and the underlying mesenchyme and in establishing the dorso-ventral position of the ridge.

  5. Endoderm/mesoderm multiplication rates in stage 5-12 chick embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    Multiplication rates for the endoderm/mesoderm layer of the head-process to 17-somite-stage chick embryo were studied by implanting essentially identical transplants labeled with tritiated thymidine into paired recipient embryos. One recipient was fixed as soon as the transplant had healed (after 30 min) and the other was reincubated an additional 3.5 to 22.5 hr; the ratios of labeled cells in the paired embryos provided points on a graph that indicated that doubling of endoderm/mesoderm cells in head-process-stage chick embryos occurs at approximately 4.0 and 17.2 hr of reincubation.

  6. Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, John C.

    1981-01-01

    A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

  7. Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, John C.

    1981-01-01

    A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

  8. Hypoxia Induces Dilated Cardiomyopathy in the Chick Embryo: Mechanism, Intervention, and Long-Term Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shakil; Crispi, Fatima; van Bilsen, Marc; Carmeliet, Peter; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Tjwa, Marc; Cetin, Irene; Gratacos, Eduard; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hofstra, Leo; Jacobs, Michael; Lamers, Wouter H.; Morano, Ingo; Safak, Erdal; Ahmed, Asif; le Noble, Ferdinand

    2009-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased future risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Hypoxia in utero is a common clinical cause of fetal growth restriction. We have previously shown that chronic hypoxia alters cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The aim of this study was to further characterize cardiac disease in hypoxic chick embryos. Methods Chick embryos were exposed to hypoxia and cardiac structure was examined by histological methods one day prior to hatching (E20) and at adulthood. Cardiac function was assessed in vivo by echocardiography and ex vivo by contractility measurements in isolated heart muscle bundles and isolated cardiomyocytes. Chick embryos were exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its scavenger soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) to investigate the potential role of this hypoxia-regulated cytokine. Principal Findings Growth restricted hypoxic chick embryos showed cardiomyopathy as evidenced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation, reduced ventricular wall mass and increased apoptosis. Hypoxic hearts displayed pump dysfunction with decreased LV ejection fractions, accompanied by signs of diastolic dysfunction. Cardiomyopathy caused by hypoxia persisted into adulthood. Hypoxic embryonic hearts showed increases in VEGF expression. Systemic administration of rhVEGF165 to normoxic chick embryos resulted in LV dilatation and a dose-dependent loss of LV wall mass. Lowering VEGF levels in hypoxic embryonic chick hearts by systemic administration of sFlt-1 yielded an almost complete normalization of the phenotype. Conclusions/Significance Our data show that hypoxia causes a decreased cardiac performance and cardiomyopathy in chick embryos, involving a significant VEGF-mediated component. This cardiomyopathy persists into adulthood. PMID:19357774

  9. Inhibition of PHOSPHO1 activity results in impaired skeletal mineralization during limb development of the chick.

    PubMed

    Macrae, Vicky E; Davey, Megan G; McTeir, Lynn; Narisawa, Sonoko; Yadav, Manisha C; Millan, Jose Luis; Farquharson, Colin

    2010-04-01

    PHOSPHO1 is a bone-specific phosphatase implicated in the initiation of inorganic phosphate generation for matrix mineralization. The control of mineralization is attributed to the actions of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). However, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing apatite crystals are present in patients with hypophosphatasia as well as TNAP null (Akp2(-/-)) mice. It is therefore likely that other phosphatases work with TNAP to regulate matrix mineralization. Although PHOSPHO1 and TNAP expression is associated with MVs, it is not known if PHOSPHO1 and TNAP are coexpressed during the early stages of limb development. Furthermore, the functional in vivo role of PHOSPHO1 in matrix mineralization has yet to be established. Here, we studied the temporal expression and functional role of PHOSPHO1 within chick limb bud mesenchymal micromass cultures and also in wild-type and talpid(3) chick mutants. These mutants are characterized by defective hedgehog signalling and the absence of endochondral mineralization. The ability of in vitro micromass cultures to differentiate and mineralize their matrix was temporally associated with increased expression of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP. Comparable changes in expression were noted in developing embryonic legs (developmental stages 23-36HH). Micromass cultures treated with lansoprazole, a small-molecule inhibitor of PHOSPHO1 activity, or FGF2, an inhibitor of chondrocyte differentiation, resulted in reduced alizarin red staining (P<0.05). FGF2 treatment also caused a reduction in PHOSPHO1 (P<0.001) and TNAP (P<0.001) expression. Expression analysis by whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization correlated with qPCR micromass data and demonstrated the existence of a tightly regulated pattern of Phospho1 and Tnap expression which precedes mineralization. Treatment of developing embryos for 5 days with lansoprazole completely inhibited mineralization of all leg and wing long bones as assessed by alcian blue/alizarin red staining

  10. Extracellular pancuronium affects sodium current in chick embryo sensory neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Maestrone, E.; Magnelli, V.; Nobile, M.; Usai, C.

    1994-01-01

    1. The action of pancuronium on transmembrane sodium conductance was investigated in dorsal root ganglion neurones of chick embryos. The Na+ current was measured by use of the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. 2. Externally perfused pancuronium (50 microM to 1 mM) reversibly inhibited the current by a fast mechanism of action. Inhibition was concentration-dependent (with a half-effective dose of 170 microM) but not voltage-dependent. 3. The activation and inactivation kinetics of the Na+ current were estimated in pancuronium and in control solution by fitting experimental data with a Hodgkin-Huxley theoretical model. 4. The activation time constant tau m, at negative membrane voltages, was larger in the presence of pancuronium than in the control. In contrast, the inactivation time constant tau h was smaller during drug perfusion at membrane voltages < -10 mV. The steady-state inactivation h infinity was not affected by pancuronium. 5. These results suggest that pancuronium may reduce the sodium current by interacting with the sodium channels in both the resting and open states. PMID:8012707

  11. Chick embryo proliferation studies using EdU labeling.

    PubMed

    Warren, Michelle; Puskarczyk, Karolina; Chapman, Susan C

    2009-04-01

    Cell proliferation studies are an important experimental tool. The most commonly used thymidine analogues, tritiated thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) label cells during S-phase. Both methods have significant drawbacks: low sensitivity in the case of tritiated thymidine and a denaturation step during BrdU detection that destroys most cellular epitopes, requiring careful optimization. The antibody against BrdU is also large and tissue penetration can be difficult. EdU (5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) is closely chemically related to BrdU, with detection achieved by a copper catalyzed reaction requiring a small fluorescently conjugated azide. Cell cultures, flow cytometry and high throughput studies using EdU-labeled cells is exceptionally fast and does not require denaturation or antibodies. We have developed a tissue-labeling technique in chick embryos using EdU. Following EdU chemistry to detect proliferating cells, the tissue can undergo immunolabeling. We demonstrate fluorescent EdU chemistry followed by Tuj1 antibody staining resulting in multiplex fluorescent tissues.

  12. Studies on weak electromagnetic fields effects in chick embryos. Annual report, June 1985-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-31

    This research was directed to test some experimental conditions of the Henhouse project and to enforce a previous study on VLF electromagnetic fields effects on chick embryos. Henhouse Project: the response of White Leghorn Hisex embryos to field exposures effective on the Shaver breed, was studied. 1) A 48-hour exposure, in vivo, to a pulsed horizontal field of 100-Hz frequency, 1.0 micro T intensity, 500-microsecond pulse duration and 2-microsecond rise time induced a significant increase of developmental abnormalities in Hisex embryos. 2) A five-hour exposure of stage 7 Hisex embryos changed the Mitotic Index of their neural tissue. So, the early development of Hisex embryos, like Shaver embryos, can be modified by VLF pulsed electromagnetic fields. In the protocol of the Henhouse project, it was suggested a temperature of 38 C for eggs incubation. Studying the development of chick embryos in relation to the temperature, in the range of 37.4-40 C, it was confirmed that a 48-hour incubation at 38 C (with 55% humidity) does not induce abnormalities and allows a convenient developmental growth rate of the chick embryos. Electromagnetic fields effects in relation to the embryos orientation: preliminary results on the induction of abnormalities in field exposed embryos in relation to their orientation were confirmed. In a East-West oriented horizontal pulsed field, the organisms oriented to Southwest and Southeast showed a significant increase of developmental abnormalities. No effect was appreciable among the embryos Southward oriented.

  13. Excess Imidacloprid Exposure Causes the Heart Tube Malformation of Chick Embryos.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Rui; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Jing; Liang, Chang; Chen, En-Ni; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Chuai, Manli; Bao, Yong-Ping; Wang, Guang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-11-30

    As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control sucking insects on agricultural planting and fleas on domestic animals. However, the extent to which imidacloprid exposure has an influence on cardiogensis in early embryogenesis is still poorly understood. In vertebrates, the heart is the first organ to be formed. In this study, to address whether imidacloprid exposure affects early heart development, the early chick embryo has been used as an experimental model because of its accessibility at its early developmental stage. The results demonstrate that exposure of the early chick embryo to imidacloprid caused malformation of heart tube. Furthermore, the data reveal that down-regulation of GATA4, NKX2.5, and BMP4 and up-regulation of Wnt3a led to aberrant cardiomyocyte differentiation. In addition, imidacloprid exposure interfered with basement membrane breakdown, E-cadherin/laminin expression, and mesoderm formation during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastrula chick embryos. Finally, the DiI-labeled cell migration trajectory indicated that imidacloprid restricted the cell migration of cardiac progenitors to primary heart field in gastrula chick embryos. A similar observation was also obtained from the cell migration assay of scratch wounds in vitro. Additionally, imidacloprid exposure negatively affected the cytoskeleton structure and expression of corresponding adhesion molecules. Taken together, these results reveal that the improper EMT, cardiac progenitor migration, and differentiation are responsible for imidacloprid exposure-induced malformation of heart tube during chick embryo development.

  14. Toxico-pathological effects of in ovo inoculation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chick embryos and subsequently in hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Zahoor-ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz; Bhatti, Sheraz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the toxico-pathological effects of in ovo inoculation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken embryos and subsequently in the hatching chicks. Nine hundred fertile white leghorn (WL) layer breeder eggs were divided into eight groups (A-H). Group A was maintained as untreated control, whereas group B was kept as sham control (10 µL of 0.1 M NaHCO(3) solution). Before incubation, groups C, D, E, F, G, and H were injected with 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 µg OTA/egg, respectively. At 53 hrs of incubation, crown to rump length, optic cups, and eye lens diameters were significantly (p ≤ .05) lower, whereas neural tube closure defects were higher in the OTA-treated embryos. Teratogenic defects (studied at day 9 of incubation) and embryonic mortalities were higher in the groups administered high doses of OTA. A significant increase was noted in the serum concentration of ALT, urea, and creatinine, along with higher weights of liver and kidney, in chicks hatched from OTA-contaminated eggs. These findings suggested that there are teratogenic and substantive toxicological risks in the developing chicken embryos and hatched chicks that could be exposed to OTA in ovo.

  15. Mutagenic and teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide on the chick embryo: chromosomal aberrations and cell proliferation in affected and unaffected tissues.

    PubMed

    Novotná, B; Jelínek, R

    1990-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations and cell proliferation were analyzed in the chick embryo blood, limb bud, and facial tissues 12 and 24 hours after cyclophosphamide (CP) administration on day 3. The cytogenic findings were compared with teratogenic effects evaluated on incubation day 8. Low dose (0.3 micrograms) resulting in heart defects exclusively, increased the frequency of aberrant cells with simultaneous depression of cell proliferation in blood only. High dose of CP (6 micrograms), besides the heart defects, also induced facial clefts and limb malformations, and strong clastogenic effects associated with mitotic inhibition were observed in all tissues investigated. The results support the idea that the consequences of mutagenic action of cyclophosphamide--cell cycle delay and excessive death of cells with unstable aberrations--result in abnormal morphogenesis.

  16. Ethical euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Herr, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs are suggested as an alternative to mammalian models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is widely used for examination of angiogenesis, xenotransplants and for virus production. Unfortunately, it is mostly not taken into account, that the chick embryo's ability to experience pain starts to develop at day 7 of breeding. In our view, this model is only in accordance with the 3 R principles, if an appropriate anesthesia of the chick embryo in potentially painful procedures is provided. Although many experimental approaches are performed on the none-innervated CAM, the euthanasia of the embryo strongly requires a more human technique than the usually used freezing at -20°C, decapitation or in ovo fixation with paraformaldehyde without prior anesthesia. However, protocols regarding feasible and ethical methods for anesthesia and euthanasia of avian embryos are currently not available. Therefore, we established an easy and reliable method for the euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

  17. Establishment of a chick embryo model for analyzing liver development and a search for candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, Yuji

    2005-08-01

    The liver plays a crucial role in metabolism. There is considerable interest in how the liver develops, as such knowledge could prove of importance in regenerative medicine. However, our understanding of liver development remains somewhat limited. We have developed a model system using the chick embryo that is cost effective and is easy to manipulate experimentally. We performed four fundamental studies: (i) construction of an atlas of the developing chick liver; (ii) identification of differentiation marker genes in the developing chick embryo; (iii) development of germ-layer specific electroporation; and (iv) establishment of organ culture from the developing chick liver. Using this system, we have been able to demonstrate the functions of candidate genes within a shorter period and in a more cost-effective manner. In parallel with the establishment of this system, we examined the expression patterns of genes known to be required for organ development in the developing chick embryo in order to identify genes also involved in liver development. To date, we have found sixteen genes that are expressed in the developing chick liver (GELD, genes expressed in liver development). This knowledge will be fundamental to the establishment of the basic technology for engineering liver tissue in the future.

  18. Studies on the endogenous phospholipids of chick embryo myocardium and their in vitro hydrolysis by endogenous phospholipases during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Fatma M; Aikins, Anthea; Hughes, Jeniter; Belfield, Carrie; Juracka, Amal

    2007-01-01

    The phospholipid profiles of the myocardium (from 10- and 18-day old chick embryos and 13-day old chick) and their in vitro response to the endogenous lipolytic enzymes (mainly of the phospholipase group) at pH 7.4 and 38 degrees C for 60 min were analyzed by TLC technology and densitometry. Cardiolipin (CL) was shown to be one of the major phospholipids of the chick embryo myocardium and its concentration increased as the chick embryo advanced in development. Monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) was produced subsequent to in vitro incubation of whole tissue homogenates in all myocardia studied as well as a concurrent reduction in CL. This deacylation of CL increased in magnitude as the chick embryo advanced in development indicating its age relatedness. The level of phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) plasmalogen was also high in all myocardia studied. Lyso alkenyl PE (LPE) was produced subsequent to in vitro incubation and its level increased as the chick embryo advanced in development, indicating PLA(2) action on the sn-2 fatty acid of PE. Phosphatidyl choline (PC) plasmalogen was also present in the chick embryo myocardium and its level increased gradually as the chick embryo advanced in development. In contrast, yolk-sac membrane contains very minute amounts of CL and PE. No PC was detected and no LPE was formed following in vitro incubation. The yolk of the unfertilized chicken egg has no CL and has very minute amounts of PE, no PC and no lysophospholipids were detected following in vitro incubation in all samples analyzed.

  19. [Influence of L.5-hydroxytryptophan (L.5-HTP) on the development of chick embryo].

    PubMed

    Schowing, J; Sprumont, P; Van Toledo, B

    1977-01-01

    L.5-hydroxytryptophan (L.5-HTP) injections provoke, in the chick embryo, some malformations of the nervous system, when treated at 24 hours of incubation. The same treatement after 48 hours of incubation does not lead to malformations, but to a reduction in size which is as much obvious as the embryos are treated at a later stage. It seems that there could be some relation between the serotonin metabolism and the growth hormon secretion.

  20. Cannabinoid receptor, CB1, expression follows neuronal differentiation in the early chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Begbie, Jo; Doherty, Patrick; Graham, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and endocannabinoid signalling has been widely studied in the adult nervous system. However, an emerging body of evidence suggests that the CB1 receptor may also play a role during development. Here we have scrutinized the expression profile of the CB1 receptor from the onset of neurogenesis in the chick embryo. We find that this gene exhibits a dynamic expression pattern that spatially and temporally follows neuronal differentiation in the early embryo. PMID:15379926

  1. Investigation of the chick embryo as a potential alternative to the mouse for evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Haller, Stephanie; Ametamey, Simon M; Schibli, Roger; Müller, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    The chick embryo is an emerging in vivo model in several areas of pre-clinical research including radiopharmaceutical sciences. Herein, it was evaluated as a potential test system for assessing the biodistribution and in vivo stability of radiopharmaceuticals. For this purpose, a number of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with (18)F, (125)I, (99m)Tc, and (177)Lu were investigated in the chick embryo and compared with the data obtained in mice. Chick embryos were cultivated ex ovo for 17-19 days before application of the radiopharmaceutical directly into the peritoneum or intravenously using a vein of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). At a defined time point after application of radioactivity, the embryos were euthanized by shock-freezing using liquid nitrogen. Afterwards they were separated from residual egg components for post mortem imaging purposes using positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT images revealed uptake of [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate and [(125)I]iodide in the thyroid of chick embryos and mice, whereas [(177)Lu]lutetium, [(18)F]fluoride and [(99m)Tc]-methylene diphosphonate ([(99m)Tc]-MDP) were accumulated in the bones. [(99m)Tc]-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) and the somatostatin analog [(177)Lu]-DOTATOC, as well as the folic acid derivative [(177)Lu]-DOTA-folate showed accumulation in the renal tissue whereas [(99m)Tc]-mebrofenin accumulated in the gall bladder and intestine of both species. In vivo dehalogenation of [(18)F]fallypride and of the folic acid derivative [(125)I]iodo-tyrosine-folate was observed in both species. In contrast, the 3'-aza-2'-[(18)F]fluorofolic acid ([(18)F]-AzaFol) was stable in the chick embryo as well as in the mouse. Our results revealed the same tissue distribution profile and in vivo stability of radiopharmaceuticals in the chick embryo and the mouse. This observation is promising with regard to a potential use of the chick embryo as an inexpensive and simple

  2. Neuronal damage in chick and rat embryos following X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, B.F.; Norton, S.

    1980-12-01

    Exposure of rat and chick embryos to X-irradiation at the time of development of neurons at the telencephalic-diencephalic border results in prolonged damage to neurons in this area as measured by neuronal nuclear size. A dose of 100 rads to the seven-day-old chick embryo has about the same effect as 125 rads to the 15-day-old rat fetus. The nuclear volume of large, multipolar neurons in the chick paleostriatum primitivum and the rat lateral preoptic area are reduced from 10 to 15%. Larger doses of X-irradiation to the chick (150 and 200 rads) cause progressively greater reductions in nuclear size. The large neurons which were measured in the rat and chick are morphologically similar in the two species. Both contain cytoplasmic acetylcholinesterase and have several branched, spiny dendritic processes. The similarity of response of chick and rat neurons to X-irradiation diminishes the significance of maternal factors as the cause of the effects of fetal irradiation in these experiments.

  3. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on embryo and chick development, growth, and behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize an avian model to determine the effects of 60-Hz electric fields on embryo and chick development. A specially designed incubator allowed simultaneous incubation of control eggs and eggs exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Two series of experimental voltages were utilized for this study. In Series 1, the subject eggs were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kV/m fields and, in Series 2, eggs were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 kV/m. Data were collected on mortality, malformation, and growth (weight) of 7- and 14-day-old embryos after continuous exposure to electric fields. Eggs were also incubated, exposed to electric fields, and hatched in order to collect data on chick weights at one day and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after hatching. Behavior tests on newly hatched chicks that had been exposed to electric fields during development were also performed. The results indicated no consistent effect of 60-Hz electric fields, varying from 0.1 to 100 kV/m, on mortality, malformations, weights, bone growth (metatarsal length), or behavior of embryos or chicks. This study strongly suggests that within the scope of this project, there is no consistent direct effect of 60 Hz electric fields on the health and well-being of avian embryos. A dose-response analysis was also utilized in which all the data in each series, for each age of the embryos, were simultaneously evaluated in a statistical model. This analysis demonstrated that there is no significant dose-response of electric fields on 7- and 14-day-old embryo and 1-day-old chick weights. 24 refs., 21 figs., 56 tabs.

  4. Chick embryos can form teratomas from microinjected mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Seiki; Matsubara, Yuko; Hosoe, Misa

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether chick embryos are a suitable experimental model for the evaluation of pluripotency of stem cells. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) expressing the reporter gene, LacZ or GFP were injected into the subgerminal cavity of blastoderms (freshly oviposited) or the marginal vein of chick embryos (2 days of incubation). Injected mESCs were efficiently incorporated into the body and extra-embryonic tissues of chick embryos and formed small clusters. Increased donor cell numbers injected were positively associated with the efficiency of chimera production, but with lower viability. A single mESC injected into the blastoderm proliferated into 34.7 ± 3.8 cells in 3 days, implying that the chick embryo provides an optimal environment for the growth of xenogenic cells. In the embryo body, mESCs were interspersed as small clustered chimeras in various tissues. Teratomas were observed in the yolk sac and the brain with three germ layers. In the yolk sac, clusters of mESCs gradually increased in volume and exhibited varied morphology such as a water balloon-like or dark-red solid mass. However, mESCs in the brain developed into a large soft tissue mass of whitish color and showed a tendency to differentiate into ectodermal lineage cells, including primitive neural ectodermal and neuronal cells expressing the neurofilament protein. These results indicate that chick embryos are useful for the teratoma formation assays of mESCs and have a broad-range potential as an experimental host model.

  5. Production of a monoclonal antibody by in vitro immunization that recognizes a native chondroitin sulfate epitope in the embryonic chick limb and heart.

    PubMed

    Capehart, A A; Wienecke, M M; Kitten, G T; Solursh, M; Krug, E L

    1997-11-01

    We report the production of a monoclonal antibody (d1C4) by in vitro immunization that has immunoreactivity with a native chondroitin sulfate epitope in embryonic chick limb and heart. Murine lymphocytes were stimulated by direct exposure to unfixed, unsolubilized precartilage mesenchymal aggregates in high-density micromass culture derived from Stage 22-23 chick limb buds. Specificity of d1C4 reactivity was demonstrated by sensitivity of immunohistochemical staining to pretreatment with chondroitinase ABC or AC, preferential immunoreactivity with chondroitin-6-sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS-C GAG) in ELISA, and competition of immunohistochemical staining with CS-C GAG. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of the d1C4 epitope revealed a striking localization of immunoreactivity in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of precartilage aggregates of chick limb mesenchyme in high-density micromass culture by 16 hr and the prechondrogenic limb core at Stage 23 in vivo. Immunoreactivity in both cultured limb mesenchyme and the embryonic limb continued through differentiation of prechondrogenic condensations into cartilage tissue. In the developing chick heart, d1C4 staining was found throughout the ECM of atrioventricular cushion tissue by Stage 25, but was localized to mesenchyme adjacent to the myocardium in the outflow tract cushions. There was an abrupt demarcation between d1C4-reactive intracardiac mesenchyme and unreactive extracardiac mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium in the Stage 22 embryo. This study demonstrates the efficacy of in vitro immunization of lymphocytes for the production of MAbs to native ECM constituents, such as CS-GAGs. Immunohistochemical data utilizing d1C4 suggest that CS-GAGs bearing this epitope may be important in early morphogenetic events leading to cartilage differentiation in the limb and valvuloseptal morphogenesis in the heart.

  6. Effects of brief hypoxia and hyperoxia on tissue element levels in the development chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, M.P.; Stock, M.K.; Metcalfe, J. Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland )

    1991-03-15

    Brief hypoxia or hyperoxia has been shown to affect growth and metabolism of chick embryos during the later stages of development. The objective of this experiment was to alter the availability of oxygen to chick embryos developing in ovo and to determine the effects on tissue levels of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn. Hypoxia reduced embryo, heart, brain and liver wts (wet wt), whereas, hyperoxia increased embryo, heart, lung and liver wts compared to normoxic controls. Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) wt was increased by hypoxia and reduced by hyperoxia. Livers from hyperoxic embryos contained more Zn, Fe and Mn and less Cu than livers from hypoxic or normoxic embryos. Tissue levels of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn were reduced in brains from hypoxic compared to hyperoxic or normoxic embryos. Hyperoxia increased the concentrations of Zn and Cu in CAM; whereas, hypoxia reduced the levels of Zn and Fe. The amounts of Zn and Cu were increased in hyperoxic compared to normoxic lungs. Hearts from hyperoxic embryos had more Zn, Cu and Mn than hypoxic or normoxic hearts. Hypoxic yolk sac contained more Zn, Cu and Mn than hyperoxic or normoxic yolk sac. Except for yolk sac, the amounts of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in tissues from normoxic embryos increased from day 15 to day 18 of incubation in concert with tissue growth. The authors conclude that the availability of O{sub 2} to the developing chick embryo affects tissue trace element levels either through its effects on tissue growth or via effects on the regulation of trace element uptake and assimilation by the tissues.

  7. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  8. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  9. Adrenocortical suppression in highland chick embryos is restored during incubation at sea level.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos E; Villena, Mercedes; Blanco, Carlos E; Giussani, Dino A

    2011-01-01

    By combining the chick embryo model with incubation at high altitude, this study tested the hypothesis that development at high altitude is related to a fetal origin of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary suppression and that hypoxia is the mechanism underlying the relationship. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at altitude with oxygen supplementation. At day 20 of incubation, embryonic blood was taken for measurement of plasma corticotropin, corticosterone, and Po(2). Following biometry, the adrenal glands were collected and frozen for measurement of catecholamine content. Development of chick embryos at high altitude led to pronounced adrenocortical blunting, but an increase in adrenal catecholamine content. These effects were similar whether the fertilized eggs were laid by sea-level or high altitude hens. The effects of high altitude on the stress axes were completely prevented by incubation at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. When chick embryos from high altitude hens were incubated at sea level, plasma hormones and adrenal catecholamine content were partially restored toward levels measured in sea-level chick embryos. There was a significant correlation between adrenocortical blunting and elevated adrenal catecholamine content with both asymmetric growth restriction and fetal hypoxia. The data support the hypothesis tested and provide evidence to isolate the direct contribution of developmental hypoxia to alterations in the stress system.

  10. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in the study of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, D

    2008-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is commonly used as an experimental in vivo assay to study both angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis in response to tissues, cells or soluble factors. This article summarizes literature data about the use of the CAM in the study of tumor angiogenesis and particularly our experimental data concerning the study of angiogenesis in multiple myeloma and in neuroblastoma.

  11. A method for detecting MFO induction by Japanese pulp mill effluents with chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kamaya, Yasushi

    1995-12-31

    As a biomarker of physiological responses in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents, mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction has been investigated by many researchers. The induction and/or inhibition of MFOs is generally affected by various factors of fish such as species, maturity, sex, size and spawning status, and by other environmental variables. Therefore, the method demands technical skills to get a constant result. In addition, the test is costly and also time consuming. In this paper, the authors propose a MFOs induction method using chick embryo, instead of fish, for the assessment of pulp mill effluent. The merits of this method are as follows; inexpensive and commercially available test organisms, easy maintenance of the organisms, no feeding, high uniformity of the developing stage, sensitive responses to xenobiotics, low sample volume requirements, easy testing of various samples at one time and minimal training. P450 1A1 has been found in the microsome of chick embryo. Metabolic function of the P450 1A1 can be regarded basically the same as that of fish. Small amount of xenobiotics, about 100 {micro}l, were injected into the air chamber of 16-day-old chick embryos. Liver microsomes were isolated 48 h after administration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined by the direct fluorimetric method. Using the chick embryo method, the authors analyzed various chloro-organics, model bleached kraft pulp mill effluents, model black liquor and several total effluents of Japanese pulp mills. Methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-TCDD were used as positive controls. In this paper, the authors will report the details of the chick embryo method and also some results of the assessment using the method.

  12. Chick Embryo Partial Ischemia Model: A New Approach to Study Ischemia Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Syamantak; Ilayaraja, M.; Seerapu, Himabindu Reddy; Sinha, Swaraj; Siamwala, Jamila H.; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemia is a pathophysiological condition due to blockade in blood supply to a specific tissue thus damaging the physiological activity of the tissue. Different in vivo models are presently available to study ischemia in heart and other tissues. However, no ex vivo ischemia model has been available to date for routine ischemia research and for faster screening of anti-ischemia drugs. In the present study, we took the opportunity to develop an ex vivo model of partial ischemia using the vascular bed of 4th day incubated chick embryo. Methodology/Principal Findings Ischemia was created in chick embryo by ligating the right vitelline artery using sterile surgical suture. Hypoxia inducible factor- 1 alpha (HIF-1α), creatine phospho kinase-MB and reactive oxygen species in animal tissues and cells were measured to confirm ischemia in chick embryo. Additionally, ranolazine, N-acetyl cysteine and trimetazidine were administered as an anti-ischemic drug to validate the present model. Results from the present study depicted that blocking blood flow elevates HIF-1α, lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite level in ischemic vessels while ranolazine administration partially attenuates ischemia driven HIF-1α expression. Endothelial cell incubated on ischemic blood vessels elucidated a higher level of HIF-1α expression with time while ranolazine treatment reduced HIF-1α in ischemic cells. Incubation of caprine heart strip on chick embryo ischemia model depicted an elevated creatine phospho kinase-MB activity under ischemic condition while histology of the treated heart sections evoked edema and disruption of myofibril structures. Conclusions/Significance The present study concluded that chick embryo partial ischemia model can be used as a novel ex vivo model of ischemia. Therefore, the present model can be used parallel with the known in vivo ischemia models in understanding the mechanistic insight of ischemia development and in evaluating the activity of anti

  13. Cranial differentiation in chick embryos with experimentally induced median facio-cerebral anomalies. A preliminary note.

    PubMed

    Been, W; Lieuw Kie Song, S H; van Limborgh, J

    1981-03-01

    In an effort to answer the question whether prosencephalic neural crest cells play an essential part in the differentiation of the facial skeleton, in twenty 2- to 6-somite stage chick embryos the anteriormost part of the neural crest was eliminated. Observations on 10 of these embryos, sacrificed 2 hours after the microlaser irradiation, showed that often also some damage is done to the prosencephalic neural tissue. Among the remaining 10 embryos, 6 survived until the age of 12 days. One of these embryos showed unilateral microphthalmia, two bilateral microphthalmia, two synophthalmia and one cyclopia. In the microphthalmic embryos, the facial skeleton proved to have differentiated normally; in the other embryos, several facial bones were entirely lacking, while others only had developed rudimentarily. All affected eyes lacked a cartilaginous sclera. On the basis of these results, the question posed could not be answered. On the other hand, however, the experiments revealed that (1) prosencephalic neural crest cells are indispensable for a normal differentiation of the scleral cartilage, (2) elimination of the prosencephalic neural crest and a part of the prosencephalon does not affect the development of the mandible and the hyoid, and (3) the mesodermal mesenchyme bordering the prosencephalon, has no developmental capacities of its own. Finally, the craniofacial anomalies observed in the synophthalmic and cyclopic chick embryos, proved to be highly similar to the corresponding anomalies in man.

  14. Selective excretion of yolk-derived tocotrienols into the bile of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Surai, P F; Speake, B K

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of biodiscrimination between different forms of vitamin E during the development of the chick embryo. The vitamin E present in the initial yolk consisted of alpha-tocopherol (90%), (beta + gamma)-tocopherol (8%), alpha-tocotrienol (0.3%) and (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (1.3%). In marked contrast, the vitamin E recovered from the bile of the day-16 embryo contained much higher proportions of alpha-tocotrienol (10%) and especially of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (42%). By the time of hatching, 56% of the vitamin E present in the bile was in the form of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol. The residual yolk of the newly-hatched chick contained far greater proportions of alpha-tocotrienol (2.6%) and (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (10%) than were present in the initial yolk. The results suggest that the liver of the embryo may selectively excrete tocotrienols as components of bile, whilst retaining the tocopherols within the hepatocytes. The increased proportions of tocotrienols in the residual yolk may result from the recycling of bile from the gall bladder to the yolk. The liver of the day-old chick contained alpha-tocopherol as the main form of vitamin E (90%) with only a small proportion (0.2%) of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol. The alpha-tocopherol form was also the main vitamin E component in the brain (85%), heart (79%), lung (82%) and adipose tissue (91%) of the day-old chick. The present study suggests the occurrence of a high degree of biodiscrimination between tocopherols and tocotrienols during the development of the chick embryo.

  15. The influence of propanediol-1,3 on the development of the legs, wings and lower beak of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Van Oostrom, C G; Van Limborgh, J

    1976-12-01

    In seven series of 31-34 chick embryos each, the influence of the position of the egg during incubation and of the administration of 0.05 ml propanediol-1,3 on the 5th day of incubation on the development and growth of the limbs and beak were studied. Isotonic saline injected embryos served as controls. The embryos were sacrificed at the age of 15 days. Incubation of the egg in a vertical position, with the air chamber pointing upward, proved to result in a slight, through significant reduction in the length of the limbs and beak. Propanediol was highly toxic if injected in the immediate vicinity of the embryo. If injected at some distance from the embryo, either into the air chamber or into the yolk, the agent proved to be teratogenic: measurements showed a considerable retardation of the longitudinal growth of the limbs and beak, the latter being a parrot beak in 60 per cent of the cases, whereas both the tibia and the metatarsals were, moreover, bent posteriorward. Histological studies of the tibia showed an underdevelopment of the periosteal bone collar and, at the angle of the bone, a replacement of the posterior part of this collar by endochondral bone trabeculae. The abnormalities observed are dissimilar to those demonstrated in hereditary congenital chondrodystrophy and in micromelic conditions induced by insulin or sulfonamides.

  16. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  17. Cardiac hypertrophy in chick embryos induced by hypothermia

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, C.; Johnson, T.R.; Caston, J.D.; Przybylski, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A decrease in incubation temperature from 38 to 32/sup 0/C elicits a decrease in chicken embryo size and weight with concomitant heart enlargement if done after day 10 of incubation. When assayed at day 18 of incubation with the hypothermia started on day 11 or 14, evidence is presented that the heart enlargement is an hypertrophy with no detectable hyperplasia. Supporting data are presented for various physical parameters showing increases in heart wet and dry weight, volume, area, wall thickness, and cell size. There was little difference in DNA content and nuclear (/sup 3/H)thymidine labeling index between hearts of control and hypothermic embryos. Hearts of hypothermic embryos showed a slight increase in water content and considerable increases in RNA, protein, and glycogen content per unit DNA. The average size of polysomes isolated from hypothermic hearts was larger than that of polysomes isolated from controls. Microscopic studies showed no obvious increase in amount of capillary beds, connective tissue, and myocardial cells. Annulate lamellae were found only in myocardial cells of hypothermic embryos in sparse amounts and low frequency but always associated with large deposits of glycogen.

  18. Early development of chick embryo respiratory nervous system: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, R; Parisi Salvi, E; Renda, T

    2006-10-01

    The extrinsic and intrinsic respiratory nervous systems receive specific contributions from the vagal and sympathetic components. Using specific markers for vagal and sympathetic structures, we studied the distribution patterns of immunoreactivity to galanin (GAL), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP) and the tachykinin substance P in extrinsic and intrinsic nerve of chick embryo respiratory system, during development from the very early age to hatching. All peptides studied appeared in the intrinsic and extrinsic nervous systems early. We found substance P in both the vagal and sympathetic systems, PACAP in vagal components alone and GAL mainly in the sympathetic system. The intrinsic nervous system showed high immunoreactivity for all peptides studied. These data accord with the well known early trophic functions that peptides have on the development of nervous networks and modulatory activity on the intrinsic nervous system. The GAL again proves to be the main peptide in chick embryo sympathetic respiratory system.

  19. Plasminogen-independent fibrinolysis by proteases produced by transformed chick embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L B; Buchanan, J M

    1975-01-01

    The fibrinolytic activity of proteases secreted by chick embryo fibroblasts infected with Rous sarcoma virus was studied by use of a procedure in which a fibrin clot was formed with highly purified fibrinogen and thrombin above the cell layer. This procedure results in the formation of fibrin that is apparently a more suitable substrate for studies on fibrinolysis than is fibrin prepared by other methods. Since neither plasminogen nor serum were included in the assay system in the present studies, the fibrinolytic activity observed cannot be ascribed to the conversion of the plasminogen in serum to plasmin by a plasminogen activator produced by transformed cells. Our procedure, therefore, measures proteolytic activities other than those reported by previous investigators. Maintenance of some of the transformed phenotypes of Rous sarcoma virus transformed chick embryo fibroblasts such as morpholigical change and increased rate of glucose uptake apparently does not depend on the presence of plasminogen in the culture medium. Images PMID:165484

  20. Effect of a single dose of ethanol on developing skeletal muscle of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Joydeep D

    2004-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a condition occurring in some children of mothers who have consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Many of these affected children show retarded physical growth in the postnatal period despite adequate nutrition. On the basis of findings from studies with animals, it has been proposed that this is due to allometric retardation of growth of skeletal muscle, although the exact reasons for this are not known. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural changes in skeletal muscle in fetal alcohol syndrome in an attempt to understand the mechanisms of growth retardation in fetal alcohol syndrome. Chick embryos were exposed to single doses of 5%, 10%, and 15% ethanol, and the effects on the general growth and development, as well as on the skeletal muscle, of these chicks were studied. There was a significant retardation in crown rump length, head circumference, and body weight in ethanol-exposed chicks when these parameters were compared with findings for appropriate control groups. This retardation was associated with significant and proportionate reductions in the weights of skeletal muscles. Microscopic examination of skeletal muscle showed areas of neutrophil infiltration and necrosis, suggestive of muscle damage, in chicks exposed to 10% and 15% ethanol. Thus, findings of the current study demonstrate the direct toxic effects of a single dose of ethanol on developing embryos in general and skeletal muscle in particular. The pathologic changes seen in skeletal muscle could account for the failure in postnatal growth in fetal alcohol syndrome.

  1. Collagen Formation by Fibroblasts of the Chick Embryo Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Keith R.; Pappas, George D.

    1959-01-01

    This investigation has sought to determine the relation between collagen fiber and fibroblast during fibrogenesis. Toward this end the surfaces of chick fibroblasts grown under in vitro conditions have been examined with the electron microscope after fixation in OsO4. Supplementary information has been obtained from thin sections of fibroblasts fixed in situ during phases of fiber production. The evidence provided by these studies and by various conditions of the experiments indicates that the unit fibrils of collagen form in close association with the cell surface. They were never observed within the cell. When these unit fibrils form in bundles it appears as though templates of some nature, possibly coinciding with stress fibers within the cell cortex, influence the polymerization of the fibrils out of material available at the cell surface. From here the fibrils and bundles of them are shed into the intercellular spaces and there grow to limited diameters by accretion of materials from the general milieu. PMID:13630947

  2. Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

    2007-03-01

    Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

  3. Human and rat glioma growth, invasion, and vascularization in a novel chick embryo brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Alexandra; Fotos, Joseph S; Little, Brian W; Galileo, Deni S

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms that control the insidiously invasive nature of malignant gliomas are poorly understood, and their study would be facilitated by an in vivo model that is easy to manipulate and inexpensive. The developing chick embryo brain was assessed as a new xenograft model for the production, growth, and study of human and rat glioma cell lines. Three established glioma lines (U-87 MG, C6, and 9L) were injected into chick embryo brain ventricles on embryonic day (E) 5 and brains were examined after several days to two weeks after injection. All glioma lines survived, produced vascularized intraventricular tumors, and invaded the brain in a manner similar to that in rodents. Rat C6 glioma cells spread along vasculature and also invaded the neural tissue. Human U-87 glioma cells migrated along vasculature and exhibited slight invasion of neural tissue. Rat 9L gliosarcoma cells were highly motile, but migrated only along the vasculature. A derivative of 9L cells that stably expressed the cell surface adhesion molecule NgCAM/L1 was produced and also injected into chick embryo brain ventricles to see if this protein could facilitate tumor cell migration away from the vasculature into areas such as axonal tracts. 9L/NgCAM cells, however, did not migrate away from the vasculature and, thus, this protein alone cannot be responsible for diffuse invasiveness of some gliomas. 9L/NgCAM cell motility was assessed in vitro using sophisticated time-lapse microscopy and quantitative analysis, and was significantly altered compared to parental 9L cells. These studies demonstrate that the chick embryo brain is a successful and novel xenograft model for mammalian gliomas and demonstrate the potential usefulness of this new model for studying glioma tumor cell growth, vascularization, and invasiveness.

  4. Pathological Changes Following the Inoculation of Chick Embryos with Adult Cells

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, P. M.; Payne, L. N.

    1961-01-01

    The pathological changes in the livers and spleens which occur after the inoculation of adult fowl blood into fifteen-day-old embryos have been followed for about 7 weeks. Three consecutive histological stages were noticed. The first two stages, termed the splenomegaly syndrome and the stage of lymphoid hyperplasia, closely resembled those described following the injection of adult spleen cells into fifteen-day-old embryos (Biggs and Payne, 1960). The third stage was found in chicks in the terminal stages of runt disease, and was characterized by involution of the lymphoid tissues. The significance of these changes is discussed. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6

  5. Metamizole Sodium Induces Neural Tube Defects in a Chick Embryo Model.

    PubMed

    Guvenc, Yahya; Billur, Deniz; Aydin, Sevim; Ozeren, Ersin; Demirci, Adnan; Alagoz, Fatih; Dalgic, Ali; Belen, Deniz

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metamizole sodium on neural tube development in the early stage chick embryo model that complies with the first month of embryonic development in mammals. A total of 40 fertilized chicken eggs were divided into 4 equal groups. The eggs were incubated in the incubator at a temperature of 37.8±2°C with 60±5% humidity. Group A was the control, Group B was administered physiological saline, Group C was administered 30 mg/kg metamizole sodium (based on the therapeutic index range of it used in humans) and Group D was administered 90 mg/kg metamizole sodium. All embryos were removed from the egg at the 48th hour and morphologically and histologically examined. Normal development was seen and the neural tube was closed in 17 embryos in Groups A and B. A neural tube defect was seen in 2 embryos in group A and in 1 embryo in group B. A neural tube closure defect was seen in all embryos in group C and 9 embryos in group D. There was 1 dead embryo in Group D. Metamizole sodium was seen to produce a neural tube defect in the chicken embyro model.

  6. Early events in retinoic acid-induced ptilopody in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Dhouailly, Danielle

    1983-01-01

    Intra-amniotic injection of 125 μg of retinoic acid to 10-day old chick embryos causes the formation of feathers on the scales of the anterior face of the tarsometatarsus.The early effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the chick foot integument have been studied between 12 h and 72 h following RA injections by two methods. Firstly, sequential fixation in glutaraldehyde and then osmium tetroxide to follow the early changes at the macroscopical and ultrastructural levels. Secondly, sequential grafts of contralateral samples on to chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of nontreated chick embryos to test their morphogenetic performance and to determine the minimum time for RA to take effect.Results show that during the first 24 h RA causes morphological changes of both epidermal and dermal cells in almost half of the injected embryos. In particular, the dermal-epidermal junction is transformed from scale-type into feather-type. However, the development of grafted samples shows that feather morphogenesis is irreversibly undertaken only 24 to 48 h after the treatment. At this stage, roundish feather-like placodes are formed instead of the normal rectangular, scale placodes. The scales, the formation of which has been temporarily inhibited, resume their development between 48 h and 72 h after the the injection, proximally to the feather buds, so that feathers are finally carried by the distal tips of the scales.

  7. Systematic assessment of blood circulation time of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles in the chick embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Liang, Liuen; Grebenik, Ekaterina; Guller, Anna; Lu, Yiqing; Qian, Yi; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs and contrast agents holds great promise in cancer research, because of the increased delivery efficiency compared to `free' drugs and dyes. A versatile platform to investigate nanotechnology is the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumour model, due to its availability (easy, cheap) and accessibility (interventions, imaging). In our group, we developed this model using several tumour cell lines (e.g. breast cancer, colon cancer). In addition, we have synthesized in-house silica coated photoluminescent upconversion nanoparticles with several functional groups (COOH, NH2, PEG). In this work we will present the systematic assessment of their in vivo blood circulation times. To this end, we injected chick embryos grown ex ovo with the functionalized UCNPs and obtained a small amount of blood at several time points after injection to create blood smears The UCNP signal from the blood smears was quantified using a modified inverted microscope imaging set-up. The results of this systematic study are valuable to optimize biochemistry protocols and guide nanomedicine advancement in the versatile chick embryo tumour model.

  8. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  9. Growth Retardation Of Chick Embryo Exposed To A Low Dose Of Electromagnetic Waves.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Najam; John C, Muthusami; Norrish, Mark; Heming, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the nonionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100% safe.

  10. Regeneration of the elbow joint in the developing chick embryo recapitulates development.

    PubMed

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Zapata, Mariana; Daniel Frugé, John; Coote, Jeffrey; Lee, Jangwoo; Muneoka, Ken; Anderson, Rosalie

    2012-12-15

    Synovial joints are among the most important structures that give us complex motor abilities as humans. Degenerative joint diseases, such as arthritis, cause loss of normal joint functioning and affect over 40 million people in the USA and approximately 350 million people worldwide. Therapies based on regenerative medicine hold the promise of effectively repairing or replacing damaged joints permanently. Here, for the first time, we introduce a model for synovial joint regeneration utilizing the chick embryo. In this model, a block of tissue that contains the prospective elbow is excised, leaving a window with strips of anterior and posterior tissue intact (window excision, WE). In contrast, we also slice out the same area containing the elbow and the distal piece of the limb is pinned back onto the stump (slice excision, SE). Interestingly, when the elbow is removed via WE, regeneration of the joint takes place, whereas the elbow joint does not regenerate following SE. In order to investigate whether the regeneration response recapitulates the developmental program of forming joints, we used GDF-5 and Autotaxin (Atx) as joint tissue specific markers, and Sox-9 and Col-9 as cartilage markers for in situ hybridization on sections at different time points after WE and SE surgeries. Re-expression of GDF-5 and Atx is observed in the WE samples by 60h after surgery. In contrast, the majority of the samples that underwent SE surgery did not express GDF-5 and Atx. Also, in SE fusion of cartilage elements takes place and the joint interzone does not form. This is indicated by continuous Col-9 expression in SE limbs, whereas Col-9 is downregulated at the joint interzone in the regenerating WE samples. This order and pattern of gene expression observed in regenerates is similar to the development of a joint suggesting that regeneration recapitulates development at the molecular level. This model defines some of the conditions required for inducing joint regeneration in an

  11. Integrating technologies for comparing 3D gene expression domains in the developing chick limb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Malcolm E.; Clelland, Allyson K.; Bain, Andrew; Baldock, Richard A.; Murphy, Paula; Downie, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll; Davidson, Duncan R.; Buckland, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Chick embryos are good models for vertebrate development due to their accessibility and manipulability. Recent large increases in available genomic data from both whole genome sequencing and EST projects provide opportunities for identifying many new developmentally important chicken genes. Traditional methods of documenting when and where specific genes are expressed in embryos using wholemount and section in-situ hybridisation do not readily allow appreciation of 3-dimensional (3D) patterns of expression, but this can be accomplished by the recently developed microscopy technique, Optical Projection Tomography (OPT). Here we show that OPT data on the developing chick wing from different labs can be reliably integrated into a common database, that OPT is efficient in capturing 3D gene expression domains and that such domains can be meaningfully compared. Novel protocols are used to compare 3D expression domains of 7 genes known to be involved in chick wing development. This reveals previously unappreciated relationships and demonstrates the potential, using modern genomic resources, for building a large scale 3D atlas of gene expression. Such an atlas could be extended to include other types of data, such as fate maps, and the approach is also more generally applicable to embryos, organs and tissues. PMID:18355805

  12. Activation patterns of embryonic chick hind limb muscles recorded in ovo and in an isolated spinal cord preparation.

    PubMed

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-02-01

    Muscle activation patterns of embryonic chick hind limb muscles were determined from electromyographic (e.m.g.) recordings in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation of stage 34-36 embryos, and were compared with in ovo e.m.g. activity from similarly staged embryos. Muscle activity in ovo consisted of periodically recurring sequences of bursts during which antagonistic muscles often alternated and synergistic muscles were co-active, as compatible with their mature function. However, more variable behaviour was also observed. Burst sequences in ovo were often initiated by a short-duration, high-amplitude discharge that occurred synchronously in all muscles studied, and which was followed by a period of electrical silence that was longest in the flexor muscles. This type of activity has not been described previously in mature animals. In ovo movement sequences were generally initiated by extensor activity which progressively declined in duration and intensity throughout the sequence, while flexor activity progressively intensified. The onset of activity in extensor muscles was accompanied by an abrupt decrease in flexor activity, whereas the converse was not observed. Spontaneous movement sequences also occurred when the spinal cord and hind limb were isolated and maintained in oxygenated Tyrode solution for several hours. Deafferentation experiments indicated that the motor pattern in this preparation was generated centrally by circuits within the spinal cord. Activity from the isolated cord was less variable than that occurring in ovo, consisting of sequences of highly regular recurring bursts. Each burst began with a brief high-amplitude discharge that occurred synchronously in all muscles and which was similar to that observed in ovo. This was followed by a silent period, which was longest in the flexors, and then by a more prolonged burst. Although its behaviour differs from that in ovo in some respects, it is concluded that the isolated cord maintained in

  13. Activation patterns of embryonic chick hind limb muscles recorded in ovo and in an isolated spinal cord preparation.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-01-01

    Muscle activation patterns of embryonic chick hind limb muscles were determined from electromyographic (e.m.g.) recordings in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation of stage 34-36 embryos, and were compared with in ovo e.m.g. activity from similarly staged embryos. Muscle activity in ovo consisted of periodically recurring sequences of bursts during which antagonistic muscles often alternated and synergistic muscles were co-active, as compatible with their mature function. However, more variable behaviour was also observed. Burst sequences in ovo were often initiated by a short-duration, high-amplitude discharge that occurred synchronously in all muscles studied, and which was followed by a period of electrical silence that was longest in the flexor muscles. This type of activity has not been described previously in mature animals. In ovo movement sequences were generally initiated by extensor activity which progressively declined in duration and intensity throughout the sequence, while flexor activity progressively intensified. The onset of activity in extensor muscles was accompanied by an abrupt decrease in flexor activity, whereas the converse was not observed. Spontaneous movement sequences also occurred when the spinal cord and hind limb were isolated and maintained in oxygenated Tyrode solution for several hours. Deafferentation experiments indicated that the motor pattern in this preparation was generated centrally by circuits within the spinal cord. Activity from the isolated cord was less variable than that occurring in ovo, consisting of sequences of highly regular recurring bursts. Each burst began with a brief high-amplitude discharge that occurred synchronously in all muscles and which was similar to that observed in ovo. This was followed by a silent period, which was longest in the flexors, and then by a more prolonged burst. Although its behaviour differs from that in ovo in some respects, it is concluded that the isolated cord maintained in

  14. Shell-Less Chick Embryo Culture as an Alternative in vitro Model to Investigate Glucose-Induced Malformations in Mammalian Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Savita; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a simple shell-less chick embryo culture system to study glucose-induced malformations. This system involves the culturing of chick embryos from the second day to the fifth day of incubation, with associated yolk and thick and thin albumen outside the egg shell. The system allows the observation of embryonic development of chicks in a glass bowl. Developing embryos at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h incubation, corresponding to the Hamberger Hamilton (HH) stages from 7 to 21, were treated with two concentrations of glucose (50 mM and 100 mM) for 24 h. Glucose treatment resulted in a mortality rate of over 70% in younger embryos. Furthermore, a variety of malformations such as retarded growth, abnormal heart development, macrosomia, exencephaly, etc. were observed in older embryos, which were similar to those reported in mammalian embryos as a consequence of diabetic pregnancy. The glucose-induced malformations were found to be concentration- and stage-dependent, thus emphasizing the roles of the degree of hyperglycemia and the stage of embryonic development in diabetic growth anomalies. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the present system can be used (i) for experiments at early stages of chick embryo development and (ii) for assessing the effects of acute glucose toxicity similar to those reported for mammalian embryos in a hyperglycemic environment. PMID:17491698

  15. Versican knock-down compromises chondrogenesis in the embryonic chick limb.

    PubMed

    Shepard, John B; Gliga, Diana A; Morrow, Amanda P; Hoffman, Stanley; Capehart, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal cell aggregation is critical for cartilage formation in the vertebrate limb. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role in governing cell behavior and cell phenotype in this tissue, and the hyalectin versican is highly expressed in the ECM of precartilage mesenchymal cells and developing synovial joints. Although several in vitro studies have been conducted in an attempt to address versican's role during limb mesenchymal condensation, factors such as differences in cell density in culture, variations between chondrogenic cell lines, and the inability to prolong the viability of limb explants have led to conflicting data, mandating an in vivo analysis. By using a morpholino directed strategy in ovo, we performed knock-down of versican expression in the presumptive ulnar region of the developing chick wing at time points critical to skeletogenesis. These data indicate that in ovo misexpression of versican compromised mesenchymal condensation with resulting ulnar cartilages reduced in length distally by an average of 53% relative to contralateral control limbs. In select versican morphants the olecranon process was also reduced in size proximally and failed to cup the humerus, likely impairing joint morphogenesis. This study represents the first report assessing the role of versican in the developing chick limb in ovo, further demonstrating the importance of versican proteoglycan expression during chondrogenesis and extending previous findings to suggest a role for versican during synovial joint development.

  16. Stimulatory and persistent effect of acute hyperoxia on respiratory gas exchange of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Stock, M K; Asson-Batres, M A; Metcalfe, J

    1985-11-01

    The hypothesis that oxygen availability limits growth of the normal chick embryo late in development predicts that an increase in oxygen availability would accelerate the rate of growth and, therefore, metabolism. We tested the prediction concerning metabolism by comparing the oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) of 14-18 day embryos acutely exposed to either 50% or 100% O2 with those of normoxic (21% O2) controls. Two hours of hyperoxia produced increases in both VO2 and VCO2; however, repeated measurements over time in normoxia also demonstrated a significant increase in gas exchange, presumably due to normal growth of the embryos. After correcting for the increase in VO2 due to growth, there was no effect of 60% O2 on day 14. Thereafter the stimulatory effect of 60% O2 increased gradually, reaching 6.1% on day 18. VCO2 was 4 to 6% higher in embryos acutely exposed to 60% O2 than in normoxic controls throughout the observation period, although the difference was significant only on day 18. The VO2 of embryos acutely exposed to 100% O2 was not significantly different from that observed in 60% O2, and was still significantly elevated 3 h after the eggs were returned to 21% O2. We conclude that acute hyperoxia late in incubation elicits an increase in embryonic VO2 and VCO2, with little or no effect on the respiratory exchange ratio, and that the stimulation of gas exchange by 100% O2 persists after the embryo is returned to normoxic conditions. These findings support the hypothesis that oxygen availability limits growth and metabolism of the normoxic chick embryo late in development.

  17. Comparison of Cobb and Ross strains in embryo physiology and chick juvenile growth.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Kamers, B; Everaert, N; Bruggeman, V; Decuypere, E

    2010-08-01

    Broiler performance is known to be related to embryonic developmental parameters. However, strain or genotype differences with regard to embryo physiological parameters and juvenile growth have received little attention. A total of 1,200 hatching eggs produced by Cobb and Ross broiler breeders of the same age were studied. At setting for incubation and between 66 and 130 h of incubation, egg resonant frequency (RF) was measured as an indicator of embryonic development. Also, eggs were weighed before setting and at d 18. From d 10 to 18 of incubation, remaining albumen was weighed. During the last days of incubation, hatching events such as internal pipping (IP), external pipping, and hatch were monitored every 2 h. Hatched chicks were recorded and weighed. At IP stage, gas partial pressures in the egg air chamber were measured. Hatched chicks were reared for 7 d and weighed. Results indicate that RF of Ross eggs were lower than those of Cobb eggs (P < 0.01) and starting time point of RF decrease occurred earlier in Cobb eggs than in Ross eggs. Relative egg weight loss up to 18 d of incubation was lower in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05). At IP, partial pressure of CO(2) was higher in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05) with shorter incubation duration in Cobb. Between 6 and 60 h posthatch, heat production was higher in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05). At 7 d posthatch, Cobb chicks were heavier than Ross chicks (P < 0.05). It is concluded that Cobb and Ross embryos-chicks have different growth trajectories leading in different patterns of growth resulting from differences in physiological parameters.

  18. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rui-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Li, Yi-Fang; Tsoi, Bun; Huang, Wen-Shan; Yao, Nan; Hong, Mo; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Mao, Zhong-Fu; Tang, Lu-Ping; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Wang, Qi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-08-07

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg) on embryo development day (EDD) 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg) were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  19. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Rui-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Li, Yi-Fang; Tsoi, Bun; Huang, Wen-Shan; Yao, Nan; Hong, Mo; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Mao, Zhong-Fu; Tang, Lu-Ping; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Wang, Qi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg) on embryo development day (EDD) 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg) were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression. PMID:26262640

  20. Morphometric and autoradiographic analysis of frontonasal development in the chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, S.B.; Minkoff, R.

    1985-05-01

    Dimensional changes in the nasal processes were measured in chick embryos from Hamburger and Hamilton (1951) stages 20 through 27.5. Transverse measurements in the frontonasal region of freshly fixed embryos were compared to frontal sections of the nasal region of comparably staged embryos. These observations were correlated with autoradiographic studies of cell movement employing an implant labeling technique. Morphometric analysis indicated that between stages 20 and 25 the separation of the nasal pit orifices increased coincidentally with rapid forebrain enlargement. Since the separation of the nasal pit fundi increased more rapidly, the orientation of the nasal pits changed. Autoradiographic studies indicated that lateral movement of medial nasal process mesenchyme into the base of the nasal groove and medial area at the base of the lateral nasal process had occurred. After stage 25, the separation of the nasal orifices declined dramatically, coincidental with rapid orbital enlargement. In contrast, the separation of the nasal pit fundi was maintained. It is proposed that nasal development of the chick embryo may be governed initially by forebrain enlargement and associated lateral movements of mesenchyme in the medial nasal processes, resulting in reorientation of the invaginating nasal placodes; subsequently, orbital enlargement and an associated medial redirection of growth of the lateral nasal processes assumes greater significance to the continued development of the frontonasal region.

  1. Pericellular coat of chick embryo chondrocytes: structural role of hyaluronate

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Chondrocytes produce large pericellular coats in vitro that can be visualized by the exclusion of particles, e.g., fixed erythrocytes, and that are removed by treatment with Streptomyces hyaluronidase, which is specific for hyaluronate. In this study, we examined the kinetics of formation of these coats and the relationship of hyaluronate and proteoglycan to coat structure. Chondrocytes were isolated from chick tibia cartilage by collagenase-trypsin digestion and were characterized by their morphology and by their synthesis of both type II collagen and high molecular weight proteoglycans. The degree of spreading of the chondrocytes and the size of the coats were quantitated at various times subsequent to seeding by tracing phase-contrast photomicrographs of the cultures. After seeding, the chondrocytes attached themselves to the tissue culture dish and exhibited coats within 4 h. The coats reached a maximum size after 3-4 d and subsequently decreased over the next 2-3 d. Subcultured chondrocytes produced a large coat only if passaged before 4 d. Both primary and first passage cells, with or without coats, produced type II collagen but not type I collagen as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with Streptomyces hyaluronidase (1.0 mU/ml, 15 min), which completely removed the coat, released 58% of the chondroitin sulfate but only 9% of the proteins associated with the cell surface. The proteins released by hyaluronidase were not digestible by bacterial collagenase. Monensin and cycloheximide (0.01-10 microM, 48 h) caused a dose-dependent decrease in coat size that was linearly correlated to synthesis of cell surface hyaluronate (r = 0.98) but not chondroitin sulfate (r = 0.2). We conclude that the coat surrounding chondrocytes is dependent on hyaluronate for its structure and that hyaluronate retains a large proportion of the proteoglycan in the coat. PMID:6501414

  2. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Jie; Li, Yi-Fang; Tan, Rui-Rong; Tsoi, Bun; Huang, Wen-Shan; Huang, Yi-Hua; Tang, Xiao-Long; Hu, Dan; Yao, Nan; Yang, Xuesong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Wang, Qi; He, Rong-Rong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg) was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD) 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation. PMID:26744353

  3. Comparative studies in Rous sarcoma with virus, tumor cells, and chick embryo cells transformed in vitro by virus. II. Response of normal and immunized chicks.

    PubMed

    DOUGHERTY, R M; MORGAN, H R

    1962-01-01

    Chick embryo fibroblasts infected in vitro with Rous sarcoma virus have properties similar to tumor cells when injected into virus-immune chickens. When such virus-transformed fibroblasts are injected into normal chickens, they apparently participate in the production of tumors independent of their release of virus and are thus apparently malignant in vivo.

  4. BMP is an important regulator of proepicardial identity in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Jan; Männer, Jörg; Brand, Thomas

    2006-07-15

    The proepicardium (PE) is a transient structure formed by pericardial coelomic mesothelium at the venous pole of the embryonic heart and gives rise to several cell types of the mature heart. In order to study PE development in chick embryos, we have analyzed the expression pattern of the marker genes Tbx18, Wt1, and Cfc. During PE induction, the three marker genes displayed a left-right asymmetric expression pattern. In each case, expression on the right side was stronger than on the left side. The left-right asymmetric gene expression observed here is in accord with the asymmetric formation of the proepicardium in the chick embryo. While initially the marker genes were expressed in the primitive sinus horn, subsequently, expression became confined to the PE mesothelium. In order to search for signaling factors involved in PE development, we studied Bmp2 and Bmp4 expression. Bmp2 was bilaterally expressed in the sinus venosus. In contrast, Bmp4 expression was initially expressed unilaterally in the right sinus horn and subsequently in the PE. In order to assess its functional role, BMP signaling was experimentally modulated by supplying exogenous BMP2 and by inhibiting endogenous BMP signaling through the addition of Noggin. Both supplying BMP and blocking BMP signaling resulted in a loss of PE marker gene expression. Surprisingly, both experimental situations lead to cardiac myocyte formation in the PE cultures. Careful titration experiments with exogenously added BMP2 or Noggin revealed that PE-specific marker gene expression depends on a low level of BMP signaling. Implantation of BMP2-secreting cells or beads filled with Noggin protein into the right sinus horn of HH stage 11 embryos resulted in downregulation of Tbx18 expression, corresponding to the results of the explant assay. Thus, a distinct level of BMP signaling is required for PE formation in the chick embryo.

  5. The effect of chick embryo amniotic fluid on sciatic nerve regeneration of rats

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Gh. H.; Fazli, F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of chicken amniotic fluid (AF) on a cross section of rat sciatic nerves. Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 275 to 300 g, were randomized into three groups treated with (1) amniotic fluid or AF (n=10), (2) normal saline or NS (n=10), and (3) sham surgery (n=10). The AF was aspirated from the amniotic cavity of incubating chick embryos at day 14. The sciatic nerve was exposed and sharply transected. Immediate epineurial repair was then performed. AF treated animals were given 2 ml/kg of the chick embryo AF subcutaneously, once daily, five times a week for up to 2 weeks. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI), electrophysiology, histology, and immunohistochemistry at days 28 and 56 after surgery. The SFI difference between AF and NS groups at days 21 and 28 after operation was statistically significant (P<0.05). The number of myelinated fibers in the AF group was significantly greater than that of the NS group at day 28 (P<0.05). At days 28 and 56 after operation, the nerve conduction velocity (NCV) mean of the AF group was faster than that of the NS group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that chick AF can enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27175170

  6. Effects of excess iodine in chick embryo thyroid follicles: initial inhibition and subsequent hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Z; Narbaitz, R; Fryer, J N

    1991-01-01

    The effects of excess iodine on the development of the thyroid gland of chick embryos was assessed following injections of potassium iodide prior to incubation. Iodide injection resulted in a significantly greater thyroid gland weight (goitre) on Day 18 of incubation and a delay in hatching. Histological studies of the thyroid gland on Day 12 of incubation revealed that iodide injection had inhibited thyroid follicle development. On Day 14, however, the thyroid glands of the iodide-treated embryos were indistinguishable from controls and on Day 18 the thyroid follicles of the iodide-injected embryos were clearly hypertrophied. In agreement with these light microscopical observations, electron microscopical examination showed conspicuous development of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the follicle cells of both iodide-treated 14 and 18 days old embryos and in those of the corresponding controls. Immunocytochemical studies of the pituitary of 18 days old embryos revealed a depletion of immunoreactive TSH suggesting that the iodide-induced hypertrophy of the thyroid was mediated by an activation of the thyrotropes. Iodide treatment was without effect on plasma levels of T3 and T4 for Day 18 embryos suggesting that the compensatory hypertrophy of the thyroid gland was sufficient to maintain circulating levels of thyroid hormones. The present results demonstrate that, in the embryonic chick thyroid, excess iodine produces effects which occur in two phases. The first phase consists of a transitory inhibition of the formation of follicles; it is followed by a second phase of compensatory hypertrophy resulting in goitre. The first phase probably results from a direct inhibitory effect of iodine on the developing thyroid whereas the second phase probably reflects a stimulation of the thyroid by TSH. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1917670

  7. Left-right asymmetry in the chick embryo requires core planar cell polarity protein Vangl2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Levin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consistent left-right patterning is a fascinating and biomedically important problem. In the chick embryo, it is not known how cells determine their position (left or right) relative to the primitive streak, which is required for subsequent asymmetric gene expression cascades. We show that the subcellular localization of Vangl2, a core planar cell polarity (PCP) protein, is consistently polarized, giving cells in the blastoderm a vector pointing toward the primitive streak. Moreover, morpholino-mediated loss-of-function of Vangl2 by electroporation into chicks at very early stages randomizes the normally left-sided expression of Sonic hedgehog. Strikingly, Vangl2 morpholinos also induce a de-synchronization of asymmetric gene expression within the left and right domains of Hensen’s node. These data reveal the existence of polarized planar cell polarity protein localization in gastrulating chick and demonstrate that the PCP pathway is functionally required for normal asymmetry in the chick upstream of Sonic hedgehog. These data suggest a new and widely-applicable class of models for the spread and coordination of left-right patterning information in the embryonic blastoderm. PMID:19621439

  8. Distribution and possible function of an adrenomedullin-like peptide in the developing chick limb bud.

    PubMed

    Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Martínez, Alfredo; Cuttitta, Frank; Kosher, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional peptide that exhibits discrete domains of expression during mouse embryogenesis consistent with a role in regulating growth and differentiation during morphogenesis. Here we report that AM immunoreactivity is present at high levels throughout the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the chick limb bud as the AER is directing the outgrowth and patterning of underlying limb mesoderm. Immunostaining is particularly strong along the surfaces of the contiguous cells of the AER. AM immunoreactivity attenuates as the AER regresses and is absent from the distal apical ectoderm of stage 20 limbless mutant limb buds which fail to develop an AER. To explore the possible role of AM in AER activity, we examined the effect of exogenous AM and an AM inhibitor on the in vitro morphogenesis of limb mesoderm, cultured in the presence and absence of the AER. Although exogenous AM cannot substitute for the AER in promoting outgrowth of limb mesoderm in vitro, a specific AM antagonist, AM(22-52), impairs the outgrowth and proliferation of limb mesoderm cultured in the presence of the AER. This is consistent with the possibility that inhibition of endogenous AM activity in the AER impairs the ability of the AER to promote limb morphogenesis. Taken together, these studies suggest that an AM-like molecule may function in an autocrine fashion to regulate some aspect of AER activity.

  9. Behavior of the P1.HTR mastocytoma cell line implanted in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Avram, S F; Cimpean, A M; Raica, M

    2013-01-01

    The P1.HTR cell line includes highly transfectable cells derived from P815 mastocytoma cells originating from mouse breast tissue. Despite its widespread use in immunogenic studies, no data are available about the behavior of P1.HTR cells in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of P1.HTR cells implanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. We inoculated P1.HTR cells into the previously prepared chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and observed the early and late effects of these cells by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. A highly angiotropic and angiogenic effect occurred early after inoculation and a tumorigenic potential with the development of mastocytoma keeping well mast cells immunophenotype was detected later during the development. The P1.HTR mastocytoma cell line is a good tool for the development of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane mastocytoma model and also for other studies concerning the involvement of blood vessels. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model of mastocytoma retains the mast cell immunophenotype under experimental conditions and could be used as an experimental tool for in vivo preliminary testing of antitumor and antivascular drugs.

  10. Body movements during early stages of chick embryo under intermittent low oxygen environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Kenji; Chiba, Yuya; Shimouchi, Akito

    2017-07-01

    We have attempted to elucidate the characteristic pattern of body movements in early stages of chick embryos under intermittent low oxygen incubation environment. In order to achieve this aim, the oxygen control system that can be set arbitrary oxygen concentration was developed. We choose the 18% of O2 concentration and tried to measure the embryonic body movements. As a results, only one chick embryo in the early stages under intermittent 18% O2 environment (the cycle is 18%O2-10min and 21%O2-50min) was successfully recorded and its body movements were analyzed. The characteristic body movements, which are attributed to the instantaneous effect of low oxygen environment, compared with before and after normal O2 condition were not observed. Because the early stage embryos in which the significant organs aside from heart are not formed yet have a strong adaptation to environment changes, short hypoxic condition like a 10 min might not affect instantaneous embryonic physiological changes. Meanwhile, although the cyclic interval of the large body movements becomes short in the normal development, it became long in 18%O2 condition. This result might indicate that intermittent low oxygen condition accumulatively influenced physiological function. Further improvements of accuracy in the oxygen control system and the calculation system of body movements, and further experiments under low oxygen conditions are required in the next step.

  11. The protective role of squalene in alcohol damage in the chick embryo retina.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Dorado, Manuel E; Prada, Francisco A; Martínez, Juan J; Quesada, Adela; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina

    2005-04-01

    The developing CNS, and in particular the visual system, is very sensitive to the effects of alcohol. Alcohol causes lipid peroxidation. Squalene, the major olive oil hydrocarbon, is a quencher of singlet oxygen and prevents the corresponding lipid peroxidation. We presumed that squalene can protect against the alcohol-induced damage already observed during the development of the chick retina. Alcohol+squalene was administered directly into the yolk sac of the egg of White Leghorn chicks at day 6 of incubation. The lipid composition of the retina was analyzed in embryos at E7, E11, E15 and E18. The proportions of phospholipids, free and esterified cholesterol, diacylglycerides and free fatty acids were estimated using the Iatroscan TLC/FID procedure. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to determine the fatty acid composition. The morphological study was carried out at E11 using semithin sections, and by means of immunohistochemical techniques at E19. Comparing the results obtained in control embryos, the administration of alcohol+squalene reduces the effects of alcohol on the total lipid composition of the retina during development. The effects were, in fact, of less magnitude than in embryos treated only with alcohol. The major phospholipid species of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos exhibited total recuperation at E15. As far as fatty acids are concerned, no significant changes were observed with regard to control embryos during development. From a morphological point of view, the retinas of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos show at E11 fewer cellular alterations than the retinas of alcohol-treated embryos. In this respect, the retinas of alcohol+squalene-treated embryos exhibited: a columnar cell arrangement similar to that observed in control retinas; few pycnotic cells and very few alterations in ganglion cell layers and in the optic nerve fibers layer. At E19 the recuperation of the expression of myelin oligodendrocyte specific protein (MOSP) in

  12. Chick embryogenesis: a unique platform to study the effects of environmental factors on embryo development.

    PubMed

    Yahav, S; Brake, J

    2014-01-01

    . Manipulating environmental temperature during the period of egg storage, during the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se has been found to significantly affect embryo development, hatching progress, chick quality at hatching, and chick development post-hatching. These temperature manipulations have also been shown to affect the acquisition of thermotolerance to subsequent post-hatching thermal challenge. This chapter will focus on: a. "maternal effects" on embryo and post-hatching development; b. environmental effects during the post-ovipositional period of egg storage, the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se on chick embryogenesis and subsequent post-hatching growth and development; and c. effects of temperature manipulations during the pre-incubation and incubation periods on acquisition of thermotolerance and development of secondary sexual characteristics in broiler chickens.

  13. Morphogenesis and calcification of the statoconia in the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo - Implications for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the statoconia in the chick, Gallus domesticus, injected with a carbon anhydrase inhibitor is studied. The preparation of the embryo specimens for analysis is described. The early, middle, and late stages of embryonic development are examined. The data reveal that acetozolamide inhibits statoconia formation in the middle stage of development and the calcification process follows statoconia formation. The spatial relationship between the development of type 1 and type 2 hair cells and the appearance and maturation of the statoconia is investigated.

  14. Morphogenesis and calcification of the statoconia in the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo - Implications for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the statoconia in the chick, Gallus domesticus, injected with a carbon anhydrase inhibitor is studied. The preparation of the embryo specimens for analysis is described. The early, middle, and late stages of embryonic development are examined. The data reveal that acetozolamide inhibits statoconia formation in the middle stage of development and the calcification process follows statoconia formation. The spatial relationship between the development of type 1 and type 2 hair cells and the appearance and maturation of the statoconia is investigated.

  15. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON POTASSIUM EQUILIBRIA IN CHICK EMBRYO MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Wesson, Laurence G.; Cohn, Waldo E.; Brues, Austin M.

    1949-01-01

    The effect of temperature upon the exchange rates between intra- and extracellular potassium in chick embryo muscle was determined by the use of radioactive potassium. The temperature coefficient of at least four-fifths of the cell potassium is large. At temperatures below 15°C., potassium is lost from the cell and is regained on warming. The results suggest the possibility that 20 per cent or less of the cell potassium may differ from the rest by being more rapidly exchangeable with the medium. PMID:18114563

  16. Type II cytokeratin gene expression is indicative of early cell differentiation in the chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Charlebois, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Embryonic development in vertebrates appears to involve a series of inductive tissue interactions that lead to regional specializations, which eventually become elaborated in the basic body plan of the embryo. The inductive interactions leading to early regionalization of the embryo are often particularly difficult to evaluate because of the absence of available morphological or biochemical evidence that such events have occurred. In the 36 hour chick embryo, the regional subdivision of the early ectoderm is evidence by a marked lens-forming bias in the head ectoderm, which is absent in the presumptive dorsal epidermis of the trunk region. As a strategy for isolating genes whose differential expression might reflect this regional subdivision, a cDNA library from 36 hour embryos was prepared and screened for differential hybridization to ({sup 32}P)cDNA probes synthesized using template RNA isolated from 36 hour head ectoderm and trunk ectoderm. A cDNA clone (T4) was isolated which hybridizes to transcripts present at much higher levels in trunk ectoderm than in head ectoderm. Partial nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of this clone indicate that it represents a gene encoding a type II cytokeratin. The distribution of transcripts complementary to the T4 probe was evaluated in early embryos using RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization to tissue sections.

  17. Patterning in time and space: HoxB cluster gene expression in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Analuce; Marcelino, Hugo M; Gonçalves, Lisa; Palmeirim, Isabel; Andrade, Raquel P

    2015-01-01

    The developing embryo is a paradigmatic model to study molecular mechanisms of time control in Biology. Hox genes are key players in the specification of tissue identity during embryo development and their expression is under strict temporal regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying timely Hox activation in the early embryo remain unknown. This is hindered by the lack of a rigorous temporal framework of sequential Hox expression within a single cluster. Herein, a thorough characterization of HoxB cluster gene expression was performed over time and space in the early chick embryo. Clear temporal collinearity of HoxB cluster gene expression activation was observed. Spatial collinearity of HoxB expression was evidenced in different stages of development and in multiple tissues. Using embryo explant cultures we showed that HoxB2 is cyclically expressed in the rostral presomitic mesoderm with the same periodicity as somite formation, suggesting a link between timely tissue specification and somite formation. We foresee that the molecular framework herein provided will facilitate experimental approaches aimed at identifying the regulatory mechanisms underlying Hox expression in Time and Space.

  18. Teratogenic effects of insulin: An experimental study on developing chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bokariya, Pradeep; Kothari, Ruchi; Gujar, Vijay K.; Shende, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to observe the effect of insulin on chick embryos with reference to their growth and developmental defects. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was performed to assess any abnormal growth pattern caused by insulin. For this, two batches of 100 fertilized eggs were utilized. One batch of 50 was used as a control group and other as an experimental group. Insulin (2 IU) was injected on day 2 of incubation. Chicken eggs were dissected out on day 19 of incubation and were carefully observed for any congenital abnormalities. The embryos thus dissected out were subjected to measurement of crown-rump length (CRL), changes in weight of egg, volume of embryos were compared in two groups. The embryos were also examined for any congenital anomalies. Results: No major malformations were observed. Decrease in weight and CRLs was lower in the experimental group as compared to their control counterparts. Values for volume of the embryo were similar in two groups. Conclusion: No obvious teratogenic effects are observed with insulin in the dose use for the study. PMID:25878385

  19. [Toxic and teratogenic effects of the ammonium salt of fosamine on the development of quail and chick embryos].

    PubMed

    Lutz-Ostertag, Y

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a commercial spray preparation of ammonium salt ppf fosamine (a defoliant) on quail and chick eggs have been studied. The results lead us to conclude that under the stated conditions the product has little embryotoxicity. However, it does have teratogenic effects on the steal and on the cervical, dorsal and posterior axial skeleton. The observed malformations are more severe and appear more frequently in quail than in chick embryos.

  20. Acclimation to heat during incubation. 2. Embryo composition and residual egg yolk sac fatty acid profiles in chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Bagdatlioglu, N; Bruggeman, V; Babacanoglu, E; Uysal, I; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Siegel, P B

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate embryo composition and changes in egg yolk fatty acid composition during embryonic development as a function of incubation temperature and age of breeders. Eggs obtained from a common breeder stock at 3 ages: 32 (younger), 42 (mid age), and 65 (older) wk were divided into 2 groups and placed into 2 incubators: the control and the second where eggs were heat-acclimated (HA) at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h daily from d 10 to 18 of incubation. Body composition of embryos and chicks were measured on d 14, 18, and at hatch, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of yolk and residual egg yolk sac of chicks were analyzed before incubation and at hatch, respectively. Moisture content of embryos was highest on d 14 and then decreased regardless of parental age and incubation temperature. Moisture content of chicks at hatch from 42- and 65-wk parents were lower than those of chicks from 32-wk parents, whereas the trend in chick fat content was opposite. Incubation temperature had no effect on composition of chicks. Consistently lower cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-eicosapentaenoic (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; 22:6n-3) and cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic (20:3n-3) fatty acids in the residual yolk sac of chicks than in egg yolks before incubation may have resulted from preferential uptake from the yolk. The DHA content in the residual yolk sac was considerably higher in chicks from older parents incubated at HA, whereas, in contrast, levels of 18:3n-3 were lower. Also, chicks from younger parents in the HA treatment had lower transported 18:3n-3 and higher levels of transported DHA. It may be concluded that this process observed during the high incubation temperature may be related to a protective strategy and thus contributes to postnatal heat adaptation.

  1. Wnt-5a and Wnt-7a are expressed in the developing chick limb bud in a manner suggesting roles in pattern formation along the proximodistal and dorsoventral axes.

    PubMed

    Dealy, C N; Roth, A; Ferrari, D; Brown, A M; Kosher, R A

    1993-10-01

    The Wnt gene family encodes a group of secreted signalling molecules that have been implicated in the regulation of cell fate and pattern formation during embryogenesis. We have examined the patterns of expression of two members of the chicken Wnt family, Wnt-5a and Wnt-7a, during development of the chick limb bud. Wnt-5a is expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge which directs outgrowth of limb mesoderm. Wnt-5a also exhibits three quantitatively distinct domains of expression along the proximodistal (PD) axis of the limb mesoderm that may correspond to the regions which will give rise to the three distinct PD segments of the limb, the autopod, zeugopod, and stylopod. In contrast, Wnt-7a expression in the limb bud is specifically limited to the dorsal ectoderm. These observations suggest possible roles for Wnt-5a and Wnt-7a in pattern formation along the PD and dorsoventral axes of the developing chick limb bud. In addition, Wnt-5a and Wnt-7a exhibit spatially discrete domains of expression in several other regions of the chick embryo consistent with developmental roles for these genes in a variety of other tissues.

  2. Inhibition of glucocorticoid-induced cataracts in chick embryos by RU486: a model for studies on the role of glucocorticoids in development.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hideo; Kosano, Hiroshi; Umeda, Izumi O; Nishigori, Hidekazu

    2004-11-05

    Cataract formation can be induced by glucocorticoid treatment of developing chick embryos. We show here that this response can be blocked very effectively by use of the antiglucocorticoid RU486. When dexamethasone (0.02 micromol/egg) was administered from day 13 to 16 chick embryos, their lenses (over 80%) became cataract (GC-induced cataract; stage IV-V) within 48 hrs. These GC-induced cataract formations were prevented by administration of RU486 (0.2 micromol/egg) on day 9. However, RU486 also inhibited hatching even though the embryos showed normal growth and appearance. In control embryos, more than 90% live chicks (39/42 chicks) were hatched on day 22. Chick embryos treated with RU486 on day 9 appeared to grow normally until 21, but could not hatch. When chick embryos were treated with RU486 (0.2 micromol/egg) on day 15, more than 80% live embryos (34/42 chicks) were hatched on day 23 with normal appearance, which was one day delay comparing to the control. These observations indicate that endogenous glucocorticoids are involved in the ability to hatch and that RU486 is able to block the actions of endogenous glucocorticoids. Thus, RU486 should be a very useful tool for studies on other biochemical and physiological aspects of chick embryo development that are under glucocorticoid control.

  3. Inactivated eastern equine encephalomyelitis vaccine propagated in rolling-bottle cultures of chick embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, F E

    1971-11-01

    A method was developed for the production of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis vaccine from virus grown in rolling-bottle cultures (840 cm(2) growth area) of chick embryo cells. The PE-6 strain of virus was propagated in chick embryo cell roller cultures maintained on serum-free medium 199 containing 0.25% human serum albumin and antibiotics (MM). A multiplicity of inoculum of 0.005 yielded acceptable titers of virus at a convenient harvest time of 18 to 24 hr and reduced the carry-over of extraneous material from the virus seed. Growth studies in which 100, 200, or 300 ml of MM was used showed that use of 300 ml of MM offered two advantages: (i) cytopathic effects were less at the 18- to 24-hr harvest time, thereby decreasing cellular material in the final product, and (ii) total virus yield was not substantially reduced, thus permitting large-scale production of virus for further processing. Studies on formalin inactivation at 37 C indicated that the virus was inactivated by 0.05% formalin within 12 to 16 hr and with 0.1% formalin within 6 to 8 hr. Antigen extinction tests in hamsters revealed excellent potency (e.g., median-effective-dose values of 0.069 to 0.012 ml) for both fluid and freeze-dried products. The advantages of the roller-bottle technique in vaccine production are discussed.

  4. The chick embryo as an experimental system for melanoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Krochmann, Jelena; Drews, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    A primary cutaneous melanoma will not kill the patient, but its metastases. Since in vitro studies on melanoma cells in 2-D cultures do often not reflect reality, 3-D models might come closer to the physiological situation in the patient during cancer initiation and progression. Here, we describe the chick embryo model for in vivo studies of melanoma cell migration and invasion. After transplantation of neural crest-derived melanoma cells into the neural tube, the melanoma cells resume neural crest cell migration along the medial and lateral pathways and finally undergo apoptosis in the target areas. Upon transplantation into ectopic areas such as the hindbrain or the optic cup malignant invasion and local tissue destruction occurs. In contrast, melanocytes are not able to spontaneously resume neural crest cell migration. However, malignant invasion can be induced in melanocytes by pre-treatment with the TGF-beta family members bone morphegenetic protein-2 or nodal. Transplantation of MCF7 breast cancer cells yields a different growth pattern in the rhombencephalon than melanoma cells. The chick embryo model is a feasible, cost-effective in vivo system to study invasion by cancer cells in an embryonic environment. It may be useful to study invasive behavior induced by embryonic oncogenes and for targeted manipulation of melanoma or breast cancer cells aiming at ablation of invasive properties.

  5. Developmental changes of Insulin-like growth factors in the liver and muscle of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Guo, Wei; Pu, Zhenyu; Li, Xueyuan; Lei, Xinyu; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factors ( IGFS: ) are synthesized in tissues and play an important role in embryonic development of avian via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. In the study, mRNA expression of IGFs were detected by real-time PCR in the muscle and liver from d 10 to 20 of chick embryo ( E10: to E20: ). Methylation of IGF1 promoter in the muscle was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR as well as IGF2 promoter in the liver. These results showed that there was obviously IGF1 expression in liver at E19 and E20. The higher IGF1 expression in muscle was found during E15 to E18 with the peak on E17, and then declined. Correspondingly, the lowest methylation level of IGF1 promoter was detectable on the same embryonic d 17. Expression of IGF2 in muscle increased gradually during embryonic growth and showed higher level in the later stages (E17 to E20) when IGF1 expression began to decrease. IGF2 expression in liver reached the first peak on E14, then declined but gradually elevated from E17. IGF2 promoter methylation in liver showed gradual decline on d 12, 15, 17 and 19 of incubation, meanwhile IGF2 expression of liver increased gradually. These results suggested that IGF1 and IGF2 might separately be more important for muscle and liver growth in chick embryonic development. Variation of IGFs expression during the incubation might be concerned with the methylation of gene promoter. The profile of IGFs expression in chick embryonic tissues may be meaningful for understanding organ growth and embryonic development in chick. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. A Submerged Filter Paper Sandwich for Long-term Ex Ovo Time-lapse Imaging of Early Chick Embryos.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Manuel; Nelemans, Ben K A; Smit, Theodoor H

    2016-12-28

    Due to its availability, low cost, flat geometry, and transparency, the ex ovo chick embryo has become a major vertebrate animal model for the study of morphogenetic events, such as gastrulation(2), neurulation(3)(-)(5), somitogenesis(6), heart bending(7,8), and brain formation(9)(-)(13), during early embryogenesis. Key to understanding morphogenetic processes is to follow them dynamically by time-lapse imaging. The acquisition of time-lapse movies of chick embryogenesis ex ovo has been limited either to short time windows or to the need for an incubator to control temperature and humidity around the embryo(14). Here, we present a new technique to culture chick embryos ex ovo for high-resolution time-lapse imaging using transmitted light microscopy. The submerged filter paper sandwich is a variant of the well-established filter paper carrier technique (EC-culture)(1) and allows for the culturing of chick embryos without the need for a climate chamber. The embryo is sandwiched between two identical filter paper carriers and is kept fully submerged in a simple, temperature-controlled medium covered by a layer of light mineral oil. Starting from the primitive streak stage (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 5, HH5)(15) up to at least the 28-somite stage (HH16)(15), embryos can be cultured with either their ventral or dorsal side up. This allows the acquisition of time-lapse movies covering about 30 hr of embryonic development. Representative time-lapse frames and movies are shown. Embryos are compared morphologically to an embryo cultured in the standard EC-culture. The submerged filter paper sandwich provides a stable environment to study early dorsal and ventral morphogenetic processes. It also allows for live fluorescence imaging and micromanipulations, such as microsurgery, bead implantation, microinjection, gene silencing, and electroporation, and has a strong potential to be combined with immersion objectives for laser-based imaging (including light-sheet microscopy).

  7. A Submerged Filter Paper Sandwich for Long-term Ex Ovo Time-lapse Imaging of Early Chick Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Theodoor H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its availability, low cost, flat geometry, and transparency, the ex ovo chick embryo has become a major vertebrate animal model for the study of morphogenetic events, such as gastrulation2, neurulation3-5, somitogenesis6, heart bending7,8, and brain formation9-13, during early embryogenesis. Key to understanding morphogenetic processes is to follow them dynamically by time-lapse imaging. The acquisition of time-lapse movies of chick embryogenesis ex ovo has been limited either to short time windows or to the need for an incubator to control temperature and humidity around the embryo14. Here, we present a new technique to culture chick embryos ex ovo for high-resolution time-lapse imaging using transmitted light microscopy. The submerged filter paper sandwich is a variant of the well-established filter paper carrier technique (EC-culture)1 and allows for the culturing of chick embryos without the need for a climate chamber. The embryo is sandwiched between two identical filter paper carriers and is kept fully submerged in a simple, temperature-controlled medium covered by a layer of light mineral oil. Starting from the primitive streak stage (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 5, HH5)15 up to at least the 28-somite stage (HH16)15, embryos can be cultured with either their ventral or dorsal side up. This allows the acquisition of time-lapse movies covering about 30 hr of embryonic development. Representative time-lapse frames and movies are shown. Embryos are compared morphologically to an embryo cultured in the standard EC-culture. The submerged filter paper sandwich provides a stable environment to study early dorsal and ventral morphogenetic processes. It also allows for live fluorescence imaging and micromanipulations, such as microsurgery, bead implantation, microinjection, gene silencing, and electroporation, and has a strong potential to be combined with immersion objectives for laser-based imaging (including light-sheet microscopy). PMID:28060338

  8. Chick embryo xenograft model reveals a novel perineural niche for human adipose-derived stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Ingrid R.; Lopes, Daiana V.; Abreu, José G.; Carneiro, Katia; Rossi, Maria I. D.; Brito, José M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC) are a heterogeneous cell population that contains adult multipotent stem cells. Although it is well established that hADSC have skeletal potential in vivo in adult organisms, in vitro assays suggest further differentiation capacity, such as into glia. Thus, we propose that grafting hADSC into the embryo can provide them with a much more instructive microenvironment, allowing the human cells to adopt diverse fates or niches. Here, hADSC spheroids were grafted into either the presumptive presomitic mesoderm or the first branchial arch (BA1) regions of chick embryos. Cells were identified without previous manipulations via human-specific Alu probes, which allows efficient long-term tracing of heterogeneous primary cultures. When grafted into the trunk, in contrast to previous studies, hADSC were not found in chondrogenic or osteogenic territories up to E8. Surprisingly, 82.5% of the hADSC were associated with HNK1+ tissues, such as peripheral nerves. Human skin fibroblasts showed a smaller tropism for nerves. In line with other studies, hADSC also adopted perivascular locations. When grafted into the presumptive BA1, 74.6% of the cells were in the outflow tract, the final goal of cardiac neural crest cells, and were also associated with peripheral nerves. This is the first study showing that hADSC could adopt a perineural niche in vivo and were able to recognize cues for neural crest cell migration of the host. Therefore, we propose that xenografts of human cells into chick embryos can reveal novel behaviors of heterogeneous cell populations, such as response to migration cues. PMID:26319582

  9. Promotion of embryonic chick limb cartilage differentiation by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Kulyk, W M; Rodgers, B J; Greer, K; Kosher, R A

    1989-10-01

    This study represents a first step in investigating the possible involvement of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the regulation of embryonic chick limb cartilage differentiation. TGF-beta 1 and 2 (1-10 ng/ml) elicit a striking increase in the accumulation of Alcian blue, pH 1-positive cartilage matrix, and a corresponding twofold to threefold increase in the accumulation of 35S-sulfate- or 3H-glucosamine-labeled sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) by high density micromass cultures prepared from the cells of whole stage 23/24 limb buds or the homogeneous population of chondrogenic precursor cells comprising the distal subridge mesenchyme of stage 25 wing buds. Moreover, TGF-beta causes a striking (threefold to sixfold) increase in the steady-state cytoplasmic levels of mRNAs for cartilage-characteristic type II collagen and the core protein of cartilage-specific proteoglycan. Only a brief (2 hr) exposure to TGF-beta at the initiation of culture is sufficient to stimulate chondrogenesis, indicating that the growth factor is acting at an early step in the process. Furthermore, TGF-beta promotes the formation of cartilage matrix and cartilage-specific gene expression in low density subconfluent spot cultures of limb mesenchymal cells, which are situations in which little, or no chondrogenic differentiation normally occurs. These results provide strong incentive for considering and further investigating the role of TGF-beta in the control of limb cartilage differentiation.

  10. GAP-43 in non-neuronal cells of the embryonic chick limb: clues to function.

    PubMed

    Stocker, K M; Ciment, G; Baizer, L

    1992-01-01

    The expression of GAP-43 in developing and regenerating neurons has been well characterized, but the function of this membrane-bound phosphoprotein is still unclear. Although GAP-43 is considered to be neuron-specific, it is also expressed in various glial cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems and in at least two populations of mesenchymal cells in the developing chick limb. GAP-43 mRNA is expressed transiently in developing limbs, which contain axons of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons, but do not contain neuronal cell bodies. This expression is correlated temporally with the in-growth of neurites and axons to the limbs, but appears to be independent of nerves. In some regions of the limb, GAP-43 immunoreactivity co-localizes in cells that are also immunoreactive for meromyosin, a muscle-specific marker. In addition, GAP-43 mRNA and protein are particularly abundant in the interdigital mesenchyme that undergoes apoptosis, or programmed cell death. GAP-43 has been postulated to mediate rapid changes in cell shape and the extension of processes in neuronal growth cones and elongating axons. We suggest here that GAP-43 may serve a similar function in glial cells, in myoblasts fusing to form myotubes, and in apoptotic and phagocytic cells of the interdigital mesenchyme.

  11. Transient expression of GAP-43 in nonneuronal cells of the embryonic chick limb.

    PubMed

    Stocker, K M; Baizer, L; Ciment, G

    1993-01-01

    Growth-associated protein (GAP)-43 is highly expressed in neuronal growth cones during periods of axonal outgrowth in development and regeneration of the nervous system. Although GAP-43 is generally considered to be neuron-specific, it is also expressed in some glial cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems and in at least two populations of mesodermally-derived cells in the developing chick limb. GAP-43 mRNA is expressed transiently in developing limbs; although this expression is correlated temporally with the ingrowth of neurites and axons to the limbs, it appears to be independent of nerves. Immunoreactivity for GAP-43 colocalizes in some developing limb muscle and GAP-43 mRNA and protein are particularly abundant in the interdigital mesenchyme that undergoes programmed cell death. GAP-43 has been postulated to mediate rapid changes in cell shape in neurons and glial cells and may serve a similar function in myoblasts fusing to form myotubes and in apototic and phagocytic cells of the interdigital mesenchyme.

  12. Expression patterns of mRNAs for the gap junction proteins connexin43 and connexin42 suggest their involvement in chick limb morphogenesis and specification of the arterial vasculature.

    PubMed

    Dealy, C N; Beyer, E C; Kosher, R A

    1994-02-01

    Gap junctions which comprise a family of proteins called connexins have been implicated in the morphogenesis of the chick limb bud. We have examined the expression patterns of two members of the connexin family, connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin42 (Cx42), during the early development of the chick limb bud and embryo by in situ hybridization. Cx43 mRNA is expressed in high amounts in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which promotes the outgrowth of the mesodermal cells of the limb bud, and in the ectopic AER of the limb buds of polydactylous diplopodia-5 mutant embryos. In contrast, little Cx43 expression is detectable in nonridge limb ectoderm at early stages of limb development. These results suggest that Cx43 gap junctions may integrate the activity of the cells comprising the AER and compartmentalize them into a functionally distinct entity capable of directing limb outgrowth. In addition, Cx43 exhibits high expression in the posterior subridge mesoderm of the early limb bud that is growing out in response to the AER, but little expression in the anterior mesoderm. This graded distribution of Cx43 transcripts correlates with a functional gradient of gap junctional communication along the anteroposterior (AP) axis, and suggests that Cx43 gap junctions may be involved in pattern formation across the AP axis. At later stages of development, Cx43 is transiently expressed in high amounts in the precartilage condensations of the carpals and metacarpals, at a time when critical cell-cell interactions are occurring that trigger cartilage differentiation. In contrast, in the developing limb, Cx42 is expressed exclusively by the central artery. In the remainder of the chick embryo, Cx42 is expressed in high amounts by the vessels comprising the arterial vasculature, but is not expressed by the venous vasculature. Thus, Cx42 gap junctions may be involved in specification of the arterial vasculature of the limb and embryo. Cx42, but not Cx43, is expressed in the ventricle of

  13. Isolation and separation of alpha and beta-tubulin from chick-embryo brain, muscle and skin.

    PubMed Central

    el-Hamalawi, A R

    1978-01-01

    Two kinds of tubulin, alpha and beta, have been described in microtubules from many different systems. In the present study a new method is described for isolating and separating these two kinds of tubulin from chick-embryo brain, muscle and skin. The isolated tubulins were characterized by polyacrylamide-gel disc electrophoresis in the presence of urea and sodium dodecyl sulphate. PMID:646795

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN ROUS SARCOMA WITH VIRUS, TUMOR CELLS, AND CHICK EMBRYO CELLS TRANSFORMED IN VITRO BY VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Robert M.; Morgan, Herbert R.

    1962-01-01

    Chick embryo fibroblasts infected in vitro with Rous sarcoma virus have properties similar to tumor cells when injected into virus-immune chickens. When such virus-transformed fibroblasts are injected into normal chickens, they apparently participate in the production of tumors independent of their release of virus and are thus apparently malignant in vivo. PMID:13887519

  15. Cardiac and vascular disease prior to hatching in chick embryos incubated at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Camm, E J; Tuckett, J D; Weerakkody, R A; Kane, A D; Shelley, A M; Wooding, F B P; Quy, M; Giussani, D A

    2010-02-01

    The partial contributions of reductions in fetal nutrition and oxygenation to slow fetal growth and a developmental origin of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. By combining high altitude with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on growth. This study isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on cardiovascular development. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high-altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. High altitude promoted embryonic growth restriction, cardiomegaly and aortic wall thickening, effects which could be prevented by incubating eggs from high-altitude hens at sea level or by incubating eggs from sea-level hens at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. Embryos from high-altitude hens showed reduced effects of altitude incubation on growth restriction but not on cardiovascular remodeling. The data show that: (1) high-altitude hypoxia promotes embryonic cardiac and vascular disease already evident prior to hatching and that this is associated with growth restriction; (2) the effects can be prevented by increased oxygenation; and (3) the effects are different in embryos from sea-level or high-altitude hens.

  16. Analysis of cerebro-spinal fluid protein composition in early developmental stages in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Gato, A; Martín, P; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Pulgar, M A; Moro, J A

    2004-04-01

    Foetal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) has a very high protein concentration when compared to adult CSF, and in many species five major protein fractions have been described. However, the protein concentration and composition in CSF during early developmental stages remains largely unknown. Our results show that in the earliest stages (18 to 30 H.H.) of chick development there is a progressive increase in CSF protein concentration until foetal values are attained. In addition, by performing electrophoretic separation and high-sensitivity silver staining, we were able to identify a total of 21 different protein fractions in the chick embryo CSF. In accordance with the developmental pattern of their concentration, these can be classified as follows: A: high-concentration fractions which corresponded with the ones described in foetal CSF by other authors; B: low-concentration fractions which remained stable throughout the period studied; C: low-concentration fractions which show changes during this period. The evolution and molecular weight of the latter group suggest the possibility of an important biological role. Our data demonstrate that all the CSF protein fractions are present in embryonic serum; this could mean that the specific transport mechanisms in neuroepithelial cells described in the foetal period evolve in very early stages of development. In conclusion, this paper offers an accurate study of the protein composition of chick embryonic CSF, which will help the understanding of the influences on neuroepithelial stem cells during development and, as a result, the appropriate conditions for the in vitro study of embryonic/foetal nervous tissue cells.

  17. NMR Based Cerebrum Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Simultaneous Interconnected Changes during Chick Embryo Incubation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yue; Zhu, Hang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xuxia; Xu, Fuqiang; Tang, Huiru; Ye, Chaohui; Liu, Maili

    2015-01-01

    To find out if content changes of the major functional cerebrum metabolites are interconnected and formed a network during the brain development, we obtained high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) 1H NMR spectra of cerebrum tissues of chick embryo aged from incubation day 10 to 20, and postnatal day 1, and analyzed the data with principal component analysis (PCA). Within the examined time window, 26 biological important molecules were identified and 12 of them changed their relative concentration significantly in a time-dependent manner. These metabolites are generally belonged to three categories, neurotransmitters, nutrition sources, and neuronal or glial markers. The relative concentration changes of the metabolites were interconnected among/between the categories, and, more interestingly, associated with the number and size of Nissl-positive neurons. These results provided valuable biochemical and neurochemical information to understand the development of the embryonic brain.

  18. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid regulates neuroepithelial survival, proliferation, and neurogenesis in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Gato, Angel; Moro, J A; Alonso, M I; Bueno, D; De La Mano, A; Martín, C

    2005-05-01

    Early in development, the behavior of neuroepithelial cells is controlled by several factors, which act in a developmentally regulated manner. Diffusible factors are secreted locally by the neuroepithelium itself, although other nearby structures may also be involved. Evidence suggests a physiological role for the cerebrospinal fluid in the development of the brain. Here, using organotypic cultures of chick embryo neuroepithelial explants from the mesencephalon, we show that the neuroepithelium in vitro is not able to self-induce cell survival, replication, and neurogenesis. We also show that the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) promotes neuroepithelial stem cell survival and induces proliferation and neurogenesis in mesencephalic explants. These data strongly suggest that E-CSF is involved in the regulation of neuroepithelial cells behavior, supporting the hypothesis that this fluid plays a key role during the early development of the central nervous system.

  19. Structure of the intra-chorionic blood sinus in the chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Narbaitz, R

    1977-01-01

    Portions of the chorio-allantoic membranes from 15 day old chick embryos were processed for electron microscopical examination. The analysis of both 1 micrometer thick sections stained with toluidine blue, and of thin sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, showed that the lumen of the intraepithelial vascular spaces in the chorion constitutes a single cavity extending over the whole membrane. The vascular arrangement can thus best be described as a single blood sinus, and not as a network of capillaries or sinusoids. The large lumen of the sinus is interrupted by cylindrical columns connecting its floor with its roof. Each column is enveloped in a layer of endothelium, a basal lamina intervening. The core of the column is formed by cytoplasm from two to five different cells ('villuscavity' cells, 'capillary-covering' cells or various combinations of both). Images Figs. 2-3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:591432

  20. Growth-inhibitory glycopeptides obtained from the cell surface of cultured chick embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Y

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface glycopeptides were obtained from cultured chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) by digestion with Pronase E, and a fraction exerting growth-inhibitory activity on CEF was isolated by high performance gel permeation chromatography. The active fraction, tentatively termed cell surface glycopeptide-2 (CSGP-2), was soluble in 5% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or 75% ethanol. It inhibited the growth of CEF reversibly at 10-20 micrograms sugar/ml, but did not inhibit BALB/c mouse 3T3, SV40-transformed 3T3, and human diploid cells at similar concentration. The growth-inhibitory activity of CSGP-2 was reduced or lost after digestion with neuraminidase or oxidation with sodium metaperiodate. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis revealed that CSGP-2 was a mixture of sialoglycopeptides. A similar growth inhibitor was also isolated from chicken embryonic tissues.

  1. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as a useful tool to study angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an extraembryonic membrane mediating gas and nutrient exchanges until hatching. Since it has a dense capillary network, it has been commonly used in vivo to study both angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis in response to normal tissues and cells, to tumor bioptic specimens and cells, or to soluble factors. During the last 8 years, this assay has been used in over 550 published works. This chapter summarizes current knowledge about the embryological origin of the CAM, morphology of its blood and lymphatic vessels, the use of CAM in the study of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, angiogenic and antiangiogenic substances. The angiogenic response of CAM to multiple myeloma and neuroblastoma cells and bioptic specimens and their responses to antiangiogenic molecules and the role played by fibroblast growth factor-2 in CAM vascularization have been analyzed in detail. Finally, advantages and limitations of CAM as an experimental model to study angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis are discussed.

  2. The Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane as an In Vivo Assay to Study Antiangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Antiangiogenesis, e.g., inhibition of blood vessel growth, is being investigated as a way to prevent the growth of tumors and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Pharmacological inhibition interferes with the angiogenic cascade or the immature neovasculature with synthetic or semi-synthetic substances, endogenous inhibitors or biological antagonists. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an extraembryonic membrane, which serves as a gas exchange surface and its function is supported by a dense capillary network. Because its extensive vascularization and easy accessibility, CAM has been used to study morphofunctional aspects of the angiogenesis process in vivo and to study the efficacy and mechanism of action of pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. The fields of application of CAM in the study of antiangiogenesis, including our personal experience, are illustrated in this review article. PMID:27713265

  3. The Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane as an In Vivo Assay to Study Antiangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2010-03-08

    Antiangiogenesis, e.g., inhibition of blood vessel growth, is being investigated as a way to prevent the growth of tumors and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Pharmacological inhibition interferes with the angiogenic cascade or the immature neovasculature with synthetic or semi-synthetic substances, endogenous inhibitors or biological antagonists.The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an extraembryonic membrane, which serves as a gas exchange surface and its function is supported by a dense capillary network. Because its extensive vascularization and easy accessibility, CAM has been used to study morphofunctional aspects of the angiogenesis process in vivo and to study the efficacy and mechanism of action of pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. The fields of application of CAM in the study of antiangiogenesis, including our personal experience, are illustrated in this review article.

  4. NMR Based Cerebrum Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Simultaneous Interconnected Changes during Chick Embryo Incubation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yue; Zhu, Hang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xuxia; Xu, Fuqiang; Tang, Huiru; Ye, Chaohui; Liu, Maili

    2015-01-01

    To find out if content changes of the major functional cerebrum metabolites are interconnected and formed a network during the brain development, we obtained high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) 1H NMR spectra of cerebrum tissues of chick embryo aged from incubation day 10 to 20, and postnatal day 1, and analyzed the data with principal component analysis (PCA). Within the examined time window, 26 biological important molecules were identified and 12 of them changed their relative concentration significantly in a time-dependent manner. These metabolites are generally belonged to three categories, neurotransmitters, nutrition sources, and neuronal or glial markers. The relative concentration changes of the metabolites were interconnected among/between the categories, and, more interestingly, associated with the number and size of Nissl-positive neurons. These results provided valuable biochemical and neurochemical information to understand the development of the embryonic brain. PMID:26485040

  5. Sildenafil therapy for fetal cardiovascular dysfunction during hypoxic development: studies in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Itani, Nozomi; Skeffington, Katie L; Beck, Christian; Giussani, Dino A

    2017-03-01

    Common complications of pregnancy, such as chronic fetal hypoxia, trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and programme cardiovascular disease in later life. Sildenafil treatment protects placental perfusion and fetal growth, but whether the effects of sildenafil transcend the placenta to affect the fetus is unknown. Using the chick embryo model, here we show that sildenafil treatment directly protects the fetal cardiovascular system in hypoxic development, and that the mechanisms of sildenafil protection include reduced oxidative stress and increased nitric oxide bioavailability; Sildenafil does not protect against fetal growth restriction in the chick embryo, supporting the idea that the protective effect of sildenafil on fetal growth reported in mammalian studies, including humans, is secondary to improved placental perfusion. Therefore, sildenafil may be a good candidate for human translational antioxidant therapy to protect the chronically hypoxic fetus in adverse pregnancy. There is a need for developing clinically translatable therapy for preventing fetal origins of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy complicated by chronic fetal hypoxia. Evidence shows that sildenafil protects placental perfusion and fetal growth. However, whether beneficial effects of sildenafil transcend onto the fetal heart and circulation in complicated development is unknown. We isolated the direct effects of sildenafil on the fetus using the chick embryo and hypothesised that sildenafil also protects fetal cardiovascular function in hypoxic development. Chick embryos (n = 11 per group) were incubated in normoxia or hypoxia (14% O2 ) from day 1 and treated with sildenafil (4 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ) from day 13 of the 21-day incubation. Hypoxic incubation increased oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal, 141.1 ± 17.6% of normoxic control), reduced superoxide dismutase (60.7 ± 6.3%), increased phosphodiesterase type 5 expression (167 ± 13.7%) and decreased nitric

  6. Intravascular Pillars and Pruning in the Extraembryonic Vessels of Chick Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace S.; Filipovic, Nenad; Lin, Miao; Gibney, Barry C.; Simpson, Dinee C.; Konerding, Moritz A.; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the local mechanical forces associated with intravascular pillars and vessel pruning, we studied the conducting vessels in the extraembryonic circulation of the chick embryo. During the development days 12–16, intravascular pillars and blood flow parameters were identified using fluorescent vascular tracers and digital time-series video reconstructions. The geometry of selected vessels was confirmed by corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy. Computational simulations of pruning vessels suggested that serial pillars form along pre-existing velocity streamlines; blood pressure demonstrated no obvious spatial relationship with the intravascular pillars. Modeling a Reynolds number of 0.03 produced 4 pillars at approximately 20um intervals matching the observed periodicity. In contrast, a Reynolds number of 0.06 produced only 2 pillars at approximately 63um intervals. Our modeling data indicated that the combination of wall shear stress and gradient of shear predicted the location, direction and periodicity of developing pillars. PMID:21448976

  7. Exposure to Excess Phenobarbital Negatively Influences the Osteogenesis of Chick Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yu; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Ren-Hao; Li, He; Chen, Jian-Long; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phenobarbital treatment also suppressed mineralization in both in vivo and in vitro long bone models. Next, we established that phenobarbital treatment delayed blood vessel invasion in a cartilage template, and this finding was supported by the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the hypertrophic zone following phenobarbital treatment. Phenobarbital treatment inhibited tube formation and the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, it impaired angiogenesis in chick yolk sac membrane model and chorioallantoic membrane model. In summary, phenobarbital exposure led to shortened lengths of long bones during embryogenesis, which might result from inhibiting mesenchyme differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, and delaying mineralization by impairing vascular invasion. PMID:27746734

  8. Expression pattern of LINGO-1 in the developing nervous system of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Okafuji, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2005-12-01

    We isolated a chick homologue of LINGO-1 (cLINGO-1), a novel component of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR)/p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) signaling complex, and examined the expression of cLINGO-1 in the developing brain and spinal cord of the chick embryo by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. cLINGO-1 was expressed broadly in the spinal cord, including the ventral portion of the ventricular zone, and motor neurons. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the dorsal root ganglion and boundary cap cells at dorsal and ventral roots. In the early embryonic brain, cLINGO-1 was first expressed in the prosencephalon and the ventral mesencephalon, and later in the telencephalon, the rostral part of the mesencephalon and some parts of the hindbrain. cLINGO-1 was also expressed in the ventral part of the neural retina and trigeminal and facial nerves. We also found that cLINGO-1, cNgR1 and p75NTR were expressed in overlapped patterns in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion, but that these genes were expressed in distinct patterns in the early embryonic brain.

  9. Regulation of rhythmic melatonin production in pineal cells of chick embryo by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Macková, M; Lamosová, D; Zeman, M

    1998-05-01

    The pineal cells of chick embryos incubated in vitro exhibited a daily rhythm of melatonin synthesis under a 12:12 light:dark (LD) cycle at the embryonic days 16 and 19. In order to elucidate whether cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)--a component of the melatonin generating system--is already at work in the embryonic period, we measured the effects of forskolin and isobuthylmethylxantine (IBMX) on melatonin production, cAMP efflux and accumulation. Forskolin (after 10, 20, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min of administration) and IBMX (6 h), when applied during the light phase of LD cycle, stimulated melatonin production and cAMP efflux and accumulation during the embryonic period (at days 16 and 19 fo development). Our results suggest that the biochemical pathway involving cAMP, which controls melatonin production in the postnatal period, is developed before hatching and already on embryonic day 19 works in a way similar to that in post-hatched chicks. Differences in response to cAMP stimulation between 16- and 19-day-old pinealocytes seem to be mostly quantitative.

  10. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  11. The development of hindlimb motor activity studied in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J; Landmesser, L

    1987-10-01

    The development of hindlimb motor activity was studied in an isolated preparation of the chick spinal cord. The motor output from lumbosacral segments was characterized by recording the pattern of ventral root and muscle nerve discharge in 6-14-d-old embryos. In addition, the synaptic drive underlying motoneuron activity was monitored electrotonically from the ventral roots. Spontaneous motor activity consisted of recurring episodes of cyclical motoneuron discharge. During development, both the number of cycles in each episode and the intensity of discharge in each cycle progressively increased. Monophasic, positive ventral root potentials accompanied each cycle of motoneuron discharge. Prior to the innervation of hindlimb muscles at stage 26, ventral root discharge was barely detectable despite the presence of large ventral root potentials. Following hindlimb muscle innervation, each cycle of activity was initiated by a brief, intense discharge that coincided with the rising phase of the ventral root potential. In embryos older than stage 30, the initial discharge was followed, after a delay, by a more prolonged discharge. The duration of ventral root potentials was shortest in the stage 26 embryos, but was similar in embryos at stage 29 and older. The developmental changes in the coordination of antagonist activity were documented by recording the pattern of discharge in sartorius (flexor) and caudilioflexorius (extensor) muscle nerves between stage 30 and stage 36. At stage 30 both sets of motoneurons were coactivated during the brief discharge that initiated each cycle. By stage 31 a second discharge occurred in each cycle. The second discharge was delayed in flexor, but not in extensor, motoneurons, which led to an alternating pattern of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Targeting Apoptosis Through Foxp1, and N-cadherin with Glatiramer Acetate in Chick Embryos During Neural Tube Development.

    PubMed

    Taskapilioglu, M Ozgur; Billur, Deniz; Kizil, Sule; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Aydin, Sevim; Bekar, Ahmet; Unlu, Agahan

    To demonstrate the effect of glatiramer acetate (GA) in chick embryos on neural tube (NT) development, and to explore its effects of Foxp1, apoptosis, and N-cadherin. One hundred fertile, specific pathogen free eggs were divided into 5 groups for this study. The eggshell was windowed specifically at 24 hours of incubation. The embryos in Group 1 (n=20) were treated with 10 μl physiological saline; in Group 2 the embryos (n=20) were given 10 μl GA (equal to daily human therapeutic dose); 20 μl GA (equal to twice daily human therapeutic dose) was injected to embryos in Group 3 (n=20); in Group 4 and 5, 30 μl and 40 μl GA were administered to the embryos (n=20) (equal to x3 and x4 daily human therapeutic dose, respectively). Each egg was re-incubated for 24 hours more. Then, histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the subjects were done. The embryos with NT defect showed FOXP1 expression without N- cadherin or staining with N-cadherin in another location in our study. We interpreted this result as GA leading to an NT closure defect by increasing FOXP expression. Moreover, we also showed the reverse relation between FOXP1 and N-cadherin at the immunohistochemical level for the first time. GA affects the spinal cord development through FOXP in the chick embryo model at high doses.

  13. FT-IR microscopic mappings of early mineralization in chick limb bud mesenchymal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Camacho, N. P.; Mendelsohn, R.; Doty, S. B.; Binderman, I.

    1992-01-01

    Chick limb bud mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes and form a cartilaginous matrix in culture. In this study, the mineral formed in different areas within cultures supplemented with 4 mM inorganic phosphate, or 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP), was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy. The relative mineral-to-matrix ratios, and distribution of crystal sizes at specific locations throughout the matrix were measured from day 14 to day 30. The only mineral phase detected was a poorly crystalline apatite. Cultures receiving 4 mM inorganic phosphate had smaller crystals which were less randomly distributed around the cartilage nodules than those in the beta GP-treated cultures. beta GP-induced mineral consisted of larger, more perfect apatite crystals. In cultures receiving 5 or 10 mM beta GP, the relative mineral-to-matrix ratios (calculated from the integrated intensities of the phosphate and amide I bands, respectively) were higher than in the cultures with 4 mM inorganic phosphate or in the in vivo calcified chick cartilage.

  14. FT-IR microscopic mappings of early mineralization in chick limb bud mesenchymal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Camacho, N. P.; Mendelsohn, R.; Doty, S. B.; Binderman, I.

    1992-01-01

    Chick limb bud mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes and form a cartilaginous matrix in culture. In this study, the mineral formed in different areas within cultures supplemented with 4 mM inorganic phosphate, or 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP), was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy. The relative mineral-to-matrix ratios, and distribution of crystal sizes at specific locations throughout the matrix were measured from day 14 to day 30. The only mineral phase detected was a poorly crystalline apatite. Cultures receiving 4 mM inorganic phosphate had smaller crystals which were less randomly distributed around the cartilage nodules than those in the beta GP-treated cultures. beta GP-induced mineral consisted of larger, more perfect apatite crystals. In cultures receiving 5 or 10 mM beta GP, the relative mineral-to-matrix ratios (calculated from the integrated intensities of the phosphate and amide I bands, respectively) were higher than in the cultures with 4 mM inorganic phosphate or in the in vivo calcified chick cartilage.

  15. Raphe of the posterior neural tube in the chick embryo: its closure and reopening as studied in living embryos with a high definition light microscope.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, H W; Jaskoll, T; Rousseau, A M; Terwindt-Rouwenhorst, E A; Greenberg, G; Shankar, K; Melnick, M

    1993-09-01

    Chick embryos cultured on a curved substratum show a transient enlargement of the posterior neuropore (PN), mimicking the temporary delay of PN closure as seen in the curly tail (ct) mouse mutant (van Straaten et al. [1993] Development 117:1163-1172). In the present study the PN enlargement in the chick embryo was investigated further with a high definition light microscope (HDmic), allowing high resolution viewing of living embryos in vitro. The temporary PN enlargement appeared due to considerable reopening of the raphe of the posterior neural tube, which was followed by reclosure after several hours. The raphe was subsequently studied in detail. It appeared very irregular, with small zones of apposed, open and fused neural folds. During closure, these raphe features shifted posteriorly. A distinct fusion sequence between surface epithelium and neuroepithelium was not seen. During experimental reopening of the raphe in vitro, small bridges temporarily arose, broke and disappeared quickly; they likely represented the first adhesion sites between the neural folds. More prominent adhesion sites partly detached, resulting in bridging filopodia-like connections; they probably represented the first anteroposterior locations of neural fold fusion. Our observations in the living chick embryo in vitro thus show that the caudal neural tube has an irregular raphe with few adhesion sites, which can be readily reopened. As a result of the irregularity, the PN does not close zipper-like, but button-like by forming multiple closure sites.

  16. Restoration of Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Mouse 1R Cells After Fusion with Chick-Embryo Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bakay, Bohdan; Croce, Carlo M.; Koprowski, Hilary; Nyhan, William L.

    1973-01-01

    Fusion of the 1R mouse cell, which lacks activity of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (EC 2.4.2.8), with chick-embryo fibroblasts yielded progeny cells that survived in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine selective medium. This property and the failure of the progeny to survive in 8-azaguanine indicated that hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase activity was present. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that the enzyme was of mouse, not chick, origin. These observations are consistent with the operation of a regulator gene responsible for the absence of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase activity in the 1R cell and its presence in the progeny. Images PMID:4516198

  17. Studies on insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin in chick limb morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dealy, C N; Kosher, R A

    1995-01-01

    The apical ectodermal ridge (AER) promotes the proliferation and directed outgrowth of the subridge mesodermal cells of the developing limb bud, while suppressing their differentiation. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its receptor are expressed by the subridge mesodermal cells of the chick limb bud growing out in response to the AER, and specific insulin receptors are present in the limb bud during its outgrowth. To study the possible roles of IGF-I and insulin in limb outgrowth, we have examined their effects on the morphogenesis of posterior and anterior portions of the distal tip of stage 25 embryonic chick wing buds subjected to organ culture in serum-free medium in the presence or absence of the AER and limb ectoderm. The distal mesoderm of control posterior explants lacking an AER or all limb ectoderm ceases expressing IGF-I mRNA, exhibits little or no proliferation, fails to undergo outgrowth, and rapidly differentiates. Exogenous IGF-I and insulin promote the outgrowth and proliferation and suppress the differentiation of distal mesodermal cells in posterior explants lacking an AER or limb ectoderm, thus mimicking at least to some extent the outgrowth promoting and anti-differentiative effects normally elicited on the subridge mesoderm by the AER. Furthermore, IGF-I and insulin-treated posterior explants exhibit high IGF-I mRNA expression, indicating that IGF-I and insulin maintain the expression of endogenous IGF-I by the subridge mesoderm. We have also found IGF-I and insulin can affect the morphology and activity of the AER. When the posterior portion of the wing bud tip is cultured with the AER intact in control medium, on day 4-5 the AER flattens, ceases expressing high amounts of the AER-characteristic homeobox-containing gene Msx2, and concomitantly an elongated cartilaginous element differentiates in the subridge mesoderm. In contrast, in the presence of exogenous IGF-I or insulin the AER of such explants does not flatten, continues

  18. Claudin-5 expression in the vasculature of the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michelle M; Baumholtz, Amanda I; Ryan, Aimee K

    2012-01-01

    The claudin family of proteins are integral components of tight junctions and are responsible for determining the ion specificity and permeability of paracellular transport within epithelial and endothelial cell layers. Studies in human, mouse, Xenopus, and zebrafish have shown that only a limited number of claudins are expressed in endothelial cells. Here, we report the expression pattern of Claudin-5 during chick development. Between HH stage 4 and 6 Claudin-5 expression was observed exclusively in extraembryonic tissue. Claudin-5 expression was not observed in the embryo until HH stage 8, coincident with the onset of embryonic vascularization. Claudin-5 expression was maintained in the developing vasculature in the embryonic and extraembryonic tissue throughout organogenesis (HH stage 19-35), including the vasculature of the ectoderm and of organs derived from the mesoderm and endoderm lineages. These data describe a conserved expression pattern for Claudin-5 in the endothelial tight junction barrier and is the first report of the onset of Claudin-5 expression in a vertebrate embryo.

  19. The effects of ethanol on CNS development in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Giles, Seamus; Boehm, Peter; Brogan, Cathy; Bannigan, John

    2008-02-01

    Human and animal studies show that the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to developmental exposure to alcohol across all stages of development. New critical periods of ethanol sensitivity continue to be defined. The aim of this study was to further examine the stage-specific effects of ethanol on CNS development using a relatively simple programme of neuronal migration and differentiation, the chick embryo spinal cord, and treating at the immediate post-neurulation stage. Embryos (HH-stage 10-12) were explanted into shell-less culture and treated with ethanol (20 microl/40%) or saline (20 microl). At 6,12, 24 and 48 h post-treatment specimens were processed for resin histology. In addition, levels of cell death were analysed using Lysotracker Red, neural crest cell migration patterns were examined using HNK-1 staining and effects on DNA synthesis were evaluated on autoradiographs prepared 1h after exposure to 3H-TdR. This treatment protocol produced significant growth retardation in ethanol specimens examined at 48 h post-treatment. This effect was shown to involve increased levels of cell death, perturbation of DNA synthesis and an abnormal translocation and subsequent loss of cells into the neural tube lumen. No gross malformations were observed. We conclude that these results further highlight the stage-specific effects of ethanol on neurodevelopment.

  20. Chick embryo lethal orphan virus can be polymer-coated and retargeted to infect mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M; Boos, E; Herbert, C; Hale, A; Green, N; Lyons, M; Chandler, L; Ulbrich, K; van Rooijen, N; Mautner, V; Fisher, K; Seymour, L

    2006-02-01

    Non-human adenovirus vectors have attractive immunological properties for gene therapy but are frequently restricted by inefficient transduction of human target cells. Using chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus, we employed a nongenetic mechanism of polymer coating and retargeting with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF-pc-CELOluc), a strategy that permits efficient tropism modification of human adenovirus. bFGF-pc-CELOluc showed efficient uptake and transgene expression in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), and increased levels of binding and internalization in a variety of human cell lines. Transgene expression was also greater than unmodified CELOluc in PC-3 human prostate cells, although the specific activity (RLU per internalized viral genome) was decreased. In CEF, the specific activity of bFGF-pc-CELOluc was considerably higher than in the human prostate cell line PC-3. Retargeted virus was fully resistant to inhibition by human serum with known adenovirus-neutralizing activity in vitro, while in mice CELOluc was cleared less rapidly from the blood than Adluc following i.v. administration in the presence of adenovirus neutralizing serum. Polymer coating and retargeting with bFGF further reduced rates of clearance for both viruses, suggesting protection against both neutralizing and opsonizing factors. The data indicate that CELO virus may be retargeted to infect human cells via alternative, potentially disease-specific, receptors and resist the effects of pre-existing humoral immunity.

  1. Effect of cocaine, ethanol or nicotine on ornithine decarboxylase activity in early chick embryo brain.

    PubMed

    Beeker, K; Smith, C; Pennington, S

    1992-09-18

    Fetal drug exposure causes multiple deficits in the developing child. For both humans and animal models, the single most common drug-related problem is fetal growth suppression. This defect is associated with significant perinatal morbidity and mortality and may also be related to significant behavioral problems appearing later in life. Studies focussed on the molecular mechanism of fetal drug effects in placental models are complicated by multiple interactions of the drug with mother, placenta and fetus. Using early (76-168 h) chick embryos as a non-placental model, and three common drugs of abuse (nicotine, ethanol and cocaine) it was found that each drug suppressed the peak in fetal brain ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity that normally occurs at 120 h of development. For each drug, the decrease in ODC activity at 120 h was followed by a small but significant increase in ODC. Thus, although the drug-treated embryos were smaller in size, they appeared to be undergoing compensatory growth and, in fact, became equal in weight to the vehicle-treated animals, if allowed to hatch.

  2. Exploring the Caffeine-Induced Teratogenicity on Neurodevelopment Using Early Chick Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang; Li, Xiao-di; He, Rong-rong; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Yang, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine consumption is worldwide. It has been part of our diet for many centuries; indwelled in our foods, drinks, and medicines. It is often perceived as a “legal drug”, and though it is known to have detrimental effects on our health, more specifically, disrupt the normal fetal development following excessive maternal intake, much ambiguity still surrounds the precise mechanisms and consequences of caffeine-induced toxicity. Here, we employed early chick embryos as a developmental model to assess the effects of caffeine on the development of the fetal nervous system. We found that administration of caffeine led to defective neural tube closures and expression of several abnormal morphological phenotypes, which included thickening of the cephalic mesenchymal tissues and scattering of somites. Immunocytochemistry of caffeine-treated embryos using neural crest cell markers also demonstrated uncharacteristic features; HNK1 labeled migratory crest cells exhibited an incontinuous dorsal-ventral migration trajectory, though Pax7 positive cells of the caffeine-treated groups were comparatively similar to the control. Furthermore, the number of neurons expressing neurofilament and the degree of neuronal branching were both significantly reduced following caffeine administration. The extent of these effects was dose-dependent. In conclusion, caffeine exposure can result in malformations of the neural tube and induce other teratogenic effects on neurodevelopment, although the exact mechanism of these effects requires further investigation. PMID:22470550

  3. The role of beta-adrenergic activity in the production of cardiac and aortic arch anomalies in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Hodach, R J; Hodach, A E; Fallon, J F; Folts, J D; Bruyere, H J; Gilbert, E F

    1975-08-01

    The sympathomimetic amines isoproterenol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine are structural derivatives of beta-phenylethylamine and have proportionately different effects on alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Chick embryos in ovo were each administered a single dose of one of these compounds at concentrations ranging from 0.4 times 10(-9) to 20 times 10(-9) mol/5 mul saline during Hamburger and Hamilton stages 20-27. In other experiments embryos were pretreated with the beta-antagonist propranolol and subsequently administered isoproterenol. 743 cardiovascular anomalies were produced. The production of cardiovascular anomalies was proportional to the degree of beta-adrenergic activity of each drug. The frequency of anomalies was significantly reduced by pretreatment with propranolol. At all concentrations tested the anomaly rate was greater in chick embryos receiving an experimental compound than in controls. The general types of anomalies included aortic arch defects, ventricular septal defect, double outlet right ventricle, aortic hypoplasia, and truncus arteriosus. These results demonstrate that activation of the beta-adrenergic receptor mechanism is directly related to the cardiovascular anomalies produced in the chick embryos.

  4. Anasarca and myopathy in ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Philbey, A W; Button, C; Gestier, A W; Munro, B E; Glastonbury, J R; Hindmarsh, M; Love, S C

    1991-07-01

    Twenty ostrich chicks that died at, or within, 1 week after hatching were examined from 7 farms with poor (43 to 75%) hatchability. All chicks had anasarca and 15 had mild, generalised, acute degenerative changes in the complexus and pelvic limb muscles. One had fibrinoid degeneration of arterioles. Biochemical examinations produced no evidence of deficiencies of selenium, vitamin A or vitamin E. The syndrome was related to high relative humidity during incubation. Malpositioning also was a cause of embryo mortality.

  5. The expression pattern of the Distal-less homeobox-containing gene Dlx-5 in the developing chick limb bud suggests its involvement in apical ectodermal ridge activity, pattern formation, and cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, D; Sumoy, L; Gannon, J; Sun, H; Brown, A M; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1995-08-01

    Here we report the isolation from a chick limb bud cDNA library of a cDNA that contains the full coding sequence of chicken Dlx-5, a member of the Distal-less (Dlx) family of homeobox-containing genes that encode homeodomains highly similar to that of the Drosophila Distal-less gene, a gene that is required for limb development in the Drosophila embryo. The expression pattern of Dlx-5 in the developing chick limb bud suggests that it may be involved in several aspects of limb morphogenesis. Dlx-5 is expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) which directs the outgrowth and patterning of underlying limb mesoderm. During early limb development Dlx-5 is also expressed in the mesoderm at the anterior margin of the limb bud and in a discrete group of mesodermal cells at the mid-proximal posterior margin that corresponds to the posterior necrotic zone. These mesodermal domains of Dlx-5 expression roughly correspond to the anterior and posterior boundaries of the progress zone, the group of highly proliferating undifferentiated mesodermal cells underneath the AER that will give rise to the skeletal elements of the limb and associated structures. The AER and anterior and posterior mesodermal domains of Dlx-5 expression are regions in which the homeobox-containing gene Msx-2 is also highly expressed, suggesting that Dlx-5 and Msx-2 might be involved in regulatory networks that control AER activity and demarcate the progress zone. In addition, Dlx-5 is expressed in high amounts by the differentiating cartilaginous skeletal elements of the limb, suggesting it may be involved in regulating the onset of limb cartilage differentiation.

  6. Lethal and teratogenic effects of long-term low-intensity radio frequency radiation at 428 MHz on developing chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Suzuki, K.; Motoyoshi, S. )

    1991-06-01

    Exposure of developing chick embryos to 428 MHz radio frequency (RF) radiation at a power density of 5.5 mW/cm2 for more than 20 days resulted in embryolethal and/or teratogenic effects and delayed hatching. These adverse biological effects were not due to any thermal effect of the RF radiation. The authors have demonstrated teratogenicity in the chick embryo as a result of protracted low-dose RF irradiation.

  7. Microgravity in the STS-29 space shuttle discovery affected the vestibular system of chick embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D.; Jones, T.; Vellinger, J.; Deuser, M.; Hester, P.; Hullinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    Out of 32 embryos flown (16 @ E2 + 16 @ E9) for 5 days, 16 survived. All sixteen E2 were dead at landing. Eight were opened and eight were incubated at 1.0G. Autopsy showed that 4 E2 survived over 24 hours in space. Eight E14 hatched without anatomical malformations, and 8 E14 were fixed. The height of the macular epithelia was 31 mu m (mean) in control and 26 mu m in flight chicks. The cross-sectional area of macular nuclei of control was 17 mu m(2) for hair cells and 14 mu m(2) in supporting cells. In flight, cross-sectional area was 17 mu m(2) in hair cells and 15 mu m(2) in supporting cells (n=250). The shape factor of cartilage cells (1.0 = perfect circle) between control (mean = 0.70) and flight (mean = 0.72), and the area of cartilaginous cells between controls (mean = 9 mu m(2)) and flight (mean = 9 mu m(2)) did not differ (n=300). The nuclei of support cells were closer to the basement membrane in flight than in control chicks. The immunoreactivity of otoconia with anti keratan, fibronectin or chrondroitin sulfate was not different between flight and control ears. There were more afferent fibers inside the macular epithelia of flight (p<0.05) than control. Three of 8 flight animals had elevated vestibular thresholds (VT), with normal mean response amplitudes and latencies. Modified afferent innervation patterns requiring weeks to compensate are sufficient to elevate VT, and should be investigated further. Other reversible (sublethal) microgravity effects on sensory epithelia (vacuoles, swelling, etc) require quantification.

  8. The development of motor projection patterns in the chick hind limb.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L

    1978-01-01

    1. Retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase was used to map the initial projection patterns of lumbosacral motoneurones to the embryonic chick hind limb. 2. The stage 28 segmental projection pattern to each of the four primary muscle masses was characteristic and indistinguishable from the stage 36 projection pattern to the sum of the muscles derived from that mass. In addition, the adductor motoneurone pool was found to be similar in position (both rostro-caudal and mediolateral) at stages 29, 30, 32, 33 1/2 and 36. 3. Therefore axons from lumbosacral motoneurones project for the most part only to appropriate regions from early times shortly after they grow into the limb bud. Furthermore, the attainment of the segmental projection pattern occurs prior to the normal time of, and therefore without the aid of, cell death. This conclusion was supported by electrophysiological recordings made from muscle nerves. 4. A regionalization of the projection patterns within a single muscle mass could be shown both anatomically and physiologically prior to the cleavage of the mass into individual muscles and the projections were in a general way appropriate for the muscles derived from those regions. 5. Therefore the process of muscle cleavage does not in itself create the specific projection patterns observed, and motoneurone axons appear to grow to and to ramify and make synapses only within regions which correspond to their adult muscles. 6. Finally, the termination site of each motoneurone axon in the early limb was found to be tightly correlated in a somatotopic fashion with the position occupied by its soma in the cord. This suggests that some feature of the motoneurone related to its position may be of importance in achieving the specific projection patterns observed. Images Plate 1 PMID:731552

  9. Characterization of concentration gradients of a morphogenetically active retinoid in the chick limb bud

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    It has long been suggested that the generation of biological patterns depends in part on gradients of diffusible substances. In an attempt to bridge the gap between this largely theoretical concept and experimental embryology, we have examined the physiology of diffusion gradients in an actual embryonic field. In particular, we have generated in the chick wing bud concentration gradients of the morphogenetically active retinoid TTNPB, (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro- 5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-prope nyl] benzoic acid, a synthetic vitamin A compound. Upon local application of TTNPB the normal 234 digit pattern is duplicated in a way that correlates with the geometry of the underlying TTNPB gradient; low doses of TTNPB lead to a shallow gradient and an additional digit 2, whereas higher doses result in a steep, far-reaching gradient and patterns with additional digits 3 and 4. The experimentally measured TTNPB distribution along the anteroposterior axis, can be modeled by a local source and a dispersed sink. This model correctly predicts the site of specification of digit 2, and provides an empirical estimate of the diffusion coefficient (D) of retinoids in embryonic limb tissue. The numerical value of approximately 10(-7) cm2s-1 for D suggests that retinoids are not freely diffusible in the limb rudiment, but interact with the previously identified cellular retinoic acid binding protein. In addition, D affords an estimate of the time required to establish a diffusion gradient as 3 to 4 h. This time span is in a range compatible with the time scale of pattern specification in developing vertebrate limbs. Our studies support the view that diffusion of morphogenetic substances is a plausible mechanism of pattern formation in secondary embryonic fields. PMID:3667700

  10. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHICK EMBRYO SKIN ORGAN CULTURES TO INFLUENZA VIRUS FOLLOWING EXCESS VITAMIN A

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J. S.; Bang, F. B.

    1964-01-01

    The conversion of chick embryonic epidermis to mucous epithelium by excess vitamin A in organ culture as reported by Fell and Mellanby (5) was shown to be accompanied by a corresponding change of susceptibility to influenza and vaccinia viruses. Untreated epidermis of 10- to 12-day chick embryos supported the growth of influenza (PR8) virus in organ cultures and a maximum infectivity (EID50) titer was reached 2 to 3 days after infection. At the same time) the epidermis showed squamous keratinization, beginning about the 4th day of cultivation. Addition of excess vitamin A (40 µg per ml) to the skin organ culture induced the following changes: (a) mucous metaplasia of the epidermis which was usually first evident after 4 to 5 days in the vitamin A medium, (b) increase in the daily and maximum yield of influenza virus, if the epidermis had been grown for 4 or more days in the vitamin A medium before infection took place, and (c) decrease in the production of vaccinia virus under similar conditions. The maximum yield of both viruses remained unchanged, however, if excess vitamin A was introduced to the organ culture at the time of virus inoculation. The magnitude of increase in the yield of influenza virus in this organ culture system was found to be proportionally related to the concentration of vitamin A added 4 or more days before inoculation of this virus. Increasing doses of vitamin A however, had no effect on the short-term growth of influenza virus in tissue cultures of chorio-allantoic membrane. Observation on the early period (2 to 12 hours) of influenza virus growth initiated in the 4-day organ cultures of chick embryonic skin showed no significant difference in virus production between the normal and the vitamin A medium groups. The change of virus specificity apparently is not due to the presence of excess vitamin A per se, but appears to be related to the change of differentiation produced in the organ culture system. PMID:14206436

  11. The effect of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels on apoptosis of chick embryo cecal cells by Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sha-sha; Zheng, Ming-xue; Xu, Huan-cheng; Cui, Xiao-zhen; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Wen-long; Bai, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels on apoptosis induced by Eimeria tenella. At 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after Eimeria tenella infection, TUNEL assays and translation of phosphatidyl serines to the host cell plasma membrane surface showed that diazoxide-treated chick embryo cecal cells underwent less apoptosis (P <0.05), while light microscopy showed that infection rates of treated cells were higher (P <0.01) than untreated cells. Caspase 9 and caspase 3 of infected cells were activated less (P <0.01) in diazoxide-treated cells than untreated cells. These results indicate that opening mitoKATP channels can protect chick embryo cecal cells from mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by Eimeria tenella by inhibiting activations of caspase 9 and caspase 3.

  12. Physical properties, lipid composition and enzyme activities of hepatic subcellular membranes from chick embryo after ethanol treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Amate, M.C.; Marco, C.; Segovia, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of chick embryos to ethanol resulted in significant alterations to the lipid composition of various different hepatic subcellular membranes. A marked decrease in cholesterol levels and an increase in the phospholipid content of microsomes and mitochondria was observed. Ethanol also affected the fatty acid profiles, mainly by decreasing the percentage of oleic acid in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the mitochondria and phosphatidylethanolamine in the microsomes. In spite of these changes ethanol only induced alterations in the fluidity of the mitochondrial membranes, which showed a more rigid core, in contrast to the phospholipid-head region, which was not affected. In accordance with the changes observed in the physical state of the membrane, the enzymes involved in the microsomal electron-transport systems were not modified by ethanol, while cytochrome oxidase activity decreased by 50% compared to the activity in the mitochondria from control chick embryos.

  13. A set of stage-specific gene transcripts identified in EK stage X and HH stage 3 chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ram; Kim, Heebal; Park, Tae Sub; Moon, Sunjin; Cho, Seoae; Park, Taesung; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2007-06-01

    The embryonic developmental process in avian species is quite different from that in mammals. The first cleavage begins 4 h after fertilization, but the first differentiation does not occur until laying of the egg (Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EK) stage X). After 12 to 13 h of incubation (Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 3), the three germ layers form and germ cell segregation in the early chick embryo are completed. Thus, to identify genes associated with early embryonic development, we compared transcript expression patterns between undifferentiated (stage X) and differentiated (HH stage 3) embryos. Microarray analysis primarily showed 40 genes indicating the significant changes in expression levels between stage X and HH stage 3, and 80% of the genes (32/40) were differentially expressed with more than a twofold change. Among those, 72% (23/32) were relatively up-regulated at stage X compared to HH stage 3, while 28% (9/32) were relatively up-regulated at HH stage 3 compared to stage X. Verification and gene expression profiling of these GeneChip expression data were performed using quantitative RT-PCR for 32 genes at developmental four points; stage X (0 h), HH stage 3 (12 h), HH stage 6 (24 h), and HH stage 9 (30 h). Additionally, we further analyzed four genes with less than twofold expression increase at HH stage 3. As a result, we identified a set of stage-specific genes during the early chick embryo development; 21 genes were relatively up-regulated in the stage X embryo and 12 genes were relatively up-regulated in the HH stage 3 embryo based on both results of microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. We identified a set of genes with stage-specific expression from microarray Genechip and quantitative RT-PCR. Discovering stage-specific genes will aid in uncovering the molecular mechanisms involved the formation of the three germ layers and germ cell segregation in the early chick embryos.

  14. Snail2 and Zeb2 repress P-cadherin to define embryonic territories in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Acloque, Hervé; Ocaña, Oscar H; Abad, Diana; Stern, Claudio D; Nieto, M Angela

    2017-02-15

    Snail and Zeb transcription factors induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in embryonic and adult tissues by direct repression of E-cadherin transcription. The repression of E-cadherin transcription by the EMT inducers Snail1 and Zeb2 plays a fundamental role in defining embryonic territories in the mouse, as E-cadherin needs to be downregulated in the primitive streak and in the epiblast, concomitant with the formation of mesendodermal precursors and the neural plate, respectively. Here, we show that in the chick embryo, E-cadherin is weakly expressed in the epiblast at pre-primitive streak stages where it is substituted for by P-cadherin We also show that Snail2 and Zeb2 repress P-cadherin transcription in the primitive streak and the neural plate, respectively. This indicates that E- and P-cadherin expression patterns evolved differently between chick and mouse. As such, the Snail1/E-cadherin axis described in the early mouse embryo corresponds to Snail2/P-cadherin in the chick, but both Snail factors and Zeb2 fulfil a similar role in chick and mouse in directly repressing ectodermal cadherin genes to contribute to the delamination of mesendodermal precursors at gastrulation and the proper specification of the neural ectoderm during neural induction.

  15. Measuring the electric activity of chick embryos heart through 16 bit audio card monitored by the Goldwavetm software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2015-12-01

    In the present work we used a high-resolution, low-cost apparatus capable of detecting waves fit inside the sound bandwidth, and the software package GoldwaveTM for graphical display, processing and monitoring the signals, to study aspects of the electric heart activity of early avian embryos, specifically at the 18th Hamburger & Hamilton stage of the embryo development. The species used was the domestic chick (Gallus gallus), and we carried out 23 experiments in which cardiographic spectra of QRS complex waves representing the propagation of depolarization waves through ventricles was recorded using microprobes and reference electrodes directly on the embryos. The results show that technique using 16 bit audio card monitored by the GoldwaveTM software was efficient to study signal aspects of heart electric activity of early avian embryos.

  16. Pharmacological characterization of the rhythmic synaptic drive onto lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Sernagor, E; Chub, N; Ritter, A; O'Donovan, M J

    1995-11-01

    The isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo generates episodes of rhythmic bursting in which sartorius (hip flexor) and femorotibialis (knee extensor) motoneurons exhibit characteristic patterns of activity. At the beginning of each cycle both sets of motoneurons discharge synchronously. Following this brief synchronous activation sartorius motoneurons stop firing at the time of peak femorotibialis activity, producing a period of alternation between the two sets of motoneurons. Intracellular recording from motoneurons has suggested that the pause is mediated by a synaptically induced shunt conductance. However, the pharmacological basis for this shunt and the nature of the excitatory drive to motoneurons is unknown. To address these questions we have investigated the pharmacology of the rhythmic, synaptic drive to lumbosacral motoneurons using local and bath application of several excitatory and inhibitory antagonists, and documenting their effects on motor output in E10-E12 chick embryos. Local application of bicuculline or picrotoxin over sartorius motoneurons abolished the pause in firing recorded from the sartorius muscle nerve. As a consequence, the pattern of sartorius and femorotibialis activity was similar and the motoneurons were coactive. The pause in sartorius firing was shortened following local application of the glycine antagonist strychnine the nicotinic, cholinergic antagonists mecamylamine, and dihydro-beta-erythroidine and several excitatory amino acid antagonists. Application of the GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid depressed the slow potentials and discharge recorded from the sartorius muscle nerve. These findings suggest that the pause is determined primarily by synaptic inputs acting at motoneuron GABAA receptors with contributions from glycinergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic inputs. The actions of locally applied GABA onto spinal neurons are consistent with these findings because the neurotransmitter depolarizes spinal neurons and

  17. The development of sensorimotor synaptic connections in the lumbosacral cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; Koebbe, M J; O'Donovan, M J

    1988-07-01

    We have examined the development of synaptic connections between afferents and motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the chick embryo between stages 28 and 39. The central projection of afferents was visualized following injection of dorsal root ganglia with HRP. Afferent fibers first entered the dorsal gray matter between stages 29 and 31. They grew in a ventrolateral direction, reaching motoneuron dendrites by stage 32. Quantitative analysis of axon numbers suggested that individual axons did not begin to branch extensively until they approached the lateral motor column at stage 36. Connectivity between afferents and motoneurons was assessed by stimulating dorsal roots or nerves supplying the femorotibialis muscle and recording the resulting motoneuron synaptic potentials intracellularly or from the cut ventral roots. At stages 37-39, low-intensity stimulation produced a short-latency positive potential that was followed at higher stimulus currents by slower positive potentials. All of these potentials were abolished in solutions that block chemical synaptic transmission (zero Ca2+/2 mM Mn2+). The early potential, which includes the monosynaptic EPSP produced by muscle afferents, persisted in the presence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), but was largely eliminated by the more general excitatory amino acid antagonist, kynurenic acid. Therefore, in the chick, as in other species, a glutamate-like transmitter appears to be released at the synapses between muscle afferents and motoneurons. The APV-resistant potential was reduced in amplitude during bath application of the glycine and GABA antagonists, strychnine and picrotoxin, suggesting that it was composed of depolarizing inhibitory as well as excitatory components at these stages. The monosynaptic EPSP could be recorded in ventral roots as early as stages 32-33, when muscle afferents first grew into the vicinity of motoneuron dendrites. The EPSP in these young

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN ROUS SARCOMA WITH VIRUS, TUMOR CELLS, AND CHICK EMBRYO CELLS TRANSFORMED IN VITRO BY VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Erichsen, Stian; Eng, Jan; Morgan, Herbert R.

    1961-01-01

    The chick embryo fibroblast infected by Rous sarcoma virus in vitro acquires the capacity to produce the acid mucopolysaccharides which are found in the tumors caused by this virus and which are also produced by tumor cells in vitro. The transformed cell acquires synthetic as well as morphologic, metabolic, and proliferative properties characteristic of Rous sarcoma tumor cells in vivo and in vitro and the transformed cell may be analogous to the tumor cell produced by virus infection in vivo. PMID:19867193

  19. The lathyrogenic effect of isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INAH) on the chick embryo and its reversal by pyridoxal.

    PubMed

    LEVENE, C I

    1961-04-01

    When applied to the chorio-allantoic membrane of the chick embryo, isoniazid was shown to produce an increase in the fragility of the embryo and in the amount of collagen which was extractable from the bones with cold 1 M sodium chloride. The administration of pyridoxal reversed these phenomena almost completely. The effect of isoniazid differed from that of beta-aminopropionitrile in that the latter was of greater magnitude, and was not affected by pyridoxal; whereas beta-aminopropionitrile caused skeletal deformities, isoniazid even at 12 times the concentration produced no deformities. The aldehyde group of pyridoxal was shown to be necessary for its interaction with isoniazid.

  20. Role of the chicken homeobox-containing genes GHox-4.6 and GHox-8 in the specification of positional identities during the development of normal and polydactylous chick limb buds.

    PubMed

    Coelho, C N; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1992-06-01

    During early stages of normal chick limb development, the homeobox-containing (HOX) gene GHox-4.6 is expressed throughout the posterior mesoderm of the wing bud from which most of the skeletal elements including the digits will develop, whereas GHox-8 is expressed in the anterior limb bud mesoderm which will not give rise to skeletal elements. In the present study, we have examined the expression of GHox-4.6 and GHox-8 in the wing buds of two polydactylous mutant chick embryos, diplopodia-5 and talpid2, from which supernumerary digits develop from anterior limb mesoderm, and have also examined the expression of these genes in response to polarizing zone grafts and retinoic acid-coated bead implants which induce the formation of supernumerary digits from anterior limb mesoderm. We have found that the formation of supernumerary digits from the anterior mesoderm in mutant and experimentally induced polydactylous limb buds is preceded by the ectopic expression of GHox-4.6 in the anterior mesoderm and the coincident suppression of GHox-8 expression in the anterior mesoderm. These observations suggest that the anterior mesoderm of the polydactylous limb buds is "posteriorized" and support the suggestion that GHox-8 and GHox-4.6, respectively, are involved in specifying the anterior non-skeletal and posterior digit-forming regions of the limb bud. Although the anterior mesodermal domain of GHox-8 expression is severely impaired in the mutant and experimentally induced polydactylous limb buds, this gene is expressed by the prolonged, thickened apical ectodermal ridges of the polydactylous limb buds that extend along the distal anterior as well as the distal posterior mesoderm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Effect of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tissue Implantation on the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane: Morphometric Measurements and Vascularity

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminienė, Alina; Šalomskaitė-Davalgienė, Sonata; Palubinskienė, Jolita; Balnytė, Ingrida; Ulozienė, Ingrida; Šaferis, Viktoras; Valančiūtė, Angelija

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to develop chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to evaluate the morphological and morphometric characteristics and angiogenic features of it. Methods. Fresh LSCC tissue samples obtained from 6 patients were implanted onto 15 chick embryo CAMs. Morphological, morphometric, and angiogenic changes in the CAM and chorionic epithelium were evaluated up to 4 days after the tumor implantation. Immunohistochemical analysis (34βE12, CD31, and Ki67 staining) was performed to detect cytokeratins and tumor endothelial cells and to evaluate the proliferative capacity of the tumor before and after implantation on the CAM. Results. The implanted LSCC tissue samples survived on the CAM in all the experiments and retained the essential morphologic characteristics and proliferative capacity of the original tumor. Implants induced thickening of both the CAM (103–417%, p = 0.0001) and the chorionic epithelium (70–140%, p = 0.0001) and increase in number of blood vessels (75–148%, p = 0.0001) in the CAM. Conclusions. This study clarifies that chick embryo CAM is a relevant assay for implanting LSCC tissue and provides the first morphological and morphometric characterization of the LSCC CAM model that opens new perspectives to study this disease. PMID:26539518

  2. Expression of alphaVbeta3 integrin in the chick embryo aortic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    The integrin chain alphaV, expressed in association with beta3, by cells of the megakaryocytic/thrombocytic and endothelial lineages is thought to play an important role in angiogenesis. alphaVbeta3 expression by endothelial cells is not constitutive but induced by various stimuli in avian and human models. Here the developmental pattern of alphaVbeta3 expression was analysed in the chick embryo by immunocytochemistry, using a specific monoclonal antibody. On day 2 of development alphaVbeta3 expression was restricted to rare cells in the blood stream, in the embryo proper and in the yolk sac blood islands. AlphaVbeta3 expression by endothelial cells became detectable on day 3 and was restricted to the dorsal aorta. Interestingly it was absent from the intra-aortic hemopoietic clusters (E3.5) which, as we have showed previously, express the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin and display progenitor potentialities. However the endothelium underlying intra-embryonic hemopoietic clusters expressed this integrin. In contrast E6-7 para-aortic hemopoietic foci contained numerous alphaVbeta3 positive cells. Both alphaVbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3 were expressed in these latter hemopoietic sites, while alphaVbeta3 was still selectively expressed by the aortic endothelium until E6. Thereafter, at E7 the pulmonary artery also expressed it. Since alphaIIbbeta3 is expressed by avian and murine multilineage hemopoietic progenitors, we then studied the hemopoietic potentialities of alphaVbeta3/alphaIIbeta3 double positive cells from embryonic bone marrow differentiating in vitro in erythro-myeloid conditions. Thrombocytic, erythroid and myeloid progenitor potentialities were found within the cell population expressing both beta3 integrins.

  3. Exposure to 2,5-hexanedione can induce neural malformations in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Yun-yu; Fan, Jing-jing; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Luo, Huan-min; Yang, Xuesong

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, n-hexane is an organic solvent widely used in numerous industries such as chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD) is the main metabolite of n-hexane. It is now gradually recognized that chronic exposure to n-hexane could harm the health of people. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether or not 2,5-HD is potentially teratogenic during pregnancies. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2,5-HD exposure on embryonic development in the chick embryo. We first determine the effect of 2,5-HD on neurodevelopment - specifically looking for neural tube defects in the forebrain, midbrain, and also for malformation in the eyes. We established that in the presence of 2,5-HD, the dorsal neural tubes were malformed during the closure of the neural folds. In addition, exposure to 2,5-HD could also inhibit neural differentiation as revealed by immunofluorescent staining for neurofilament (NF). We also demonstrated that the impaired neurodevelopment was attributed to negative effect of 2,5-HD on neurite development and positive effect on apoptosis in developing neurons. Specifically, we found 2,5-HD treatment resulted in fewer neurons and the neurites projecting from the neurons were significantly shorten when compared with control cultures. In addition, MTT and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assays revealed neuron cell viability was reduced by exposure to 2,5-HD in a dose-dependent fashion. In sum, our results suggest that chronic exposure to 2,5-HD is harmful to the developing embryo, especially in the context of neurodevelopment.

  4. RNA interference is ineffective as a routine method for gene silencing in chick embryos as monitored by fgf8 silencing

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The in vivo accessibility of the chick embryo makes it a favoured model system for experimental developmental biology. Although the range of available techniques now extends to miss-expression of genes through in ovo electroporation, it remains difficult to knock out individual gene expression. Recently, the possibility of silencing gene expression by RNAi in chick embryos has been reported. However, published studies show only discrete quantitative differences in the expression of the endogenous targeted genes and unclear morphological alterations. To elucidate whether the tools currently available are adequate to silence gene expression sufficiently to produce a clear and specific null-like mutant phenotype, we have performed several experiments with different molecules that trigger RNAi: dsRNA, siRNA, and shRNA produced from a plasmid coexpressing green fluorescent protein as an internal marker. Focussing on fgf8 expression in the developing isthmus, we show that no morphological defects are observed, and that fgf8 expression is neither silenced in embryos microinjected with dsRNA nor in embryos microinjected and electroporated with a pool of siRNAs. Moreover, fgf8 expression was not significantly silenced in most isthmic cells transformed with a plasmid producing engineered shRNAs to fgf8. We also show that siRNA molecules do not spread significantly from cell to cell as reported for invertebrates, suggesting the existence of molecular differences between different model systems that may explain the different responses to RNAi. Although our results are basically in agreement with previously reported studies, we suggest, in contrast to them, that with currently available tools and techniques the number of cells in which fgf8 gene expression is decreased, if any, is not sufficient to generate a detectable mutant phenotype, thus making RNAi useless as a routine method for functional gene analysis in chick embryos. PMID:15951844

  5. Effects of chromium picolinate on the viability of chick embryo fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Zhao, X; Qi, C; Wang, L; Cheng, Z; Liu, M; Liu, J; Yang, D; Wang, S; Chai, T

    2014-04-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic), which is used as a nutritional supplement and to treat type 2 diabetes, has gained much attention because of its cytotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of CrPic on the viability of the chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, morphological detection, and flow cytometry. The results show that lower concentrations of CrPic (8 and 16 μM) did not damage CEF viability (p > 0.05). However, higher CrPic concentrations (400 and 600 μM) indicated a highly significant effect on the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular calcium ion concentration, and the apoptosis rate (p < 0.01), contrary to lower CrPic concentrations (8 and 16 μM) and control group. Moreover, apoptotic morphological changes induced by these processes in CEF were confirmed using Hoechst 33258 staining. Cell death induced by higher concentrations of CrPic was caused by an apoptotic and a necrotic mechanism, whereas the main mechanism of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction was apoptotic death.

  6. The impact of high-salt exposure on cardiovascular development in the early chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Jin, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Zhao, Shu-Zhu; Chen, You-Peng; Chuai, Manli; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we show that high-salt exposure dramatically increases chick mortality during embryo development. As embryonic mortality at early stages mainly results from defects in cardiovascular development, we focused on heart formation and angiogenesis. We found that high-salt exposure enhanced the risk of abnormal heart tube looping and blood congestion in the heart chamber. In the presence of high salt, both ventricular cell proliferation and apoptosis increased. The high osmolarity induced by high salt in the ventricular cardiomyocytes resulted in incomplete differentiation, which might be due to reduced expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4. Blood vessel density and diameter were suppressed by exposure to high salt in both the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and chorioallantoic membrane models. In addition, high-salt-induced suppression of angiogenesis occurred even at the vasculogenesis stage, as blood island formation was also inhibited by high-salt exposure. At the same time, cell proliferation was repressed and cell apoptosis was enhanced by high-salt exposure in YSM tissue. Moreover, the reduction in expression of HIF2 and FGF2 genes might cause high-salt-suppressed angiogenesis. Interestingly, we show that high-salt exposure causes excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart and YSM tissues, which could be partially rescued through the addition of antioxidants. In total, our study suggests that excess generation of ROS might play an important role in high-salt-induced defects in heart and angiogenesis.

  7. Left Atrial Ligation Alters Intracardiac Flow Patterns and the Biomechanical Landscape in the Chick Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, William J.; Teslovich, Nikola C.; Menon, Prahlad G.; Tinney, Joseph P.; Keller, Bradley B.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a major human congenital heart defect that results in single ventricle physiology and high mortality. Clinical data indicate that intracardiac blood flow patterns during cardiac morphogenesis are a significant etiology. We used the left atrial ligation (LAL) model in the chick embryo to test the hypothesis that LAL immediately alters intracardiac flow streams and the biomechanical environment, preceding morphologic and structural defects observed in HLHS. Results Using fluorescent dye injections, we found that intracardiac flow patterns from the right common cardinal vein, right vitelline vein, and left vitelline vein were altered immediately following LAL. Furthermore, we quantified a significant ventral shift of the right common cardinal and right vitelline vein flow streams. We developed an in silico model of LAL, which revealed that wall shear stress was reduced at the left atrioventricular canal and left side of the common ventricle. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that intracardiac flow patterns change immediately following LAL, supporting the role of hemodynamics in the progression of HLHS. Sites of reduced WSS revealed by computational modeling are commonly affected in HLHS, suggesting that changes in the biomechanical environment may lead to abnormal growth and remodeling of left heart structures. PMID:24868595

  8. Localization and distribution of superoxide dismutase-1 in the neural tube morphogenesis of chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Dhage, Prajakta A; Kamble, Lekha K; Bhargava, Shobha Y

    2017-02-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD- 1) is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates the levels of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen. ROS are known to play a significant role in various cellular processes, via redox modification of a variety of molecules that participate in signaling pathways involved in this processes. As the levels of ROS in cells are controlled by the levels of antioxidant enzymes, thus SOD-1 may be indirectly involved in regulating different cellular processes by maintaining the required levels of H2O2. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated the possible involvement of SOD- 1 in the neurulation during the development of chick embryo. During gastrulation, SOD- 1 immunoreactivity was observed throughout the ectoderm and cauda mesoderm areas, however, its presence during neurulation was restricted to certain areas of neural tube particularly in the dorsal neural tube where neural tube closure takes place. Assaying enzyme activity revealed a significant increase in the SOD activity during neurulation. Further, inhibition of SOD- 1 by Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) induced abnormalities in the development of the neural tube. SOD- 1 inhibition specifically affected the closure of neural tube in the anterior region. Thus, here we report the presence of SOD- 1 mainly in the ectoderm and tissues of ectodermal origin during gastrulation to neurulation which suggests that it may be involved in the regulating the cellular processes during neural tube morphogenesis.

  9. Claudin family members exhibit unique temporal and spatial expression boundaries in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Michelle M; Baumholtz, Amanda I; Ryan, Aimee K

    2013-01-01

    The claudin family of proteins are integral components of tight junctions and are responsible for determining the ion specificity and permeability of paracellular transport within epithelial and endothelial cell layers. Several members of the claudin family have been shown to be important during embryonic development and morphogenesis. However, detailed embryonic expression patterns have been described for only a few claudins. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of the chicken claudins and a comprehensive analysis of their mRNA expression profiles. We found that claudin family members exhibit both overlapping and unique expression patterns throughout development. Especially striking were the distinct expression boundaries observed between neural and non-neural ectoderm, as well as within ectodermal derivatives. Claudins were also expressed in endodermally-derived tissues, including the anterior intestinal portal, pharynx, lung and pancreas and in mesodermally derived tissues such as the kidney, gonad and heart. The overlapping zones of claudin expression observed in the chick embryo may confer distinct domains of ion permeability within the early epiblast and in epithelial, mesodermal and endothelial derivatives that may ultimately influence embryonic patterning and morphogenesis during development. PMID:24665397

  10. Growth hormone-dependent serum stimulation of DNA synthesis in chick embryo fibroblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    Cohen, K L; Short, P A; Nissley, S P

    1975-01-01

    We have investigated the role of GH in the serum requirement for the multiplication of chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF-S) in culture . Serum from hypophysectomized (hypox.) rats is much less effective than normal serum in stimulating the incorporation of (3H-methyl]thymidine into DNA. More importantly, bovine GH(bGH) treatment of the hypox. rat restores 60% or more of the activity in the 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. Bovine GH is inactive when tested directly in the assay. Mixing experiments show that the decreased activity of hypox. serum is not due to the presence of an inhibitor in the hypox. serum. The GH is dependent factor is nondialysable and stable to Boiling at pH5.5. boiling the normal, hypox. and bGH treating hypox. rat sera results not only in enhancement of the activity but also a more linear dose response curve in the 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. The thesis because measurements of cell numbers show the CEFs multiply less well in boiled normal rat serum and bGH treatment of the hypox. rat restores approximately half of the multiplication stimulating activity of normal boiled rat serum. CEFs in culture may provide a satisfactory in vitro system for the study of the mechanism of action of the growth hormone dependent anabolic factors found in serum.

  11. Survival and neurite growth of chick embryo spinal cord cells in serum-free culture.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Obata, K

    1982-07-01

    Cell survival and neurite growth were investigated in serum-free spinal cord cell cultures on polyornithine coating (PORN). Cells were obtained from 6- or 7-day-old chick embryos. Isolated spinal cord cells required promoting factors for their survival and neurite growth. The survival-promoting factors were initially present in spinal cord cells. High density cultures, co-cultures with spinal cord explants, and spinal cord extract promoted survival of isolated spinal cord cells in MEM with no additives. Other tissue extracts (brain, liver, heart and skeletal muscle), serum, and serum-free conditioned medium (SF-CM) of muscle or glioma C6 cells also promoted survival. The active substances in the brain extract and SF-CM were shown to be protein and were separated into 3 fractions (approximately molecular weight 150,000, 70,000, 40,000) by gel filtration chromatography. Survival and neurite growth were suggested to be promoted by different factors because: (1) survival was promoted by both tissue extract and SF-CM, but neurite growth was promoted only by SF-CM; (2) the neurite growth-stimulating activity of SF-CM was lost following dialysis and heat (100 degrees C, 2 min) treatment; however, the survival-promoting activity was not. It was also suggested that spinal cord cells produce neurite growth promoting factors, but did not initially contain these factors.

  12. The Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Platinum Group Metals in Developing Chick Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Ioana; Monahan, Jennifer; Markopoulos, Marjorie; Gagnon, Zofia; Nejame, Britney; Cawley, Jacob; Reens, David

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies showed that platinum group metals (PGMs) such as Pt, Pd, and Rh from automobile catalytic converters, can accumulate in the soft tissues of a variety of living organisms. However, the effects of PGMs on bone and organs development of animals are not clearly understood. To examine these aspects, developing chick embryos were injected with 0.1, 1.0, 5, or 10 ppm solutions of Pt, Rh, Pd, or with a PGMs mixture. 1) Pathological Changes: were observed for all PGM treatments above 1 ppm. Bone Cells Assesment: Chondrocyte cells in thibiotarsus showed decreased diameter and length. 2) PGMs Accumulation in Tissues: was quantified by GFAAS spectrometry on finely ground tissue powder. 3) Bone Demineralization: was detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy imaging on paraffin embedded bone sections. 4) DNA Damage in Cells: was determined by using a Comet assay and fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxidative Damage in Tissues: was analyzed using a glutathione peroxidase assay. The overall results indicated that PGMs presence in our environment raises concerns about their long-term health effects on all organisms.

  13. THE MATURATION OF WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS AND ITS RELEASE FROM CHICK EMBRYO CELLS IN SUSPENSION

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Harry; Baluda, Marcel; Hotchin, John E.

    1955-01-01

    Experiments are presented in which the plaque assay technique was used to study the intracellular appearance and release of Western equine encephalomyelitis virus in suspensions of infected chick embryo fibroblasts. No intracellular virus could be found during the 1st hour after adsorption in spite of the fact that more than 1014 cells per ml. proved to be infected. This is taken to indicate that the infecting particle loses its infectivity upon entering a susceptible cell. The first progeny virus was detectable in the cells between 1 and 2 hours after infection, and it increased in amount exponentially during the following 3 hours. The released virus as measured in the supernatant fluid increased at the same rate as the intracellular virus but exceeded it in amount by a factor of about twenty at all times during the period of exponential increase. More than 100 particles were spontaneously released from each cell, by the end of the period of exponential increase, yet the maximum number of intracellular infective particles at any instant during this period was never more than an average of from 4 to 10 per cell. Calculations based on these findings indicate that, on the average, a virus particle is released from the cell within 1 minute after it gains the property of infectiousness. PMID:13233446

  14. Production of chick embryo extract for the cultivation of murine neural crest stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pajtler, Kristian; Bohrer, Anna; Maurer, Jochen; Schorle, Hubert; Schramm, Alexander; Eggert, Angelika; Schulte, Johannes Hubertus

    2010-11-27

    The neural crest arises from the neuro-ectoderm during embryogenesis and persists only temporarily. Early experiments already proofed pluripotent progenitor cells to be an integral part of the neural crest(1). Phenotypically, neural crest stem cells (NCSC) are defined by simultaneously expressing p75 (low-affine nerve growth factor receptor, LNGFR) and SOX10 during their migration from the neural crest(2,3,4,5). These progenitor cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells, chromaffin cells, neurons and glial cells, as well as melanocytes, cartilage and bone(6,7,8,9). To cultivate NCSC in vitro, a special neural crest stem cell medium (NCSCM) is required(10). The most complex part of the NCSCM is the preparation of chick embryo extract (CEE) representing an essential source of growth factors for the NCSC as well as for other types of neural explants. Other NCSCM ingredients beside CEE are commercially available. Producing CCE using laboratory standard equipment it is of high importance to know about the challenging details as the isolation, maceration, centrifugation, and filtration processes. In this protocol we describe accurate techniques to produce a maximized amount of pure and high quality CEE.

  15. Adhesion between cells, diffusion of growth factors, and elasticity of the AER produce the paddle shape of the chick limb

    PubMed Central

    Popławski, Nikodem J.; Swat, Maciej; Gens, J. Scott; Glazier, James A.

    2007-01-01

    A central question in developmental biology is how cells interact to organize into tissues? In this paper, we study the role of mesenchyme-ectoderm interaction in the growing chick limb bud using Glazier and Graner's cellular Potts model, a grid-based stochastic framework designed to simulate cell interactions and movement. We simulate cellular mechanisms including cell adhesion, growth, and division and diffusion of morphogens, to show that differential adhesion between the cells, diffusion of growth factors through the extracellular matrix, and the elastic properties of the apical ectodermal ridge together can produce the proper shape of the limb bud. PMID:18167520

  16. [Chemically induced ectropodia in the Lacerta viridis embryo and formation of styliform limbs in reptiles].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Clergue-Gazeau, M

    1984-01-01

    Administered into the eggs of Lacerta virifis on days 10 and 11 of incubation (at 25 degrees C), Cytosine-arabinofuranoside induces ectropodia in embryos, with a high frequency, which may reach 66%. The resulting styliform limbs display a general structure similar to that of the limbs of several species of serpentiform Reptilia.

  17. The mechanism of beta-glycerophosphate action in mineralizing chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Guidon, P; Doty, S B; Stiner, D; Leboy, P; Binderman, I

    1996-11-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells plated in micromass culture form a cartilage matrix that can be mineralized in the presence of 4 mM inorganic phosphate (Pi), and 1 mM calcium. Previous studies showed that when beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP) is used in place of Pi, the mineral crystals formed are larger and differ in distribution. The present study shows that the difference in distribution is not associated with alterations in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, or with collagen, proteoglycan core protein, or alkaline phosphatase gene expression. Cultures with 2.5, 5, and 10 mM beta GP did show different levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, and in the presence of low (0.3 mM) Ca had different Pi contents (4, 6 and 9 mM, respectively), indicating that the increase in CaxP product may in part be responsible for the altered pattern of mineralization. However, cultures with beta GP in which alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited with levamisole still had an altered mineral distribution as revealed by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The presence of a casein kinase II-like activity in the mineralizing cultures, the ability of specific inhibitors of this enzyme to block mineralization, and the known ability of beta GP to block phosphoprotein phosphatase activity suggests that altered patterns of matrix protein phosphorylation may influence mineral deposition in these cultures.

  18. Activity of protein kinase C during the differentiation of chick limb bud mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Sonn, J K; Solursh, M

    1993-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) and chondrogenesis, PKC activity was assayed in cultures of stage 23/24 chick limb bud mesenchymal cells under various conditions. PKC activities of cytosolic and particulate fractions were low in 1 day cultured cells. As chondrogenesis proceeds, cytosolic PKC activity increased more than twofold, while that of the particulate fraction increased only slightly. Three days' treatment of cultures with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, 5 x 10(-8) M) inhibited chondrogenesis judged by the accumulation of Alcian blue bound to the extracellular matrix and depressed PKC activity in cytosolic fraction. When cells were grown for 3 days in control medium after 3 days' treatment with PMA, chondrogenesis resumed and PKC activity recovered to normal values. PKC activity in cultures plated at low density (5 x 10(6) cells/ml) where chondrogenesis is reduced was as low as that in 1 day cultured cells plated at high density (2 x 10(7) cells/ml) or that in PMA treated cells. On the other hand, staurosporine promoted chondrogenesis without affecting PKC activity. Furthermore, reversal of PMA's inhibitory effect on chondrogenesis by staurosporine was not accompanied by recovery of PKC activity. These data indicate that increases in PKC activity is closely related to chondrogenesis and that PMA inhibits chondrogenesis by depressing PKC. However, staurosporine's enhancing effect on chondrogenesis is not related to PKC activity.

  19. Schwann cell apoptosis during normal development and after axonal degeneration induced by neurotoxins in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Ciutat, D; Calderó, J; Oppenheim, R W; Esquerda, J E

    1996-06-15

    In the present work, we show that chick embryo Schwann cells die by apoptosis both during normal development and after axonal degeneration induced by neurotoxin treatment. Schwann cell apoptosis during development takes place during a period roughly coincidental with normally occurring motoneuron death. Administration of NMDA to chick embryos on embryonic day 7 induces extensive excitotoxic motoneuronal damage in the spinal cord without any apparent effects on neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The death of Schwann cells in ventral nerve roots after NMDA treatment causes degenerative changes that display ultrastructural features of apoptosis and exhibit in situ detectable DNA fragmentation. By contrast, NMDA treatment does not increase the death of Schwann cells in dorsal nerve roots. In situ detection of DNA fragmentation in combination with the avian Schwann cell marker 1E8 antibody demonstrates that dying cells in ventral nerve roots are in the Schwann cell lineage. Administration of cycloheximide does not prevent the toxic effects of NMDA on motoneurons, but dramatically reduces the number of pyknotic Schwann cells and DNA fragmentation profiles in the ventral nerve roots. In ovo administration of various tissue extracts (muscle, brain, and spinal cord) from the chick embryo or of the motoneuron conditioned medium fails to prevent Schwann cell apoptosis in NMDA-treated embryos. Intramuscular administration of the snake toxin beta-bungarotoxin produces a massive death of both lateral motor column motoneurons and DRG neurons, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of pyknotic Schwann cells in both ventral and dorsal nerve roots. It is concluded that during development, axonal-derived trophic signals are involved in the regulation of Schwann cell survival in peripheral nerves.

  20. Limb development and evolution: a frog embryo with no apical ectodermal ridge (AER)

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDSON, MICHAEL K.; CARL, TIMOTHY F.; HANKEN, JAMES; ELINSON, RICHARD P.; COPE, CELIA; BAGLEY, PETER

    1998-01-01

    The treefrog Eleutherodactylus coqui is a direct developer — it has no tadpole stage. The limb buds develop earlier than in metamorphosing species (indirect developers, such as Xenopus laevis). Previous molecular studies suggest that at least some mechanisms of limb development in E. coqui are similar to those of other vertebrates and we wished to see how limb morphogenesis in this species compares with that in other vertebrates. We found that the hind limb buds are larger and more advanced than the forelimbs at all stages examined, thus differing from the typical amniote pattern. The limb buds were also small compared to those in the chick. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that although the apical ectoderm is thickened, there was no apical ectodermal ridge (AER). In addition, the limb buds lacked the dorsoventral flattening seen in many amniotes. These findings could suggest a mechanical function for the AER in maintaining dorsoventral flattening, although not all data are consistent with this view. Removal of distal ectoderm from E. coqui hindlimb buds does not stop outgrowth, although it does produce anterior defects in the skeletal pattern. The defects are less severe when the excisions are performed earlier. These results contrast with the chick, in which AER excision leads to loss of distal structures. We suggest that an AER was present in the common ancestor of anurans and amniotes and has been lost in at least some direct developers including E. coqui. PMID:9688504

  1. Post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission in spinal neurons of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Chub, N; O'Donovan, M J

    2001-05-01

    Whole cell recordings were obtained from ventral horn neurons in spontaneously active spinal cords isolated from the chick embryo [embryonic days 10 to 11 (E10-E11)] to examine the post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission. Spontaneous activity occurred as recurrent, rhythmic episodes approximately 60 s in duration with 10- to 15-min quiescent inter-episode intervals. Current-clamp recording revealed that episodes were followed by a transient hyperpolarization (7 +/- 1.2 mV, mean +/- SE), which dissipated as a slow (0.5-1 mV/min) depolarization until the next episode. Local application of bicuculline 8 min after an episode hyperpolarized spinal neurons by 6 +/- 0.8 mV and increased their input resistance by 13%, suggesting the involvement of GABAergic transmission. Gramicidin perforated-patch recordings showed that the GABAa reversal potential was above rest potential (E(GABAa) = -29 +/- 3 mV) and allowed estimation of the physiological intracellular [Cl(-)] = 50 mM. In whole cell configuration (with physiological electrode [Cl(-)]), two distinct types of endogenous GABAergic currents (I(GABAa)) were found during the inter-episode interval. The first comprised TTX-resistant, asynchronous miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs), an indicator of quantal GABA release (up to 42% of total mPSCs). The second (tonic I(GABAa)) was complimentary to the slow membrane depolarization and may arise from persistent activation of extrasynaptic GABAa receptors. We estimate that approximately 10 postsynaptic channels are activated by a single quantum of GABA release during an mPSC and that about 30 extrasynaptic GABAa channels are required for generation of the tonic I(GABAa) in ventral horn neurons. We investigated the post-episode depression of I(GABAa) by local application of GABA or isoguvacine (100 microM, for 10-30 s) applied before and after an episode at holding potentials (V(hold)) -60 mV. The amplitude of the evoked I(GABA) was compared after clamping the cell

  2. Regulation of programmed cell death during neural induction in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Anna; Robinson, Neil; Streit, Andrea; Sheng, Guojun; Stern, Claudio D

    2011-01-01

    To study early responses to neural inducing signals from the organizer (Hensen's node), a differential screen was performed in primitive streak stage chick embryos, comparing cells that had or had not been exposed to a node graft for 5 hours. Three of the genes isolated have been implicated in Programmed Cell Death (PCD): Defender Against Cell Death (Dad1), Polyubiquitin II (UbII) and Ferritin Heavy chain (fth1). We therefore explored the potential involvement of PCD in neural induction. Dad1, UbII and fth1 are expressed in partly overlapping domains during early neural plate development, along with the pro-apoptotic gene Cas9 and the death effector Cas3. Dad1 and UbII are induced by a node graft within 3 hours. TUNEL staining revealed that PCD is initially random, but both during normal development and following neural induction by a grafted node, it becomes concentrated at the border of the forming neural plate and anterior non-neural ectoderm and downregulated from the neural plate itself. PCD was observed in regions of Caspase expression that are free from Dad1, consistent with the known anti-apoptotic role of Dad1. However, gain- and loss-of-function of any of these genes had no detectable effect on cell identity or on neural plate development. This study reveals that early development of the neural plate is accompanied by induction of putative pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in distinct domains. We suggest that the neural plate is protected against apoptosis, confining cell death to its border and adjacent non-neural ectoderm.

  3. Ethanol- and/or Taurine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chick Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Berning, Emily J.; Bernhardson, Noah; Coleman, Kelly; Farhat, Dina A.; Gushrowski, Courtney M.; Lanctot, Alison; Maddock, Benjamin H.; Michels, Kathryn G.; Mugge, Luke A.; Nass, Catherine M.; Yearsley, Sarah M.; Miller, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Because taurine alleviates ethanol- (EtOH-) induced lipid peroxidation and liver damage in rats, we asked whether exogenous taurine could alleviate EtOH-induced oxidative stress in chick embryos. Exogenous EtOH (1.5 mmol/Kg egg or 3 mmol/Kg egg), taurine (4 μmol/Kg egg), or EtOH and taurine (1.5 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg or 3 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg) were injected into fertile chicken eggs during the first three days of embryonic development (E0–2). At 11 days of development (midembryogenesis), serum taurine levels and brain caspase-3 activities, homocysteine (HoCys) levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, membrane fatty acid composition, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels were measured. Early embryonic EtOH exposure caused increased brain apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities); increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress, as measured by decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Although taurine is reported to be an antioxidant, exogenous taurine was embryopathic and caused increased apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities); increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress (decreased brain GSH levels); decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Combined EtOH and taurine treatments also caused increased apoptosis rates and oxidative stress. PMID:23606945

  4. Apical accumulation of MARCKS in neural plate cells during neurulation in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Zolessi, Flavio R; Arruti, Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Background The neural tube is formed by morphogenetic movements largely dependent on cytoskeletal dynamics. Actin and many of its associated proteins have been proposed as important mediators of neurulation. For instance, mice deficient in MARCKS, an actin cross-linking membrane-associated protein that is regulated by PKC and other kinases, present severe developmental defects, including failure of cranial neural tube closure. Results To determine the distribution of MARCKS, and its possible relationships with actin during neurulation, chick embryos were transversely sectioned and double labeled with an anti-MARCKS polyclonal antibody and phalloidin. In the neural plate, MARCKS was found ubiquitously distributed at the periphery of the cells, being conspicuously accumulated in the apical cell region, in close proximity to the apical actin meshwork. This asymmetric distribution was particularly noticeable during the bending process. After the closure of the neural tube, the apically accumulated MARCKS disappeared, and this cell region became analogous to the other peripheral cell zones in its MARCKS content. Actin did not display analogous variations, remaining highly concentrated at the cell subapical territory. The transient apical accumulation of MARCKS was found throughout the neural tube axis. The analysis of another epithelial bending movement, during the formation of the lens vesicle, revealed an identical phenomenon. Conclusions MARCKS is transiently accumulated at the apical region of neural plate and lens placode cells during processes of bending. This asymmetric subcellular distribution of MARCKS starts before the onset of neural plate bending. These results suggest possible upstream regulatory actions of MARCKS on some functions of the actin subapical meshwork. PMID:11329360

  5. Coregulation of calcium channels and beta-adrenergic receptors in cultured chick embryo ventricular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.D. )

    1989-09-01

    To examine mechanisms whereby the abundance of functional Ca channels may be regulated in excitable tissue, Ca channel number was estimated by binding of the dihydropyridine (DHP) antagonist {sup 3}H (+)PN200-110 to monolayers of intact myocytes from chick embryo ventricle. Beta adrenergic receptor properties were studied in cultured myocytes using ({sup 3}H)CGP12177, an antagonist ligand. Physiological correlates for alterations in DHP binding site number included {sup 45}Ca uptake and contractile response to (+)BAYk 8644, a specific L-type Ca channel activator. All binding and physiological determinations were performed in similar intact cell preparations under identical conditions. 4-h exposure to 1 microM isoproterenol reduced cell surface beta-adrenergic receptor number from 44 +/- 3 to 17 +/- 2 fmol/mg (P less than 0.05); DHP binding sites declined in number from 113 +/- 25 to 73 +/- 30 fmol/mg (P less than 0.03). When protein kinase A was activated by a non-receptor-dependent mechanism, DHP binding declined similarly to 68% of control. Exposure to diltiazem, a Ca channel antagonist, for 18-24 h had no effect on number of DHP binding sites. After 4-h isoproterenol exposure, {sup 45}Ca uptake stimulated by BAYk 8644 declined from 3.3 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg to 2.9 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg (P less than 0.01) and BAYk 8644-stimulated increase in amplitude of contraction declined from 168 +/- 7 to 134 +/- 11% (P = 0.02). Thus, elevation of (cAMP) in myocytes is associated with a time-dependent decline in Ca channel abundance as estimated by DHP binding and a decline in physiological responses that are in part dependent on abundance of Ca channels. Binding of a directly acting Ca channel antagonist for 18-24 h does not modulate the number of DHP binding sites.

  6. Preparation of antibodies to chick-embryo galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase and their use for an immunological characterization of the enzyme of collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Myllylä, R

    1981-04-14

    Antibodies were prepared against chick-embryo galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase and further purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. The antibodies gave a single precipitation line of identity by double immunodiffusion against crude or pure chick-embryo glucosyltransferase. The ability of the antibody to precipitate the transferase was not altered by destroying the secondary structure of the enzyme. The antibody also inhibited the enzyme activity. The degree of inhibition was higher with denatured citrate-soluble rat skin collagen as the substrate than with gelatinized rat skin insoluble collagen or free galactosylhydroxylysine. The cross-reactivity of the glucosyltransferase between different species was low when studied by double immunodiffusion or inhibition kinetics. The antiserum showed no detectable cross-reactivity against other intracellular enzymes of collagen biosynthesis. A line of complete identity was found in double immunodiffusion between the transferases from whole chick embryos and chick embryo tendon, kidney and cartilage. Inhibition by the antiserum of the enzyme from chick embryo tissues synthesizing different collagen types was relatively similar. The data do not support the hypothesis that galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase has isoenzymes with markedly different specific activities or immunological properties.

  7. ALTERATIONS IN STATE OF MOLECULAR AGGREGATION OF COLLAGEN INDUCED IN CHICK EMBRYOS BY β-AMINOPROPIONITRILE (LATHYRUS FACTOR)

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Charles I.; Gross, Jerome

    1959-01-01

    The lathyrogenic agents, β-aminopropionitrile and semicarbizide, when applied to the chorio-allantoic membrane of the chick embryo produced a dramatic increase in fragility of the embryo. This alteration was not associated with a change in the concentration of collagen, except in aorta, but was accompanied by a sharp increase in the amount of collagen extractible in cold 1 M NaCl from skin, bone, and aorta. Increase in fragility and extractible collagen began within 3 hours after introduction of the agent and rose steadily for at least 72 hours. Essentially no collagen could be extracted from tissues of normal chick embryos. Both fragility and amount of extractible collagen were dosage- and time-dependent. It is concluded that the extractible collagen in lathyrism consists of a large proportion of dissolved fibers previously insoluble and formed prior to administration of the agent. The data also suggest that the "lathyritic" collagen in vivo is not in molecular dispersion but in an aggregate or fibrillar form. It is dispersed by cooling. The extracted collagen could be reconstituted to typical striated fibrils in vitro and the molecule appeared to be normal in the gross, with regard to asymmetry ratio and intramolecular helical structure. The evidence at hand suggests that at least one of the defects induced by lathyrogenic agents is an interference with the normal intermolecular cross-linking within the collagen fibril. PMID:14416144

  8. Vertebrate limb development and possible clues to diversity in limb form.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2002-04-01

    Chick embryos are good models for vertebrate development. The principles that underlie chick wing development have been discovered and there is increasing knowledge about the molecules involved. The importance of identifying molecules is that this provides a direct link to understanding the genetic basis of diversity in form. Chick wing development will be compared with limb development in other vertebrates. Possible mechanisms that could lead to variations in form, including limb reductions and limblessness, differences between fore- and hindlimbs, limb proportions, and interdigital webbing can be suggested.

  9. Manipulations of PKA in chick limb development reveal roles in digit patterning including a positive role in Sonic Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Tiecke, Eva; Turner, Roisin; Sanz-Ezquerro, Juan Jose; Warner, Anne; Tickle, Cheryll

    2007-05-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling by the polarizing region, at the posterior of the vertebrate limb bud, is pivotal in determining digit number and identity. Shh establishes a gradient of the bifunctional transcriptional effector, Gli3, with high levels of full-length activator (Gli3A) in the posterior bud, where digits form, and high levels of shorter repressor (Gli3R) in the anterior. Repressor formation depends on protein kinase A (PKA), but in Drosophila, PKA also plays a role in activator function. Increasing PKA levels in chick limb development using Forskolin had no effect on posterior polarizing activity but weak polarizing activity, based on ligand-independent Shh signaling, was induced in anterior limb bud cells resulting in extra digits. Manipulating PKA activity levels directly with a retrovirus expressing activated PKA induced extra digits similar to those induced by Forskolin treatment suggesting that PKA may have a previously unrecognized positive role in Shh signaling in vertebrate limbs. Expressing dominant negative PKA also induced extra, sometimes multiple digits, from anterior limb bud demonstrating the negative role in Shh signaling. PKA levels in the limb bud are high posteriorly and low anteriorly, suggesting that PKA activity may influence the outcome of Shh signaling in normal development.

  10. Collagen synthesis and cell growth in chick embryo fibroblasts: influence of colchicine, cytochalasin B and concanavalin A.

    PubMed

    Bodo, M; Carinci, P; Baroni, T; Becchetti, E; Bellucci, C; Pezzetti, F; Giammarioli, M; Stabellini, G; Arena, N

    1996-03-01

    Culturing of chick embryo fibroblasts in the presence of colchicine or cytochalasin B with and without concanavalin A (Con A) demonstrated that colchicine induces greater neosynthesis of endocellular type I collagen, whereas cytochalasin B boosts secretion. The effects are modified by the addition of Con A, which increases alpha 2 more than a1 chain production. 3H-thymidine incorporation is unaffected by cytochalasin B, but stimulated by colchicine. Con A neutralizes the stimulatory action of colchicine. It would therefore seem that Con A exerts transmembrane control of effects induced by colchicine and cytochalasin B by binding to cell surface receptors and so triggering rearrangement of the cytoskeleton.

  11. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from rhythmically active motoneurons in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Sernagor, E; O'Donovan, M J

    1991-07-22

    Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained during motor activity from electrically identified motoneurons within the spinal cord of the chick embryo maintained in vitro. Most recordings were performed on E11-E13 motoneurons although it was also possible to record from younger cells (E7-E9). Voltage clamp recordings were used to characterize the synaptic currents expressed in femoro-tibialis (extensor) motoneurons during motor activity. These motoneurons exhibited rhythmic excitatory currents with reversal potentials near 0 mV. This powerful technique enables high resolution recordings from identified motoneurons in situ and allows investigation of the membrane and synaptic mechanisms involved in the development of embryonic motility.

  12. Culture of domestic cat ovarian tissue in vitro and in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Vilela, J M V; Leonel, E C R; D'Oliveira, L; Paiva, R E G; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Amorim, C A; Pic-Taylor, A; Lucci, C M

    2016-10-15

    In vitro culture and transplantation procedures are essential protocols employed in the evaluation of ovarian follicle survival and development. Culture in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos is an intermediate method that provides important follicle development information and has not been tested for cat ovaries to date. The aim of this study was to investigate if in vitro and CAM culture could be used as short-term systems to study cat ovarian tissue development. The ovaries of eight cats were dissected into 3-mm(3) cubes, cultured in vitro and in CAM for up to 5 days, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Gomori trichrome. Cell proliferation was analyzed using anti-Ki67. Possible differences among groups were investigated by analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Bonferroni correction. The T-test or Wilcoxon test was used to verify differences between the CAM and IVC. Results revealed that 87.5% of all follicles were primordial during culture. The percentage of primordial follicles in the morphologically normal follicles (MNF) pool was always higher than 80%, with the exception of Day 3 of CAM culture, but the number of MNF reduced significantly from Day 0 (600 out of 777 follicles) to Day 5 in the CAM (91 out of 171) and IVC (296 out of 686). The number of primordial follicles in 1 mm(3) in Days 2, 3, and 5 in the CAM was significantly lower than that in the control (Day 0). No cellular proliferation was observed in culture. Vascularization occurred in the CAM culture, but with no association to follicular viability. In addition, both methods showed an increase in connective tissue during culture. Although no significant differences were observed in the percentage of MNF, there was a reduction in the total number of follicles, both for IVC and CAM-cultured ovarian tissue. Furthermore, anti-Ki67 did not stain any follicle after Day 0 in IVC or in CAM culture. Neither system was capable of promoting follicle growth and

  13. Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; O'Donovan, M J

    1991-08-01

    We have examined the organization of muscle afferent projections to motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of chick embryos between stage 37, when muscle afferents first reach the motor nucleus, and stage 44, which is just before hatching. Connectivity between afferents and motoneurons was assessed by stimulating individual muscle nerves and recording the resulting motoneuron synaptic potentials intracellularly or electrotonically from other muscle nerves. Most of the recordings were made in the presence of DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), picrotoxin, and strychnine to block long-latency excitatory and inhibitory pathways. Activation of muscle afferents evoked slow, positive potentials in muscle nerves but not in cutaneous nerves. These potentials were abolished in 0 mM Ca2+, 2mM Mn2+ solutions, indicating that they were generated by the action of chemical synapses. The muscle nerve recordings revealed a wide-spread pattern of excitatory connections between afferents and motoneurons innervating six different thigh muscles, which were not organized according to synergist-antagonist relationships. This pattern of connectivity was confirmed using intracellular recording from identified motoneurons, which allowed the latency of the responses to be determined. Short-latency potentials in motoneurons were produced by activation of homonymous afferents and the heteronymous afferents innervating the hip flexors sartorius and anterior iliotibialis. Stimulation of anterior iliotibialis afferents also resulted in some short-latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons innervating the knee extensor femorotibialis, though other connections were of longer latency. Afferents from the adductor, a hip extensor, did not evoke short-latency EPSPs in any of these three types of motoneurons. Short-latency, but not long-latency EPSPs, persisted during repetitive stimulation at 5 Hz, suggesting that they were mediated monosynaptically. Long

  14. Stable, position-related responses to retinoic acid by chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells in serum-free cultures.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, D F; Solursh, M; Langille, R M; Pang, L; Chen, W D

    1994-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has dramatic effects on limb-skeletal patterning in vivo and may well play a pivotal role in normal limb morphogenesis. RA's effects on the expression of pattern-related genes in the developing limb are probably mediated by cytoplasmic RA-binding proteins and nuclear RA-receptors. Little is known, however, about how RA modifies specific cellular behaviors required for skeletal morphogenesis. Earlier studies supported a role for regional differences in RA concentration in generating the region-specific cell behaviors that lead to pattern formation. The present study explores the possibility that position-related, cell-autonomous differences in the way limb mesenchymal cells respond to RA might have a role in generating pattern-related cell behavior. Mesenchymal cells from different proximodistal regions of stage 21-22 and 23-24 chick wing-buds were grown in chemically defined medium and exposed to 5 or 50 ng/ml of RA for 4 days in high-density microtiter cultures. The effects of RA on chondrogenesis in these cultures clearly differed depending on the limb region from which the cells were isolated. Regional differences in RA's effects on growth over 4 days in these cultures were less striking. The region-dependent responses of these cells to RA proved relatively stable in culture despite ongoing cytodifferentiation. This serum-free culture model will be useful in exploring the mechanisms underlying the region-dependent responsiveness of these cells to RA.

  15. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM): an alternative predictive model in acute toxicological studies for anti-cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    KUE, Chin Siang; TAN, Kae Yi; LAM, May Lynn; LEE, Hong Boon

    2015-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a preclinical model widely used for vascular and anti-vascular effects of therapeutic agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the suitability of CAM as a predictive model for acute toxicology studies of drugs by comparing it to conventional mouse and rat models for 10 FDA-approved anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, carmustine, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin, aloin, mitomycin C, actinomycin-D, melphalan). Suitable formulations for intravenous administration were determined before the average of median lethal dose (LD50) and median survival dose (SD50) in the CAM were measured and calculated for these drugs. The resultant ideal LD50 values were correlated to those reported in the literature using Pearson’s correlation test for both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection in rodents. Our results showed moderate correlations (r2=0.42 − 0.68, P<0.005–0.05) between the ideal LD50 values obtained using the CAM model with LD50 values from mice and rats models for both intravenous and intraperitoneal administrations, suggesting that the chick embryo may be a suitable alternative model for acute drug toxicity screening before embarking on full toxicological investigations in rodents in development of anticancer drugs. PMID:25736707

  16. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE INTRACELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF THE VIRUS OF HERPES SIMPLEX IN THE CHICK EMBRYO LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Alan; Scott, T. F. McNair

    1954-01-01

    The growth cycle of the virus of herpes simplex in chick embryo liver has been shown to follow the same pattern as in the chorioallantoic membrane and the rabbit's corneal cells. However, there is considerable variability in the time taken for the yolk sac-inoculated virus to get from the yolk sac into the liver. A brief description has been given of various fractionation procedures employed for obtaining isolated nuclei. It has been shown that free virus is not selectively adsorbed to isolated nuclei. Evidence has been presented to show that in the herpes-infected chick embryo liver, large proportions of the total virus can at times be found associated with the nuclear fraction. The percentage of the total virus in the nuclear fraction varies inversely with the titer of virus in the whole liver, and the number of hours after inoculation of the virus; only a negligible amount (as compared with that in the total) being associated with the nuclear fraction when a period of over 12 hours has elapsed after reappearance of virus. Furthermore, demonstration of virus in the isolated nuclei following extraction with hypertonic NaCl provides additional evidence that this virus is intimately associated with the nuclei. PMID:13211908

  17. Continuous delivery of a monoclonal antibody against Reissner's fiber into CSF reveals CSF-soluble material immunorelated to the subcommissural organ in early chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Hoyo-Becerra, C; López-Avalos, M D; Pérez, J; Miranda, E; Rojas-Ríos, P; Fernández-Llebrez, P; Grondona, J M

    2006-12-01

    The subcommissural organ (SCO) is an ependymal differentiation located in the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon under the posterior commissure. SCO cells synthesize and release glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) forming a threadlike structure known as Reissner's fiber (RF), which runs caudally along the ventricular cavities and the central canal of the spinal cord. Numerous monoclonal antibodies have been raised against bovine RF and the secretory material of the SCO. For this study, we selected the 4F7 monoclonal antibody based on its cross-reactivity with chick embryo SCO glycoproteins in vivo. E4 chick embryos were injected with 4F7 hybridoma cells or with the purified monoclonal antibody into the ventricular cavity of the optic tectum. The hybridoma cells survived, synthesized and released antibody into the CSF for at least 13 days after the injection. E5 embryos injected with 4F7 antibody displayed precipitates in the CSF comprising both the monoclonal antibody and anti-RF-positive material. Such aggregates were never observed in control embryos injected with other monoclonal antibodies used as controls. Western blot analysis of CSF from E4-E6 embryos revealed several immunoreactive bands to anti-RF (AFRU) antibody. We also found AFRU-positive material bound to the apical surface of the choroid plexus primordia in E5 embryos. These and other ultrastructural evidence suggest the existence of soluble SCO-related molecules in the CSF of early chick embryos.

  18. Paraxial left-sided nodal expression and the start of left-right patterning in the early chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Schröder, Silke; Schwartz, Peter; Viebahn, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    A common element during early left-right patterning of the vertebrate body is left-sided nodal expression in the early-somite stage lateral plate mesoderm. Leftward cell movements near the node of the gastrulating chick embryo recently offered a plausible mechanism for breaking the presomite-stage molecular symmetry in those vertebrates which lack rotating cilia on the notochord or equivalent tissues. However, the temporal and functional relationships between generation of the known morphological node asymmetry, onset of leftward cell movements and establishment of stable molecular asymmetry in the chick remain unresolved. This study uses high-resolution light microscopy and in situ gene expression analysis to show that intranodal cell rearrangement during the phase of counter-clockwise node torsion at stage 4+ is immediately followed by symmetry loss and rearrangement of shh and fgf8 expression in node epiblast between stages 5- and 5+. Surprisingly, left-sided nodal expression starts at stage 5-, too, but lies in the paraxial mesoderm next to the forming notochordal plate, and can be rendered symmetrical by minimal mechanical disturbance of distant tissue integrity at stage 4. The "premature" paraxial nodal expression together with morphological and molecular asymmetries in, and near, midline compartments occurring at defined substages of early gastrulation help to identify a new narrow time window for early steps in left-right patterning in the chick and support the concept of a causal relationship between a-still enigmatic-chiral (motor) protein, cell movements and incipient left-right asymmetry in the amniote embryo.

  19. TGFβ and FGF promote tendon progenitor fate and act downstream of muscle contraction to regulate tendon differentiation during chick limb development.

    PubMed

    Havis, Emmanuelle; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Esteves de Lima, Joana; Charvet, Benjamin; Milet, Cécile; Duprez, Delphine

    2016-10-15

    The molecular programme underlying tendon development has not been fully identified. Interactions with components of the musculoskeletal system are important for limb tendon formation. Limb tendons initiate their development independently of muscles; however, muscles are required for further tendon differentiation. We show that both FGF/ERK MAPK and TGFβ/SMAD2/3 signalling pathways are required and sufficient for SCX expression in chick undifferentiated limb cells, whereas the FGF/ERK MAPK pathway inhibits Scx expression in mouse undifferentiated limb mesodermal cells. During differentiation, muscle contraction is required to maintain SCX, TNMD and THBS2 expression in chick limbs. The activities of FGF/ERK MAPK and TGFβ/SMAD2/3 signalling pathways are decreased in tendons under immobilisation conditions. Application of FGF4 or TGFβ2 ligands prevents SCX downregulation in immobilised limbs. TGFβ2 but not FGF4 prevent TNMD and THBS2 downregulation under immobilisation conditions. We did not identify any intracellular crosstalk between both signalling pathways in their positive effect on SCX expression. Independently of each other, both FGF and TGFβ promote tendon commitment of limb mesodermal cells and act downstream of mechanical forces to regulate tendon differentiation during chick limb development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  1. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    SciTech Connect

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doğan

    2016-04-18

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  2. Molecular basis of vertebrate limb patterning.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2002-10-15

    Mechanisms of limb development are common to all higher vertebrates. The current understanding of how vertebrate limbs develop comes mainly from studies on chick embryos, which are classical models for experimental manipulation, and mouse embryos, which can be genetically manipulated. Work on chick and mouse embryos is often complementary and has direct implications for human limb development. Analysis has moved to the molecular level, which allows direct links to genetics. Even though genes involved in limb development have been discovered by basic scientists through different routes to that taken by clinical geneticists, many of the same genes have been identified. Thus, the fields of embryology and clinical medicine increasingly converge. The next challenge will be to go back to animal models to begin to dissect how particular gene mutations lead to specific limb phenotypes.

  3. Effects of varying chamber construction and embryo pre-incubation age on survival and growth of chick embryos in shell-less culture.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B E; Fitzharris, T P; Barnett, B D

    1981-01-01

    Shell-less culture involves culturing chick embryos with associated yolk and albumen outside of the eggshell and shell membranes. The technique allows direct access to and continuous observation of cultured embryos almost to the time of hatching. The plastic wrap/culture tripod technique described in this paper allows normal embryonic growth and differentiation from 48 hours (in ovo pre-incubation age) through at least 10 days of total incubation. As the duration of in ovo pre-incubation is decreased below 36 hours, there is a concomitant increase in the percentage of grossly abnormal embryos associated with decreased survival and retarded growth and differentiation. Survival of embryos pre-incubated for 72 hours through 13 and 18 days of total incubation is greater than 80% and 40%, respectively. The wrap/tripod technique allows substantially better survival and more normal development of cultured embryos than does the petri dish technique of Auerbach et al. (1974). Embryonic growth in 7.8-cm-diameter chambers is significantly greater than in either larger (10.6 cm) or smaller (5.2 cm) diameter chambers. Some gas exchange through the culture chamber walls appears necessary for optimal embryonic survival and growth. Suspending egg contents in either Safeway or Handi-Wrap plastic wrap (both of intermediate permeability) in 7.8-cm tripods resulted in superior growth and/or survival compared to suspension in Silastic sheeting (high permeability), Saran Wrap (low permeability), glass dishes (nonpermeable), or glass dishes lined with an inner layer of Safeway wrap(nonpermeable).

  4. Detailed expression profile of the six Glypicans and their modifying enzyme, Notum during chick limb and feather development.

    PubMed

    Saad, Kawakeb; Theis, Susanne; Otto, Anthony; Luke, Graham; Patel, Ketan

    2017-04-30

    The development of vertebrate appendages, especially the limb and feather buds are orchestrated by numerous secreted signalling molecules including Sonic Hedgehog, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Fibroblast Growth Factors and Wnts. These proteins coordinate the growth and patterning of ectodermal and mesenchymal cells. The influence of signalling molecules is affected over large distances by their concentration (morphogen activity) but also at local levels by the presence of proteins that either attenuate or promote their activity. Glypicans are cell surface molecules that regulate the activity of the major secreted signalling molecules expressed in the limb and feather bud. Here we investigated the expression of all Glypicans during chick limb and feather development. In addition we profiled the expression of Notum, an enzyme that regulates Glypican activity. We show that five of the six Glypicans and Notum are expressed in a dynamic manner during the development of limbs and feathers. We also investigated the expression of key Glypicans and show that they are controlled by signalling molecules highlighting the presence of feedback loops. Lastly we show that Glypicans and Notum are expressed in a tissue specific manner in adult chicken tissues. Our results strongly suggest that the Glypicans and Notum have many as yet undiscovered roles to play during the development of vertebrate appendages.

  5. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  6. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  7. Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels Within Chicken Embryos Using ChickGFP Neural Tube Grafting and Carbocyanine Dye DiI Injection

    PubMed Central

    Delalande, Jean-Marie; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    All developing organs need to be connected to both the nervous system (for sensory and motor control) as well as the vascular system (for gas exchange, fluid and nutrient supply). Consequently both the nervous and vascular systems develop alongside each other and share striking similarities in their branching architecture. Here we report embryonic manipulations that allow us to study the simultaneous development of neural crest-derived nervous tissue (in this case the enteric nervous system), and the vascular system. This is achieved by generating chicken chimeras via transplantation of discrete segments of the neural tube, and associated neural crest, combined with vascular DiI injection in the same embryo. Our method uses transgenic chickGFP embryos for intraspecies grafting, making the transplant technique more powerful than the classical quail-chick interspecies grafting protocol used with great effect since the 1970s. ChickGFP-chick intraspecies grafting facilitates imaging of transplanted cells and their projections in intact tissues, and eliminates any potential bias in cell development linked to species differences. This method takes full advantage of the ease of access of the avian embryo (compared with other vertebrate embryos) to study the co-development of the enteric nervous system and the vascular system. PMID:26065540

  8. Dual labeling of neural crest cells and blood vessels within chicken embryos using Chick(GFP) neural tube grafting and carbocyanine dye DiI injection.

    PubMed

    Delalande, Jean-Marie; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J

    2015-05-28

    All developing organs need to be connected to both the nervous system (for sensory and motor control) as well as the vascular system (for gas exchange, fluid and nutrient supply). Consequently both the nervous and vascular systems develop alongside each other and share striking similarities in their branching architecture. Here we report embryonic manipulations that allow us to study the simultaneous development of neural crest-derived nervous tissue (in this case the enteric nervous system), and the vascular system. This is achieved by generating chicken chimeras via transplantation of discrete segments of the neural tube, and associated neural crest, combined with vascular DiI injection in the same embryo. Our method uses transgenic chick(GFP) embryos for intraspecies grafting, making the transplant technique more powerful than the classical quail-chick interspecies grafting protocol used with great effect since the 1970s. Chick(GFP)-chick intraspecies grafting facilitates imaging of transplanted cells and their projections in intact tissues, and eliminates any potential bias in cell development linked to species differences. This method takes full advantage of the ease of access of the avian embryo (compared with other vertebrate embryos) to study the co-development of the enteric nervous system and the vascular system.

  9. Mechanisms of vertebrate embryo segmentation: Common themes in trunk and limb development.

    PubMed

    Sheeba, Caroline J; Andrade, Raquel P; Palmeirim, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Various ultradian rhythms ensure proper temporal regulations during embryo development. The embryo molecular clock, which was first identified in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) underlying periodic somite formation, is one among them. Somites are the earliest manifestation of the segmented vertebrate body and they are formed with strict temporal precision. The tetrapod limb is also a segmented structure and the formation of limb bone elements have also been associated with a molecular clock, operating in the distal limb mesenchyme. In both the PSM and the distal limb mesenchyme, the molecular clock (MC) is influenced by FGF, SHH and RA, which are also the key regulators of the development of these tissues. While somitogenesis has been continuously scrutinized to understand the mechanisms of the MC, the limb bud has served as an outstanding paradigm to study how a cohort of undifferentiated cells is organized into functional 3D structures. The fact that both the trunk and limb development are shaped by the MC and by common signaling molecules has prompted the exciting possibility of establishing parallelisms between somitogenesis and limb development. Systematically correlating various parameters during trunk and limb development will help us to appreciate the common principles underlying segmented structure formation and allow the rise of new questions in order to fill the gaps in our present understanding. In this review we have established the parallelisms between somitogenesis and limb development at the level of gene expression patterns and their regulation. Finally, we have also discussed the most evident new avenues this exercise could open to the scientific community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Maternal Zinc Glycine on Mortality, Zinc Concentration, and Antioxidant Status in a Developing Embryo and 1-Day-Old Chick.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-05-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zinc glycine (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) on mortality, zinc (Zn) concentration, and antioxidant status in a developing embryo and 1-day-old chick. Six hundred 39-week-old broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each treatment including 5 replicates with 20 birds each. Six treatments received a basal diet (control, 24 mg Zn/kg diet) or a basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (80 mg Zn/kg) or Zn-Gly (20, 40, 60, or 80 mg Zn/kg), respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-experiment with a basal diet. At the last week, 100 eggs per replicate were randomly collected for incubation. Compared with the control treatment, Zn supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) embryo mortalities of the late stage and the whole period, increased (P < 0.05) liver Zn concentration in the embryo of d9, d19, and 1-day-old chick, and improved (P < 0.05) antioxidant status in the embryo of d19 and 1-day-old chick. Compared with the ZnSO4 treatment, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the late stage embryo mortality and increased (P < 0.05) liver Zn concentration in the embryo of d9, d19, and 1-day-old chick. The 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment significantly increased (P < 0.05) copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity in d19 embryo and 1-day-old chick, total superoxide dismutase activity in 1-day-old chick, and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of d9 embryo and 1-day-old chick than that in ZnSO4 treatment. The liver metallothionein concentration of the developing embryo and 1-day-old chick and its mRNA abundance of d19 embryo were also significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment in comparison with ZnSO4 treatment. In conclusion, maternal Zn supplementation decreased embryo mortalities of the late stage and the whole period by increasing liver Zn

  11. Simultaneous real-time quantification of blood flow and vascular growth in the chick embryo using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, William J.; Teslovich, Nikola C.; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Keller, Bradley B.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2014-03-01

    Experimental and clinical data indicate that hemodynamic forces within the embryo provide critical biomechanical cues for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling and that perturbed flow is a major etiology of congenital heart disease. However, embryonic flow-growth relationships are largely qualitative and poorly defined. In this work, we provide a quantitative analysis of in vivo flow and growth trends in the chick embryo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to acquire simultaneous velocity and structural data of the right vitelline artery continuously over a ten hour period beginning at stage 16 (hour 54). We obtained 3D vessel volumes (15 μm lateral, 4.3 μm axial resolutions, 6 μm slice spacing) at 60 minute intervals, taking a B-scan time series totaling one cardiac cycle at each slice. Embryos were maintained at a constant 37°C and 60% humidity during the entire acquisition period through an inhouse built chamber. The 3D vessel lumen geometries were reconstructed manually to assess growth. Blood flow velocity was computed from the central B-scan using red blood cell particle image velocimetry. The use of extended OCT imaging as a non-invasive method for continuous and simultaneous flow and structural data can enhance our understanding of the biomechanical regulation of critical events in morphogenesis. Data acquired will be useful to validate predictive finite-element 3D growth models.

  12. Evidence against a direct role for oxidative stress in cadmium-induced axial malformation in the chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Jennifer; Doi, Takashi; Power, Eoin; Balasubramanian, Ishwarya; Puri, Prem; Bannigan, John

    2010-03-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a powerful inducer of oxidative stress. It also causes ventral body wall defects in chick embryos treated at Hamburger-Hamilton stages 16-17. By measuring malondialdehyde levels (TBARS method) and cotreating with antioxidants (tempol, ascorbate, and N-acetylcysteine), we sought to determine if oxidative stress were directly related to teratogenesis. We also investigated the expression of mRNAs for antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) -1 and -2, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). RT-PCR showed reductions in SOD-1, SOD-2, and CAT 1 hour after treatment with Cd. MDA levels increased 4 hours after Cd, and remained elevated 24 hours after treatment. Of the antioxidants, only N-acetylcysteine reduced MDA levels to control values. Nonetheless, no antioxidant could reduce embryo lethality or malformation rates. Furthermore, MDA levels 24 hours after treatment were identical in malformed and normal embryos exposed to Cd. Hence, we conclude that oxidative stress may not have a direct role in Cd teratogenesis.

  13. Developmental deficiencies of the upper facial skeleton due to partial elimination of mesencephalic neural crest cells in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Song, L K; Been, W; Van Limborgh, J

    1983-12-01

    With the aim to test the hypothesis that cells derived from the mesencephalic portion of the neural crest, are involved in the process of differentiation of various upper facial bones, in 41 chick embryos of the 6-somite stage (approx. 26 hours of incubation) the anterior and middle thirds of this part of the neural crest were partially eliminated by micro-laser irradiation, either unilaterally or bilaterally. Of the 14 embryos sacrificed at the age of 12 days, a number of 6 proved to have developed harelip and/or cleft palate conditions. In these embryos, in addition a reduction or absence of the maxillary, palatal, jugale and quadrato-jugale was observed. On the contrary, other facial bones as well as the first and second branchial arch cartilages proved to have developed normally. From these results the conclusion may be drawn that (a sufficient number of) cells from the anterior and middle thirds of the mesencephalic neural crest are indispensable for a normal differentiation of the maxillary, palatal, jugale and quadrato-jugale.

  14. The influence of the lower beak on the interorbital septum-prenasal process complex in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Wouterlood, F G; van Pelt, W

    1979-01-01

    The effect of removal of the lower beak on the development of the interorbital septumprenasal process (ISPP) complex was studied in chick embryos. In normal development the angle between the ventral contour of the interorbital septum and the long axis of the prenasal process increases. At the same time the angle between the ventral contour of the interorbital septum and the basal plate increases. After surgical removal of the prospective lower beak at stage 29, the position of the entire ISPP complex was altered in stage-38 embryos and the prenasal process showed elongation. In stage-38 embryos in which the prospective upper beak had been removed at stage 29, Meckel's cartilage was elongated. It is concluded that straightening of the angle between the ventral contour of the interorbital septum and the long axis of the prenasal process is not influenced by the lower beak, whereas the position of the entire ISPP complex and the size of the prenasal process are under the epigenetic influence of the lower beak. The position and size of Meckel's cartilage are under the epigenetic influence of the upper beak.

  15. Light exposure of chick embryo influences lateralized recall of imprinting memory.

    PubMed

    Johnston, A N; Rogers, L J

    1999-12-01

    Environmental cues, such as light during the later part of incubation, are known to establish lateralization of some forms of visually guided behaviors in birds. The authors investigated the effect of light on lateralized recall of imprinting memory in chicks. On Day E19 of incubation, one eye was occluded for 24 hr. The other eye received stimulation by light. Chicks were imprinted and then tested for their imprinting preferences after administration of a low dose (500 ng) of glutamate into either hemisphere. Chicks that had the right eye exposed to light during incubation showed recall of the imprinting stimulus after injection of the left hemisphere but not after injection into the right hemisphere. The reverse was found for chicks that had the left eye exposed to light. Hence, the hemisphere ipsilateral to the eye exposed to light before hatching became essential for recall of imprinting memory. The hemisphere used in recall of imprinting memory received indirect visual inputs and was determined by environmental stimulation (asymmetrical light input).

  16. The adaptation of a CTN-1 rabies virus strain to high-titered growth in chick embryo cells for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Guo, Caiping; Wang, Chunhua; Luo, Shan; Zhu, Shimao; Li, Hui; Liu, Yongdi; Zhou, Lanzhen; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Yujiang; Huang, Weirong; Wu, Kaiyong; Zhang, Yanpeng; Rong, Weihua; Tian, Hua

    2014-05-12

    Rabies virus is the causative agent of rabies, a central nervous system disease that is almost invariably fatal. Currently vaccination is the most effective strategy for preventing rabies, and vaccines are most commonly produced from cultured cells. Although the vaccine strains employed in China include CTN, aG, PM and PV, there are no reports of strains that are adapted to primary chick embryo cells for use in human rabies prevention in China. Rabies virus strain CTN-1 V was adapted to chick embryo cells by serial passage to obtain the CTNCEC25 strain. A virus growth curve demonstrated that the CTNCEC25 strain achieved high titers in chick embryo cells and was nonpathogenic to adult mice by intracerebral inoculation. A comparison of the structural protein genes of the CTNCEC25 strain and the CTN-1 V strain identified eight amino acid changes in the mature M, G and L proteins. The immunogenicity of the CTNCEC25 strain increased with the adaptation process in chick embryo cells and conferred high protective efficacy. The inactivated vaccine induced high antibody responses and provided full protection from an intramuscular challenge in adult mice. This is the first description of a CTNCEC25 strain that was highly adapted to chick embryo cells, and both its in vitro and in vivo biological properties were characterized. Given the high immunogenicity and good propagation characteristics of the CTNCEC25 strain, it has excellent potential to be a candidate for development into a human rabies vaccine with high safety and quality characteristics for controlling rabies in China.

  17. Micro-magnetic resonance imaging of avian embryos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojing; Liu, Jia; Davey, Megan; Duce, Suzanne; Jaberi, Neema; Liu, Gang; Davidson, Gemma; Tenent, Seaneen; Mahood, Ruth; Brown, Phoebe; Cunningham, Craig; Bain, Andrew; Beattie, Kevin; McDonald, Laura; Schmidt, Katy; Towers, Matthew; Tickle, Cheryll; Chudek, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    Chick embryos are useful models for probing developmental mechanisms including those involved in organogenesis. In addition to classic embryological manipulations, it is possible to test the function of molecules and genes while the embryo remains within the egg. Here we define conditions for imaging chick embryo anatomy and for visualising living quail embryos. We focus on the developing limb and describe how different tissues can be imaged using micro-magnetic resonance imaging and this information then synthesised, using a three-dimensional visualisation package, into detailed anatomy. We illustrate the potential for micro-magnetic resonance imaging to analyse phenotypic changes following chick limb manipulation. The work with the living quail embryos lays the foundations for using micro-magnetic resonance imaging as an experimental tool to follow the consequences of such manipulations over time. PMID:18045352

  18. Effects of a Snake α-Neurotoxin on the Development of Innervated Skeletal Muscles in Chick Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Giacobini, G.; Filogamo, G.; Weber, M.; Boquet, P.; Changeux, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of the cholinergic (nicotinic) receptor in chick muscles is monitored during embryonic development with a tritiated α-neurotoxin from Naja nigricollis and compared with the appearance of acetylcholinesterase. The specific activity of these two proteins reaches a maximum around the 12th day of incubation. By contrast, choline acetyltransferase reaches an early maximum of specific activity around the 7th day of development, and later continuously increases until hatching. Injection of α-toxin in the yolk sac at early stages of development causes an atrophy of skeletal and extrinsic ocular-muscles and of their innervation. In 16-day embryos treated by the α-toxin, the endplates revealed by the Koelle reaction are almost completely absent. The total content and specific activities of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase in atrophic muscles are markedly reduced. Images PMID:4515929

  19. Fibronectin-synthesizing activity of free and membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts and chick embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Belkin, V.M.; Volodarskaya, S.M.

    1986-06-20

    The fibronectin-synthesizing activity of membrane-bound and free polyribosomes in a cell-free system was studied using immunochemical methods. It was found that fibronectin biosynthesis on membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts accounts for 4.9% and those from 10-day-old chick embryos for 1.1% of the total amount of newly synthesized proteins, whereas on free polyribosomes it is 1.0 and 0.3%, respectively. Fibronectin monomers with a molecular weight of 220,000 were found only in the material of the cell-free system containing heavy fractions of membrane-bound polyribosomes newly synthesized in the presence of spermidine. Thus, it was shown that fibronectin is synthesized primarily on membrane-bound polyribosomes.

  20. Calcium homeostasis in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis of chick embryo cecal epithelial cells induced by Eimeria tenella infection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-zhen; Zheng, Ming-xue; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Rui-li; Yang, Sha-sha; Li, Shan; Xu, Zhi-yong; Bai, Rui; Lv, Qiang-hua; Zhao, Wen-long

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the process of Eimeria tenella-induced apoptosis and the effect of calcium homeostasis were investigated in chick embryo cecal epithelial cells. In particular, we examined cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, and changes in [Ca(2+)]c and apoptosis in host cells. Apoptosis, MPTP opening, cytochrome c release, and [Ca(2+)]c in host cells increased following infection. This trend was reversed by blocking the increase in [Ca(2+)]c using BAPTA/AM and EGTA (intra- and extracellular chelators of Ca(2+), respectively) and by applying heparin sodium and ryanodine (blockers of the inositol triphosphate and ryanodine receptors of the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively). These results indicate that [Ca(2+)]c plays a significant role in host cell mitochondrial apoptosis, which is induced via modulation of extracellular Ca(2+) levels and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) channels. Thus, agents that restore Ca(2+) homeostasis may be useful for managing E. tenella infection in chickens.

  1. The effects of stimulation rate on calcium-dependent action potentials recorded from chick embryo heart cell aggregates.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, E; Standen, N B

    1982-01-01

    1. Action potentials were recorded from aggregates of heart cells prepared from 3- to 7-day chick embryos. At 3 days the maximum rate of rise (+ Vmax) was insensitive to TTX; at 7 days it was considerably reduced by TTX. 2. In the presence of TTX the action potential overshoot was dependent on [Ca]0; the results may be fitted using constant field theory and assuming that the membrane is over a hundred times more permeable to Ca than to Na or K. 3. An increase in stimulation rate in the range 0.2-2 Hz led to an increase in both overshoot and + Vmax. This effect was not seen after addition of 20 mM-tetraethylammonium ions, nor when Sr was substituted for Ca in the external medium. We suggest that these rate-dependent changes may result from partial inactivation of an outward K current. PMID:7097590

  2. Developmental hemodynamic changes in rat embryos at 11 to 15 days of gestation: normal data of blood pressure and the effect of caffeine compared to data from chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, M; Miyagawa, S; Ohno, T; Miura, S; Takao, A

    1988-02-01

    We attempted to measure arterial blood pressure of the rat embryo. The embryo was excised within the uterus and immersed in Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C. The uterus wall and yolk sac were opened to expose the umbilical vessels. The umbilical artery was punctured with a glass micro-pipette, and blood pressure was measured by using a servo-null micro-pressure system. The mean blood pressure was 0.27 +/- 0.05 mm Hg in the embryo at the 11th day of gestation (n = 7), 0.48 +/- 0.03 mm Hg in the 12-day embryos (n = 19), 1.3 +/- 0.08 mm Hg in the 13-day (n = 11), and 2.6 +/- 0.1 mm Hg in the 15-day embryos (n = 10). Heart rate was 84 +/- 11 in 11-day, 122 +/- 3 in 12-day, 192 +/- 7 in 13-day, and 198 +/- 5 in 15-day embryos. These parameters were stable within 10 min after the excision. A comparison of the data with those of the chick embryo of comparable developmental stages revealed that the blood pressure was lower in 11- and 12-day rat embryos than in the chick embryo of Hamburger-Hamilton stages 18 and 21, but this was reversed in the later stages. In the stage 21 chick embryo, intravenous administration of caffeine (60 +/- 9 mg/kg embryo weight) induced an increase in blood pressure by 11 +/- 3% (n = 8), but did not result in a significant increase in dorsal aortic blood flow (6 +/- 6%, n = 9) or in heart rate. In contrast, caffeine (62 +/- 3 mg/kg) increased the heart rate by 8 +/- 2% (n = 10) without changing the blood pressure in the rat embryo of day 12. The velocity of blood flow in the truncus was measured by a pulsed Doppler flowmeter. Caffeine injection increased the mean velocity by 21 +/- 8%). Herein we indicate that measurement of blood pressure in the rat embryo is feasible, but with some limitations, and that there may be qualitative hemodynamic differences between the rat and chick embryos.

  3. FGF2 plays a key role in embryonic cerebrospinal fluid trophic properties over chick embryo neuroepithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martín, C; Bueno, D; Alonso, M I; Moro, J A; Callejo, S; Parada, C; Martín, P; Carnicero, E; Gato, A

    2006-09-15

    During early stages of brain development, neuroepithelial stem cells undergo intense proliferation as neurogenesis begins. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been involved in the regulation of these processes, and although it has been suggested that they work in an autocrine-paracrine mode, there is no general agreement on this because the behavior of neuroepithelial cells is not self-sufficient in explants cultured in vitro. In this work, we show that during early stages of development in chick embryos there is another source of FGF2, besides that of the neuroepithelium, which affects the brain primordium, since the cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) contains several isoforms of this factor. We also demonstrate, both in vitro and in vivo, that the FGF2 from the E-CSF has an effect on the regulation of neuroepithelial cell behavior, including cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In order to clarify putative sources of FGF2 in embryonic tissues, we detected by in situ hybridization high levels of mRNA expression in notochord, mesonephros and hepatic primordia, and low levels in brain neuroectoderm, corroborated by semiquantitative PCR analysis. Furthermore, we show that the notochord segregates several FGF2 isoforms which modify the behavior of the neuroepithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we show that the FGF2 ligand is present in the embryonic serum; and, by means of labeled FGF2, we prove that this factor passes via the neuroepithelium from the embryonic serum to the E-CSF in vivo. Considering all these results, we propose that, in chick embryos, the behavior of brain neuroepithelial stem cells at the earliest stages of development is influenced by the action of the FGF2 contained within the E-CSF which could have an extraneural origin, thus suggesting a new and complementary way of regulating brain development.

  4. Ventrolateral Origin of Each Cycle of Rhythmic Activity Generated by the Spinal Cord of the Chick Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yoshiyasu; Mentis, George Z.; Wu, Jiang-young; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The mechanisms responsible for generating rhythmic motor activity in the developing spinal cord of the chick embryo are poorly understood. Here we investigate whether the activity of motoneurons occurs before other neuronal populations at the beginning of each cycle of rhythmic discharge. Methodology/Principal Findings The spatiotemporal organization of neural activity in transverse slices of the lumbosacral cord of the chick embryo (E8-E11) was investigated using intrinsic and voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging. VSD signals accompanying episodes of activity comprised a rhythmic decrease in light transmission that corresponded to each cycle of electrical activity recorded from the ipsilateral ventral root. The rhythmic signals were widely synchronized across the cord face, and the largest signal amplitude was in the ventrolateral region where motoneurons are located. In unstained slices we recorded two classes of intrinsic signal. In the first, an episode of rhythmic activity was accompanied by a slow decrease in light transmission that peaked in the dorsal horn and decayed dorsoventrally. Superimposed on this signal was a much smaller rhythmic increase in transmission that was coincident with each cycle of discharge and whose amplitude and spatial distribution was similar to that of the VSD signals. At the onset of a spontaneously occurring episode and each subsequent cycle, both the intrinsic and VSD signals originated within the lateral motor column and spread medially and then dorsally. By contrast, following a dorsal root stimulus, the optical signals originated within the dorsal horn and traveled ventrally to reach the lateral motor column. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that motoneuron activity contributes to the initiation of each cycle of rhythmic activity, and that motoneuron and/or R-interneuron synapses are a plausible site for the activity-dependent synaptic depression that modeling studies have identified as a critical

  5. The effect of in ovo ethanol exposure on retina and optic nerve in a chick embryo model system.

    PubMed

    Tufan, A Cevik; Abban, Gulcin; Akdogan, Ilgaz; Erdogan, Deniz; Ozogul, Candan

    2007-01-01

    Ocular anomalies seen in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) suggest that ocular structures are sensitive to alcohol exposure during their development. This study was designed to investigate the effect of in ovo ethanol (EtOH) exposure on retinal development and myelinization of optic nerve fibers at an ultra structural level in a chick embryo model system. Prior to incubation, fertilized chicken eggs were injected once with 100 microl of either 0.9% NaCl (vehicle control), or EtOH solutions at different doses (10, 30, or 50%, v:v in 0.9% NaCl) into their air sacs and incubated at 37.5 degrees C and saturation humidity. On day 20 embryos were analyzed in terms of their viability and growth and the optic cups including the optic nerves were dissected out. Specimens were processed for electron microscopy (EM). Results showed that, EtOH significantly decreased the viability of chick embryos (P < 0.045), and caused significant prenatal growth retardation (P < 0.004) in a dose-dependant manner. Light microscopy of semi thin sections revealed that prenatal exposure to EtOH resulted in both retinal degeneration and optic nerve hypoplasia (P < 0.001) in a dose-dependant manner. EM revealed that a dose-dependant decrease in the number of myelinated nerve fibers was profound in groups exposed to EtOH (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the myelin coats observed were thinner than those seen in control embryos. In groups exposed to EtOH myelin sheets were unorganized and contained vacuolar structures in between them. The tissue in between the cells and optic nerve fibers, on the other hand, lost its intact appearance with vacuolar and vesicular structures in between them. In addition, the optic nerve fibers contained granular accumulations in EtOH exposed groups. A dose dependent degeneration was also observed in retinas of EtOH exposed groups. The effect of EtOH was profound in pigment epithelium (PE), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell layer (GC). Mitochondrial

  6. Neurotoxicological effects of nicotine on the embryonic development of cerebellar cortex of chick embryo during various stages of incubation.

    PubMed

    El-Beltagy, Abd El-Fattah B M; Abou-El-Naga, Amoura M; Sabry, Dalia M

    2015-10-01

    Long-acting nicotine is known to exert pathological effects on almost all tissues including the cerebellar cortex. The present work was designed to elucidate the effect of nicotine on the development of cerebellar cortex of chick embryo during incubation period. The fertilized eggs of hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) were injected into the air space by a single dose of long acting nicotine (1.6 mg/kg/egg) at the 4th day of incubation. The embryos were taken out of the eggs on days 8, 12 and 16 of incubation. The cerebellum of the control and treated embryos at above ages were processed for histopathological examination. The TEM were examined at 16th day of incubation. The results of the present study revealed that, exposure to long-acting nicotine markedly influence the histogenesis of cerebellar cortex of chick embryo during the incubation period. At 8th day of incubation, nicotine delayed the differentiation of the cerebellar analge; especially the external granular layer (EGL) and inner cortical layer (ICL). Furthermore, at 12th day of incubation, the cerebellar foliation was irregular and the Purkinje cells not recognized. By 16th day of incubation, the cerebellar foliations were irregular with interrupted cerebellar cortex and irregular arrangement of Purkinje cells. Immunohistochemical analysis for antibody P53 protein revealed that the cerebellar cortex in all stages of nicotine treated groups possessed a moderate to weak reaction for P53 protein however; this reaction was markedly stronger in the cerebellar cortex of control groups. Moreover, the flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the percentage of apoptosis in control group was significantly higher compared with that of nicotine treated group. At the TEM level, the cerebellar Purkinje cells of 16th day of treated groups showed multiple subcellular alterations in compared with those of the corresponding control group. Such changes represented by appearing of vacuolated mitochondria, cisternal

  7. [Time-effect relationship between the positional microinjection of HCY-2 gene and the neural tube teratogenesis of chick embryos].

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Li, Z; Zhang, C; Chen, X

    1999-07-01

    The time-effect relationship between positional transferred novel gene(HCY-2) and neural tube teratogenesis, and their possible mechanisms were studied. An eukaryotic expressing vector which containing whole-length HCY-2 cDNA was microinjected into chick embryos in culture at days 0, 1 and 2 (approximately Hamburger-Hamilton stages 1, 6 and 12) mediated by lipofect AMINE reagent. The techniques of RT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to investigate the expression and distribution of HCY-2 mRNA with its coding product and dysmorphogenesis of the neural tube at 96 h (approximately stage 22). Neural tube defects (NTDs) were discovered in every transferred gene group, only the day 1 embryos which positional site injected was the area pellucida of head, however, the rate of NTDs was the highest (35.3%). There was an obvious time-effect relationship. The phenotypes of NTD were encephalocele, anencephaly, spina bifida and microcephaly. The embryos with transferred gene could express HCY-2 mRNA and its coding product, and the HCY-2 protein mainly distributed in embryonic brain cells as compared to controls. It was found that HCY-2 gene could result in abnormal ultrastructure at the surface and inside of cells under SEM and TEM. It has been observed apoptosis at the sites with NTDs. It is concluded that HCY-2 gene may be a new genotoxic factor, which plays an important role in the mechanisms of neural tube teratogenesis during the early developing stage of embryos.

  8. Development of the early axon scaffold in the rostral brain of the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Michelle; Schubert, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    The arrangement of the early nerve connections in the embryonic vertebrate brain follows a well-conserved pattern, forming the early axon scaffold. The early axon tracts have been described in a number of anamniote species and in mouse, but a detailed analysis in chick is lacking. We have used immunostaining, axon tracing and in situ hybridisation to analyse the development of the early axon scaffold in the embryonic chick brain in relation to the neuromeric organisation of the brain. The first tract to be formed is the medial longitudinal fascicle (MLF), shortly followed by the tract of the postoptic commissure to pioneer the ventral longitudinal tract system. The MLF was found to originate from three different populations of neurones located in the diencephalon. Neurones close to the dorsal midline of the mesencephalon establish the descending tract of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminus. Their axons pioneer the lateral longitudinal tract. At later stages, the tract of the posterior commissure emerges in the caudal pretectum as the first transversal tract. It is formed by dorsally projecting axons from neurones located in the ventral pretectum, and by ventrally projecting axons from neurones located in the dorsal pretectum. The organisation of neurones and axons in the chick brain is similar to that described in the mouse, though tracts form in a different order and appear more clearly distinguished than in the mammalian model. PMID:21599661

  9. Optimized ex-ovo culturing of chick embryos to advanced stages of development.

    PubMed

    Cloney, Kellie; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara Anne

    2015-01-24

    Research in anatomy, embryology, and developmental biology has largely relied on the use of model organisms. In order to study development in live embryos model organisms, such as the chicken, are often used. The chicken is an excellent model organism due to its low cost and minimal maintenance, however they present observational challenges because they are enclosed in an opaque eggshell. In order to properly view the embryo as it develops, the shell must be windowed or removed. Both windowing and ex ovo techniques have been developed to assist researchers in the study of embryonic development. However, each of the methods has limitations and challenges. Here, we present a simple, optimized ex ovo culture technique for chicken embryos that enables the observation of embryonic development from stage HH 19 into late stages of development (HH 40), when many organs have developed. This technique is easy to adopt in both undergraduate classes and more advanced research laboratories where embryo manipulations are conducted.

  10. Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Burgos, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9) showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature. PMID:12831405

  11. Energy sensing in developing chicken embryos and posthatch chicks from different size eggs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Q; Agarwal, U; Bequette, B J

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous energy sensor, plays a key role in coordinating nutrient use in developing broiler breeder embryos. To test this hypothesis, we measured AMPK activity in the liver of embryos developing in small versus large (typical) eggs. Small (53.2 ± 1.0 g) eggs from 26-wk-old and large (69.0 ± 1.9 g) eggs from 42-wk-old broiler breeder hens were acquired and measurements were made on embryonic day (e) 11, 14, 17, and 20, and on posthatch d 1. The initial weight of dry yolk to albumen was higher (2.3 vs. 1.7) in large versus small eggs, and embryo weight differed from e17 onward. The AMPK activity was higher in livers of embryos from large versus small eggs across all sampling days, and activity was highest on e14 for both sizes of eggs. We speculate that higher AMPK activity in livers of embryos from large eggs may facilitate increased metabolism of their larger nutrient supplies to support faster growth rate in ovo. Taken together, our results are the first to investigate the relationship between liver AMPK activity and egg size and nutrient composition in developing chicken embryos.

  12. Studies on the mechanism of retinoid-induced pattern duplications in the early chick limb bud: temporal and spatial aspects

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid causes striking digit pattern changes when it is continuously released from a bead implanted in the anterior margin of an early chick wing bud. In addition to the normal set of digits (234), extra digits form in a mirror-symmetrical arrangement, creating digit patterns such as a 432234. These retinoic acid-induced pattern duplications closely mimic those found after grafts of polarizing region cells to the same positions with regard to dose-response, timing, and positional effects. To elucidate the mechanism by which retinoic acid induces these pattern duplications, we have studied the temporal and spatial distribution of all-trans-retinoic acid and its potent analogue TTNPB in these limb buds. We find that the induction process is biphasic: there is an 8-h lag phase followed by a 6-h duplication phase, during which additional digits are irreversibly specified in the sequence digit 2, digit 3, digit 4. On average, formation of each digit seems to require between 1 and 2 h. The tissue concentrations, metabolic pattern, and spatial distribution of all- trans-retinoic acid and TTNPB in the limb rapidly reach a steady state, in which the continuous release of the retinoid is balanced by loss from metabolism and blood circulation. Pulse-chase experiments reveal that the half-time of clearance from the bud is 20 min for all-trans- retinoic acid and 80 min for TTNPB. Manipulations that change the experimentally induced steep concentration gradient of TTNPB suggest that a graded distribution of retinoid concentrations across the limb is required during the duplication phase to induce changes in the digit pattern. The extensive similarities between results obtained with retinoids and with polarizing region grafts raise the possibility that retinoic acid serves as a natural "morphogen" in the limb. PMID:4055899

  13. The chick embryo as a model for the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol on craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kiecker, Clemens

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol results in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a syndrome characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations including craniofacial dysmorphologies and neurological defects. The characterisation of the mechanisms by which ethanol exerts its teratogenic effects is difficult due to the pleiotropic nature of its actions. Different experimental model systems have been employed to investigate the aetiology of FASD. Here, I will review studies using these different model organisms that have helped to elucidate how ethanol causes the craniofacial abnormalities characteristic of FASD. In these studies, ethanol was found to impair the prechordal plate-an important embryonic signalling centre-during gastrulation and to negatively affect the induction, migration and survival of the neural crest, a cell population that generates the cartilage and most of the bones of the skull. At the cellular level, ethanol appears to inhibit Sonic hedgehog signalling, alter levels of retionoic acid activity, trigger a Ca(2+)-CamKII-dependent pathway that antagonises WNT signalling, affect cytoskeletal dynamics and increase oxidative stress. Embryos of the domestic chick Gallus gallus domesticus have played a central role in developing a working model for the effects of ethanol on craniofacial development because they are easily accessible and because key steps in craniofacial development are particularly well established in the avian embryo. I will finish this review by highlighting some potential future avenues of fetal alcohol research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of maternal dietary manganese and incubation temperature on hatchability, antioxidant status, and expression of heat shock proteins in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Lu, L; Li, W X; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether supplementing manganese (Mn) to the maternal diet could reduce the deleterious effect of heat stress on the developing embryo, the hatchability, antioxidant status, and expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) were evaluated in chick embryos under normal and high incubation temperatures. A completely randomized design ( = 6) with 2 maternal dietary Mn treatments (unsupplemented control basal diet versus the basal diet + 120 mg Mn/kg as inorganic Mn) × 2 incubation temperatures (normal, 37.8°C, versus high, 39.0°C) was used. High incubation temperature did not affect ( > 0.19) hatchability and embryo mortality and development but did increase ( < 0.05) activities of heart manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and liver copper zinc superoxide dismutase and liver MnSOD mRNA and protein levels in embryos. High incubation temperature also decreased ( < 0.003) HSP70 protein level in the heart but had no effects ( > 0.07) in the liver of embryos. Maternal diet with Mn supplementation not only increased ( < 0.05) the hatchability and Mn content ( < 0.001) in the yolk and embryonic tissues and the activity of MnSOD in the heart ( < 0.004) as well as relative liver weight ( < 0.05) under normal incubation temperature but also decreased ( ≤ 0.05) embryo mortality and HSP90 mRNA level in the liver and heart of embryos. Furthermore, under high incubation temperature, maternal diet Mn supplementation increased ( < 0.002) MnSOD protein expression in the liver of embryos but had no effect ( > 0.43) under normal incubation temperature. These results indicated that high incubation temperature induced self-protective responses of chick embryos with a modification of antioxidant status and a depression of HSP70 protein level. Maternal dietary supplementation of Mn could improve the hatchability as well as antioxidant ability to protect against heat challenge in embryos during incubation.

  15. Proteoglycan synthesis in flat cell-free cultures of chick embryo retinal neurons and photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Needham, L K; Adler, R; Hewitt, A T

    1988-04-01

    Extracellular matrix and cell surface proteoglycans are thought to play important roles in neural development and regeneration. Central nervous system proteoglycans have been isolated and characterized from rat and sheep brain and from chick neural retina. An experimental advantage offered by the latter tissue is that it is avascular and can be isolated free of connective tissue and pigment epithelium. Therefore, proteoglycans synthesized by this tissue are derived exclusively from neural cells. However, it has not yet been determined whether neurons and photoreceptors contribute to proteoglycan synthesis or whether these molecules are largely glial in origin. In the present study we have addressed this question using cultures of chick neural retinal cells free of flat, glial-like cells. Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of retinal neurons, photoreceptors, and undifferentiated, process-free round cells from 8-day embryonic chick neural retina were metabolically labeled in vitro using [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine as precursors. Radiolabeled proteoglycans accumulated in the medium, and could also be extracted from the cell layer by sequential treatments with Triton X-100 and with guanidine HCl. The proteoglycans were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography, and characterized by gel filtration chromatography and by susceptibility to degradation by enzymatic and chemical treatments. Overall, heparan sulfate proteoglycans were the predominant type of proteoglycan synthesized in vitro by the cultured neural retinal cells at this developmental stage. The medium and the Triton extract contained different proportions of both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, while heparan sulfate was the only proteoglycan recovered from the guanidine extract. These studies demonstrate that heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are actively synthesized by cultures of neural retinal cells free of flat, glial-like cells.

  16. Correlation between mixed-function oxidase enzyme induction and aflatoxin B/sub 1/-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the chick embryo, in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.W.; Bloom, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    The unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) technique has been adapted for use in the chick embryo, in vivo, to determine the relationship between induction of the mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme system and genetic damage from an indirect-acting mutagen-carcinogen. Embryos were injected at 6 days of incubation (DI) with either phenobarbital (PB), a specific inducer of P-450-associated enzyme activities, or 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), a specific inducer of P/sub 1/-450-associated enzyme activities. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB1) was injected 24 hr later (7 DI), followed by a 5-hr continuous /sup 3/H-thymidine exposure. The livers were removed, prepared for autoradiography, and hepatocytes were scored for an increase in grains/nucleus, indicative of UDS. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ caused a dose-related increase in UDS in all control and induction groups. Phenobarbital-induced embryos had an increased UDS response while TCB-induced embryos had a decreased UDS response, relative to noninduced embryos, for each dosage of AFB1. This suggests that the genotoxicity of an indirect-acting mutagen-carcinogen can be either increased or decreased, in vivo, depending on the inducer used. The chick embryo provides an excellent system for studying the effect of MFO induction on the genotoxicity of promutagen-carcinogens in a developing system.

  17. Effects of bromodeoxyuridine on DNA and cytoskeleton of primitive blood cells differentiating after exposure in a chick embryo in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotna, Bozena; Linhartova, Irena; Viklicky, Vladimir

    1997-12-01

    Three-day-old chick embryos were exposed intra-amniotically to bromodeoxyuridine within the range of teratogenic doses. Using comet assay, a significant damage of DNA was demonstrated in blood cells 3 h after the treatment. While the damage seemed to be partially repaired within 12 h, new peak of DNA fragmentation detected on incubation day 4 implied an apoptotic elimination of impaired cells. More frequent occurrence of macrophages in blood samples from BrdU treated embryos supports this assumption. The differentiating blood cells, however, did not exhibit any remarkable injury of cytoskeleton biogenesis. Nevertheless, an improved experimental procedure revealed the existence of intermediate 'wreath' stage preceding the consolidation of tubulin bundles into marginal band of chicken erythroblasts already within the course of embryonic period. The more, even the mature cells of primitive erhthroid series retained the visible bundles of radial microtubules attached to MTOC. Actin labeling disclosed in many primitive erythroblasts the special lace arrangement of microfilaments growing from nucleus surface while the rest of cells exhibited only a diffuse staining through cytoplasm, concentrated sometimes in area of marginal band. Such distribution was characteristic for mature form of primitive and definitive erythrocytes. The expression of vimentin in erythroid cells was very weak and quite different from patterns of adult definitive erythrocytes. The labeling was noticed only around the nucleus till incubation day 10 when implication of fiber growth through cytoplasm was detected. Conventional hematological analysis performed on incubation day 10 revealed in blood of BrdU treated embryos the lower incidence of definitive erythrocytes in favor of immature forms resulting probably from death of cells in consequence of primary DNA damage. Such effect could be associated with development of myelodysplastic syndrome in later life.

  18. An Evaluation of Vaccines and the Effectiveness of Vaccinations against Typhoid Fever. X. Test of Passive Resistance on Chick Embryos with Serums of Persons Immunized with N, P, S and T Vaccines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An Evaluation of Vaccines and the Effectiveness of Vaccinations Against Typhoid Fever . X. Test of Passive Resistance on Chick Embryos with Serums of Persons Immunized with N, P, S and T Vaccines--Translation.

  19. Somitic disruption of GNAS in chick embryos mimics progressive osseous heteroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Dana M.; Pignolo, Robert J.; Uchimura, Tomoya; Brennan, Tracy A.; Lindborg, Carter M.; Xu, Meiqi; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Shore, Eileen M.; Zeng, Li

    2013-01-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a rare developmental disorder of heterotopic ossification (HO) caused by heterozygous inactivating germline mutations in the paternal allele of the GNAS gene. Interestingly, POH lesions have a bewildering mosaic distribution. Using clinical, radiographic, and photographic documentation, we found that most of the 12 individuals studied had a lesional bias toward one side or the other, even showing exclusive sidedness. Most strikingly, all had a dermomyotomal distribution of HO lesions. We hypothesized that somatic mutations in a progenitor cell of somitic origin may act on a background of germline haploinsufficiency to cause loss of heterozygosity at the GNAS locus and lead to the unilateral distribution of POH lesions. Taking advantage of the chick system, we examined our hypothesis by mimicking loss of heterozygosity of GNAS expression using dominant-negative GNAS that was introduced into a subset of chick somites, the progenitors that give rise to dermis and muscle. We observed rapid ectopic cartilage and bone induction at the axial and lateral positions in a unilateral distribution corresponding to the injected somites, which suggests that blocking GNAS activity in a targeted population of progenitor cells can lead to mosaic ectopic ossification reminiscent of that seen in POH. PMID:23863715

  20. [Effect of Black Sea algae on chicken egg production and on chick embryo development].

    PubMed

    Bratova, K; Ganovski, Kh

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with laying hens of the Leghorn breed. The fodder mixture tested was enriched with the addition of 1, 2, and 4 per cent meal of seaweeds. It was found that egg laying rose by 22.7 per cent as against that of the control group, which was best expressed with the addition of 2 per cent seaweeds. The eggs had a considerably higher weight of the shells. The content of calcium and magnesium in the shell as well as that of carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E in the yolk were higher. The intake of feedstuffs of algae produced a favourable effect on hatchability. Highest percent of hatchability--87.95%, i.e., by 6.85 higher than that of the controls was obtained with the addition of 2 per cent of seaweed meal. The weight of the newly hatched chicks was higher, and the content of carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E in the liver of the chicks was greater.

  1. Rediscovering the chick embryo as a model to study retinal development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic chick occupies a privileged place among animal models used in developmental studies. Its rapid development and accessibility for visualization and experimental manipulation are just some of the characteristics that have made it a vertebrate model of choice for more than two millennia. Until a few years ago, the inability to perform genetic manipulations constituted a major drawback of this system. However, the completion of the chicken genome project and the development of techniques to manipulate gene expression have allowed this classic animal model to enter the molecular age. Such techniques, combined with the embryological manipulations that this system is well known for, provide a unique toolkit to study the genetic basis of neural development. A major advantage of these approaches is that they permit targeted gene misexpression with extremely high spatiotemporal resolution and over a large range of developmental stages, allowing functional analysis at a level, speed and ease that is difficult to achieve in other systems. This article provides a general overview of the chick as a developmental model focusing more specifically on its application to the study of eye development. Special emphasis is given to the state of the art of the techniques that have made gene gain- and loss-of-function studies in this model a reality. In addition, we discuss some methodological considerations derived from our own experience that we believe will be beneficial to researchers working with this system. PMID:22738172

  2. Stimulation of chick embryo cartilage sulfate and thymidine uptake: comparison of human serum, purified somatomedins, and other growth factors.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J; Buchanan, F; Freeman, D; Garland, J T

    1980-11-01

    We have compared the stimulation of sulfate and thymidine uptake into 10-day-old embryonic chick cartilage by normal human serum, partially purified somatomedins (Sm) A and B, homogeneous insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II, and several other substances. With the exception of epidermal growth factor, all growth factors ((GFs) were assayed in the absence of other protein. Pelvic rudiments were preincubated in buffer for 6 h and then incubated for 24 h with the GF or serum, with labels added for the final 6 h. Human serum enhanced cartilage uptake of both thymidine and sulfate. There was a dose-dependent stimulation of thymidine uptake by Sm A or B (0.05--2 microgram/ml) and IGF I or II (0.5--20 ng/ml). Unlike serum, neither Sms nor IGFs increased SO4 uptake under these conditions. Bovine GH (10--500 ng/ml), albumin (100-1000 ng/ml), fibroblast GF (1--100 ng/ml), and epidermal GF (1--100 ng/ml) were inactive for both thymidine and sulfate. When a shorter incubation was used (7 h), Sm A enhanced SO4 uptake, and discrimination was increased by preincubation of the rudiments in buffer for 24 h. With this procedure, IGF I (0.5 ng/ml) was nearly equipotent to 5% serum. On a weight basis, IGF I was more active than either Sm A or IGF II. The data suggest that assay conditions are crucial for demonstration of Sm activity. Appropriate conditions may be different for isolated GF than for a complex medium such as serum. The results further suggest that with certain protocols, the responsiveness of chick embryo cartilage is qualitatively similar to that of hypophysectomized rat cartilage.

  3. Nerve growth factor regulates axial rotation during early stages of chick embryo development.

    PubMed

    Manca, Annalisa; Capsoni, Simona; Di Luzio, Anna; Vignone, Domenico; Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Brandi, Rossella; Arisi, Ivan; Cattaneo, Antonino; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

    2012-02-07

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was discovered because of its neurotrophic actions on sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing chicken embryo. NGF was subsequently found to influence and regulate the function of many neuronal and non neuronal cells in adult organisms. Little is known, however, about the possible actions of NGF during early embryonic stages. However, mRNAs encoding for NGF and its receptors TrkA and p75(NTR) are expressed at very early stages of avian embryo development, before the nervous system is formed. The question, therefore, arises as to what might be the functions of NGF in early chicken embryo development, before its well-established actions on the developing sympathetic and sensory neurons. To investigate possible roles of NGF in the earliest stages of development, stage HH 11-12 chicken embryos were injected with an anti-NGF antibody (mAb αD11) that binds mature NGF with high affinity. Treatment with anti-NGF, but not with a control antibody, led to a dose-dependent inversion of the direction of axial rotation. This effect of altered rotation after anti NGF injection was associated with an increased cell death in somites. Concurrently, a microarray mRNA expression analysis revealed that NGF neutralization affects the expression of genes linked to the regulation of development or cell proliferation. These results reveal a role for NGF in early chicken embryo development and, in particular, in the regulation of somite survival and axial rotation, a crucial developmental process linked to left-right asymmetry specification.

  4. Increased intramuscular nerve branching and inhibition of programmed cell death of chick embryo motoneurons by immunoglobulins from patients with motoneuron disease.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sara; Texidó, Laura; Calderó, Jordi; Ciutat, Dolors; Piedrafita, Lídia; Casanovas, Anna; Blasi, Joan; Solsona, Carles; Povedano, Mònica; Rojas, Ricardo; Illa, Isabel; Caress, James; Prevette, David; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Milligan, Carol; Esquerda, Josep E

    2010-12-15

    Massive programmed cell death (PCD) of developing chick embryo motoneurons (MNs) occurs in a well defined temporal and spatial sequence between embryonic day (E) 6 and E10. We have found that, when administered in ovo, either circulating immunoglobulins G (IgGs) or cerebrospinal fluid from patients with MN disease can rescue a significant number of chick embryo MNs from normally occurring PCD. An increase of branching of intramuscular nerves was also observed that may account for the rescuing effects of pathologic IgGs. Proteomic analysis and further analysis by ELISA indicated that these effects may be mediated by the interaction of circulating human immunoglobulins with proteins of the semaphorin family. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bidirectional Fusion of the Heart-forming Fields in the Developing Chick Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Rodriguez, R.A.; Krug, E.L.; Reyes, L.; Villavicencio, L.; Mjaatvedt, C.H.; Markwald, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally thought that the early pre-tubular chick heart is formed by fusion of the anterior or cephalic limits of the paired cardiogenic fields. However, this study shows that the heart fields initially fuse at their midpoint to form a transitory “butterfly”-shaped, cardiogenic structure. Fusion then progresses bi-directionally along the longitudinal axis in both cranial and caudal directions. Using in vivo labeling, we demonstrate that cells along the ventral fusion line are highly motile, crossing future primitive segments. We found that mesoderm cells migrated cephalically from the unfused tips of the anterior/cephalic wings into the head mesenchyme in the region that has been called the secondary heart field. Perturbing the anterior/cranial fusion results in formation of a biconal heart. A theoretical role of the ventral fusion line acting as a “heart organizer” and its role in cardia bifida is discussed. PMID:16252277

  6. Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497

  7. Disruption of proteoglycans in neural tube fluid by beta-D-xyloside alters brain enlargement in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M I; Gato, A; Moro, J A; Barbosa, E

    1998-12-01

    Following neurulation, the anterior end of the neural tube undergoes a dramatic increase in size due mainly to the enlarging of the brain cavity. This cavity is filled with so-called neural tube fluid (NTF), whose positive pressure has been shown to play a key role in brain morphogenesis. This fluid contains a water-soluble matrix, rich in chondroitin sulfate (CS), which has been proposed as an osmotic regulator of NTF pressure genesis. The purpose of the present study is to observe the influence of CS on NTF osmolality and its relation to NTF hydrostatic pressure and brain expansion. NTF was obtained by means of microaspiration from the mesencephalic cavity of chick embryos. The osmolality of NTF between H.H. stages 20 and 29 was measured on the basis of its cryoscopic point. CS synthesis was disrupted by using beta-D-xyloside and the induced variations in brain volume were measured by means of morphometry. We also measured the variations in NTF osmolality, hydrostatic pressure, and the concentration of CS and sodium induced by means of beta-D-xyloside. Our data reveal that, at the earliest stages of development analyzed, variations in NTF osmolality show a characteristic pattern that coincides with the developmental changes in the previously described fluid pressure. Chick embryos treated with beta-D-xyloside, a chemical that disrupts CS synthesis, displayed a notable increase in brain volume but no other apparent developmental alterations. Morphometric analysis revealed that this increase was due to hyperenlargement of the brain cavity. Beta-D-xyloside brings about specific changes in the biochemical composition of NTF, which entails a large increase in CS concentration, mainly in the form of free chains, and in that of sodium. As a result, the fluid's osmolality and brain intraluminal pressure increased, which could account for the increase in size of the brain anlage. These data support the hypothesis that the intraluminal pressure involved in embryonic brain

  8. 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) impacts hepatic lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and beta-adrenoceptor kinetics in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Katynski, A L; Vijayan, M M; Kennedy, S W; Moon, T W

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists induce oxidative stress and alter membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity. This study tested the hypothesis that PCB-induced changes in membrane properties impact membrane beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) affinity and capacity in chick embryo hepatocytes. Embryos were injected into the air cell with 1.6 microg 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)/kg egg at day 0, and incubated to day 19 when livers were removed. This dose resulted in hepatic PCB 126 levels of 0.67 ng/g liver or 10.2 ng/g liver lipid; levels in untreated embryos were non-detectable. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity was elevated by approximately 12-fold and embryo mortality was significantly increased compared with the untreated group. Hepatic lipid peroxidation increased and membrane order (steady-state fluorescence anisotropy values) decreased with in ovo PCB 126 exposure. Consistent with changes in membrane structure, hepatic beta-AR affinity for CGP 12177 significantly decreased (Kd increased) without changes in receptor numbers. This study demonstrates that in ovo exposure to PCB 126 in chick eggs significantly impacted embryo survival, and this was correlated with altered hepatic membrane structure and ultimately membrane function.

  9. Retinoic acid induces changes in the rhombencephalic neural crest cells migration and extracellular matrix composition in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Moro Balbás, J A; Gato, A; Alonso Revuelta, M I; Pastor, J F; Repressa, J J; Barbosa, E

    1993-09-01

    Chick embryos at 9-10 stages (Hamburger and Hamilton: J Morphol 88:49-82, 1951) have been treated with all-trans retinoid acid (RA) (0.5 microgram, 1.5 micrograms, and 2.5 micrograms) to determine the pattern and mechanism of RA-induced effects on early cephalic development. We found that while 0.5 microgram RA did not produce any significant dysmorphogenesis, 2.5 micrograms RA elicited wide malformation of both cephalic and trunk regions. However, 1.5 micrograms RA produced selective and specific changes at the cephalic level, which consisted of morphological alterations, changes in neural crest cells (NCC) migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Morphological alterations included hypoplasia of the first three branchial arches, swelling of either anterior cardinal veins or dorsal aortae, and atrophy of branchial arch arteries. Concurrently NCC did not migrate away, remaining clustered on the dorsal surface of the rhombencephalon, and in some cases they shifted into the neural tube cavity. Accordingly, the second branchial arch showed a reduction of the mesenchymal cellular population. The extracellular matrix in RA-injected embryos showed changes in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) concentration as compared with controls, that is, an increase in the non-sulphated GAGs, stained with alcian blue 8GX at 2.5 pH, and a decrease in the sulphated GAGs stained with alcian blue 8GX at 1 pH. These quantitative changes reflected alterations in the pattern of distribution and composition of the GAGs within the cephalic ECM, which specifically consisted in an increase of the hyaluronic acid and a decrease of the chondroitin sulphate. Our findings indicate that RA is involved in abnormal cephalic development, suggesting that RA may effect neural crest cell migration via changes in the GAGs of the ECM.

  10. Fractal analysis of extra-embryonic vessels of chick embryos under the effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates.

    PubMed

    de Souza Lins Borba, Fernanda Katharine; Felix, Giovanni Loos Queiroz; Costa, Edbhergue Ventura Lola; Silva, Lisie; Dias, Paulo Fernando; de Albuquerque Nogueira, Romildo

    2016-05-01

    Like heparan sulfate proteoglycans, some monosaccharides and glycosaminoglycans, such as sulfated glucosamine (GS) and chondroitin (CS), integrate the vascular extracellular matrix and may influence vascular endothelial cell growth. To assess the effects of these substances on blood vessel formation, we used the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model and fractal geometry quantification, which provided an objective in vivo method for testing potential agents that promote vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. An image processing method was developed to evaluate YSM capillary vessels after they were implanted in a methylcellulose disk of GS or CS at a concentration between 0.001-0.1mg/disk (performed on 2-day old embryos). This method resulted in a binary image of the microvascular network (white vessels on a black background). Fractal box-counting (DBC) and information (DINF) dimensions were used to quantify the activity of GS and CS in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. YSM treated with GS (0.001-0.1mg) and CS (0.03-0.1mg) showed an increase in fractal dimensions that corresponded to vitelline vessel growth compared to the control group (vehicle), with GS displaying higher fractal dimension values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A 'chemotactic dipole' mechanism for large-scale vortex motion during primitive streak formation in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Sandersius, S A; Chuai, M; Weijer, C J; Newman, T J

    2011-08-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves significant coordinated cell movement lateral to the streak, in addition to the posterior-anterior movement of cells in the streak proper. Cells lateral to the streak are observed to undergo 'polonaise movements', i.e. two large counter-rotating vortices, reminiscent of eddies in a fluid. In this paper, we propose a mechanism for these movement patterns which relies on chemotactic signals emitted by a dipolar configuration of cells in the posterior region of the epiblast. The 'chemotactic dipole' consists of adjacent regions of cells emitting chemo-attractants and chemo-repellents. We motivate this idea using a mathematical analogy between chemotaxis and electrostatics, and test this idea using large-scale computer simulations. We implement active cell response to both neighboring mechanical interactions and chemotactic gradients using the Subcellular Element Model. Simulations show the emergence of large-scale vortices of cell movement. The length and time scales of vortex formation are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We also provide quantitative estimates for the robustness of the chemotaxis dipole mechanism, which indicate that the mechanism has an error tolerance of about 10% to variation in chemotactic parameters, assuming that only 1% of the cell population is involved in emitting signals. This tolerance increases for larger populations of cells emitting signals.

  12. Mechanisms of GABA- and glycine-induced increases of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in chick embryo ciliary ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, M; Rhee, J S; Shimura, M; Akaike, N

    1997-08-01

    We used fura-2 microfluorometry and the gramicidin-perforated patch clamp technique in an attempt to clarify the mechanisms underlying the GABA- and glycine-induced increases in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca]in) in acutely isolated chick embryo ciliary ganglion neurons. GABA, glycine, and isoguvacine, but not baclofen, increased [Ca]in in a dose- and a Ca2+-dependent manner. The GABA-induced [Ca]in increase was inhibited by bicuculline and picrotoxin, and potentiated by pentobarbital, flunitrazepam, and alphaxalone, whereas the glycine-induced [Ca]in increase was inhibited by strychnine but not by bicuculline or picrotoxin. L- and N-type Ca2+ channel blockers inhibited the GABA- and glycine-induced [Ca]in increases, whereas Bay K-8644 potentiated these responses. These responses were also substantially potentiated by blockers of various K+ channels and by lowering the external Cl- concentrations. The high KCI- and nicotine-induced [Ca]in increases were substantially reduced during continuous stimulation with either 2 microM GABA or 1 mM glycine. Electrophysiological studies indicated that the reversal potential of the GABA-induced current exhibited a more depolarized value than the resting membrane potential in 17 of the 25 cells examined. Taken together, these results suggest that both GABA and glycine depolarize the membrane potentials by increasing Cl- conductance via respective receptors and thus increase the Ca2+ influxes through L- and N-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels.

  13. Effects of serum, tissue extract, conditioned medium, and culture substrata on neurite appearance from spinal cord explants of chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Sakai, M; Obata, K

    1982-07-01

    The effects of serum, tissue extracts, conditioned medium, (CM), and culture substrata on neurite appearance from spinal cord explants of 6- to 8-day-old chick embryos were investigated. In Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) with no supplement neurites from explants did not appear on collagen coating but on polyornithine coating (PORN). It is concluded that cell-to-substratum interaction is important in neurite appearance. CM, serum and tissue extract potentiated neurite appearance, but their activities were highly dependent on the coating. The amount of collagen was also crucial. On collagen, neurite appearance was observed only when promoting substances were present. CM and serum contained at least two components; one affected neurite appearance after deposition on collagen and the other affected neurite appearance when present in the culture medium. The former was included also in tissue extracts. Both of adsorbable and non-adsorbable components from any origin were necessary for effective induction of neurite appearance. Heat treatment and dialysis differentiated these active components. On PORN, CM highly potentiated neurite appearance. The activity of the CM was reproduced by its low molecular weight fraction. Serum also promoted neurite appearance, but to a lesser extent than CM. The effect of tissue extract was not remarkable.

  14. An analysis of the aggregation and morphogenesis of area opaca endoderm cells from the primitive-streak chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Milos, N; Zalik, S E; Phillips, R

    1979-06-01

    The aggregative behaviour and subsequent morphogenesis of extra-embryonic endoderm cells from primitive-streak chick embryos have been investigated. A relatively pure population of area opaca endoderm cells was obtained by differential dissociation, which involves partial separation of epiblast and endoderm cell clumps by sieving through Nitex mesh. For aggregation studies cells were cultured in rotating flasks in Leibovitz (L-15) medium, in saline or in saline supplemented with glucose (1 mg/ml). Aggregation was monitored using the Coulter Counter. In these three media aggregation is rapid; by 10 min an average of 61% of the population had aggregated, to reach a plateau at 30 min when an average percent adhesion value of 83% was obtained. The aggregates in L-15 medium were large and compact. After several days in culture, they cavitated and formed smooth hollow vesicles with thin walls composed of one or a few cell layers. Aggregates formed in PCS were smaller and looser in appearance; the addition of glucose resulted in a certain degree of compaction. Some morphogenesis occurred under these conditions with the aggregates developing numerous irregular cavities. These experiments suggest that some of the factors that affect cell adhesion in early embryonic cells can be studied in vitro. The results also indicate that the ability to cavitate is an intrinsic property of the endoderm cells of the area opaca since this occurs in the absence of epiblast or mesoderm.

  15. Extracting cardiac shapes and motion of the chick embryo heart outflow tract from four-dimensional optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Liu, Aiping; Thornburg, Kent L; Wang, Ruikang K; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the development of image reconstruction algorithms, enabled four-dimensional (4-D) (three-dimensional imaging over time) imaging of the embryonic heart. To further analyze and quantify the dynamics of cardiac beating, segmentation procedures that can extract the shape of the heart and its motion are needed. Most previous studies analyzed cardiac image sequences using manually extracted shapes and measurements. However, this is time consuming and subject to inter-operator variability. Automated or semi-automated analyses of 4-D cardiac OCT images, although very desirable, are also extremely challenging. This work proposes a robust algorithm to semi automatically detect and track cardiac tissue layers from 4-D OCT images of early (tubular) embryonic hearts. Our algorithm uses a two-dimensional (2-D) deformable double-line model (DLM) to detect target cardiac tissues. The detection algorithm uses a maximum-likelihood estimator and was successfully applied to 4-D in vivo OCT images of the heart outflow tract of day three chicken embryos. The extracted shapes captured the dynamics of the chick embryonic heart outflow tract wall, enabling further analysis of cardiac motion.

  16. In vitro methods for the analysis of motor function in the developing spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J

    1987-10-01

    The isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo spontaneously generates episodes of motor activity in vitro that can be recorded from muscle nerves and ventral roots. In vitro systems provide stable conditions for intra- and extra-cellular recordings and enable pharmacological and ionic manipulations of the neuronal environment. Studies of motor activity generated by isolated spinal cord have revealed the existence of co-ordinated motor output from early in development, in which antagonist motoneurons alternate in their activity and synergists are co-active. Intra-cellular recordings from single neurons and electronic recordings from muscle nerves have provided insight into the mechanism of flexor and extensor alternation. These studies have revealed that flexor and extensor motoneurons receive a similar de-polarization during each cycle of motor activity, but that the two classes of motoneuron process the de-polarization differently. Flexors fire late in each cycle whereas extensors fire early, which leads to a pattern of alternation. The cellular mechanisms responsible for the differences in the firing behavior of flexor and extensor motoneurons are currently being investigated using techniques that are only possible using the in vitro preparation.

  17. Bevacizumab Modulation of the Interaction Between the MCF-7 Cell Line and the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane.

    PubMed

    Comşa, Şerban; Popescu, Roxana; Avram, Ştefana; Ceaușu, Raluca Amalia; Cîmpean, Anca Maria; Raica, Marius

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and the ability of bevacizumab to modulate this process. We implanted MCF-7 cells onto CAM and repeatedly added bevacizumab to a subset of eggs. We then evaluated the morphological and immunohistochemical profiles of CAM and MCF-7. MCF-7 cells entered the mesoderm and stimulated the mesenchymal cells to acquire vasculogenic and myofibroblastoid features. MCF-7 cells developed an estrogen receptor-, progesterone receptor-, p53- and Ki67-negative status and entered the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Bevacizumab down-regulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and E-cadherin in MCF-7 and inhibited vasculogenesis. MCF-7 cells turn the mesoderm of CAM into a surrogate tumor stroma. CAM induces a triple-negative, non-proliferative but still anti-apoptotic status in MCF-7 cells. Although antivasculogenic, bevacizumab stimulates MCF-7 cells to acquire a more aggressive status. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo silencing of aquaporin-1 by RNA interference inhibits angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay.

    PubMed

    Camerino, G M; Nicchia, G P; Dinardo, M M; Ribatti, D; Svelto, M; Frigeri, A

    2006-10-30

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a water channel protein mainly expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells of many tissues, including the vasculature where it serves to increase cell membrane water permeability. Previous studies in active multiple myeloma patients and in AQP1 KO mice indicated an involvement of AQP1 in physiological and tumor angiogenesis. To understand the physiological role of AQP1 in angiogenesis, we used a 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA) to knockdown AQP1 in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), a commonly used in vivo assay to study both angiogenic and angiostatic molecules. Chicken AQP1 sequence was identified and utilized to synthesize a siRNA directed to the AQP1 sequence. We then tested the efficiency of the siRNA in vitro, using an AQP1 transfected cell line. The level of AQP1 protein reduction obtained using siRNA was 98 % and 92 % after 1 and 2 day transfection respectively. RNA interference experiments were then performed in vivo by using the CAM assay. Results showed that after 4 days of treatment, AQP1 siRNA was able to strongly inhibit angiogenesis. This is the first study showing the in vivo use of RNA interference technique in the CAM assay. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that AQP1 could have a key role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis.

  19. Heat-shock response in cultured chick embryo chondrocytes. Osteonectin is a secreted heat-shock protein.

    PubMed

    Neri, M; Descalzi-Cancedda, F; Cancedda, R

    1992-04-15

    We investigated the induction of specific protein expression by heat shock in dedifferentiated and hypertrophic chick embryo chondrocytes in a culture system that allows 'in vitro' differentiation of cartilage cells [Castagnola, P., Moro, G., Descalzi-Cancedda, F. and Cancedda, R. (1986) J. Cell. Biol. 102, 2310-2317]. As control, we used cultures of embryonic fibroblasts from the whole body and from the skin. In the cell lysates of all cultures we identified four major heat-shock proteins (HSP), with a molecular size corresponding to HSP families previously described (HSP 90, HSP 70, HSP 47 and HSP 26). Some of these proteins were constantly induced when the temperature was raised, others were expressed in a more variable manner. Differences also existed in the relative amount of the HSP synthesized by the four cultures. When we specifically investigated HSP species released into the culture medium, we observed a 43-45 kDa protein constantly expressed and secreted in large amount by the cells. On the basis of its biochemical characteristic and its precipitation by specific antibodies, this protein has been identified as osteonectin (SPARC, BM-40).

  20. Glycosidases during chick embryo lung development and their colocalization with proteoglycans and growth factors.

    PubMed

    Stabellini, G; Calvitti, M; Baroni, T; Marinucci, L; Calastrini, C; Carinci, P; Becchetti, E

    2002-01-01

    During development, the epithelial component of the lung goes through a complex orderly process of branching, following strict patterns of space and time. Proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and growth factors are fundamental components of the extracellular matrix and perform a key role in differentiative processes. The embryonic chick lung shows a specific glycosaminoglycan composition at different levels of branching and at different embryonic stages. Proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan accumulation is the result of secretion, absorption and degradation processes. In this pathway, enzymes, such as glycosidases, growth factors and cytokines are involved. We examined the behaviour of glycosidases, such as beta-hexosaminidases (beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminidase), beta-glucuronidase and beta-galactosidase, during the development of the lung bud. Our data show that the activity of the enzymes is closely linked to the processes of epithelial proliferation, bronchial tubule lengthening and infiltration of the surrounding mesenchyme. The glycosaminoglycans colocalize with transforming growth factor beta2 and interleukin-1 in the basement membrane and in the mesenchymal areas where the epithelium grows, and are complementary to the presence of the glycosidases. In conclusion, the activity of these glycosidases is spatially and temporally programmed and favors the release of the factors and the events which they influence.

  1. Binding of various ovotransferrin fragments to chick-embryo red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oratore, A; D'Andrea, G; Moreton, K; Williams, J

    1989-01-01

    1. The ability of N- and C-terminal half-molecule fragments of hen ovotransferrin to interact with chick red blood cells (CERBC) has been studied under conditions that allow binding of the transferrin to transferrin receptors to take place, but not the delivery of iron to the cell. Two kinds of half-molecule fragments were used: (a) those which can associate with one another to give a dimer resembling native transferrin and (b) those which cannot associate in this way because they lack a few amino acid residues from their C-terminal ends. 2. Neither N nor C half-molecules alone can bind to the CERBC, but, when both are present, tight binding occurs. 3. Whether or not the half-molecules can associate with one another makes little difference to receptor binding. 4. Given that one of the half-molecules is iron-saturated, the presence or absence of iron in the contralateral half-molecule again makes little difference to receptor binding. PMID:2920021

  2. Gene signatures in wound tissue as evidenced by molecular profiling in the chick embryo model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Modern functional genomic approaches may help to better understand the molecular events involved in tissue morphogenesis and to identify molecular signatures and pathways. We have recently applied transcriptomic profiling to evidence molecular signatures in the development of the normal chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in tumor engrafted on the CAM. We have now extended our studies by performing a transcriptome analysis in the "wound model" of the chicken CAM, which is another relevant model of tissue morphogenesis. Results To induce granulation tissue (GT) formation, we performed wounding of the chicken CAM and compared gene expression to normal CAM at the same stage of development. Matched control samples from the same individual were used. We observed a total of 282 genes up-regulated and 44 genes down-regulated assuming a false-discovery rate at 5% and a fold change > 2. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis lead to the identification of several categories that are associated to organismal injury, tissue morphology, cellular movement, inflammatory disease, development and immune system. Endothelial cell data filtering leads to the identification of several new genes with an endothelial cell signature. Conclusions The chick chorioallantoic wound model allows the identification of gene signatures and pathways involved in GT formation and neoangiogenesis. This may constitute a fertile ground for further studies. PMID:20840761

  3. Ganglion formation from the otic placode and the otic crest in the chick embryo: mitosis, migration, and the basal lamina.

    PubMed

    Hemond, S G; Morest, D K

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the morphogenesis of the cochleo-vestibular (CVG) and distal cranial ganglia in the early chick embryo (White Leghorn embryos). Light microscopy and immunocytochemical staining for fibronectin and laminin were used to trace the cellular contributions to these ganglia from the otic placode and otocyst. Serial semi-thin plastic sections (3-5 microns) stained with toluidine blue at each Hamburger-Hamilton stage (St.) from 10 to 21 were used. We were able to trace individual groups of cells derived from these epithelial structures into the anlagen of the CVG and the distal parts of cranial n. ganglia VII, IX, and X. For immunostaining, antisera were used to visualize the basal lamina in 15-microns cryostat sections from St. 14 to 21 embryos. Described here for the first time is the otic crest, a ridge of epithelium surrounding the placode. Cells migrate from the otic crest (St. 11 to 14) during the period when the otocyst is forming. These cells become continuous spatially with those derived from the epibranchial placodes and the presumptive ganglia of cranial nerves VII, IX, and X. Furthermore, rostral otic crest cells merge with neural crest cells, which appose the myelencephalon, and they join with the newly formed neuroblasts of the CVG, which migrate from the ventral epithelium of the otocyst at St. 14 to 21. This region of the epithelium forms the bulk of the CVG; it also has many more mitotic figures than the rest of the otocyst. Cells in the rostralmost CVG (vestibular part) are the first to complete their migration and send axons into both the medulla and incipient crista ampullaris. Immuno-staining for fibronectin and laminin shows that these two basal-lamina-associated glycoproteins appear in a continuous layer beneath the otic epithelium just prior to CVG migration. Thus there is no evidence that the migration is launched by a prior decomposition of the basal lamina. The cells migrating from the epithelium bridge the basal lamina with their

  4. A descriptive study to provide evidence of the teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine and ephedrine on cardiac- and liver-tissue of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Van Der Schoor, Ciska; Taute, Helena; Bester, Megan Jean

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to drugs during pregnancy is a major concern, as some teratogenic compounds can influence normal foetal development. Although the use of drugs during pregnancy should generally be avoided, exposure of the developing foetus to teratogens may occur unknowingly since these compounds may be hidden in products that are being marketed as "all natural." The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine-a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of obesity-on the heart and liver tissue of chick embryos. Ephedrine was used as a positive control. The chick embryo model was chosen because it has been used in studying developmental and experimental biology and teratology with great success. The embryos were exposed to three different concentrations of sibutramine and ephedrine respectively. The results obtained revealed that both compounds exhibited embryotoxicity when compared to the control groups. Liver and heart tissue of the exposed embryos was severely affected by these compounds in a dose-related manner. Morphology similar to that of muscle dystrophy was observed in the heart, where the muscle tissue was infiltrated by adipose and connective tissue. Severe liver steatosis was also noted. A more in-depth investigation into the molecular pathways involved might provide more information on the exact mechanism of toxicity of these products influencing embryonic development.

  5. Metabolic responses of chick embryos to short-term temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Lourens, A; van den Brand, H; Heetkamp, M J W; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B

    2006-06-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study embryonic metabolic responses to short-term temperature fluctuations in order to explore the possibilities of using embryonic metabolic responses as a tool to control the incubation process. In the first experiment, eggshell temperature (ET) in the control group was kept constant at 37.8 degrees C, and embryos in the experimental group were exposed to varying ET within the range of 36.8 to 38.8 degrees C using ET steps of 0.2 degrees C and time steps of 3 h. This was repeated in 3 periods between 6.5 and 9.5 d, 10.5 and 13.5 d, and 14.5 and 17.5 d. In the studied ET range, heat production (HP) increased linearly at 4.9% per 1 degrees C ET. In the second experiment, a standard machine temperature (MT) was used for the control group, and eggs in the experimental group were exposed to low (MT - 0.3 degrees C) or high (MT + 0.3 degrees C) temperatures for 1 h of time at d 8, 9, and 11 to 16. When MT was decreased, CO2 production initially increased at 0.5% and decreased thereafter. When MT was increased, CO2 production initially decreased at 0.4% and increased thereafter. It was concluded that embryonic HP responded linearly with short-term ET changes in the studied ET range of 36.8 to 38.8 degrees C. Changes in CO2 concentration due to short-term MT changes could not be explained by embryonic HP only. It can be speculated that blood flow through the chorio-allantoic membrane changes with MT, affecting heat transfer and diffusion of CO2. A second, delayed response to MT changes was in accordance with the findings in Experiment 1. Within the studied temperature range it will be difficult to use embryonic metabolic responses as a tool to control the incubation process. Because HP is linearly related to ET as in the studied temperature range, other factors such as O2 availability or CO2 release may limit embryo development at higher ET. At this moment, research on the effects of gas exchange at different temperatures on embryo

  6. Patterns of cell movement in early organ primordia of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Hilfer, S R; Marrero, L; Sheffield, J B

    1990-08-01

    Purse-string constriction of the cytoskeleton at cell poles is generally accepted as the causal mechanism for invagination during early stages of organ formation. However, it is known that other cell movements, including intercalation, play a role in the organotypic shape changes that occur during gastrulation and neurulation. Such cell movements have not been investigated in pouching and branching epithelial primordia. There is reason to suspect that cells within these organ primordia might exchange their neighbors for others, that is, intercalate or translocate, at sites of sharp folding such as borders with the surrounding epithelial sheet or where a bend occurs within the primordium. The greatest difficulty in identifying these movements has been the need to use intact embryos so that the processes are not distorted. This study explores the possibility of using time-lapse video recording to identify cell movement at these locations. Three organ primordia were tested: otic and thyroid placodes, which had not been tested previously, and neural plate as a control, where movements of this sort have been documented. Embryos or parts containing the primordia were immobilized and cell apices visualized with Hoffman modulation contrast optics. Recordings to an optical memory disc recorder were transferred to a microcomputer for image analysis. The viewing procedure allows reasonably clear visualization of cell apices, and image analysis permits tracking of a number of adjacent cell apices over an extended time period. Several types of movement were found to occur within cell sheets, and the relative abundance of each type depends on the specific primordium. In the neural plate, some cells move many cell diameters from their neighbors. In the other two primordia, most cells show limited shifts in position relative to their neighbors except at regions where folds are formed. In other regions, adjacent cells move as a unit. Knowledge of the movements which occur in any

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reduce hepatic β-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Westman, Ola; Nordén, Marcus; Larsson, Maria; Johansson, Jessica; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Hollert, Henner; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread fused-ring contaminants formed during incomplete combustion of almost all kind of organic materials from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Some PAHs have been shown to be carcinogenic to humans, and a wide range of PAHs are found in wildlife all around the globe including avian species. The purpose of this project was to assess the effects of a standard mixture of 16 PAHs (United States Environmental Protection Agency) on the hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus) exposed in ovo. The hepatic β-oxidation was measured using a tritium release assay with [9,10-(3)H]-palmitic acid (16:0) as substrate. Treated groups were divided into groups of 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 mg PAHs/kg egg weight. The hepatic β-oxidation was reduced after exposure in ovo to the 16 PAHs mixture compared to control. The mechanisms causing reduced fatty acid oxidation in the present study are unclear, however may be due to deficient membrane structure, the functionality of enzymes controlling the rate of fatty acid entering into the mitochondria, or complex pathways connected to endocrine disruption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a PAH-caused reduction of hepatic β-oxidation of fatty acids in avian embryos has been observed. The implication of this finding on risk assessment of PAH exposure in avian wildlife remains to be determined.

  8. Focal adhesion kinase as a mechanotransducer during rapid brain growth of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Mary E; Knepper, Janice E; DiBenedetto, Angela J; Malaugh, Elizabeth; Callejo, Sagrario; Carretero, Raquel; Alonso, Maria-Isabel; Gato, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Expansion of the hollow fluid-filled embryonic brain occurs by an increase in intraluminal pressure created by accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between cavity pressure and cell proliferation within the neuroepithelium. These findings lead us to ask how mechanistically this might come about. Are there perhaps molecules on the luminal surface of the embryonic neuroepithelium, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAKs) known to respond to tension in other epithelial cells? Immunodetection using antibodies to total FAK and p-FAK was performed with subsequent confocal analysis of the pattern of their activation under normal intraluminal pressure and induced chronic pressure. Western analysis was also done to look at the amount of FAK expression, as well as its activation under these same conditions. Using immunolocalization, we have shown that FAK is present and activated on both apical and basolateral surfaces and within the cytoplasm of the neuroepithelial cells. This pattern changed profoundly when the neuroepithelium was under pressure. By Western blot, we have shown that FAK was upregulated and activated in the neuroepithelium of the embryos just after the neural tube becomes a closed pressurized system, with phosphorylation detected on the luminal instead of the basal surface, along with an increase in cell proliferation. Chronic hyper-pressure does not induce an increase in phosphorylation of FAK. In conclusion, here we show that neuroepithelial cells respond to intraluminal pressure via FAK phosphorylation on the luminal surface.

  9. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Cardiovascular Development of Chick Embryo.

    PubMed

    Ye, W; Wang, F; Zhang, W; Fang, N; Zhao, W; Wang, J

    2016-06-01

    The biological effects on cardiovascular development of chicken embryos were examined after radiation exposure using mobile phone (900 MHz; specific absorption rate˜1.07 W/kg) intermittently 3 h per day during incubation. Samples were selected by morphological and histological methods. The results showed the rate of embryonic mortality and cardiac deformity increased significantly in exposed group (P < 0.05). No any histological pathological changes were observed on Day 5-7 (D5-D7) of incubation. A higher distribution of lipid droplets was unexpectedly present in myocardial tissue from the exposure groups on D10-D13. Soon afterwards, myofilament disruption, atrioventricular valve focal necrosis, mitochondria vacuolization and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) decrease appeared on D15-D21 of incubation. Comet assay data showed the haemocyte mean tail in the exposed group was significantly larger than that of the control (P < 0.01). The arterial vascular wall of exposed group was thicker (P < 0.05) than that of the control on D13, which was reversed to normal in later stages. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure of MPR may induce myocardium pathological changes, DNA damage and increased mortality; however, there was little effect on vascular development.

  10. Grafting of Beads into Developing Chicken Embryo Limbs to Identify Signal Transduction Pathways Affecting Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rabeea H; Sweetman, Dylan

    2016-01-17

    Using chicken embryos it is possible to test directly the effects of either growth factors or specific inhibitors of signaling pathways on gene expression and activation of signal transduction pathways. This technique allows the delivery of signaling molecules at precisely defined developmental stages for specific times. After this embryos can be harvested and gene expression examined, for example by in situ hybridization, or activation of signal transduction pathways observed with immunostaining. In this video heparin beads soaked in FGF18 or AG 1-X2 beads soaked in U0126, a MEK inhibitor, are grafted into the limb bud in ovo. This shows that FGF18 induces expression of MyoD and ERK phosphorylation and both endogenous and FGF18 induced MyoD expression is inhibited by U0126. Beads soaked in a retinoic acid antagonist can potentiate premature MyoD induction by FGF18. This approach can be used with a wide range of different growth factors and inhibitors and is easily adapted to other tissues in the developing embryo.

  11. The antiangiogenic effects of polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors in HUVEC, chick embryo and zebrafish is dependent on the polyisoprenyl moiety

    PubMed Central

    Nkembo, Augustine T.; Ntantie, Elizabeth; Salako, Olufisayo O.; Amissah, Felix; Poku, Rosemary A.; Latinwo, Lekan M.; Lamango, Nazarius S.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumor growth, therapeutic resistance and metastasis, the latest accounting for 90% of cancer deaths. Although angiogenesis is essential for the malignant transformations in solid tumors and therefore is an attractive target, few drugs are available that block tumor angiogenesis. The focus has been to block signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), whose activation abrogate apoptosis and promote angiogenesis. The polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors (PCAIs) were designed to modulate aberrant polyisoprenylated small G-proteins such as mutant Ras whose constitutive activation promotes RTKs signaling. Since polyisoprenylation is essential for protein-protein interactions and functions of G-proteins, we hypothesized that the PCAIs would disrupt the monomeric G-protein signaling thereby effectively inhibiting angiogenesis. In this study we determined the effects of PCAIs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) tube formation, cell viability, cell migration and invasion as well as in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish models. At sub- to low micromolar concentrations, the PCAIs inhibit the native and VEGF-stimulated cell migration and invasion as well as tube formation and angiogenesis in CAM and zebrafish embryos. The concentrations that block the angiogenic processes were lower than those that induce cell death. Since angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth but otherwise limited to wound healing, feeding fat cells and uterine wall repair in adults, it is conceivable that these compounds can be developed into safer therapeutics for cancers and retinal neovascularization that leads to loss of vision. PMID:27626690

  12. Chloride-sensitive MEQ fluorescence in chick embryo motoneurons following manipulations of chloride and during spontaneous network activity.

    PubMed

    Chub, Nikolai; Mentis, George Z; O'donovan, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Intracellular Cl(-) ([Cl(-)](in)) homeostasis is thought to be an important regulator of spontaneous activity in the spinal cord of the chick embryo. We investigated this idea by visualizing the variations of [Cl(-)](in) in motoneurons retrogradely labeled with the Cl-sensitive dye 6-methoxy-N-ethylquinolinium iodide (MEQ) applied to cut muscle nerves in the isolated E10-E12 spinal cord. This labeling procedure obviated the need for synthesizing the reduced, cell-permeable dihydro-MEQ (DiH-MEQ). The specificity of motoneuron labeling was confirmed using retrograde co-labeling with Texas Red Dextran and immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). In MEQ-labeled motoneurons, the GABA(A) receptor agonist isoguvacine (100 muM) increased somatic and dendritic fluorescence by 7.4 and 16.7%, respectively. The time course of this fluorescence change mirrored that of the depolarization recorded from the axons of the labeled motoneurons. Blockade of the inward Na(+)/K(-)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) with bumetanide (20 microM) or with a low-Na(+) bath solution (12 mM), increased MEQ fluorescence by 5.3 and 11.4%, respectively, consistent with a decrease of [Cl(-)](in). After spontaneous episodes of activity, MEQ fluorescence increased and then declined to the pre-episode level during the interepisode interval. The largest fluorescence changes occurred over motoneuron dendrites (19.7%) with significantly smaller changes (5.2%) over somata. Collectively, these results show that retrogradely loaded MEQ can be used to detect [Cl(-)](in) in motoneurons, that the bumetanide-sensitive NKCC1 co-transporter is at least partially responsible for the elevated [Cl(-)](in) of developing motoneurons, and that dendritic [Cl(-)](in) decreases during spontaneous episodes and recovers during the inter-episode interval, presumably due to the action of NKCC1.

  13. Regionalization and intersegmental coordination of rhythm-generating networks in the spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Ho, S; O'Donovan, M J

    1993-04-01

    We have examined the regionalization and coordination of rhythm-generating networks in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo between embryonic days 9 and 13, by recording the pattern of rhythmic activity recorded from muscle nerves and ventral roots following a variety of lesions. We found that the capacity for rhythmic activity is distributed along the rostrocaudal axis of the cord but can be expressed in a single, isolated segment. Specializations within the lumbosacral cord were investigated by isolating particular regions and recording their motor output. The rostral part of the lumbosacral cord generates more cycles than the caudal part, and this difference becomes more pronounced with development. In the unlesioned cord, motoneuron activity is synchronized along the rostrocaudal axis. Lesion experiments revealed that the synchronization of motoneuron activity and the synaptic drive to caudal motoneurons is mediated in part by propriospinal pathways traveling in the ventrolateral white matter tracts and by synaptic interactions within the gray matter. The dorsal fiber tracts may also be involved but their effects appear to be weak. Lesions in dorsal-ventral and mediolateral planes were used to localize regions critical for rhythmogenesis and for the alternation of flexor and extensor motoneurons. Rhythmic activity with alternation persisted in spinal cords in which the dorsal and medial half had been removed. Severe medial or dorsal lesions, resulting in a thin strip of lateral or ventral gray matter, altered the phasing of motoneuron activity from alternating to synchronous without effects on cycle timing. These results suggest that the critical neural components for alternation are located close to and dorsomedial to the lateral motor column, and that the capacity for rhythmogenesis is distributed widely throughout the ventral gray matter and is not localized to specific nuclei.

  14. Binding characteristics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to its receptors on neurons from the chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Barde, Y.A.

    1988-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to support the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells, was derivatized with 125I-Bolton-Hunter reagent and obtained in a biologically active, radioactive form (125I-BDNF). Using dorsal root ganglion neurons from chick embryos at 9 d of development, the basic physicochemical parameters of the binding of 125I-BDNF with its receptors were established. Two different classes of receptors were found, with dissociation constants of 1.7 x 10(-11) M (high-affinity receptors) and 1.3 x 10(-9) M (low-affinity receptors). Unlabeled BDNF competed with 125I-BDNF for binding to the high-affinity receptors with an inhibition constant essentially identical to the dissociation constant of the labeled protein: 1.2 x 10(-11) M. The association and dissociation rates from both types of receptors were also determined, and the dissociation constants calculated from these kinetic experiments were found to correspond to the results obtained from steady-state binding. The number of high-affinity receptors (a few hundred per cell soma) was 15 times lower than that of low-affinity receptors. No high-affinity receptors were found on sympathetic neurons, known not to respond to BDNF, although specific binding of 125I-BDNF to these cells was detected at a high concentration of the radioligand. These results are discussed and compared with those obtained with nerve growth factor on the same neuronal populations.

  15. Distinct patterns of human medulloblastoma dissemination in the developing chick embryo nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cage, Tene A; Louie, Jonathan D; Liu, Sharon R; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Gupta, Nalin; Hyer, Jeanette

    2012-04-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in children. Aggressive tumors that disseminate along the leptomeninges carry extremely poor prognoses. Mechanisms that predict dissemination are poorly understood. Our objective was to develop a reliable and reproducible model to study MB dissemination. We have created a chicken-human xenograft to study features of MB with leptomeningeal dissemination. Human MB cell lines (D283, Daoy), primary human MB cells (SF8113), and primary genetic mouse model (Math1cre:SmoM2 flox/flox) MB cells were either transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) or were labeled with a membrane permeable green fluorescent probe. Cells were then injected as aggregates or implanted as pellets into the developing chicken brain immediately after neural tube closure at embryonic day 2 (E2). Most embryos were harvested three days after implantation (E5) though some were harvested up to E15. The developing brain was analyzed via whole mount fluorescent imaging and tissue section immunohistochemistry. Human and mouse MBs survived in the developing chicken central nervous system (CNS). They exhibited distinct patterns of incorporation and dissemination into the CNS that were consistent with observed phenotypes of the corresponding human patient or mouse host. Specifically, metastatic D283 cells disseminated along the leptomeninges whereas Daoy, primary mouse MB, and primary human MB cells did not. This work supports an avian-human xenograft as a successful model to study patterns of MB dissemination. Our model provides a basis for manipulating cell signaling mechanisms to understand critical targets involved in MB dissemination.

  16. Effect of phorbol and Bryostatin I on chondrogenic expression of chick limb bud, in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.C.; Pettit, G.R.; Uyeki, E.M.

    1987-10-26

    The present paper describes the effects of PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate) on in vitro chondrogenesis in non-passaged, embryonic limb bud cells, relative to the effects of Bryostatin I. This compound also activates C kinase and binds competitively to the phorbol ester receptor, yet does not affect cell differentiation. Levels of PMA as low as 10/sup -7/ M markedly reduced cartilage formation in 4-day cultures, as indicated by nodule count and Alcian blue staining for chondroitin sulfate. Coadministration of Bryostatin I at equimolar concentration prevented the PMA inhibitory effect on chondrocytic expression. This confirms other findings that phorbol activation of C kinase cannot exclusively account for the activity of phorbol on cell expression. Altering the time of PMA exposure demonstrated that PMA inhibited chondrocyte phenotypic expression, rather than cell commitment: early exposure to PMA had little inhibitor effect on the staining index, whereas, exposure from 49-96 h and 0-96 h had moderate and strong inhibitory effects, respectively, on cartilage synthesis. Further research on the phorbol/Bryostatin I interaction should add to their knowledge of the control processes involved in tumor promotion and cell differentiation. 21 references, 3 figures.

  17. Regional development of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside transport in the small intestine of chick embryos and newly-hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Esteban, S; Moreno, M; Mestre, I; Planas, J M; Tur, J A

    1991-12-01

    A regional study of the intestinal hexose transport shows the role played by duodenum, jejunum and ileum during the chick perinatal development. From at least two days before hatching the three regions of small intestine accumulate alpha-Méthyl-D-Glucose (alpha-MG) by mediated transport mechanisms, and phloridzin inhibit about 90% of the uptakes. This ability reaches the maximal level at 1 day after hatch in the three regions. Before hatching the jejunum shows higher transport levels than the observed values in the duodenum and ileum, but the three regions show similar values at 1 day after hatch. In the following days, the alpha-MG transport ability is strongly reduced in the duodenum, slightly reduced in the jejunum and maintained in the ileum until at least 7 day-old chicks.

  18. The relationship between gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos and chick breed, development, sex, and egg amino acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, P L; Li, X G; Wang, X Q; Zhang, D X; Shu, G; Luo, Q B

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid (AA) transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos with different genetic backgrounds [Wenshi Yellow-Feathered chick (WYFC) and White Recessive Rock chick (WRRC)]. The study also investigated the correlation between the abundance of AA transporter mRNA and the AA content of fertilized eggs. Intestinal samples were collected on embryonic d 9, 12, 14, 17, and 19 and the day of hatch. The results showed that, before incubation, the AA content of WRRC eggs was lower (P < 0.05) than the AA content of WYFC eggs. In WYFC, the mRNA abundance of CAT-1 [solute carrier (SLC) family 7 member 1], CAT-4 (SLC family 7 member 4), rBAT (SLC family 3 member 1), y(+)LAT-1 (SLC family 7 member 7), y(+)LAT-2 (SLC family 7 member 6), LAT-4 (SLC family 43 member 2), and SNAT-2 (SLC family 38 member 2), as detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, was greater (P < 0.05) than the mRNA abundance detected in the WRRC samples. The mRNA abundance of all measured AA transporters was affected (P < 0.05) by embryonic age. Sex had the largest effect (P < 0.05) on the mRNA expression of CAT-1, CAT-4, y(+)LAT-2, and LAT-4 in WYFC and on CAT-4 and B(0)AT-1 (SLC family 6 member 19) mRNA expression in WRRC. In WYFC, only CAT-1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated (r = -0.68 to -0.84, P < 0.05) with all AA content. However, few correlations were detected between AA content and the mRNA expression of multiple transporters in WRRC. These findings provide a comprehensive profile of the temporal and spatial mRNA expression of AA transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos. Few correlations were detected between the AA content of the eggs and mRNA expression of specific AA transporters in the small intestine.

  19. Development of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I in head and brain of chick embryos: Autoradiographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Bassas, L.; Girbau, M.; Lesniak, M.A.; Roth, J.; de Pablo, F. )

    1989-11-01

    In whole brain of chick embryos insulin receptors are highest at the end of embryonic development, while insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors dominate in the early stages. These studies provided evidence for developmental regulation of both types of receptors, but they did not provide information on possible differences between brain regions at each developmental stage or within one region at different embryonic ages. We have now localized the specific binding of (125I)insulin and (125I)IGF-I in sections of head and brain using autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometric analysis. Embryos have been studied from the latter part of organogenesis (days 6 and 12) through late development (day 18, i.e. 3 days before hatching), and the binding patterns have been compared with those in the adult brain. At all ages the binding of both ligands was to discrete anatomical regions. Interestingly, while in late embryos and adult brain the patterns of (125I)insulin and (125I) IGF-I binding were quite distinct, in young embryos both ligands showed very similar localization of binding. In young embryos the retina and lateral wall of the growing encephalic vesicles had the highest binding of both (125I)insulin and (125I)IGF-I. In older embryos, as in the adult brain, insulin binding was high in the paleostriatum augmentatum and molecular layer of the cerebellum, while IGF-I binding was prominent in the hippocampus and neostriatum. The mapping of receptors in a vertebrate embryo model from early prenatal development until adulthood predicts great overlap in any possible function of insulin and IGF-I in brain development, while it anticipates differential localized actions of the peptides in the mature brain.

  20. Motor activity in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo: synaptic drive and firing pattern of single motoneurons.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J

    1989-03-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying embryonic motility were investigated using intracellular recording from motoneurons and electrotonic recording from muscle nerves during motor activity generated by an isolated spinal cord preparation of 12- to 15-d-old chick embryos. DC-coupled recordings from sartorius (a flexor) and femorotibialis (an extensor) muscle nerves revealed that both sets of motoneurons were depolarized at the same time in each cycle even when the motoneurons fired out of phase. Sartorius motoneurons fired briefly on the rising phase of the depolarization and then stopped firing before discharging a second burst of spikes as the depolarization decayed. By contrast, femorotibialis motoneurons fired at the peak of their depolarization, which was coincident with the interruption in sartorius activity. Intracellular recordings from antidromically identified motoneurons confirmed that flexor and extensor motoneurons were depolarized at the same time during each cycle of activity. The discharge of femorotibialis motoneurons, and others presumed to be extensors, followed changes in membrane potential so that maximal firing occurred during peak depolarization. The relationship between discharge and membrane potential was different in sartorius motoneurons (and in others presumed to be flexors) because they fired briefly on the rising phase of the depolarization and then stopped firing during peak depolarization. In some of these cells firing resumed as the membrane potential decayed back to rest. Intracellular injection of depolarizing current into sartorius motoneurons during motor activity reversed the direction of the membrane potential change from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing during the pause in sartorius discharge. In addition, the discharge evoked by the depolarizing current was blocked during the reversed part of the synaptic potential revealing its inhibitory nature. The occurrence of the IPSP was accompanied by a large reduction in motoneuronal

  1. Evaluation of the sonosensitizing activities of 5-aminolevulinic acid and Sn(IV) chlorin e6 in tumor-bearing chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Tamatani, Dai; Mizuki, Yusuke; Endo, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Inui, Toshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Recently, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), precursors of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), and Sn(IV) chlorin e6 (SnCe6) have been proposed as possible sonosensitizers for sonodynamic therapy of cancer. Therefore, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic properties and sonosensitizing activities of 5-ALA and SnCe6 in vivo by using the EMT6/KU tumor-bearing chick embryos. The concentration of PpIX in tumor and liver tissues and serum increased in a time-dependent manner after the i.v. administration of 5-ALA; PpIX concentrations reached their peak level after 5-7 h. The concentration of SnCe6 reached its maximum value in the tumor tissue and serum immediately after i.v. administration. The combined treatment of 5-ALA or SnCe6 with ultrasound irradiation showed a significant antitumor effect towards EMT6/KU solid tumors. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic properties and sonosensitizing activities of 5-ALA and SnCe6 in a chick embryo model and found that 5-ALA might be more suitable as a sonosensitizer than SnCe6. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Direct binding of recombinant plasminogen kringle 1-3 to angiogenin inhibits angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in the chick embryo CAM.

    PubMed

    Youn, Mi-Ran; Park, Mee-Hee; Choi, Chang-Ki; Ahn, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Hong, Yong-Kil; Joe, Young Ae; Kim, Jong-Soo; You, Weon-Kyoo; Lee, Hyo-Sil; Chung, Soo-Il; Chang, Soo-Ik

    2006-05-12

    Angiogenin is one of the most potent angiogenesis-inducing proteins. Angiostatin is one of the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors, and it contains the first four kringle domains of plasminogen (K1-4). Recombinant human plasminogen kringle 1-3 (rK1-3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The binding of t-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid with the purified kringle 1-3 was determined by changes in intrinsic fluorescence. rK1-3 exhibits comparable ligand-binding properties as native human plasminogen kringle 1-3. The purified rK1-3 inhibits neovascularization in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Interaction of angiogenin with rK1-3 was examined by immunological binding assay and surface plasmon resonance kinetic analysis, and the equilibrium dissociation constants for the complex, Kd, are 0.89 and 0.18 microM, respectively. rK1-3 inhibits angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in the chick embryo CAM in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that rK1-3 directly binds to angiogenin and thus rK1-3 inhibits the angiogenic activity of angiogenin.

  3. The metencephalic floor plate of chick embryos expresses two secretory glycoproteins homologous with the two glycoproteins secreted by the subcommissural organ.

    PubMed

    del Brío, M A; Riera, P; Muñoz, R I; Montecinos, H; Rodríguez, E M

    2000-06-01

    The nature and the function of the compounds secreted by the floor plate (FP) of the metencephalon are little known. The FP cells of the hindbrain react with antibodies (AFRU) against the glycoproteins secreted by the subcommissural organ (SCO). One of the these proteins, RF-Gly I, is a 540-kDa core glycosylated protein. The aims of the present investigation were to identify by immunoblot the AFRU-immunoreactive compound secreted by the FP of chick embryos, to establish temporal and regional patterns of this secretory activity, and to obtain information about the fate of these compounds. It was established that the SCO and FP of chick embryos secrete two AFRU-immunoreactive compounds of 540 and 230 kDa. The two compounds secreted by the FP have been designated as FP-Gly I and FP-Gly II. The expression of these proteins was circumscribed to the metencephalic FP, and occurred from HH 29 to HH 36. Within the FP cells, FP-Gly I and FP-Gly II were confined to the supranuclear and apical regions, which under the electron microscope displayed numerous cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and granules. Aggregates of AFRU-immunoreactive material appeared on the free surface of the FP. The possibility that FP-Gly I and FP-Gly II are released into the ventricle to reach distant targets is discussed.

  4. Ontogeny of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and its co-localization with pituitary hormones in the pituitary gland of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Cui, Sheng

    2005-05-01

    Estrogen is involved in regulating the development and hormone secretion of the anterior pituitary gland following its binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) expressed on pituitary cells. However, the pituitary is comprised of several cell types, and to date, there is no data about the specific cell types expressing ERs in embyonic chick pituitary. We therefore followed, by immunohistochemistry, the ontogeny of the pituitary ER alpha (ERalpha), and the cell types expressing ERalpha throughout chick embryo development. ERalpha immunoreacitivity was restricted to the nuclei of pituitary cells. ERalpha-immunopositive (ERalpha(+)) cells were first detected at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5), after which ERalpha(+) cells were consistently detected throughout the anterior pituitary gland, although the density of ERalpha(+) cells in the caudal lobe of the pars distalis was higher than that in the cephalic lobe. The proportion of ERalpha(+) cells in the pituitary was about 6% at E8.5; expression increased to 22% by E18.5 of gestation, with no additional change until hatching. Double-labeling of ERalpha and pituitary hormones showed that the dominant cell types expressing ERalpha were gonadotrophs immunopositive for luteinizing hormone (LH); the proportion of ERalpha(+) cells expressing LH increased throughout gestation and reached approximately 57% at hatching. About 2%-6% of thyroid-stimulating-hormone-immunopositive and 1%-2% prolactin-immunopositive cells expressed ERalpha at later stages of embryonic development, but no growth-hormone-positive or adrenocorticotropic-hormone-positive cells expressed ERalpha during the embryonic period. Thus, gonadotrophs are the main cell population expressing ERalpha in the anterior pituitary gland of chick embryo, and ERalpha is involved in regulating the development of the pituitary gland and the maturation of the hormone-secreting function.

  5. Homocysteine-induced changes in cell proliferation and differentiation in the chick embryo spinal cord: implications for mechanisms of neural tube defects (NTD).

    PubMed

    Kobus-Bianchini, Karoline; Bourckhardt, Gilian Fernando; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise Maria; Müller, Yara Maria Rauh

    2017-02-24

    Maternal hyperhomocysteinemia during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of NTD in the offspring. Our study investigated the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) on proliferation and neuronal differentiation of the spinal cord cells in a chick embryo model. Embryos were treated with 20μmol D-L Hcy/50μL saline solution at embryonic day 2 (E2) and analyzed at embryonic days 4 (E4) and 6 (E6). Control embryos received exclusively 50μL saline solution. We performed immunolocalization and flow cytometry analyses using antibodies anti-phosphohistone H3 (pH3), anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), anti-β-tubulin III and anti-p53. Our results revealed that Hcy interferes in the proliferation of the neural cells, and that this effect is age-dependent and differed between Hcy-treated embryos with and without NTD. Also, Hcy induced a decrease of neuronal differentiation in the spinal cord at both embryonic ages. These findings contribute to clarifying the cellular bases of NTD genesis, under experimental hiperhomocysteinemia.

  6. 3D Reconstruction of Chick Embryo Vascular Geometries Using Non-invasive High-Frequency Ultrasound for Computational Fluid Dynamics Studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Germaine Xin Yi; Jamil, Muhammad; Tee, Nicole Gui Zhen; Zhong, Liang; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2015-11-01

    Recent animal studies have provided evidence that prenatal blood flow fluid mechanics may play a role in the pathogenesis of congenital cardiovascular malformations. To further these researches, it is important to have an imaging technique for small animal embryos with sufficient resolution to support computational fluid dynamics studies, and that is also non-invasive and non-destructive to allow for subject-specific, longitudinal studies. In the current study, we developed such a technique, based on ultrasound biomicroscopy scans on chick embryos. Our technique included a motion cancelation algorithm to negate embryonic body motion, a temporal averaging algorithm to differentiate blood spaces from tissue spaces, and 3D reconstruction of blood volumes in the embryo. The accuracy of the reconstructed models was validated with direct stereoscopic measurements. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was performed to model fluid flow in the generated construct of a Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 27 embryo. Simulation results showed that there were divergent streamlines and a low shear region at the carotid duct, which may be linked to the carotid duct's eventual regression and disappearance by HH stage 34. We show that our technique has sufficient resolution to produce accurate geometries for computational fluid dynamics simulations to quantify embryonic cardiovascular fluid mechanics.

  7. Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS) in colonial fish-eating birds: similarity to chick-edema disease.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, M; Kubiak, T; Ludwig, J; Fox, G

    1991-08-01

    Several species of colonial fish-eating birds nesting in the Great Lakes basin, including herring gulls, common terns and double-crested cormorants, have exhibited chronic impairment of reproduction. In addition to eggshell thinning caused by high levels of DDT and metabolites, the reproductive impairment is characterized by high embryonic and chick mortality, edema, growth retardation, and deformities, hence the name Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS). The hypothesis has been advanced that GLEMEDS in colonial fish-eating birds resembles chick-edema disease of poultry and has been caused by exposure to chick-edema active compounds that have a common mode of action through the cytochrome P-448 system. Detailed evidence has been collected from the following three groups of studies on herring gulls in the lower Great Lakes during the early 1970s; Forster's terns in Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1983; and double-crested cormorants and Caspian terns in various locations in the upper Great Lakes from 1986 onwards. It has proved difficult to establish not only the onset of the disease in the various species at various locations but also the period in which chick-edema active compounds were released. Anecdotal evidence suggested that serious egg mortality in Lake Ontario herring gulls first occurred in 1966, through the signs of chick-edema disease were not looked for until 1974. Only indirect evidence is available on the date of the release of one of the presumed causal agents, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, but highest levels may have occurred in the early to mid 1960s. More reliable data show that the onset of the improvement of reproduction of Lake Ontario herring gulls coincided with the declines in organochlorine compounds and particularly 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB. Similarly, information on the onset of the disease and exposures in the Forster's tern and double-crested cormorants in Green Bay is uncertain but bird banders did not

  8. The effect on the intestines of continuous release of methylene blue from a drug delivery system: an experimental study in a chick embryo gastroschisis model.

    PubMed

    Denli, Ozgür; Barlas, Meral; Bingol-Kologlu, Meltem; Yagmurlu, Aydin; Ozdamar, Sükrü; Hasçiçek, Canan; Cedden, Fatih

    2004-08-01

    Increased small bowel nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity has been suspected as a cause of postnatal intestinal dysmotility in gastroschisis. The effect of continuous delivery of methylene blue loaded polymer (MBLP) hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose-ethyl cellulose (HPEC-MC) and daily injection of methylene blue (MB) on the intestinal damage (ID) was evaluated using a chick embryo gastroschisis model. Fourteen-day-old fertilized chick eggs were divided into five groups. In the control (C) group, no intervention was performed. In the sham (S) group, the allantoic and amniotic membranes were opened to create a common cavity that resembles the amniotic cavity in human. In the gastroschisis only (GO) group, a defect in the abdominal wall of the embryo was made, and intestinal loops were exteriorized following connection of amniotic and allantoic cavities. In the gastroschisis plus methylene blue (G+MB) group, gastroschisis was created and MB administered into the amnioallantoic cavity (AAC) by daily injections for 5 days. In the gastroschisis plus methylene blue loaded polymer (G+MBLP) group, MBLP was placed into AAC after gastroschisis was created. At the end of the 19th day of incubation, intestinal morphological changes were investigated macroscopically and microscopically. Although the survival rates were decreased in the chick embryos with creation of gastroschisis compared with C and S groups ( p<0.001), the survival rates were increased in G+MBLP group (76.92%) when compared with the GO group (41%) ( p<0.001). Because of multiple intervention of embryos, higher mortality was observed in the G-MB group (75.61%). Macroscopic and microscopic scores of ID and mean intestinal wall thickness were significantly higher in the GO group when compared with C, S, G+MB, and G+MBLP groups ( p<0.001). The mean score of intestinal ganglia morphology was significantly increased and the total number of ganglion cells was significantly decreased in the GO group when compared with C

  9. Generation of pattern and form in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Towers, Matthew; Tickle, Cheryll

    2009-01-01

    The developing limb is a major model for pattern formation in vertebrate embryos. Many of the seminal discoveries of the mechanisms involved in patterning have been made using chick embryos because of the ease of manipulating their developing limbs. More recently, the molecular basis of limb pattern formation has been increasingly uncovered and now, with the availability of genomic resources, the genetic approaches available are even more powerful. Nevertheless, since the limb is ultimately built of cells, gene action must ultimately be translated into cell behaviour and a major challenge will be to integrate genetics with molecular and cellular biology. In this review, we will first outline the stages in limb development, the major interacting signalling pathways that pattern the limb and the molecules involved. We will describe fate maps of the developing limb, and discuss what is known about cellular activities including proliferation, death, adhesiveness, communication and migration during the patterning process. Finally we will explore how these cell activities produce form.

  10. Quantitative analysis of tissue deformation dynamics reveals three characteristic growth modes and globally aligned anisotropic tissue deformation during chick limb development.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yoshihiro; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2015-05-01

    Tissue-level characterization of deformation dynamics is crucial for understanding organ morphogenetic mechanisms, especially the interhierarchical links among molecular activities, cellular behaviors and tissue/organ morphogenetic processes. Limb development is a well-studied topic in vertebrate organogenesis. Nevertheless, there is still little understanding of tissue-level deformation relative to molecular and cellular dynamics. This is mainly because live recording of detailed cell behaviors in whole tissues is technically difficult. To overcome this limitation, by applying a recently developed Bayesian approach, we here constructed tissue deformation maps for chick limb development with high precision, based on snapshot lineage tracing using dye injection. The precision of the constructed maps was validated with a clear statistical criterion. From the geometrical analysis of the map, we identified three characteristic tissue growth modes in the limb and showed that they are consistent with local growth factor activity and cell cycle length. In particular, we report that SHH signaling activity changes dynamically with developmental stage and strongly correlates with the dynamic shift in the tissue growth mode. We also found anisotropic tissue deformation along the proximal-distal axis. Morphogenetic simulation and experimental studies suggested that this directional tissue elongation, and not local growth, has the greatest impact on limb shaping. This result was supported by the novel finding that anisotropic tissue elongation along the proximal-distal axis occurs independently of cell proliferation. Our study marks a pivotal point for multi-scale system understanding in vertebrate development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Ultrastructural characterization of normal and abnormal chondrogenesis in micromass rat embryo limb bud cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Renault, J Y; Caillaud, J M; Chevalier, J

    1995-02-01

    Inhibition of chondrogenesis in limb bud cell micromass cultures has been proposed as a short-term teratogen detection test. Validation studies were performed by testing large series of reference compounds and comparing their teratogenic potential with their ability to inhibit chondrogenesis; however, there are few reports describing the histological and ultrastructural changes associated with inhibition of chondrogenesis in vitro. The objective of this study was to provide a qualitative description of the histological and ultrastructural alterations induced by three chondrogenesis inhibitors: retinoic acid (RA) and 6-aminonicotinamide (6AN), two teratogens, and doxylamine succinate (DS), a nonteratogen compound. In addition, in order to have a basis for the interpretation of the morphological alterations induced by the test compounds, the histological and ultrastructural changes which occur during the time course of chondrogenesis in control cultures were described and compared with those in rat embryo limb buds. We found that RA at 0.5 micrograms/ml led to a marked decrease in the number and size of cartilaginous foci; most cells lacked morphological signs of differentiation but their ability to proliferate was unaffected. At concentrations of 2 micrograms/ml and more, 6AN delayed cell proliferation, reduced staining of the extracellular matrix, and induced the formation of endoplasmic cisternae. DS at 50 micrograms/ml affected both differentiation and proliferation; pigment deposits were observed in chondrocytes, suggesting phospholipid metabolism disorders. In conclusion, this study showed that inhibition of chondrogenesis in this simple cell culture system can be associated with different types of histological and ultrastructural alterations. Examination of these alterations can provide useful information about the teratogenic potential of tested compounds and their mechanism of action.

  12. Developmental anomalies of the lower face and the hyoid cartilage due to partial elimination of the posterior mesencephalic and anterior rhombencephalic neural crest in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Been, W; Lieuw Kie Song, S H; van Limborgh, J

    1984-12-01

    In an effort to verify the supposition that a normal development of the lower face and the hyoid apparatus is dependent on the availability of a sufficient number of cells derived from the posterior mesencephalic and anterior rhombencephalic parts of the neural crest, in a total of 52 six-somite stage chick embryos (about 26 hours of incubation) these parts of the neural crest were partially eliminated by tangential micro-laser irradiation. Among the 17 irradiated embryos sacrificed after 24 hours, several ones showed an underdevelopment of the mesenchyme in the ventral part of the first branchial arch; in 2 of these cases, additionally the second branchial arch was underdeveloped. At the age of 7-8 days, 4 out of 15 surviving embryos showed an underdevelopment of the lower beak and a reduction in size of Meckel's cartilage; in 3 of these cases, in addition, a median cleft in the lower beak and/or reduction or absence of the hyoid cartilage were observed. From these observations the conclusion is drawn that for a normal development and growth of the mandibular part of the face and the hyoid cartilage sufficient numbers of posterior mesencephalic and anterior rhombencephalic neural crest cells are indispensable, indeed.

  13. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein and mRNA are both differentially expressed in adult chickens but not chick embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, R J; Brow, M D; Cleveland, D W; Shinnick, T M; Sutcliffe, J G

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the 679 nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone which, by hybridization-translation experiments, corresponds to a 36K chick brain protein. Our studies provide a partial amino acid sequence for this protein, identifying it as chicken glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Antisera raised against purified chicken GAPDH reacted with a 36K protein present in chick brain extracts and estimated to be the fourth most prevalent protein, as determined by either Coomassie Blue staining or by in vitro translation of chick brain mRNA. The amounts of GAPDH mRNA in chick brain, liver and muscle and adult chicken brain are similar, whereas the relative amount of adult chicken muscle GPDH mRNA is greatly elevated and that of adult liver lowered. The GAPDH protein levels showed a similar variation between tissues, suggesting that the levels of GAPDH protein are largely regulated by the amount of available GAPDH mRNA. The chicken GAPDH clone does not hybridize to rat mRNA, even though GAPDH is one of the most evolutionarily conserved proteins, indicating that selection pressures are heavier at the primary protein sequence level than at the nucleic acid sequence level for this gene, a situation contrasting to that of the tubulins. Images PMID:6687938

  14. Elastin exhibits a distinctive temporal and spatial pattern of distribution in the developing chick limb in association with the establishment of the cartilaginous skeleton.

    PubMed

    Hurle, J M; Corson, G; Daniels, K; Reiter, R S; Sakai, L Y; Solursh, M

    1994-09-01

    In this work we have analyzed the presence of elastic components in the extracellular matrices of the developing chick leg bud. The distributions of elastin and fibrillin were studied immunohistochemically in whole-mount preparations using confocal laser microscopy. The association of these constituents of the elastic matrix with other components of the extracellular matrix was also studied, using several additional antibodies. Our results reveal the transient presence of an elastin-rich scaffold of extracellular matrix fibrillar material in association with the establishment of the cartilaginous skeleton of the leg bud. The scaffold consisted of elastin-positive fibers extending from the ectodermal surface of the limb to the central cartilage-forming regions and between adjacent cartilages. Fibrillin immunolabeling was negative in this fibrillar scaffold while other components of the extracellular matrix including: tenascin, laminin and collagens type I, type III and type VI; appeared codistributed with elastin in some regions of the scaffold. Progressive changes in the spatial pattern of distribution of the elastin-positive scaffold were detected in explant cultures in which one expects a modification in the mechanical stresses of the tissues related to growth. A scaffold of elastin comparable to that found in vivo was also observed in high-density micromass cultures of isolated limb mesodermal cells. In this case the elastic fibers are observed filling the spaces located between the cartilaginous nodules. The fibers become reoriented and attach to the ectodermal basal surface when an ectodermal fragment is located at the top of the growing micromass. Our results suggest that the formation of the cartilaginous skeleton of the limb involves the segregation of the undifferentiated limb mesenchyme into chondrogenic and elastogenic cell lineages. Further, a role for the elastic fiber scaffold in coordinating the size and the spatial location of the cartilaginous

  15. Control of glycolysis in cultured chick embryo hepatocytes. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content and phosphofructokinase-1 activity are stimulated by insulin and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, M J; Dickson, A J

    1990-01-01

    Chick embryo hepatocytes were maintained in monolayer culture in a serum-free chemically defined medium for periods of up to 2 days. Over this time period, insulin provoked selective increases (up to 5-fold) in factors relevant to the control of glycolysis: the activities of phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2) and hexokinase isoenzymes and the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP). Half-maximal effects of insulin on pFK-1 activity were in the physiological range (0.1 nM). Changes in enzyme activities and F26BP content in response to insulin were correlated with stimulation of glycolytic flux as estimated by radioisotopic flux. These data are discussed in relation to known changes which occur in hepatic glycolytic activity and PFK-1 activity in the intact chick around hatching. The effects of insulin on F26BP content, PFK-1 activity and glycolytic flux were mimicked by epidermal growth factor (EGF). In contrast, phorbol esters produced minimal actions on any of the above parameters. Our data indicate that protein kinase C is not involved in the actions of insulin or EGF in control of F26BP content or PFK-1 activity. This work indicates that the related tyrosyl kinase receptors of insulin and EGF may provoke identical responses within hepatocytes, but through the utilization of different transduction systems which merge to common control points. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2143894

  16. Saunders's framework for understanding limb development as a platform for investigating limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Young, John J; Tabin, Clifford J

    2016-11-11

    John W. Saunders, Jr. made seminal discoveries unveiling how chick embryos develop their limbs. He discovered the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), and the domains of interdigital cell death within the developing limb and determined their function through experimental analysis. These discoveries provided the basis for subsequent molecular understanding of how vertebrate limbs are induced, patterned, and differentiated. These mechanisms are strongly conserved among the vast diversity of tetrapod limbs suggesting that relatively minor changes and tweaks to the molecular cascades are responsible for the diversity observed in nature. Analysis of the pathway systems first identified by Saunders in the context of animals displaying limb reduction show how alterations in these pathways have resulted in multiple mechanisms of limb and digit loss. Other classes of modification to these same patterning systems are seen at the root of other, novel limb morphological alterations and elaborations.

  17. Effects of male and female sex steroids on the development of normal and the transient Froriep's dorsal root ganglia of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Chen, Dawei; Goldstein, Ronald S; Cui, Sheng

    2005-03-22

    Sex steroids can influence developmental processes and support the survival of neurons in the embryonic central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that estrogen receptors are also expressed in the peripheral nervous system, in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of chick embryos. However, no studies have examined the effects of sex steroids on development of embryonic DRG. In the present study, 0.2 microg, 1.0 microg, 5.0 microg 10 microg, 20 microg, 25 microg, and 40 microg doses of testosterone or estradiol were delivered to chick embryos at Hamburger and Hamilton stage 18 (E3). The actions of these doses of sex steroids on the development of the C5DRG (fifth cervical ganglion, a "normal" DRG) and C2DRG (a transient ganglion known as a "Froriep's DRG") were then evaluated by quantifying ganglionic volumes, cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis after 1 day of growth to stage 23. We found that both testosterone and estradiol promoted proliferation of cells in both normal DRG and the Froriep's ganglia. By contrast, estradiol significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, while testosterone strongly inhibited apoptosis. These actions of sex steroids on DRG development were dose-dependent, and C5DRG and C2DRG showed different sensitivities to the applied sex steroids. In addition, the present results demonstrated that specific ER and AR inhibitors (tamoxifen and flutamide) did not influence the effects of 5 microg E2 and 5 microg T on C2 and C5DRG significantly. These results demonstrate that male and female sex steroids can modulate DRG development through an epigenetic mechanism, as had been shown for the central nervous system.

  18. Locally released retinoic acid leads to facial clefts in the chick embryo but does not alter the expression of receptors for fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Richman, J M; Delgado, J L

    1995-01-01

    Systemic administration of retinoic acid (RA) affects the growth of the upper beak of chick embryos; however, the mechanism for generating a cleft upper beak is not known. In the present study, we wished to elucidate the molecular basis of the retinoid-induced lip clefting. In order to ensure that facial prominences were locally exposed to levels of retinoid known to affect gene expression, we implanted beads soaked in different concentrations of RA in the right nasal pit or in the centre of the frontonasal mass. Beads soaked in 5 mg/ml RA placed in the right nasal pit caused full clefting of the upper beak with a deviation of the midline toward the right side of the face. The asymmetry was principally due to a decrease in size or total elimination of the right lateral nasal prominence. RA-soaked beads placed in the centre of the frontonasal mass created full bilateral clefts that were more symmetrical than those produced by beads in the nasal pit. Lower concentrations of retinoic acid produced less severe facial abnormalities. Control experiments show that the implanted bead itself has no effect on growth or fusion of the facial prominences. The specific effects of retinoids on facial growth may be due to a localized decrease in responsiveness to growth factors. Gene expression patterns for two fibroblast growth factor receptors (Cek-2, Cek-3, [chicken embryo kinase]) in normal and RA-treated embryos were examined by in situ hybridization. In normal embryos, Cek-2 and Cek-3 transcripts are expressed at very high levels in the mesenchyme directly adjacent to the eye. Cek-3 is additionally expressed in the centre of the frontonasal mass. The application of beads to the right nasal pit did not change the level of expression or distribution of transcripts for Cek-2 or Cek-3. This data suggests that retinoic acid may be affecting other aspects of the FGF receptor-ligand interaction.

  19. Effects of DDT and permethrin on neurite growth in cultured neurons of chick embryo brain and Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, C A; Audesirk, G

    1990-01-01

    The pesticides permethrin and 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), dissolved in either ethanol (EtOH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), were studied to determine their effect on neurite growth from cultured neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis and embryonic chicks. Both of these toxins decreased the percentage of neurons growing neurites, mean neurite length, and number of neurites/cell in a dose-dependent manner. DMSO increased the toxicity of permethrin and DDT in L. stagnalis neurons. EtOH was not used as a solvent with the embryonic chick cultures. Pre-existing neurites of L. stagnalis neurons exposed to permethrin regressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These two toxins may affect neurite outgrowth through interference with intracellular calcium regulation.

  20. Development of bone in chick embryos from Cobb 500 breeder hens fed diets supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from inorganic and amino acid-complexed sources.

    PubMed

    Favero, A; Vieira, S L; Angel, C R; Bos-Mikich, A; Lothhammer, N; Taschetto, D; Cruz, R F A; Ward, T L

    2013-02-01

    Sources of Zn, Mn, and Cu (IZMC) as sulfates or as amino acid complexes (OZMC) were used to supplement Cobb 500 breeder hen diets. Experimental treatments consisted of diets supplemented with 1) 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC (control); 2) 60, 60, and 3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from OZMC (ISO); and 3) a diet with 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC as in control plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from OZMC (on top). Ten replications of 20 females and 2 males were used per treatment. Eggs from breeders at 30, 40, 50 and 60 wk of age were incubated, and 5 embryos per replicate were collected at 10 (E10), 14 (E14), and 18 (E18) d of incubation. Midshaft width and calcification were measured for left tibia and femur stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. At hatch, the left tibia of 5 chicks per replicate was sampled for histological evaluation of the diaphysis and distal epiphysis. Feeding the ISO treatment compared with the control diet increased the Zn (P < 0.05) but not Mn and Cu content of the yolk and albumen blend. At E14, the ISO and on-top treatments had a trend to increase tibia calcification at the rates of 1.6 and 1%, respectively (P < 0.1). The E18 ISO and on-top treatments had 2% thicker tibia compared with the control, regardless of hen age (P < 0.05). Also, at E18, calcification of tibia and femur was higher from hens fed the on-top treatment (P < 0.05). The chicks from the ISO and on-top groups had increased tibia moment of inertia (P < 0.01) at day of hatch. Broiler breeder hens consuming OZMC associated with IZMC produced embryos and hatching chicks with improvements in selected bone mineralization parameters.

  1. The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or vestibular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roll, R. L.; Jones, T. A.; Benowitz, N. L.; Morley, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    (-)-Nicotine (1.2 mg/day) or saline was infused into chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) for 10 days beginning 12 h beyond the eight day of incubation (E8 + 12 h). Twelve h beyond the eighteenth day of incubation (E18 + 12 h), the eggs were opened to access the embryos and subcutaneous skull electrodes placed. Short latency vestibular response thresholds and input/output functions were determined to assess neurophysiological consequences of chronic nicotine administration. Samples of serum and extraembryonic (amniotic and albumen) fluid were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the levels of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine. The brains were removed and divided into diencephalon and mesencephalon and the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine binding sites in each brain area was measured. Nicotine and cotinine were found in the serum and extraembryonic fluid, but nicotinic receptors were not up-regulated in the brains of animals infused with nicotine in comparison to controls. Vestibular response thresholds also did not differ between nicotine-treated and control animals.

  2. The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or vestibular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roll, R. L.; Jones, T. A.; Benowitz, N. L.; Morley, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    (-)-Nicotine (1.2 mg/day) or saline was infused into chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) for 10 days beginning 12 h beyond the eight day of incubation (E8 + 12 h). Twelve h beyond the eighteenth day of incubation (E18 + 12 h), the eggs were opened to access the embryos and subcutaneous skull electrodes placed. Short latency vestibular response thresholds and input/output functions were determined to assess neurophysiological consequences of chronic nicotine administration. Samples of serum and extraembryonic (amniotic and albumen) fluid were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the levels of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine. The brains were removed and divided into diencephalon and mesencephalon and the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine binding sites in each brain area was measured. Nicotine and cotinine were found in the serum and extraembryonic fluid, but nicotinic receptors were not up-regulated in the brains of animals infused with nicotine in comparison to controls. Vestibular response thresholds also did not differ between nicotine-treated and control animals.

  3. Effect of exposure to radio frequency radiation emitted by cell phone on the developing dorsal root ganglion of chick embryo: a light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ingole, I V; Ghosh, S K

    2012-12-01

    With an ever increasing number of cell phone users since late twentieth [corrected] century, magnitude of the problem of exposure to radiation emitted by cell phone is self evident. Extensive research had been devoted to incriminate or absolve it as a health hazard. Radiofrequency radiation emitted by cell phone had been stated to be a potent carcinogen, cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and neurobehavioral teratogen. Its effect on the brain had been a subject of extensive research evidently due to its proximity to the user's brain. While considering the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation, its intensity, frequency and the duration of exposure are important determinants. Nevertheless the results of these different studies have not been unequivocal. Considering the contradictory reports, the present work was undertaken to study the effect of such an exposure on the developing neural tissue of chick embryo. The processes of cell division and differentiation are fundamental to the development of any living being and are a sensitive index of any insult sustained at this stage. Neurons of dorsal root ganglion were selected for the present study as these ganglia were fully differentiated as early as fourth day of embryonic life. By varying duration of exposure, the embryos were exposed to different doses of radiation, sacrificed at different periods of incubation and subjected to histological processing. On light microscopic study it was observed that developing neurons of dorsal root ganglion suffered a damage which was dose dependent and persisted in spite of giving the exposure-free period between two exposures.

  4. Characterization of the homeobox-containing gene GH6 identifies novel regions of homeobox gene expression in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H S; Solursh, M

    1994-01-01

    Homeobox genes are a major group of genes involved in regulating, embryogenesis. Here we describe the identification of GH6, a novel chicken homeobox-containing gene and its spatial and temporal expression pattern in the developing chick embryo. Identity comparisons of the GH6 homeodomain suggest that it is closely related to the human homeobox gene H6, with 93% amino acid conservation. Temporally, GH6 expression is highest between embryonic stages 23 and 26; however, some expression is also detectable as early as stage 13. In situ hybridization of stage 23 embryos indicates that GH6 expression occurs at high levels in discrete craniofacial regions including the second branchial arch, the neural retina, the lens epithelium, the optic nerve, and the infundibulum. GH6 expression was also seen in the developing ventricular myocardium, representing the first report of homeobox gene expression in the developing ventricle. GH6 is also expressed in sensory spinal and cranial ganglia, suggesting that GH6 plays several roles not only in the development of craniofacial structures such as the eye and ear, but also in formation of functionally defined ganglia and myocardial structures.

  5. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  6. SDOCT Doppler velocimetry for investigating the morphological influences on blood flow in the developing chick embryo heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anjul M.; Rothenberg, Florence G.; Law, Tzuo H.; Taber, Larry A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2007-02-01

    The onset of congenital heart disease (CHD) is believed to occur at very early stages of development. Investigations in the initiation and development of CHD has been hampered by the inability to image early stage heart structure and function, in vivo. Imaging small animals using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has filled a niche between the limited penetration depth of confocal microscopy and insufficient resolution from ultrasound. Previous demonstrations of chick heart imaging using OCT have entailed excision of, or arresting the heart to prevent motion artifacts. In this summary, we introduce SDOCT Doppler velocimetry as an enhancement of Doppler OCT for in vivo measurement of localized temporal blood flow dynamics. With this technique, dynamic velocity waveforms were measured in the outflow tract of the heart tube. These flow dynamics correlate to a finite element model of pulsatile flow and may lead to a further understanding of morphological influences on early heart development.

  7. Regional variations in the extent and timing of motoneuron cell death in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Wohlenberg, G; O'Donovan, M J

    1987-08-01

    We have examined the distribution of motoneurons in different segments of the chick lumbosacral spinal cord before and after the period of motoneuron cell death. The extent of cell death was found to be greatest at the boundaries of the lumbosacral cord where over 60% of the motoneurons died and least in the central region where only 30% died. After cell death at stage 40 the number of motoneurons in each segment was linearly correlated with segment length, suggesting that growth of the segment and motoneuron numbers may be regulated by a common factor. The time of completion of motoneuron cell death exhibited a rostrocaudal gradient along the lumbar cord. Cell death was complete in the anterior segments by stage 35 but not until stage 38 in the caudal 4 segments. The regional variations in the extent and timing of motoneuron cell death suggest that the relative importance of the factors mediating cell death vary in different regions of the lumbar cord.

  8. The role of water-soluble meconium subfraction and lipid-soluble meconium subfraction on the superior mesenteric artery vasoconstriction in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Şiyve, Serdar; Ulusoy, Oktay; Karakuş, Osman Z; Murat, Nergis; Uslu, Mehmet E; Ateş, Oğuz; Hakgüder, Gülce; Olguner, Mustafa; Akgür, Feza M

    2017-03-01

    Intraamniotic meconium has been responsible for intestinal damage in gastroschisis and meconium-dependent intestinal ischemia has been proposed to induce additional intestinal damage in gastroschisis. This study is aimed to determine the effects of lipid and water-soluble meconium subfractions on the contractility of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The study was conducted on 18-day fertilized chick embryos (Gallus Domesticus). Meconium is fractioned into water and lipid-soluble components. Only one SMA tissue was prepared from each embryo and suspended in the organ bath. Isometric contraction responses (ICR) were created in SMA tissues by one hour of incubation in Krebs-Henseleit solution for each group. Groups consisted of control, meconium, water-soluble meconium subfraction and lipid-soluble meconium subfraction. ICR of the SMA specimens were evaluated with a transducer-amplifier system on a computer. The data were expressed (mean±1SD) as milliNewton (mN). The ICR of the meconium, water-soluble meconium subfraction and lipid-soluble meconium subfraction groups were significantly high when compared to the control group (p<0.01). The meconium and water-soluble meconium subfraction created more contraction response than the lipid-soluble meconium subfraction (p<0.01). The ICR of the meconium group was not different from the ICR of the water-soluble meconium subfraction group (p>0.05). Water-soluble meconium subfraction has a profound vasoconstrictor effect on the SMA compared to the lipid-soluble meconium subfraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early developmental 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure decreases chick embryo heart chronotropic response to isoproterenol but not to agents affecting signals downstream of the beta-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Rebecca J; Hume, Adam J; Ciak, Jessica M; Vannostrand, John J; Friggens, Megan; Walker, Mary K

    2005-02-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes cardiovascular toxicity in laboratory animals, including alteration in several processes in which beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) signaling plays important roles. Thus, our laboratory investigated the effects of TCDD on beta-AR expression and signal transduction. Fertile chicken eggs were injected with vehicle (corn oil), 0.24 or 0.3 pmol TCDD/g egg on incubation day 0 (D0) or D5. On D10, heart function was assessed by ECG in ovo. Exposure to TCDD increased the incidence of arrhythmias and decreased the positive chronotropic responsiveness of the heart to isoproterenol. The reduced beta-AR responsiveness was, in part, independent of any overt morphological changes in the heart as chick embryos exposed to TCDD on D5 displayed an intermediate responsiveness to beta-AR agonist in the absence of the dilated cardiomyopathy observed in chick embryos exposed to TCDD on D0. TCDD did not decrease the chronotropic response of the heart to agents that stimulate signals downstream of the beta-AR. In fact, TCDD-exposed embryos were more sensitive than controls to forskolin, increasing heart rates (HR) 21.8 +/- 3.5 beats per min (bpm) above baseline versus control values at 6.3 +/- 2.7 bpm above baseline. TCDD exposure also augmented the negative chronotropic response of the heart to verapamil, decreasing HR -23.2 +/- 7.4 bpm relative to baseline versus control embryos at -12.7 +/- 5.9 bpm below baseline. Finally, the mean cardiac beta1-AR mRNA expression in D10 embryos was not significantly altered by exposure to TCDD on D0. These findings establish that a functional end point of the developing chick heart is sensitive to TCDD exposure and that the TCDD-induced reduction in beta-AR responsiveness may result from alterations in signal transduction upstream of adenylyl cyclase.

  10. Quantitation of methylxanthinic alkaloids and phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and their effects on blood vessel formation in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Betina B; Vieira, Ana R; Pedrotti, Enio L; Morais, Hiliana N F; Dias, Paulo F; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2008-09-24

    Methylxanthinic alkaloids and phenolic compounds are related to the therapeutic properties of Ilex paraguariensis infusions. Considering the known vascular tropism of xanthines, an aqueous extract (mate) and caffeine were evaluated on blood vessel formation, in connection with the analysis of those secondary metabolites, which was performed in young and mature leaf samples collected in three cultivation systems located in the southern region in Brazil (Santa Catarina State). Samples of young and mature leaves from a monoculture cultivation system (MC) showed the highest content of phenolic compounds (149.68 microg/mL, young leaves; 135.50 microg/mL, mature leaves) and caffeine (young leaves, 148.07 microg/mL; mature leaves, 244.63 microg/mL) as compared to samples from agroforesty (AF) and shaded-native (NT) cultures. Theophylline was not detected in samples by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, and mature leaves showed lower theobromine amounts (11.46 microg/mL). Treatments performed with mate aqueous extract and caffeine (1.03-4.12 microM/disk) in the yolk sac vascular membranes of 2-day-old chick embryos revealed pro-vasculo- and angiogenic properties as well as embryonic growth enhancement. These findings, uncoupled from any detectable embryotoxic effect, suggest a potential therapeutic and/or prophylactic use in cardiovascular disorders for caffeine and related constituents of mate plant extracts, an issue that waits further studies.

  11. Developmental changes in mucosubstances revealed by immunostaining with antimucus monoclonal antibodies and lectin staining in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, S; Ishii, Y; Yasugi, S

    1998-11-01

    The mucosubstances in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum during development of the chick embryo was studied histochemically using monoclonal antibodies against gizzard mucus and lectins, with attention to the regional differentiation of the epithelium in this segment. The anterior limit of epithelial CdxA mRNA expression detected by in situ hybridisation, which served as the position of the gizzard-duodenal boundary, was clearly found from d 3. Granules positive for some antibodies or lectins were found in the region ranging from the posterior part of the gizzard to the duodenum at d 3, which was followed by an increase in the number of granules and a gradual enlargement of the granule-positive area to the anterior part of the gizzard over 4-6 d. From d 4, the epithelia of the gizzard body and of the pyloric or duodenal region came to be differently stained with some antibodies or lectins. From d 10, each region showed a specific pattern of staining. The epithelia of the gizzard body and pyloric region contained abundant mucus granules with a different staining pattern. In the duodenum the number of stained granules was low except in occasional goblet cells. Thus the epithelia of the gizzard body, pyloric region and duodenum may produce different mucosubstances and the regional differentiation in these epithelia may start at rather early stages soon after the formation of digestive tube.

  12. Comparison of medetomidine, thiopental and ketamine/midazolam anesthesia in chick embryos for in ovo Magnetic Resonance Imaging free of motion artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Waschkies, Conny; Nicholls, Flora; Buschmann, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of the perfusion capacity of tissue engineered constructs grown on the chorioallantoic membrane by MRI is often hampered by motion artifacts. Therefore, we examined the suitability of three anesthetic regimes for sufficient sedation of the chick embryo. Medetomidine at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, was compared to thiopental at 100 mg/kg and ketamine/midazolam at 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. These soluble anesthetics were applied by dropping a total volume of 0.3 mL onto the surface of the CAM. Motion was videotaped through the window of the eggshell and scored semi-quantitatively. Medetomidine performed best in terms of reduced motion; onset of anesthesia occurred within 10 minutes and for the following 30 minutes, allowing proper in vivo MRI measurements. The other regimen were not sedating deep enough (ketamine/midazolam) and not long enough (thiopental). In sum, medetomidine allows proper sedation for MRI assessment of the perfusion capacity in a tissue engineered construct placed on the CAM. PMID:26493765

  13. Derivation of feline vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma cell line and its growth on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane - a new in vivo model for veterinary oncological studies.

    PubMed

    Zabielska, K; Lechowski, R; Król, M; Pawłowski, K M; Motyl, T; Dolka, I; Zbikowski, A

    2012-12-01

    Feline vaccine associated fibrosarcomas are the second most common skin tumor in cats. Methods of treatment are: surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, the usage of cytostatics in feline vaccine associated sarcoma therapy is limited due to their adverse side effects, high toxicity and low biodistribution after i.v. injection. Therefore, much research on new therapeutic drugs is being conducted. In human medicine, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model is used as a cheap and easy to perform assay to assess new drug effectiveness in cancer treatment. Various human cell lines have different tumors growth on CAM. In veterinary medicine such model has not been described yet. In the present article derivation of feline vaccine associated fibrosarcoma cell line and its growth on CAM is described. The cell line and the tumor grown were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. As far as we believe, this is the first attempt to create such model, which may be used for further in vivo studies in veterinary oncology.

  14. Doxorubicin Conjugated to Glutathione Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) as an Effective Therapeutic Agent for Feline Injection-Site Sarcomas-Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Study.

    PubMed

    Zabielska-Koczywąs, Katarzyna; Dolka, Izabella; Król, Magdalena; Żbikowski, Artur; Lewandowski, Wiktor; Mieczkowski, Józef; Wójcik, Michał; Lechowski, Roman

    2017-02-08

    Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumours with a high local recurrence rate, ranging from 14% to 28%. The treatment of feline injection-site sarcomas includes radical surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In our previous study it has been demonstrated that doxorubicin conjugated to glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) has higher cytotoxic effects than free doxorubicin for feline fibrosarcoma cell lines with high glycoprotein P activity (FFS1, FFS3). The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox on the growth of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. This model has been utilized both in human and veterinary medicine for preclinical oncological studies. The influence of intratumoural injections of Au-GSH-Dox, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles and doxorubicin alone on the Ki-67 proliferation marker was also checked. We demonstrated that the volume ratio of tumours from the FFS1 and FFS3 cell lines was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased after a single intratumoural injection of Au-GSH-Dox, which confirms the positive results of in vitro studies and indicates that Au-GSH-Dox may be a potent new therapeutic agent for feline injection-site sarcomas.

  15. New model for the study of angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane: the gelatin sponge/chorioallantoic membrane assay.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, D; Gualandris, A; Bastaki, M; Vacca, A; Iurlaro, M; Roncali, L; Presta, M

    1997-01-01

    Several methods for the in vivo study of angiogenesis are available, and each angiogenic assay presents distinct advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we present a new method for the quantitation of angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), based on the implantation of gelatin sponges on the top of growing CAM, on day 8 of incubation. After implantation, the sponges were treated with a stimulator (recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor, FGF2) or an inhibitor (a rabbit polyclonal anti-FGF2 antibody) of blood vessel formation. Blood vessels growing vertically into the sponge and at the boundary between sponge and surrounding CAM mesenchyme were counted by a morphometric method on day 12. In addition, to assess whether the gelatin sponge is an appropriate vehicle to deliver cultured cells and evaluate their angiogenic potential, mouse aortic endothelial cells were cotransfected with human FGF2 and the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-GAL) reporter gene. Stable transfectants were absorbed by the sponge, and evaluation of the angiogenic response was paralleled by beta-GAL staining to visualize implanted cells. This technique may facilitate the discovery and development of agonists or antagonists of angiogenesis.

  16. Disappearance of afferent and efferent nerve terminals in the inner ear of the chick embryo after chronic treatment with beta-bungarotoxin

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Beta-Bungarotoxin(beta-BT) was applied to chick embryos at 3-day intervals beginning on the 4th day of incubation to see the effect of chronically and massively applied beta-BT, and to investigate the hair cell-nerve relationship in the developing inner ear by electron microscopy. On the 10th day of incubation, nerve terminals had achieved contact with differentiating hair cells, but the acoustico-vestibular ganglion cells of treated animals were decreased in number to one-third of those of the control. By the 14th day, most of the ganglion cells degenerated and disappeared, and only a few nerve terminals were seen in the neuroepithelium. At this time, most of the hair cells lacked synaptic contacts with nerve terminals; but their presynaptic specialization remained intact and they showed evidence of continuing differentiation. On the 17th day, the acoustico-vestibular ganglion cells were completely absent. All the hair cells were devoid of afferent and efferent innervation but were fully differentiated on the 21st day. Beta-BT was found to have a similar destructive effect on cultured spinal ganglion cells. The present study shows that beta-BT kills acoustico-vestibular and spinal nerve cells when applied chronically and massively during development. Furthermore, the differentiation of hair cells proceeds normally, and their presynaptic specializations are maintained when nerve terminals are absent during later developmental stages. PMID:856835

  17. Development of the arterial pattern in the upper limb of staged human embryos: normal development and anatomic variations

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; BURTON, G. J.; DEU, J.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 112 human embryos (224 upper limbs) between stages 12 and 23 of development were examined. It was observed that formation of the arterial system in the upper limb takes place as a dual process. An initial capillary plexus appears from the dorsal aorta during stage 12 and develops at the same rate as the limb. At stage 13, the capillary plexus begins a maturation process involving the enlargement and differentiation of selected parts. This remodelling process starts in the aorta and continues in a proximal to distal sequence. By stage 15 the differentiation has reached the subclavian and axillary arteries, by stage 17 it has reached the brachial artery as far as the elbow, by stage 18 it has reached the forearm arteries except for the distal part of the radial, and finally by stage 21 the whole arterial pattern is present in its definitive morphology. This differentiation process parallels the development of the skeletal system chronologically. A number of arterial variations were observed, and classified as follows: superficial brachial (7.7%), accessory brachial (0.6%), brachioradial (14%), superficial brachioulnar (4.7%), superficial brachioulnoradial (0.7%), palmar pattern of the median (18.7%) and superficial brachiomedian (0.7%) arteries. They were observed in embryos belonging to stages 17–23 and were not related to a specific stage of development. Statistical comparison with the rates of variations reported in adults did not show significant differences. It is suggested that the variations arise through the persistence, enlargement and differentiation of parts of the initial network which would normally remain as capillaries or even regress. PMID:11693301

  18. Effect of prenatal chronic noise exposure on the growth and development of body and brain of chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Kesar, Alpana Goel

    2014-01-01

    Noise acts as an environmental stressor as has been demonstrated by an increased brain acetyl cholinesterase activity as well as elevated plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. Noise can lead to neurodegenerative changes in the brain and in the ear. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of chronic noise on growth and development during the sensitive period of embryonic life. In this study, we analyzed the body weight, brain weight and brain size following prenatal chronic noise exposure. Fertilized eggs of domestic chicks were exposed to chronic excessive acoustic stimulation with frequency of the sound ranging from 30 to 3000 Hz with a peak at 2700 Hz was given at 110 dB sound pressure level from embryonic day (E) 10 until hatching. An appreciable decrease in body weight, brain weight and brain size was evident in the experimental group exposed to noise. A generalized decrease in the neuronal nuclear size and increase in the density of neurons was also observed. These observations could be an indicator of growth and developmental retardation following exposure to noise.

  19. FGF19-FGFR4 signaling elaborates lens induction with the FGF8-L-Maf cascade in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Hitomi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Shimizu, Miyuki; Bito, Takaaki; Marcelle, Cristophe; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2005-05-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is known to be involved in vertebrate eye development. However, distinct roles of individual FGF members during eye development remain largely elusive. Here, we show a detailed expression pattern of Fgf19 in chick lens development. Fgf19 expression initiated in the forebrain, and then became restricted to the distal portion of the optic vesicle abutting the future lens placode, where FGF receptor 4 (Fgfr4), a receptor for FGF19, was expressed. Fgf8, a positive regulator for L-Maf, was expressed in a portion of the optic vesicle. To examine the role of FGF19 signaling during early eye development, Fgf19 was misexpressed near the presumptive lens ectoderm; however, no alteration in the expression of lens marker genes was observed. Conversely, a secreted form of FGFR4 was misexpressed to inhibit an FGF19 signal, resulting in the induction of L-Maf expression. To further define the relationship between L-Maf and Fgf19, L-Maf misexpression was performed, resulting in ectopic induction of Fgf19 expression by Hamburger and Hamilton's stage 12/13. Furthermore, misexpression of Fgf8 induced Fgf19 expression in addition to L-Maf. These results suggest that FGF19-FGFR4 signaling plays a role in early lens development in collaboration with FGF8 signaling and L-Maf transcriptional system.

  20. Blockade and recovery of spontaneous rhythmic activity after application of neurotransmitter antagonists to spinal networks of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Chub, N; O'Donovan, M J

    1998-01-01

    We studied the regulation of spontaneous activity in the embryonic (day 10-11) chick spinal cord. After bath application of either an excitatory amino acid (AP-5 or CNQX) and a nicotinic cholinergic (DHbetaE or mecamylamine) antagonist, or glycine and GABA receptor (bicuculline, 2-hydroxysaclofen, and strychnine) antagonists, spontaneous activity was blocked for a period (30-90 min) but then reappeared in the presence of the drugs. The efficacy of the antagonists was assessed by their continued ability to block spinal reflex pathways during the reappearance of spontaneous activity. Spontaneous activity ceased over the 4-5 hour monitoring period when both sets of antagonists were applied together. After application of glycine and GABA receptor antagonists, the frequency of occurrence of spontaneous episodes slowed and became highly variable. By contrast, during glutamatergic and nicotinic cholinergic blockade, the frequency of occurrence of spontaneous episodes initially slowed and then recovered to stabilize near the predrug level of activity. Whole-cell recordings made from ventral spinal neurons revealed that this recovery was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of spontaneously occurring synaptic events. We also measured changes in the apparent equilibrium potential of the rhythmic, synaptic drive of ventral spinal neurons using voltage or discontinuous current clamp. After excitatory blockade, the apparent equilibrium potential of the rhythmic synaptic drive shifted approximately 10 mV more negative to approximately -30 mV. In the presence of bicuculline, the apparent equilibrium potential of the synaptic drive shifted toward the glutamate equilibrium potential. Considered with other evidence, these findings suggest that spontaneous rhythmic output is a general property of developing spinal networks, and that GABA and glycinergic networks alter their function to compensate for the blockade of excitatory transmission.

  1. Exogenous folate ameliorates ethanol-induced brain hyperhomocysteinemia and exogenous ethanol reduces taurine levels in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Robert K; Booms, Stephanie L; Gura, Tracy; Gushrowski, Mara; Miller, Robert R

    2009-07-01

    The effects of exogenous ethanol and/or folic acid on endogenous homocysteine (HoCys) and SAM (S-adenosylmethionine)/SAH (S-adenosylhomocysteine) levels in chick brains were studied at 11 days of development. Embryonic EtOH (3.0 mmol/kg egg) exposure caused a 1.6-fold increase in brain HoCys levels and a 9-fold decrease in brain SAM/SAH levels as compared to controls (p

  2. Simulating Limb Formation in the U.S. EPA Virtual Embryo - Risk Assessment Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Virtual Embryo project (v-Embryo™) is a computer model simulation of morphogenesis that integrates cell and molecular level data from mechanistic and in vitro assays with knowledge about normal development processes to assess in silico the effects of chemicals on d...

  3. Simulating Limb Formation in the U.S. EPA Virtual Embryo - Risk Assessment Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Virtual Embryo project (v-Embryo™) is a computer model simulation of morphogenesis that integrates cell and molecular level data from mechanistic and in vitro assays with knowledge about normal development processes to assess in silico the effects of chemicals on d...

  4. [Ultrastructural characteristics of several constituants of limb buds in the embryos of the slowworm (Anguis fragilis L.) and the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-06-09

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells of the apical crest, of the mesoblast and of the ventral processes of somites, in the anlage of the anterior limb buds of embryos of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) are described at early stages of the development. Differences between the two species studied are brought to light.

  5. Application of Impermeable Barriers Combined with Candidate Factor Soaked Beads to Study Inductive Signals in the Chick.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Susan; Logan, Malcolm P

    2016-11-17

    The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation(1). Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier. The results are analyzed using in situ hybridization of subsequent gene expression. Our main focus is on the role of retinoic acid signaling in the induction and later initiation of the chick embryo fore and hindlimb. We use BMS 493 (an inverse agonist of retinoic acid receptors (RAR)) soaked beads implanted in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) to mimic the effect of a barrier placed between the somites (a source of retinoic acid (RA)) and the LPM from which limb buds grow. Modified versions of these protocols could also be used to address other questions on the origin and timing of inductive cues. Provided the region of the chick embryo is accessible at the relevant developmental stage, a barrier could be placed between the two tissues and consequent changes in development studied. Examples may be found in the developing brain, axis extension and in organ development, such as liver or kidney induction.

  6. Application of Impermeable Barriers Combined with Candidate Factor Soaked Beads to Study Inductive Signals in the Chick

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Susan; Logan, Malcolm P.

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation1. Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier. The results are analyzed using in situ hybridization of subsequent gene expression. Our main focus is on the role of retinoic acid signaling in the induction and later initiation of the chick embryo fore and hindlimb. We use BMS 493 (an inverse agonist of retinoic acid receptors (RAR)) soaked beads implanted in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) to mimic the effect of a barrier placed between the somites (a source of retinoic acid (RA)) and the LPM from which limb buds grow. Modified versions of these protocols could also be used to address other questions on the origin and timing of inductive cues. Provided the region of the chick embryo is accessible at the relevant developmental stage, a barrier could be placed between the two tissues and consequent changes in development studied. Examples may be found in the developing brain, axis extension and in organ development, such as liver or kidney induction. PMID:27911385

  7. Maternal dietary zinc supplementation enhances the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability of chick embryos from maternal normal and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongwen; Liao, Xiudong; Lu, Lin; Li, Wenxiang; Zhang, Liyang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2017-03-21

    The role of maternal dietary zinc supplementation in protecting the embryos from maternal hyperthermia-induced negative effects via epigenetic mechanisms was examined using an avian model (Gallus gallus). Broiler breeder hens were exposed to two maternal temperatures (21°C and 32°C) × three maternal dietary zinc treatments (zinc-unsupplemented control diet, the control diet + 110 mg zinc/kg inorganic or organic zinc) for 8 weeks. Maternal hyperthermia increased the embryonic mortality and induced oxidative damage evidenced by the elevated mRNA expressions of heat shock protein genes. Maternal dietary zinc deficiency damaged the embryonic development associated with the global DNA hypomethylation and histone 3 lysine 9 hyperacetylation in the embryonic liver. Supplementation of zinc in maternal diets effectively eliminated the embryonic mortality induced by maternal hyperthermia and enhanced antioxidant ability with the increased mRNA and protein expressions of metallothionein IV in the embryonic liver. The increased metallothionein IV mRNA expression was due to the reduced DNA methylation and increased histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation of the metallothionein IV promoter regardless of zinc source. These data demonstrate that maternal dietary zinc addition as an epigenetic modifier could protect the offspring embryonic development against maternal heat stress via enhancing the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability.

  8. A right-sided pathway involving FGF8/Snai1 controls asymmetric development of the proepicardium in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Schlueter, Jan; Brand, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The proepicardium (PE) is a transient structure that forms at the venous pole of the embryonic vertebrate heart. This cardiac progenitor cell population gives rise to the epicardium, coronary vasculature, and fibroblasts. In the chicken embryo, the PE displays left-right (L-R) asymmetry and develops only on the right side, while on the left only a vestigial PE is formed, which subsequently gets lost by apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed how the L-R asymmetry pathway affects PE formation. Experimental manipulation of left-side determinants such as Shh, Nodal, and Cfc as well as forced expression of Pitx2 had no effect on the sidedness of PE development. In contrast, inhibition of early-acting regulators of L-R axis formation such as H+/K+-ATPase or primitive streak apoptosis affected the sidedness of PE development. Experimental interference with the right-side determinants Fgf8 or Snai1 prevented PE formation, whereas ectopic left-sided expression of Fgf8 or Snai1 resulted in bilateral PE development. These data provide novel insight into the molecular control of asymmetric morphogenesis suggesting that also the right side harbors an instructive signaling pathway that is involved in the control of PE development. This pathway might be of general relevance for setting up L-R asymmetries at the venous pole of the heart. PMID:19365073

  9. A right-sided pathway involving FGF8/Snai1 controls asymmetric development of the proepicardium in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Jan; Brand, Thomas

    2009-05-05

    The proepicardium (PE) is a transient structure that forms at the venous pole of the embryonic vertebrate heart. This cardiac progenitor cell population gives rise to the epicardium, coronary vasculature, and fibroblasts. In the chicken embryo, the PE displays left-right (L-R) asymmetry and develops only on the right side, while on the left only a vestigial PE is formed, which subsequently gets lost by apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed how the L-R asymmetry pathway affects PE formation. Experimental manipulation of left-side determinants such as Shh, Nodal, and Cfc as well as forced expression of Pitx2 had no effect on the sidedness of PE development. In contrast, inhibition of early-acting regulators of L-R axis formation such as H(+)/K(+)-ATPase or primitive streak apoptosis affected the sidedness of PE development. Experimental interference with the right-side determinants Fgf8 or Snai1 prevented PE formation, whereas ectopic left-sided expression of Fgf8 or Snai1 resulted in bilateral PE development. These data provide novel insight into the molecular control of asymmetric morphogenesis suggesting that also the right side harbors an instructive signaling pathway that is involved in the control of PE development. This pathway might be of general relevance for setting up L-R asymmetries at the venous pole of the heart.

  10. Permeation properties of a Ca(2+)-blockable monovalent cation channel in the ectoderm of the chick embryo: pore size and multioccupancy probed with organic cations and Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    A Ca(2+)-blockable monovalent cation channel is present in the apical membrane of the ectoderm of the gastrulating chick embryo. We used the patch clamp technique to study several single-channel permeation properties of this channel. In symmetrical conditions without Ca2+, the Na+ current carried by the channel rectifies inwardly. The channel has an apparent dissociation constant for extracellular Na+ of 115 mM at 0 mV and a low density of negative surface charge (-0.03 e/nm2) at its extracellular entrance. The minimal pore diameter is approximately 5.8 A, as calculated from the relative permeabilities of 10 small organic cations. Extracellular application of six large organic cations decreased the inward Na+ current in a voltage-dependent manner, which strongly suggests an intrachannel block. The presence of at least two ion binding sites inside the pore is inferred from the Na+ dependence of the block by the organic cations. This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that the extracellular Ca2+ block is also modified by the Na+ concentration. In particular, the rise of the unblocking rate with increased Na+ concentrations clearly suggests the presence of an interaction between Ca2+ and Na+ inside the channel. A low probability of double occupancy at physiological ionic conditions is implied from the absence of an anomalous mole fraction effect with mixtures of extracellular Li+ and K+. Finally, the absence of inward current at very strong hyperpolarizations and in the presence of 10 mM extracellular Ca2+ demonstrates the absence of significant Ca2+ current through this channel. It is argued that this embryonic epithelial Ca(2+)-blockable monovalent cation channel is related to both L-type Ca2+ channel and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. PMID:8537814

  11. [Effects of pigment epithelial derived factor gene on growth of lung cancer cell and neovascularization: experiments with lung cancer cells and chick embryos].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Zhi; Jiang, Wen G; Zhang, Li-Jian

    2009-02-24

    To investigate the effect of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) on the growth of lung cancer cells and the cancer-related neovascularization. The full length of human PEDF gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Human lung cancer cells of the line SKEMS1 were cultured and transfected with PEDF(exp), An eukaryotic expression vector constructed by recombinant DNA technology, so as to construct the SKMES1(PEDFexp) cells over-expressing PEDF protein. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to confirm the mRNA and protein expression of PEDF in these cells. Another SKMES1 lung cancer cells were transfected with blank plasmids (SKMES1(pEF/His) cells). The SKMES1 cells not transfected were called SKMES1(WT) cells. The 3 kinds of SKMES1 cells were inoculated in the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryo hatched for 7 days respectively. The size and weigh of the tumor were measured. The vessels density was examined. The tumor volume of the SKMES1(PEDFexp) group was (0.10 +/- 0.05) cm(3), significantly smaller than that of the control group [(0.17 +/- 0.07) cm(3), P = 0.016], and the mass of the SKME(SPEDFexp) group was (0.008 +/- 0.004) mg, significantly smaller than that of the control group too [(0.024 +/- 0.009) mg, P = 0.006]. The amount of first class neo-vessels of the SKMES1(PEDFexp) group was (15 +/- 3), significantly fewer than that of the control group [(41 +/- 9), P < 0.001]. The amount of second class neo-vessels of the SKMES1(PEDFexp) group was (75 +/- 22), also significantly fewer than that of the control group [(175 +/- 39), P = 0.001]. Inhibiting the growth of lung cancer cells and neovascularization, PEDF protein may be used as a potential biological drug to treat lung cancer.

  12. Antibody response of patients after postexposure rabies vaccination with small intradermal doses of purified chick embryo cell vaccine or purified Vero cell rabies vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, D. J.; Banzhoff, A.; Nicolay, U.; Sirikwin, S.; Dumavibhat, B.; Tongswas, S.; Wasi, C.

    2000-01-01

    Although the introduction of tissue culture vaccines for rabies has dramatically improved the immunogenicity and safety of rabies vaccines, they are often prohibitively expensive for developing countries. To examine whether smaller doses of these vaccines could be used, we tested the safety and immunogenicity of purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) on 211 patients in Thailand with World Health Organization (WHO) category II and III exposures to rabies. The patients presented at two Thai hospitals and were randomized into three groups. Patients in Group 1 received 0.1 ml PCECV intradermally at two sites on days 0, 3, 7, and at one site on days 30 and 90. Group 2 was treated similarly, except that purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) was used instead of PCECV. Group 3 received 1.0 ml PCECV intramuscularly on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90. After 0, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 days serum was collected from the subjects and the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of rabies virus neutralizing antibody determined. After 14 days the GMT of 59 patients vaccinated intradermally with PCECV was equivalent to that of patients who received PVRV. Adverse reactions were more frequent in patients who received vaccines intradermally, indicating the reactions were associated with the route of injection, rather than the vaccine per se. We conclude that PCECV is a safe and highly immunogenic vaccine for postexposure rabies vaccination when administered intradermally in 0.1-ml doses using the two-site method ("2,2,2,0,1,1") recommended by WHO. PMID:10859864

  13. Pre-exposure prophylaxis against rabies in children: safety of purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (Vaxirab N) when administered by intradermal route.

    PubMed

    Ravish, Haradanahalli S; Srikanth, Jayanthi; Ashwath Narayana, Doddabele Hanumanthaiah; Annadani, Rachana; Vijayashankar, Veena; Undi, Malatesh

    2013-09-01

    Animal bites in humans are a public health problem. Children are the most frequently exposed, representing 50% of human exposures in canine rabies infected areas. Pre-exposure vaccination using cell culture vaccines is a safe and effective method of preventing rabies among children in these highly endemic regions. The development of immunological memory after pre exposure vaccination has established long lasting immunity against rabies in humans. The present study assessed the safety of Purified Chick Embryo cell Rabies Vaccine (Vaxirab N) administered as a three-dose intradermal pre-exposure regimen on days 0, 7, and 21 in healthy volunteered children of 5-10 y age group from an urban poor locality in Bangalore, India. One hundred fifty three apparently healthy children of both sexes between 5 and 10 y of age were enrolled in the study and 123 (80.4%) completed all three doses. A total of 405 doses of intradermal vaccine was administered, among which 25 adverse reactions were reported from 17 children. The adverse reactions were pain at the injection site 15 (3.7%), redness 2 (0.5%), itching at the site of injection 1 (0.2%), fatigue 1 (0.2%), fever 3 (0.7%), myalgia 2 (0.5%) and allergy 1 (0.2%). All reactions subsided without any complication. In conclusion, pre exposure vaccination against rabies is a useful tool for protecting children living in highly endemic regions and Vaxirab N has proved to be safe and well tolerated by intradermal route among children.

  14. Evaluating the abnormal ossification in tibiotarsi of developing chick embryos exposed to 1.0ppm doses of platinum group metals by spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Adam C; Monahan, Jennifer L; Dagher, Jessica M; Baker, Joshua D; Markopoulos, Marjorie M; Iragena, Diane B; NeJame, Britney M; Slaughter, Robert; Felker, Daniel; Burggraf, Larry W; Isaac, Leon A C; Grossie, David; Gagnon, Zofia E; Sizemore, Ioana E Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Platinum group metals (PGMs), i.e., palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh), are found at pollutant levels in the environment and are known to accumulate in plant and animal tissues. However, little is known about PGM toxicity. Our previous studies showed that chick embryos exposed to PGM concentrations of 1mL of 5.0ppm (LD50) and higher exhibited severe skeletal deformities. This work hypothesized that 1.0ppm doses of PGMs will negatively impact the mineralization process in tibiotarsi. One milliliter of 1.0ppm of Pd(II), Pt(IV), Rh(III) aqueous salt solutions and a PGM-mixture were injected into the air sac on the 7th and 14th day of incubation. Control groups with no-injection and vehicle injections were included. On the 20th day, embryos were sacrificed to analyze the PGM effects on tibiotarsi using four spectroscopic techniques. 1) Micro-Raman imaging: Hyperspectral Raman data were collected on paraffin embedded cross-sections of tibiotarsi, and processed using in-house-written MATLAB codes. Micro-Raman univariate images that were created from the ν1(PO4(3-)) integrated areas revealed anomalous mineral inclusions within the bone marrow for the PGM-mixture treatment. The age of the mineral crystals (ν(CO3(2-))/ν1(PO4(3-))) was statistically lower for all treatments when compared to controls (p≤0.05). 2) FAAS: The percent calcium content of the chemically digested tibiotarsi in the Pd and Pt groups changed by ~45% with respect to the no-injection control (16.1±0.2%). 3) Micro-XRF imaging: Abnormal calcium and phosphorus inclusions were found within the inner longitudinal sections of tibiotarsi for the PGM-mixture treatment. A clear increase in the mineral content was observed for the outer sections of the Pd treatment. 4) ICP-OES: PGM concentrations in tibiotarsi were undetectable (<5ppb). The spectroscopic techniques gave corroborating results, confirmed the hypothesis, and explained the observed pathological (skeletal developmental abnormalities

  15. L-type calcium channels may regulate neurite initiation in cultured chick embryo brain neurons and N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C; Lomme, M; Shugarts, D; Rosack, J; Caracciolo, P; Gisi, T; Nichols, P

    1990-08-01

    The intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, plays an important role in regulating neurite growth in cultured neurons. Insofar as [Ca2+]i is partly a function of Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC), Ca2+ entry through VSCC should influence neurite growth. Vertebrate neurons may possess several types of VSCC. The most frequently described VSCC types are usually designated L, T and N. In most preparations, these VSCC types respond differently to certain pharmacological agents, including Cd2+, Ni2+, the dihydropyridines nifedipine and BAY K8644, and the aminoglycoside antibiotics. We used these agents to study the role of Ca2+ influx in regulating neurite initiation and length in cultures of chick embryo brain neurons and N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells. In chick neurons, nifedipine and Cd2+ (less than 50 microM), which have been reported to inhibit L-type channels, reduced neurite initiation, but not mean neurite length. Ni2+ (less than 100 microM), reported to inhibit T-type channels, had no effect on either initiation or length. Low concentrations of most aminoglycosides (less than 300 microM), reported to inhibit N-type channels, had no effect on neurite initiation, but high concentrations of streptomycin (great than 300 microM), reported to inhibit both L- and N-type channels, reduced neurite initiation. BAY K8644, which enhances current flow through L-type channels, had no effect except at high concentration (50 microM), which inhibited initiation. N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells have been reported to contain L-type and T-type channels, but thus far no channel similar to the N-type has been described. In cultured N1E-115 cells, nifedipine (5 microM), Cd2+ (5 microM), and streptomycin (200 microM) reduced neurite initiation, while nickel (50 microM) and neomycin (100 microM) did not affect initiation. None of these agents altered neurite length. In N1E-115 cells, whole-cell voltage clamp recordings showed that nifedipine and Cd2

  16. Molecular clocks underlying vertebrate embryo segmentation: A 10-year-old hairy-go-round.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Raquel P; Palmeirim, Isabel; Bajanca, Fernanda

    2007-06-01

    Segmentation of the vertebrate embryo body is a fundamental developmental process that occurs with strict temporal precision. Temporal control of this process is achieved through molecular segmentation clocks, evidenced by oscillations of gene expression in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM, precursor tissue of the axial skeleton) and in the distal limb mesenchyme (limb chondrogenic precursor cells). The first segmentation clock gene, hairy1, was identified in the chick embryo PSM in 1997. Ten years later, chick hairy2 expression unveils a molecular clock operating during limb development. This review revisits vertebrate embryo segmentation with special emphasis on the current knowledge on somitogenesis and limb molecular clocks. A compilation of human congenital disorders that may arise from deregulated embryo clock mechanisms is presented here, in an attempt to reconcile different sources of information regarding vertebrate embryo development. Challenging open questions concerning the somitogenesis clock are presented and discussed, such as When?, Where?, How?, and What for? Hopefully the next decade will be equally rich in answers. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Chick ex ovo Culture and ex ovo CAM Assay: How it Really Works

    PubMed Central

    Dohle, Daniel S.; Pasa, Susanne D.; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H.; Jennissen, Herbert P.; Dünker, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Chicken eggs in the early phase of breeding are between in vitro and in vivo systems and provide a vascular test environment not only to study angiogenesis but also to study tumorigenesis. After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays. Since the lymphoid system is not fully developed until late stages of incubation, the chick embryo serves as a naturally immunodeficient host capable of sustaining grafted tissues and cells without species-specific restrictions. In addition to nurturing developing allo- and xenografts, the CAM blood vessel network provides a uniquely supportive environment for tumor cell intravasation, dissemination, and vascular arrest and a repository where arrested cells extravasate to form micro metastatic foci. For experimental purposes, in most of the recent studies the CAM was exposed by cutting a window through the egg shell and experiments were carried out in ovo, resulting in significant limitations in the accessibility of the CAM and possibilities for observation and photo documentation of effects. When shell-less cultures of the chick embryo were used1-4, no experimental details were provided and, if published at all, the survival rates of these cultures were low. We refined the method of ex ovo culture of chick embryos significantly by introducing a rationally controlled extrusion of the egg content. These ex ovo cultures enhance the accessibility of the CAM and chick embryo, enabling easy in vivo documentation of effects and facilitating experimental manipulation of the embryo. This allows the successful application to a large number of scientific questions: (1) As an improved angiogenesis assay5,6, (2) an experimental set up for facilitated injections in the vitreous of the chick embryo eye7-9, (3) as a test environment for dissemination and intravasation of dispersed tumor cells

  18. Chick ex ovo culture and ex ovo CAM assay: how it really works.

    PubMed

    Dohle, Daniel S; Pasa, Susanne D; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H; Jennissen, Herbert P; Dünker, Nicole

    2009-11-30

    Chicken eggs in the early phase of breeding are between in vitro and in vivo systems and provide a vascular test environment not only to study angiogenesis but also to study tumorigenesis. After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays. Since the lymphoid system is not fully developed until late stages of incubation, the chick embryo serves as a naturally immunodeficient host capable of sustaining grafted tissues and cells without species-specific restrictions. In addition to nurturing developing allo- and xenografts, the CAM blood vessel network provides a uniquely supportive environment for tumor cell intravasation, dissemination, and vascular arrest and a repository where arrested cells extravasate to form micro metastatic foci. For experimental purposes, in most of the recent studies the CAM was exposed by cutting a window through the egg shell and experiments were carried out in ovo, resulting in significant limitations in the accessibility of the CAM and possibilities for observation and photo documentation of effects. When shell-less cultures of the chick embryo were used(1-4), no experimental details were provided and, if published at all, the survival rates of these cultures were low. We refined the method of ex ovo culture of chick embryos significantly by introducing a rationally controlled extrusion of the egg content. These ex ovo cultures enhance the accessibility of the CAM and chick embryo, enabling easy in vivo documentation of effects and facilitating experimental manipulation of the embryo. This allows the successful application to a large number of scientific questions: (1) As an improved angiogenesis assay(5,6), (2) an experimental set up for facilitated injections in the vitreous of the chick embryo eye(7-9), (3) as a test environment for dissemination and intravasation of dispersed tumor

  19. Aluminum toxicity perturbs long bone calcification in the embryonic chick.

    PubMed

    Firling, C E; Hill, T A; Severson, A R

    1999-09-01

    Long bone calcification in chick embryos acutely- or chronically-treated with aluminum (Al) citrate was investigated. Acutely treated embryos received 100 microl of 60 mM Al citrate, 60 mM sodium (Na) citrate, or 0.7% sodium chloride on day 8 of incubation. Chronically treated embryos received a daily 25 microl dose of the above solutions beginning on day 8. Following 2-8 days of additional incubation, blood was collected, embryos killed, hind limbs radiographed, and tibias collected. Radiography indicated that Al administration resulted in a persistent angulation in the mid-diaphysis of tibias and femurs and a transient mineralization defect during the 10- to 12-day period of incubation. Tibias from 10- to 12-day embryos which were administered Al contained significantly less (P < 0.005) bone calcium (Ca) compared with tibias from NaCl-treated embryos. By day 14 there were no significant differences among the Ca content of tibias from embryos acutely treated with Al citrate, Na citrate or NaCl. Similarly, the rate of (45)Ca uptake by tibias of embryos treated with Al was significantly lower on days 10 (acute) and 12 (chronic) with no significant differences in Ca uptake rate among the three treatment groups by day 16. In each treatment group bone alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity increased approximately tenfold between days 10 and 16. At all stages, bone ALPase activity was consistently higher and significantly different (chronic) compared with levels in NaCl-treated embryos. In contrast, Al had no significant effect on the rate of tibia collagen and noncollagenous protein synthesis or serum levels of procollagen carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP), osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH).

  20. Harvesting clues from genome wide transcriptome analysis for exploring thalidomide mediated anomalies in eye development of chick embryo: Nitric oxide rectifies the thalidomide mediated anomalies by swinging back the system to normal transcriptome pattern.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavitra; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Kathirvel, Priyadarshan; Veeriah, Vimal; Dutta, Priya; Sankaranarayanan, Kavitha; Gupta, Ravi; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-02-01

    Thalidomide, the notorious teratogen is known to cause various developmental abnormalities, among which a range of eye deformations are very common. From the clinical point of view, it is necessary to pinpoint the mechanisms of teratogens that tune the gene expression. However, to our knowledge, the molecular basis of eye deformities under thalidomide treatmenthas not been reported so far. Present study focuses on the possible mechanism by which thalidomide affects eye development and the role of Nitric Oxide in recovering thalidomide-mediated anomalies of eye development using chick embryo and zebrafish models with transcriptome analysis. Transcriptome analysis showed that 403 genes were up-regulated and 223 genes were down-regulated significantly in thalidomide pre-treated embryos. 8% of the significantly modulated genes have been implicated in eye development including Pax6, OTX2, Dkk1 and Shh. A wide range of biological process and molecular function was affected by thalidomide exposure. Biological Processes including structural constituent of eye lens and Molecular functions such as visual perception and retinal metabolic process formed strong annotation clustersindicating the adverse effects of thalidomide on eye development and function. Here, we have discussed the whole embryo transcriptome with the expression of PAX6, SOX2, and CRYAAgenes from developing eyes. Our experimental data showing structural and functional aspects includingeye size, lens transparency and optic nerve activity and bioinformatics analyses of transcriptome suggest that NO could partially protect thalidomide treated embryos from its devastating effects on eye development and function.

  1. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Christina; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1f/f and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. The proximal limb joints did form in the Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mutants, but contained an uneven articulating superficial zone that expressed very low lubricin levels. The underlying cartilaginous epiphysis was deranged as well and displayed random patterns of cell proliferation and matrillin-1 and collagen IIA expression, indicative of an aberrant phenotypic definition of the epiphysis itself. Digit joints were even more affected, lacked a distinct mesenchymal interzone and were often fused likely as a result of local abnormal BMP and hedgehog activity and signaling. Interestingly, overall growth and lengthening of long bones were also delayed in the mutants. To test whether Ext1 function is needed for joint formation at other sites, we examined the spine. Indeed, entire intervertebral discs, normally composed by nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, were often missing in Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mice. When disc remnants were present, they displayed aberrant organization and defective joint marker expression. Similar intervertebral joint defects and fusions occurred in Col2-Cre;β-cateninf/f mutants. The study provides novel evidence that local Ext1 expression and HS production are needed to maintain the phenotype and function of joint-forming cells and coordinate local signaling by BMP, hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. PMID:21185280

  2. MHC class I target recognition, immunophenotypes and proteomic profiles of natural killer cells within the spleens of day-14 chick embryos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken natural killer (NK) cells are not well defined, so little is known about the molecular interactions controlling their activity. At day 14 of embryonic development, chick spleens are a rich source of T-cellfree CD8aa+, CD3_ cells with natural killing activity. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay...

  3. [Demonstration, by means of electron microscopy, of the penetration of somitic cells into the mesoblast of the limb buds of reptile embryos (Anguis fragilis, Lacerta viridis)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-01-01

    An electron microscopic study of the components of anterior limb buds of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) (embryos of Anguis whose allantoic bud reach 0,7 to 4 mm of length; embryos of Lacerta 2 to 7 days old) provides data on the cytological characteristics of the components of the limb bud at these early stages. 1. The cells of the distal extremity of the somitic processes extending in the limb bud of Anguis and Lacerta, are elongated cells with ovoid nuclei containing large nucleolus; they possess mitochondria always thin and with dense matrix; they are rich in lipid droplets; they possess cilia; they are devoid of myofilaments; endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes and polyribosomes are abundant. Golgi networks display signs of activity. These characteristics are also observed in the cells of the "dermatome" layer of the dermo-myotome; and so, it appears probable that the cells of the "dermatome". Furthermore, in Anguis embryos, the cells of the distal extremities of the somitic processes possess numerous lysosomes and a certain number of cells among them, degenerate early. 2. The somatopleural mesoblastic cells of the limb bud of Anguis and Lacerta embryos keep the characters of the cells of the mesodermic layer of lateral plate from which they originate; they have rounded nuclei, cilia, and their mitochondria are always larger and more transparent to electrons, than the ones of cells of the somitic processes and of cells of the epiblastic apical crest. Golgi networks are well developped, endoplasmic reticulum is abundant, lipid droplets are rare. 3. The processes of somites which extend in the dorsal part of the limb bud of Anguis embryos are cords of cells with thin lumina; at the stage of the allantoic bud of 0,6 to 0,8 mm long, the distal extremity of these processes dislocate in group of cells which afterwards dissociate, releasing individual somitic cells which are integrated among the mesoblastic somatopleural

  4. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2012-10-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks

  5. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Cheryll; Towers, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The gene encoding the secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the polarizing region (or zone of polarizing activity), a small group of mesenchyme cells at the posterior margin of the vertebrate limb bud. Detailed analyses have revealed that Shh has the properties of the long sought after polarizing region morphogen that specifies positional values across the antero-posterior axis (e.g., thumb to little finger axis) of the limb. Shh has also been shown to control the width of the limb bud by stimulating mesenchyme cell proliferation and by regulating the antero-posterior length of the apical ectodermal ridge, the signaling region required for limb bud outgrowth and the laying down of structures along the proximo-distal axis (e.g., shoulder to digits axis) of the limb. It has been shown that Shh signaling can specify antero-posterior positional values in limb buds in both a concentration- (paracrine) and time-dependent (autocrine) fashion. Currently there are several models for how Shh specifies positional values over time in the limb buds of chick and mouse embryos and how this is integrated with growth. Extensive work has elucidated downstream transcriptional targets of Shh signaling. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how antero-posterior positional values are encoded and then interpreted to give the particular structure appropriate to that position, for example, the type of digit. A distant cis-regulatory enhancer controls limb-bud-specific expression of Shh and the discovery of increasing numbers of interacting transcription factors indicate complex spatiotemporal regulation. Altered Shh signaling is implicated in clinical conditions with congenital limb defects and in the evolution of the morphological diversity of vertebrate limbs. PMID:28293554

  6. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Limb Development.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll; Towers, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The gene encoding the secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the polarizing region (or zone of polarizing activity), a small group of mesenchyme cells at the posterior margin of the vertebrate limb bud. Detailed analyses have revealed that Shh has the properties of the long sought after polarizing region morphogen that specifies positional values across the antero-posterior axis (e.g., thumb to little finger axis) of the limb. Shh has also been shown to control the width of the limb bud by stimulating mesenchyme cell proliferation and by regulating the antero-posterior length of the apical ectodermal ridge, the signaling region required for limb bud outgrowth and the laying down of structures along the proximo-distal axis (e.g., shoulder to digits axis) of the limb. It has been shown that Shh signaling can specify antero-posterior positional values in limb buds in both a concentration- (paracrine) and time-dependent (autocrine) fashion. Currently there are several models for how Shh specifies positional values over time in the limb buds of chick and mouse embryos and how this is integrated with growth. Extensive work has elucidated downstream transcriptional targets of Shh signaling. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how antero-posterior positional values are encoded and then interpreted to give the particular structure appropriate to that position, for example, the type of digit. A distant cis-regulatory enhancer controls limb-bud-specific expression of Shh and the discovery of increasing numbers of interacting transcription factors indicate complex spatiotemporal regulation. Altered Shh signaling is implicated in clinical conditions with congenital limb defects and in the evolution of the morphological diversity of vertebrate limbs.

  7. Use of pHluorin to assess the dynamics of axon guidance receptors in cell culture and in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Jacquier, Arnaud; Falk, Julien; Castellani, Valérie

    2014-01-12

    During development, axon guidance receptors play a crucial role in regulating axons sensitivity to both attractive and repulsive cues. Indeed, activation of the guidance receptors is the first step of the signaling mechanisms allowing axon tips, the growth cones, to respond to the ligands. As such, the modulation of their availability at the cell surface is one of the mechanisms that participate in setting the growth cone sensitivity. We describe here a method to precisely visualize the spatio-temporal cell surface dynamics of an axon guidance receptor both in vitro and in vivo in the developing chick spinal cord. We took advantage of the pH-dependent fluorescence property of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant to specifically detect the fraction of the axon guidance receptor that is addressed to the plasma membrane. We first describe the in vitro validation of such pH-dependent constructs and we further detail their use in vivo, in the chick spinal chord, to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of the axon guidance receptor of interest.

  8. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  9. A growth-promoting influence from the mesonephros during limb outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Geduspan, J S; Solursh, M

    1992-05-01

    It has been suggested that the mesonephros has a role in normal limb development. This hypothesis was directly tested by removing the mesonephros adjacent to the presumptive limb region of stage 12-18 chick embryos using microsurgery or laser ablation. The experimental manipulation resulted in reduced limb outgrowth on the operated side. The poor limb outgrowth was correlated with either the lack of or the presence of a rudimentary mesonephros on the operated side. Furthermore, the presence of nephric tissue in limb bud organ culture enhanced growth and morphological differentiation of cartilage formed in culture. In vivo, the influence of the mesonephros resulted in significantly higher cell proliferation in the adjoining medial half of the limb mesoderm compared with the lateral half. The removal of the mesonephros adjoining the prospective limb region reduced the number of dividing cells in the medial mesoderm. The higher proliferation in the medial limb mesoderm is significant to limb outgrowth since grafting experiments showed that most of the cells that form the limb are derived from the medial mesoderm. The results suggest that the influence from the mesonephros may provide some signal for limb outgrowth.

  10. Ectoderm from various regions of the developing chick limb bud differentially regulates the expression of the chicken homeobox-containing genes GHox-7 and GHox-8 by limb mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Coelho, C N; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1993-03-01

    The apical ectodermal ridge expresses high amounts of the homeobox gene GHox-8 when placed upon dissociated limb mesenchymal cells in culture and induces high expression of GHox-7, but only low expression of GHox-8, in the underlying mesenchymal cells. Ectoderm from the proximal anterior border of the limb induces high expression of both GHox-7 and GHox-8, while ectoderm from the proximal posterior border does not induce expression of either gene. Thus, ectoderm in various regions of the limb bud has distinct regulatory activities and may be involved in controlling the regionally specific expression of GHox-7 and GHox-8 in the mesoderm.

  11. The production of a monoclonal T3-antiidiotypic antibody (T3-MAAB) that mimics the effects of T3 on 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in chick embryo heart cells.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A; Schwartz, H; Gafny, M; Mizrachi, M; Swartz, H; Gross, J

    1994-01-01

    The Ig fraction of rabbit anti-T3 antibody was injected into the spleens of BALB/c mice. Four days later, the lymphocytes were recovered from their spleens and were fused with cells of the 653 myeloma cell line. Screening of the hybrid colonies was carried out in a T3 RIA system. Positive colonies were those whose supernatant displaced 125I-labeled T3 from its antibody. The positive cultures were recloned and one was injected ip into mice. The crude IgG fraction of the ascites fluid was affinity purified on an affigel-10 column containing a covalently bound rabbit anti-T3-IgG. In order to eliminate possible endogenous T3 contamination during the affinity purification, the column was stripped with a 40% solution of acetonitrile in 0.2 M acetic acid, neutralized, and then the purification proceeded as described. The affinity purified antibody was an IgG2a isotype. This monoclonal antibody (T3-MAAB) displaced labeled T3 from its antibody in an RIA system. It also mimicked T3 in the stimulation of [3H]2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) uptake in cultured chick embryo heart cells. After 6 h exposure, the dose-response curve of 2-DOG uptake to T3-MAAB was shifted to the left by at least one order of magnitude when compared to the dose-response curve obtained with T3. After 24 h exposure, T3 had the expected additional stimulatory effect that was dependent on neosynthesis of proteins, while T3-MAAB did not. Also at 24 h exposure, T3-MAAB did not stimulate the incorporation of labeled leucine and uridine into the heart cells while T3 at an equivalent concentration did. The MAAB activity could be abolished by boiling, while boiling did not affect the activity of an equivalent concentration of T3, thus excluding a T3 contamination-mediated effect. We conclude, therefore, that (a) a monoclonal hybridoma producing an antibody that mimics T3 was established; (b) this antibody competed with labeled T3 for anti-T3 antibody and, like T3, stimulated sugar uptake into cultured chick embryo

  12. Thermal manipulations in late-term chick embryos have immediate and longer term effects on myoblast proliferation and skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Piestun, Yogev; Harel, Michal; Barak, Miriam; Yahav, Shlomo; Halevy, Orna

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the cellular and molecular bases for the promotion of muscle development and growth by temperature manipulations (TMs) during late-term chick embryogenesis. We show that incubation at 39.5°C (increase of 1.7°C from normal conditions) from embryonic days 16 to 18 (E16 to E18) for 3 or 6 h daily increased diameter of myofibers as of day 13 of age and enhanced absolute muscle growth relative to controls, until day 35 of age. TMs had immediate (E17) and later (up to 2 wk posthatch) effects in elevating muscle cell proliferation relative to controls. This was indicated by higher DNA incorporation of thymidine and a higher number of cells expressing PCNA in intact muscle, accompanied by higher Pax7 levels, all reflecting a higher number of myogenic cells, and suggesting that the increased hypertrophy can be attributed to a higher reservoir of myogenic progeny cells produced in response to the TM. IGF-I levels were higher in the TM groups than in controls, implying a mechanism by which heat manipulations in chicks affect muscle development, with locally secreted IGF-I playing a major role. Whereas hypertrophy was similar in both TM groups, cell proliferation and Pax7 levels were more robust in the 6-h muscle, mainly posthatch, suggesting a differential effect of various TM periods on cell reservoir vs. hypertrophy and a high sensitivity of myoblasts to relatively small changes in heat duration with respect to these processes, which is manifested in the short and long term. PMID:19023019

  13. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced P-450 mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in chick embryo liver (CEL) occurs in parenchymal cells (PC) rather than in non-parenchymal cells (NPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, L.; Rifkind, A.B. )

    1992-02-26

    TCDD induces cytochrome P-450 mediated AA metabolism in CEL and changes the dominant metabolite(s) from {omega}-OH AA to AA epoxygenase products (EETs and EET-diols). PC and NPC from CEL were separated by differential centrifugation and characterized by morphology, immunohistochemistry and P-450 mediated xenobiotic metabolism; purities were >95%. PC and NPC, from 16 day old chick embryos treated for 5 days with TCDD or vehicle alone, were cultured for 48 hr, homogenized and incubated with ({sup 14}C)-AA {plus minus} NADPH. AA products were resolved by reverse phase HPLC. The major product in control PC, {omega}-OH AA was not significantly affected by TCDD. All of the AA metabolism was NADPH dependent. Control and TCDD treated PC had the same metabolite patterns as whole liver microsomes. Neither control nor TCDD treated NPC generated P-450 AA metabolites. Also co-culturing NPC with PC did not affect AA metabolism of either cell type. The findings indicate that TCDD-induced changes in AA metabolism are retained in culture and that hepatocytes rather than NPC effect P-450 mediated AA metabolism in both control and TCDD-induced CEL.

  14. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF.

  15. Cellular contribution of the different regions of the somatopleure to the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Geduspan, J S; Solursh, M

    1992-11-01

    Regionalization of the presumptive limb region was examined before and at the onset of limb development by means of a variety of transplantation experiments between quail and chick embryos in ovo. The results demonstrate a two-step process, the first of which is the designation of the region of the somatopleure that would become part of the limb, followed by specification of dorsal and ventral regions of the limb. The medial half of the somatic mesoderm is the region which gives rise to the limb with only a smaller cellular contribution from the lateral half of the somatic mesoderm. The cellular contribution of the medial region of the somatopleure appeared to determine the type of limb formed (i.e., wing or leg). The second process relates to changes in the ability of the somatic ectoderm to undergo extensive lateral displacement with development. Starting at stage 14, the medial and lateral somatic ectoderms maintain their position after transplantation, in contrast to earlier stage limb or flank ectoderms which undergo extensive lateral displacement with development. The positional determination of the dorsal and ventral properties of the medial and lateral ectoderms of the prospective limb region and their distal displacement during limb outgrowth may be important morphogenetic events in limb development.

  16. FGF-stimulated outgrowth and proliferation of limb mesoderm is dependent on syndecan-3.

    PubMed

    Dealy, C N; Seghatoleslami, M R; Ferrari, D; Kosher, R A

    1997-04-15

    The outgrowth of the mesoderm of the developing limb bud in response to the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is mediated at least in part by members of the FGF family. Recent studies have indicated that FGFs need to interact with heparan sulfate proteoglycans in order to bind to and activate their specific cell surface receptors. Syndecan-3 is an integral membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is highly expressed by the distal mesodermal cells of the chick limb bud that are undergoing proliferation and outgrowth in response to the AER. Here we report that maintenance of high-level syndecan-3 expression by the subridge mesoderm of the chick limb bud is directly or indirectly dependent on the AER, since its expression is severely impaired in the distal mesoderm of the limb buds of limbless and wingless mutant embryos which lack functional AERs capable of directing the outgrowth of limb mesoderm. We have also found that exogenous FGF-2 maintains a domain of high-level syndecan-3 expression in the outgrowing mesodermal cells of explants of the posterior mesoderm of normal limb buds cultured in the absence of the AER and in the outgrowing subapical mesoderm of explants of limbless mutant limb buds which lack a functional AER. These results suggest that the domain of high-level syndecan-3 expression in the subridge mesoderm of normal limb buds is maintained by FGFs produced by the AER. Finally, we report that polyclonal antibodies against a syndecan-3 fusion protein inhibit the ability of FGF-2 to promote the proliferation and outgrowth of the posterior subridge mesoderm of limb buds cultured in the absence of the AER. These results suggest that syndecan-3 plays an essential role in limb outgrowth by mediating the interaction of FGFs produced by the AER with the underlying mesoderm of the limb bud.

  17. The disintegrin echistatin in combination with doxorubicin targets high-metastatic human osteosarcoma overexpressing αvβ3 integrin in chick embryo and nude mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Tome, Yasunori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kanaya, Fuminori; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Echistatin, a cyclic RGD peptide, which is an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin (disintegrin), inhibited human osteosarcoma in the chick chorioallontoic membrane (CAM) model and tumor growth and pulmonary metastases in a nude mouse orthotopic model. A high-metastatic variant of human osteosarcoma, 143B-LM4, overexpressing αvβ3 integrin was used. Tumor angiogenesis by high-metastatic variant 143B-LM4 cells in the CAM was significantly inhibited by echistatin (P<0.05) as was overall growth. A doxorubicin (DOX)-echistatin combination inhibited orthotopic tumor growth compared to untreated control (P<0.01) or DOX alone (P<0.05) in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with the DOX-echistatin combination survived longer than those treated with DOX alone or control PBS (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). Echistatin also inhibited experimental lung metastasis of 143B-LM4 cells in nude mice. These results suggest that DOX in combination with a disintegrin has potential to treat osteosarcoma and that αvβ3 integrin may be a target for osteosarcoma. PMID:27894082

  18. Environmental regulation of type X collagen production by cultures of limb mesenchyme, mesectoderm, and sternal chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Solursh, M; Jensen, K L; Reiter, R S; Schmid, T M; Linsenmayer, T F

    1986-09-01

    We have examined whether the production of hypertrophic cartilage matrix reflecting a late stage in the development of chondrocytes which participate in endochondral bone formation, is the result of cell lineage, environmental influence, or both. We have compared the ability of cultured limb mesenchyme and mesectoderm to synthesize type X collagen, a marker highly selective for hypertrophic cartilage. High density cultures of limb mesenchyme from stage 23 and 24 chick embryos contain many cells that react positively for type II collagen by immunohistochemistry, but only a few of these initiate type X collagen synthesis. When limb mesenchyme cells are cultured in or on hydrated collagen gels or in agarose (conditions previously shown to promote chondrogenesis in low density cultures), almost all initiate synthesis of both collagen types. Similarly, collagen gel cultures of limb mesenchyme from stage 17 embryos synthesize type II collagen and with some additional delay type X collagen. However, cytochalasin D treatment of subconfluent cultures on plastic substrates, another treatment known to promote chondrogenesis, induces the production of type II collagen, but not type X collagen. These results demonstrate that the appearance of type X collagen in limb cartilage is environmentally regulated. Mesectodermal cells from the maxillary process of stages 24 and 28 chick embryos were cultured in or on hydrated collagen gels. Such cells initiate synthesis of type II collagen, and eventually type X collagen. Some cells contain only type II collagen and some contain both types II and X collagen. On the other hand, cultures of mandibular processes from stage 29 embryos contain chondrocytes with both collagen types and a larger overall number of chondrogenic foci than the maxillary process cultures. Since the maxillary process does not produce cartilage in situ and the mandibular process forms Meckel's cartilage which does not hypertrophy in situ, environmental influences

  19. Phosphorylation of Lbx1 controls lateral myoblast migration into the limb.

    PubMed

    Masselink, Wouter; Masaki, Megumi; Sieiro, Daniel; Marcelle, Christophe; Currie, Peter D

    2017-08-24

    The migration of limb myogenic precursors from limb level somites to their ultimate site of differentiation in the limb is a paradigmatic example of a set of dynamic and orchestrated migratory cell behaviours. The homeobox containing transcription factor ladybird homeobox 1 (Lbx1) is a central regulator of limb myoblast migration, null mutations of Lbx1 result in severe disruptions to limb muscle formation, particularly in the distal region of the limb in mice (Gross et al., 2000). As such Lbx1 has been hypothesized to control lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb anlage. It acts as a core regulator of the limb myoblast migration machinery, controlled by Pax3. A secondary role for Lbx1 in the differentiation and commitment of limb musculature has also been proposed (Brohmann et al., 2000; Uchiyama et al., 2000). Here we show that lateral migration, but not differentiation or commitment of limb myoblasts, is controlled by the phosphorylation of three adjacent serine residues of LBX1. Electroporation of limb level somites in the chick embryo with a dephosphomimetic form of Lbx1 results in a specific defect in the lateral migration of limb myoblasts. Although the initial delamination and migration of myoblasts is unaffected, migration into the distal limb bud is severely disrupted. Interestingly, myoblasts undergo normal differentiation independent of their migratory status, suggesting that the differentiation potential of hypaxial muscle is not regulated by the phosphorylation state of LBX1. Furthermore, we show that FGF8 and ERK mediated signal transduction, both critical regulators of the developing limb bud, have the capacity to induce the phosphorylation of LBX1 at these residues. Overall, this suggests a mechanism whereby the phosphorylation of LBX1, potentially through FGF8 and ERK signalling, controls the lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb bud. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Long-term primary culture of neurons taken from chick embryo brain: A model to study neural cell biology, synaptogenesis and its dynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awanish; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2016-04-01

    Studying neuronal growth, development and synaptogenesis are among the hot research topics. However, it is faced with various challenges and technical limitations that include but not limited to donor's species and health, threat to life, age of embryo, glial contamination, real-time tracking, and follow-up. We have successfully standardized a method for long-term primary culture of neurons collected from post-fertilized 9 day incubated chicken embryo brain overcoming the limitations mentioned above. Fertilized eggs were incubated in the laboratory and neurons from the embryonic brain were collected and low-density culture, apparently without glial contamination, was studied at least for 35 days in vitro (DIV). Neurons were characterized by double immunostaining using stringent neuronal and glial markers. Neuronal differentiation, cytomorphology, neurite and axon formation, development and maturation, spine formation and synaptogenesis were tracked in real-time in a stage and time dependent manner. The neurons were transfected with Synaptophysin-RFP to label synaptic vesicles, which were followed in real-time under live-cell imaging. Every step was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Eggs are easily available, easy to handle, neurons from desired day of incubation could be conveniently studied for long period in apparently glia-free condition. In addition to common factors affecting primary culture, selection of culture media and cover glass coating are other key factors affecting neuronal cultures. We describe an inexpensive, simpler pure primary neuronal culture method for studying neuronal cell-biology, synaptogenesis, vesicular dynamics and it has potential to grow 3D-multilayered brain in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM).

    PubMed

    Sinning, Mariana; Letelier, René; Rosas, Carlos; Fuenzalida, Marcela; Lemus, David

    2012-01-01

    High-grade gliomas are highly vascularized tumors. Neo-angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and resistance to therapy. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample could be a useful way to obtain pro-angiogenic predictive or prognostic markers at different stages of the disease. As a first step we looked for pro-angiogenic activity in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas. We performed the chicken embryo chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay to study the angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), obtained either by lumbar puncture (LP) or craniotomy from six patients with high-grade brain tumors (three glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), one anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III), two anaplastic ganglioglioma (WHO grade III)), and four healthy controls. Significantly increased neo-angiogenesis was observed on the surface of the growing CAM in the 6 patients with high-grade gliomas compared to controls (3.69 ± 1.23 versus 2.16 ± 0.97 capillaries per area (mean ± SD), p<0.005). There was no statistical difference related to the hystological grade of the tumor (WHO grade III or IV), previous treatment (radio-chemotherapy plus temozolomide, temozolomide alone or no treatment), or the site of CSF sample (surgery or lumbar puncture). Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic potential in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas.

  2. Comparative study on the immunogenicity and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) administered according to two different simulated post exposure intramuscular regimens (Zagreb versus Essen)

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, BJ; Narayana, DH Ashwath; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Ravish, HS; Harish, BR; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Madhusudana, SN; Belludi, Ashwin; Ahmed, Khaleel; Jonnalagedda, Rekha; Vakil, Hoshang; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite availability of effective rabies vaccines, India has the highest global mortality rate for rabies. Low socio-economic communities are most affected due to lack of awareness of the disease and poor compliance to post-exposure prophylactic regimens. Currently, the only approved intramuscular regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies in India is the Essen regimen, which consists of 5 injections administered over 5 separate days in a period of one month. The high number of doses and clinical visits, however, are major reasons for non-compliance, and thus a shorter regimen would be beneficial. In a simulated PEP trial in healthy, adult subjects, this study evaluated whether purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV), administered according to the WHO-recommended 4-dose/3 visit Zagreb vaccination regimen is of equal immunogenicity and safety as the standard Essen regimen in Indian subjects. Two hundred and 50 healthy adults were enrolled and randomized into a Zagreb or Essen group, each receiving PCECV according to their respective regimen. Blood samples were collected on Days 0, 7, 14 and 42 and analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). By Day 14, all subjects across both groups attained rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations of ≥ 0.5IU/ml. The Zagreb regimen was then demonstrated to be immunologically non-inferior to the Essen regimen by Day 14, which was the primary endpoint of the study. No safety issues were noted and the occurrence of adverse events was similar in both groups (17% and 15%, respectively). NCT01365494. CTRI No.: CTRI/2011/07/001857 PMID:25692792

  3. The role of gravity in chick embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suda, T; Abe, E; Shinki, T; Katagiri, T; Yamaguchi, A; Yokose, S; Yoshiki, S; Horikawa, H; Cohen, G W; Yasugi, S

    1994-02-28

    Thirty fertilized chick eggs preincubated for 0, 7 and 10 days on earth (10 eggs each) were flown in the space shuttle 'Endeavour' and further incubated for 7 days under microgravity. Twenty out of thirty eggs (9/10 ten-day-old; 10/10 seven-day-old; 1/10 zero-day-old) were recovered alive after landing. The only living embryo of the zero-day-old group died 24 days after launch, and was comparable to a 16-day-old embryo. The high mortality of the 0-day-old eggs appeared to be related to the specific inner structure of the egg. Simulation experiments performed on earth indicated that when yolk stayed in the albumen for more than 2 days, most of the embryos died. The subtle difference in specific gravity between the yolk (1.029) and albumen (1.040) plays a critical role in early chick embryogenesis.

  4. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase by two- to five-carbon alcohols in cultured chick-embryo hepatocytes. Relationship to induction of cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, J F; Zaitlin, L M; Smith, E L; Howell, S K; Bonkovsky, H L; Sinclair, P R

    1986-01-01

    The induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase and of cytochrome P-450 by short-chain aliphatic alcohols was compared in primary cultures of chicken-embryo hepatocytes. Isopropyl alcohol, isobutanol, pentan-1-ol and isopentanol alone caused up to a 4-fold increase in 5-aminolaevulinate synthase, whereas ethanol and propan-1-ol did not. Induction of the synthase by isopentanol was maximal at 8 h, and reached a plateau thereafter, whereas the activity induced by 2-propyl-2-isopropylacetamide continued to increase for 20 h. In the presence of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, an inhibitor of haem synthesis at the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase step, synergistic induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase was observed with all the alcohols except ethanol. Ethanol, but not isopentanol, decreased the extent of induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase by 2-propyl-2-isopropylacetamide and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (50% decrease at 112 mM-ethanol). Total protein synthesis was not inhibited by ethanol in these cells. The composition of porphyrins was determined after treatment of cells with ethanol, isopentanol or 2-propyl-2-isopropylacetamide. Untreated cells, when incubated with 5-aminolaevulinate for 6 h, accumulated mainly protoporphyrin. However, when cells were pretreated with ethanol, isopentanol or 2-propyl-2-isopropylacetamide for 20 h, and 5-aminolaevulinate was added, 8- and 7-carboxyporphyrins increased, whereas protoporphyrin decreased. The dose responses for induction of either 5-aminolaevulinate synthase or cytochrome P-450 after a 20 h exposure to 3- to 5-carbon alcohols were identical. The results indicate that: simple alcohols can induce both enzymes; hydrophobicity increases their effectiveness; and induction of both enzymes are probably mediated by a common mechanism. PMID:3718476

  5. cAMP and in vivo hypoxia induce tob, ifr1, and fos expression in erythroid cells of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Stefanie; Offenhäuser, Nina; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2002-04-01

    During avian embryonic development, terminal erythroid differentiation occurs in the circulation. Some of the key events, such as the induction of erythroid 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), carbonic anhydrase (CAII), and pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) synthesis are oxygen dependent (Baumann R, Haller EA, Schöning U, and Weber M, Dev Biol 116: 548-551, 1986; Dragon S and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 280: R870-R878, 2001; Dragon S, Carey C, Martin K, and Baumann R, J Exp Biol 202: 2787-2795, 1999; Dragon S, Glombitza S, Götz R, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996; Dragon S, Hille R, Götz R, and Baumann R, Blood 91: 3052-3058, 1998; Million D, Zillner P, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 261: R1188-R1196, 1991) in an indirect way: hypoxia stimulates the release of norepinephrine (NE)/adenosine into the circulation (Dragon et al., J Exp Biol 202: 2787-2795, 1999; Dragon et al., Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996). This leads via erythroid beta-adrenergic/adenosine A(2) receptor activation to a cAMP signal inducing several proteins in a transcription-dependent manner (Dragon et al., Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996; Dragon et al., Blood 91: 3052-3058, 1998; Glombitza S, Dragon S, Berghammer M, Pannermayr M, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R973-R981, 1996). To understand how the cAMP-dependent processes are initiated, we screened an erythroid cDNA library for cAMP-regulated genes. We detected three genes that were strongly upregulated (>5-fold) by cAMP in definitive and primitive red blood cells. They are homologous to the mammalian Tob, Ifr1, and Fos proteins. In addition, the genes are induced in the intact embryo during short-term hypoxia. Because the genes are regulators of proliferation and differentiation in other cell types, we suggest that c

  6. Tgfβ2 and 3 are coexpressed with their extracellular regulator Ltbp1 in the early limb bud and modulate mesodermal outgrowth and BMP signaling in chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor β proteins (Tgfβs) are secreted cytokines with well-defined functions in the differentiation of the musculoskeletal system of the developing limb. Here we have studied in chicken embryos, whether these cytokines are implicated in the development of the embryonic limb bud at stages preceding tissue differentiation. Results Immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 indicates that signaling by this pathway is active in the undifferentiated mesoderm and AER. Gene expression analysis shows that transcripts of tgfβ2 and tgfβ3 but not tgfβ1 are abundant in the growing undifferentiated limb mesoderm. Transcripts of tgfβ2 are also found in the AER, which is the signaling center responsible for limb outgrowth. Furthermore, we show that Latent Tgfβ Binding protein 1 (LTBP1), which is a key extracellular modulator of Tgfβ ligand bioavailability, is coexpressed with Tgfβs in the early limb bud. Administration of exogenous Tgfβs to limb buds growing in explant cultures provides evidence of these cytokines playing a role in the regulation of mesodermal limb proliferation. In addition, analysis of gene regulation in these experiments revealed that Tgfβ signaling has no effect on the expression of master genes of musculoskeletal tissue differentiation but negatively regulates the expression of the BMP-antagonist Gremlin. Conclusion We propose the occurrence of an interplay between Tgfβ and BMP signaling functionally associated with the regulation of early limb outgrowth by modulating limb mesenchymal cell proliferation. PMID:20565961

  7. Transformation of the glucocorticoid receptor in the cell-free cytosol of the neural retina of the chick embryo: changes in the size and charge of the receptor complex during transformation suggest a multistage process.

    PubMed

    Ben-Or, S; Chrambach, A

    1988-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of the glucocorticoid receptors (GR), and the molecular changes induced during their transformation in the cell-free cytosol of the neural retina of the chick embryo, were investigated. The surface charge of the various size forms of the GR complex was determined on gel filtration and/or glycerol density gradient-isolated GR, by electrofocusing under nondenaturing conditions. The nontransformed molybdate-stabilized GR in hypotonic buffer (containing PMSF) appears as a 350 kilodalton (kDa) complex (Rs = 8.6 nm, S = 9.5), with an apparent pI value (pI') of 4.4 +/- 0.1. The GRs in heat or salt-activated cytosols appear as a 90 kDa hormone-receptor complex (Rs = 5.6 +/- 0.2, S = 3.9 +/- 0.1), which is resolved as a major peak with a pI' value of 6.2 +/- 0.1 and a minor peak with a pI' value of 5.4. The transformation of the 350 kDa oligomer to the 90 kDa monomer occurs in three stages. Two distinct dissociation steps were induced by 0.4 M KCl: (a) the dissociation of the 350 kDa complex to a 170 kDa complex (Rs = 7.8 +/- 0.2, S = 5.1 +/- 0.2), exhibiting a pI' value of 5.6 +/- 0.2, induced by salt and not inhibited by molybdate; and (b) the dissociation of the 170 kDa complex to the 102 kDa complex (Rs = 5.6 +/- 0.2, S = 4.4), also exhibiting a pI' value of 5.6 +/- 0.2, which is blocked by molybdate. The third step, the transition of the 102 kDa complex to the activated (nuclear-like), 90 kDa form, is dependent on cytosolic factors. It is induced in the isotonic milieu by physiological temperatures, and in the cold by exposing the crude cytosol to 0.4 M KCl. The nature of this cytosolic processing step is unknown. It occurs in the presence of PMSF, which presumably inhibits proteolytic GR degradation in the cytosol of the neural retina. Activated GR complexes tend to aggregate. Molybdate inhibits activation-induced GR-aggregation.

  8. One-year immunogenicity kinetics and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine and an inactivated Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine administered concomitantly according to a new, 1-week, accelerated primary series.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Jakob P; Jelinek, Tomas; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Reisinger, Emil C; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Alberer, Martin; Bühler, Silja; Bosse, Dietrich; Meyer, Seetha; Fragapane, Elena; Costantini, Marco; Pellegrini, Michele; Lattanzi, Maria; Dovali, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Conventional rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) primary series vaccination regimens each require up to 4 weeks to complete and, thus, may not be feasible for individuals who need these immunizations on short notice. This Phase 3b, randomized, controlled, observer-blind study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a purified chick embryo cell culture rabies vaccine and an inactivated, adsorbed JE vaccine according to an accelerated (1 week) regimen when compared with the conventional regimens (4 weeks). This report describes the kinetics of immune responses up to 1 year after vaccination. A total of 661 healthy adults (18 to ≤65 years) were randomized into the following accelerated or conventional vaccine regimens: Rabies + JE-Conventional, Rabies + JE-Accelerated, Rabies-Conventional and JE-Conventional. Immunogenicity was assessed by virus neutralization tests. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. Irrespective of rabies vaccination regimen, ≥97% of subjects had adequate levels of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations (≥0.5 IU/ml) up to Day 57, with percentages of subjects with RVNA concentrations ≥0.5 IU/ml at Day 366 ranging between 68% in the Rabies + JE-Accelerated group and 80% of subjects in the Rabies-Conventional group. The Rabies + JE-Accelerated group revealed high JE neutralizing antibody titers at all-time points. At Day 366, the percentage of subjects with antibody titers indicative of seroprotection (PRNT50 titers ≥1:10) remained high across JE vaccine groups (86-94%). The accelerated PrEP rabies and JE vaccination regimens, once licensed, could represent a valid alternative in the short-term to currently recommended conventional regimens. The concomitant administration of these two vaccines does not compromise immune responses to any of the vaccine antigens particularly when aiming for short-term protection. Further evidence

  9. Retroviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer into the Chick Optic Vesicle by In Ovo Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuta, Hiraki; Suzuki, Ryoko; Noda, Masaharu

    The chick embryo offers many advantages for developmental studies over other vertebrate embryos as it allows easy access for in ovo surgical manipulations, such as tissue transplantation and the implantation of cultured cells or chemically treated beads for the local release of humoral factors. In particular, owing to its external position in the embryo, the chick eye is a popular model for studying the patterning mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS). This patterning has a crucial role in shaping functional organization because it is the basis of the specific wiring in the CNS. Genetic analysis is not easy in the chick, as compared with the mouse for which transgene introduction or gene targeting techniques have been well established. However, because methods for the expression of exogenous genes and for gene silencing in the chick embryo have been recently developed, the functional analysis of genes has become possible in combination with classical techniques of developmental biology and neurobiology.

  10. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  11. Chicken transcription factor AP-2: cloning, expression and its role in outgrowth of facial prominences and limb buds.

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Wilke, T; Ashique, A M; Narvey, M; Zerucha, T; Savino, E; Williams, T; Richman, J M

    1997-08-15

    Embryonic facial development in chick embryos involves a sequential activation of genes that control differential growth and patterning of the beak. In the present study we isolate one such gene, the transcription factor, AP-2, that is known to be expressed in the face of mouse embryos. The protein sequence of chick AP-2alpha is 94% homologous to human and mouse AP-2. Wholemount in situ hybridization with a probe for chick AP-2 identifies expression from primitive streak stages up to stage 28. The most striking expression patterns in the head are during neural crest cell migration when AP-2 transcripts follow closely the tracts previously mapped for neural crest cells. Later, expression in the facial mesenchyme is strongest in the frontonasal mass and lateral nasal prominences and is downregulated in the maxillary and mandibular prominences. Once limb buds are visible, high expression is seen in the distal mesenchyme but not in the apical ectodermal ridge. The expression patterns of AP-2 in stage 20 embryos suggested that the gene may be important in "budding out" of facial prominences and limb buds. We implanted beads soaked in retinoic acid in the right nasal pit of stage 20 embryos resulting in a specific inhibition of outgrowth of the frontonasal mass and lateral nasal prominences. AP-2 expression was completely down-regulated in the lateral nasal within 8 hr of bead application. In addition, the normal up-regulation of AP-2 in the frontonasal mass did not occur following retinoic-acid treatment. There was an increase in programmed cell death around the right nasal pit that accompanied the down-regulation of AP-2. Prominences whose morphogenesis were not affected by retinoic acid did not have altered expression patterns. We removed the apical ectodermal ridge in stage 20 limb buds and found that AP-2 expression was partially downregulated 4 hr following ridge removal and completely downregulated 8 hr following stripping. Application of an FGF-4 soaked bead to

  12. How is digit identity determined during limb development?

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Digit identity has been studied using the chick embryo as a model system for more than 40 years. Using this model system, several milestone findings have been reported, such as the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), the Shh gene, and the theory of morphogen and positional information. These experimental results and models provided context for understanding pattern formation in developmental biology. The focus of this review is on the determination of digit identity during limb development. First, the history of studies on digit identity determination is described, followed by descriptions of the molecular mechanisms and current models for determination of digit identity. Finally, future questions and remarkable points will be discussed.

  13. Modeling Chick to Assess Diabetes Pathogenesis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Savita P.; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:22189547

  14. Modeling chick to assess diabetes pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Datar, Savita P; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have been used extensively in diabetes research. Studies on animal models have contributed to the discovery and purification of insulin, development of new therapeutic approaches, and progress in fundamental and clinical research. However, conventional rodent and large animal mammalian models face ethical, practical, or technical limitations. Therefore, it would be beneficial developing an alternative model for diabetes research which would overcome these limitations. Amongst other vertebrates, birds are phylogenically closer to mammals, and amongst birds, the chick has been used as one of the favored models in developmental biology, toxicology, cancer research, immunology, and drug testing. Chicken eggs are readily available, have a short incubation period and easily accessible embryos. Based on these inimitable advantages, the present review article aims to discuss the suitability of the chick as a model system to study specific aspects of diabetes. The review focuses on the application of i) chick pancreatic islets for screening of antidiabetic agents and for islet banking, (ii) shell-less chick embryo culture as a model to study hyperglycemia-induced malformations observed in mammalian embryos, and (iii) chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to examine glucose-induced endothelial damage leading to inhibition of angiogenesis. Copyright © by Lab & Life Press/SBDR

  15. IGF-I and insulin in the acquisition of limb-forming ability by the embryonic lateral plate.

    PubMed

    Dealy, C N; Kosher, R A

    1996-07-10

    Acquisition of limb-forming ability by discrete regions of the lateral plate of the chick embryo is dependent on a medial-lateral inductive signaling cascade moving sequentially from the area of Hensen's node to the somitic mesoderm, the intermediate mesoderm, and then to the prospective limb-forming regions of the lateral plate. IGF-I and insulin are expressed by medial tissues as they are influencing the prospective limb-forming regions of the lateral plate. Here we report that IGF-I and insulin, but not FGF-2 or FGF-4, induce the formation of limb bud-like structures in vitro from prospective limb regions before they have acquired the ability to form limbs independent of medial tissues, and also induce the formation of limb bud-like structures from the prospective flank. The limb bud-like structures induced by IGF-I and insulin possess a thickened cap of ectoderm along their distal tips that resembles the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and this thickened distal apical ectoderm expresses the AER-characteristic homeobox-containing gene Msx-2. Like in normal limb buds, a population of highly proliferating cells which express the homeobox-containing gene Msx-1 are localized in the mesoderm directly subjacent to the thickened AER-like structures induced by IGF-I and insulin. However, the limb bud-like structures induced by IGF-I and insulin do not express sonic hedgehog, which encodes a secreted signaling molecule that has been implicated in regulating the anteroposterior patterning of the developing limb bud. IGF-I- and insulin-treated prospective limb explants give rise to rudimentary limbs containing identifiable skeletal elements when grafted into the coelom or to somites of host embryos. Overall, these results suggest that IGF-I and insulin may be endogenous signals produced by medial tissues that are involved in conferring limb-forming ability to the lateral plate and may promote the initial outgrowth of limb buds and possibly induce the AER. However, other

  16. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Walstra, I; Ten Napel, J; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-07-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation. Thermally manipulated embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation and were exposed to 40 degrees C for 4 h/d from embryonic d 14 to 18 (TM chicks). After hatch, chicks from each treatment were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 32 per group) and were subjected to a temperature preference test at d 1, 7, or 33. One day after the temperature preference test, each subgroup was exposed to 1 thermal challenge for 4 h (d 2, 40 degrees C; d 8, 40 degrees C; or d 34, 35 degrees C). Effects of TM on (fearfulness) behavior of chicks were investigated in a tonic immobility test and during home pen observations. Temperature manipulation decreased incubation time with 7 h (P < 0.0001) and body temperature at hatch with 0.2 degrees C (P = 0.002). The TM chicks preferred a lower ambient temperature in the temperature preference test (P < 0.05) and showed a higher body temperature response than CC chicks to the thermal challenge at d 2 and 8 (P < 0.05). No effects of TM on behavior and performance were observed. Because most TM studies are conducted in broilers, this study is the first attempt to unravel the effects of TM during late embryogenesis on posthatch environmental adaptation in layer chicks. The results demonstrated that effects of our TM on postnatal temperature preference and response to high environmental temperatures are only found until d 8 of age. This may suggest 1 of 3 options: a) the timing or the level, or both, of TM and duration were not at the sensitive period of embryogenesis or not sufficient, or both, respectively; b) the level of the postnatal thermal challenge was not strong enough to

  17. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

  18. Hyaluronan in limb morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingcui; Toole, Bryan P; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2007-05-15

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a large glycosaminoglycan that is not only a structural component of extracellular matrices, but also interacts with cell surface receptors to promote cell proliferation, migration, and intracellular signaling. HA is a major component of the extracellular matrix of the distal subapical mesenchymal cells of the developing limb bud that are undergoing proliferation, directed migration, and patterning in response to the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), and has the functional potential to be involved in these processes. Here we show that the HA synthase Has2 is abundantly expressed by the distal subridge mesodermal cells of the chick limb bud and also by the AER itself. Has2 expression and HA production are downregulated in the proximal central core of the limb bud during the formation of the precartilage condensations of the skeletal elements, suggesting that downregulation of HA may be necessary for the close juxtaposition of cells and the resulting cell-cell interactions that trigger cartilage differentiation during condensation. Overexpression of Has2 in the mesoderm of the chick limb bud in vivo results in the formation of shortened and severely malformed limbs that lack one or more skeletal elements. Skeletal elements that do form in limbs overexpressing Has2 are reduced in length, exhibit abnormal morphology, and are positioned inappropriately. We also demonstrate that sustained HA production in micromass cultures of limb mesenchymal cells inhibits formation of precartilage condensations and subsequent chondrogenesis, indicating that downregulation of HA is indeed necessary for formation of the precartilage condensations that trigger cartilage differentiation. Taken together these results suggest involvement of HA in various aspects of limb morphogenesis.

  19. Analysis of upper beak defects in chicken embryos following with retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Tamarin, A; Crawley, A; Lee, J; Tickle, C

    1984-12-01

    Implanting inert carriers soaked in retinoic acid into the anterior margin of the developing limb of chicken embryos leads to orofacial malformations as well as affecting pattern formation in the limb. Using anion-exchange beads as carriers, and soaking solutions of 1-10 mg/ml retinoic acid, almost 100% of the embryos have malformations of the face. The effects on the treated limbs range from symmetrical patterns of duplicated digits (maximum number of digits being four) to truncations in which no digits were formed at all. Typically, in the malformed faces the upper beak is completely absent, no nostrils are present and the front of the face forms a scalloped rim of tissue above the mouth. By reference to normal beak development, the seven bulges of tissue that make up the rim can be identified as derivatives of the masses of tissue that normally would fuse to form the upper beak. The roof of the mouth consists of three bulges of tissue flanked by widely separated palatal shelves. The defect can thus be classified as severe bilateral clefting of the primary palate. By examining the morphology of the faces of treated embryos, the origin of the defect can be traced to failure of the frontonasal mass to enlarge. Thus, the oronasal fissures are very wide and fusion across them to form the primary palate cannot occur. The way in which retinoic acid brings about the defect is discussed in relation to possible mechanisms involved in the production of cleft palate. The parallel is noted between the associated effects of retinoic acid on beak and limb morphogenesis and the chick mutation cpp, that also affects both face and limbs.

  20. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of gestational ethanol exposure on long-term memory formation in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Rao, Venugopal; Chaudhuri, Joydeep D

    2007-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition occurring in some children of mothers who have consumed alcohol during pregnancy, is characterized by craniofacial malformations, and physical and mental retardation. It is significant that even children with history of gestational ethanol exposure but relatively unaffected overall IQ performance, often exhibit learning difficulties and behavioral problems, suggestive of impaired memory formation. Hence, the specific aim of this study was to examine memory formation in chicks exposed to ethanol during early gestation toward the understanding of neurobehavioral disturbances in FAS. Chicks were exposed to alcohol on gestational days 1-3 by injection of ethanol into the airspace of freshly fertilized eggs. The effects of prenatal ethanol on physical growth and development, and memory formation were studied. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm in 1-day-old chicks was used to study memory formation in these chicks. It was observed that chick embryos exposed to 10% ethanol on gestational days 1-3 had significant reduction in all body parameters when compared with appropriate controls. Further, ethanol-exposed chick embryos had significantly impaired (P<.05) long-term memory (LTM) formation after training, though short-term or intermediate-term memory formation was unimpaired. Thus, the findings of the current study demonstrate the detrimental effects of ethanol exposure during early pregnancy on developing chick embryos in general and on memory formation in particular. Hence, it is suggested that impairment in LTM could be a fundamental mechanism for learning disorders and neurobehavioral abnormalities observed in FAS.

  2. Effects of early and delayed visual experience on intersensory development in bobwhite quail chicks.

    PubMed

    Banker, H; Lickliter, R

    1993-04-01

    The relative impact of early versus delayed visual experience on intersensory development was studied by manipulating the timing of visual experience of bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos and hatchlings. Previous studies with quail chicks have revealed that: (1) Socially reared chicks require only maternal auditory cues to direct their social preferences in the first 2 days following hatching; (2) by 3 days following hatching chicks require both auditory and visual maternal cues to direct their social preferences; (3) chicks which have received unusually early visual experience as embryos require both auditory and visual cues by 24 hr following hatching, indicating an accelerated pattern of the emergence of intersensory functioning; and (4) chicks reared under conditions of attenuated social and visual experience continue to rely on maternal auditory cues alone at 4 days following hatching, indicating a decelerated pattern of early intersensory functioning. In the present study, quail chicks that received both early visual experience as embryos and delayed visual experience as hatchlings exhibited a pattern of both auditory and visual responsiveness like that seen in normally reared chicks. These results indicate that, at least under the present experimental conditions, the influence of early and delayed visual experience on perinatal perceptual development appears to be relatively comparable in effect.

  3. Interdigital cell death in the embryonic limb is associated with depletion of Reelin in the extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Mendoza, M J; Lorda-Diez, C I; Montero, J A; García-Porrero, J A; Hurlé, J M

    2013-01-01

    Interdigital cell death is a physiological regression process responsible for sculpturing the digits in the embryonic vertebrate limb. Changes in the intensity of this degenerative process account for the different patterns of interdigital webbing among vertebrate species. Here, we show that Reelin is present in the extracellular matrix of the interdigital mesoderm of chick and mouse embryos during the developmental stages of digit formation. Reelin is a large extracellular glycoprotein which has important functions in the developing nervous system, including neuronal survival; however, the significance of Reelin in other systems has received very little attention. We show that reelin expression becomes intensely downregulated in both the chick and mouse interdigits preceding the establishment of the areas of interdigital cell death. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factors, which are cell survival signals for the interdigital mesoderm, intensely upregulated reelin expression, while BMPs, which are proapototic signals, downregulate its expression in the interdigit. Gene silencing experiments of reelin gene or its intracellular effector Dab-1 confirmed the implication of Reelin signaling as a survival factor for the limb undifferentiated mesoderm. We found that Reelin activates canonical survival pathways in the limb mesoderm involving protein kinase B and focal adhesion kinase. Our findings support that Reelin plays a role in interdigital cell death, and suggests that anoikis (apoptosis secondary to loss of cell adhesion) may be involved in this process. PMID:24030152

  4. Avian embryo monitoring during incubation using multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Chaebeom; Park, Hyun-cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Song, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Determining the survival rate of avian embryos during incubation is essential for cost-saving in the poultry industry. A multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA) system, comprising four optical fiber channels, is proposed to achieve noninvasive in vivo measurements of deep tissue flow. The system was able to monitor chick embryo vital signs over the entire incubation period. Moreover, it proved useful in distinguishing between chick embryos in healthy and weakened conditions. PMID:26819820

  5. Arithmetic in newborn chicks

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Fontanari, Laura; Simoni, Eleonora; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Newly hatched domestic chicks were reared with five identical objects. On days 3 or 4, chicks underwent free-choice tests in which sets of three and two of the five original objects disappeared (either simultaneously or one by one), each behind one of two opaque identical screens. Chicks spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set (experiment 1). Results were confirmed under conditions controlling for continuous variables (total surface area or contour length; experiment 2). In the third experiment, after the initial disappearance of the two sets (first event, FE), some of the objects were visibly transferred, one by one, from one screen to the other (second event, SE). Thus, computation of a series of subsequent additions or subtractions of elements that appeared and disappeared, one by one, was needed in order to perform the task successfully. Chicks spontaneously chose the screen, hiding the larger number of elements at the end of the SE, irrespective of the directional cues provided by the initial (FE) and final (SE) displacements. Results suggest impressive proto-arithmetic capacities in the young and relatively inexperienced chicks of this precocial species. PMID:19364746

  6. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  7. Diverse range of fixed positional deformities and bone growth restraint provoked by flaccid paralysis in embryonic chicks

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Katherine J; Lewthwaite, Jo C; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Dominic; Kavanagh, Emma; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P D; Pitsillides, Andrew A

    2003-01-01

    Pancuronium bromide (PB) is used in neonates and pregnant women to induce limp, flaccid paralysis in order to allow mechanical ventilation during intensive care. Such non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs are administered to 0.1% of all human births in the UK. In this study, we examined PB effects on skeletal development in chick embryos. PB treatment produced skeletal deformities associated with significant reduction in longitudinal growth of all appendicular elements. This was associated with greater cartilage to bone ratios, indicating a preferential reduction in osteogenesis. PB also increased the incidence of knee joint flexion and tibiotarsal joint hyperextension. In addition to limb, spinal and craniofacial deformities, flaccid immobility appears to convert the normal geometric pattern of weight gain to a simple arithmetic accretion. This novel study highlights the potentially harmful effects of pharmacologically induced flaccid immobility on chick embryonic skeletal development. Whilst in ovo avian development clearly differs from human, our findings may have implications for the fetus, premature and term neonate receiving such non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs. PMID:14632633

  8. Accelerated maturation of limb mesenchyme by the BrachypodH mouse mutation.

    PubMed

    Owens, E M; Solursh, M

    1983-01-01

    Mesenchyme cell populations prepared from proximal and distal halves of stage 20 mouse forelimb buds are shown to behave under in vitro micromass culture conditions like analogous cell populations obtained from chick embryo limb buds. While the distal cells are spontaneously chondrogenic, the proximal cells make aggregates which are only potentially chondrogenic after treatment with dibutyryl cyclic AMP. In addition, stage 20 mouse whole limb bud cells homozygous for the brachypodismH (bpH) mutation are shown to behave similarly to 'normal' proximal cells. Both make fewer aggregates and nodules and both have faster aggregation rates (determined as the rate of disappearance of single cells over time) in rotation cultures than 'normal' distal or whole limb bud cells. These results support the hypothesis that the bpH mutation specifically decreases the proportion of spontaneously chondrogenic mesenchyme cells (that is, distal-like cells) present at certain developmental stages in the limb bud, resulting in a prematurely high proportion of proximal-like cells.

  9. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  10. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  11. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors.

  12. Processes involved in retinoic acid production of small embryonic palatal shelves and limb defects.

    PubMed

    Abbott, B D; Hill, L G; Birnbaum, L S

    1990-03-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is teratogenic to the embryonic mouse, producing malformations in many developing systems, including the limb bud and palate. High incidences of limb defects and cleft palate are induced at doses which are not maternally toxic and do not increase resorptions. Exposure to RA on gestational day (GD) 10 results in small palatal shelves, which fail to make contact on GD 14. The formation of small shelves could be a consequence of increased cell death, reduced proliferation, a combination of these effects, or some other effect such as inhibition of extracellular matrix production. After exposure to 100 mg RA/kg on GD 10, proliferation in mesenchymal cells of the palatal shelves was not reduced from GD 12 to GD 14 and the levels of cell death in control and treated shelves did not differ when observed by light and electron microscopy. The present study examines the effects of RA on cell death and proliferation from GDs 10-12 and compares the effects in palatal shelves and limb buds. Embryonic mice were exposed to RA suspended in corn oil (100 mg/kg on GD 10), a dose that was teratogenic but not maternally toxic or embryolethal. Embryos were collected at 4, 12, 24, 36, or 48 hr postexposure, and tissues which form the palate or limb were dissected from the embryos, stained by a modified Feulgen procedure, and whole mounted on slides. Mitotic index (MI) and percentage dead cells were determined for mesenchymal cells of the first visceral arch, maxillary process, or palatal shelf (depending on stage of development) and forelimb buds. In the palatal tissues from GD 10 to GD 12, RA did not significantly alter MI and percentage dead cells was significantly increased only at 4 hr postexposure. Some whole embryos were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At 48 hr (GD 12) a reduction in the size of the shelves was not apparent on SEM. In the limb buds, RA did not increase percentage dead cells, but MI was significantly decreased. A

  13. Loss of J chain during primary immune responses in chicks.

    PubMed

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1984-12-01

    J chain positive cells (JPC) were studied by direct immunofluorescence in embryonic and newly hatched chicks. The results indicated a decrease in the amounts of JPC in the embryonic spleen and bursa of Fabricius after in ovo antigenic stimulation with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) compared with that of unstimulated lymphocytes. The level of thymic JPC in the control chicks and those subjected to antigenic stimulation was always about the same. Partial re-expression of the J chain in splenic lymphocytes was detected in newly hatched, antibody producing chicks, while the percentage of JPC in non-antibody producing chicks did not recover to the control level. Further evidence obtained indicated that the JPC decreases did not depend on the antigen dosage. After antigenic stimulation, J chain re-expression in cells of embryos and newly hatched non-antibody producing chicks was found to be essentially the same. These findings imply that the re-expression of J chain molecules is associated with immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, it seems plausible that the non-re-expression of the J chain occurred at the time of immunological unresponsiveness.

  14. Loss of J chain during primary immune responses in chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1984-01-01

    J chain positive cells (JPC) were studied by direct immunofluorescence in embryonic and newly hatched chicks. The results indicated a decrease in the amounts of JPC in the embryonic spleen and bursa of Fabricius after in ovo antigenic stimulation with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) compared with that of unstimulated lymphocytes. The level of thymic JPC in the control chicks and those subjected to antigenic stimulation was always about the same. Partial re-expression of the J chain in splenic lymphocytes was detected in newly hatched, antibody producing chicks, while the percentage of JPC in non-antibody producing chicks did not recover to the control level. Further evidence obtained indicated that the JPC decreases did not depend on the antigen dosage. After antigenic stimulation, J chain re-expression in cells of embryos and newly hatched non-antibody producing chicks was found to be essentially the same. These findings imply that the re-expression of J chain molecules is associated with immunoglobulin production. Furthermore, it seems plausible that the non-re-expression of the J chain occurred at the time of immunological unresponsiveness. PMID:6439453

  15. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  16. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals.

  17. Cadmium teratogenesis in the chick: period of vulnerability using the early chick culture method, and prevention by divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, Jennifer; Bannigan, John; Thompson, Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is teratogenic in chick embryos following treatment in ovo or in shell-less culture. We investigated the ability of other divalent cations (Mn, Ni, Se, Mg and Ca) to influence the effects of Cd. As the proposed mechanism of protection of these ions is prevention of Cd influx by blocking or competing for Ca channels, we also assessed verapamil, a Ca-channel blocker. We used a new, completely ex ovo method, explanting the embryos onto an agar-albumen substrate (0.6% agar diluted 1:1 with thin albumen) to which test substances were added. Following 48-96 h incubation, chicks were explanted onto medium containing 7.5 microM Cd acetate or equimolar sodium acetate. Morphology and somite numbers were assessed at explantation, and again following 24h incubation on the culture media. In addition, 60-h embryos were explanted onto media containing various concentrations of the aforementioned agents, alone or in combination with 7.5 microM Cd. Chicks were vulnerable to Cd teratogenesis between Hamburger-Hamilton stages 13 and 18. Co-treatment with Se, Mn and Ni prevented malformation at 2x, 50 x and 100 x the molar dose of Cd, respectively. Ca, Mg and verapamil failed to protect. These results indicate that some, but not all, divalent cations protect against Cd malformation, but the mechanism of rescue remains unresolved.

  18. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos.

  19. Otic Lesions and Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Developing Chick*

    PubMed Central

    Bargman, Gerald J.; Gardner, Lytt I.

    1967-01-01

    In an effort to elucidate the relation, if any, between thyroid abnormality and congenital deafness in Pendred's syndrome, an experiment was designed to study the effects of hypothyroidism on middle and inner ear hearing structures, including the auditory nerve and its central projection, in developing chick embryos. Propylthiouracil (PTU), 2 mg, was injected into the albumin of fertile chick eggs on the 10th incubation day. Single doses of L-thyroxine (range 1-100μg) were inoculated in a similar manner, either alone or with PTU. Control inocula included sterile saline or water. After hatching, each chick was examined for obvious malformations. The thyroid glands, middle and inner ear mechanisms, auditory nerve, and brainstem were studied grossly and with different histologic staining techniques. When compared to controls, chicks exposed to PTU on their 10th incubation day exhibited: increased mortality, delayed hatching, reduced size, incomplete yolk sac absorption, and death within 5 days unless exogenous thyroid hormone was provided in the first 24-48 hr after hatching. Specific, consistent, morphologic alterations were observed in their thyroid glands as well as in the sensory hair cells of the acoustic papilla and cells of the spiral ganglion of the cochlea. Our data also indicate that if 50-75 μg of L-thyroxine is given simultaneously with (or as long as 120 hr after) the PTU injection on the 10th incubation day, one cannot detect the gross defects, marked thyroid lesions, or abnormal histology in cells of the cochlea and its ganglion. A relationship between embryonic thyroid gland function and the hearing mechanism of the chick embryo is suggested. Images PMID:6070327

  20. Fibroblast growth factor receptor levels decrease during chick embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Two putative receptors for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) of approximately 150 and 200 kD were identified in membrane preparations from chick embryos. Specific binding (femtomoles/milligram) of 125I- aFGF to whole chick embryonic membranes was relatively constant from day 2 to 7, then decreased fivefold between days 7 and 13. Day-19 chick embryos retained 125I-aFGF binding at low levels to brain, eye, and liver tissues but not to skeletal muscle or cardiac tissues. The 200-kD FGF receptor began to decline between day 4.5 and 7 and was barely detectable by day 9, whereas the 150-kD FGF receptor began to decline by day 7 but was still detectable in day-9 embryonic membranes. It is not known whether the two FGF-binding proteins represent altered forms of one polypeptide, but it is clear that their levels undergo differential changes during development. Because endogenous chick FGF may remain bound to FGF receptor in membrane preparations, membranes were treated with acidic (pH 4.0) buffers to release bound FGF; such treatment did not affect 125I-aFGF binding and moderately increased the number of binding sites in day-7 and -19 embryos. Consequently, the observed loss of high affinity 125I-aFGF binding sites and FGF-binding polypeptides most likely represents a loss of FGF receptor protein. These experiments provide in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that regulation of FGF receptor levels may function as a mechanism for controlling FGF-dependent processes during embryonic development. PMID:2153684

  1. Recent advances in the study of limb development: the emergence and function of the apical ectodermal ridge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Leon, Joaquin; Tomas, Ana Raquel; Johnson, Austin; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrate extremities develop from limb buds, which emerge as paired protrusions in the lateral plate mesoderm. Forelimb buds are located anteriorly and hindlimb buds are positioned posteriorly. The morphogenesis of the limb requires coordinated actions of several organizing centers, among which the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) plays crucial roles in limb development. Recent studies have shown how the life of the AER (induction, maturation, maintenance and regression) is regulated. This regulation includes cell type- and process- specific roles of previously identified molecules, such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), Wnts and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The studies have also revealed several new players, such as Arid3b, R-Spondin 2 and Flrt3. These advances have enhanced the understanding of how the AER is regulated from its emergence to its regression. Progress has also been made in understanding AER function in relation to processes critical for limb development: proximal-distal patterning, anterior-posterior patterning, chondrogenesis and apoptosis. By focusing on two major model systems, chick and mouse embryos, we will review recent advances in combination with relevant previous studies in the development and function of the AER.

  2. The effect of lesions in the neural crest on the formation of synaptic connexions in the embryonic chick spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Anne-Lill; Jansen, Jan K. S.; Ribchester, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    1. The pattern of synaptic activity in lateral gastrocnemius (l.g.) motoneurones in the lumbar spinal cord of chick embryos (Stage 44-45, 19-21 d of incubation) has been examined using intracellular recording. In the motoneurones of normal chick embryos, stimulation of different peripheral, sciatic nerve branches gave rise to characteristic synaptic responses. Stimulation of the lateral gastrocnemius nerve caused a monosynaptic e.p.s.p. which was graded by the intensity of nerve stimulation. Stimulation of synergistic muscle afferents also caused a brief latency e.p.s.p., followed by longer latency excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials. Stimulation of antagonistic muscle afferents or cutaneous afferents gave rise to longer latency inhibitory and excitatory synaptic potentials respectively. 2. The synaptic activity of l.g. motoneurones was also recorded in embryos in which short segments of the lumbar neural crest had been destroyed by microcautery at 3 d of incubation (Stage 18). The embryos developed without sensory ganglia and dorsal roots in the corresponding region. 3. At 19-21 d of incubation, the amplitude of the l.g. e.p.s.p. of l.g. motoneurones in deafferented segments was on the average only a half to a third of the amplitude seen in motoneurones of intact spinal segments. However, both the l.g. and synergist e.p.s.p.s were larger than those seen in acutely deafferented segments of normal embryos. 4. In spite of the weak monosynaptic input from l.g. and synergistic afferents, the pattern of synaptic activity evoked by antagonistic muscle afferent or cutaneous afferent stimulation was not different from normal. This was even the case for gastrocnemius motoneurones in which no early e.p.s.p. could be evoked by stimulating the l.g. or synergistic muscle nerves. 5. No muscle spindles could be seen in sections of l.g. muscles from embryos with extensive lesions of the lumbosacral neural crest. Incomplete lesions of l.g. segments reduced the number of

  3. Perinatal development of circadian melatonin production in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Zeman, M; Gwinner, E; Herichová, I; Lamosová, D; Kost'ál, L

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the situation in mammals, in which circadian melatonin production by the pineal gland does not begin until some time after birth, the development of pineal gland rhythmicity is an embryonic event in the precocial domestic fowl. A distinct melatonin rhythm was found in 19-d-old chick embryos maintained under light:dark (LD) 16:8. No significant variation in melatonin levels was detected in embryos exposed to LD 8:16. The melatonin rhythm in the pineal gland and plasma of chick embryos incubated for 18 d in LD 12:12 persisted for 2 d in constant darkness indicating that melatonin production is under circadian control at least from the end of embryonic life. A 1-d exposure to a LD cycle during the first postembryonic day was sufficient to entrain the melatonin rhythm, and previous embryonic exposure to either LD or constant darkness (DD) neither modified this rapid synchronization nor did it affect the melatonin pattern during the two subsequent days in DD. It is suggested that, in contrast to the situation in mammals, the avian embryo has evolved its own early circadian melatonin-producing system because, as a consequence of its extrauterine development, it cannot use the system of its mother.

  4. Angiogenesis assays using chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    West, D C; Thompson, W D; Sells, P G; Burbridge, M F

    2001-01-01

    The study of the angiogenic process and the search for novel therapeutic agents to inhibit, or stimulate, angiogenesis has employed a wide range of in vivo 'angiogenesis' assays (reviewed in 1-3). These differ greatly in their difficulty, quantitative nature, rapidity, and cost. The classical in vivo models include the rabbit ear chamber, hamster cheek pouch, dorsal skin chamber, dorsal skin and air-sac model, anterior chamber/iris and avascular corneal pocket assay, and the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. More recent methods involve the implantation of preloaded Matrigel or alginate plugs, or collagen or poly vinyl sponges (1). Largely owing to its simplicity and low cost, the CAM is the most widely used in vivo model for the study of both angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis (1,4).

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of purified chick-embryo cell rabies vaccine under Zagreb 2-1-1 or 5-dose Essen regimen in Chinese children 6 to 17 years old and adults over 50 years: A randomized open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Li, RongCheng; Li, YanPing; Wen, ShuQing; Wen, HuiChun; Nong, Yi; Mo, Zhaojun; Xie, Fang; Pellegrini, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this Phase IIIb, open-label, randomized study was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of immune responses and to assess the safety of a purified chick-embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) in healthy Chinese children (6 to 17 years) and older adults (≥51 years) following 2 alternative intramuscular (IM) simulated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens: 4-dose Zagreb or 5-dose Essen regimen. Serum samples were collected prior to vaccination on Days 1 and 15 and on day 43 to assess immune response by rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for up to 7 days following each vaccine dose, and unsolicited AEs throughout the entire study period. PCECV vaccination induced a strong immune response at Day 15, and the non-inferiority in immune response of the Zagreb vs. the Essen regimen was demonstrated in children and older adults. At Day 15,100% of children (N = 224), and 99% of subjects ≥51 years of age (N = 376) developed adequate RVNA concentrations (≥0.5 IU/mL); at Day 43 all subjects achieved RVNA concentrations ≥0.5 IU/mL, for both PEP regimens. The well-known tolerability and safety profile of the PCECV was again observed in this study following either Zagreb or Essen regimens. Rabies PEP vaccination with PCECV following a Zagreb regimen induced immune responses non-inferior to those of the Essen regimen, and had a similar safety and tolerability profile to the Essen regimen in Chinese children, adolescents, and adults over 51 years. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01680016. PMID:25692350

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of purified chick-embryo cell rabies vaccine under Zagreb 2-1-1 or 5-dose Essen regimen in Chinese children 6 to 17 years old and adults over 50 years: a randomized open-label study.

    PubMed

    Li, RongCheng; Li, YanPing; Wen, ShuQing; Wen, HuiChun; Nong, Yi; Mo, Zhaojun; Xie, Fang; Pellegrini, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this Phase IIIb, open-label, randomized study was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of immune responses and to assess the safety of a purified chick-embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) in healthy Chinese children (6 to 17 years) and older adults (≥51 years) following 2 alternative intramuscular (IM) simulated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens: 4-dose Zagreb or 5-dose Essen regimen. Serum samples were collected prior to vaccination on Days 1 and 15 and on day 43 to assess immune response by rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for up to 7 days following each vaccine dose, and unsolicited AEs throughout the entire study period. PCECV vaccination induced a strong immune response at Day 15, and the non-inferiority in immune response of the Zagreb vs. the Essen regimen was demonstrated in children and older adults. At Day 15,100% of children (N = 224), and 99% of subjects ≥51 years of age (N = 376) developed adequate RVNA concentrations (≥0.5 IU/mL); at Day 43 all subjects achieved RVNA concentrations ≥0.5 IU/mL, for both PEP regimens. The well-known tolerability and safety profile of the PCECV was again observed in this study following either Zagreb or Essen regimens. Rabies PEP vaccination with PCECV following a Zagreb regimen induced immune responses non-inferior to those of the Essen regimen, and had a similar safety and tolerability profile to the Essen regimen in Chinese children, adolescents, and adults over 51 years. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01680016.

  7. Pbx Homeodomain Proteins: TALEnted regulators of Limb Patterning and Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Terence D.; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Selleri, Licia

    2011-01-01

    Limb development has long provided an excellent model for understanding the genetic principles driving embryogenesis. Studies utilizing chick and mouse have led to new insights into limb patterning and morphogenesis. Recent research has centered on the regulatory networks underlying limb development. Here, we discuss the hierarchical, overlapping, and iterative roles of Pbx family members in appendicular development that have emerged from genetic analyses in the mouse. Pbx genes are essential in determining limb bud positioning, early bud formation, limb axes establishment and coordination, and patterning and morphogenesis of most elements of the limb and girdle. Pbx proteins directly regulate critical effectors of limb and girdle development, including morphogen-encoding genes like Shh in limb posterior mesoderm, and transcription factor-encoding genes like Alx1 in pre-scapular domains. Interestingly, at least in limb buds, Pbx appear to act not only as Hox cofactors, but also in the upstream control of 5' HoxA/D gene expression. PMID:21416555

  8. Cell Division Drives Epithelial Cell Rearrangements during Gastrulation in Chick.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Joao; Rocancourt, Didier; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Moreau, Chloe; Gros, Jerome

    2016-02-08

    During early embryonic development, cells are organized as cohesive epithelial sheets that are continuously growing and remodeled without losing their integrity, giving rise to a wide array of tissue shapes. Here, using live imaging in chick embryo, we investigate how epithelial cells rearrange during gastrulation. We find that cell division is a major rearrangement driver that powers dramatic epithelial cell intercalation events. We show that these cell division-mediated intercalations, which represent the majority of epithelial rearrangements within the early embryo, are absolutely necessary for the spatial patterning of gastrulation movements. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these intercalation events result from overall low cortical actomyosin accumulation within the epithelial cells of the embryo, which enables dividing cells to remodel junctions in their vicinity. These findings uncover a role for cell division as coordinator of epithelial growth and remodeling that might underlie various developmental, homeostatic, or pathological processes in amniotes.

  9. Quantitative three-dimensional analysis of embryonic chick morphogenesis via microcomputed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Sup; Min, Jouha; Recknagel, Andrew K; Riccio, Mark; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic development is a remarkably complex and rapidly evolving morphogenetic process. Although many of the early patterning events have been well described, understanding the anatomical changes at later stages where clinically relevant malformations are more likely to be survivable has been limited by the lack of quantitative 3D imaging tools. Microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) has emerged as a powerful tool for embryonic imaging, but a quantitative analysis of organ and tissue growth has not been conducted. In this study, we present a simple method for acquiring highly detailed, quantitative 3D datasets of embryonic chicks with Micro-CT. Embryos between 4 and 12 days (HH23 and HH40) were labeled with osmium tetroxide (OT), which revealed highly detailed soft tissue anatomy when scanned at 25 μm resolution. We demonstrate tissue boundary and inter-tissue contrast fidelity in virtual 2D sections are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those of histological sections. We then establish mathematical relationships for the volumetric growth of heart, limb, eye, and brain during this period of development. We show that some organs exhibit constant exponential growth (eye and heart), whereas others contained multiple phases of growth (forebrain and limb). Furthermore, we show that cardiac myocardial volumetric growth differs in a time and chamber specific manner. These results demonstrate Micro-CT is a powerful technique for quantitative imaging of embryonic growth. The data presented here establish baselines from which to compare the effects of genetic or experimental perturbations. Quantifying subtle differences in morphogenesis is increasingly important as research focuses on localized and conditional effects.

  10. The activation patterns of embryonic chick motoneurones projecting to inappropriate muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-01-01

    Chick lumbosacral motoneurones were caused to innervate foreign muscles by surgically rotating or shifting the limb bud about the anterior-posterior axis in stage 17-18 embryos. The activation pattern of such wrongly projecting motoneurones was assessed at stages 35-38 by recording electromyographic activity from muscles in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation. Muscle activity was classed as flexor- or extensor-like according to the characteristics of the patterned sequence of bursts elicited by a single shock to the thoracic cord. Wrongly projecting motoneurones did not have their activation pattern altered to one appropriate for the muscle innervated; therefore in some cases a particular muscle was activated with a pattern similar to its original one, and in other cases in an opposite manner. Mixed flexor-extensor-like activation of a single muscle was, however, rare. The identity of motoneurones projecting to a muscle was determined by their cord location following retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. This allowed us to conclude that motoneurones could develop their normal pattern of activation even when projecting to foreign muscles. It is concluded that the cord circuits (presumably composed of local interneurones responsible for the activation of motoneurones in the isolated cord preparation are not altered by retrograde influences from the muscle. Wrongly projecting motoneurones, which were maintained throughout the normal cell death period, were activated during spontaneous embryonic movements, and in many cases were found to have a behaviourally inappropriate activation pattern. These observations are discussed in relation to proposed mechanisms by which developmental errors in connectivity are corrected. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6707957

  11. The activation patterns of embryonic chick motoneurones projecting to inappropriate muscles.

    PubMed

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-02-01

    Chick lumbosacral motoneurones were caused to innervate foreign muscles by surgically rotating or shifting the limb bud about the anterior-posterior axis in stage 17-18 embryos. The activation pattern of such wrongly projecting motoneurones was assessed at stages 35-38 by recording electromyographic activity from muscles in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation. Muscle activity was classed as flexor- or extensor-like according to the characteristics of the patterned sequence of bursts elicited by a single shock to the thoracic cord. Wrongly projecting motoneurones did not have their activation pattern altered to one appropriate for the muscle innervated; therefore in some cases a particular muscle was activated with a pattern similar to its original one, and in other cases in an opposite manner. Mixed flexor-extensor-like activation of a single muscle was, however, rare. The identity of motoneurones projecting to a muscle was determined by their cord location following retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. This allowed us to conclude that motoneurones could develop their normal pattern of activation even when projecting to foreign muscles. It is concluded that the cord circuits (presumably composed of local interneurones responsible for the activation of motoneurones in the isolated cord preparation are not altered by retrograde influences from the muscle. Wrongly projecting motoneurones, which were maintained throughout the normal cell death period, were activated during spontaneous embryonic movements, and in many cases were found to have a behaviourally inappropriate activation pattern. These observations are discussed in relation to proposed mechanisms by which developmental errors in connectivity are corrected.

  12. Identification and localization of a novel zinc finger gene in developing chick skin and feather buds.

    PubMed

    Padanilam, B J; Solursh, M

    1996-03-07

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding a novel zinc finger protein (Fzf-1) containing two tandem repeats of zinc finger motifs of the C2H2 type. The cDNA is 3.0 Kb long and has an open reading frame which codes for a protein of 789 amino acids. The expression pattern of the zinc finger gene was studied in chick embryonic skin and feathers by in situ hybridization. The expression of the gene is found to be temporally and spatially regulated. In stage 38 chick embryos, the transcripts are localized to the epidermis but in 10-day-old embryos, the signal is localized to the forming dermis. In 12-day-old chick, the transcripts are localized to the mesenchymal region of the elongated feather buds. Reverse transcription followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) did not detect the transcripts in any other tissues.

  13. Draxin, an axon guidance protein, affects chick trunk neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuhong; Naser, Iftekhar B; Islam, Shahidul M; Zhang, Sanbing; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Chen, Sandy; Shinmyo, Yohei; Kawakami, Minoru; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2009-12-01

    The neural crest is a multipotent population of migratory cells that arises in the central nervous system and subsequently migrates along defined stereotypic pathways. In the present work, we analyzed the role of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, in the migration of neural crest cells. Draxin is expressed in the roof plate of the chick trunk spinal cord and around the early migration pathway of neural crest cells. Draxin modulates chick neural crest cell migration in vitro by reducing the polarization of these cells. When exposed to draxin, the velocity of migrating neural crest cells was reduced, and the cells changed direction so frequently that the net migration distance was also reduced. Overexpression of draxin also caused some early migrating neural crest cells to change direction to the dorsolateral pathway in the chick trunk region, presumably due to draxin's inhibitory activity. These results demonstrate that draxin, an axon guidance protein, can also affect trunk neural crest migration in the chick embryo.

  14. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  15. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior.

  16. Chicks like consonant music.

    PubMed

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    The question of whether preference for consonance is rooted in acoustic properties important to the auditory system or is acquired through enculturation has not yet been resolved. Two-month-old infants prefer consonant over dissonant intervals, but it is possible that this preference is rapidly acquired through exposure to music soon after birth or in utero. Controlled-rearing studies with animals can help shed light on this question because such studies allow researchers to distinguish between biological predispositions and learned preferences. In the research reported here, we found that newly hatched domestic chicks show a spontaneous preference for a visual imprinting object associated with consonant sound intervals over an identical object associated with dissonant sound intervals. We propose that preference for harmonic relationships between frequency components may be related to the prominence of harmonic spectra in biological sounds in natural environments.

  17. Artificial Limbs

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

  18. Intestinal disaccharidase activities in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Siddons, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Disaccharidase activities of the small and large intestines of the chick were studied. 2. Homogenates of the small intestine readily hydrolysed maltose, sucrose and palatinose (6-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-fructose), hydrolysed lactose slowly and did not hydrolyse trehalose and cellobiose. 3. Within the small intestine the disaccharidases were located mainly in the intestinal wall; the activity in the contents accounted for less than 5% of the total activity. 4. The disaccharidases were non-uniformly distributed along the small intestine, the activities being greatest in the middle section. 5. The disaccharidase activities increased with age between 1 and 43 days. 6. Homogenates of the large intestine and contents readily hydrolysed maltose, sucrose, palatinose and lactose and hydrolysed cellobiose and trehalose slowly. 7. The large-intestinal disaccharidases were located mainly in the contents. 8. Similar Km and pH optimum values were found for the maltase, sucrase and palatinase activities of the large and small intestines. 9. The lactase activity of the large intestine was markedly affected by diet and had different Km and pH values from the small intestinal lactase. 10. Low activities of intestinal disaccharidase were found in 12-day-old embryos and marked increases in the intestinal disaccharidases of the developing embryo occurred 2–3 days before hatching. PMID:5774506

  19. Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Aparicio, Mariano; Bueno, David

    2006-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases.

  20. PRIMITIVE ERYTHROPOIESIS IN EARLY CHICK EMBRYOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, G. Le M.; Weintraub, H.; Mayall, B. H.; Holtzer, H.

    1971-01-01

    Primitive erythroblasts in the circulating blood of the chick embryo continue to divide while synthesizing hemoglobin (Hb). Hb measurements on successive generations of erythroblasts show that there is a progressive increase in the Hb content of both interphase and metaphase cells. Furthermore, for any given embryo the Hb content of metaphase cells is always significantly greater than that of interphase cells. The distribution of Hb values for metaphase cells suggests that there are six Hb classes corresponding to the number of cell cycles in the proliferative phase. The location of erythroblasts in the cell cycle was determined by combining Feulgen cytophotometry with thymidine radioautography on the same cells. Measurements of the Hb content for erythroblasts in different compartments of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M) show a progressive increase through the cycle. Thus, the amount of Hb per cell is a function of the number of cell divisions since the initiation of Hb synthesis and, to a lesser degree, the stage of the cell cycle. Earlier generations of erythroblasts synthesize Hb at a faster rate than the terminal generation. Several models have been proposed to explain these findings. PMID:5098865

  1. Zika Virus Induced Mortality and Microcephaly in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Forrest T; Tesla, Blanka; Simchick, Gregory; Zhao, Qun; Hodge, Thomas; Brindley, Melinda A; Stice, Steven L

    2016-11-15

    The explosive spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) through South and Central America has been linked to an increase in congenital birth defects, specifically microcephaly. Representative rodent models for investigating infections include direct central nervous system (CNS) injections late in pregnancy and transplacental transmission in immunodeficient mice. Microcephaly in humans may be the result of infection occurring early in pregnancy, therefore recapitulating that the human course of ZIKV infection should include normal embryo exposed to ZIKV during the first trimester. In ovo development of the chicken embryo closely mirrors human fetal neurodevelopment and, as a comparative model, could provide key insights into both temporal and pathophysiological effects of ZIKV. Chick embryos were directly infected early and throughout incubation with ZIKV isolated from a Mexican mosquito in January 2016. High doses of virus caused embryonic lethality. In a subset of lower dosed embryos, replicating ZIKV was present in various organs, including the CNS, throughout development. Surviving ZIKV-infected embryos presented a microcephaly-like phenotype. Chick embryos were longitudinally monitored by magnetic resonance imaging that documented CNS structural malformations, including enlarged ventricles (30% increase) and stunted cortical growth (decreased telencephalon by 18%, brain stem by 32%, and total brain volume by 18%), on both embryonic day 15 (E15) and E20 of development. ZIKV-induced microcephaly was observed with inoculations of as few as 2-20 viral particles. The chick embryo model presented ZIKV embryonic lethal effects and progressive CNS damage similar to microcephaly.

  2. Astrovirus-induced "white chicks" condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Pać, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Anna; Pikuła, Anna; Minta, Zenon; Króliczewska, Bożena; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the "white chicks" condition associated not only with increased embryo/chick mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed abnormal signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks with characteristic whitish plumage among normal ones. CAstV was detected in submitted samples and was then isolated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. We also reproduced an infection model for the "white chicks" condition in SPF layer chickens using the isolated PL/G059/2014 strain as the infectious agent. Results of experimental reproduction of the "white chicks" condition were somewhat more serious than field observation. The administration of the CAstV material into the yolk sac of 8-day-old SPF chicken eggs caused delay and prolongation of hatching, as well as death of embryos/chicks, and also a change of plumage pigmentation. Only two chicks of a total of 10 inoculated SPF eggs survived and were observed for 2 months. A gradual elimination of the CAstV genome was noted in this period. Moreover, a few contact-naive SPF chicks, which had been placed in the same cage, were infected with CAstV. Molecular characterization of detected CAstV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the full ORF2 region encoding the capsid precursor protein gene. Phylogenetic studies showed that the PL/G059/2014 isolate clustered in the subgroup Aiii of CAstV. In the light of the new classification rules, the Polish PL/G059/2014 CAstV isolate could be assigned to a new species of the Avastrovirus genus.

  3. Actin and myosin isoforms in aneural and malformed chick hearts.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M L; Shimizu, N; Gagnon, J; Toyofuku, T; Kennedy, J; Conrad, D C; Zak, R

    1990-09-01

    Although it is generally accepted that actin and myosin isoforms adapt to their functional requirements, the sequence of expression of these proteins in hearts developing abnormally is unknown. In the chick embryo it is possible to change various aspects of heart development without direct manipulation of the cardiovascular system, by removing various regions of the neural crest from early embryos. The neural crest provides both neural (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and ectomesenchymal components to the heart, and selective removal of various areas results in embryos with sympathetically aneural hearts, or persistent truncus arteriosus with or without parasympathetic denervation. Myosin isoform expression was studied in each of these types of hearts using an array of myosin antibodies specific for atrium, ventricle or the conduction system. Myosin expression in experimental hearts was found to follow the normal pattern of development using these antibodies. Actin expression was studied using cDNA probes for the 3' untranslated region of actin mRNA of the alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac and beta-actin isoforms. Using slot-blot hybridization analysis, the pattern of actin expression in atrium and ventricle was followed throughout the period of incubation in normal hearts. The pattern of actin expression was found to be abnormal in hearts which were sympathetically aneural and those which had persistent truncus arteriosus combined with parasympathetic denervation. ATPase activity was increased only in atria of hearts with persistent truncus arteriosus. It appears from these experiments that actin isoform expression is influenced in the chick heart by autonomic innervation.

  4. From the Cover: Exposing Imidacloprid Interferes With Neurogenesis Through Impacting on Chick Neural Tube Cell Survival.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Zhong, Shan; Qi, Guo-Long; Wang, Chao-Jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-09-01

    As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control insects in agriculture and fleas on domestic animals. However, it is not known whether imidacloprid exposure negatively affects neurogenesis during embryonic development. In this study, using a chick embryo model, we investigated the effects of imidacloprid exposure on neurogenesis at the earliest stage and during late-stage embryo development. Exposing HH0 chick embryos to imidacloprid in EC culture caused neural tube defects (NTDs) and neuronal differentiation dysplasia as determined by NF/Tuj1 labeling. Furthermore, we found that F-actin accumulation on the apical side of the neural tube was suppressed by exposure to imidacloprid, and the expression of BMP4 and Shh on the dorsal and ventral sides of the neural tubes, respectively, were also reduced, which in turn affects the dorsolateral hinge points during bending of the neural plate. In addition, exposure to imidacloprid reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, as determined by pHIS3 labeling and TUNEL staining, respectively, also contributing to the malformation. We obtained similar results in late-stage embryos exposed to imidacloprid. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was employed to determine which genes identified in this study were involved in NTDs. The experimental evidence and bioinformatics analysis suggested that imidacloprid exposure during chick embryo development could increase the risk of NTDs and neural dysplasia.

  5. Effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in chicks.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in vertebrate brain development. However, there is little understanding of the direct effects of fetal thyroid dysfunction, i.e., not acquired through the mother, on learning ability. In the present study, we use a chick embryo as a fetal model to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in hatched chicks. Methimazole (MMI) at 20micromol/egg or 5micromol/egg of propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to eggs on day 14 while the control was given only a vehicle. An imprinting test was conducted after the chicks hatched. Day-old chicks were exposed to a rotating training object for 150min. The next day, the trained chicks were exposed to the training object and a novel object. The imprinting preference was represented as a preference score (PS) calculated as the rate of following the training object to following the training and novel objects. In the MMI-treated chicks, the PS was 0.68+/-0.06 (range, 0.38-0.88), which was significantly lower than that in the control chicks (0.86+/-0.04, p<0.01). In the PTU-treated chicks, the PS was 0.69+/-0.04 (range, 0.52-0.89), which was also significantly lower than that in the control (0.88+/-0.02, p<0.001). The present findings suggested that fetal thyroid dysfunction inhibited brain development, leading to impaired learning and memory. Our chick model can be considered useful for investigating the direct effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs or substances in the environment on learning ability after birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Weightlessness and the ontogeny of vestibular function - Evidence for persistent vestibular threshold shifts in chicks incubated in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Timothy A.; Vellinger, John; Hester, Patricia Y.; Fermin, Cesar

    1991-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on the embryonic development of the vestibular function was investigated by comparing the vestibular function parameters measured in 21-old chicks incubated as embryos aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery with those of age-matched synchronous controls incubated on earth. Measurements of the electrophysiological responses in both groups of chicks indicated that the exposure of embryos to weightlessness resulted in altered sensitivity of embryonic vestibular sensors. Moreover, the effect of space flight was persistent: it was still present one month after the spacecraft landed on earth.

  7. Spontaneous locomotor activity in late-stage chicken embryos is modified by stretch of leg muscles

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Nina S.; Ryu, Young U.; Yeseta, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Chicks initiate bilateral alternating steps several days before hatching and adaptively walk within hours of hatching, but emergence of precocious walking skills is not well understood. One of our aims was to determine whether interactions between environment and movement experience prior to hatching are instrumental in establishing precocious motor skills. However, physiological evidence of proprioceptor development in the chick has yet to be established; thus, one goal of this study was to determine when in embryogenesis proprioception circuits can code changes in muscle length. A second goal was to determine whether proprioception circuits can modulate leg muscle activity during repetitive limb movements for stepping (RLMs). We hypothesized that proprioception circuits code changes in muscle length and/or tension, and modulate locomotor circuits producing RLMs in anticipation of adaptive locomotion at hatching. To this end, leg muscle activity and kinematics were recorded in embryos during normal posture and after fitting one ankle with a restraint that supported the limb in an atypical posture. We tested the hypotheses by comparing leg muscle activity during spontaneous RLMs in control posture and ankle extension restraint. The results indicated that proprioceptors detect changes in muscle length and/or muscle tension 3 days before hatching. Ankle extension restraint produced autogenic excitation of the ankle flexor and reciprocal inhibition of the ankle extensor. Restraint also modified knee extensor activity during RLMs 1 day before hatching. We consider the strengths and limitations of these results and propose that proprioception contributes to precocious locomotor development during the final 3 days before hatching. PMID:24265423

  8. Transcription Factor Erg Variants and Functional Diversification of Chondrocytes during Limb Long Bone Development

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Higuchi, Yoshinobu; Koyama, Eiki; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Kurisu, Kojiro; Yeh, Helena; Abrams, William R.; Rosenbloom, Joel; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2000-01-01

    During limb development, chondrocytes located at the epiphyseal tip of long bone models give rise to articular tissue, whereas the more numerous chondrocytes in the shaft undergo maturation, hypertrophy, and mineralization and are replaced by bone cells. It is not understood how chondrocytes follow these alternative pathways to distinct fates and functions. In this study we describe the cloning of C-1-1, a novel variant of the ets transcription factor ch-ERG. C-1-1 lacks a short 27–amino acid segment located ∼80 amino acids upstream of the ets DNA binding domain. We found that in chick embryo long bone anlagen, C-1-1 expression characterizes developing articular chondrocytes, whereas ch-ERG expression is particularly prominent in prehypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate. To analyze the function of C-1-1 and ch-ERG, viral vectors were used to constitutively express each factor in developing chick leg buds and cultured chondrocytes. We found that virally driven expression of C-1-1 maintained chondrocytes in a stable and immature phenotype, blocked their maturation into hypertrophic cells, and prevented the replacement of cartilage with bone. It also induced synthesis of tenascin-C, an extracellular matrix protein that is a unique product of developing articular chondrocytes. In contrast, virally driven expression of ch-ERG significantly stimulated chondrocyte maturation in culture, as indicated by increases in alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of a mineralized matrix; however, it had modest effects in vivo. The data show that C-1-1 and ch-ERG have diverse biological properties and distinct expression patterns during skeletogenesis, and are part of molecular mechanisms by which limb chondrocytes follow alternative developmental pathways. C-1-1 is the first transcription factor identified to date that appears to be instrumental in the genesis and function of epiphyseal articular chondrocytes. PMID:10893254

  9. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  10. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  11. Chick heart invasion assay.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture.

  12. Monocular sleep in male domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone; Bobbo, Daniela; Rugger, Marina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2004-08-31

    Behavioural sleep during the first 2 weeks after hatching was studied in male chicks reared with an imprinting object (I-chicks) and in social isolation (NI-chicks). Time spent in sleeping with both eyes closed (binocular sleep) decreased gradually with age in both I-chicks and in NI-chicks whilst the number of episodes of binocular sleep decreased with age in NI-chicks but not in I-chicks. The pattern of monocular sleep (only one eye closed) of both I-chicks and NI-chicks showed no significant bias towards predominant left- or right-eye closure during the first week. During the second week, I-chicks showed a tendency towards more pronounced left-eye closure with a peak on day 10, whilst NI-chicks showed a tendency for more pronounced right-eye closure with peaks on days 9 and 11. In a different group of chicks, changing the colour of the imprinting object on day 8 produced a shift towards right-eye closure. In contrast, the removal of the imprinting object on day 8 did not cause any change in the pattern of monocular sleep. Differences with respect to sleeping patterns previously observed in females chicks are discussed.

  13. Modulation of Bmp4 signalling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place in early thymus and parathyroid development in avian embryos.

    PubMed

    Neves, Hélia; Dupin, Elisabeth; Parreira, Leonor; Le Douarin, Nicole M

    2012-01-15

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are crucial for the development of the endoderm of the pharyngeal pouches into the epithelia of thymus and parathyroid glands. Here we investigated the dynamics of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place at the earliest stages of thymic and parathyroid organogenesis using the quail-chick model together with a co-culture system capable of reproducing these early events in vitro. The presumptive territories of thymus and parathyroid epithelia were identified in three-dimensionally preserved pharyngeal endoderm of embryonic day 4.5 chick embryos on the basis of the expression of Foxn1 and Gcm2, respectively: the thymic rudiment is located in the dorsal domain of the third and fourth pouches, while the parathyroid rudiment occupies a more medial/anterior pouch domain. Using in vitro quail-chick tissue associations combined with in ovo transplantations, we show that the somatopleural but not the limb bud mesenchyme, can mimic the role of neural crest-derived pharyngeal mesenchyme to sustain development of these glands up to terminal differentiation. Furthermore, mesenchymal-derived Bmp4 appears to be essential to promote early stages of endoderm development during a short window of time, irrespective of the mesenchymal source. In vivo studies using the quail-chick system and implantation of growth factor soaked-beads further showed that expression of Bmp4 by the mesenchyme is necessary during a 24 h-period of time. After this period however, Bmp4 is no longer required and another signalling factor produced by the mesenchyme, Fgf10, influences later differentiation of the pouch endoderm. These results show that morphological development and cell differentiation of thymus and parathyroid epithelia require a succession of signals emanating from the associated mesenchyme, among which Bmp4 plays a pivotal role for triggering thymic epithelium specification.

  14. Calcium deficiency induces expression of cartilage-like phenotype in chick embryonic calvaria.

    PubMed

    Jacenko, O; Tuan, R S

    1986-05-01

    A detailed histological study of the chick embryonic calvarium was carried out to characterize the effect of calcium deficiency on cell differentiation during embryonic bone formation. Calcium deficiency on cell differentiation during embryonic bone formation. Calcium deficient chick embryos, produced by means of long-term shell-less (SL) culture, developed skeletal anomalies. In addition to reduced mineralization as detected by alizarin staining, significant changes were also observed in the extracellular matrix of the embryonic bones. First, the undermineralized matrix of the calvaria of SL embryos appeared to be more acidic as shown by more intense hematoxylin staining of the trabecular regions compared to controls. Secondly, the presence of sulfated proteoglycans was suggested by specific Alcian blue staining of the calvaria of Day 14 SL embryos. In addition, indirect fluorescence immunohistochemistry confirmed the developmental appearance of type II collagen in calcium-deficient calvaria, and localized it to undermineralized regions of the bone. These observations demonstrate the emergence of a chondrogenic phenotype in a typically osteogenic tissue during, and perhaps in response to, severe systemic calcium deficiency in the developing chick embryo.

  15. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice