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Sample records for chicken bone presenting

  1. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  2. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    PubMed Central

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Antibiotherapy did not relieve the patient’s symptoms and signs. A 3-cm linear foreign body was observed in X-ray and computed tomography scans. The symptoms of the patient were relieved after excision of the foreign body. Conclusion Although it is a rare situation, migration of a foreign body ingested through the aerodigestive tract to the neck should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with neck masses. PMID:27994927

  3. Left subclavian arterioesophageal fistula induced by chicken bone with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and unexpected death: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Peonim, Vichan; Udnoon, Jilta

    2010-11-01

    Left subclavian arterioesophageal fistula resulting from chicken bone ingestion is a rare occurrence. The authors report the death of a 42-year-old Thai female with mental retardation who presented to the hospital with severe hematemesis and arrested Death occurred about 24 hours after laparotomy due to hypovolemic shock Postmortem examination revealed a chicken bone embedded in middle part of esophagus with fistula between the esophagus and the left subclavian artery.

  4. Temporal bone dissection practice using a chicken egg.

    PubMed

    Meléndez García, José Manuel; Araujo Da Costa, Ana Sofía; Rivera Schmitz, Teresa; Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Hamdan Zavarce, Miriam Ileana

    2014-07-01

    Temporal bone drilling practice constitutes an essential stage in training for the surgical approach to this complex anatomic structure. To facilitate adaptation and surgical skills in otologic surgery, we recall the easy cost-effective practice of drilling a chicken egg. The resident in training must master the use of the surgical microscope, the burr, and fine drilling instruments used in dissection. Animal models, plastic temporal bones, prototyped temporal bones, and virtual reality temporal bones have all been used. This article describes a method of training residents' otologic skills by drilling a chicken egg. We used basic support materials found in a typical temporal bone dissection laboratory, with a surgical microscope, a desk, and a drilling system. Practice includes drilling and dissection of the eggshell, preserving the natural eggshell membrane. Learning temporal bone drilling on an egg, using basic materials, allows the surgeon to simulate surgery on a physical model using the same instrumentation that is used in surgery, obviating the need for laboratory conditions required for cadaveric dissection. Simulation is emerging as a mandatory component of surgical training. The egg is an excellent cost-effective model for drilling and dissection training and helps in improving surgical skills, enables learning of fine motor skills, and allows repeated practice. Although this method of training does help one control a drill and manual instrumentation, it does not help with temporal bone anatomy knowledge.

  5. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  6. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In Experiment 1 (3 replications), chicken thigh meat was separated from bones at 0.45 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h and trimmed to obtain iliotibialis muscle. The iliotibiali...

  7. Embedded Bone Fragment Detection in Chicken Fillets using Transmittance Image Enhancement and Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper is concerned with the detection of bone fragments embedded in compressed de-boned skinless chicken breast fillets by enhancing single-band transmittance images generated by back-lighting and exploiting spectral information from hyperspectral reflectance images. Optical imaging of chicken ...

  8. Bone Mass and Bone Quality Are Altered by Hypoactivity in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Eric; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Goyenvalle, Eric; Audran, Maurice; Chappard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Disuse induces a rapid bone loss in adults; sedentarity is now recognized as a risk factor for osteoporosis. Hypoactivity or confinement also decrease bone mass in adults but their effects are largely unknown and only few animal models have been described. We have used 10 chickens of the rapidly growing strain 857K bred in a large enclosure (FREE group); 10 others were confined in small cages with little space to move around (HYPO group). They were sacrificed at 53 days and femurs and tibias were evaluated by texture analysis, dual energy X-ray densitometry, microcomputed tomography (microCT) and histomorphometry. Hypoactivity had no effect on the length and diameter of the bones. Bone mineral density (BMD), microCT (trabecular bone volume and trabecular microarchitecture) and texture analysis were always found significantly reduced in the animals of the HYPO group. BMD was reduced at both femur and tibia diaphysises; BMD of the metaphysis was significantly reduced in the femur but not in the tibia. An increase in osteoid volume and surfaces was noted in the HYPO group. However, there was no alteration of the mineral phase as the osteoid thickness did not differ from control animals. Bone loss was much more pronounced at the lower femur metaphysis than at the upper metaphysis of the tibia. At the tibia, only microarchitectural changes of trabecular bone could be evidenced. The confined chicken represents a new method for the study of hypodynamia since these animals do not have surgical lesions. PMID:25635404

  9. Post chicken pox neurological sequelae: Three distinct presentations.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rudrajit; Singhania, Pankaj; Hashmi, Ma; Bandyopadhyay, Ramtanu; Banerjee, Amit Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Varicella zoster infection is known to cause neurological involvement. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves without sequelae. We present a series of three cases with neurological presentations following chicken pox infection. The first case is a case of meningitis, cerebellitis and polyradiculopathy, the second is a florid case of acute infective demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillian-Barré syndrome) in a middle-aged female and the third case is a young man in whom we diagnosed acute transverse myelitis. All these cases presented with distinct neurological diagnoses and the etiology was established on the basis of history and serological tests confirmatory for chicken pox. The cases responded differently to treatment and the patients were left with minimum disability.

  10. [Destructive mastoiditis with thrombosis of the sigmoid sinus in a 8 year-old child presenting with concomitant chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Polunin, M M; Ivanenko, A M; Poliakov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The specific clinical feature of mastoidities that developed in a patient presenting with chicken pox was the rapid progress in temporal bone destruction with partial thrombosis of the sigmoid sinusis in the absence of typical manifestations of mastoiditis. The pronounced destructive changes found in a series of CT images were regarded as the indications for urgent antromastoidotomy with the puncture of the sigmoid sinusis.

  11. Genetic Regulation of Bone Metabolism in the Chicken: Similarities and Differences to Mammalian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and expression QTL (eQTL) mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken) and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone. PMID:26023928

  12. Diagnosing Fish Bone and Chicken Bone Impactions in the Emergency Department Setting: Measuring the System Utility of the Plain Film Screen.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Karthik; Voigt, Stanley; Shroff, Sunil; Weiner, Scott G; Wein, Richard O

    2015-08-01

    In the emergency department, fish and chicken bone impactions are typically evaluated with screening x-rays. We sought to determine whether this modality ultimately improves system outcomes, including length of stay (LOS), cost, and radiation dosage. We reviewed patients ≥ 18 years old presenting to an urban academic emergency department over a 4-year period who received a screening soft-tissue x-ray to determine the presence of a retained fish or chicken bone. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of x-ray and computed tomography (CT) evaluations, respectively, in addition to system outcomes. Twenty-seven of the 78 patients included for analysis were ultimately positive for bone impaction. Initial x-ray interpretations demonstrated a sensitivity of 24.0% (95% CI, 9.4%-45.1%) and a specificity of 90.0% (95% CI, 78.2%-96.7%). However, initial CT interpretation (ie, a preliminary read from on-call residents) demonstrated a sensitivity of 75% (95% CI, 19.4%-99.4%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 59.0%-100%). LOS, cost, and radiation dosage were not significantly different between patients who ultimately had true bone impactions and those who did not (P > .05). X-rays are poor screening tools in determining fish or chicken bone impactions with poor diagnostic and system utility. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the role of a low-radiation CT screen. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  14. Effect of caponization on performance and quality characteristics of long bones in Polbar chickens.

    PubMed

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Świetlicka, Izabela; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kasperek, Kornel; Jeżewska-Witkowska, Grażyna

    2017-02-01

    The effect of caponization on the mechanical properties of Polbar chicken bones was the subject of investigation. The biomechanical strength of bones and the risk of their deformation or fracture were determined on the basis of their geometric, structural, material, and densitometric properties. Eight-week-old cockerels of Polbar breed were surgically castrated and then fattened until the 24th week of life. It was observed that caponization did not influence the weight and length of either of the long bones. It did however significantly reduce their ash content and the Ca and P contents in their femur, and P content in their tibia. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry densitometry revealed that bone mineral content of the mid-diaphyseal part of both bones were reduced. Similarly, the bone tissue density of bones decreased. Caponization influenced the bone's geometric structure increasing the internal and external diameters of the bones. The bone cross-sectional area was greater in capons, and, consequently, the cross-sectional moment of inertia and the radius of gyration significantly increased. However, the relative wall thickness and cortical index were not altered. The three-point bending tests revealed the negative effect of caponization on the mechanical endurance of bones. Yield strength, Young modulus, and yield stress, characterizing the strength of the bone's material, decreased in capons. That suggests a higher risk of permanent deformation as capon bones become less elastic. Concluding, caponization negatively influenced the quality characteristics of Polbar chicken long bones. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Effects of Hot-Pressure Extraction Time on Composition and Gelatin Properties of Chicken Bone Extracts.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jian-Ying; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia; Sun, Zhen

    2017-03-29

    Hot-pressure extraction was utilized in this study to extract proteins from chicken bones at 130 °C. The obtained extracts were further used to prepare gelatin gels. Results demonstrated that the extraction time can significantly affect the composition of the chicken bone extracts (P < 0.05). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the protein fraction of molecular weight (MW) >30 KDa was only visible in the extracts collected between 40 and 60 min. The highest contents of hydroxyproline, imino acids, and hydrophobic amino acids were all achieved in the chicken bone extracts after 120 min of extraction, being 3.9, 7.7, and 16.0 mg/g, respectively. The prepared gelatin properties were evaluated in terms of viscosity, storage and loss modulus, stability, gel strength, and their microstructures. Results indicated that gelatins made from chicken bone extracts of 20, 40, and 60 min extraction had better properties compared to that of 90 and 120 min. Significant correlations were identified between gelatin's composition and properties (P < 0.05). The abundance of proteins with MW of <10 KDa and 10 to 30 KDa was found to be the predominant factor that can affect the gelatin's properties. This study illustrated a promising and natural way to obtain edible gelatins from chicken bones.

  16. HIV infection presenting as bone marrow cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Dharwadkar, Arpana; Vimal, Shruti; Buch, Archana C.; Panicker, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcal infection is an uncommon initial manifestation in immunocompromised patients. We report a rare case of a 40-year-old female presenting with fever and burning epigastrium. Peripheral blood film revealed a leukoerythroblastic picture with thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration showed granulomas along with cryptococcal yeast forms. The ELISA test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen was positive. Disseminated cryptococcosis can develop as the first manifestation of HIV infection in previously healthy individuals and granulomas in such bone marrow aspiration smears are a valuable clue to an underlying opportunistic infection. PMID:25161991

  17. Post-translational processing of chicken bone phosphoproteins. Identification of bone (phospho)protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mikuni-Takagaki, Y; Glimcher, M J

    1990-01-01

    We have detected a protein kinase which phosphorylates bone phosphoproteins (BPPs) in the detergent extract of the membranous fractions in the periosteal bone strips of 12-day-embryonic-chick tibia. This enzyme, tentatively named BPP kinase, has a catalytic subunit of Mr approximately 39,000, utilizes GTP as well as ATP as a phospho-group donor, is inhibited by 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate and heparin, and is therefore similar to casein kinase II. The enzyme can phosphorylate dephosphorylated proteins such as casein, phosvitin and chicken BPPs, but the last-named are preferred substrates. The in vitro-phosphorylation-assay products of this enzyme in the extract were indistinguishable on an SDS/polyacrylamide gel from the major [32P]phosphoproteins metabolically labelled in the embryonic-chick bone tissue. The regulatory mechanisms of the phosphorylation process of BPPs by BPP kinase as well as the potential role of this enzyme in mineralization are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:2363697

  18. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P < or = 0.01). Bone mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P < or = 0.0001) from BMC determined in vivo by DXA; however, there were no differences in ex vivo BMC and BMC ash, although they were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P < or = 0.0001). We concluded that there was no effect of n-3 fatty acids on tibia bone in mature White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens.

  19. Lighting schedule and dimming period in early life: consequences for broiler chicken leg bone development.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Carla W; Molenaar, Roos; Buitink, Christiaan J; van Roovert-Reijrink, Inge A M; Maatjens, Conny M; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged (>20 h) light periods during grow-out of broiler chickens have been shown to increase the occurrence of skeletal abnormalities, but the effects of early life light-dark schedules are not well known. The present experiment investigated the effect of lighting schedule and light-dark transition during the first days of a broiler chicken's life on leg bone development. In 2 experiments, Ross-308 broiler chicks (n = 2,500 per experiment) were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments for 4 d: 24L; 2L:1D lighting schedule with either an abrupt or gradual light-dark transition ("dimming"); and a 2L:6D lighting schedule with an abrupt transition or dimming. At d 4, tibia and femur weight, length, and diameter, yolk free body mass, organ weights, realized weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were determined. In Experiment 2, chick length and relative asymmetry of the femur and tibia were determined additionally. Data were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. 24L resulted in higher femur diameter (P<0.028; both experiments), tibia diameter (P<0.001; Experiment 1), relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.002; Experiment 2), and relative asymmetry of femur length (P=0.003) than applying a light-dark schedule. A 2L:1D lighting schedule resulted in higher femur length (P=0.039; Experiment 1) and relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.032; Experiment 2) and lower relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.016) than a 2L:6D lighting schedule. An abrupt light-dark transition resulted in higher relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.004; Experiment 2) and relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.018) than dimming. To conclude, leg bone development in the first 4 d of a broiler chicken's life was higher for 24L than when a lighting schedule was applied, but relative asymmetry was higher as well, suggesting developmental instability. The effect of dimming on leg bone development was less pronounced, but the decreased relative asymmetry levels in the dimming

  20. Primary Structure and Antibacterial Activity of Chicken Bone Marrow-Derived β-Defensins▿

    PubMed Central

    Derache, Chrystelle; Labas, Valérie; Aucagne, Vincent; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Delmas, Agnès F.; Magallon, Thierry; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Three biologically active β-defensins were purified by chromatography from chicken bone marrow extract: avian β-defensin 1 (AvBD1), AvBD2, and the newly isolated β-defensin AvBD7. Mass spectrometry analyses showed that bone marrow-derived AvBD1, -2, and -7 peptides were present as mature peptides and revealed posttranslational modifications for AvBD1 and AvBD7 in comparison to their in silico-predicted amino acid sequences. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the nanoelectrospray-quadrupole time of flight method showed N-terminal glutaminyl cyclization of mature AvBD7 and C-terminal amidation of mature AvBD1 peptide, while posttranslational modifications were absent in bone marrow-derived mature AvBD2 peptide. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis performed on intact cells confirmed the presence of these three peptides in mature heterophils. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the three β-defensins against a large panel of gram-positive and -negative bacteria were assessed. While the three defensins displayed similar antibacterial spectra of activity against gram-positive strains, AvBD1 and AvBD7 exhibited the strongest activity against gram-negative strains in comparison to AvBD2. PMID:19738012

  1. Gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih Yi; Li, Tsung Yu; Tsai, Chih Heng; Lo, Dan Yuan; Chen, Kuo Lung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens. Thirty male chickens were caponized at 8 weeks (capons); 15 capons were injected with estrogen (5 mg/bird estradiol 3-benzoate) every 2 weeks from 8 to 28 weeks, and 15 sham-operated male (shams) chickens and 15 females were selected for this trial. The results showed that the shams had lower relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than females (P < 0.05). The estrogen-treated capons had greater relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than shams and capons (P < 0.05), which might result from higher blood very low-density lipoproteins and triacylglycerol concentrations (P < 0.05). Caponization could dramatically increase relative abdominal fat (506%; P < 0.05). The shams had higher tibia weight and biomechanical properties, such as maximum bone strength and bending moment values than the capons (P < 0.05). Tibia biomechanical properties were reduced by estrogen treatment (P < 0.05). The females obtained the lowest biomechanical value in all treatments (P < 0.05). Histological examination revealed cavity formation in the cortical bone of estrogen-treated capons and female chickens, which suggested that estrogen reduced bone biomechanical properties by destroying its structural integrity.

  2. Optimization of a Multi-Step Procedure for Isolation of Chicken Bone Collagen

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chicken bone is not adequately utilized despite its high nutritional value and protein content. Although not a common raw material, chicken bone can be used in many different ways besides manufacturing of collagen products. In this study, a multi-step procedure was optimized to isolate chicken bone collagen for higher yield and quality for manufacture of collagen products. The chemical composition of chicken bone was 2.9% nitrogen corresponding to about 15.6% protein, 9.5% fat, 14.7% mineral and 57.5% moisture. The lowest amount of protein loss was aimed along with the separation of the highest amount of visible impurities, non-collagen proteins, minerals and fats. Treatments under optimum conditions removed 57.1% of fats and 87.5% of minerals with respect to their initial concentrations. Meanwhile, 18.6% of protein and 14.9% of hydroxyproline were lost, suggesting that a selective separation of non-collagen components and isolation of collagen were achieved. A significant part of impurities were selectively removed and over 80% of the original collagen was preserved during the treatments. PMID:26761863

  3. Infection of chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells with subgroup J avian leukosis virus inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and alters cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhang, Xu; Dai, Manman; Qin, Jianru; Hao, Jianjong; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus known to induce tumor formation and immunosuppression in infected chickens. One of the organs susceptible to ALV-J is the bone marrow, from which specialized antigen-presenting cells named dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are derived. Notably, these cells possess the unique ability to induce primary immune responses. In the present study, a method of cultivating and purifying DCs from chicken bone marrow in vitro was established to investigate the effects of ALV-J infection on BM-DC differentiation or generation. The results indicated that ALV-J not only infects the chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells but also appears to inhibit the differentiation and maturation of BM-DCs and to trigger apoptosis. Moreover, substantial reductions in the mRNA expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, MHCI, and MHCII and in cytokine production were detected in the surviving BM-DCs following ALV-J infection. These findings indicate that ALV-J infection disrupts the process of bone marrow mononuclear cell differentiation into BM-DCs likely via altered antigen presentation, resulting in a downstream immune response in affected chickens.

  4. Bone computed tomography mineral content evaluation in chickens: effects of substances in homeopathic concentration.

    PubMed

    Canello, Sergio; Gasparini, Gabriele; Luisetto, Patrizio; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Pomerri, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    Ninety-six cobb race chickens were equally divided in 4 groups and randomly assigned to receive a standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Symphytum (S.) officinalis (9CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Tricalcarea (4CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Calcarea (C.) carbonica (30CH) or a placebo (the same feed but without any homeopathic compound) in order to assess the ability of the homeopathic compounds to increase the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue. We measured the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue of all chickens by means of a computed tomography (CT). 30%, 36% and 63% increase of sternum spongy-bone mineralization was observed after a 2 years period in the treatment groups with S. officinalis (9CH), Tricalcarea (4CH) (*P < 0.05) and C. carbonica (30CH) (***P < 0.001) respectively. Bone mineralization is usually low in battery chickens reared in commercial poultry-sheds, creating a weakness of the whole animal supporting apparatus. Homeopathic preparations with bone-tissue tropism may improve their health quality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone response of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Luo, J W; Zhou, Z L; Zhang, H; Ma, R S; Hou, J F

    2013-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone (CORT), with the aim of determining its effects on bone characteristics. At 7 d of age, the experimental birds were injected daily with CORT (4 mg/kg of body mass) for 1 week. CORT administration significantly decreased the body weight while increasing relative liver weight of the chickens and the bone parameters were also decreased. Histology and immunohistochemistry of type X collagen revealed that CORT reduced the lengths of proliferative and prehypertrophic zone in growth plate and the number of positive chondrocytes in the prehypertrophic zone. In conclusion exposure to CORT depressed the growth performance and retarded the longitudinal growth of the long bones by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in growth plate in broilers.

  6. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  7. Characterization of beta-defensin prepropeptide mRNA from chicken and turkey bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Brockus, C W; Jackwood, M W; Harmon, B G

    1998-08-01

    Four avian beta-defension prepropeptide cDNA sequences [gallinacins: Gal 1 (synonym CHP 1, chicken heterophil peptide 1), and Gal 2; turkey heterophil peptides: THP 1 and THP 2] were amplified from chicken or turkey bone marrow mRNA samples, respectively. Partial chicken beta-defensin cDNA sequences were obtained using degenerate primers based on chicken peptide sequences (Gal 1/CHP 1 and Gal 2). The complete cDNA sequences of the chicken beta-defensins were then determined by designing specific intrapeptidal primers, from the newly acquired sequence, and pairing one primer with a specific poly A primer tail sequence (3' end) and the other primer with an adapter primer in a 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) reaction. The two, turkey beta-defensins were amplified from turkey marrow using primers designed from chicken beta-defensin preproregions. The complete amino acid sequences for the prepropeptides were deduced for all four avian beta-defensins. Previously, only partial mature peptide sequences for the turkey beta-defensins and complete mature peptide sequences for the chicken beta-defensins were known. All sequences obtained translated accurately to complete and partial amino acid sequences reported for beta-defensins purified from chicken and turkey heterophil granules except for one additional amino acid for Gal 1/CHP 1. The four deduced beta-defensin proregions lack the long, negatively charged propiece reported in classical defensin proregions. These regions are thought to stabilize and inactivate the positively charged mature peptide and target the propeptide to the storage granule. Instead, these beta-defensin proregions are shorter and similar to storage granule-free beta-defensins proregions reported for bovine tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP). These are the first prepropeptide beta-defensins from leukocyte granules to be completely characterized.

  8. Fungal osteomyelitis of maxillofacial bones: Rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B; Singh, Hanspal; Mohanty, Sujata; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is defined as inflammation of the medullary cavities, haversian system and adjacent cortex of bone. Osteomyelitis involving maxilla is quite rare when compared to that of mandible. Fungal osteomyelitis is very rarely seen and documented in the maxillofacial area. It is devastating to patients if it is invasive in nature. A prospective study was undertaken from December 2011 to December 2013. Biopsied hard tissue bits were decalcified and sections were stained with H&E, periodic acid Schiff and Grocott methenamine silver. Culture sensitivity was carried out in all cases. Surgical intervention followed by antifungal therapy was advocated to treat the patients. The current series showed five cases of fungal osteomyelitis which included candidal osteomyelitis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis with slight predominance of maxilla over mandible. Osteomyelitis of facial bones needs to be investigated thoroughly as there is no difference in clinical presentation between bacterial and fungal osteomyelitis. The diagnostic workup with biopsy and culture sensitivity helps to identify the pathogen at the earliest. Appropriate antifungal treatment needs to be advocated for successful treatment. PMID:27721629

  9. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Hu, Li; Li, Xia; Wu, Xiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB) containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group) were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry. PMID:27016175

  10. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding. PMID:27760160

  11. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  12. Differential gene expression in femoral bone from red junglefowl and domestic chicken, differing for bone phenotypic traits

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Carl-Johan; Lindberg, Johan; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Savolainen, Peter; Jensen, Per; Lundeberg, Joakim; Andersson, Leif; Kindmark, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is frequently observed among aging hens from egg-producing strains (layers) of domestic chicken. White Leghorn (WL) has been intensively selected for egg production and it manifests striking phenotypic differences for a number of traits including several bone phenotypes in comparison with the wild ancestor of chicken, the red junglefowl (RJ). Previously, we have identified four Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) affecting bone mineral density and bone strength in an intercross between RJ and WL. With the aim of further elucidating the genetic basis of bone traits in chicken, we have now utilized cDNA-microarray technology in order to compare global RNA-expression in femoral bone from adult RJ and WL (five of each sex and population). Results When contrasting microarray data for all WL-individuals to that of all RJ-individuals we observed differential expression (False discovery rate adjusted p-values < 0.015) for 604 microarray probes. In corresponding male and female contrasts, differential expression was observed for 410 and 270 probes, respectively. Altogether, the three contrasts between WL and RJ revealed differential expression of 779 unique transcripts, 57 of which are located to previously identified QTL-regions for bone traits. Some differentially expressed genes have previously been attributed roles in bone metabolism and these were: WNT inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) and Syndecan 3 (SDC3). Among differentially expressed transcripts, those encoding structural ribosomal proteins were highly enriched and all 15 had lower expression in WL. Conclusion We report the identification of 779 differentially expressed transcripts, several residing within QTL-regions for bone traits. Among differentially expressed transcripts, those encoding structural ribosomal proteins were highly enriched and all had lower expression levels in WL. In addition, transcripts encoding four translation initiation and translation

  13. Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Hsu, Jenn-Chung; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (p<0.05) lower in capons after 12 wks of age (caponized treatment after 4 wks) than that of the intact males. The relative tibia weight, bone breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, bone calcium, bone phosphorus and bone magnesium contents were significantly (p<0.05) higher in intact males, while capons had higher (p<0.05) plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. The plasma testosterone concentration, relative tibia weight, tibia length, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents of intact males chickens increased significantly (p<0.05) with the advance of age. In addition, the relative tibia weight of capons peaked at 18 wks of age, and declined at 35 wks of age. The bone ash, calcium and phosphorus content increased most after 14 wks of age in male native chickens in Taiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus

  14. Quantitative trait loci for BMD and bone strength in an intercross between domestic and wildtype chickens.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Carl-Johan; Brändström, Helena; Wright, Dominic; Kerje, Susanne; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Schutz, Karin; Fredriksson, Robert; Jensen, Per; Andersson, Leif; Ohlsson, Claes; Mallmin, Hans; Larsson, Sune; Kindmark, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    With chicken used as a model species, we used QTL analysis to examine the genetic contribution to bone traits. We report the identification of four QTLs for femoral traits: one for bone strength, one for endosteal circumference, and two affecting mineral density of noncortical bone. BMD is a highly heritable phenotype, governed by elements at numerous loci. In studies examining the genetic contribution to bone traits, many loci have been identified in humans and in other species. The goal of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling BMD and bone strength in an intercross between wildtype and domestic chickens. A set of 164 markers, covering 30 chromosomes (chr.), were used to genotype 337 F2-individuals from an intercross of domesticated white Leghorn and wildtype red junglefowl chicken. DXA and pQCT were used to measure BMD and bone structure. Three-point bending tests and torsional strength tests were performed to determine the biomechanical strength of the bone. QTLs were mapped using forward selection for loci with significant marginal effects. Four QTLs for femoral bone traits were identified in QTL analysis with body weight included as a covariate. A QTL on chr. 1 affected female noncortical BMD (LOD 4.6) and is syntenic to human 12q21-12q23. Also located on chr. 1, a locus with synteny to human 12q13-14 affected endosteal circumference (LOD 4.6). On chr. 2, a QTL corresponding to human 5p13-p15, 7p12, 18q12, 18q21, and 9q22-9q31 affected BMD in females; noncortical (LOD 4.0) and metaphyseal (LOD 7.0) BMD by pQCT and BMD by DXA (LOD 5.9). A QTL located on chr. 20 (LOD 5.2) affected bone biomechanical strength and had sex-dependent effects. In addition to the significant QTLs, 10 further loci with suggestive linkage to bone traits were identified. Four QTLs were identified: two for noncortical BMD, one for endosteal circumference, and one affecting bone biomechanical strength. The future identification of genes responsible for these

  15. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  16. Gradual Colonic Impaction of a Chicken Bone Associated with Inflammatory Pseudotumor Formation and Nonocclusive Colon Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Fosi, Stefania; Bindi, Alessio; De Sanctis, Flavio; Ricciardi, Edoardo; Rossi, Piero; Petrella, Giuseppe; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common clinical problem and most FBs pass through the gastrointestinal tract without the need for intervention. A wide spectrum of clinical presentations may be possible and these can be either acute or chronic. We present a case of an 83-year-old woman featuring insidious abdominal discomfort who was hospitalized in our institution due to worsening symptoms. She underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) evaluation which showed the presence of a significant parietal thickening of the transverse and descending colon, a mesenteric loose tissue imbibition, venous engorgement, and no filling defect of visceral arteries, suggesting a condition of nonocclusive colon ischemia. A hyperdense FB was identified in the sigma and was associated with a small pseudotumoral mass. The patient underwent surgical exploration which confirmed the hypoperfusional state of the colon, showing the presence of a chicken bone perforating the sigma and lying in the context of a pseudotumoral mass. Our experience shows how contrast-enhanced CT is feasible and can be strongly recommended as a first-line imaging tool on suspicion of colon ischemia and also how it can easily identify the underlying cause, in our case a FB sealed perforation of the sigma with pseudotumoral mass formation. PMID:24707425

  17. Effect of daily lithium chloride administration on bone mass and strength in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B M; Eschbach, M; Glynn, E A; Kotha, S; Darre, M; Adams, D J; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R; Govoni, K E

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of oral lithium chloride supplementation on bone strength and mass in broiler chickens. Ninety-six broilers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (lithium chloride or control; n=48/treatment). Beginning at 1 or 3 wk of age, chickens were administered lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) or water daily by oral gavage. At 6 wk of age, chickens were euthanized and bone and muscle samples were collected. A 24 h lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) challenge determined that serum lithium chloride increased within 2 h and cleared the system within 24 h, demonstrating the effective delivery of lithium chloride. Treatment did not influence body weight (P≥0.20) or feed intake (P≥0.81), demonstrating that lithium chloride did not negatively affect broiler growth. To determine bone strength, 3-point bending was performed on the femora and tibiae obtained from control and lithium chloride-treated birds in the 1 wk group. Lithium chloride-treated birds had a 22% reduction in stiffness compared with control in the femora (P=0.02) without a corresponding reduction in elastic modulus. No differences were observed in yield or ultimate load and in the corresponding calculations of stresses (P≥0.26). The toughness of tibiae was not altered in lithium chloride compared with control (P=0.11). Bone length and micro-CT imaging were performed on the tibiae of control and lithium chloride groups. No differences (P≥0.52) in bone length, cortical or trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, number, or spacing were observed. Lithium chloride treatment did not affect pectoralis muscle color or lipid oxidation (P>0.05). In conclusion, lithium chloride treatment in broilers did not negatively affect growth or meat quality. A reduction in bone stiffness of the femur with lithium chloride treatment was observed, however unlike the mouse model, the dosages of lithium chloride used in the current study did not result in anabolic effects

  18. Primary extra nodal Hodgkin disease: Bone presentation.

    PubMed

    Nikolica, Goran; Badnjar, Zorka; Cadjenovic, Tanja; Raceta-Masic, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Extra nodal and extra lymphatic propagation of Hodgkin's disease is a characteristic of the fourth stage of disease when the organs are affected. Primary appearances of the disease outside the lymph node is a rare event. Therefore, it makes diagnostic problem. Skeletal system is possible localization of primary extra nodal Hodgkin's disease. Women, 42-years-old, was admitted to hospital because of swelling and pain in the right shoulder. After imaging and histological examination diagnosed Hodgkin's nodular sclerosing histological subtype disease has been established. The patient starts to receive chemotherapy. Primary extra nodal Hodgkin's disease of bone is manifested with painful swelling in geared area. Imaging method shows destruction of the affected bone, with swelling of the soft tissues. Propagation in soft tissue is not accompanied by their destruction, but rather manifested swelling of the surrounding soft tissue.

  19. Genetic architecture of bone quality variation in layer chickens revealed by a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Sun, Congjiao; Qu, Liang; Shen, Manman; Dou, Taocun; Ma, Meng; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal problems in layer chickens are gaining attention due to animal welfare and economic losses in the egg industry. The genetic improvement of bone traits has been proposed as a potential solution to these issues; however, genetic architecture is not well understood. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on bone quality using a sample of 1534 hens genotyped with a 600 K Chicken Genotyping Array. Using a linear mixed model approach, a novel locus close to GSG1L, associated with femur bone mineral density (BMD), was uncovered in this study. In addition, nine SNPs in genes were associated with bone quality. Three of these genes, RANKL, ADAMTS and SOST, were known to be associated with osteoporosis in humans, which makes them good candidate genes for osteoporosis in chickens. Genomic partitioning analysis supports the fact that common variants contribute to the variations of bone quality. We have identified several strong candidate genes and genomic regions associated with bone traits measured in end-of-lay cage layers, which accounted for 1.3–7.7% of the phenotypic variance. These SNPs could provide the relevant information to help elucidate which genes affect bone quality in chicken. PMID:28383518

  20. Genetic determinism of bone and mineral metabolism in meat-type chickens: A QTL mapping study.

    PubMed

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.

  1. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  2. Cell-autonomous sex differences in gene expression in chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morales, Carla; Nandi, Sunil; Zhao, Debiao; Sauter, Kristin A; Vervelde, Lonneke; McBride, Derek; Sang, Helen M; Clinton, Mike; Hume, David A

    2015-03-01

    We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome-specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN-responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes.

  3. Cell-Autonomous Sex Differences in Gene Expression in Chicken Bone Marrow–Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Morales, Carla; Nandi, Sunil; Zhao, Debiao; Sauter, Kristin A.; Vervelde, Lonneke; McBride, Derek; Sang, Helen M.; Clinton, Mike

    2015-01-01

    We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome–specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN–responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes. PMID:25637020

  4. Allantoin, the oxidation product of uric acid is present in chicken and turkey plasma.

    PubMed

    Simoyi, Melvin F; Falkenstein, Elizabeth; Van Dyke, Knox; Blemings, Kenneth P; Klandorf, Hillar

    2003-06-01

    Urate oxidase is not present in birds yet allantoin, a product of this enzyme, has been measured in birds. Studies were designed to compare the concentrations of plasma purine derivatives in chickens and turkeys fed inosine-supplemented diets. The first study consisted of 12 male chicks that were fed diets supplemented with 0.6 mol inosine or hypoxanthine per kilogram diet from 3- to 6-week-old. Study 2 consisted of 12 turkey poults (toms) fed inosine-supplemented diets (0.7 mol/kg) from 6- to 8-week-old. Plasma allantoin and oxypurines concentrations were measured weekly using high performance liquid chromatography. Plasma uric acid (PUA) in chickens fed inosine-supplemented diets increased from 0.31 to 1.34 mM (P<0.05) at the end of week 2. In turkeys, those fed control diet had 0.17 mM PUA concentration compared to 0.3 mM in those fed the inosine diet at week 2 (P<0.05). Allantoin concentration increased in chickens from week 1 to 2 while a decrease was observed in turkeys (P<0.005) for both treatments. These data show that allantoin is present in turkey and chicken plasma. The presence of allantoin in avian plasma is consistent with uric acid acting as an antioxidant in these species.

  5. Bone Mass and Bone Quality are Altered by Hypoactivity in the Chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, E.; Libouban, H.; Basle, M. F.; Chappard, D.

    2008-06-01

    Disuse induces a rapid bone loss in adults. Hypoactivity also decreases bone mass in adults but its effects in young growing animals are largely unknown. 10 chicks of the rapidly growing strain 857K were grown in a large enclosure; 10 others were kept in small cages with little space to move around. They were sacrificed at 56 days and femur and tibia were evaluated by texture analysis, DEXA and microCT. Hypoactivity had no effect on the length and diameter the bones. BMD, microCT (BV/TV and trabecular microarchitecture) and texture analysis were always found significantly reduced in the bones of hypodynamic animals.

  6. Sensorial quality and bone strength of female and male broiler chickens are influenced by weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Erdal, R; Richardson, I; Ljøkjel, K; Haug, A

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 98 male and 98 female broiler chickens (Ross 308) to study the effect of growth rate, induced by different dietary means, sex and live weight (1500 g and 2000 g) at slaughter on production parameters, bone strength and sensorial characteristics of the breast meat. 2. The birds were divided into four groups and individually fed a standard commercial diet, a high energy diet or low energy diet from d 11 to slaughter at between d 28 and 39. Three groups were fed ad libitum and a further group was fed a restricted amount of the high energy feed. Half of the birds in each group were slaughtered at approximately 1500 g and the other half at 2000 g live weight. 3. The diets resulted in different growth rates. The chickens fed the high energy and the commercial diet had the highest growth rate at both live weights at slaughter. The restricted fed chickens had lower bone strength than the chickens fed the low energy diet. 4. Breast meat from male broilers was juicer, more tender and less hard than breast meat from females. Chickens slaughtered at 2000 g live weight were juicer than those slaughtered at 1500 g. Chickens given the high energy feed ad libitum and restricted had different growth rates, but the sensory parameter related to texture showed no difference. 5. It was concluded that an increased slaughter weight might improve meat quality due to improved juiciness.

  7. Preparation of Substrate for Flavorant from Chicken Bone Residue with Hot-Pressure Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Dong, Xian-Bing; Yue, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Hot-pressure extraction (HPE), which is regarded as a "green" technology, was applied to extract nutrients (protein, collagen, and minerals) from chicken bone residue (CBR). Amino acids (AA), color, and volatile flavor compounds of chicken bone extract (CBE) were also investigated. Results showed that contents of protein, total soluble solids, minerals, and collagen of CBE were positively correlated with extraction time and temperature. High ratios of protein (83.51%) and collagen (96.81%) were obtained with 135 °C and 120 min. Essential AA accounted for 31.03% to 47.73% of total AA in CBE. The percentage of bitter AA in TAA decreased from 28.94% to 25.02% at 0 min to 20.19% and 21.41% at 120 min, although fresh AA increased from 46.35% to 50.84% (0 min) to 53.14% (120 min) at 130 and 135 °C, respectively, indicating CBE was nutritionally beneficial with good flavor. Color and volatile flavor of CBE improved significantly after extraction, although calcium in CBE (4.2 to 4.8 mg/100 g) was relatively low compared with that of CBR (1078 mg/100 g). It can be concluded that HPE is a promising way to transform CBR into a nutritious flavorant substrate, but it is not an efficient way to extract calcium.

  8. Differences in carcass and meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to northern Thailand (Black-boned and Thai native) and imported extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island red).

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, S; Srikanchai, T; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 genotypes of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indigenous chicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chicken breeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The animals were fed until 16 wk of age. Breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles were studied in detail. Chickens of the imported breeds were heavier at slaughter than indigenous strains, especially Black-boned chickens. Proportions of retail cuts with bones were similar among genotypes, whereas deboned breast meat and lean:bone ratio were lowest in the layer breed (Rhode). The meat of the Black-boned chickens was darker than that of the other genotypes. Thai and Rhode chickens had a particularly yellow skin. The ratio of red and intermediate to white fibers was higher in the thigh muscle, and the diameter of all muscle fiber types in both muscles was smaller in the indigenous compared with the imported breeds. The meat of the 2 indigenous Thai strains had lower contents of fat and cholesterol compared with that of the imported breeds, especially relative to the Rhode chickens (thigh meat). The meat of the indigenous origins, especially of the Thai chickens, was higher in shear force and collagen content (thigh only) than meat of the imported breeds. The meat lipids of the Thai chickens had particularly high proportions of n-3 fatty acids and a favorably low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio compared with the other genotypes. In conclusion, meat of indigenous chickens has some unique features and seems to have more advantages over imported breeds than disadvantages, especially when determined for a niche market serving consumers who prefer chewy, low-fat chicken meat.

  9. The autopsy of chicken nuggets reads "chicken little".

    PubMed

    deShazo, Richard D; Bigler, Steven; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2013-11-01

    To determine the contents of chicken nuggets from 2 national food chains. Chicken nuggets have become a major component of the American diet. We sought to determine the current composition of this highly processed food. Randomly selected nuggets from 2 different national fast food chains were fixed in formalin, sectioned and stained for microscopic analysis. Striated muscle (chicken meat) was not the predominate component in either nugget. Fat was present in equal or greater quantities along with epithelium, bone, nerve, and connective tissue. Chicken nuggets are mostly fat, and their name is a misnomer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Labial swelling: a rare presentation of pubic bone tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shende, Prajakta; Gandhewar, Manisha; Gaikwad, Pradip; Nanaware, Sandip; Risbud Joshi, Prachi

    2016-09-14

    Tuberculosis (TB), being a global health problem, represents variedly. Its presentation as a labial swelling secondary to pubic bone TB has been reported rarely in literature. We report a case of pubic bone TB presenting as a labial swelling in a woman of reproductive age. Early diagnosis with fine needle aspiration cytology, acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining, AFB culture and magnetic resonance imaging with early initiation of treatment resulted in a favourable outcome.

  11. Lesions in the thymus and bone marrow in chicks with experimentally induced chicken infectious anemia disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuscu, Burak

    2008-01-01

    One-day-old SPF chicks were inoculated with the Cux-l strain of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), and the clinical development of disease and its macroscopic and microscopic alterations in the thymus and bone marrow, were observed. Tissue sections of thymus and bone marrow were stained using the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method and examined under light microscope for evaluation of antigenic intensities in tissues. Those findings were then compared with blood parameters and ELISA results obtained through collected sera during sacrifice procedures. We sought to determine: the localization of viral antigens in thymus and bone marrow tissues after inoculation, the correlation between antigen intensities and hematologic, serologic and histopathologic findings, definitive diagnostic criteria using histopathologic and immunoperoxidase methods, and the reliability of these methods in the diagnosis of CIAV infection. For this purpose, 83, one-day-old SPF chicks were used. The birds were divided into experimental (n = 52) and control (n = 26) groups. A virus dose of TCID50 of 100,000/ml was administered intramuscularly to every bird in the experimental group. Based on the results of this study, we have suggested that clinical examination, along with macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the thymus and bone marrow, maybe undertaken starting from day 7 post-inoculation (PI). ELISA, might be of value, as it might give consistent results starting from day 14 PI. However, the most reliable results were obtained through examination of thymus and bone marrow sections from infected birds stained by immunoperoxidase technique, as early as day 4 PI. PMID:18296884

  12. Chicken major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of the B haplotype present self and foreign peptides.

    PubMed

    Cumberbatch, J A; Brewer, D; Vidavsky, I; Sharif, S

    2006-08-01

    The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or B-complex, mediates genetic resistance and susceptibility to infectious disease. For example, the B19 haplotype is associated with susceptibility to Marek's disease. Here, we describe the sequencing and analysis of peptides presented by B19 MHC class II molecules. A B19/B19 B-cell line was used for the immunoaffinity purification of MHC class II molecules, which was followed by acid elution of the bound peptides. The eluted peptides were then analysed using tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty peptide sequences were obtained, ranging from 11 to 25 amino acids in length. Source protein cellular localization included the plasma membrane, cytosol and endosomal pathway. In addition, five peptides from the envelope glycoprotein of chicken syncytial virus (CSV) were identified. Chicken syncytial virus had been used as a helper virus along with reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T for transformation of B19/B19B cells. Alignment and analysis of the peptide sequence pool provided a putative peptide-binding motif for the B19 MHC class II.

  13. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of chicken osteocalcin and its use in evaluation of perch effects on bone remodeling in caged White Leghorns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a sensitive biochemical marker for evaluating bone turnover in mammals. The role of avian OC is less clear because of a need for a chicken assay. Our objectives were to develop an assay using indirect competitive ELISA for detecting chicken serum OC and use the assay to examine t...

  14. Changes of flavor compounds of hydrolyzed chicken bone extracts during Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Xu, Xiong; Dong, Xian-Bing; Hu, Li; Li, Chun-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Flavor quality, including non-volatile and volatile compounds, of hydrolyzed chicken bone extracts (HCBE) during Maillard reaction (MR) was evaluated with HPLC, tasting sensory system, Electronic-Nose (E-nose), and GC-MS. Results showed that flavor amino acids (AA) accounted for 72% to 74% of total free AA in HCBE. Taste of umami increased first and then decreased during MR, while equivalent umami concentration remained at a stable level. Results of taste sensing system and bitter AA showed that MR could reduce the bitter taste of HCBE significantly. E-Nose test showed there are great changes of volatile flavor during MR. And total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in HCBE during MR, which should responsible for the increase of flavor in HCBE. Our results indicated that MR could be used as an effective way to change the flavor compounds in HCBE, and therefore provide a strategy for preparation of meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry.

  15. Bone pain as the presenting manifestation of secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S; Rowntree, C; Rudge, S

    1990-08-01

    A 31 year old fireman presented with acute pain and tenderness in both shins and forearms. Radiographs were normal but bone scintigraphy showed widespread increased isotope uptake. Serology was consistent with a diagnosis of secondary syphilis, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely six weeks after a course of penicillin.

  16. Bone-Remodeling Transcript Levels Are Independent of Perching in End-of-Lay White Leghorn Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Maurice D.; Mortimer, Erin M.; Kolli, Santharam; Achramowicz, Erik; Borchert, Glenn; Juliano, Steven A.; Halkyard, Scott; Sietz, Nick; Gatto, Craig; Hester, Patricia Y.; Rubin, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease that commonly results in a 30% incidence of fracture in hens used to produce eggs for human consumption. One of the causes of osteoporosis is the lack of mechanical strain placed on weight-bearing bones. In conventionally-caged hens, there is inadequate space for chickens to exercise and induce mechanical strain on their bones. One approach is to encourage mechanical stress on bones by the addition of perches to conventional cages. Our study focuses on the molecular mechanism of bone remodeling in end-of-lay hens (71 weeks) with access to perches. We examined bone-specific transcripts that are actively involved during development and remodeling. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined seven transcripts (COL2A1 (collagen, type II, alpha 1), RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand), OPG (osteoprotegerin), PTHLH (PTH-like hormone), PTH1R (PTH/PTHLH type-1 receptor), PTH3R (PTH/PTHLH type-3 receptor), and SOX9 (Sry-related high mobility group box)) in phalange, tibia and femur. Our results indicate that the only significant effect was a difference among bones for COL2A1 (femur > phalange). Therefore, we conclude that access to a perch did not alter transcript expression. Furthermore, because hens have been used as a model for human bone metabolism and osteoporosis, the results indicate that bone remodeling due to mechanical loading in chickens may be a product of different pathways than those involved in the mammalian model. PMID:25625518

  17. Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible with unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Capote-Moreno, Ana; Acero, Julio; García-Recuero, Ignacio; Ruiz, Julián; Serrano, Rosario; de Paz, Víctor

    2009-03-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign lesions of bone tissue, infrequent in craneofacial skeleton with regard to other structures like long bones or the spine. They are composed of sinusoidal and vascular spaces blood-filled and surrounded by fibrous tissue septa. We present a case of a 29-year-old Caucasian male with a big swelling in the left mandible associated to pain and rapid growth. He referred previous extraction of the left inferior third molar. On the X-ray study, an expansive multilocular and high vascularized bony lesion within the mandibular angle was observed. It produced expansion and destruction of lingual and buccal cortex. An incisional biopsy was performed showing a fibrous tissue with blood-filled spaces lesion suggestive of an aneurysmal bone cyst. After selective embolization of the tumour, surgical resection was done with curettage and immediate reconstruction of the defect with an anterior iliac crest graft. Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-neoplastic but locally aggressive tumours with occasional rapid growth that may be differentiated from other multilocular process like ameloblastoma, ossifying fibroma, epithelial cyst, giant cell granuloma and sarcomas. Treatment of choice consists on conservative surgical excision of the mass with curettage or enucleation. When resection creates a big defect, primary surgical reconstruction is recommended.

  18. Public health significance of major genotypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis present in both human and chicken isolates in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Su; Oh, Jae-Young; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Deog-Yong; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Choi, Byung-Kook; Youn, So-Youn; Jeon, Byung-Woo; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-02-17

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most common serotypes implicated in Salmonella infections in both humans and poultry worldwide. It has been reported that human salmonellosis is mainly associated with the consumption of poultry products contaminated with serovar Enteritidis. The present study was to extensively analyze the public health risk of serovar Enteritidis isolates from chickens in Korea. A total of 127 chicken isolates were collected from clinical cases, on-farm feces, and chicken meat between 1998 and 2012 and 20 human clinical isolates were obtained from patients with diarrhea between 2000 and 2006 in Korea. To characterize the isolates from chickens and humans, we compared the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles of the isolates. We further characterized representative isolates of different genotypes using a DNA microarray. PFGE revealed 28 patterns and MLVA identified 16 allelic profiles. The DNA microarray showed high genetic variability in plasmid regions and other fimbrial subunits of the isolates although the virulence gene contents of isolates from the same source and/or of the same genotype were unrelated. PFGE and MLVA showed that major genotypes were present in both human and chicken isolates. This result suggests that chickens in Korea pose a significant risk to public health as a source of serovar Enteritidis as has been noted in other countries.

  19. Measurement of true ileal calcium digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens using the direct method.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M N; Ravindran, V; Morel, P C H; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study that is presented herein was to determine the true ileal calcium (Ca) digestibility in meat and bone meal (MBM) for broiler chickens using the direct method. Four MBM samples (coded as MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4) were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, particle size distribution and bone to soft tissue ratio. The Ca concentrations of MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4 were determined to be 71, 118, 114 and 81 g/kg, respectively. The corresponding geometric mean particle diameters and bone to soft tissue ratios were 0.866, 0.622, 0.875 and 0.781 mm, and 1:1.49, 1:0.98, 1:0.92 and 1:1.35, respectively. Five experimental diets, including four diets with similar Ca concentration (8.3 g/kg) from each MBM and a Ca and phosphorus-free diet, were developed. Meat and bone meal served as the sole source of Ca in the MBM diets. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was incorporated in all diets as an indigestible marker. Each experimental diet was randomly allotted to six replicate cages (eight birds per cage) and offered from d 28 to 31 post-hatch. Apparent ileal Ca digestibility was calculated by the indicator method and corrected for ileal endogenous Ca losses to determine the true ileal Ca digestibility. Ileal endogenous Ca losses were determined to be 88 mg/kg dry matter intake. True ileal Ca digestibility coefficients of MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4 were determined to be 0.560, 0.446, 0.517 and 0.413, respectively. True Ca digestibility of MBM-1 was higher (P < 0.05) than MBM-2 and MBM-4 but similar (P > 0.05) to that of MBM-3. True Ca digestibility of MBM-2 was similar (P > 0.05) to MBM-3 and MBM-4, while that of MBM-3 was higher (P < 0.05) than MBM-4. These results demonstrated that the direct method can be used for the determination of true Ca digestibility in feed ingredients and that Ca in MBM is not highly available as often assumed. The variability in true Ca digestibility of MBM samples could not be attributed to Ca content, percentage

  20. The role of pleiotropy and linkage in genes affecting a sexual ornament and bone allocation in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, M; Rubin, C-J; Höglund, A; Sahlqvist, A-S; Jonsson, K B; Kerje, S; Ekwall, O; Kämpe, O; Andersson, L; Jensen, P; Wright, D

    2014-05-01

    Sexual selection and the ornaments that inform such choices have been extensively studied, particularly from a phenotypic perspective. Although more is being revealed about the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments, much still remains to be discovered. The comb of the chicken is one of the most widely recognized sexual ornaments, which has been shown to be correlated with both fecundity and bone allocation. In this study, we use a combination of multiple intercrosses between White Leghorn populations and wild-derived Red Junglefowl to, first, map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bone allocation and, second, to identify expression QTL that correlate and colocalize with comb mass. These candidate quantitative genes were then assessed for potential pleiotropic effects on bone tissue and fecundity traits. We identify genes that correlate with both relative comb mass and bone traits suggesting a combination of both pleiotropy and linkage mediates gene regulatory variation in these traits. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Apical petrositis, osteomyelitis of the base of the skull bones and of the first cervical vertebra in a 5 year-old children following chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Zelikovich, E I; Soldatsky, Yu L; Burova, O V

    2016-01-01

    This publication was designed to describe a rare case of development of apicalpetrositis in a child presenting with acute otitis mediafollowing chicken pox experienced in the preceding period. We carried out the study with the use of computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated destruction of the temporal bone, bones of the base of the skull and of the first cervical vertebra. The treatment strategy chosen for the management of this condition that included antibiotic therapy and expectant observation proved justified and can be recommended as an algorithm of choice taking into consideration the difficulty of surgical approach to the apex of the petrous pyramid. However, this approach is associated with the high risk of disability arising from the potential injury to the craniocerebral nerves.

  2. Systemic mastocytosis presenting with gastrointestinal, bone and skin involvement.

    PubMed

    Rosignuolo, Maria; Muscianese, Marta; Pranteda, Guglielmo

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is often the first imaging study performed in patient with abdominal pain or vague symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract. To this end, it has been demonstrated that transabdominal sonography achieves good to excellent results in potential bowel disorders; especially, if ultrasonography findings are framed in the context of clinical information. Systemic mastocytosis is not a common disease and it usually involves skin, gastrointestinal tract and bone. It results from a clonal neoplastic proliferation of abnormal mast cells and clinically it can ranges from 'asymptomatic' with normal life expectancy to 'highly aggressive'. Symptoms are caused by the release of mast cells mediators, such as histamine, and by the increase bulk of mast cells in the tissue. We present herein a case of systemic mastocytosis presenting with abdominal symptomatology due to thickened colonic involvement showed by US associated with bone and skin involvement.

  3. The effect of phytase and fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, bone quality, and phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Y; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Kim, W K

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and 2 levels of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, bone mineralization, and P utilization of broiler chickens. A total of 210 day-old male broiler chickens (Ross) were randomly placed into 7 dietary treatments consisting of 6 replicates with 5 birds per pen. The experiment was designed as an augmented 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 0 or 500 U/kg of phytase and 0, 0.5% or 1% of FOS added to a reduced Ca (0.8%) and available P (0.25%) negative control diet (NC). A positive control diet (PC) that contained 1% Ca and 0.45% available P was also included. During the entire experimental period, phytase supplementation significantly improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR), BW gain (BWG), and feed intake. Birds fed the PC diet showed significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in both femur and tibia bones (P < 0.0001) than those fed the NC diet. Phytase supplementation increased femur BMD (P < 0.05), whereas FOS decreased femur BMD and BMC (P < 0.05). Phosphorus utilization was significantly higher for the NC diet (P < 0.0001). Phytase alone and in combination with 0.5% FOS increased P utilization significantly when compared with other treatments (P < 0.05). Fructooligosaccharides, especially at the level of 0.5%, increased P retention. In conclusion, phytase supplementation in low Ca and P diets improved growth performance, bone quality, and P utilization. However, supplementing NC diets with phytase and FOS did not result in bone mineralization values comparable with that of the PC diet. The application of dietary FOS alone had a negative effect on broiler bone quality.

  4. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juan; Chen, Jian; Kim, Jae Chan; Yao, Ke

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and involved in its destructive and regenerative disease course, tissue specimens were collected from 3 eyes of 3 patients with Mooren's ulcer that underwent lamellar keratectomy. Three normal donor limbal corneoscleras served as controls. Immunohistochemical staining patterns were analyzed by using the following antibodies: CD34 (a marker of hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelium), c-kit (a marker of hematopoietic and stromal progenitor cells) and STRO-1 (a differentiation antigen present on bone marrow fibroblast cells and on various nonhematopoietic progenitor cells). Strong positive CD34, c-kit and STRO-1 cells were revealed in Mooren's ulcer specimens, especially in the superficial stroma. A few weakly expressed CD34 stromal cells were seen in normal limbal cornea, but no immunoreactivity for c-kit and STRO-1 was found. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and contribute to its destructive and regeneration process by synergizing with other factors. Specific therapeutic strategies that target the role of these cells in Mooren's ulcer are anticipated.

  5. Temporal bone rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as acute peripheral facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Reid, Samuel R; Hetzel, Thomas; Losek, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    Facial palsy is not an uncommon presentation to an emergency department. Whereas most patients will ultimately receive a diagnosis of Bell palsy (idiopathic peripheral seventh cranial nerve palsy), a subset will have an identifiable cause for their facial paralysis. Children are more likely to have an identifiable cause than are adults. We present a case in which a child presented with acute peripheral facial nerve palsy and was found to have temporal bone rhabdomyosarcoma. The key clinical finding was the presence of both 7th and 12th cranial nerve palsy.

  6. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of chicken osteocalcin and its use in evaluation of perch effects on bone remodeling in caged White Leghorns.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Hester, P Y; Hou, J-F

    2013-08-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a sensitive biochemical marker for evaluating bone turnover in mammals. The role of avian OC is less clear because of the need for a chicken assay. Our objectives were to develop an assay using indirect competitive ELISA for detecting chicken serum OC and use the assay to examine the effects of perches on bone remodeling in caged hens. Anti-chicken OC polyclonal antibody was produced by immunization of rabbits with a recombinant OC from Escherichia coli. Chicken OC extracted from bone was used as a coated protein, and purified chicken OC was used for calibration. The limit of detection of the developed OC ELISA was 0.13 ng/mL. The intra- and interassay CV were <7 and <12%, respectively. The sensitivity of the developed OC ELISA was compared with a commercial Rat-Mid OC ELISA in laying hens housed in conventional cages with or without perches. Serum samples were collected from 71-wk-old White Leghorn hens subjected to 4 treatments. Treatment 1 was control chickens that never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 chickens had perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age), whereas treatment 3 chickens had perches only during the egg-laying phase of the life cycle (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens always had access to perches (0 to 71 wk of age). Correlation between the 2 assays was 0.62 (P < 0.0001). Levels of serum OC using the developed chicken ELISA were higher than that detected using the Rat-Mid ELISA (P < 0.0001). Results from the chicken ELISA assay showed that hens with perch access had higher concentrations of serum OC than hens without perches during egg laying (P = 0.04). Pullet access to perches did not affect serum OC levels in 71-wk-old hens (P = 0.15). In conclusion, a chicken OC ELISA has been validated that is sensitive and accurate with adequate discriminatory power for measuring bone remodeling in chickens.

  7. Age- and sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric and geometric parameters of tibiotarsal bone in Ross broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Charuta, Anna; Dzierzecka, Małgorzata; Komosa, Marcin; Kalinowski, Łukasz; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    For the first time computed tomography has been used to analyze densitometric and geometric parameters in proximal metaphyses and the mid-diaphyses of tibiotarsal bones in broiler chickens in posthatching development as influenced by age and sex. The research was conducted on 60 tibial bones of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) (10 males and 10 females in each age group). Statistical analysis has been conducted with the use of one-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Calculations have been performed separately for each sex, with age as a differentiation variable and separately for each of the developmental stages, with sex as a differentiation factor. Pearson's correlation coefficient have been calculated. Also, relative bone density has been determined. It was observed that volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the diaphyses was two times higher (app. 550 cm3) than in the proximal metaphyses (app. 230 cm ) of the tibiae in broiler chickens. In the proximal metaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones, densitometric and geometrical parameters increased with age of the birds. Densitometric parameters (vBMD, BMC) in 6-week-old males displayed (slightly) higher values than in females. It is worth emphasising that in both sexes bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the tibial proximal metaphyses than in the diaphyses. At the mid-diaphysis, most of the densitometric and geometrical parameters, i.e. bone mineral content (BMC), Strength-Strain Index (SSI), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endosteal circumference (ENDO_C), cortical area(CRT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A) and bone area (TOT_A), tended to grow with the birds' age. vBMD (volumetric bone mineral density in situ) is the only parameter that did not grow with age. It was also observed that in males in 4 wk, vBMD in the proximal metaphyses displayed the lowest values during posthatching development (217.47 cm3). Also between 2 and 4 wk of the development, vBMD in the diaphyses decreased from 637.64 cm3

  8. Evaluation of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation in broiler chickens fed on a rye-based diet.

    PubMed

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Bielke, L R; Vicente, J L; Wolfenden, R; Menconi, A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. 2. In the present study, control mash rye-based diets (CON) or Bacillus-DFM supplemented diets (TRT) were administered ad libitum to male broilers in three independent experiments. 3. In Experiments 1 and 2 (n = 25/group), liver samples were taken to evaluate bacterial translocation, digesta samples were used for viscosity measurements and the intestinal microbial flora was evaluated from different intestinal sections to enumerate total recovered gram-negative bacteria (TGB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic bacteria (TAB). Additionally, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone quality. 4. In Experiment 3, each experimental group had 8 replicates of 20 chickens (n = 160/group). Weekly, body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. At d 28-of-age, samples were taken to determine bacterial translocation, digesta viscosity and bone quality characteristics. 5. In all experiments, consumption of Bacillus-DFM reduced bacterial translocation to the liver and digesta viscosity. Additionally, DFM supplementation improved BW, bone quality measurements and FCR. Moreover, chickens fed on the Bacillus-DFM diet in Experiments 1 and 2 showed a significant reduction in the number of gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria in the duodenal content compared to control. 6. In summary, chickens fed on a rye-based diet without DFM inclusion showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by reduced performance and bone quality variables relative to the Bacillus-DFM candidate group. Hence, incorporation into the feed of a selected DFM ameliorated the adverse anti-nutritional effects related to utilisation of rye-based diets in broilers chickens.

  9. Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate true ileal phosphorus (P:) digestibility of 3 meat and bone meal samples (MBM-1, MBM-2: , and MBM-3:) for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each sample to contain graded concentrations of P. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 6 replicates (6 birds per replicate) per dietary treatment. A total of 432 Ross 308 broilers were assigned at 21 d of age to the 12 test diets. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P was determined by the indicator method, and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficient. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed diets containing MBM-1 and MBM-2 was unaffected by increasing dietary concentrations of P (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed the MBM-3 diets decreased with increasing P concentrations (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P < 0. 01). In birds fed the MBM-1 and MBM-2 diets, ileal endogenous P losses were estimated to be 0.049 and 0.142 g/kg DM intake (DMI:), respectively. In birds fed the MBM-3 diets, endogenous P loss was estimated to be negative (-0.370 g/kg DMI). True ileal P digestibility of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 was determined to be 0.693, 0.608, and 0.420, respectively. True ileal P digestibility coefficients determined for MBM-1 and MBM-2 were similar (P < 0.05), but were higher (P < 0.05) than that for MBM-3. Total P and true digestible P contents of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, respectively, on an as-fed basis.

  10. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  11. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always) innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body. PMID:21333012

  12. Effect of inulin on growth performance, intestinal tract sizes, mineral retention and tibial bone mineralisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2009-05-01

    1. A 5-week feeding trial with 240 one-day-old male broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the responses of performance, intestinal tract measurements, relative apparent retention of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu), and tibial bone measurements and mineral content (ash and Ca) to dietary graded levels of inulin. Treatments consisted of a maize-soybean meal control diet without or with supplemental antibiotic (flavomycin, 40 mg/kg diet) and 4 diets containing inulin at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg. 2. Growth performance of birds and morphological measurements of intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caeca) showed no response to dietary levels of inulin as compared with the control diet and the control diet with flavomycin. 3. Dietary inulin improved the relative apparent retention of Ca, Zn and Cu (up to 18.4, 35.5 and 466%, respectively), did no affect that of Mg and impaired the retention of Fe. Differences among inulin treatments and control with flavomycin were significant only for Mg content. 4. Dietary inulin increased the concentration of ash and Ca in the tibiae. This effect was not reflected in the tibial bone morphology (weight, length and width). In conclusion, the results from the current study suggest that feeding inulin to broiler chickens may have a beneficial effect on bone quality.

  13. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Douglas H; Liu, Xiaoying; Ulusarac, Ozlem; Ponnuru, Kimberly D; Schnepp, Stephanie L

    2011-02-18

    An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always) innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body.

  14. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds.

  15. A method of production of boneless chicken wings (drumettes and winglets) by separation of periosteum from bone without cutting skin and muscles.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ozimek, L

    2015-11-01

    The deboning of broiler chicken wings, including drumettes and winglets, is not common in the poultry processing industry. However, consumers who like convenient foods may be interested in boneless products. Samples of broiler wings were deboned by articular cartilage dislocation and periosteum stripping without cutting skin and muscles to obtain boneless drumettes and winglets, with each having inner space formed by bone removal. The average weight of bone-in winglets (30.7 g) was less (P < 0.05) than that of bone-in drumettes (39.9 g), whereas the average percentage of boneless product was less (P < 0.05) in the drumettes (74.9) than in the winglets (80.1). There was a smaller number of muscles in the drumettes than in the winglets, but major muscles in the drumettes were larger than any muscles in the winglets. The average weight of muscle was greater (P < 0.05) and that of skin was less (P < 0.05) in the drumettes than in the winglets, and thus the muscle/skin ratio was approximately twice as high (P < 0.05) in the drumettes. The size and shape were different between the bone-in and boneless products, as expected. When a cooked product was examined, no appreciable inner space (resulting from bone removal) was seen on its transverse section. The advantages of boneless wing products over bone-in wing products were discussed. It was concluded that the method described in the present study is useful for the production of high-quality boneless wing products.

  16. Leprous osteitis presenting as bone cyst and erosions.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shriya; Nori, Achyuta V; Thappa, Devinder M; Siddaraju, N

    2004-07-15

    A 30-year-old man presented to the Hansen outpatient department with swelling and ulceration of toes for 2 months and swelling of the right fifth and fourth fingers and the left second finger for 1 month. In addition to skin lesions of lepromatous leprosy (subpolar type), there was nontender, non-fluctuant swelling of the right fifth and fourth fingers and left second finger. Skin over the right fifth finger showed sinus-like openings with associated purulent discharge. He also had swelling and ulceration of second left toe. Slit-skin smear (SSS) showed a bacterial index of 6+ from the ear lobes and cutaneous nodules, 4+ from the patch, and 3+ from normal skin. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the discharge extruding from the sinuses on the right fifth finger also showed abundant acid-fast bacilli. Radiography of the hands and feet showed lytic lesions in the distal epimetaphyseal region o proximal phalanx of the right fifth finger and left second finger and erosion of distal end of proximal phalanges of both second toes. Histopathological examination of biopsy specimen from the patch (back) showed features of lepromatous leprosy, and Fite-Faraco stain for tissue acid-fast bacteria (AFB) was strongly positive. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the lytic lesion in the bone also showed predominantly foamy macrophages with strongly positive staining for AFB with a few interspersed lymphocytes, epithelioid cells and Langhans giant cells. On the basis of these features, a clinical diagnosis of subpolar lepromatous leprosy with leprous osteitis was made. In today's clinical era of improved case detection and prompt treatment with effective multidrug regimens, advanced bone changes are rarely encountered. We describe this case of lepromatous leprosy that developed cavitating lesions of the phalanges of the hand, seen on x-ray as well-defined bone cyst and erosions.

  17. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Temporal Bone Presenting with Headache and Partial Facial Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kletke, Stephanie N.; Popovic, Snezana; Algird, Almunder; Alobaid, Abdullah; Reddy, Kesava K. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bony lesions that rarely affect the skull base. Very few cases of temporal bone ABCs have been reported. We describe the first case of a temporal bone ABC that was thought to be consistent with a meningioma based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Clinical Presentation An otherwise healthy 23-year-old woman presented with a pulsatile noise in her left ear and a 4-week history of throbbing headache with nausea. There was no associated emesis, visual or auditory changes, or other neurologic features. Neurologic examination revealed a left lower motor neuron facial paresis. Computed tomography and MRI studies demonstrated a large lesion in the left middle cranial fossa skull base with erosion of the petrous temporal bone. Based on the presence of a “dural tail” on preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, the lesion was interpreted to likely be consistent with a meningioma. An orbitozygomatic approach was utilized for surgical excision. Histopathologic evaluation was consistent with an ABC. Conclusion Postoperatively the patient had improvement in the lower motor neuron facial paresis. It is important to consider ABC in the differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions accompanied by the dural tail sign on MRI. PMID:26251800

  18. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with acute pancreatitis and asymptomatic bone involvement

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Aasem

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950

  19. Cytotoxic effects of oxytetracycline residues in the bones of broiler chickens following therapeutic oral administration of a water formulation.

    PubMed

    Odore, R; De Marco, M; Gasco, L; Rotolo, L; Meucci, V; Palatucci, A T; Rubino, V; Ruggiero, G; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Centenaro, S; Quarantelli, A; Terrazzano, G; Schiavone, A

    2015-08-01

    Tetracyclines, which represent one of the most commonly used antibiotics for poultry, are known to be deposited in bones, where they can remain, despite the observation of appropriate withdrawal times. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of oxytretracycline (OTC) residues in the bone and muscle of chickens, following the oral administration of a commercially available liquid formulation, and to test their cytotoxic effects on an in vitro cell culture model. Seventy-two 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted into 2 groups (control and treated animals). OTC (40 mg/kg BW) was administered via drinking water during the 1 to 5 and 20 to 25 days of life periods. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered and the OTC residues in the target tissues were measured by means of liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of the bone residues on the K562 erythroleukemic line and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In all the animals, the OTC residues in the muscle were far below the established MRL of 100 μg/kg. The OTC levels in the bones of the treated animals were instead found in the parts per million (ppm) range. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of OTC bone residues on the haematopoietic cell system. This in vitro system has revealed a significant pro-apoptotic effect on both the K562 cell line and PBMC cultures. This result suggests potential human and animal health risks due to the entry of tetracycline residues contained in the bones of treated livestock into the food-chain. This could be of concern, particularly for canine and feline diets, as meat, bone meal, and poultry by-products represent some of the main ingredients of pet foods, especially in the case of dry pet food. Further studies are needed to define the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to evaluate the in vivo toxicological

  20. Cytotoxic effects of oxytetracycline residues in the bones of broiler chickens following therapeutic oral administration of a water formulation

    PubMed Central

    Odore, R.; De Marco, M.; Gasco, L.; Rotolo, L.; Meucci, V.; Palatucci, A. T.; Rubino, V.; Ruggiero, G.; Canello, S.; Guidetti, G.; Centenaro, S.; Quarantelli, A.; Terrazzano, G.; Schiavone, A.

    2015-01-01

    Tetracyclines, which represent one of the most commonly used antibiotics for poultry, are known to be deposited in bones, where they can remain, despite the observation of appropriate withdrawal times. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of oxytretracycline (OTC) residues in the bone and muscle of chickens, following the oral administration of a commercially available liquid formulation, and to test their cytotoxic effects on an in vitro cell culture model. Seventy-two 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted into 2 groups (control and treated animals). OTC (40 mg/kg BW) was administered via drinking water during the 1 to 5 and 20 to 25 days of life periods. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered and the OTC residues in the target tissues were measured by means of liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of the bone residues on the K562 erythroleukemic line and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In all the animals, the OTC residues in the muscle were far below the established MRL of 100 μg/kg. The OTC levels in the bones of the treated animals were instead found in the parts per million (ppm) range. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of OTC bone residues on the haematopoietic cell system. This in vitro system has revealed a significant pro-apoptotic effect on both the K562 cell line and PBMC cultures. This result suggests potential human and animal health risks due to the entry of tetracycline residues contained in the bones of treated livestock into the food-chain. This could be of concern, particularly for canine and feline diets, as meat, bone meal, and poultry by-products represent some of the main ingredients of pet foods, especially in the case of dry pet food. Further studies are needed to define the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to evaluate the in vivo toxicological

  1. Bone biosensors: knowing the present and predicting the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashayar, Patricia; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Larijani, Bagher; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Bone is an active organ with the capacity of continuous remodeling throughout adult life. In view of the fact that the current gold standard to assess bone remodeling, bone mineral density, suffers from certain limitations, newer techniques are being developed. Currently enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is commonly used to assess bone turnover markers; the technique, however, is expensive, time consuming and needs trained personnel. Thus, there is a growing demand to fabricate different types of biosensors to provide low cost miniaturized platforms to assess the bone remodeling process more accurately. This review focuses on the latest advancements in the field of bone biosensing technologies. Its results might help provide possible solutions for translation of this technology for point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  2. A rare presentation of sarcoidosis with nasal bone involvement

    PubMed Central

    Uslu, Selen; Korkmaz, Hakan; Çetinkol, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous inflammatory disease that is induced by infectious or noninfectious environmental antigens in a genetically susceptible host. Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are two diseases with similar clinical and pathologic findings. The link between these two diseases has been extensively studied. Objective: Herein we describe a case of sarcoidosis associated with tuberculosis, treated for tuberculosis, and, 1 year, later presented with a nasal dorsal lump and skin lesions on the extremities. Methods: Case report with clinical description. Results: Our patient had a history of skin and cervical lymphadenopathy symptoms 1 year earlier and was treated with antituberculosis drugs in an outer medical center. Therapy had cured cervical lymphadenopathies, with no improvement in skin lesions. On appearance of the nasal dorsal lump, she presented to our outpatient clinic. We retrieved the previous specimens of the patient, which revealed coexistence of necrotizing granulomas with non-necrotizing granulomas, which was strongly indicative of the coexistence of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. Radiologic, histopathologic, and microbiologic investigation revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis with nasal, cutaneous, and pulmonary involvement. Treatment with prednisolone and hydroxychloroquine resulted in dramatic improvement of nasal bone, pulmonary, and skin lesions within 2 weeks. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of sarcoidosis can be complex, and the differential diagnosis from tuberculosis can be challenging. Atypical clinical pictures also can cause delays in diagnosis and proper management. In patients with granulomatous lesions that are unresponsive to antituberculosis therapy, physicians must be alerted to the possibility of coexistent sarcoidosis. PMID:27103561

  3. Bone grafting simultaneous to implant placement. Presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Gómez-Adrián, Maria Dolores; García-Mira, Berta; Ivorra-Sais, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    Bone defects at mandibular alveolar crest level complicate the placement of dental implants in the ideal location. Surgical reconstruction using autologous bone grafts allows implant fixation in an esthetic and functional manner. We describe a patient with large mandibular bone loss secondary to periodontal inflammatory processes. Reconstruction of the mandibular alveolar process was carried out using onlay block bone grafts harvested from the mandible. The grafts were stabilized by positioning the dental implants through them--a procedure that moreover afforded good primary implant fixation. After two years of follow-up the clinical and radiological outcome is good. In the lower jaw, where bone regeneration is complicated, we were able to achieve good results in this patient--minimizing the corresponding waiting time by grafting and placing the implants in the same surgical step.

  4. Musculoskeletal lymphoma: MRI of bone or soft tissue presentations.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Breidahl, William; Robbins, Peter

    2013-12-01

    To assess the MRI findings of musculoskeletal lymphoma primarily presenting clinically as a bone lesion or soft tissue mass. Magnetic resonance imaging of 23 cases of musculoskeletal lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. Features assessed included tumour location, morphology, signal intensity (SI) characteristics, cortical destruction, involvement of multiple anatomic compartments, encasement of adjacent neurovascular structures/tendons and subcutaneous oedema. Osseous lesions were typically poorly defined and hypointense on T1-weighted imaging. T2-weighted SI was usually heterogeneous, with 54% of cases having a 'mosaic' pattern of marrow replacement. Ninety-two per cent of osseous tumours had cortical abnormalities, most commonly a permeative pattern. A periosseous soft tissue cuff was present in 46% of cases while 38% had a more significant extraosseous component. All cases of soft tissue lymphoma were iso-/slightly hyperintense to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Multicompartment involvement by extraosseous tumour was present in 75% of cases, and 67% had subcutaneous oedema. Eighty-three per cent of soft tissue tumours showed encasement of adjacent structures. Multifocal lymphoma had similar morphology and SI characteristics to single-site lesions. Histopathologically, there were 21 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and two of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Magnetic resonance imaging features of primary osseous lymphoma include T2 heterogeneity, a periosseous soft tissue cuff or a more substantial mass, and cortical disruption often disproportionate to the extent of extraosseous tumour. Features characteristic of soft tissue lymphoma include relative homogeneity on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, multicompartment involvement and encasement of neurovascular structures. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  5. Chicken from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stuffed Chicken Marinating Partial Cooking Color of Skin Dark Bones Pink Meat Storage Times Color of Giblets ... mature male chicken with coarse skin and tough, dark meat. Requires long, moist cooking. [ Top of Page ] ...

  6. Histological Analyses Demonstrate the Temporary Contribution of Yolk Sac, Liver, and Bone Marrow to Hematopoiesis during Chicken Development

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Priscila Tavares; de Oliveira, Barbara Cristina Euzébio Pereira Dias; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM) region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3) and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage. PMID:24621665

  7. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  8. Rusty green stained temporal bone associated with exposure to tetracycline: an unusual presentation of black bone disease.

    PubMed

    Farahnik, B; Zaghi, S; Hendizadeh, L; Gopen, Q

    2015-03-01

    To review the phenomenon and implications of temporal bone and craniofacial bone staining in the context of prolonged exposure to tetracycline antibiotic. Case report and literature review. A 52-year-old male with a 5-year history of tetracycline use presented to undergo tympanomastoidectomy and was found to have an unusual rusty green pigmentation of the entire aspect of the exposed temporal bone. A literature review revealed more than 20 cases of tetracycline-induced pigmentation of intraoral maxillary and mandibular bone, and 2 prior cases involving the cranial bones. Tissue and organ pigmentation is an unexpected and unfavourable consequence of the use of tetracyclines, particularly minocycline. Tetracycline is contraindicated in children because of the risk for dysosteogenesis and enamel hypoplasia. In adults, although the unusual staining may present as an unexpected dilemma upon surgical exposure, current research shows no significant clinical consequences for this type of pigmentation.

  9. An unusual presentation of peripheral buttressing bone in anterior maxilla: Case report and management

    PubMed Central

    Balu, Pratebha; Ramalingam, Sudhakar; Raja, Manoj; Thomas, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of buttressing bone formation is relatively uncommon in the alveolar bone, more so in the anterior maxilla. In our case, peripheral buttressing bone formation presented as an isolated hard gingival swelling with relation to 21 in a 14-year-old girl. Radiographic presentation was normal with no evidence of bone loss or altered bone density. Therefore explorative surgery was planned. Buttressing bone formation could be appreciated, which also was the cause for swelling clinically. Osteoplasty was done and bone graft placed in the defect. On a subsequent recall visit gingivoplasty was done to reduce gingival thickness to improve esthetics. We report the case for its unusual presentation, its management with follow-up. PMID:23293489

  10. Solitary plasmacytoma of the mastoid bone presenting as coalescent mastoiditis.

    PubMed

    George, J C; Caldemeyer, K S; Kreipke, D L; Chalian, A A; Moran, C C

    1994-12-01

    Acute mastoiditis is a complication of acute otitis media that produces air cell opacification and coalescence on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. This appearance, however, is nonspecific and may be seen in patients with infection and tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can aid in differentiating the two on the basis of differences in tissue signal characteristics and by showing the presence or absence of an associated soft-tissue mass. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of MRI as a complementary imaging modality to CT in the diagnosis of a solitary plasmacytoma of the temporal bone that was initially thought to be coalescent mastoiditis.

  11. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as ''cold'' lesions on bone scan: a report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Caudle, R.J.; Crawford, A.H.; Gelfand, M.J.; Gruppo, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    ''Cold'' lesions on bone scan have been reported in a variety of disease processes, including infection, avascular necrosis, and cysts. We present two cases of children who presented with large ''cold'' areas on technetium bone scans and were treated initially for septic processes. Acute childhood leukemia frequently presents with bone or joint pain, fever, and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Although the diagnosis may be difficult if the characteristic clinical signs and laboratory findings are absent, the presence of anemia should alert the physician to the possibility of malignancy. Bone scanning provides a sensitive method of localizing pathology, but diagnosis requires biopsy or marrow aspiration.

  12. Transport of membrane-bound mineral particles in blood vessels during chicken embryonic bone development.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Koifman, Naama; Shimoni, Eyal; Rechav, Katya; Arraf, Alaa A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zelzer, Elazar; Weiner, Stephen; Addadi, Lia

    2016-02-01

    During bone formation in embryos, large amounts of calcium and phosphate are taken up and transported to the site where solid mineral is first deposited. The initial mineral forms in vesicles inside osteoblasts and is deposited as a highly disordered calcium phosphate phase. The mineral is then translocated to the extracellular space where it penetrates the collagen matrix and crystallizes. To date little is known about the transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in the vascular system, especially when high transport rates are needed and the concentrations of these ions in the blood serum may exceed the solubility product of the mineral phase. Here we used a rapidly growing biological model, the chick embryo, to study the bone mineralization pathway taking advantage of the fact that large amounts of bone mineral constituents are transported. Cryo scanning electron microscopy together with cryo energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused-ion beam imaging in the serial surface view mode surprisingly reveal the presence of abundant vesicles containing small mineral particles in the lumen of the blood vessels. Morphologically similar vesicles are also found in the cells associated with bone formation. This observation directly implicates the vascular system in solid mineral distribution, as opposed to the transport of ions in solution. Mineral particle transport inside vesicles implies that far larger amounts of the bone mineral constituents can be transported through the vasculature, without the danger of ectopic precipitation. This introduces a new stage into the bone mineral formation pathway, with the first mineral being formed far from the bone itself.

  13. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties.

  14. Linking ileal digestible phosphorus and bone mineralization in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase and highly soluble calcium.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Walk, C L

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestibility of P in potassium phosphate, phytase-related ileal digestible P release, bone-mineralization-based ileal digestible P equivalency of phytase, and phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization in broiler chickens at 2 dietary concentrations of highly soluble Ca (HSC). Birds were sorted by BW at d 15 posthatch and assigned to 8 cages per diet with 8 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 2 × 6 factorial of HSC at 5 or 6 g/kg and P supply treatment at 6 levels consisting of 4 added P levels (P from KH2PO4 added at 0, 0.7, 1.4, or 2.1 g/kg of diet) or 2 added phytase levels (500 or 1,000 phytase units). On d 24 posthatch, ileal digesta were collected for ileal P digestibility (IPD) determination and the left tibia was collected from the 4 heaviest birds in each cage for bone ash determination. Weight gain, G:F, and tibia ash were higher (P < 0.05) at 5 than at 6 g of HSC/kg. Added P from KH2PO4 or added phytase linearly increased (P < 0.001) weight gain, G:F, tibia ash, and IPD. The IPD of KH2PO4 derived from multiple linear regressions of digestible on total P intake for the diets without added phytase showed a reduction (P < 0.05) from 89.5 to 84.5% with increased HSC from 5 to 6 g/kg. Polynomial regressions of digestible P intake on phytase intake indicated that 1,000 units of added phytase released 1.701 or 1.561 g of digestible P in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. Polynomial regressions of tibia ash on digestible P or phytase intake in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg at 1,000 phytase units gave digestible P equivalency of 1.487 or 1.448 g, respectively. Thus, phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization was 87.4 and 92.8% in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively.

  15. Physicochemical, antioxidant and biocompatible properties of chondroitin sulphate isolated from chicken keel bone for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rani, Aruna; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

    2017-03-01

    Chicken keel bone cartilage was explored for cheaper and sustainable source for isolation of chondroitin sulphate (CS) for its future use in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical industry. HPSEC analysis displayed two peaks of 100kDa for CS-keel polysaccharide and 1kDa for protein. DLS analysis of CS-keel displayed polydispersity. CS-keel yield was 15% and 53±5% uronic acid content. The quantified percentages of UA-GalNAc4S and UA-GalNAc6S disaccharide in CS-keel were 58% and 42%, respectively. FT-IR identified CS-keel to be chondroitin 4-sulphate. (1)H NMR of CS-keel confirmed the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine and Glucuronic acid. FESEM demonstrated layer structure and AFM displayed the size of CS-keel fibres. DSC, TGA and DTG studies of CS-keel showed Td at 243°C. In vitro cell proliferation assay and morphological analysis of mouse fibroblast L929 cell lines confirmed the biocompatibility of CS-keel. CS-keel (5mg/ml) exhibited ∼49% antioxidant activity against DPPH and 22% against superoxide radical protecting from oxidative damage. CS-keel demonstrated better (70.3%) emulsifying activity than commercial sodium alginate (60.2%).

  16. Case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, after a fall.

    PubMed

    Lee, E J; Yang, Y S; Yoon, Y J

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, after a fall. A 49-year-old man presented with sudden, bilateral deafness and whirling vertigo, without any other neurological manifestations. Temporal bone computed tomography clearly demonstrated the presence of air in the vestibule and cochlea on both sides. However, there was no definite fracture line, ossicular chain anomaly or soft tissue density in the temporal bone or middle-ear cavity. The patient was treated conservatively. Unfortunately, there was no improvement in his hearing. Pneumolabyrinth is an uncommon condition in which air is present in the vestibule or cochlea. It is rarely found, even with fractures violating the otic capsule or with transverse fractures of the temporal bone. In addition, its bilateral occurrence is extremely rare. In this article, we describe a case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, an occurrence which has not previously been reported.

  17. Network monitoring of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins: localization of the five canonical chicken proteins in embryonic and maturing bone and cartilage and their introduction as histochemical tools.

    PubMed

    Kaltner, Herbert; Singh, Tanuja; Manning, Joachim C; Raschta, Anne-Sarah; André, Sabine; Sinowatz, Fred; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Divergence from an ancestral gene leads to a family of homologous proteins. Whether they are physiologically distinct, similar, or even redundant is an open question in each case. Defining profiles of tissue localization is a step toward giving diversity a functional meaning. Due to the significance of endogenous sugar receptors (lectins) as effectors for a wide range of cellular activities we have focused on galectins. The comparatively low level of network complexity constituted by only five canonical proteins makes chicken galectins (CGs) an attractive choice to perform comprehensive analysis, here studied on bone/cartilage as organ system. Galectin expression was monitored by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry using non-cross-reactive antibodies. Overall, three galectins (CG-1B, CG-3, CG-8) were present with individual expression patterns, one was found exclusively in the mesenchyme (CG-1A), the fifth (CG-2) not being detectable. The documented extents of separation are a sign for functional divergence; in cases with overlapping stainings, as for example in the osteoprogenitor layer or periosteum, cooperation may also be possible. Recombinant production enabled the introduction of the endogenous lectins as tools for binding-site localization. Their testing revealed developmental regulation and cell-type-specific staining. Of relevance for research on mammalian galectins, this study illustrates that certain cell types can express more than one galectin, letting functional interrelationships appear likely. Thus, complete network analysis irrespective of its degree of complexity is mandatory.

  18. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  19. Present status and future potential of enhancing bone healing using nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Stylios, George; Wan, Taoyu; Giannoudis, Peter

    2007-03-01

    An overview of the current state of tissue engineering material systems used in bone healing is presented. A variety of fabrication processes have been developed that have resulted in porous implant substrates that can address unresolved clinical problems. The merits of these biomaterial systems are evaluated in the context of the mechanical properties and biomedical performances most suitable for bone healing. An optimal scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications should be biocompatible and act as a 3D template for in vitro and in vivo bone growth; in addition, its degradation products should be non-toxic and easily excreted by the body. To achieve these features, scaffolds must consist of an interconnected porous network of micro- and nanoscale to allow extensive body fluid transport through the pores, which will trigger bone ingrowth, cell migration, tissue ingrowth, and eventually vascularization.

  20. Identification of trabecular excrescences, novel microanatomical structures, present in bone in osteoarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A M; Boyde, A; Davidson, J S; Jarvis, J C; Ranganath, L R; Gallagher, J A

    2012-04-21

    It is widely held that bone architecture is finely regulated in accordance with homeostatic requirements. Aberrant remodelling (hyperdensification and/or cyst formation in the immediately subchondral region) has previously been described in bone underlying cartilage in arthropathies. The present study examined the trabecular architecture of samples of bone, initially in the severe osteoarthropathy of alkaptonuria, but subsequently in osteoarthritis using a combination of light microscopy, 3D scanning electron microscopy and quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy. We report an extraordinary and previously unrecognised bone phenotype in both disorders, including novel microanatomical structures. The underlying subchondral trabecular bone contained idiosyncratic architecture. Trabecular surfaces had numerous outgrowths that we have termed "trabecular excrescences", of which three distinct types were recognised. The first type arose from incomplete resorption of branching secondary trabeculae arising from the deposition of immature (woven) bone in prior marrow space. These were characterised by very deeply scalloped surfaces and rugged edges. The second type had arisen in a similar way but been smoothed over by new bone deposition. The third type, which resembled coarse stucco, probably arises from resting surfaces that had been focally reactivated. These were poorly integrated with the prior trabecular wall. We propose that these distinctive microanatomical structures are indicative of abnormal osteoclast/osteoblast modelling in osteoarthropathies, possibly secondary to altered mechanical loading or other aberrant signalling. Identification of the mechanisms underlying the formation of trabecular excrescences will contribute to a better understanding of the role of aberrant bone remodelling in arthropathies and development of new therapeutic strategies.

  1. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  2. ALK Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Extensive Bone Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Gajendra, Smeeta; Lipi, Lipika; Goel, Shalini; Misra, Ruchira

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) represents approximately 2% of all Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas that commonly involves nodal as well as a wide variety of extra nodal sites, as skin, soft tissue, bones and lungs, although primary or secondary involvement of bone is rare. Herein, we report a case of 14-year-old female child presented as extensive bony involvement with a clinical diagnosis of bone tumour/ small round cell tumour, which was proved to be ALK positive ALCL on histopathological examination. PMID:25738071

  3. Bone involvement as presenting sign of pediatric-onset Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Linda; Zulian, Francesco; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Billette de Villemur, Thierry; Belmatoug, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    To describe the initial manifestations and clinical characteristics of bone involvement in a cohort of patients with pediatric-onset Gaucher disease (GD). Patients with pediatric-onset GD, followed at the French Reference Center of Lysosomal Diseases, were retrospectively evaluated. Demographic characteristics, frequency, type and site of the relevant skeletal event were recorded. Forty-four patients, 41 type 1 and three type 3 GD, entered the study. Bone involvement, present in 32% of the patients, was the second most frequent presenting feature of the disease after hepatosplenomegaly (41%). Children with bone symptoms at presentation were significantly older than those without (9.8 vs 5.6 years). At diagnosis, 45% of patients had a positive anamnesis of skeletal symptoms (bone pain and/or bone crisis). Two thirds of patients in which X-ray were taken showed evidence of at least one bone abnormality, mainly Erlenmeyer deformity and avascular necrosis. Seventy three percent of patients had at least one major skeletal event in their clinical history; among these, 45% had the first major skeletal event in pediatric age. Skeletal involvement is a frequent presenting feature of GD in children. Given its high prevalence, it should be carefully evaluated, in order to timely start appropriate therapy and prevent irreversible complications. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Resveratrol induces antioxidant and heat shock protein mRNA expression in response to heat stress in black-boned chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, L L; He, J H; Xie, H B; Yang, Y S; Li, J C; Zou, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary resveratrol at 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of diet on the performance, immune organ growth index, serum parameters, and expression levels of heat shock protein (Hsp) 27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen of 42-d-old female black-boned chickens exposed to heat stress at 37 ± 2°C for 15 d. The results showed that heat stress reduced daily feed intake and BW gain; decreased serum glutathione (GSH), growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels; and inhibited GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities compared with birds subjected to thermo-neutral circumstances. Chickens that were fed diets supplemented with resveratrol exhibited a linear increase in feed intake and BW gain (P < 0.001); serum GSH, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (P ≤ 0.01); and GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activities (P < 0.001) compared with chickens that were fed diets without resveratrol during heat stress. In contrast, serum malonaldehyde concentrations were decreased (P < 0.001) in the chickens fed a resveratrol-supplemented diet. Heat stress also reduced (P < 0.05) the growth index of the bursa of Fabricus and spleen; however, it had no effect on the growth index of the thymus. The growth index of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen increased (P < 0.05) upon heat stress and coincided with an increase in supplemental resveratrol levels. The expression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were increased (P < 0.01), but those of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus were decreased (P < 0.01) under heat stress compared with no heat stress. Resveratrol attenuated the heat stress-induced overexpression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen and increased the low expression of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus upon heat stress. The results suggest that supplemental resveratrol improves growth performance

  5. [Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs].

    PubMed

    Fernández del Campo, José Antonio Cabezas

    2004-01-01

    Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs. Within the broad field of Glycopathology and Glycotherapeutics, research on influenza virus types A, B and C from humans and several bird species (particularly migratory birds such as ducks, since they are reservoirs for viruses), as well as the search for improved drugs designed for the prevention or treatment of epidemics/pandemics produced by most of those viruses are issues of relevant interest not only from a scientific point of view but also for repercussions on health and the important economical consequences. The research work begun by the author and collaborators at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Salamanca (Spain) in the middle of the 1970's, developed later in close cooperation with the "(Unité d'Ecologie Virale" of the Pasteur Institute of Paris (Prof. Claude Hannoun and collaborators), has been published in about twenty papers that mainly focus on the theoretic-experimental study of: The sialidase (neuraminidase) activity of human influenza viruses types A and B. The acetylesterase activity of type C virus from humans and dogs. The sialidase activity of type A virus from ducks and pigs, in comparison with that of humans. Certain sialidase inhibitors as useful anti-influenza drugs, especially in the case of possible future influenza pandemics of avian origin.

  6. Metastatic colorectal cancer presenting with bone marrow metastasis: a case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Rita; Mukherji, Deborah; Haydar, Ali; Saroufim, Maya; Temraz, Sally

    2016-01-01

    With advances in treatment, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) are now living longer with an apparent increase in the incidence of bone and bone marrow metastases (BMM). Common sites of metastatic disease from CRC include the liver and lungs with bone metastasis rarely occurring in the absence of visceral metastatic disease. We report a series of three patients presenting with isolated bone and BMM leading to a diagnosis of primary CRC. We have reviewed the literature regarding diagnosis, potential mechanisms leading to the development of osseous metastasis and outcome. A high level of clinical suspicion and in-depth understanding of the natural history of these rare metastases may guide future management and treatment decisions. PMID:27034798

  7. [Varicella zoster virus infection after bone marrow transplant. Unusual presentation and importance of prevention].

    PubMed

    Ladrière, M; Bibes, B; Rabaud, C; Delaby, P; May, T; Canton, P

    Leukemeia and lymphoproliferative disease are associated with a high risk of varicela-zoster virus (VZV) infection. Although infrequent, visceral involvement can be fatal. We report two cases of patients presenting severe VZV infection after bone marrow transplantation. The first patient was a 42-year old man who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia. A severe graft-versus-host reaction occurred. Three months after discontinuing VZV prophylaxis, VZV transverse myelitis was diagnosed, leading to death despite prompt treatment with acyclovir. The second patient was a 42-year-old woman treated with autologous bone marrow transplantation for lymphoma. She developed acute viral pancreatitis one month after discontinuing VZV prophylaxis. Recovery was achieved with intravenous treatment. These two cases illustrate the potential gravity of VZV infection after bone marrow transplantation. These observations point to the need for revisiting the duration of VZV prophylaxis.

  8. The Produce of Methyl Ester from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Using Heterogene Catalyst Ash of Chicken Bone (CaO) using Ethanol as Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaga, M. S.; Fauzi, R.; Turnip, J. R.

    2017-03-01

    Methyl Ester (methyl ester) is generally made by trans esterification using heterogeneous base catalyst. To simplify the separation, the heterogeneous catalyst is used, such as CaO, which in this case was isolated from chicken bones made by softening chicken bones and do calcination process. Some other important variables other than the selection of the catalyst is the catalyst dosage, molar ratio of ethanol to the CPO and the reaction temperature. The best result from this observe is at the molar ratio of ethanol to the CPO is 17: 1, the reaction temperature is 70 ° C and 7% catalyst (w.t) with reaction time for 7 hours at 500 rpm as a constant variable, got 90,052 % purity, so that this result does not get the standard requirements of biodiesel, because of the purity of the biodiesel standard temporary must be achieve > 96.5 %. This study aims to produce methyl ester yield with the influence of the reaction temperature, percent of catalyst and molar ratio of ethanol and CPO. The most influential variable is the temperature of the reaction that gives a significant yield difference of methyl ester produced. It’s been proven by the increasing temperature used will also significantly increase the yield of methyl ester.

  9. Development of a novel method for hot-pressure extraction of protein from chicken bone and the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the extracts.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xian-bing; Li, Xia; Zhang, Chun-hui; Wang, Jin-zhi; Tang, Chun-hong; Sun, Hong-mei; Jia, Wei; Li, Yin; Chen, Lin-li

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the hot-pressure extraction of protein from chicken bone (CB), chicken bone extracts (CBE) was prepared from CB by heating at 130±0.5 °C for 120 min, followed by filtration, standing, defatting, and concentration. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the properties of hydrolysates were examined. Results showed CBE contained 25.59% of protein, and showed a desirable value of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score for adult. The total amino acid (AA) content of CBE is 21.99%, among which 40.62% and 54.66% are essential and fresh AA, respectively. Forty kinds of volatile compounds were identified after 24 h of hydrolysis, with 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine as the key flavor compound. After 8 h of hydrolysis of CBE, the content of small MW of peptides (400-1000 Da) increased by 74 times compared with that of 1 h. CBE and its hydrolysates demonstrate a new kind of potential suitable nutritional supplement in various foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prostate carcinoma, presenting with a solitary osteolytic bone lesion to the right hip.

    PubMed

    Agheli, Aref; Patsiornik, Yelena; Chen, Yu; Chaudhry, M Rashid; Gerber, Howard; Wang, Jen C

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-associated mortality in males. Bone metastasis is frequent and generally multiple and osteoblastic. Presentation of a pure osteolytic and solitary metastasis from a prostate carcinoma is extremely rare. We report a case of prostate cancer in a 70-year-old man who presented with progressive severe right hip pain and stiffness with no urinary symptom. A whole-body bone scan revealed a solitary metastasis to the right hip. A prostate biopsy revealed prostate adenocarcinoma. We believe this is the first reported case of presentation of a solitary osteolytic bone metastasis in the pelvis from carcinoma of the prostate.

  11. Perforation of Meckel's diverticulum caused by a chicken bone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Meckel's diverticulum represents a true diverticulum of the ileum containing all three layers of the bowel wall and is found on the wall of the distal ileum, usually about 2 feet from the ileocaecal valve. Although Meckel's diverticulum is a common congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract, it is often difficult to diagnose. Patients with perforation of Meckel's diverticulum may present with right iliac fossa pain, which mimics acute appendicitis. Case presentation A 17-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of lower abdominal pain. On examination, the patient had tenderness in his right iliac fossa. A provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made. The patient was taken to theatre for laparoscopy with the option of appendicectomy. The appendix was found to be normal. An inflamed and perforated Meckel's diverticulum was found to be the cause of the abdominal pain. Meckel's diverticulectomy was performed. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged with further follow-up in the outpatient clinic. Conclusion Complications of Meckel's diverticulum can be fatal and early recognition leads to appropriate management. This case report highlights the importance of considering Meckel's diverticulum as a differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in a young patient. PMID:19192283

  12. The past, present, and future of bone morphometry: its contribution to an improved understanding of bone biology.

    PubMed

    Jee, Webster S S

    2005-01-01

    It was not until the 1950s that a better paradigm for bone biology evolved, which led to the birth of bone histomorphometry. Two clinicians, Harold Frost (1958-1964) and Lent Johnson (1964), were responsible for the paradigm stating that the primary function of bone is mechanical load bearing with subsidiary function to participate in plasma calcium homeostasis to support hematopoesis. Dynamic bone histomorphometry was born when Milch et al. (1958) discovered bone localization of tetracycline and Frost generated the methodology to study tetracycline-based dynamic histological analysis of cortical bone remodeling (1961-1965). Dynamic bone histomorphometry did not blossom until Frost, while a Sun Valley Workshop participant, developed it to address trabecular bone dynamics. The combination of Arnold (1948) producing thin sections of plastic-embedded undecalcified bone and Frost's (1977-1983) modification of dynamic cortical bone histology for cancellous bone made it possible to study tetracycline-based dynamic histomorphometry of cancellous bone. It led to the better understanding of basic metabolic unit (BMU) remodelling and to Frost's mechanostat hypothesis, and characterized the rat model to accelerate the development of several drugs in the treatment of bone diseases. Currently, dynamic bone histomorphometry has contributed to studies in bone's mechanical usage windows, mechanical usage setpoint hypothesis, muscle-bone relations, marrow-bone relations, the Utah paradigm of musculoskeletal physiology, apoptosis, genetics (transgenic mice) and bone structure, bone quality, the lacunocanalicular network and bone modelling, and remodeling hypothesis, osteocyte role as mechanosensory, chemosensory, and regulatory in bone maintenance, targeted and untargeted remodeling, the role of permissive agents, etc., items in bone biology expounded briefly by Lent Johnson (1965) and continuously by Harold Frost at the Sun Valley Workshop (1965-2003). Finally, "What's next

  13. New respiratory virus (chicken pox, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus) vaccines: efficacy, necessity and policy for the tropical world at present.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-09-01

    Several respiratory viruses are documented in medicine. Several infectious diseases due to these viruses are current global public health problems. Prevention of respiratory viral infections becomes the focus of the public health ministries of many tropical countries. Presently, there are many new vaccines for respiratory viruses. These vaccines include chicken pox vaccine, influenza vaccine and respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. In this article, the author will briefly discuss on these quoted vaccines focusing on efficacy, necessity and policy for tropical world at present.

  14. Background acetabular aneurysmal bone cyst in a 7 year-old: Presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Saus Milán, N; Pino Almero, L; Mínguez Rey, M F

    2016-01-01

    The bone cyst is a rare benign tumor that usually develops in childhood. There are several treatment options, however when it is located within the pelvis treatment is complex. A 7 year-old patient who presented with 3 months of right hip pain and limping. The initial radiograph showed a discrete periostic reaction and acetabulum effacement. The MRI and CT scans suggested the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst and was confirmed by open biopsy. Two serial embolizations were performed with good results, the patient was asymptomatic one year after.

  15. Traumatic retroperitoneal hematoma illustrated on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in a patient presenting with a fall.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Van; Chiam, Quee Li; Dixson, Hugh; Goddard, Kim A

    2007-08-01

    Retroperitoneal haematoma is rarely described in the context of bone scintigraphy, as it is usually an incidental discovery on bone scan carried out for another purpose. We report a case of a right retroperitoneal haematoma detected on Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy taken in an elderly patient presenting with a mechanical fall and a right acetabular fracture.

  16. Primary bone marrow lymphoma: an uncommon extranodal presentation of aggressive non-hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Antonio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Agostinelli, Claudio; Hebeda, Konnie M; Matutes, Estella; Peccatori, Jacopo; Campidelli, Cristina; Espinet, Blanca; Perea, Granada; Acevedo, Agustin; Mehrjardi, Ali Zare; Martinez-Bernal, Monica; Gelemur, Marta; Zucca, Emanuele; Pileri, Stefano; Campo, Elias; López-Guillermo, Armando; Rozman, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Bone marrow involvement by lymphoma is considered a systemic dissemination of the disease arising elsewhere, although some tumors may arise primarily in the bone marrow microenvironment. Primary bone marrow lymphoma (PBML) is a rare entity whose real boundaries and clinicobiological significance are not well defined. Criteria to diagnose PBML encompass isolated bone marrow infiltration, with no evidence of nodal or extranodal involvement, including the bone, and the exclusion of leukemia/lymphomas that are considered to primarily involve the bone marrow. Twenty-one out of 40 lymphomas retrospectively reviewed by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group from 12 institutions in 7 different countries over a 25-year period fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These cases comprised 4 follicular lymphomas (FLs), 15 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), and 2 peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified. The FL cases showed paratrabecular infiltration, BCL2 protein and CD10 expression, and BCL2 gene rearrangement. DLBCL showed nodular infiltration in 6 cases and was diffuse in 9 cases; it also showed positivity for BCL2 protein (9/10) and IRF4 (6/8). Median age was 65 years with male predominance. All but 3 FL patients were symptomatic. Most cases presented with cytopenias and high lactate dehydrogenase. Four patients (3 FL cases and 1 DLBCL case) had leukemic involvement. Most DLBCL patients received CHOP-like or R-CHOP-like regimens. The outcome was unfavorable, with a median overall survival of 1.8 years. In conclusion, PBML is a very uncommon lymphoma with particular clinical features and heterogenous histology. Its recognition is important to establish accurate diagnosis and adequate therapy.

  17. Improved viability of random pattern skin flaps with the use of bone marrow mesenchymal-derived stem cells and chicken embryo extract

    PubMed Central

    Chehelcheraghi, Farzaneh; Eimani, Hossein; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Torkaman, Giti; Amini, Abdollah; Shemshadi, Hashem; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Covering tissue defects using skin flaps is a basic surgical strategy for plastic and reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chicken embryo extract (CEE) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on random skin flap survival (RSF) in rats. Using chicken embryo extract can be an ideal environment for the growth and proliferation of transplanted cells. Materials and Methods: Forty albino male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; each group consisted of 10 rats. BM-MSCs and CEE were transplanted into subcutaneous tissue in the area, where the flap would be examined. On the 7th postoperative day, the survival areas of the flaps were measured by using digital imaging with software assistance, and tissue was collected for evaluation. Results: Survival area was 19.54±2 in the CEE group and 17.90±2 in the CEE/BM-MSC group when compared to the rates of the total skin flaps, which were significantly higher than the control group (13.47±2) (P<0.05). The biomechanical assessment showed a slight difference, although there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings from this study demonstrated that in operative treatment with BM-MSCs and CEE transplantation could promote flap survival, but the biomechanical parameters were not contrasted with a saline injection. PMID:26557965

  18. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor Presenting in Bone, Brain, Lungs, and Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric D.; Gulbahce, Evin; McNally, Joseph; Buys, Saundra S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast which are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Malignant PTs account for <1% of malignant breast tumors, and borderline tumors have potential to progress to malignant tumors. Metastatic recurrences are most commonly documented in bone and lungs. We report an extremely rare presentation of recurrent malignant PTs involving the brain, lung, lymph nodes, and bone. Case A 66-year-old female presented with a large breast mass. Biopsy identified malignant PT, treated by mastectomy. One year later she presented with acute back pain; imaging showed pathological L4 spinal compression fracture. Core biopsy confirmed PT. Staging identified additional metastases in the lymph nodes, brain, and lung. Discussion PTs are rare and fast-growing tumors that originate from periductal stromal tissues and are composed of both epithelial and stromal components. Histologically, they are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. The prognosis of the malignant type is poorly defined, with local recurrence occurring in 10–40% and metastases in 10%. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective in this tumor type. The most common metastatic sites for malignant cases are the lung and bones, but in rare instances, PTs may metastasize elsewhere. Conclusion We report a rare presentation of recurrent malignant PT presenting as pathological fracture of the lumbar spine with impingement on the spinal column, along with cerebellar, nodal, and pulmonary metastases. Only 1 similar case has been previously reported. PMID:28203179

  19. Prevalence of Retinal Hemorrhages in Infants Presenting with Isolated Long Bone Fractures and Evaluation for Abuse.

    PubMed

    Payne, Brian S; Kutz, Timothy J; Di Maio, Ann; Gerard, James M

    2016-10-01

    Fractures are a frequent reason for emergency department visits and evaluation for abusive head trauma is an associated concern in infants. Recent guidelines have suggested that retinal examination may not be necessary in the absence of intracranial injury, but there is a lack of empirical evidence in infants < 1 year of age. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in infants with isolated long bone fractures. Retrospective chart review of infants < 1 year of age who presented to an urban, tertiary care pediatric hospital between January 2004 and April 2014 with the diagnosis of an acute long bone fracture or retinal hemorrhages. Patients were excluded for head injury, altered mental status, injury mechanism of motor vehicle accident, multiple fractures or injuries outside the fracture area. Patients were identified through trauma registry data and International Classification of Diseases codes. One hundred and forty-six patients had isolated long bone fractures, of which 68 patients did not undergo a retinal examination and 78 patients had dilated eye examinations, with no patients identified as having retinal hemorrhages. There were 46 patients identified with retinal hemorrhages concerning for abuse. No patients with retinal hemorrhages had isolated long bone fractures. In infants < 1 year of age presenting with isolated long bone fractures, a dilated eye examination to evaluate for retinal hemorrhages is not likely to yield additional information. Our results support recent studies that a subset of children and infants may not require dilated eye examinations in the evaluation of possible abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Cervical Spine and Pelvic Bone Metastases Presenting as Unknown Primary Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sea Won; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jung Min; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Sung Hak; Jung, Eun Sun

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely associated with viral hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis. Although active surveillance is ongoing in Korea, advanced or metastatic HCC is found at initial presentation in many patients. Metastatic HCC presents with a hypervascular intrahepatic tumor and extrahepatic lesions such as lung or lymph node metastases. Cases of HCC presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary have been rarely reported. The authors experienced a case of metastatic HCC in a patient who presented with a metastatic bone lesion but no primary intrahepatic tumor. This case suggests that HCC should be considered as a differential diagnosis when evaluating the primary origin of metastatic carcinoma.

  1. The symptomatic accessory navicular bone: a report and discussion of the clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Fredrick, Lori A; Beall, Douglas P; Ly, Justin Q; Fish, Jon R

    2005-01-01

    An accessory navicular bone is a congenital anomaly caused by aberrant ossification. Usually asymptomatic, they are relatively common in our population. They can present in several different locations, which can have an impact on the clinical presentation and the degree of dysfunction. Occasionally, these can become symptomatic, which can manifest as chronic or acute on chronic foot pain. Diagnosis of this condition relies on radiographic evaluation. The 45-degree eversion oblique view of the foot is the most important view for identifying this condition, although several different imaging techniques can be used. Treatment of this condition includes both surgical and nonsurgical options. Ultimately, surgery yields the best outcome for young patients, though conservative management has relevance for less active patients. The following case demonstrates the presence of a symptomatic accessory navicular bone in a young athlete.

  2. An Unusual Presentation of Verrucous Carcinoma of the Foot with Bone Invasion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Min; Kim, Young Sung; Kim, Jong Pil; Lee, Jong Im; Uhm, Kyeong Soo

    2016-11-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the foot is a rare malignancy, and proper diagnosis can be delayed. Furthermore, misdiagnosis often results in delayed appropriate treatment. Herein, we present an unusual case of verrucous carcinoma of the fifth toe with bone invasion in a 63-year-old woman that was mistaken for a plantar wart for 3 years. The condition was treated by ray amputation. We emphasize the need for appropriate biopsy to achieve an accurate diagnosis.

  3. Gastric MALT lymphoma presenting as Waldenström's macroglobulinemia without bone marrow involvement.

    PubMed

    Salle, Valéry; Smail, Amar; Joly, Jean-Paul; Capiod, Jean-Claude; Gontier, Marie-Francine; Duhaut, Pierre; Ducroix, Jean-Pierre

    2007-07-01

    We report a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with macroglobulinemia in a 59-year-old man who presented with melena. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed irregular thickening of the wall of the stomach, and endoscopic examination disclosed enlarged and inflammatory folds of the fundus. Histopathologic examination of gastric samples showed mucosal infiltration by small lymphocytes, which were positive for CD20 and negative for CD10 and CD23, confirming the diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma. Serum electrophoresis detected a monoclonal peak and immunoelectrophoresis revealed an immunoglobulin M kappa component. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy results were normal. The patient received chemotherapy. After treatment, he was in complete remission, and the serum monoclonal component had disappeared. Our observation is uncommon because of important macroglobulinemia occurring in gastric MALT lymphoma without bone marrow involvement.

  4. A Rare Tumor with a Very Rare Initial Presentation: Thymic Carcinoma as Bone Marrow Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Leelavathi

    2017-01-01

    Tumors of thymus gland are rare and account for 0.2% to 1.5% of all the neoplasms. They constitute a heterogeneous group that has an unknown etiology and a complex as well as varied biology. This has led to difficulty in their histological classification and in predicting their prognostic and survival markers. Among them, thymic carcinoma is the most aggressive thymic epithelial tumor exhibiting cytological malignant features and a diversity of clinicopathological characteristics that can cause diagnostic dilemmas, misdiagnosis, and therapeutic challenge. We herein describe a case of a 60-year-old man who while undergoing evaluation for the cause of pancytopenia was discovered having bone marrow metastasis from an asymptomatic thymic carcinoma. Bone marrow metastasis is an extremely rare initial presentation of thymic carcinoma with only few cases reported in the literature. PMID:28116199

  5. Characterization of the expression profile of calpain-3 (CAPN3) gene in chicken.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zeng-Rong; Zhu, Qing; Yao, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Xiao-Song; Du, Hua-Rui; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Calpain-3 is a skeletal muscle-specific protease and participates in the regulation of myogenesis. In this study, we quantified the expression of calpain-3 (CAPN3) mRNA in a Chinese local chicken breed (Sichuan Mountainous Black-boned chicken [MB]), to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern. Meanwhile, we compared the CAPN3 mRNA expression pattern in MB chicken at 10 weeks with a commercial meat type chicken line (S01) of the same age to identify the unique expression pattern under different genetic background. A real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed for an accurate measurement of its expression in various tissues from chickens at different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Expression of the CAPN3 mRNA was detected in the selected tissues, regardless of age. The breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had a significantly higher expression than the other tissues from the same individual (P < 0.01). Overall, the CAPN3 mRNA level exhibited a "rise-decline" developmental change in detected tissues except for brain. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN3 mRNA in detected tissues than the MB chicken at 10 weeks. The present expression data of chicken CAPN3 gene may provide some information to shed light on the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern during chicken development.

  6. Calcium sources and their interaction with the different levels of non-phytate phosphorus affect performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, M; Solà-Oriol, D; Davin, R; Perez, J F

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of different Ca sources (limestone, Ca chloride, and Lipocal, a fat-encapsulated tricalcium phosphate, TCP) in conjunction with 4 dietary levels of non-phytate P (NPP) on performance, ileal digestibility of Ca and P, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Calcium sources were also evaluated in vitro to measure acid-binding capacity (ABC) and Ca solubility at different pH values. Ca chloride showed the highest solubility of Ca, with TCP showing the highest ABC. Ross male broiler-chicks were sorted by BW at 1 d post-hatch and assigned to 5 cages per diet with 5 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 3×4 factorial of the 3 Ca sources and 4 levels of NPP (0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4% or 0.45%) consisting of 4 added P levels (Ca(H2PO4)2) with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in all diets. On d 14 post-hatch, 3 birds were euthanized, and ileal digesta and the right tibia were collected to determine ileal Ca and P digestibility and bone mineralization, respectively. Feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) on d 14 was higher (P<0.01) with TCP and limestone than with Ca chloride. Added P increased the tibia weight and tibia ash content in chicks fed TCP up to 0.4% NPP and limestone up to 0.35% NPP. Calcium ileal digestibility was higher (P<0.01) with Ca chloride (73.7%) than with limestone (67.1%) or TCP (66.8%), which increased (P<0.05) with added levels of P from monocalcium phosphate. Phosphorus ileal digestibility was not affected by the Ca source and increased (P<0.001) with added levels of NPP. It can be concluded that starting broilers responded better to low-soluble Ca sources compared to high-soluble sources. A level of 0.35%-0.40% NPP with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in diets including limestone or TCP is sufficient to guarantee performance and bone formation for broiler chickens from d 0 to d 14.

  7. Effect of inulin and oligofructose on performance and bone characteristics of broiler chickens fed on diets with different concentrations of calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J; Arczewska-Włoek, A

    2011-08-01

    1. In a 6-week experiment with broilers, the effect of diet supplementation, using prebiotic fructans, on the performance and biomechanical and geometrical parameters of the tibia and femur bones was evaluated. 2. A total of 240, 1-d-old, Ross 308 chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments, each comprising 5 replicate cages, with 8 birds (4 male and 4 female) per cage. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was employed, with two dietary concentrations of calcium and available phosphorus (standard: 9 x 4/9 x 2 g Ca/kg and 4 x 3/4 x 0 g P available/kg; or reduced: 8 x 3/8 x 1 g Ca/kg and 3 x 7/3 x 5 g P available/kg, for the starter/finisher feeding phases, respectively), and with three diets supplemented by selected prebiotics (none; inulin, 7 x 0 g/kg; oligofructose, 7 x 0 g/kg). 3. The concentration of Ca and available P in the diet had no effect on performance parameters at 21 and 42 d of age. At 42 d, reducing the dietary concentrations of Ca and P significantly decreased such biomechanical parameters of bones as tibia stiffness (by 9 x 2%); and femur breaking strength (by 5 x 8%) and stiffness (by 5 x 1%). The diet with a lower concentration of Ca and P negatively affected such geometrical parameter of the tibia as the cross section area, but had no effect on cortex thickness, or bone weight and length. 4. At 21 or 42 d of age, broilers fed on diets supplemented with inulin or oligofructose displayed a performance similar to those fed on the unsupplemented diet. The prebiotics under study also had no statistically significant effects on the biomechanical and geometrical parameters of either bone. There were no significant Ca and P concentration x prebiotics interaction effects, on either performance parameters or on bone quality indices. 5. It was thus concluded that inulin and oligofructose do not improve the performance and bone quality of broilers, either when fed on diets with a standard concentration of Ca and available P, or with reduced concentrations

  8. A rare presentation of locally re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Andrew; Babikir, Osman Mahdi; Abboud, Amer; Theodorakis, Spyridon

    2014-10-29

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the USA. While locally advanced rectal cancer involving bone has been described extensively, colon cancer locally involving bone has only been described, to our knowledge, in a single case report. In this case report, we describe the presentation and treatment of locally advanced re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone. We also discuss the available literature on treatment for recurrent and re-recurrent colorectal cancer.

  9. A rare presentation of locally re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Andrew; Mahdi Babikir, Osman; Abboud, Amer; Theodorakis, Spyridon

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the USA. While locally advanced rectal cancer involving bone has been described extensively, colon cancer locally involving bone has only been described, to our knowledge, in a single case report. In this case report, we describe the presentation and treatment of locally advanced re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone. We also discuss the available literature on treatment for recurrent and re-recurrent colorectal cancer. PMID:25355743

  10. Bilateral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Temporal Bone: A Rare and Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Jyoti; Chandorkar, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the temporal bone is an unusual finding in clinical practice and bilateral affection is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bilateral primary temporal bone lymphoma without middle ear involvement in the English medical literature so far. We report, for the first time, a case of primary lymphoma involving both temporal bones which presented with left-sided infranuclear facial palsy. A combination of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to characterize and to map the extent of the lesion, as well as to identify the exact site of facial nerve affection. An excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL). Whole body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography study (PET-CT) was performed to stage the disease. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy and is now on regular follow-up. The patient is alive and asymptomatic without disease progression for the last twenty months after initial diagnosis. PMID:28116198

  11. Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Ramírez, José Miguel; Quiroz, Daniel; Burley, David V.; Addison, David J.; Walter, Richard; Anderson, Atholl J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Athens, J. Stephen; Huynen, Leon; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Two issues long debated among Pacific and American prehistorians are (i) whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken (Gallus gallus) to the Americas and (ii) whether Polynesian contact with South America might be identified archaeologically, through the recovery of remains of unquestionable Polynesian origin. We present a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence from a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile. These results not only provide firm evidence for the pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to the Americas, but strongly suggest that it was a Polynesian introduction. PMID:17556540

  12. Gorham-Stout disease presenting with dyspnea and bone pain in a 9-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Davalos, Eric A; Gandhi, Nishant M; Barank, David; Varma, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Gorham-Stout (GS) disease is a rare bone disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by local proliferation of small vascular or lymphatic channels, resulting in progressive osteolysis and bone resorption. The diagnosis of GS disease is one of exclusion, with radiography and histopathology playing key roles. We describe a 9-year-old girl who presented to us with dyspnea and bone pain. She was found to have a cystic mass of the upper extremity, multiple cystic bone lesions, multiple fractures of different ages, and pleural effusions. We review the radiologic images that helped establish the diagnosis of GS disease.

  13. Bone scintigraphy depicts bilateral atypical femoral stress fractures with metachronous presentation, long before a complete fracture occurs.

    PubMed

    Spyridonidis, Trifon J; Mousafiris, Kostantinos V; Rapti, Efi K; Apostolopoulos, Dimitris J

    2014-01-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFF), although rare, are recognized more often during the last decade. They are located in the subtrochanteric region or the femoral shaft, may be bilateral, can evolve to complete fractures after bone overload or minimal trauma and have specific radiological features. The complete fractures have horizontal or slightly oblique configuration accompanied by a medial spike, are non-comminuted, and extend to both cortices. There is also generalized cortical thickening of femoral shaft. Newer evidence suggests that AFF are stress or insufficiency fractures, possibly associated with long-term use of bisphoshonates (BP). AFF can also occur in oncologic patients referred for bone scintigraphy and, in such a case, they should be differentiated from bone metastases. We present here a case with bilateral AFF with metachronous appearance in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and osteoporosis. The first AFF had been depicted on bone scintigraphy 3 years before a complete fracture occurred at this site, but the finding was overlooked. A second bone scan performed shortly after the fracture in order to exclude underlying bone metastases disclosed an additional unsuspected incomplete AFF in the contralateral femur, which was confirmed by radiography. In conclusion, oncologists should consider other causes of bone pain besides bone metastatic disease, and physicians interpreting whole body bone scans of oncologic patients should be aware of the entity of AFF, in order to avoid false positive results and provide early information about an impending complete AFF.

  14. Presentation of a novel model of chitosan- polyethylene oxide-nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers together with bone marrow stromal cells to repair and improve minor bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholi, Asgar; Rahimi, Mohsen; Kaka, Gholamreza; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Najafi, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Various methods for repairing bone defects are presented. Cell therapy is one of these methods. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seem to be suitable for this purpose. On the other hand, lots of biomaterials are used to improve and repair the defect in the body, so in this study we tried to produce a similar structure to the bone by the chitosan and hydroxyapatite. Materials and Methods: In this study, the solution of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite-polyethylene oxide (PEO) Nanofibers was produced by electrospinning method, and then the BMSCs were cultured on this solution. A piece of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite Nanofibers with BMSCs was placed in a hole with the diameter of 1 mm at the distal epiphysis of the rat femur. Then the biomechanical and radiographic studies were performed. Results: Biomechanical testing results showed that bone strength was significantly higher in the Nanofiber/BMSCs group in comparison with control group. Also the bone strength in nanofiber/BMSCs group was significant, but in nanofiber group was nearly significant. Radiographic studies also showed that the average amount of callus formation (radio opacity) in nanofiber and control group was not significantly different. The callus formation in nanofiber/BMSCs group was increased compared to the control group, and it was not significant in the nanofiber group. Conclusion: Since chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers with BMSCs increases the rate of bone repair, the obtained cell-nanoscaffold shell can be used in tissue engineering and cell therapy, especially for bone defects. PMID:26523221

  15. Performance of fuel cell using calcium phosphate hydrogel membrane prepared from waste incineration fly ash and chicken bone powder.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kunihiro; Arimitsu, Naoki; Jikihara, Kenji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideto

    2009-09-15

    Waste incineration fly ash and bone powder could be successfully recycled to calcium phosphate hydrogel, a type of fast proton conductor. The electric conductivity of the crystallized hydrogel from them was compared with that from calcium carbonate reagent. It was found that the conductivity of the hydrogel from bone powder is almost equal to that from calcium carbonate reagent, which is higher than that from incineration fly ash. Because the crystallized hydrogel from incineration ash has a lower crystallinity than that from bone powder and calcium carbonate reagent. However, the difference of the conductivity among them can be hardly observed above 100 degrees C. The fuel cell with membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using the calcium phosphate hydrogel membrane prepared from incineration fly ash and bone powder was observed to generate electricity. The performance of fuel cells having the hydrogel membrane obtained from all raw materials increases with the cell temperature, and the fuel cell containing the hydrogel membrane from incineration fly ash has the highest dependence of the fuel cell performance. For this reason, the difference in the cell performance among them can be hardly observed above 120 degrees C. This tendency agrees with the change in the electric conductivity with the temperature. Further, the performance of all fuel cells with the hydrogel membrane is superior to that of the fuel cell with perfluorosulfonic polymer membrane at temperatures greater than approximately 85 degrees C.

  16. Rare aggressive natural killer cell leukemia presented with bone marrow fibrosis - a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Dina S; Sabbagh, Ahmad Al; Omri, Halima El; Ibrahim, Firyal A; Amer, Aliaa M; Otazu, Ivone B

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia is an extraordinary rare aggressive malignant neoplasm of natural killer cells. Although its first recognition as a specific entity was approximately 20 years ago, this leukemia has not yet been satisfactorily characterized as fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the literature and up to our knowledge, this is the first case report in Qatar. Reaching a diagnosis of aggressive natural killer leukemia was a challenging experience, because in addition to being a rare entity, the relative scarcity of circulating neoplastic cells, failure to obtain an adequate aspirate sample sufficient to perform flow cytometric analysis, together with the absence of applicable method to prove NK clonality (as it lack specific clonal marker); our case had atypical confusing presentation of striking increase in bone marrow fibrosis that was misleading and complicated the case further. The bone marrow fibrosis encountered may be related to the neoplastic natural killer cells' chemokine profile and it may raise the awareness for considering aggressive natural killer leukemia within the differential diagnosis of leukemia with heightened marrow fibrosis.

  17. Osteolytic bone lesions, severe hypercalcemia without circulating blasts: unusual presentation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bechir, Achour; Haifa, Regaieg; Atef, Ben Abdelkader; Emna, Bouslema; Asma, Achour; Nesrine, Ben Sayed; Yosra, Ben Youssef; Abdrrahim, Khelif

    2017-01-01

    Hypercalcemia and severe osteolytic lesions are rare complications of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. We report a case of a 3 years old boy who presented with prolonged fever, nausea, vomiting and increasing lower limbs pain. Skeletal X-rays and CT scan showed severe osteolytic lesions of the skull and extremities. Her physical examination showed multiple cervical lymph nodes. In laboratory tests, he had severe hypercalcemia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was not elevated. Despite the absence of circulating blasts, bone marrow biopsy revealed B-precursor (ALL). Hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous isotonic sodium chloride solution and diuretics but the serum calcium level normalized only after the beginning of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The child responded initially to chemotherapy and eventually relapsed and died of septic shock. Acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis in patients with hypercalcemia. A detailed examination even when there no circulating blasts in their peripheral blood smear, and if in doubt bone marrow aspiration should must be taken into consideration.

  18. Osteolytic bone lesions, severe hypercalcemia without circulating blasts: unusual presentation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bechir, Achour; Haifa, Regaieg; Atef, Ben Abdelkader; Emna, Bouslema; Asma, Achour; Nesrine, Ben Sayed; Yosra, Ben Youssef; Abdrrahim, Khelif

    2017-01-01

    Hypercalcemia and severe osteolytic lesions are rare complications of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. We report a case of a 3 years old boy who presented with prolonged fever, nausea, vomiting and increasing lower limbs pain. Skeletal X-rays and CT scan showed severe osteolytic lesions of the skull and extremities. Her physical examination showed multiple cervical lymph nodes. In laboratory tests, he had severe hypercalcemia. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was not elevated. Despite the absence of circulating blasts, bone marrow biopsy revealed B-precursor (ALL). Hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous isotonic sodium chloride solution and diuretics but the serum calcium level normalized only after the beginning of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The child responded initially to chemotherapy and eventually relapsed and died of septic shock. Acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis in patients with hypercalcemia. A detailed examination even when there no circulating blasts in their peripheral blood smear, and if in doubt bone marrow aspiration should must be taken into consideration. PMID:28690758

  19. The chicken SLAM family.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  20. Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineralisation and walking ability of broiler chickens fed with dietary inclusion of various unconventional mineral sources.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Idowu, A A; Niameh, O T

    2011-08-01

    Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineral content and walking ability of broiler chicken fed dietary inclusion of various unconventional calcium sources were studied using 160-day-old broilers. Four isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets balanced for Ca and P were formulated such that oyster shell, snail shell, wood ash and limestone were used as main non-phytate (Ca from other sources apart from plant) calcium sources. Each dietary treatment consisted of 40 birds replicated four times with 10 birds per replicate. A single diet was fed to the broilers throughout the duration of the study which lasted for 8 weeks. Broilers fed diet containing oyster shell as calcium sources recorded the highest (p < 0.05) feed intake of 5863.30 g, while those fed diet containing limestone consumed the least intake (p < 0.05) of 5432.56 g. Occurrence of lameness and evidences of gaits were highest (p < 0.05) for broilers fed diet containing wood ash. Lowest (p < 0.05) Ca and ash retention were recorded for broiler fed diet containing wood ash as Ca sources. Similar tibia ash values were recorded for broilers fed oyster shell, snail shell and limestone. Wood ash inclusion resulted in a low Ca availability hence its inclusion in feeds for broilers should be discouraged.

  1. Modalities for Visualization of Cortical Bone Remodeling: The Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kimberly D; Cooper, David M L

    2015-01-01

    Bone's ability to respond to load-related phenomena and repair microdamage is achieved through the remodeling process, which renews bone by activating groups of cells known as basic multicellular units (BMUs). The products of BMUs, secondary osteons, have been extensively studied via classic two-dimensional techniques, which have provided a wealth of information on how histomorphology relates to skeletal structure and function. Remodeling is critical in maintaining healthy bone tissue; however, in osteoporotic bone, imbalanced resorption results in increased bone fragility and fracture. With increasing life expectancy, such degenerative bone diseases are a growing concern. The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of BMUs and their correlation to function, however, are not well-characterized and little is known about the specific mechanisms that initiate and regulate their activity within cortical bone. We believe a key limitation has been the lack of 3D information about BMU morphology and activity. Thus, this paper reviews methodologies for 3D investigation of cortical bone remodeling and, specifically, structures associated with BMU activity (resorption spaces) and the structures they create (secondary osteons), spanning from histology to modern ex vivo imaging modalities, culminating with the growing potential of in vivo imaging. This collection of papers focuses on the theme of "putting the 'why' back into bone architecture." Remodeling is one of two mechanisms "how" bone structure is dynamically modified and thus an improved 3D understanding of this fundamental process is crucial to ultimately understanding the "why."

  2. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  3. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  4. Effect of supplementing different concentrations of organic trace minerals on performance, antioxidant activity, and bone mineralization in Vanaraja chickens developed for free range farming.

    PubMed

    Rao, Savaram Venkata Rama; Prakash, Bhukya; Kumari, Kanya; Raju, Mantena Venkata Laxmi Narasimha; Panda, Arun Kumar

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance, antioxidation activity, and bone mineral content in Vanaraja chickens fed diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (oTM) at reduced levels. A total of 360 day-old chicks were selected and distributed randomly into 60 battery brooder pens. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet was supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (iTM), i.e., Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu at 50, 45, 40, and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively, and varying concentration of oTM, i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, I, Se, and Cr at 45, 50, 7.5, 40, 2, 0.30, and 0.25 mg/kg (diet II); 33.75, 37.50, 5.63, 30.0, 1.50, 0.23, and 0.19 mg/kg (diet III); 22.5, 25.0, 3.75, 20.0, 1.0, 0.15, and 0.13 mg/kg (diet IV); 18.0, 20.0, 3.0, 16.0, 0.80, 0.12, and 0.10 mg/kg (diet V); and 13.5, 15.0, 2.25, 12.0, 0.60, 0.09, and 0.08 mg/kg (diet VI), respectively. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates and fed ad libitum from 1 to 42 days of age. The body weight at 14, 28, and 42 days was not affected by reducing the supplementation of oTM concentration in the diets. Similarly, feed intake at 14 days of age was not affected but reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the group fed diet IV (50% oTM) compared to that in the other groups. The higher feed conversion ratio and increased concentration of Ca, P, and trace minerals in tibia were evident in the group fed oTM-supplemented diets compared to the diet containing iTM. Activities of glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing ability in plasma did not differ in the groups fed on lower concentration of oTM compared to those fed on diet I (control diet). Therefore, it is concluded that the dietary supplementation of trace minerals can be reduced greatly when supplemented as organic form without affecting growth and antioxidant status in Vanaraja chickens.

  5. An acute inflammatory response alters bone homeostasis, body composition, and the humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mireles, A J; Kim, S M; Klasing, K C

    2005-04-01

    To quantify the effects of an acute phase response in broilers, chicks were injected with 1 mg/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 15 and 23 d. Lipopolysaccharide injection increased feed/gain (P = 0.03), increased liver weight (P = 0.09), and decreased tibia calcium (P = 0.05) and breaking strength (P < 0.04) by d 28. In a second experiment, 3 d postinjection of chicks at d 31, LPS decreased BW (P < 0.01), breast weight (P = 0.08), and tibia breaking strength (P = 0.05), and increased liver weight (P < 0.01), mortality (P = 0.05), and titers to bronchitis and Mycoplasma gallisepticum that were induced by vaccination at hatch or by field exposure, respectively (P = 0.04). For experiment 3, chicks were challenged with LPS at 23d and 27d. Lipopolysaccharide-injected chicks had decreased BW (P = 0.06), feed consumption (P = 0.05), tibia weight (P< 0.01), and breaking strength (P < 0.01), and increased feed/gain (P < 0.01), liver weight (P < 0.01), and plasma ionized calcium level (P = 0.08). For experiment 4, chicks were injected with 0, 0.33, 0.66, 1.00, or 4.25 mg of LPS/kg of BW. There was an inverse relationship between LPS level and BW or bone breaking strength. Experiment 5 compared 4 broiler strains. Strain x LPS interactions were found for bone breaking strength (P = 0.01). Mortality before LPS challenge was inversely correlated to liver weight (r2 = 0.95, P = 0.02) and bone breaking strength (r2 = 0.99, P = 0.01) only after an LPS challenge.

  6. Renal osteodystrophy: what's in a name? Presentation of a clinically useful new model to interpret bone histologic findings.

    PubMed

    Malluche, H H; Monier-Faugere, M C

    2006-04-01

    Renal osteodystrophy begins early in the course of chronic kidney disease and occurs almost without exception in all patients with Stage 5 disease (CKD-5). Bone biopsies and evaluation of mineralized bone sections after double tetracycline-labeling are currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis and classification of renal osteodystrophy. Nevertheless, bone biopsies are rarely employed. This is, at least in part, related to the paucity of nephrologists trained in performance of the procedure and the fact that reports of the histologic results are not easily translatable to clinical practice. Results are usually given qualitatively, using non-uniform classifications or by histomorphometric evaluations which are esoteric to most nephrologists. We suggest here that histomorphometric evaluation can be reserved for research and special situations. Also, the customarily used qualitative classification should be replaced by a clinically useful nomenclature, provided the interpretation is done by an individual with sufficient experience in bone pathology. We present a new interactive nomenclature for renal osteodystrophy that addresses abnormalities of turnover, abnormalities of bone balance, and abnormalities of mineralization. The new nomenclature, thus, includes disorders of high- and low-turnover with consideration of the interrelation with positive or negative bone balance with or without mineralization defect. In this schema, changes in bone status are described as deviations from a norm, and treatment is geared toward normalizing values rather than creating any absolute change in one direction or another. It is hoped that such a classification will be easily usable, clinically more relevant, and more amenable to individualized treatment guidance.

  7. Variation in osteocytes morphology vs bone type in turtle shell and their exceptional preservation from the Jurassic to the present.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edwin A; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe variations in osteocytes derived from each of the three bone layers that comprise the turtle shell. We examine osteocytes in bone from four extant turtle species to form a morphological 'baseline', and then compare these with morphologies of osteocytes preserved in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossils. Two different morphotypes of osteocytes are recognized: flattened-oblate osteocytes (FO osteocytes), which are particularly abundant in the internal cortex and lamellae of secondary osteons in cancellous bone, and stellate osteocytes (SO osteocytes), principally present in the interstitial lamellae between secondary osteons and external cortex. We show that the morphology of osteocytes in each of the three bone layers is conserved through ontogeny. We also demonstrate that these morphological variations are phylogenetically independent, as well as independent of the bone origin (intramembranous or endochondral). Preservation of microstructures consistent with osteocytes in the morphology in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossil turtle bones appears to be common, and occurs in diverse diagenetic environments including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. These data have potential to illuminate aspects of turtle biology and evolution previously unapproachable, such as estimates of genome size of extinct species, differences in metabolic rates among different bones from a single individual, and potential function of osteocytes as capsules for preservation of ancient biomolecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Local calibrated bone mineral density in the mandible presented using a color coding scheme.

    PubMed

    Homolka, P; Beer, A; Birkfellner, W; Gahleitner, A; Nowotny, R; Bergmann, H

    2001-11-01

    Calibrated information on bone mineral density (BMD) may be used in dental implantology to measure "bone quality". It can be used to estimate the expected primary implant stability preoperatively and to guide the surgeon in selecting optimum implant types and operation techniques. Using a preoperative dental computed tomography (Dental-CT) scan, all of this information can be obtained without additional examinations and thus without additional X-ray exposure of the patient. In contrast to bone mineral determination in other body regions, local BMD values are important in the jaw bone. Therefore, a regimen where color-coded information on local bone mineralization is superimposed on Dental-CT images is proposed using the original CT volumes as well as reformatted views.

  9. Genetic response and morphologic characterization of chicken bone-marrow derived dendritic cells during infection with high and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system that function to initiate primary immune responses. Progenitors of DCs are derived from haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) that migrate in non-lymphoid tissues to develop into immature DCs. Here, they ...

  10. Primary cilia are present on human blood and bone marrow cells and mediate Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohan; Chaudhry, Parvesh; Merchant, Akil A

    2016-12-01

    Primary cilia are nonmotile, microtubule-based organelles that are present on the cellular membrane of all eukaryotic cells. Functional cilia are required for the response to developmental signaling pathways such as Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt/β-catenin. Although the Hh pathway has been shown to be active in leukemia and other blood cancers, there have been no reports describing the presence of primary cilia in human blood or leukemia cells. In the present study, we show that nearly all human blood and bone marrow cells have primary cilia (97-99%). In contrast, primary cilia on AML cell lines (KG1, KG1a, and K562) were less frequent (10-36% of cells) and were often shorter and dysmorphic, with less well-defined basal bodies. Finally, we show that treatment of blood cells with the Hh pathway ligand Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) causes translocation of Smoothened (SMO) to the primary cilia and activation of Hh target genes, demonstrating that primary cilia in blood cells are functional and participate in Hh signaling. Loss of primary cilia on leukemia cells may have important implications for aberrant pathway activation and response to SMO inhibitors currently in clinical development. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of distance and barriers between resources on bone and tendon strength and productive performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Feria, C A; Arroyo-Villegas, J J; Pro-Martinez, A; Bautista-Ortega, J; Cortes-Cuevas, A; Narciso-Gaytan, C; Hernandez-Cazares, A; Gallegos-Sanchez, J

    2014-07-01

    Lameness or leg weakness is becoming an important problem in broilers selected for rapid growth, and although the causes are not known, sedentary behavior could be a cause. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of distance and the presence of ramps between resources (feed and water) on bone and tendon strength, ability to stand, and productive performance. In experiment 1, straight run Ross 708 chicks (n = 1,260) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1.0, 3.3, or 6.6 m between resources (6 pen replicates/treatment). In experiment 2, Cobb 500 male chicks (n = 864) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (2 × 2 factorial, 4 pen replications/treatment) consisting of 2 distances (3 or 8 m) with (WR) or without (NR) a ramp (a triangular prism 31 cm high and 132 cm wide at the base). At d 21, 45, and 56 (experiment 1), or at d 28, 35, 42, and 49 (experiment 2), birds were weighed, killed, and tibias collected to measure breaking strength (BBS), and abdominal fat (AbF) content. At d 49 (experiment 2), calcaneus tendons were also collected to measure breaking strength (TBS). Foot pad lesions and latency to lie (LTL) were determined before killing the birds. In experiment 1, distance did not affect BBS, LTL, foot pad lesions, or BW, but at d 49, birds in the 6.6 m treatment had lower AbF than birds in the other treatments. In experiment 2 at d 49, birds in the 8 m treatment tended to have a higher BBS than birds in the 3 m treatment (P = 0.09), whereas WR birds had lower tendon breaking strength than NR birds (P < 0.01); however, LTL was highest in 8-m NR birds. Final BW was not affected by distance, but birds in the NR group were heavier than birds in the WR group. Furthermore, AbF was lower in 8 m than in 3 m birds. Our results suggest that longer distances between resources have limited effects on bone strength, but increase the LTL, and may change feeding patterns and carcass characteristics, as evidenced by the lower AbF content. Ramps or

  12. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  13. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  14. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  15. Successful conservative management of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects presenting with cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Kwee, Thomas C; Sonneveld, Heleen; Nix, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    The dorsal patellar defect is a relatively rare entity that involves the superolateral quadrant of the patella. It is usually considered to represent a delayed ossification process, although its exact origin remains unclear. Because of its usually innocuous nature and clinical course, invasive interventions are generally deemed unnecessary, although curretage has been successfully performed on symptomatic cases. This case report presents a rather unusual case of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects with cartilage involvement and widespread surrounding bone marrow edema as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema should be considered part of the spectrum of associated MRI findings that can be encountered in this entity. Furthermore, the presented case shows that symptomatic dorsal patellar defects can be treated conservatively with success and that (decrease of) pain symptoms are likely related to (decrease of) bone marrow edema.

  16. Patterns of activity adaptation in humeral trabecular bone in Neolithic humans and present-day people.

    PubMed

    Scherf, Heike; Wahl, Joachim; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Harvati, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    The annual turnover rate of trabecular bone by far exceeds that of cortical bone and, therefore, is very sensitive to its daily loading regime. Here we test the hypothesis that the study of the trabecular bone architecture of the human humerus is able to differentiate between different habitual manual activities. For this purpose, we compared the trabecular architecture of the humeral head in a Neolithic population to that of a sample of contemporary Europeans using micro-computed tomography (microCT). We defined in each specimen a spherical volume of interest with a diameter of 57.5 ± 2.5% of the maximal diameter of the humeral head to metrically analyze the bulk of humeral head trabecular architecture. We subsequently quantified the trabecular architectures in the VOIs, measuring seven standard 3D-morphometric parameters, and used univariate and multivariate statistical analyses for comparisons within and between populations. Univariate statistical analysis showed significant differences in a combination of 3D-morphometric parameters. A principal components analysis of the 3D-morphometrics of the trabecular architectures separated the Neolithic from the contemporary samples on the basis of differences in their gross trabecular architecture, including differences in the bone volume fraction (BV/TV), the number of trabeculae per unit length (Tb N), and the distance between trabeculae (Tb Sp). We interpret the significant differences found in the humeral trabecular bone of the Neolithic and the contemporary group as likely reflecting the distinct manual working routines. The trabecular bone configuration in the Neolithic sample shows presumably functional signatures of prehistoric subsistence techniques and activity levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. Litter pH, moisture, and N contents were not affected by increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. However, a tendency (quadratic, p = 0.10) for increased FPD incidence with increasing dietary Ca concentrations was observed. Dietary Ca concentrations from 4.0 to 9.0 g/kg in low NPP diets containing phytase have little effects on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets.

  18. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. Methods A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Results Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. Litter pH, moisture, and N contents were not affected by increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. However, a tendency (quadratic, p = 0.10) for increased FPD incidence with increasing dietary Ca concentrations was observed. Conclusion Dietary Ca concentrations from 4.0 to 9.0 g/kg in low NPP diets containing phytase have little effects on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets. PMID:28427257

  19. Evaluation of alveolar crest bone loss via premolar bitewing radiographs: presentation of a new method.

    PubMed

    Safi, Yaser; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Safai, Pooria; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Shamloo, Nafiseh

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the interdental bone level in premolar bitewing radiographs while retracting the cheeks. Seventy-two horizontal bone defects were created on dried mandibles and maxillae. The distance from the bone level to the cement-enamel junction of premolars was detected by a modified digital caliper (considered the gold standard). The reliability of all radiographs was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the validity was compared to the gold standard using the analysis of variance test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. This study showed that the reliability of radiographs without a cheek simulator and with 0.16 second exposure time was significantly higher than that of the two other groups (ICC=0.96 compared to 0.93 and 0.88, respectively). The results from the radiographs without a cheek simulator and with 0.16 second exposure time were more similar to the gold standard measures than those of the two other groups, although the difference was not statistically significant. Retracting the buccal soft tissue plays an important role in increasing the accuracy of radiographs in detecting the interdental alveolar bone level and produces more accurate results than increasing the exposure time, although it does not have a significant role in reliability of results.

  20. The effects of distractor sounds presented through bone conduction headphones on the localization of critical environmental sounds.

    PubMed

    May, Keenan R; Walker, Bruce N

    2017-05-01

    Bone conduction headphones are devices that transmit sound through the bones of a listener's head rather than through the air in their outer ear. They have been marketed as a safer way to enjoy audio content while walking, jogging, or cycling. However, listening to distracting sounds over bone conduction may still disrupt a listener's awareness of their auditory environment. The present study investigated the nature of this interference with the faculty of sound source localization-a key prerequisite for generating situation awareness through audio. Participants sat in the middle of a circle of loudspeakers and listened for target sounds played from different directions. Each time they heard a sound, they responded by indicating what direction they judged the sound to have come from. Meanwhile, participants listened to distractor sounds played through bone conduction headphones. Participants heard (1) no distractor sounds, (2) a spoken story that they were instructed to ignore, and (3) the same spoken story that they were instructed to attend to. For conditions (2) and (3), some participants heard a version of the story with background music, while others heard the spoken story without the music. Participants had greater localization error in the distractor-present conditions. Additionally, participants who heard the spoken story with music exhibited greater localization error. However, there was no effect of whether participants ignored or attended to distractors. This pattern was attributed to masking effects, and was more pronounced for narrow-band targets compared to broadband targets. Post-hoc analyses found evidence of a 'pulling' effect, in which localization judgments were systematically biased toward the apparent direction of the bone conducted distractors. These results indicate that using bone conduction headphones can be expected to cause a decline in a person's awareness of their environment, in a subtle way that a jogger or cyclist might not be

  1. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  2. [The potential of cone beam computed tomography of the temporal bones in the patients presenting with otosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Karpishchenko, S A; Zubareva, A A; Filimonov, V N; Shavgulidze, M A; Azovtseva, E A

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the potential of cone beam computed tomography of the temporal bones in the patients presenting with otosclerosis for the detection of surgically significant specific structural features of the labyrinth wall of the tympanic cavity. More than 400 tomograms of the temporal bones were obtained with the use of a cone beam tomographwere available for the investigation during the period from 2012 till 2016. The study was carried out in several steps, viz. the search for the optimal (for the given instrument) position of the patient, the experimental stage, the retrospective analysis of the tomograms and the comparison of the temporal bones of different types (pneumatic, mixed, and sclerotic) in individual patients, the comparison of the results of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with the intraoperative observations, and the modification of the algorithm for the analysis of temporal bone cone beam tomograms. The study included a total of 16 patients (15 women at the age from 32 to 56 years and one managed 58 years) presenting with the clinical diagnosis of otosclerosis. The results of the study were used to elaborate the algorithm for the analysis of cone beam tomograms of the temporal bones to be performed inthe stage by stage manner including the qualitative analysis of tomograms, evaluation of their quantitative parameters and additional characteristics to be taken into consideration when planning the surgical interventions on the labyrinth wall and the tympanic cavity as a preparation for the stapedoplastic treatment. The results of CBCT obtained in the present study were compared with the surgical observations. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the method were estimated to be 100% and 83% respectively. It is concluded that cone beam computed tomography can be employed as a component of the diagnostic algorithm prior to the planning of surgical interventions onthe medial wall of the tympanic cavity

  3. A rare presentation: A case report of osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Aurora, Nadia; Hashmi, Insia; Misra, Subhasis; Aydin, Nail

    2017-01-01

    Cases of multinodular goiter, thyroid hyperplasia, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma have been reported with histopathologic findings of osseous metaplasia (OM), bone marrow metaplasia (BMM), ectopic bone formation (EBF), ossification, and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). To date no report of a follicular adenoma with OM and mature EBF in the absence of EMH has been reported in the English language. 63-year-old woman with an incidental finding of thyroid nodule unable to be biopsied. One area was found to contain OM with mature EBF and without vascular invasion. The surrounding tissue was unremarkable, and no malignancy was found. Ectopic bone formation and osseous metaplasia in a thyroid nodule has an extensive differential diagnosis, from thyroid related pathologies to parathyroid causes, congenital syndromes, and hamartomas. A common theory amongst these is the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), signaling factors involved in cellular proliferation and growth. This is the first case report of a follicular adenoma with OM and EBF in the absence of EMH. In this case, this adenoma was an incidental finding and the patient had no symptoms or accompanying laboratory abnormalities. Her benign presentation underscores the importance of awareness of the more common changes a thyroid nodule can undergo, such as hemorrhagic, cystic, and fibrotic changes, as well as the rarer changes of calcification with eventual ossification. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo longitudinal visualization of bone marrow engraftment process in mouse calvarium bone marrow with two-photon microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Viet Hoan; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Ki Hean; Lee, Seungwon; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2017-02-01

    Bone marrow transplantation became the standard choice for treatment of many leukemias, tumors and metabolic diseases. Understanding the dynamic behavior of bone marrow niches, especially in case of bone marrow transplantation is critical to improve the efficiency of the treatment. Intravital microscopy was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to study physiological structure of bone marrow niche. However, current method of intravital microscopy has difficulty in longitudinal monitoring the same bone marrow niche site due to the invasion of the prior-imaging surgery. In this study, we introduce a method to improve the bone marrow niche imaging process and enable the longitudinal imaging of murine calvarium bone marrow. Mouse model for calvarium bone marrow imaging was made by attaching cover glass window to the calvarium bone. Longitudinal imaging of whole bone marrow engraftment process was carried out to demonstrate the advantage of our mouse model. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were also executed on the image data. The result provided a dynamic and full visualization of the bone marrow engraftment process. The study was expected to provide helpful tool for bone marrow studies and useful information for bone marrow transplantation in future.

  5. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  6. Non-osteoporotic women with low-trauma fracture present altered birefringence in cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Chin, Jesse; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Areal bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA, although an important index, does not accurately assess risk of fragility fracture. Another bone structural parameter, the orientation of type I collagen, is known to add to risk determination, independently of BMD. Accordingly, we investigated the Haversian systems of transiliac crest biopsies from non-osteoporotic women with low-trauma fractures, matched to healthy women without fracture by age and BMD. We employed circularly polarized light (CPL) microscopy because 1) each of the extinct and bright birefringent signals of CPL corresponds to a specific collagen arrangement; and 2) CPL can employ magnification suitable to provide data, of manageable size, from the whole cortical component of a section of biopsy. Under CPL, the coaxial layers of osteons, called lamellae, appear either birefringent extinct or bright. On a section transverse to the Haversian system, the extinct lamella comprises mainly collagen forming small angles, and the bright lamella comprises mainly collagen forming large angles, relative to the general orientation of the Haversian system. We performed semi-automatic morphometry for birefringent and structural parameters for which we computed intra- and inter-observer errors. The statistical analysis used a linear mixed model to compare fracturing and non-fracturing groups while addressing pairing of fracturing and non-fracturing subjects, and linear regression to assess differences between matched subjects. We found significant reduction in 1) lamellar width and area for extinct lamella and bright lamella; 2) percentage of extinct birefringence in osteons, and 3) single osteon area; in the fracturing group; and in lamellar width in the fracturing subject of all pairs. Our results evidence the need to investigate, in a larger sample of subjects, the distribution of collagen orientation as a parameter diagnostic of increased fracture risk.

  7. One-year mortality in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas as an indicator of delay in presentation.

    PubMed

    Nandra, R; Hwang, N; Matharu, G S; Reddy, K; Grimer, R

    2015-09-01

    For many cancers, one-year mortality following diagnosis is a reflection of either advanced stage at diagnosis, multiple co-morbidities and/or complications of treatment. One-year mortality has not been reported for soft tissue or bone sarcomas. This study reports 1-year sarcoma mortality data over a 25-year period, investigates prognostic factors and considers whether a delay in presentation affects 1-year mortality. A total of 4,945 newly diagnosed bone sarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma patients were identified from a prospectively maintained, single institution oncology database. Of these, 595 (12%) died within 1 year of diagnosis. Both patient factors and tumour characteristics available at diagnosis were analysed for effect. There was significant variation in one-year mortality between different histological subtypes. There has been no significant change in mortality rate during the last 25 years (mean: 11.7%, standard deviation: 2.8 percentage points). Soft tissue sarcoma patients who survived over one year reported a longer duration of symptoms preceding diagnosis than those who died (median: 26 vs 20 weeks, p<0.001). Prognostic factors identified in both bone and soft tissue sarcomas mirrored those for mid to long-term survival, with high tumour stage, large tumour size, metastases at diagnosis and increasing age having the greatest predictive effect. One-year mortality in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients is easy to measure, and could be a proxy for late presentation and therefore a potential performance indicator, similar to other cancers. It is possible to predict the risk of one-year mortality using factors available at diagnosis. Death within one year does not correlate with a long history but is associated with advanced disease at diagnosis.

  8. The influence of MAP condition and active compounds on the radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi present in chicken breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Chiasson, F.

    2004-09-01

    The efficiency of carvacrol, thymol, trans-cinnamaldehyde (Tc) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Tp) on the radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in chicken breast was determined. Chicken breast were dipped in a bath of working cultures of E. coli or S. typhi (5×10 7 CFU/ml). Active compounds were added at the concentration corresponding to {1}/{30} of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Samples were packed under air and gamma irradiation was done at doses from 0.1 to 0.7 kGy. The efficiencies of the active compounds against E. coli were 32%, 10%, 3% and 0% for thymol, Tp and carvacrol, respectively. For S. typhi, the efficiencies in the chicken breast were 47%, 19%, 17% and 11% for Tc, Tp, carvacrol and thymol, respectively. Without active compounds, D10 values were 0.145 kGy for E. coli and 0.64 kGy for S. typhi as compared to 0.098 kGy for E. coli and 0.341 kGy for S. typhi in presence of Tc. Under modified atmospheric packaging condition and in presence of Tc, D10 values were reduced to 0.046 for E. coli and to 0.110 for S. typhi.

  9. The effects of dietary 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera root on bone mineralisation, strength and histological characteristics in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mirakzehi, M T; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Raji, A R

    2013-01-01

    . Tibia shear force and stiffness were significantly increased by supplementation of WS. Administration of 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 resulted in a significantly lower width of the proliferative zone at 21 d of age. Reduction of the Ca supply significantly reduced the mineralised zone and cortical thickness at this age. 8. The present study showed that WS supplementation improved Ca retention, bone calcification and mechanical properties with no adverse effects on performance. Also, synergistic effects of WS and 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 were observed on Ca retention and bone calcification.

  10. Secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone due to malignant transformation 40 years after surgery without radiation therapy, presenting as fever of unknown origin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takesako, Hisataka; Osaka, Eiji; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Sugitani, Masahiko; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2016-03-08

    Malignant transformation of giant cell tumors of bones, that is, secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone, is rare. The most common symptoms are local pain and swelling. There are no prior reports of giant cell tumor of bone with fever of unknown origin at the onset. Here we present a case of a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone due to malignant transformation 40 years after surgery without radiation therapy, presenting as fever of unknown origin. A 75-year-old Asian man presented with a 3-week history of continuous pyrexia and left knee pain and swelling. He had been diagnosed at age 35 years with a giant cell tumor of bone of his left distal femur and underwent bone curettage and avascular fibula grafting at that time. Postoperative radiation therapy was not performed. He remained recurrence-free for 40 years after surgery. At age 75, histopathological findings suggested a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone. The tumor specimen expressed tumor necrosis factor-α. Neoplastic fever was suspected, and a naproxen test was conducted. His pyrexia showed immediate resolution. Surgery was performed under a diagnosis of a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone with neoplastic fever. His pyrexia and inflammatory activities diminished postoperatively. This is the first reported case, to the best of our knowledge, of the detection of a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone based on fever of unknown origin after long-term (40 years) follow-up. After curettage and bone grafting, giant cell tumor of bone may transform to malignancies within a few years or even decades after surgery. Therefore, meticulous follow-up is essential. The fever might be attributable to the tumor releasing inflammatory cytokines. Not only pain and swelling but also continuous pyrexia may suggest the diagnosis of a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone.

  11. Recombinase Activating Gene 1 Deficiencies Without Omenn Syndrome May Also Present With Eosinophilia and Bone Marrow Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Ezgi; Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Azarsiz, Elif; Berdeli, Afig; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes are a heterogenous group of diseases characterized by impairment in both cellular and humoral immunity with a range of genetic disorders. Complete recombinase activating gene (RAG) deficiency is associated with classical T-B-NK+ SCID which is the most common phenotype of Turkish SCID patients. There is a broad spectrum of hypomorfic RAG mutations including Omenn syndrome, leaky or atypical SCID with expansion of γδ T cells, autoimmunity and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Methods Twenty-one (44%) patients had RAG1 deficiency of all 44 SCID patients followed up by pediatric immunology department. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the medical records of all SCID patients with RAG1 deficiency. Results Eight patients were classified as T-B-NK+ SCID, five patients as T+B-NK+ SCID (three of these were Omenn phenotype), and eight patients as T+B+NK+ SCID phenotype. Mean age of the whole study group, mean age at onset of symptoms and mean age at diagnosis were 87.7 ± 73.8 (12 - 256), 4.4 ± 8.2 (1 - 36) and 29.1 ± 56.8 (1 - 244) months, respectively. Consanguinity was present in 11 (52%) of 21 patients. Autoimmunity was found in six patients (28%). Ten patients (47%) had CMV infection, four (19%) had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and three (14%) had Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infections. Seven patients who had refractory cytopenia (two pancytopenia and five bicytopenia) underwent bone marrow biopsy, three of whom had bone marrow fibrosis. Future evaluations must be considered about bone marrow fibrosis in RAG1 deficiency patients. Eosinophilia was observed in 10 patients, seven of whom did not have Omenn phenotype. Conclusion Non-Omenn phenotype RAG1 deficiencies can also present with eosinophilia. This report is presented to emphasize that RAG1 mutations may lead to diverse clinical phenotypes. PMID:27081423

  12. Tibial stress reaction presenting as bilateral shin pain in a man taking denosumab for giant cell tumor of the bone.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sian Yik; Rastalsky, Naina; Choy, Edwin; Bolster, Marcy B

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged bisphosphonate use has been associated with increased risk of atypical femoral fractures. Very few cases of atypical femoral fractures have been reported with denosumab. We report a case of bilateral tibial stress reactions in a 60-year-old man with no history of osteoporosis who was on prolonged high-dose denosumab for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone. He presented with a 3-month history of pain in his bilateral shins worsening with activity and improving with rest. Although initial radiographs were unremarkable, he was found to have changes consistent with a stress reaction on magnetic resonance imaging of the distal tibia. To our knowledge, bilateral tibial stress reactions have not been previously reported with anti-resorptive therapies (neither bisphosphonates nor denosumab). Our case is intriguing in terms of the development of stress reactions as a precursor to stress fractures which may also relate to atypical fractures. Our case suggests a possible association between denosumab use and stress reactions. Of note the indication for denosumab in our case was for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone where the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved dose is substantially higher than the FDA approved dose for osteoporosis treatment. Although rare, clinicians should consider the possibility of stress fractures in patients on anti-resorptive medications such as denosumab, especially when a patient presents with new onset thigh pain, hip pain or pain over an area affecting the long bones. Evaluation by imaging of affected areas should be pursued to enable early detection and intervention, as well as prevention of morbidity and associated ongoing risk to the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Severe temporal bone fractures in children: clinical presentation, complications and sequelae observed in the last 11 years].

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Alcarria, A J; Navarro-Mingorance, A; Reyes-Domínguez, S B; León-León, M C; Cepillo-Boluda, A; López López-Guerrero, A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation, complications and sequelae in patients with temporal bone fracture in the last 11 years. A total of 27 patient medical records were retrospectively analysed. Of the 27 patients who were admitted for temporal bone fracture from 2001 to 2012, 13 (48%) had no petrous involvement (Group 1), and 14 (52%) with petrous involvement (Group 2). Patients in Group 2 had a longer P-ICU stay: median 4.5 days (RI: 2.75-22.25 d) vs 2 (RI: 1-3 d) (P=.018); more days on mechanical ventilation support: median 3 days (RI: 1.50-17 d) vs 1 (RI: 1-1.25 d). This group also had a higher frequency in sequelae (P=.04 OR=1.4 (95% CI: 1.05-1.95)) and a higher incidence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula (P<.02; OR 2.33; 95% CI (1.27-4.27)). Severity scores (PRIMS III and PTI) showed no significant differences. Some degree of hearing loss was observed in 31% of the patients. Traffic accident was the main cause of trauma (33%), followed by falls (27%). There were 2 deaths and 4 (15%) had permanent sequelae. Isolated temporal bone fractures usually have a good outcome in children, but in some cases they can be fatal or have permanent sequelae. Long term follow up is recommended by authors. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. CHICKEN POX IN PREGNANCY : AN OBSTETRIC CONCERN

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented. PMID:21430880

  15. De Novo CD5 Negative Blastic Mantle Cell Lymphoma Presented with Massive Bone Marrow Necrosis without Adenopathy or Organomegaly

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Ali Matar; Al Mussaed, Eman; Aljasem, Hassan; Alotaibi, Sultan; Elghezal, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification defines mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a distinct entity characterized by a unique immunophenotype and a molecular hallmark of chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32). We report an unusual case of an advanced stage of CD5 negative MCL with a blastoid variant with a massive bone marrow (BM) necrosis as an initial presenting feature, with no adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. The pathologic features showed blastoid variant of MCL and flow cytometry showed that the tumor cells were CD5−, CD19+, CD20+, FMC-7+, CD23−, and lambda light chain restricted. Chromosomal analysis, using karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), demonstrated karyotypic abnormalities in addition to the t(11;14). Our case study may be reported as a unique case of CD5− blastic MCL with unusual presentation and findings which made the diagnosis of MCL difficult. PMID:26347832

  16. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  17. A comparison of bone density and bone morphology between patients presenting with hip fractures, spinal fractures or a combination of the two

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently it is uncertain how to define osteoporosis and who to treat after a hip fracture. There is little to support the universal treatment of all such patients but how to select those most in need of treatment is not clear. In this study we have compared cortical and trabecular bone status between patients with spinal fractures and those with hip fracture with or without spinal fracture with the aim to begin to identify, by a simple clinical method (spine x-ray), a group of hip fracture patients likely to be more responsive to treatment with current antiresorptive agents. Methods Comparison of convenience samples of three groups of 50 patients, one with spinal fractures, one with a hip fracture, and one with both. Measurements consist of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, at the four standard hip sites, number, distribution and severity of spinal fractures by the method of Genant, cortical bone thickness at the infero-medial femoral neck site, femoral neck and axis length and femoral neck width. Results Patients with spinal fractures alone have the most deficient bones at both trabecular and cortical sites: those with hip fracture and no spinal fractures the best at trabecular bone and most cortical bone sites: and those with both hip and spinal fractures intermediate in most measurements. Hip axis length and neck width did not differ between groups. Conclusion The presence of the spinal fracture indicates poor trabecular bone status in hip fracture patients. Hip fracture patients without spinal fractures have a bone mass similar to the reference range for their age and gender. Poor trabecular bone in hip fracture patients may point to a category of patient more likely to benefit from therapy and may be indicated by the presence of spinal fractures. PMID:23432767

  18. A comparison of bone density and bone morphology between patients presenting with hip fractures, spinal fractures or a combination of the two.

    PubMed

    Crilly, Richard G; Cox, Lizebeth

    2013-02-22

    Currently it is uncertain how to define osteoporosis and who to treat after a hip fracture. There is little to support the universal treatment of all such patients but how to select those most in need of treatment is not clear. In this study we have compared cortical and trabecular bone status between patients with spinal fractures and those with hip fracture with or without spinal fracture with the aim to begin to identify, by a simple clinical method (spine x-ray), a group of hip fracture patients likely to be more responsive to treatment with current antiresorptive agents. Comparison of convenience samples of three groups of 50 patients, one with spinal fractures, one with a hip fracture, and one with both. Measurements consist of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, at the four standard hip sites, number, distribution and severity of spinal fractures by the method of Genant, cortical bone thickness at the infero-medial femoral neck site, femoral neck and axis length and femoral neck width. Patients with spinal fractures alone have the most deficient bones at both trabecular and cortical sites: those with hip fracture and no spinal fractures the best at trabecular bone and most cortical bone sites: and those with both hip and spinal fractures intermediate in most measurements. Hip axis length and neck width did not differ between groups. The presence of the spinal fracture indicates poor trabecular bone status in hip fracture patients. Hip fracture patients without spinal fractures have a bone mass similar to the reference range for their age and gender. Poor trabecular bone in hip fracture patients may point to a category of patient more likely to benefit from therapy and may be indicated by the presence of spinal fractures.

  19. Autologous bone marrow transplanation for extramedullary plasmacytoma presenting as adrenal incidentaloma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohammed; Al-Ghamdi, Abduallah; Al-Omari, Mohammed; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Al-Kadhi, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    Extramedullary adrenal plasmacytoma (EMP) involving the adrenal glands is rarely encountered clinicaly. We report a A 47-year-old male who presented with bilateral adrenal incidentalomas. After confirming EMP, the patient received two consecutive autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) using high-dose melphalan. Following HSCT, a serial follow-up helical CT revealed a substantial decrease in the size of both adrenal masses. Serial periodic serum protein and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation showed abrogation of a previously noted monoclonal band. At 50 months follow-up the patient was alive and well. Our patient is the first with EMP to have received an autologous HSCT, which may prove to have a role in therapy due to the immunological effect of the infused donor marrow T-lymphocytes against the clonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in extrammedullary sites. This case indicates that an EMP should be added to the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas. PMID:19448366

  20. Chicken leukemia inhibitory factor maintains chicken embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Tategaki, Airo; Yamashita, Yusuke; Hisamatsu, Hikaru; Ogawa, Mari; Noguchi, Takashi; Aosasa, Masayoshi; Kawashima, Tsuyoshi; Akita, Sachiko; Nishimichi, Norihisa; Mitsui, Naoko; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2004-06-04

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained in an undifferentiated state in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family. In other mammals, this is not possible with LIF alone. Chicken ES-like cells (blastodermal cells) have only been cultured with mouse LIF because chicken LIF was not available. However the culture system is imperfect and chicken ES-like cells equivalent to mouse ES cells were not observed. In the present study, we cloned the cDNA-encoding chicken LIF using mRNA subtraction and RACE methodology. The chicken LIF cDNA encodes a protein with approximately 40% sequence identity to mouse LIF. It has 211 amino acids including a putative N-terminal signal peptide of 24 residues. Chicken blastodermal cells were cultured in the presence of bacterially expressed chicken LIF or mouse LIF. The expression of alkaline phosphatase and embryonal carcinoma cell monoclonal antibody-1 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 and the activation of STAT3 were examined, all of which are indices of the undifferentiated state. Exposure in the blastodermal cells to recombinant chicken LIF but not to mouse LIF maintained the expression of these various markers. After 9 days of incubation, the blastodermal cells formed cystic embryoid bodies in the presence of mouse LIF but not in the presence of recombinant chicken LIF. We conclude that chicken LIF is able to maintain chicken ES cell cultures in the undifferentiated state.

  1. Genetic diversity of mtDNA D-loop sequences in four native Chinese chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Guo, H W; Li, C; Wang, X N; Li, Z J; Sun, G R; Li, G X; Liu, X J; Kang, X T; Han, R L

    2017-10-01

    1. To explore the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, a 585 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region was sequenced in 102 birds from the Xichuan black-bone chicken, Yunyang black-bone chicken and Lushi chicken. In addition, 30 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Silkie fowls were downloaded from NCBI. The mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism and maternal origin of 4 chicken breeds were analysed in this study. 2. The results showed that a total of 33 mutation sites and 28 haplotypes were detected in the 4 chicken breeds. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of these 4 native breeds were 0.916 ± 0.014 and 0.012 ± 0.002, respectively. Three clusters were formed in 4 Chinese native chickens and 12 reference breeds. Both the Xichuan black-bone chicken and Yunyang black-bone chicken were grouped into one cluster. Four haplogroups (A, B, C and E) emerged in the median-joining network in these breeds. 3. It was concluded that these 4 Chinese chicken breeds had high genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree and median network profiles showed that Chinese native chickens and its neighbouring countries had at least two maternal origins, one from Yunnan, China and another from Southeast Asia or its surrounding area.

  2. Primary adamantinoma of the rib. Unusual presentation for a bone neoplasm of uncertain origin.

    PubMed

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Del Valle, Luis; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael; Mendoza-Ramón, Hilda; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Adamantinomas are rare, low-grade malignant intra-osseous tumors composed of epithelial and mesenchymal elements, which show a marked predilection for the tibia and fibula of young adult male patients. Although cases of adamantinoma located to the axial skeleton have been reported either as recurrent or metastatic disease, only two cases of primary adamantinoma located to the thoracic wall have been previously described. In this study we present the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of a 24-year-old male with a slow growing, solid-cystic, painful mass, located to the right 11th rib, which was morphological and immunohistochemically diagnosed as a primary classic adamantinoma. Radiological studies showed a multiloculated lesion with a solid component. The patient underwent a whole surgical resection of the lesion. Histologically, multiple foci of epithelial cells with basaloid and squamous components were found intermixed within a fibrous stromal tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated expression of cytokeratins, EMA, vimentin and other epithelial markers. Primary affection of the rib is an unusual feature of classic adamantinomas.

  3. Histological determination of the human origin of bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Porta, David; Gibelli, Daniele; Gamba, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    A frequently encountered task in the forensic scenario is verification of the human origin of severely degraded fragments of bone. In these cases histological methods which consider osteon size and morphology can prove to be useful. The authors in the present study verify the applicability of published algorithms to flat and subadult bones from human, dog, cat, cow, rabbit, sheep, pig, chicken, quail, and turkey samples. Metric analysis was performed on 2031 Haversian canals. Analyses carried out on human samples confirmed a success rate of around 70% on long adult bones; however the percentage of wrong answers was particularly high in the case of newborns and older subadults as well as on flat bones in general. Results therefore suggest that such regression equations should be limited only to bone fragments from long adult bones.

  4. Improved Method for Ex Ovo-Cultivation of Developing Chicken Embryos for Human Stem Cell Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Schomann, Timo; Qunneis, Firas; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of human stem cells for the usability in regenerative medicine is particularly based on investigations regarding their differentiation potential in vivo. In this regard, the chicken embryo model represents an ideal model organism. However, the access to the chicken embryo is only achievable by windowing the eggshell resulting in limited visibility and accessibility in subsequent experiments. On the contrary, ex ovo-culture systems avoid such negative side effects. Here, we present an improved ex ovo-cultivation method enabling the embryos to survive 13 days in vitro. Optimized cultivation of chicken embryos resulted in a normal development regarding their size and weight. Our ex ovo-approach closely resembles the development of chicken embryos in ovo, as demonstrated by properly developed nervous system, bones, and cartilage at expected time points. Finally, we investigated the usability of our method for trans-species transplantation of adult stem cells by injecting human neural crest-derived stem cells into late Hamburger and Hamilton stages (HH26–HH28/E5—E6) of ex ovo-incubated embryos. We demonstrated the integration of human cells allowing experimentally easy investigation of the differentiation potential in the proper developmental context. Taken together, this ex ovo-method supports the prolonged cultivation of properly developing chicken embryos enabling integration studies of xenografted mammalian stem cells at late developmental stages. PMID:23554818

  5. Improved method for ex ovo-cultivation of developing chicken embryos for human stem cell xenografts.

    PubMed

    Schomann, Timo; Qunneis, Firas; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of human stem cells for the usability in regenerative medicine is particularly based on investigations regarding their differentiation potential in vivo. In this regard, the chicken embryo model represents an ideal model organism. However, the access to the chicken embryo is only achievable by windowing the eggshell resulting in limited visibility and accessibility in subsequent experiments. On the contrary, ex ovo-culture systems avoid such negative side effects. Here, we present an improved ex ovo-cultivation method enabling the embryos to survive 13 days in vitro. Optimized cultivation of chicken embryos resulted in a normal development regarding their size and weight. Our ex ovo-approach closely resembles the development of chicken embryos in ovo, as demonstrated by properly developed nervous system, bones, and cartilage at expected time points. Finally, we investigated the usability of our method for trans-species transplantation of adult stem cells by injecting human neural crest-derived stem cells into late Hamburger and Hamilton stages (HH26-HH28/E5-E6) of ex ovo-incubated embryos. We demonstrated the integration of human cells allowing experimentally easy investigation of the differentiation potential in the proper developmental context. Taken together, this ex ovo-method supports the prolonged cultivation of properly developing chicken embryos enabling integration studies of xenografted mammalian stem cells at late developmental stages.

  6. Recruitment of bone marrow CD11b+Gr-1+ cells by polymeric nanoparticles for antigen cross-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Wun; Luo, Wen-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) on the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses via the CD11b+Gr−1+ myeloid subpopulations in murine bone marrow (BM). PLGA NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) were fabricated by the double-emulsion method. The CD11b+Gr-1lowLy-6Chigh and CD11b+Gr-1highLy-6Clow subsets from mice bone marrow were sorted and treated with the PLGA/OVA NPs, followed by co-culture with the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells. Co-culture of OT-I CD8+ T cells with PLGA/OVA NPs-primed CD11b+Gr-1+ subsets upregulated the expression of IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme B, and perforin, resulting in proliferation of CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In vivo proliferation of CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells in response to OVA was also obtained in the animals immunized with PLGA/OVA NPs. The results presented in this study demonstrate the ability of polymeric NPs to recruit two CD11b+Gr−1+ myeloid subsets for effective presentation of exogenous antigen to OT-I CD8+ T cells in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, leading to an induction of antigen-specific cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells. PMID:28317931

  7. Recruitment of bone marrow CD11b+Gr-1+ cells by polymeric nanoparticles for antigen cross-presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ya-Wun; Luo, Wen-Hui

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) on the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses via the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid subpopulations in murine bone marrow (BM). PLGA NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) were fabricated by the double-emulsion method. The CD11b+Gr-1lowLy-6Chigh and CD11b+Gr-1highLy-6Clow subsets from mice bone marrow were sorted and treated with the PLGA/OVA NPs, followed by co-culture with the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells. Co-culture of OT-I CD8+ T cells with PLGA/OVA NPs-primed CD11b+Gr-1+ subsets upregulated the expression of IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme B, and perforin, resulting in proliferation of CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In vivo proliferation of CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells in response to OVA was also obtained in the animals immunized with PLGA/OVA NPs. The results presented in this study demonstrate the ability of polymeric NPs to recruit two CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid subsets for effective presentation of exogenous antigen to OT-I CD8+ T cells in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, leading to an induction of antigen-specific cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells.

  8. Cellular composition of the bone marrow in the chicken. II. Effect of age and the influence of the bursa of Fabricius on the size of cellular compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, B.; Rosse, C.

    1981-01-01

    The blood and bone marrow of New Hampshire chicks were analyzed quantitatively from the time of hatch to 8 weeks of age. Hormonal bursectomy was performed by treating embryonating eggs on the 11th day of incubation with testosterone propionate (TP) which resulted in severe hypogammaglobulinemia and complete atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius. TP-treated birds exhibited some lymphocytopenia, reduced splenic weight, and lack of plasma cells in their bone marrow. The number of cells per milligram bone marrow was comparable in normal and TP-treated birds, falling in the range reported for laboratory rodents. The chick medullary hemopoiesis is characterized by the predominance of erythroblasts throughout early development; granulocytes and lymphocytes represent much smaller cellular compartments than in rodents. In the chick granulocytes tend to decrease after hatch, whereas in rodents they tend to increase. The normal chick shows a temporary increase in marrow lymphocytes after hatch, similar to that observed in some young rodents, but on a much smaller scale. Hormonal bursectomy did not prevent the development of a lymphocyte population in the bone marrow. These cells were fewer in TP-treated birds at hatch and at 4 weeks than in normal birds, but at 8 weeks of age normal and bursectomized chicks had comparable numbers of lymphocytes in their marrow. Although some lymphocytes in avain bone marrow may depend on the bursa of Fabricius for their development, a substantial proportion of bone marrow lymphocytes in the chick are bursa independent. The cell surface phenotype and site of origin of these cells remains to be investigated. 40 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  9. A chicken leptin-specific radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Dridi, S; Williams, J; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, M; Raver, N; Decuypere, E; Djiane, J; Gertler, A; Taouis, M

    2000-04-01

    Recombinant chicken leptin was used to produce an antiserum in order to develop a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chicken leptin in plasma and serum. We have used either murine or chicken leptin as tracer and competition curves were performed using recombinant chicken leptin. Variations in leptin plasma levels in different chicken strains and various nutritional states were correlated with the physiological status. Leptin plasma concentrations were regulated by the nutritional state with higher levels in the fed state as compared to the fasted state (3.36 +/- 0. 13 versus 2.78 +/- 0.11 ng/ml) and being dependent upon the age. Higher leptin levels were found in 22 week-old as compared to 15 week-old layer chickens (2.709 +/- 0.172 versus 1.478 +/- 0.102 ng/ml). We have also shown that the multispecies leptin RIA kit (LINCO Inc.) underestimated leptinemia compared to the chicken leptin- specific RIA reported here. In conclusion the RIA developed in the present study is specific to the chicken and thus may be considered as powerful tool for investigating the physiological significance of leptin in chickens.

  10. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  11. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  12. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  13. Osteoclasts and their precursors are present in the induced-membrane during bone reconstruction using the Masquelet technique.

    PubMed

    Gouron, Richard; Petit, Laurent; Boudot, Cédric; Six, Isabelle; Brazier, Michel; Kamel, Said; Mentaverri, Romuald

    2017-02-01

    In 2000, Masquelet reported a long bone reconstruction technique using an induced membrane formed around a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacer placed in the defect with appropriate stabilization followed by secondary bone graft after PMMA removal. This reconstruction procedure allows rapid and safe bone reformation for septic, traumatic, neoplastic or congenital bone defects. A rat model of the Masquelet technique was developed to further characterize the biological activities of this induced membrane. Our model allows healing of a critical-sized femoral defect (8 mm) by means of this procedure over a period of 18 weeks. Comparison of induced membranes obtained 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after PMMA insertion indicated that this tissue changes over time. Several mineralization spots and bone cells were observed in contact with the PMMA, when assessed by Alizarin Red, Von Kossa, Alkaline phosphatase and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining of the membranes. CTR (calcitonin receptor)- and RANK (Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor Kappa B)- positive mononuclear cells were detected in the induced membrane, confirming the presence of osteoclasts in this tissue. These cells were observed in a thin, highly cellular layer in the induced membrane in contact with the PMMA. Together, these findings suggest that the membrane is able to promote osteointegration of autologous corticocancellous bone grafts during the Masquelet technique by creating local conditions that may be favourable to graft bone remodelling and osteointegration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Biological characterization of Nigerian chicken anaemia virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Olaleye, O D; Todd, D

    2010-12-01

    Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) DNA was extracted from thymus, liver and bone marrow samples obtained from broiler and pullet chicken flocks in southwestern Nigeria, which presented with clinical signs and lesions suggestive of both infectious bursal disease and chicken infectious anaemia. While CAV was successfully isolated in MDCC-MSB1 cells from four of the pooled tissue samples, the remaining two samples failed to grow in cells. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) characterization using four MAbs produced against the reference Cuxhaven-1 (Cux-1) CAV isolate showed that Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other and to the Cux-1 virus. Pathogenicity studies with the Cux-1 virus and one of the Nigerian isolates (NGR-1) revealed that NGR-1 was more pathogenic that the former. We conclude that although Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other, they differ in terms of cell culture growth characteristics and probably pathogenicity. These findings further confirm that CAV exists and can no longer be ignored in poultry disease diagnosis in Nigeria. Cases hitherto diagnosed as IBD may actually be CIA or a co-infection of the two.

  15. Initial contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to acquire data on contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and to acquire data on cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation. Whole raw chickens (n = 31) were obtained from local retail stores and cut into two wings, two breasts without skin or bones, two thighs, and two drumsticks. Data for cross-contamination were obtained by cutting up a sterile, cooked chicken breast with the same board and knife used to cut up the raw chicken. The board, knife, and latex gloves used by the food handler were not rinsed or washed before cutting up the sterile, cooked chicken breast, thus providing a worst-case scenario for cross-contamination. Standard curves for the concentration of Salmonella bacteria in 400 ml of buffered peptone water after 6 h of incubation of chicken parts as a function of the initial log number of Salmonella bacteria inoculated onto chicken parts were developed and used to enumerate Salmonella bacteria. Standard curves were not affected by the type of chicken part but did differ (P < 0.05) among the five isolates of Salmonella examined. Consequently, Salmonella bacteria were enumerated on naturally contaminated chicken parts using a standard curve developed with the serotype of Salmonella that was isolated from the original sample. The prevalence of contamination was 3 % (4 of 132), whereas the incidence of cross-contamination was 1.8 % (1 of 57). The positive chicken parts were a thigh from chicken 4, which contained 3 CFU of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky, and both wings, one thigh, and one cooked breast portion from chicken 15, which all contained 1 CFU of serotype 8,20:-:z(6). These results indicated that the poultry industry is providing consumers in the studied area with chicken that has a low prevalence and low number of Salmonella bacteria at retail and that has a low incidence and low level of cross-contamination of cooked chicken with

  16. Lipoprotein metabolism differs between Marek's disease susceptible and resistant chickens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, P; Yu, Y; Luo, J; Tian, F; Zhang, H; Chang, S; Ramachandran, R; Zhang, L; Song, J

    2012-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus and has an important impact on the poultry industry worldwide. There have been reports showing different physiological characteristics between MD susceptible and resistant chickens. However, little is known about whether there are differences in lipid metabolism between MD susceptible and resistant lines of chickens. In this study, we examined the BW and the weight of tissues (abdominal fat, breast muscle with bone, leg muscle with bone, liver, and heart), the lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations and distributions, and the plasma and tissue levels of adiponectin and its receptors in the highly resistant and susceptible lines during chicken growth. Our data showed that the increase in total cholesterol during growth was mainly due to the elevation of cholesterol in the low-density/very low-density lipoprotein fraction in MD susceptible chickens, whereas the increase of total cholesterol was mainly attributable to the increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in MD resistant chickens. Meanwhile, the MD resistant line appeared to have increased plasma adiponectin levels compared with MD susceptible chickens during growth. Taken together, our data suggested that lipoprotein-cholesterol and adiponectin metabolism are different between MD susceptible and resistant chickens.

  17. [The effect of cells presenting the erythroblast antigen on the natural suppressor activity of nonadhesive bone marrow cells].

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, S A; Agranovich, I M; Bel'skiĭ, Iu P; Goncharskaia, M A

    1993-06-01

    Concanavalin A-induced proliferation of spleen cells of C57B1/6 mice was inhibited by syngeneic normal bone marrow cells. Elimination of Ag-Eb-positive cells by panning was shown to result in markedly reduced inhibitory activity of bone marrow cells. To evaluate the role of Ag-Eb in natural suppressor activity, bone marrow cells were preincubated with different dilutions of MAE-15 monoclonal antibody and then added to spleen cells. The inhibitory effect of bone marrow cells decreased with the increasing concentration of the monoclonal antibody in a dose-dependent manner and nearly disappeared at a concentration of MAE-15 of 150 m micrograms/ml and 300 m micrograms/ml. In control experiments, bone marrow cells were preincubated with antibodies non-reactive with Ag-Eb under the same conditions. It is concluded that the decrease of natural suppressor activity after incubation of bone marrow cells with MAE-15 monoclonal antibody is specific for anti-Ag-Eb antibodies.

  18. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  19. Downregulation of Blood Monocyte HLA-DR in ICU Patients Is Also Present in Bone Marrow Cells.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Valérie; Lukaszewicz, Anne-Claire; Payen, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The downregulation of blood monocyte HLA-DR expression also occurs in tissue infiltrative cells in a context of acute clinical inflammation, especially sepsis. This context favors the development of secondary infections and results from various mechanisms. Little is known about HLA-DR expression on bone marrow (BM) cells of the monocyte lineage, the source of circulating monocytes. This study analyzed the BM HLA-DR expression in ICU patients compared to BM monocytes from non-ICU patients and to blood monocytes of control healthy donors. A potential dysfunction of myeloid differentiation was investigated in a sub-population of these ICU patients to characterize the phenotype of the immature forms of monocytes and granulocytes in BM. BM and blood were drawn from 33 ICU and 9 non-ICU patients having a BM analysis to precise the etiology of abnormal low count in blood cells. The data were compared with blood cells of 28 control donors. Flow cytometry was used for both HLA-DR expression and phenotyping of immature forms of monocytes and granulocytes. HLA-DR expression was downregulated in both blood and BM monocyte in ICU patients compared to BM of non-ICU patients and blood of control donors. Amplitude of HLA-DR downregulation was comparable in septic and non-septic ICU patients. The phenotype of immature forms of monocytes and granulocytes in BM (n = 11) did not show abnormal myeloid (monocyte + granulocyte) differentiation. The downregulation of HLA-DR in BM monocyte lineage is present in ICU patients without major changes in myeloid cells. It may result from a regulation mediated by soluble and/or neuro-endocrine factors present in BM cell microenvironment.

  20. Retroperitoneal cold abscess with tuberculosis of sacro-iliac joint and pubic bone: a case report of unusual presentation of osteo-articular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, V P; Jain, V; Choon, A T; Rao, B H

    2000-03-01

    Tuberculosis involving sacro-iliac joint and pubic bone presenting with massive retroperitoneal abscess is a rare entity. A 29-year-old female presented with history of discharging sinus in the sacrococcygeal region of 2 months duration. Plain x-ray revealed osteolytic lesion in right pubic bone and left sacro-iliac joint. Computed tomography scan revealed massive pus collection in the retroperitoneal region. Pus was drained extraperitoneally. Biopsy of the scraping of the abscess wall showed granulation tissue with foreign body type of giant cell. On follow-up the patient was doing well.

  1. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment.

    PubMed

    Gambaracci, Giulio; Mecarini, Eleonora; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Scialpi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies - like chicken and fish bones - can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  2. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

  3. Matrix proteins associated with bone calcification are present in human vascular smooth muscle cells grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Severson, A R; Ingram, R T; Fitzpatrick, L A

    1995-12-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are composed of cellular elements that have migrated from the vessel lumen and wall to form the cellular component of the developing plaque. The cellular elements are influenced by various growth-regulatory molecules, cytokines, chemoattractants, and vasoregulatory molecules that regulate the synthesis of the extracellular matrix composing the plaque. Because vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) constitute the major cellular elements of the atherosclerotic plaque and are thought to be responsible for the extracellular matrix that becomes calcified in mature plaques, immunostaining for collagenous and noncollagenous proteins typically associated with bone matrix was conducted on VSMC grown in vitro. VSMC obtained from human aorta were grown in chambers on glass slides and immunostained for procollagen type I, bone sialoprotein, osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin, decorin, and biglycan. VSMC demonstrated an intense staining for procollagen type I, and a moderately intense staining for the noncollagenous proteins, bone sialoprotein and osteonectin, two proteins closely associated with bone mineralization. Minimal immunostaining was noted for osteocalcin, osteopontin, decorin, and biglycan. The presence in VSMC of collagenous and noncollagenous proteins associated with bone mineralization suggest that the smooth muscle cells in the developing atherosclerotic plaque play an important role in the deposition of the extracellular matrix involved in calcification of developing lesions.

  4. Peculiar chondroblastoma involving multiple tarsal bones.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Masaharu; Asanuma, Kazuo; Irie, Takeo

    2010-07-01

    A case of peculiar chondroblastoma involving multiple tarsal bones in a 49-year-old woman is described. The patient presented with pain and swelling of the right foot. Radiographs revealed a lytic expansile lesion of medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones, navicular, cuboid, and tarsal bones of the right foot, indicating a malignant tumor. Biopsies demonstrated a diffuse proliferation of round cells with eccentric and indented nuclei with longitudinal grooves and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Atypia was prominent, but mitotic figures were rare. The stroma was chondroid with focal chicken-wire calcification. On electron microscopy, the tumor exhibited chondroblastic features. The patient is alive with the tumor 7 years after radiotherapy. The tumor is considered a chondroblastoma with low malignant potential.

  5. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of pigeon osteoblasts seeded on xenogeneic demineralised cancellous bone scaffold for bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Harvanová, Denisa; Hornák, Slavomír; Amrichová, Judita; Spaková, Tímea; Mikes, Jaromír; Plsíková, Jana; Ledecký, Valent; Rosocha, Ján

    2014-09-01

    Avian osteoblasts have been isolated particularly from chicken embryo, but data about other functional tissue sources of adult avian osteoblast precursors are missing. The method of preparation of pigeon osteoblasts is described in this study. We demonstrate that pigeon cancellous bone derived osteoblasts have particular proliferative capacity in vitro in comparison to mammalian species and developed endogenous ALP. Calcium deposits formation in vitro was confirmed by alizarin red staining. Only a few studies have attempted to investigate bone grafting and treatment of bone loss in birds. Lack of autologous bone grafts in birds has prompted investigation into the use of avian xenografts for bone augmentation. Here we present a method of xenografting of ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold seeded with allogeneic adult pigeon osteoblasts. Ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold supported proliferation of pigeon osteoblasts during two weeks of co - cultivation in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated homogeneous adult pigeon osteoblasts attachment and distribution on the surface of xenogeneic ostrich demineralised cancellous bone. Our preliminary in vitro results indicate that demineralised cancellous bone from ostrich tibia could provide an effective biological support for growth and proliferation of allogeneic osteoblasts derived from cancellous bone of pigeons.

  6. [(Over-)flowing bone: the rare disease of melorheostosis: clinical presentation and therapeutic concepts demonstrated by three cases].

    PubMed

    Hesse, E; Brand, J; Bastian, L; Krettek, C; Meller, R

    2008-07-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare, benign, and sporadically occurring osteosclerosis of unknown cause. The onset of the disease is usually in early adulthood. Melorheostosis affects both genders, develops progressively, and is usually limited to one side of the human body. The sclerosis originates predominantly from the cortices of the long bones of the lower limbs and rarely the upper limbs. Frequently, the sclerosis involves the soft tissue surrounding the affected bones which may cause limitations in the range of motion, contractures, deformities, and pain. Melorheostosis is usually diagnosed by radiograms. Pain relief and restoration of the full range of motion are the primary goals of the therapeutic approach. A good outcome cannot always be achieved and a recurrence of the disease happens very often.

  7. [Literature review and presentation of our own research results regarding the effects on bone of tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib used in the treatment of oncohematological diseases].

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János; Horváth, Péter; Kövesdi, Andrea; Lakatos, Gergely; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Tóbiás, Bálint; Árvai, Kristóf; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are widely used for treatment of certain oncohematological diseases. Several clinical studies have confirmed that specific BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors alter the physiological process of bone tissue in a complex and unclearly identified manner. Since these treatments are being given to more and more patients, and the therapy takes decades or lasts even lifelong, it is justifiable to obtain more detailed knowledge of the molecular background of these mechanisms. In this article the authors summarize preliminary research results and human clinical observations on imatinib and nilotinib which are related to bone metabolism, and present the results of their own experiments in in vitro osteoblast cultures. Based on the presented results, the effects of imatinib and nilotinib on bone cells depend on the concentration of imatinib and nilotinib, the maturation stage of the cells and the distribution ratio of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. In this study the authors firstly prepared a stop-gap, comprehensive review in the Hungarian literature, regarding the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on bone metabolism. In addition they firstly performed whole transcriptome analysis on osteoblasts in order to obtain a better understanding of the cellular molecular mechanisms. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(36), 1429-1437.

  8. Human bone marrow stem cells cultured under hypoxic conditions present altered characteristics and enhanced in vivo tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Tae-Wan; Jung, Byung-Joo; Lee, Youngseok; Shim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Soyon; Choi, Eun-Young; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Kim, Chang-Sung

    2015-09-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of the vertebral body. The hBMSCs were cultured under either hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic (21% O2; control) conditions and the characteristics as mesenchymal stem cells were compared. Results revealed that hypoxia reduced proliferative potential and colony-forming efficiency of hBMSCs, and significantly enhanced osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The hBMSCs enhanced the regenerative potential of bone in vivo. In vitro synthesis of soluble and insoluble collagen was significantly increased in the hypoxic condition. In vivo collagen tissue regeneration was also enhanced under the hypoxic condition, with concomitant increased expressions of various subtypes of collagen and lysyl-oxidase family mRNA. MicroRNA assays revealed that miR-155-5p, which negatively regulates HIF-1α, was significantly highly expressed. These observations demonstrate that hBMSCs obtained from human vertebrae exhibit altered characteristics under hypoxic conditions, and each factor contributing to hBMSC-mediated tissue healing should be evaluated with the goal of allowing their clinical application.

  9. Effect of Brand's glucosamine with essence of chicken on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsi, Daniel; Khow, Agatha; Iino, Taeko; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2003-10-24

    The anti-arthritic effects of glucosamine incorporated in a chicken-meat extract known as Brand's Glucosamine with Essence of Chicken versus glucosamine or Essence of Chicken (EOC) alone were investigated on collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in dark agouti (DA) rats. Four groups of rats received basic food (control), 1.2% glucosamine (GLU), 0.8% EOC and 1.2% GLU + 0.8% EOC (GLU + EOC) admixed with basic food for 25 days following CIA. Foot pads were isolated on day 25 for histopathological evaluation. Clinical assessment of hind paw swelling as measured by foot pad volumes and histopathological scoring based on the degree of edema, periosteal new bone formation, periostitis and inflammatory cell infiltration of the isolated foot pad were performed. Arthritic rats given GLU + EOC showed significant reduction in left hind paw swelling following onset of arthritis. Correspondingly, a lesser degree of edema, periosteal new bone formation, periostitis and inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in histological sections of the left hind foot pads of these rats. A similar trend of reduced hind paw swelling was observed in the right hind paws of the same rats and those fed with EOC. Rats fed with GLU alone did not demonstrate these beneficial effects. The present findings demonstrate that a combination of glucosamine and EOC is effective in reducing the histopathological severity of arthritis, probably due to its ability to reduce the inflammatory conditions in CIA.

  10. Isolation of chicken astrovirus from specific pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Luis Fabian N; Parra, Silvana H Santander; Mettifogo, Elena; Catroxo, Márcia Helena B; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J

    2015-05-01

    Astroviruses have been associated with enteric disorders in many animal species, including chickens. Here, we describe the isolation, propagation, and pathological characteristics of chicken astrovirus (CAstV) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) from chickens with diarrhea and runting-stunting syndrome. The CEE were inoculated via the yolk sac route. Viral confirmation was carried out using PCR techniques and transmission electron microscopy negative staining with ammonium molybdate. The intestinal contents were screened for CAstV, and differential diagnostic testing was performed for avian nephritis virus, avian rotavirus, avian reovirus, chicken parvovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and fowl adenovirus Group I to detect co-infection with other infectious agents. Seven- or 14-day-old CEEs presented with hemorrhages, edema, a gelatinous aspect, deformities, and dwarfism. The supporting membranes did not show any alterations. Here, we have described the isolation of CAstV and its pathological characteristics in SPF CEE. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Origin and timing of New Zealand's earliest domestic chickens: Polynesian commensals or European introductions?

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jamie R.; Herrera, Michael J. B.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material. The chickens belong to the widespread mitochondrial control region haplogroup E. Radiocarbon dating reveals that the bones are not prehistoric, but are still the earliest chicken remains known from New Zealand. Two of the bones pre-date permanent European settlement (ca 1803s onwards) but overlap with the arrival of James Cook's second voyage (1773–1774), and, therefore, they are likely to be chickens, or progeny thereof, liberated during that voyage. Our results support the idea that chickens were first introduced to New Zealand by Europeans, and provide new insights into Māori uptake and integration of resources introduced during the early post-European period. PMID:27853601

  12. Origin and timing of New Zealand's earliest domestic chickens: Polynesian commensals or European introductions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Herrera, Michael J. B.; Scofield, R. Paul; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2016-08-01

    Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material. The chickens belong to the widespread mitochondrial control region haplogroup E. Radiocarbon dating reveals that the bones are not prehistoric, but are still the earliest chicken remains known from New Zealand. Two of the bones pre-date permanent European settlement (ca 1803s onwards) but overlap with the arrival of James Cook's second voyage (1773-1774), and, therefore, they are likely to be chickens, or progeny thereof, liberated during that voyage. Our results support the idea that chickens were first introduced to New Zealand by Europeans, and provide new insights into Māori uptake and integration of resources introduced during the early post-European period.

  13. High circulating sclerostin is present in patients with thalassemia-associated osteoporosis and correlates with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Voskaridou, E; Christoulas, D; Plata, E; Bratengeier, C; Anastasilakis, A D; Komninaka, V; Kaliontzi, D; Gkotzamanidou, M; Polyzos, S A; Dimopoulou, M; Terpos, E

    2012-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a severe complication of thalassemia. Sclerostin is a Wnt signaling inhibitor, which is produced by osteocytes and inhibits osteoblast function. Sclerostin is implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis of different etiology. The aim of the study was to evaluate circulating sclerostin in 66 patients (median age 42 years) with thalassemia and osteoporosis who participated in a phase 2, randomized study (zoledronic acid vs. placebo) and the results were compared with those of 30 healthy controls (median age 44 years) without osteopenia/osteoporosis and 62 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (median age 63 years). At baseline, thalassemic patients with osteoporosis had elevated circulating levels of sclerostin (median: 605 pg/ml, range: 22-1,227 pg/ml) compared to healthy controls without osteopenia/osteoporosis (250 pg/ml, 0-720 pg/ml, p<0.001) and reduced levels of sclerostin compared with postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (840 pg/ml, 181-1,704 pg/ml, p<0.001). Thalassemia patients had also increased serum dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) and high bone turnover. Circulating sclerostin levels correlated with bone mineral density in lumbar spine (r=0.619, p<0.001), distal radius (r=0.401, p=0.001) and femoral neck (r=0.301, p=0.021). Zoledronic acid did not alter sclerostin levels after 12 months of therapy, although it reduced circulating Dkk-1. We conclude that circulating sclerostin is elevated in thalassemia patients with osteoporosis and correlated with their BMD, but it was not reduced post zoledronic acid administration. These findings suggest that high sclerostin may serve as a marker of increased osteocyte activity in thalassemia patients. Drugs targeting sclerostin may also be used in this difficult to treat disorder associated with bone loss. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Chicken trunk neural crest migration visualized with HNK1.

    PubMed

    Giovannone, Dion; Ortega, Blanca; Reyes, Michelle; El-Ghali, Nancy; Rabadi, Maes; Sao, Sothy; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2015-04-01

    The development of the nervous system involves cells remaining within the neural tube (CNS) and a group of cells that delaminate from the dorsal neural tube and migrate extensively throughout the developing embryo called neural crest cells (NCC). These cells are a mesenchymal highly migratory group of cells that give rise to a wide variety of cell derivatives: melanocytes, sensory neurons, bone, Schwann cells, etc. But not all NCC can give rise to all derivatives, they have fate restrictions based on their axial level of origin: cranial, vagal, trunk and sacral. Our aim was to provide a thorough presentation on how does trunk neural crest cell migration looks in the chicken embryo, in wholemount and in sections using the unique chicken marker HNK1. The description presented here makes a good guideline for those interested in viewing trunk NCC migration patterns. We show how before HH14 there are few trunk NCC delaminating and migrating, but between HH15 through HH19 trunk NCC delaminate in large numbers. Melanocytes precursors begin to enter the dorsolateral pathway by HH17. We found that by HH20 HNK1 is not a valid good marker for NCC and that HNK1 is a better marker than Sox10 when looking at neural crest cells morphology and migration details. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. Chicken trunk neural crest migration visualized with HNK1

    PubMed Central

    Giovannone, Dion; Ortega, Blanca; Reyes, Michelle; El-Ghali, Nancy; Rabadi, Maes; Sao, Sothy; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    The development of the nervous system involves cells remaining within the neural tube (CNS) and a group of cells that delaminate from the dorsal neural tube and migrate extensively throughout the developing embryo called neural crest cells (NCC). These cells are a mesenchymal highly migratory group of cells that give rise to a wide variety of cell derivatives: melanocytes, sensory neurons, bone, Schwann cells, etc. But not all NCC can give rise to all derivatives, they have fate restrictions based on their axial level of origin: cranial, vagal, trunk and sacral. Our aim was to provide a thorough presentation on how does trunk neural crest cell migration looks in the chicken embryo, in wholemount and in sections using the unique chicken marker HNK1. The description presented here makes a good guideline for those interested in viewing trunk NCC migration patterns. We show how before HH14 there are few trunk NCC delaminating and migrating, but between HH15 through HH19 trunk NCC delaminate in large numbers. Melanocytes precursors begin to enter the dorsolateral pathway by HH17. We found that by HH20 HNK1 is not a valid good marker for NCC and that HNK1 is a better marker than Sox10 when looking at neural crest cells morphology and migration details. PMID:25805416

  16. Duodenal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Presenting with Disseminated Liver and Bone Metastases as the Primary Manifestation: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tao; Ng, Ka Kei; Chiang, Hoi Wan; Ma, Man Fei; Lin, Yi; Qian, Jia Ming

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are composed by a heterogeneous group of tumors with a wide range of morphologic, functional, and behavioral characteristics. These tumors are generally slow growing and behave in an indolent fashion. However, they have the potential to spread, especially for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, and when they do, they can be very aggressive, with high propensity for distant metastases, and difficult to treat with current modalities. As poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas rarely occur in extrapulmonary sites, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a poorly differentiated duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with diffuse liver and bone metastases as the primary manifestation. Despite receiving a trial of chemotherapeutic regimen, the patient had progressive intrahepatic cholestasis and died of subacute hepatic failure.

  17. [Present status of research in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shu-Juan; Jia, Chi-Yu

    2012-08-01

    The delayed healing of diabetic ulcer has been haunting the surgeons and researchers for a long time. Although we have been researching and exploring the effective therapies for many years, the progress has been limited. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have gradually won worldwide attention for their characteristics of differentiating into tissue repair cells and secreting multiple cytokines as well as growth factors. In recent years, the role of BMSCs in the treatment of diabetic ulcer has been drawing more and more attention. This article reviewed the advancement in the research of BMSCs in promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer. Through a discussion of the treatment of diabetic ulcer, the related research in BMSCs, as well as its role in diabetic ulcer treatment, the mechanism of BMSCs in promoting healing of diabetic ulcers is discussed. We expect through further research, unified criteria for the quality of BMSCs, application approach and dosage of BMSCs could be established.

  18. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  19. Myelodysplasia-associated immunophenotypic alterations of bone marrow cells in myeloma: are they present at diagnosis or are they induced by lenalidomide?

    PubMed Central

    Matarraz, Sergio; Paiva, Bruno; Diez-Campelo, María; Corral, Lucia-López; Pérez, Estefanía; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Giraldo, Pilar; Hernández, Miguel T.; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Orfao, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes following treatment has been reported in multiple myeloma, but whether dysplastic features are already present at diagnosis remains to be investigated. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, we analyzed the distribution and phenotype of bone marrow hematopoietic cells from 47 multiple myeloma patients (15 symptomatic and 32 high-risk smoldering). From the 32 smoldering myeloma patients, 18 were studied at baseline and 22 after nine cycles of lenalidomide/dexamethasone treatment following the QUIREDEX trial (including 8 from baseline). Phenotypic alterations of bone marrow cells of 7 (47%) symptomatic and 6 (33%) smoldering myeloma patients were detected at baseline; there was no difference in the frequency and extent of phenotypic alterations between symptomatic versus smoldering cases. Likewise, no difference was seen between smoldering myeloma patients studied at baseline versus after lenalidomide/dexamethasone treatment. Our results suggest that phenotypic alterations of bone marrow hematopoietic cells are often present in newly diagnosed symptomatic and smoldering multiple myeloma patients. QUIREDEX trial (NCT00480363) PMID:22511492

  20. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  1. Deboning broiler chicken legs and wings by dislocation of articular cartilage followed by stripping periosteum.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ozimek, L; Betti, M

    2012-11-01

    The yield of deboned meat is an important economic factor affecting the profit of the meat industry. This study was undertaken to determine whether the yield of boneless meat from broiler chicken leg (thigh and drumstick) and wing (drumette and winglet) is improved by introducing a new deboning method consisting of articular cartilage dislocation followed by stripping periosteum. A total of 44 broiler chicken carcasses were used in the deboning experiment. Right and left legs or wings from the first 22 carcasses were assigned to the new and ordinary hand deboning methods, respectively. For the remaining 22 carcasses, right and left legs or wings were assigned to the ordinary and new methods, respectively. The weight of residue, composed of bone and small amounts of cartilage and noncartilaginous tissues obtained after deboning, was then compared between the right and left legs or wings to see the difference between the 2 methods. The removal of tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, or ulna resulted in formation of a hollow in boneless meat obtained. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between the right and left legs or wings in the weight of residue obtained after deboning as expected. The weight of residue was less (P < 0.05) with the new method compared with the ordinary method in all chicken parts examined. The difference of residue weight between the 2 methods accounted for 10, 12, 14, and 21% of the weight of residue obtained by the ordinary method in thigh, drumstick, drumette, and winglet, respectively. The new method may be useful to deboners at home kitchens as well as the poultry meat industry. The present study also showed the development of a secondary ossification center at the proximal end of the carpometacarpus of chickens. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of development of secondary ossification center in chicken wings.

  2. Bone image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Liew, H L; Clement, J G; Thomas, C D

    1999-05-01

    Characteristics of microscopic structures in bone cross sections carry essential clues in age determination in forensic science and in the study of age-related bone developments and bone diseases. Analysis of bone cross sections represents a major area of research in bone biology. However, traditional approaches in bone biology have relied primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples. As a consequence, it is difficult to reach reliable and consistent conclusions. In this paper we present an image processing system that uses microstructural and relational knowledge present in the bone cross section for bone image segmentation. This system automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on quantitative measurements from a large number of bone images. As a result, using large databases of bone images to study the correlation between bone structural features and age-related bone developments becomes feasible.

  3. Epidemiological data and case load spectrum of patients presenting to bone and soft tissue disease management group at a tertiary cancer center.

    PubMed

    Gulia, A; Puri, A; Chorge, S; Panda, P K

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to know the spectrum and number of bone and soft tissue (BST) tumors presenting to our institute. We needed to assess the gap between the number of patients seen and infrastructure available, and based on this information, help formulate guidelines for optimum utilization of resources and to provide best possible evidence-based cancer care. This is a prospective observational study (epidemiological). This study included all new patients seen in BST-disease management group (DMG) in the year 2010. An audit form was devised to capture all the relevant information. A comparison of our data with other national and international studies was also done. Out of total 31,951 new patients registered at our institute, 2007 patients availed BST-DMG services. Sixty percent were bone tumors and 36% were soft tissue tumors. In bone tumor, 66% were malignant, 15% were benign, and 19% were non-neoplastic. Osteosarcoma (43%) was the most common malignant tumor followed by primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's (27%) and chondrosarcoma (11%). Giant cell tumor was the most common benign bone tumor. Eighty-one percent of all soft tissue lesions were malignant, of which 75% were of mesenchymal origin and 25% were of cutaneous origin. This is an attempt to document the epidemiology of musculoskeletal tumors presenting to our institution while guiding the institute to frame and implement disease-specific protocols and generate further research questions. Continued data collection and follow-up can provide valuable information on long-term survival and treatment-related toxicities. This data (within limitations) may be extrapolated to national level to identify the need for infrastructure and human resources.

  4. [Bone substitutes].

    PubMed

    Jordana, Fabienne; Le Visage, Catherine; Weiss, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Bone substitutes, used to fill a defect after a surgery or a trauma, provide a mechanical support and might induce bone healing. They constitute an alternative to autogenous bone grafts, the 'gold standard' which remains the reference despite its risk of postoperative complications. The clinician choice of a bone substitute is based on the required bone volume, the handling (injectability, malleability) and mechanical properties (setting time, viscosity, resorbability among others) of the material. Bone substitutes are commonly used in orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, stomatology and dental applications. Their use increases steadily, with the recent clinical development of injectable forms. In addition, novel technologies by subtractive or additive techniques allow today the production of controlled architecture materials. Here, we present a bone substitutes classification according to their origin (natural or synthetic) and chemical composition, and the most common use of these substitutes. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  5. Bone graft

    MedlinePlus

    Autograft - bone; Allograft - bone; Fracture - bone graft; Surgery - bone graft; Autologous bone graft ... Fuse joints to prevent movement Repair broken bones (fractures) that have bone loss Repair injured bone that ...

  6. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  7. Identification of an alternative splicing isoform of chicken Lmbr1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanqun; Chen, Wen; Li, Ning; Deng, Xuemei; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2011-10-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene for limb development. Until now, at least five and four alternative splicing isoforms of Lmbr1 gene have been found in human and mouse, respectively. However, only two alternative splicing isoforms of this homologous gene have been reported in chicken. In the present study, one novel chicken Lmbr1 transcript variant (designated Lmbr1-1) was identified by 5' RACE and RT-PCR. Chicken Lmbr1-1 possesses one novel transcription start site different from Lmbr1-N, and was predicted to encode one 192 amino acid protein with length variation in comparison with chicken LMBR1-N protein, which was produced by 5' spliced site variation of chicken Lmbr1-N exon 10. Comparing with Lmbr1-N transcript, chicken Lmbr1-1 exhibited restricted tissue distribution of the expression. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a highly conservative intron element between chicken and mammalians from the intron 9 of chicken Lmbr1-N, indicating their possible importance as intronic elements in the regulation of alternative splicing of Lmbr1 in vertebrates. By direct PCR sequencing the exon 10 and its flanking sequences in chicken Lmbr1-N, four variation sites/haplotypes were identified from six chicken breeds. One 797A/G nonsynonymous mutation (266Arg/Gln) locating in exon 10 of chicken Lmbr1-N was predicted to affect the exon splice enhancer motif for serine/arginine-rich protein recognition. These data demonstrated that chicken Lmbr1 was alternatively spliced to generate multiple splice forms, as was the case in mammals and each of the alternative splicing isoforms might function differentially.

  8. Identification of chicken eNOS gene and differential expression in highland versus lowland chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Peng, J F; Ling, Y; Gou, W Y; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is synthesized from l-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the endothelium. The objective of the present study was to preliminarily illuminate the expression of the eNOS gene in hypoxic adaptation of chicken embryonic development. The eNOS expression profiles between the Tibet and Shouguang chickens incubated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR. In this study, the chicken eNOS gene was found by both in silico cloning and RACE approaches. From the eNOS gene, we obtained a 3,310-bp mRNA sequence and a 10,666-bp DNA sequence and discovered that it was located on chicken chromosome 2 and had 7 unique transcripts. eNOS mRNA was detected in abundant amounts in some chick embryo organs (i.e., heart, liver, chorio-allantoic membrane, and lung), and expressed stably with the lowest levels in the brain. We observed that when exposed to hypoxia (13% O(2)) different embryo organ tissues had various sensitivities to hypoxia as determined by their eNOS expression profiles. Compared with the Shouguang chicken, the eNOS expression in the Tibet chicken was higher in the lung and liver, lower in the heart, and similar in the brain. In chorio-allantoic membranes, eNOS expression was higher in the Shouguang chicken than the Tibet chicken under hypoxic conditions, but not markedly different under normoxic conditions. The differences of eNOS expression between the 2 breeds may be relative to the hypoxic adaptation ability in Tibet chickens during embryonic development. This work will provide reference for future studies on the role of eNOS in hypoxic adaptation and response.

  9. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  10. Blood characteristics for high altitude adaptation in Tibetan chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Wu, C X; Chamba, Y; Ling, Y

    2007-07-01

    Tibetan chickens, a unique chicken breed native to high altitude, have good adaptation to hypoxia. The experiment was conducted to determine the adaptive blood characteristics in Tibetan chickens. Fertile eggs from Tibetan and Dwarf Recessive White chickens were incubated, and the chicks were reared until 10 wk of age at low altitude (100 m) and high altitude (2,900 m). At 1 d and 2, 6, and 10 wk of age, the hematological characteristics, blood gas value, and blood volume were measured. Tibetan chickens had more red blood cells (RBC), smaller mean cell volume, lower pH and partial pressure of oxygen, and higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide at high altitude and had lower blood volume, erythrocyte volume, and plasma volume at low and high altitude than Dwarf Recessive White chickens. Tibetan chickens reared at high altitude retained a high level of RBC and a stable level of hematocrit from younger to older, but Dwarf Recessive White chickens reared at high altitude presented an increase in RBC and hematocrit values. It was concluded the adaptation was achieved in Tibetan chickens by increase in RBC and blood oxygen affinity, decrease in mean cell volume, and reducing susceptivity to hypocapnia.

  11. Tibial bone metastasis as an initial presentation of endometrial carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Boukhar, Sarag Aboujafar; Kaneshiro, Ricky; Schiller, Alan; Terada, Keith; Tauchi-Nishi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. However, bony metastasis is infrequent and exceptionally rare as the initial presentation. We report a case of a 77-year-old female with a clinically silent endometrial carcinoma who presented with a left tibial metastasis as the first manifestation of her disease. Ours is only the third case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, and the first to detail the cytomorphologic features of metastatic endometrial cancer to bone. These microscopic findings, including three-dimensional cohesive clusters with cellular overlapping and cuboidal to columnar cells exhibiting low nuclear: cytoplasmic ratios and partially vacuolated cytoplasm, differ significantly from those of endometrial carcinoma on a Papanicolaou test. The tumor bore similarity to the more commonly encountered metastatic colon cancer, but immunohistochemical staining enabled reliable distinction between these entities. A review of osseous metastases of endometrial cancer demonstrates a predilection for bones of the lower extremity and pelvis with a predominance of the endometrioid histologic subtype. In about a quarter of the cases, the bony metastasis was the first manifestation of the cancer. FNA was an effective diagnostic modality for this unusual presentation of a common malignancy. Awareness of this entity and its differential diagnosis is essential for accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:26085835

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from organic chicken, conventional chicken, and turkey meat: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J M; Guarddon, M; Mondragon, A; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2007-04-01

    The mean counts of Enterococcus spp. were determined for 30 samples each of organic chicken meat, conventional chicken meat, and turkey meat, and differences for Enterococcus contamination in meat were determined. Two enterococci strains from each sample were isolated to obtain a total of 180 strains, and resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, and vancomycin was determined by a disk diffusion method. Average counts obtained showed that Enterococcus mean counts from organic chicken meat (3.18 log CFU/g) were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional chicken meat (2.06 log CFU/g) or conventional turkey meat (1.23 log CFU/g). However, the resistance data obtained showed that isolates from organic chicken meat were less resistant than enterococci isolates from conventional chicken meat to ampicillin (P = 0.0067), chloramphenicol (P = 0.0154), doxycycline (P = 0.0277), ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0024), erythromycin (P = 0.0028), and vancomycin (P = 0.0241). In addition, isolates from organic chicken were less resistant than conventional turkey meat isolates to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001) and erythromycin (P = 0.0137). Multidrug-resistant isolates were found in every group tested, but rates of multidrug-resistant strains were significantly higher in conventional chicken and turkey than those obtained from organic chicken meat. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species isolated from organic chicken (36.67%), whereas Enterococcus durans was the most common species isolated from conventional chicken (58.33%) and turkey (56.67%). The rates obtained for antimicrobial resistance suggest that although organic chicken meat may have higher numbers of Enterococcus, these bacteria present a lower level of antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Regulator of complement activation (RCA) locus in chicken: identification of chicken RCA gene cluster and functional RCA proteins.

    PubMed

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Shida, Kyoko; Goitsuka, Ryo; Kimura, Yuko; Katoh, Jun; Ohba, Shinya; Tamaki, Yuichiroh; Hattori, Takashi; Yamada, Nozomi; Inoue, Norimitsu; Matsumoto, Misako; Mizuno, Shigeki; Seya, Tsukasa

    2005-08-01

    A 150-kb DNA fragment, which contains the gene of the chicken complement regulatory protein CREM (formerly named Cremp), was isolated from a microchromosome by screening bacterial artificial chromosome library. Within 100 kb of the cloned region, three complete genes encoding short consensus repeats (SCRs, motifs with tandemly arranged 60 aa) were identified by exon-trap method and 3'- or 5'-RACE. A chicken orthologue of the human gene 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 2, which exists in close proximity to the regulator of complement activation genes in humans and mice, was located near this chicken SCR gene cluster. Moreover, additional genes encoding SCR proteins appeared to be present in this region. Three distinct transcripts were detected in RNA samples from a variety of chicken organs and cell lines. Two novel genes named complement regulatory secretory protein of chicken (CRES) and complement regulatory GPI-anchored protein of chicken (CREG) besides CREM were identified by cloning corresponding cDNA. Based on the predicted primary structures and properties of the expressed molecules, CRES is a secretory protein, whereas CREG is a GPI-anchored membrane protein. CREG and CREM were protected host cells from chicken complement-mediated cytolysis. Likewise, a membrane-bound form of CRES, which was artificially generated, also protected host cells from chicken complement. Taken together, the chicken possesses an regulator of complement activation locus similar to those of the mammals, and the gene products function as complement regulators.

  14. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Arisa; Ino, Arisa; Watabe, Kazuya; Kim, Mujo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as "bone peptide" or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy.

  15. Characterization of the visfatin gene and its expression pattern and effect on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuanjian; Wang, Yongcai; Tian, Xiaoxiao; Shang, Pengfei; Chen, Hong; Kang, Xiangtao; Tian, Yadong; Han, Ruili

    2017-10-20

    Visfatin is a newly identified adipocytokine that plays an important role in the determination of fat traits. In this study, we investigated the characterization of visfatin and the relationship between gene expression and chicken development to provide a theoretical basis for studying visfatin functions. The main results are summarized as follows: The 1482-bp full coding sequence of the visfatin gene of silky fowl was obtained and found to encode 493 amino acids. This gene contains 26 phosphorylation sites and a conserved domain of the NAPRTase family but no signal peptide sequence. It exhibits six functional motifs, including an amidation site. In chickens, visfatin is a highly conserved protein. The highest expression of visfatin was found in breast muscle and the lowest in bone marrow. There was no difference in expression between visceral fat and subcutaneous fat. However, the expression of visfatin in the bone marrow, liver, kidneys, and subcutaneous and visceral fat of broiler chickens was significantly higher than that in silky fowl (P<0.05). Visfatin mRNA levels in the bone marrow decreased with development (P<0.05) but increased in the liver and leg muscle. Visfatin gene expression in the liver, heart and bone marrow did not differ in silky fowl according to sex. A visfatin fusion protein caused a significant increase in the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers (PPARγ, aP2, C/EBPα, and FAS) compared with the control group and a decrease compared with the insulin group. Taken together, the results of the present study contribute to a better understanding of the expression and role of the visfatin gene in chickens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  17. The Chicken Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  18. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  19. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  20. Bioactivities of chicken essence.

    PubMed

    Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

    2012-04-01

    The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-08-11

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth-second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later.

  2. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth–second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later. PMID:26195775

  3. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  4. Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance. PMID:24949637

  5. Bone and soft tissue tumors presenting as sciatic notch dumbbell masses: A critical differential diagnosis of sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Harimaya, Katsumi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Okada, Seiji; Doi, Toshio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the clinical findings and characteristic features in sciatic notch dumbbell tumors (SNDTs). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes and characteristic features of consecutive cases of SNDTs (n = 8). RESULTS Buttock masses occurred in three patients with SNDT (37.5%). Severe buttock tenderness and pain at rest were observed in seven patients with SNDTs (87.5%). Remarkably, none of the patients with SNDTs experienced back pain. Mean tumor size was 8.4 ± 2.0 cm (range, 3.9 to 10.6 cm) and part of the tumor mass was detected in 2 patients in the sagittal view of lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CONCLUSION The clinical information regarding to SNDTs is scarce. The authors consider that above mentioned characteristic findings may facilitate the suspicion of pelvic pathology and a search for SNDT by MRI or computed tomography should be considered in patients presenting with sciatica without evidence of spinal diseases. PMID:27777884

  6. Evaluation of Cross-presentation in Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells in vitro and Splenic Dendritic Cells ex vivo Using Antigen-coated Beads

    PubMed Central

    Alloatti, Andrés; Kotsias, Fiorella; Hoffmann, Eik; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules, also referred to as cross-presentation, elicits cytotoxic immune responses. In particular, dendritic cells (DC) are the most proficient cross-presenting cells, since they have developed unique means to control phagocytic and degradative pathways. This protocol allows the evaluation of antigen cross-presentation both in vitro (by using bone marrow-derived DC) and ex vivo (by purifying CD8+ DC from spleen after incorporation of particulate antigen) using ovalbumin (OVA)-coupled particles. Cross-presentation efficiency is measured by three different readouts: the B3Z hybridoma T cell line (Karttunen et al., 1992) and stimulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells (OT-I) (Kurts et al., 1996), either analyzing OT-I activation by CD69 expression or OT-I proliferation after labeling them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). By using this approach, we could show recently that DCs are able to increase cross-presentation efficiency transiently upon engagement of TLR4 (Alloatti et al., 2015). PMID:28239619

  7. The Chicken Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hawkridge, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    The chicken is a unique experimental model for studying the spontaneous onset and progression of ovarian cancer (OVC). The prevalence of OVC in chickens can range from 10–35% depending on age, genetic strain, reproductive history, and diet. Furthermore, the chicken presents epidemiological, morphological, and molecular traits that are similar to human OVC making it a relevant experimental model for translation research. Similarities to humans include associated increased risk of OVC with the number of ovulations, common histopathological sub-types including high-grade serous, and molecular-level markers or pathways such as CA-125 expression and p53 mutation frequency. Collectively, the similarities between chicken and human OVC combined with a tightly controlled genetic background and predictable onset window provides an outstanding experimental model for studying the early events and progression of spontaneous OVC tumors under controlled environmental conditions. This review will cover the existing literature on OVC in the chicken and highlight potential opportunities for further exploitation (e.g, biomarkers, prevention, treatment, and genomics). PMID:25130871

  8. Concomitant Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma of Lymph Node and cMYC-Positive Burkitt Leukemia/Lymphoma of the Bone Marrow Presented Concurrently at the Time of Presentation: A Rare Combination of Discordant Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Dina S; Fareed, Shehab; Alkuwari, Einas; El-Omri, Halima; Al-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Gameel, Amna; Yassin, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Discordant lymphoma is rare condition in which different types of malignant lymphomas occurring in different anatomic sites. The two diseases may present clinically as concurrent or sequential disease (10). Herein we are reporting a Pakistani female in her 60s, a carrier of hepatitis B virus with multiple comorbidities presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, diagnosed as Hodgkin's lymphoma, mixed cellularity. During the staging workup, the patient was discovered to have extensive bone marrow (BM) involvement by Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL). Cytogenetic analysis revealed positivity for t(8;14)(q24;q32) confirmed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for IGH/MYC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was demonstrated heavily in our case, with (EBV) DNA of 24,295,560 copies/ml by PCR at time of presentation, in addition, the neoplastic cells in both diagnostic tissues (cervical lymph node and BM) demonstrated positivity for EBV. A diagnosis of concomitant EBV related discordant lymphoma (classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in leukemic phase was made. Among all reported cases, this case is highly exceptional because it is the first case of discordant/composite lymphoma, with this combination and concomitant presentation. Since we are dealing with a case with an exceptionally rare combination, we found it significant to elaborate more on its clinical features, contributing factors including EBV role, response to treatment, complications, and prognosis.

  9. Concomitant Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma of Lymph Node and cMYC-Positive Burkitt Leukemia/Lymphoma of the Bone Marrow Presented Concurrently at the Time of Presentation: A Rare Combination of Discordant Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Dina S.; Fareed, Shehab; Alkuwari, Einas; El-Omri, Halima; Al-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Gameel, Amna; Yassin, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Discordant lymphoma is rare condition in which different types of malignant lymphomas occurring in different anatomic sites. The two diseases may present clinically as concurrent or sequential disease (10). Herein we are reporting a Pakistani female in her 60s, a carrier of hepatitis B virus with multiple comorbidities presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, diagnosed as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, mixed cellularity. During the staging workup, the patient was discovered to have extensive bone marrow (BM) involvement by Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL). Cytogenetic analysis revealed positivity for t(8;14)(q24;q32) confirmed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for IGH/MYC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was demonstrated heavily in our case, with (EBV) DNA of 24,295,560 copies/ml by PCR at time of presentation, in addition, the neoplastic cells in both diagnostic tissues (cervical lymph node and BM) demonstrated positivity for EBV. A diagnosis of concomitant EBV related discordant lymphoma (classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in leukemic phase was made. Among all reported cases, this case is highly exceptional because it is the first case of discordant/composite lymphoma, with this combination and concomitant presentation. Since we are dealing with a case with an exceptionally rare combination, we found it significant to elaborate more on its clinical features, contributing factors including EBV role, response to treatment, complications, and prognosis. PMID:27512341

  10. Survival of salmonella in processed chicken products during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Silvia A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2009-10-01

    Frozen chicken products have been identified recently as a cause of salmonellosis. At least eight salmonellosis outbreaks from 1998 to 2008 have implicated undercooked frozen chicken nuggets, strips, and entrees as infection vehicles. Thus, the presence of Salmonella in frozen products may pose an infection risk if the product is improperly cooked. The objective of this study was to assess the survivability of Salmonella during frozen storage (-20 degrees ) when inoculated in processed chicken products. Four Salmonella strains originally isolated from poultry were inoculated into frozen chicken nuggets (fully cooked) and frozen chicken strips (containing raw poultry) at initial populations of 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g. Survival was assessed during storage at -20 degrees for 16 weeks by measuring bacterial growth on minimal, selective, and nonselective agars. Results indicate that cell populations measured in nonselective agars (plate count agar and plate count agar supplemented with tetracycline) and minimal (M9) agar remained relatively constant during the entire -20 degrees storage period studied (16 weeks) for both chicken nuggets and strips. However, cell populations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when measured in selective agar (XLT4) during the 16 weeks of frozen storage for both chicken nuggets and strips, suggesting that these cells were structurally injured. The data presented in this study indicate that Salmonella can survive frozen storage when inoculated in frozen, processed chicken products and confirm that microbial counts on selective agar are not representative of the total population of samples subject to freezing.

  11. Chicken immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families: an overview and expression details on ggTREM-A1.

    PubMed

    Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Hanczaruk, Matthias A; Amann, Barbara; Bader, Sophie R; Schmitt, Ramona; Sperling, Beatrice; Schwarz, Susanne C N; Schmahl, Wolfgang; Deeg, Cornelia A; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Paired immunoregulatory receptors facilitate the coordination of the immune response at the cellular level. In recent years, our group characterized chicken homologues to mammalian immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families. The first part of this review focuses on the current progress on chicken immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families. One of these receptors is gallus gallus TREM-A1, which was described as the only member of the chicken TREM family with activating potential. The second part of this review presents a study initiated to further characterize ggTREM-A1 expression. For this purpose we established real-time RT-PCR and generated a specific mab to analyze the expression profile of ggTREM-A1 on mRNA and protein level, respectively. GgTREM-A1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in macrophages, but was also detected in brain, bone marrow, bursa, thymus, spleen and PBMC. Analyzing ggTREM-A1 surface expression by mab staining validated the expression on macrophages. Additionally, we showed high expression on blood monocytes, heterophils and NK cells and on monocytes isolated from bone marrow. Moreover, we detected ggTREM-A1 protein also on thrombocytes, B and T cell subsets, but antigen expression seemed to be lower and more variable in these cells. Immunohistochemistry of chicken brain tissue, combining ggTREM-A1 mab and various markers specific for various brain cell subsets showed expression of ggTREM-A1 on microglial cells, but also on neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, ggTREM-A1 is expressed on a variety of cells, relevant for the immune system, possibly combining physiological function of different mammalian TREM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpreting Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weymouth, Patricia P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity which introduces students to the nature and challenges of paleoanthropology. In the exercise, students identify diagrammed bones and make interpretations about the creature. Presents questions and tasks employed in the lesson. (ML)

  13. Optimal dietary inclusion of organically complexed zinc for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal content of organically complexed zinc (Zn) for broiler chickens. 2. Five different Zn and manganese (Mn) dietary contents from organically complexed supplements including a control diet containing 15 mg Mn and 20 mg Zn/kg diet, were randomly fed to one-day-old Cobb broilers (each treatment had 6 replicates of 4 birds) for 35 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, two birds from each cage were killed and their right tibia were collected to measure bone size, strength and mineral contents. 3. Body weight gain and total tibia copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Mn and Zn contents increased linearly with supplemental Zn and Mn intake. The optimal Zn requirements for broilers at 1-14 and 14-35 d of age were 58 and 68 mg/kg diet, respectively. 4. Supplementation of Mn and Zn had no effect on tibia bone width and strength, but increased tibia length. 5. In commercial practice, organically complexed Zn may need to be supplemented during the entire period of production at a higher content than NRC recommendation but it is not necessary to exceed 70 mg/kg diet.

  14. Bone scan in metabolic bone diseases. Review.

    PubMed

    Abdelrazek, Saeid; Szumowski, Piotr; Rogowski, Franciszek; Kociura-Sawicka, Agnieszka; Mojsak, Małgorzata; Szorc, Małgorzata

    2012-08-25

    Metabolic bone disease encompasses a number of disorders that tend to present a generalized involvement of the whole skeleton. The disorders are mostly related to increased bone turnover and increased uptake of radiolabelled diphosphonate. Skeletal uptake of 99mTc-labelled diphosphonate depends primarily upon osteoblastic activity, and to a lesser extent, skeletal vascularity. A bone scan image therefore presents a functional display of total skeletal metabolism and has valuable role to play in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disorders. However, the bone scan appearances in metabolic bone disease are often non-specific, and their recognition depends on increased tracer uptake throughout the whole skeleton. It is the presence of local lesions, as in metastatic disease, that makes a bone scan appearance obviously abnormal. In the early stages, there will be difficulty in evaluating the bone scans from many patients with metabolic bone disease. However, in the more severe cases scan appearances can be quite striking and virtually diagnostic.

  15. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors.

  16. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Giap, Tan Ching

    2008-01-01

    Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 CAV isolates from different commercial broiler breeder farms were isolated and characterized. Detection of CAV positive embryos by the PCR assay in the range of 40 to 100% for different farms indicated high level of occurrence of vertical transmission of viral DNA to the progeny. CAV antigen was detected in the thymus and in the bone marrow but not in spleen, liver, duodenum, ovary and oviduct by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. The 12 CAV isolates were characterized based on partial sequences of VP1 gene. Six isolates (MF1A, MF3C, M3B5, NF4A, P12B and P24A) were found to have maximum homology with previously characterized Malaysian isolate SMSC-1, four isolates (M1B1, NF3A, PYT4 and PPW4) with isolate BL-5 and the remaining two (NF1D and NF2C) have maximum homology both with isolates 3-1 and BL-5. Meanwhile, seven of the isolates with amino acid profile of 75-I, 97-L, 139-Q and 144-Q were clustered together in cluster I together with other isolates from different geographical places. The remaining five isolates with amino acid profile of 75-V, 97-M, 139-K and 144-E were grouped under cluster II. All the CAV isolates demonstrated omega values (Ka/Ks) of less than one (the values ranging from 0.07 to 0.5) suggesting the occurrence of purifying (negative) selection in all the studied isolates. Conclusion The present study showed that CAV is widespread in the studied commercial broiler breeder farms. The result also indicated the occurrence of genetic variability in local CAV isolates

  17. Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

  18. Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

  19. Identification of a chicken (Gallus gallus) endogenous reference gene (Actb) and its application in meat adulteration.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wenjin; Shang, Ying; Wang, Qin; Xu, Yuancong; Zhu, Pengyu; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2017-11-01

    The genes commonly used to determine meat species are mainly mitochondrial, but the copy numbers of such genes are high, meaning they cannot be accurately quantified. In this paper, for the first time, the chromosomal gene Actb was selected as an endogenous reference gene for chicken species. It was assayed in four different chicken varieties and 16 other species using both qualitative and quantitative PCR. No amplification of the Actb gene was found in species other than chicken and no allelic variations were detected in chicken. Southern blot and digital-PCR confirmed the Actb gene was present as a single copy in the chicken genome. The quantitative detection limit was 10pg of DNA, which is equivalent to eight copies. All experiments indicated that the Actb gene is a useful endogenous reference gene for chicken, and provides a convenient and accurate approach for detection of chicken in feed and food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  1. Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Manske, Sarah L.; Lorincz, Caeley R.; Zernicke, Ron F.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical loading is a crucial factor for maintaining skeletal health. Physical activities, exercise, and sports provide a wealth and variety of mechanical loads to bones, through muscle forces, ground reaction forces, and other contact or impact forces. Weightbearing activities can be effective exercises to enhance bone health—particularly, those that involve jumping and impact loads (with greater strain magnitudes, rates, and frequencies). Physical activity appears to be acutely beneficial for enhancing bone health in the early pubertal period and in older age, such as in postmenopausal women. In preparing this article, PubMed, Web of Science, and relevant edited books (English language) were reviewed from 1961 to present. PMID:23015892

  2. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir.

  3. Specific antigen targeting to surface IgE and IgG on mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells enhances efficiency of antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczyk, C; Viguier, M; Boutin, Y; Frandji, P; David, B; Hébert, J; Mécheri, S

    1998-01-01

    The discovery that bone marrow-derived mast cells can express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and act as antigen-presenting cells prompted us to evaluate this function when antigen is internalized through fluid-phase endocytosis or via specific uptake by using IgG and IgE antibodies. This study was performed using a specific T-cell hybridoma developed against Lol p 1, the major allergen of grass pollen Lolium perenne. Expression of Fc gamma R and Fc epsilon RI by mast cells led us to investigate the influence of IgG- and IgE-targeted antigen on the antigen-presenting function of mast cells. Internalization of Lol p 1 through different specific IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAb) resulted in the activation of Lol p 1-specific T-cell hybridoma at concentrations about 100-fold less than that required for T-cell stimulation by uncomplexed antigen. IgE-complexed Lol p 1, which facilitates trapping of antigen by mast cells, induced an accelerated and more efficient antigen-presenting capacity of mast cells than that obtained with uncomplexed antigen. However, aggregation of anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE mAb by the irrelevant antigen DNP-human serum albumin did not substantially increase the capacity of mast cells to present Lol p 1 to T cells. This suggests that the mere aggregation of Fc epsilon RI is not sufficient for enhanced antigen presentation mediated by IgE. Tissue distribution and strategic location of mast cells at the mucosal barriers and their capacity to process the antigen through efficient fluid-phase pinocytosis as well as IgG- and IgE-dependent targeting of antigens provide mast cells with a prominent role in immune surveillance. Images Figure 1 PMID:9767412

  4. Genetic Analysis of Two Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus Variants-Related Gyrovirus in Stray Mice and Dogs: The First Report in China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Li, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) causes acute viral infection in chickens worldwide. It can infect chickens of all ages, but the disease is seen only in young chickens and is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions in the muscles, atrophic changes in the lymphoid organs, aplastic bone marrow, and immunosuppression causing increased mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that CIAV can be isolated from blood specimens of humans and fecal samples of stray cats. In the present study, two variants of CIAV were isolated from fecal samples of mice (CIAV-Mouse) and stray dogs (CIAV-Dog), respectively. The genome of the two CIAV variants was sequenced and the results of the recombination detection program suggested that the CIAV-Dog strain could be a recombinant viral strain generated from parental CIAV strains, AB119448 and GD-1-12, with high confidence. Particularly, these findings were obtained from the comparison of genetic diversity and the relationship of CIAV between different hosts. This is the first report indicating that there is a significant difference in the number of transcription factor binding sites in CIAV noncoding regions from different hosts. Further studies are required to investigate the large geographic distribution of CIAV and monitor the variants, host range, and associated diseases. PMID:28326326

  5. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  6. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Zhang, Pu; Li, Qingqing; Gaur, Uma; Liu, Yiping; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens.

  7. Effect of tibial dyschondroplasia on broiler growth and cancellous bone mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Capps, S G

    1998-01-01

    The increased incidence of leg abnormalities, particularly tibial dyschondroplasia, in chickens could be related to changes in tibiotarsal cancellous bone properties. To explore this hypothesis, the relationship between lesion occurrence and various tibiotarsal growth parameters, and subchondral bone strength characteristics was investigated. A higher elastic modulus, meaning the cancellous bone was more rigid, was seen for tibiotarsal cancellous bone with lesions. Microfractures in cancellous bone, particularly in the medial growth plate region, may lead to overall bone conformation changes and therefore to lameness.

  8. Chicken Dance (Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Wayne

    1990-01-01

    Draws a humorous analogy between superstitious behavior induced in chickens and the beliefs and folkways that are manifested in the teaching of beginning reading and the teaching of study strategies. Argues that it is very easy and natural to fall into patterns of superstitious, meaningless behavior, such as teaching from basal readers. (RS)

  9. Germline transmission of exogenous genes in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Bosselman, R A; Hsu, R Y; Boggs, T; Hu, S; Bruszewski, J; Ou, S; Kozar, L; Martin, F; Green, C; Jacobsen, F

    1989-01-27

    Difficulties associated with in vitro manipulation and culture of the early chicken embryo have restricted generation of transgenic chickens to approaches that use replication-competent retroviruses. The need to produce transgenic chickens in the absence of replicating virus prompted development of a new method of gene transfer into the chicken. Microinjection of the replication-defective reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) vector ME111 beneath unincubated chicken embryo blastoderms results in infection of germline stem cells. This vector contains genetic information exogenous to the chicken genome, including both the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene and the Tn5 neomycin phosphotransferase gene. About 8 percent of male birds hatched from injected embryos contained vector DNA in their semen. All four positive males tested passed vector sequences onto their progeny. Analysis of G1 offspring showed that gonads of G0 male birds were mosaic with respect to insertion of vector provirus. Thus, primordial germ cells present in the unincubated chicken embryo blastoderm are susceptible to infection by defective REV vectors.

  10. Genetic regulation of bone strength: a review of animal model studies

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Douglas J; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L

    2015-01-01

    Population- and family-based studies have established that fragility fracture risk is heritable; yet, the genome-wide association studies published to date have only accounted for a small fraction of the known variation for fracture risk of either the femur or the lumbar spine. Much work has been carried out using animal models toward finding genetic loci that are associated with bone strength. Studies using animal models overcome some of the issues associated with using patient data, but caution is needed when interpreting the results. In this review, we examine the types of tests that have been used for forward genetics mapping in animal models to identify loci and/or genes that regulate bone strength and discuss the limitations of these test methods. In addition, we present a summary of the quantitative trait loci that have been mapped for bone strength in mice, rats and chickens. The majority of these loci co-map with loci for bone size and/or geometry and thus likely dictate strength via modulating bone size. Differences in bone matrix composition have been demonstrated when comparing inbred strains of mice, and these matrix differences may be associated with differences in bone strength. However, additional work is needed to identify loci that act on bone strength at the materials level. PMID:26157577

  11. Progress from chicken genetics to the chicken genome.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P B; Dodgson, J B; Andersson, L

    2006-12-01

    The chicken has a proud history, both in genetic research and as a source of food. Here we attempt to provide an overview of past contributions of the chicken in both arenas and to link those contributions to the near future from a genetic perspective. Companion articles will discuss current poultry genetics research in greater detail. The chicken was the first animal species in which Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated. A century later, the chicken was the first among farm animals to have its genome sequenced. Between these firsts, the chicken remained a key organism used in genetic research. Breeding programs, based on sound genetic principles, facilitated the global emergence of the chicken meat and egg industries. Concomitantly, the chicken served as a model whose experimental populations and mutant stocks were used in basic and applied studies with broad application to other species, including humans. In this paper, we review some of these contributions, trace the path from the origin of molecular genetics to the sequence of the chicken genome, and discuss the merits of the chicken as a model organism for furthering our understanding of biology.

  12. Functional characterization and evolution of PTH/PTHrP receptors: insights from the chicken

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The parathyroid hormone (PTH)-family consists of a group of structurally related factors that regulate calcium and bone homeostasis and are also involved in development of organs such as the heart, mammary gland and immune system. They interact with specific members of family 2 B1 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which have been characterised in teleosts and mammals. Two PTH/PTHrP receptors, PTH1R and PTH2R exist in mammals and in teleost fish a further receptor PTH3R has also been identified. Recently in chicken, PTH-family members involved in calcium transport were characterized and specific PTHRs are suggested to exist although they have not yet been isolated or functionally characterized. The aim of this study is to further explore the evolution and function of the vertebrate PTH/PTHrP system through the isolation, phylogenetic analysis and functional characterization of the chicken receptors. Results Two PTHRs were isolated in chicken and sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicate that the chicken receptors correspond to PTH1R and PTH3R, which emerged prior to the teleost/tetrapod divergence since they are present in cartilaginous fish. The vertebrate PTH2R receptor and its ligand TIP39 have been lost from bird genomes. Chicken PTH1R and PTH3R have a divergent and widespread tissue expression and are also evident in very early embryonic stages of development. Receptor stimulation studies using HEK293 cells stably expressing the chicken PTH1R and PTH3R and monitoring cAMP production revealed they are activated by chicken 1–34 N-terminal PTH-family peptides in a dose dependent manner. PTH-L and PTHrP were the most effective peptides in activating PTH1R (EC50 = 7.7 nM and EC50 = 22.7 nM, respectively). In contrast, PTH-L (100 nM) produced a small cAMP accumulation on activation of PTH3R but PTHrP and PTH (EC50 = 2.5 nM and EC50 = 22.1 nM, respectively) readily activated the receptor. PTHrP also stimulated

  13. Functional characterization and evolution of PTH/PTHrP receptors: insights from the chicken.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Pedro L C; Cardoso, João C R; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M

    2012-07-06

    The parathyroid hormone (PTH)-family consists of a group of structurally related factors that regulate calcium and bone homeostasis and are also involved in development of organs such as the heart, mammary gland and immune system. They interact with specific members of family 2 B1 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which have been characterised in teleosts and mammals. Two PTH/PTHrP receptors, PTH1R and PTH2R exist in mammals and in teleost fish a further receptor PTH3R has also been identified. Recently in chicken, PTH-family members involved in calcium transport were characterized and specific PTHRs are suggested to exist although they have not yet been isolated or functionally characterized. The aim of this study is to further explore the evolution and function of the vertebrate PTH/PTHrP system through the isolation, phylogenetic analysis and functional characterization of the chicken receptors. Two PTHRs were isolated in chicken and sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicate that the chicken receptors correspond to PTH1R and PTH3R, which emerged prior to the teleost/tetrapod divergence since they are present in cartilaginous fish. The vertebrate PTH2R receptor and its ligand TIP39 have been lost from bird genomes. Chicken PTH1R and PTH3R have a divergent and widespread tissue expression and are also evident in very early embryonic stages of development. Receptor stimulation studies using HEK293 cells stably expressing the chicken PTH1R and PTH3R and monitoring cAMP production revealed they are activated by chicken 1-34 N-terminal PTH-family peptides in a dose dependent manner. PTH-L and PTHrP were the most effective peptides in activating PTH1R (EC(50) = 7.7 nM and EC(50) = 22.7 nM, respectively). In contrast, PTH-L (100 nM) produced a small cAMP accumulation on activation of PTH3R but PTHrP and PTH (EC(50) = 2.5 nM and EC(50) = 22.1 nM, respectively) readily activated the receptor. PTHrP also stimulated intracellular Ca(2

  14. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  15. Analysis of gelsolin expression pattern in developing chicken embryo reveals high GSN expression level in tissues of neural crest origin.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Antonina Joanna; Morosan-Puopolo, Gabriela; Makowiecka, Aleksandra; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria; Nowak, Dorota; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Gelsolin is one of the most intensively studied actin-binding proteins. However, in the literature comprehensive studies of GSN expression during development have not been performed yet in all model organisms. In zebrafish, gelsolin is a dorsalizing factor that modulates bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathways, whereas knockout of the gelsolin coding gene, GSN is not lethal in murine model. To study the role of gelsolin in development of higher vertebrates, it is crucial to estimate GSN expression pattern during development. Here, we examined GSN expression in the developing chicken embryo. We applied numerous methods to track GSN expression in developing embryos at mRNA and protein level. We noted a characteristic GSN expression pattern. Although GSN transcripts were present in several cell types starting from early developmental stages, a relatively high GSN expression was observed in eye, brain vesicles, midbrain, neural tube, heart tube, and splanchnic mesoderm. In older embryos, we observed a high GSN expression in the cranial ganglia and dorsal root ganglia. A detailed analysis of 10-day-old chicken embryos revealed high amounts of gelsolin especially within the head region: in the olfactory and optic systems, meninges, nerves, muscles, presumptive pituitary gland, and pericytes, but not oligodendrocytes in the brain. Obtained results suggest that GSN is expressed at high levels in some tissues of ectodermal origin including all neural crest derivatives. Additionally, we describe that silencing of GSN expression in brain vesicles leads to altered morphology of the mesencephalon. This implies gelsolin is crucial for chicken brain development.

  16. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ASB15 gene and their associations with chicken growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y C; Jiang, R R; Kang, X T; Li, Z J; Han, R L; Geng, J; Fu, J X; Wang, J F; Wu, J P

    2015-09-25

    ASB15 is a member of the ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box family, and is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. In the present study, an F2 resource population of Gushi chickens crossed with Anka broilers was used to investigate the genetic effects of the chicken ASB15 gene. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs315759231 A>G and rs312619270 T>C) were identified in exon 7 of the ASB15 gene using forced chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. One was a missense SNP (rs315759231 A>G) and the other was a synonymous SNP (rs312619270 T>C). The rs315759231 A>G polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight at birth, 12-week body slanting length, semi-evisceration weight, evisceration weight, leg muscle weight, and carcass weight (P < 0.05). The rs312619270 T>C polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight at birth, 4, 8, and 12-week body weight, 8-week shank length, 12-week breast bone length, 8 and 12-week body slanting length, breast muscle weight, and carcass weight (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the ASB15 gene profoundly affects chicken growth and carcass traits.

  17. Chicken RNA-binding protein TIA-1 contributes to stress granule formation in chicken cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjie; Zhang, Pin; Zheng, Hang; Dong, Luna; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Liao, Ying; Meng, Chunchun; Yu, Shengqing; Ding, Chan

    2017-07-10

    T-cell internal antigen-1 (TIA-1) plays roles in regulating alternative pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA translation, and stress granule (SG) formation in human cells. As an evolutionarily conserved response to environmental stress, SG has been reported to exist in various species. However, SG formation in chicken cells and the role of chicken TIA-1 (cTIA-1) in SG assembly has not been elucidated. In the present study, we cloned cTIA-1 and showed that cTIA-1 facilitates in the assembly of canonical SGs in both human and chicken cells. Overexpression of chicken prion-related domain (cPRD) of cTIA-1 that bore an N-terminal GFP tag (pntGFP-cPRD) or Flag tag (pFlag-cPRD) induced the production of typical SGs. However, C-terminal GFP tag (pctGFP-cPRD) induced significantly large cytoplasmic granules that were devoid of endogenous G3BP1 and remained stable when exposed to cycloheximide, indicating that these were not typical SGs, and pntGFP tag influences cPRD localization. Finally, endogenous cTIA-1 was determined to be recruited to SGs in chicken cells and tissues under environmental stress. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that chicken TIA-1 plays a role in canonical SG formation in chicken cells and tissues. Our findings also indicated that cPRD is necessary for SG aggregation.

  18. Application of VNIR hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive prediction of pH, color, and drip loss of chicken breast fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-destructive and rapid prediction of quality attributes of chicken breast fillets using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (400-1000 nm) was carried out in this work. All hyperspectral images were acquired for bone (dorsal) side of chicken breast. A forward principal component...

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  20. Chicken thymocyte-specific antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies: characterization and distribution in normal tissues and in tumoral tissues from Marek's disease chicken.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, O; Cauchy, L; Coudert, F; Richard, J

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were obtained against purified thymocyte membrane extracts. Five MAbs TA3, TB1, TB6 (IgG1), TC4, and TA1 (IgG2a), were tested by immunofluorescence and by immunoperoxidase tests against normal cells from different organs, Marek's disease (MD) cell lines, and MD tumoral cells from chickens. Three of them, TA3, TB1, and TB6, reacted exclusively with lymphoid cells in both cortical and medullary areas of the thymus and with less than 8% bursa cells. They identified a protein of apparently 40 kD. The other two revealed antigenic determinants on most medullar thymocytes and some cortical thymocytes, and on some splenic and peripheral blood lymphocytes. They were positive with MD cell lines and cells deriving from MD tumors. TC4 and TA1 detected molecular masses of about 110 kD and 16 kD, respectively. No MAbs reacted with erythrocytes, bone marrow, liver, brain, and skin cells. Not all of the tested cells were stained after contact with an anti-chicken immunoglobulin serum. In this paper, we determine a specific antigen restricted to T cells from thymus and different markers belonging to the mature T cells. The latter are also present on MD cell lines and MD tumoral cells.

  1. Dietary restrictions, bone density, and bone quality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-hai; Ables, Gene P

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), protein restriction (PR), and specific amino acid restriction (e.g., methionine restriction (MR)) are different dietary interventions that have been confirmed with regard to their comprehensive benefits to metabolism and health. Based on bone densitometric measurements, weight loss induced by dietary restriction is known to be accompanied by reduced areal bone mineral density, bone mass, and/or bone size, and it is considered harmful to bone health. However, because of technological advancements in bone densitometric instruments (e.g., high-resolution X-ray tomography), dietary restrictions have been found to cause a reduction in bone mass/size rather than volumetric bone mineral density. Furthermore, when considering bone quality, bone health consists of diverse indices that cannot be fully represented by densitometric measurements alone. Indeed, there is evidence that moderate dietary restrictions do not impair intrinsic bone material properties, despite the reduction in whole-bone strength because of a smaller bone size. In the present review, we integrate research evidence from traditional densitometric measurements, metabolic status assays (e.g., energy metabolism, oxidative stresses, and inflammatory responses), and biomaterial analyses to provide revised conclusions regarding the effects of CR, PR, and MR on the skeleton.

  2. Dynamic behaviour of selected PET tracers in embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, P; Würbach, L; Heidrich, A; Heinrich, L; Walther, M; Opfermann, T; Sørensen, B; Saluz, H P

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) is an established method in preclinical research in small animal disease models and the clinical diagnosis of cancer. It combines functional information of the positron-emitting biomarker with the anatomical data obtained from the CT image. Thus, it allows for 4D in vivo investigation of biological processes. Recently, PET/CT was used to monitor bone growth of chicken embryos using (18)F-fluoride as a bone-seeking tracer. We are interested in investigating the adequacy of additional PET/CT tracers in chicken embryos as an in vivo model system. For this reason, we evaluated several positron emitting compounds typically used in clinical tests or if these were not commercially available, we synthesised them. We studied the properties of these (18)F- and (68)Ga-labelled tracers and of (64)Cu-chloride in catheterised eggs via small animal microPET/CT. 2-Deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose ([(18)F]FDG) was primarily absorbed at the sites of bone growth. (64)Cu chloride and a (68)Ga-labelled amyloid-fibril-binding antibody accumulated in the liver, while the (68)Ga-albumin desferrioxamine conjugate signal in liver decreased over time. These results indicate that these biomarkers can potentially be used for the monitoring of biological processes in chicken eggs as an animal model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone scan appearances following bone and bone marrow biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow and bone biopsies are performed not infrequently in patients referred for bone scans and represent a potential cause of a ''false positive'' focal abnormality on the bone scan. The authors have therefore examined the scan appearances in a series of patients who had undergone either sternal marrow biopsy, (Salah needle, diameter 1.2 mm) trephine iliac crest marrow biopsy (Jamshidi 11 gauge needle, diameter 3.5 mm) or a transiliac bone biopsy (needle diameter 8 mm). Of 18 patients studied 1 to 45 days after sternal marrow 17 had normal scan appearances at the biopsy site and 1 had a possible abnormality. None of 9 patients studied 4 to 19 days after trephine iliac crest marrow biopsy had a hot spot at the biopsy site. A focal scan abnormality was present at the biopsy site in 9/11 patients studied 5 to 59 days after a trans iliac bone biopsy. No resultant scan abnormality was seen in 4 patients imaged within 3 days of the bone biopsy or in 3 patients imaged 79 to 138 days after the procedure. Bone marrow biopsy of the sternum or iliac crest does not usually cause bone scan abnormalities. A focal abnormality at the biopsy site is common in patients imaged 5 days to 2 months after bone biopsy. The gauge of the needle employed in the biopsy and thus the degree of bone trauma inflicted, is likely to be main factor determining the appearance of bone scan abnormalities at the biopsy site.

  4. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  5. [Chicken pox recurrence revealing a renal adenocarcinoma in an adult].

    PubMed

    Thieulent, N; Grezard, P; Wolf, F; Barrut, D; Perrot, H

    2000-09-01

    A new episode of chicken pox in adults who had a well documented infection previously is usually observed in immunocompromised individuals. The principal immunodeficiency factors are hematology diseases, acquired immunodeficiency disease and old age. We report here the case of a young woman who after a contaminating contact presented a recurrence of typical chicken pox. Morphological investigations evidenced a right kidney tumor which pathology revealed to be a renal adenocarcinoma. We discuss this pathological association and review cases reported in the literature.

  6. Haemolysis in chicken serum

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, Ann E.; Pickering, R. J.; Linna, T. J.; Good, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Development of total complement (C) and C1 activity was followed in Line 96 chickens from day 13 of embryonic life to 40 days post-hatching. Both activities were demonstrable on day 13, and levels rose slowly in the late prehatching period. At hatching, on day 21, there was a sharp rise in both activities; both titres were roughly five times those of day 19 embryos. Further increases were seen to about day 10, followed by a levelling off (perhaps even a drop in the case of C1) for about 10 days. On about the twenty-first day the titration curve rose again. The source of the C detected in the embryo and young chicken is unknown. The pattern is consistent with transfer from the egg, but it might also reflect synthesis by the developing animal. PMID:4733800

  7. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  8. A consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis is present in sites prior to bone loss in a longitudinal study of localized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Daniel H; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J; Dewhirst, Floyd E

    2013-09-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  9. A Consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis Is Present in Sites Prior to Bone Loss in a Longitudinal Study of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  10. Anti-melanoma vaccinal capacity of CD11c-positive and -negative cell populations present in GM-CSF cultures derived from murine bone marrow precursors.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Sabrina; Mac Keon, Soledad; Gazzaniga, Silvina; Ruiz, María Sol; Traian, Martín Dodes; Mordoh, José; Wainstok, Rosa

    2013-01-02

    We have initially shown that DC/ApoNec vaccine can induce protection against the poorly immunogenic B16F1 melanoma in mice. The population of DC obtained for vaccination after 7days culture with murine GM-CSF is heterogeneous and presents about 60% of CD11c+ DC. Therefore, our purpose was to identify the phenotype of the cells obtained after differentiation and its immunogenicity once injected. DC were separated with anti-CD11c microbeads and the two populations identified in terms of CD11c positivity (DC+ and DC-) were also studied. Approximately 26.6% of the cells in DC+ fraction co-expressed CD11c+ and F4/80 markers and 75.4% were double positive for CD11c and CD11b markers. DC+ fraction also expressed Ly6G. DC- fraction was richer in CD11c-/F4/80+ macrophages (44.7%), some of which co-expressed Ly6G (41.8%), and F4/80-/Ly6-G+ neutrophils (34.6%). Both DC+ and DC- fractions displayed similar capacity to phagocyte and endocyte antigens and even expressed levels of MHC Class II and CD80, CD83 and CD86 costimulatory molecules similar to those in the DC fraction. However, only DC/ApoNec vaccine was capable to induce protection in mice (p<0.01). After 24h co-culture, no detectable level of IL-12 was recorded in DC/ApoNec vaccine, either in supernatant or intracellularly. Therefore, the protection obtained with DC/ApoNec vaccine seemed to be independent of the vaccine's ability to secrete this inflammatory cytokine at the time of injection. In conclusion, we demonstrated that all cell types derived from the culture of mouse bone marrow with GM-CSF are necessary to induce antitumor protection in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Three isozymes of peptidylarginine deiminase in the chicken: molecular cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akira; Handa, Kenji; Honda, Tomonori; Abe, Naoki; Kojima, Toshio; Takahara, Hidenari

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD; EC 3.5.3.15) is a post-translational modification enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline (deimination) in a calcium ion dependent manner. Although PADI genes are widely conserved among vertebrates, their function in the chicken is poorly understood. Here, we cloned and sequenced three chicken PADI cDNAs and analyzed the expression of their proteins in various tissues. Immunoblotting analysis showed that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 were present in cells of several central neuron system tissues including the retina; the chicken PAD2 protein was not detected in any tissue. We expressed recombinant chicken PADs in insect cells and characterized their enzymatic properties. The chicken PAD1 and PAD3 recombinant proteins required calcium ions as an essential cofactor for their catalytic activity. The two recombinant proteins showed similar substrate specificities toward synthetic arginine derivatives. By contrast to them, chicken PAD2 did not show any activity. We found that one of the conserved active centers in mammalian PADs had been altered in chicken PAD2; we prepared a reverse mutant but we did not detect an activity. We conclude that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 might play specific roles in the nervous system, but that chicken PAD2 might not be functional under normal physiological conditions.

  12. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    Moiseyeva, Irina G; Romanov, Michael N; Nikiforov, Andrey A; Sevastyanova, Antonina A; Semyenova, Serafima K

    2003-01-01

    Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world. PMID:12927074

  13. Demonstration of Birbeck (Langerhans cells) granules in the normal chicken epidermis

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, ARMANDO; USTARROZ-CANO, MARTHA

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian Langerhans cells (LC) are epidermal dendritic cells which originate in bone marrow and migrate toward the T cell area of lymph nodes, where they act as professional antigen-presenting cells. A variety of cell surface markers, such as the ectoenzyme adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Ia and CD1a antigens, have been used extensively to identify LC. Ultrastructural identification of this cell type in the mammalian epidermis is made by the demonstration of a typical and unique cytoplasmic organelle, the Birbeck granule (BG). Although we had earlier demonstrated the coexpression of ATPase and Ia antigens on epidermal dendritic cells of the chicken epidermis, the presence of the BG has not previously been documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chicken epidermal LC-like cells possess an organelle similar to the BG, and thus to complete their identification. Our findings are the first demonstration of characteristic rod-shaped, racket-shaped and disc-shaped intracytoplasmic organelles, morphologically similar to the mammalian BG, in avian LC. PMID:11693310

  14. Acute pancreatitis: rare complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Jain, A P; Pandit, A K

    2007-01-01

    Chicken pox is a highly contagious infection, caused by the varicella zoster virus. Although generally a benign, self-limited disease, varicella may be associated with serious complications especially in adults. We present acute pancreatitis- a rare complication, in otherwise healthy patients suffering from chicken pox. The presence of pancreatitis in association with chickenpox in immunocompetent patients can influence the outcome of the latter. This interesting case will hopefully increase awareness about this complication and its fatality in chicken pox.

  15. Epigenetic Modification of TLRs in Leukocytes Is Associated with Increased Susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Li, Peng; Wang, Huihua; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Jilan; Wen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways are the first lines in defense against Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) infection but the molecular mechanism underlying susceptibility to S. enteritidis infection in chicken remains unclear. SPF chickens injected with S. enteritidis were partitioned into two groups, one consisted of those from Salmonella-susceptible chickens (died within 5 d after injection, n = 6), the other consisted of six Salmonella-resistant chickens that survived for 15 d after injection. The present study shows that the bacterial load in susceptible chickens was significantly higher than that in resistant chickens and TLR4, TLR2-1 and TLR21 expression was strongly diminished in the leukocytes of susceptible chickens compared with those of resistant chickens. The induction of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, IL-6 and IFN-β, was greatly enhanced in the resistant but not in susceptible chickens. Contrasting with the reduced expression of TLR genes, those of the zinc finger protein 493 (ZNF493) gene and Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) gene were enhanced in the susceptible chickens. Finally, the expression of TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected in vitro with S. enteritidis increased significantly as a result of treatment with 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc) while either 5-Aza-dc or trichostatin A was effective in up-regulating the expression of TLR21 and TLR2-1. DNA methylation, in the predicted promoter region of TLR4 and TLR21 genes, and an exonic CpG island of the TLR2-1 gene was significantly higher in the susceptible chickens than in resistant chickens. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ZNF493-related epigenetic modification in leukocytes probably accounts for increased susceptibility to S. enteritidis in chickens by diminishing the expression and response of TLR4, TLR21 and TLR2-1. PMID:22438967

  16. Effects of florfenicol on the immune responses and the interferon-inducible genes in broiler chickens under the impact of E. coli infection.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Ola; Abdallah, Fatma; Awad, Ashraf

    2014-03-01

    Florfenicol (FFC) as a chloramphenicol's derivative is a special broad-spectrum antibiotic that was used in veterinary clinics. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different doses of FFC on the humoral immune response of broiler chickens to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine under the impact of E. coli infection. In addition, the expression of the interferon-inducible genes (IRF7, 2'-5'OAS and Mx1) were analyzed in the spleen tissue of these chickens using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The non-treated group with FFC and non-infected with E. coli had the highest immune responses against NDV compared with the FFC treated groups. In the case of E. coli infection, the group treated with FFC (30 mg/Kg BWt) showed lower NDV HI and IgG ELISA Ab levels compared to the group treated with FFC (60 mg/Kg BWt). A dose dependent up-regulation was observed in the level of the interferon-alpha pathway related genes (IRF7 and 2'-5'OAS) in the FFC treated groups compared to the non-treated group. At the slaughter time, the numbers of adipocyte in the bone marrow were significantly higher with moderate atrophy of the hematopoietic lineages in the FFC treated birds compared to the non-treated birds. These results indicated that this FFC dosage dependent increase in the humoral immune responses against NDV vaccine could be attributed to its efficient therapeutic effect on the E. coli infection. However, the increase in the FFC dosage can negatively but temporarily affect the chicken body weights. Additionally, it can exert up regulation effect on the chicken innate immune response with moderate hypoplasia of the bone marrow cells.

  17. Investigating the Global Dispersal of Chickens in Prehistory Using Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Athens, J. Stephen; Bryant, David; Carson, Mike; Emery, Kitty; deFrance, Susan; Higham, Charles; Huynen, Leon; Intoh, Michiko; Jones, Sharyn; Kirch, Patrick V.; Ladefoged, Thegn; McCoy, Patrick; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Quiroz, Daniel; Reitz, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Walter, Richard; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Data from morphology, linguistics, history, and archaeology have all been used to trace the dispersal of chickens from Asian domestication centers to their current global distribution. Each provides a unique perspective which can aid in the reconstruction of prehistory. This study expands on previous investigations by adding a temporal component from ancient DNA and, in some cases, direct dating of bones of individual chickens from a variety of sites in Europe, the Pacific, and the Americas. The results from the ancient DNA analyses of forty-eight archaeologically derived chicken bones provide support for archaeological hypotheses about the prehistoric human transport of chickens. Haplogroup E mtDNA signatures have been amplified from directly dated samples originating in Europe at 1000 B.P. and in the Pacific at 3000 B.P. indicating multiple prehistoric dispersals from a single Asian centre. These two dispersal pathways converged in the Americas where chickens were introduced both by Polynesians and later by Europeans. The results of this study also highlight the inappropriate application of the small stretch of D-loop, traditionally amplified for use in phylogenetic studies, to understanding discrete episodes of chicken translocation in the past. The results of this study lead to the proposal of four hypotheses which will require further scrutiny and rigorous future testing. PMID:22848352

  18. Environmental contaminant hazards to Attwater's greater prairie-chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Swineford, Douglas M.

    1983-01-01

    The Attwater's greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was declared an endangered species in 1966 and exists only on the upper Gulf Coast prairie of southeast Texas. Since 1975, total numbers have declined from 2,240 to 1,456 in 1981 (Jurries 19679; W. Shifflett, Manager Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge [APCNWR], personal communication).The total population of this prairie grouse is presently scattered in a norther, largely agricultural, but also urban-rangeland area of 6 counties that contained about 600 individuals in 1971, and a southern, largely rangeland, but also agricultural-urban area of 4 counties that contained about 860 individuals in 1981. During the present study, Attwater's prairie-chickens completely disappeared in Wharton and Waller counties in the northern area (W. Shifflett, personal communication).Prairie-chickens in the northern area frequent crops of rice, soybeans, peanuts, or corn; those in the southern area frequent sorghum or cotton that are planted on or near ancestral booming grounds. The use of pesticides in the agricultural areas may have contributed to the initial decline of prairie-chicken numbers. In 1927, several hundred prairie-chickens were found dead in and near a cotton field in Wharton County shortly after it had been treated with arsenic (Lehmann and Mauermann 1963). The remains of 5 prairie-chickens were found in sorghum and soybean fields in Refugio and Colorado counties between 1975 and 1977 (R. Haeber and W. Kessler, personal communication) but were too decomposed to be analyzed for evidence of pesticide exposure. Parathion formulations had been applied to the soybeans and near the sorghum. Other pesticide use on the areas was uncertain. The objective of this study was to ascertain pesticide hazards to Attwater's greater prairie-chickens.

  19. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    PubMed

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending).

  20. [Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].

    PubMed

    Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

    2010-06-01

    Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics.

  1. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne; Held, Suzanne; Jones, Charlotte; Troisi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary For a domestic chick, the mother hen is an important role model; chicks learn a great deal from their mother about what to peck, when to rest and how to behave when there is a threat. However, in large farms, natural brooding is not commercially viable and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially. Chicks reared without a mother in this way are more fearful and more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. We discuss the important features of maternal care in chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation, and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to simulate natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice. Abstract In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural

  2. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  3. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  4. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  5. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  6. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  7. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  8. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  9. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  10. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Joanne; Held, Suzanne; Jones, Charlotte; Troisi, Camille

    2016-01-05

    In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks' behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks' response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks' behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice.

  11. Production of chicken progeny (Gallus gallus domesticus) from interspecies germline chimeric duck (Anas domesticus) by primordial germ cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhai; Khazanehdari, Kamal A; Baskar, Vijaya; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Chang, Il-Kuk

    2012-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the differentiation of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) in duck (Anas domesticus) gonads. Chimeric ducks were produced by transferring chicken PGCs into duck embryos. Transfer of 200 and 400 PGCs resulted in the detection of a total number of 63.0 ± 54.3 and 116.8 ± 47.1 chicken PGCs in the gonads of 7-day-old duck embryos, respectively. The chimeric rate of ducks prior to hatching was 52.9% and 90.9%, respectively. Chicken germ cells were assessed in the gonad of chimeric ducks with chicken-specific DNA probes. Chicken spermatogonia were detected in the seminiferous tubules of duck testis. Chicken oogonia, primitive and primary follicles, and chicken-derived oocytes were also found in the ovaries of chimeric ducks, indicating that chicken PGCs are able to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in duck ovaries and participate in the progression of duck ovarian folliculogenesis. Chicken DNA was detected using PCR from the semen of chimeric ducks. A total number of 1057 chicken eggs were laid by Barred Rock hens after they were inseminated with chimeric duck semen, of which four chicken offspring hatched and one chicken embryo did not hatch. Female chimeric ducks were inseminated with chicken semen; however, no fertile eggs were obtained. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that chicken PGCs could interact with duck germinal epithelium and complete spermatogenesis and eventually give rise to functional sperm. The PGC-mediated germline chimera technology may provide a novel system for conserving endangered avian species.

  12. Temporal bone meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R; Siu, K; Cousins, V

    1990-10-01

    Meningiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of space-occupying lesions of the temporal bone. Five cases of meningiomas of the temporal bone are described and the literature reviewed. These tumours may stimulate Schwannomas and glomus tumours in their presentation and radiological findings. The tumours were managed by combining standard neurosurgical approaches with temporal bone and skull base techniques.

  13. Probiotics Stimulate Production of Natural Antibodies in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Hamid R.; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L.; Hayes, M. Anthony; Zhou, Huaijun; Sanei, Babak; Chambers, James R.; Sharif, Shayan

    2006-01-01

    Commensal bacteria in the intestine play an important role in the development of immune response. These bacteria interact with cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Among cells of the GALT, B-1 cells are of note. These cells are involved in the production of natural antibodies. In the present study, we determined whether manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotics, which we had previously shown to enhance specific systemic antibody response, could affect the development of natural antibodies in the intestines and sera of chickens. Our findings demonstrate that when 1-day-old chicks were treated with probiotics, serum and intestinal antibodies reactive to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in addition to intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) reactive to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were increased in unimmunized chickens. Moreover, IgG antibodies reactive to TT were increased in the intestines of probiotic-treated chickens compared to those of untreated controls. In serum, IgG and IgM reactive to TT and alpha-toxin were increased in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens compared to levels in untreated controls. However, no significant difference in serum levels of IgM or IgG response to BSA was observed. These results are suggestive of the induction of natural antibodies in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens. Elucidating the role of these antibodies in maintenance of the chicken immune system homeostasis and immune response to pathogens requires further investigation. PMID:16960107

  14. Prostaglandin E2 supports growth of chicken embryo intestinal organoids in Matrigel matrix.

    PubMed

    Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Grabacka, Maja; Michalik, Marta; Zyla, Krzysztof; Pierzchalski, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Investigating intestinal physiology in vitro remains challenging due to the lack of an effective primary enterocyte culture system. Recently developed protocols for growing organoids containing crypts and villus from adult mouse intestinal epithelium in Matrigel present an attractive alternative to the classical techniques. However, these approaches require the use of sophisticated and expensive serum-free medium supplemented with epithelial growth factor (EGF), Wnt agonist (R-spondin 1), and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor (Noggin) in high concentrations. Here we demonstrate that is possible to use an isolated chicken embryonic intestinal epithelium to create such an organoid culture. Structures formed in Matrigel matrix in the first two days following isolation survive and enlarge during ensuing weeks. They have the appearance of empty spheres and comprise cells expressing cytokeratin (an epithelial cell marker), villin (a marker of enterocytes), and Sox-9 (a transcription factor characteristic of progenitors and stem cells of intestinal crypts). With chicken embryonic tissue as a source of organoids, prostaglandin E2 is as effective as R-spondin 1 and Noggin in promoting sustained growth and survival of epithelial spheroids.

  15. Disseminated Histoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Patient Diagnosed on Bone Marrow Aspirate – A Rare Presentation from a Non-Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetika; Phansalkar, Manjiri Dilip; Varghese, Renug’Boy

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis causing systemic fungal infection is commonly seen in endemic areas. In India, disease prevalence is more in eastern part of the country and there have been very few reports from southern part of India. The occurrence of disseminated histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individual is rare. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual with no underlying risk factors. The disease was not suspected clinically and was diagnosed by bone marrow aspirate incidentally. PMID:26816901

  16. Somatostatin Analogue Treatment of a TSH-Secreting Adenoma Presenting With Accelerated Bone Metabolism and a Pericardial Effusion: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mousiolis, Athanasios C; Rapti, Eleni; Grammatiki, Maria; Yavropoulou, Maria; Efstathiou, Maria; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Daniilidis, Michalis; Kotsa, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    Increased bone turnover and other less frequent comorbidities of hyperthyroidism, such as heart failure, have only rarely been reported in association with central hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma). Treatment is highly empirical and relies on eliminating the tumor and the hyperthyroid state.We report here an unusual case of a 39-year-old man who was initially admitted for management of pleuritic chest pain and fever of unknown origin. Diagnostic work up confirmed pericarditis and pleural effusion both refractory to treatment. The patient had a previous history of persistently elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), indicative of increased bone turnover. He had also initially been treated with thyroxine supplementation due to elevated TSH levels. During the diagnostic process a TSHoma was revealed. Thyroxine was discontinued, and resection of the pituitary tumor followed by treatment with a somatostatin analog led to complete recession of the effusions, normalization of ALP, and shrinkage of pituitary tumor.Accelerated bone metabolism and pericardial and pleural effusions attributed to a TSHoma may resolve after successful treatment of the tumor. The unexpected clinical course of this case highlights the need for careful long-term surveillance in patients with these rare pituitary adenomas.

  17. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-07-28

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  18. Horizontal bone augmentation by means of guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2014-10-01

    The development of bone augmentation procedures has allowed placement of dental implants into jaw bone areas lacking an amount of bone sufficient for standard implant placement. Thus, the indications for implants have broadened to include jaw regions with bone defects and those with a bone anatomy that is unfavorable for implant anchorage. Of the different techniques, the best documented and the most widely used method to augment bone in localized alveolar defects is guided bone regeneration. A large body of evidence has demonstrated the successful use of guided bone regeneration to regenerate missing bone at implant sites with insufficient bone volume and the long-term success of implants placed simultaneously with, or after, guided bone regeneration. However, the influence of guided bone regeneration on implant survival and success rates, and the long-term stability of the augmented bone, remain unknown. Many of the materials and techniques currently available for bone regeneration of alveolar ridge defects were developed many years ago. Recently, various new materials and techniques have been introduced. Many of them have, however, not been sufficiently documented in clinical studies. The aim of this review was to present the scientific basis of guided bone regeneration and the accepted clinical procedures. A classification of bone defects has been presented, aiming at simplifying the decision-making process regarding the choice of strategy for bone augmentation. Finally, an outlook into actual research and the possible future options related to bone augmentation has been provided.

  19. Characterization of the chicken GCAP gene array and analyses of GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 gene expression in normal and rd chicken pineal.

    PubMed

    Semple-Rowland, S L; Larkin, P; Bronson, J D; Nykamp, K; Streit, W J; Baehr, W

    1999-07-28

    This study had three objectives: (1) to characterize the structures of the chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes; (2) to determine if GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 genes are expressed in chicken pineal gland; (3) if GC1 is expressed in chicken pineal, to determine if the GC1 null mutation carried by the retinal degeneration (rd) chicken is associated with degenerative changes within the pineal glands of these animals. GCAP1 and GCAP2 gene structures were determined by analyses of chicken cosmid and cDNA clones. The putative transcription start points for these genes were determined using 5'-RACE. GCAP1, GCAP2 and GC1 transcripts were analyzed using Northern blot and RT-PCR. Routine light microscopy was used to examine pineal morphology. Chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail array. Each protein is encoded by 4 exons that are interrupted by 3 introns of variable length, the positions of which are identical within each gene. The putative transcription start points for GCAP1 and GCAP2 are 314 and 243 bases upstream of the translation start codons of these genes, respectively. As in retina, GCAP1, GCAP2 and GC1 genes are expressed in the chicken pineal. Although the GC1 null mutation is present in both the retina and pineal of the rd chicken, only the retina appears to undergo degeneration. The identical arrangement of chicken, human, and mouse GCAP1/2 genes suggests that these genes originated from an ancient gene duplication/inversion event that occurred during evolution prior to vertebrate diversification. The expression of GC1, GCAP1, and GCAP2 in chicken pineal is consistent with the hypothesis that chicken pineal contains a functional phototransduction cascade. The absence of cellular degeneration in the rd pineal gland suggests that GC1 is not critical for pineal cell survival.

  20. Volatiles produced by microorganisms isolated from refrigerated chicken at spoilage.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L R; Silverman, G J; Angelini, P; Merritt, C; Esselen, W B

    1976-01-01

    Volatile components present at spoilage of refrigerated chicken breasts were identified using high-vacuum-low-temperature distillation techniques followed by analysis with combined temperature-programmed gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A comparison was made of the compounds detected from both irradiated and non-irradiated muscle stored at 2 and 10 degrees C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Isolates were randomly selected from the spoiled poultry, identified, and evaluated for their ability to produce volatile spoilage noted when grown on radiation-sterilized chicken. Several isolates that produced off-odors on sterile chicken breasts were examined. Twenty-two compounds were associated with spoilage. Some of the compounds found on both irradiated and unirradiated samples were considered to play only a minor role in the spoilage aroma or were present in low concentrations, since the aroma of spoiled irradiated chicken lacked the harsh odor notes typical of spoiled unirradiated chicken. Fifteen of the 22 compounds were considered to be unique to unirradiated, aerobically spoiled samples. Nine of these compounds, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, heptadiene, methanol, and ethanol, were found on chicken spoiled at both 2 and 10 degrees C. xylene, benzaldehyde, and 2,3-dithiahexane were detected only in samples stored at 2 degrees C and methyl thiolacetate, 2-butanone, and ethyl propionate were associated with 10 degrees C spoilage. Fifty-eight isolates randomly selected from fresh, radiation-pasteurized, and unirradiated spoiled poultry were classified taxonomically, and 10 of them, which produced spoilage odors on sterilized chicken breasts, were selected for subsequent analysis of their volatiles. Isolates identified as Pseudomonas putrefaciens and Pseudomonas species that were members of groups I and II of Shewan's classification, as well as Flavobacterium and oxidative

  1. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Rettenbacher, S; Möstl, E; Groothuis, T G G

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that antibodies for corticosterone measurement cross-react with other steroids present in the yolk. In order to investigate this assumption and to characterise potential cross-reacting hormones in more detail, we performed high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses of chicken yolk extracts and determined the concentration of immunoreactive corticosterone, progesterone and cortisol. The progesterone antibody revealed several immunoreactive substances, including progesterone, pregnenolone and two substances with lower polarity. The corticosterone enzyme immunoassay detected immunoreactive substances at exactly the same elution positions as the progesterone assay and a very small peak at the elution position of corticosterone. Immunoreactive cortisol was not found. In addition, inner and outer regions of the yolk sphere were analysed separately via HPLC. We found different concentrations of immunoreactive substances between the inner and outer yolk regions, probably reflecting the steroidogenic activity of the follicle cells during oocyte growth. We conclude that in homogenised yolk extracts without previous clean-up, the measured corticosterone concentrations may actually reflect those of progesterone and its precursors, most probably being 5 alpha- and 5 beta-pregnanes and pregnenolone.

  2. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Gerhold, Richard W; Fischer, John R

    2004-07-01

    during the trials. All animals were sacrificed and necropsies were performed on Day 29 of feeding, with the exception of one treated chicken that was sacrificed and necropsied on Day 15 of feeding. Microscopic lesions of vacuolar myelinopathy were present in the red-tailed hawk and five chickens that received a mixture of all tissues and two chickens that received only gastrointestinal tissues of coots with AVM lesions. Three of four treated chickens in the aquatic vegetation trial developed vacuolar lesions. None of four treatment pigs or any of the negative control animals developed vacuolar lesions. Chickens are susceptible to AVM and may serve as a useful animal model for future studies. Swine may be refractory to AVM or not affected by AVM at the same dose as are chickens and red-tailed hawks. The causative agent of AVM in affected coots is associated with the gastrointestinal tissues. Furthermore, AVM can be reproduced in chickens via ingestion of aquatic vegetation and associated materials collected from a lake during an AVM outbreak. The cause of AVM is most likely present in the materials associated with submerged vegetation because the vegetation itself (hydrilla) was the same at our AVM-positive and AVM-negative sites.

  3. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathogenicity of Five Strains of Toxoplasma gondii from Different Animals to Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Wang, Wang; Zhang, Zhen-Chao; Shen, Bo; Hassan, I A; Xie, Qing; Yan, Ruo-Feng; Song, Xiao-Kai; Xu, Li-Xin; Li, Xiang-Rui

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad range of intermediate hosts. Chickens as important food-producing animals can also serve as intermediate hosts. To date, experimental studies on the pathogenicity of T. gondii in broiler chickens were rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to compare the pathogenicity of 5 different T. gondii strains (RH, CN, JS, CAT2, and CAT3) from various host species origin in 10-day-old chickens. Each group of chickens was infected intraperitoneally with 5×10(8), 1×10(8), 1×10(7), and 1×10(6) tachyzoites of the 5 strains, respectively. The negative control group was mockly inoculated with PBS alone. After infection, clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures of all the chickens were checked daily. Dead chickens during acute phage of the infection were checked for T. gondii tachyzoites by microscope, while living cases were checked for T. gondii infection at day 53 post-inoculation (PI) by PCR method. Histopathological sections were used to observe the pathological changes in the dead chickens and the living animals at day 53 PI. No significant differences were found in survival periods, histopathological findings, and clinical symptoms among the chickens infected with the RH, CN, CAT2, and CAT3 strains. Histopathological findings and clinical symptoms of the JS (chicken origin) group were similar to the others. However, average survival times of infected chickens of the JS group inoculated with 5×10(8) and 1×10(8) tachyzoites were 30.0 and 188.4 hr, respectively, significantly shorter than those of the other 4 mammalian isolates. Chickens exposed to 10(8) of T. gondii tachyzoites and higher showed acute signs of toxoplasmosis, and the lesions were relatively more severe than those exposed to lower doses. The results indicated that the pathogenicity of JS strain was comparatively stronger to the chicken, and the pathogenicity was dose-dependent.

  5. Pathogenicity of Five Strains of Toxoplasma gondii from Different Animals to Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Wang, Wang; Zhang, Zhen-Chao; Shen, Bo; Hassan, I. A.; Xie, Qing; Yan, Ruo-Feng; Song, Xiao-Kai; Xu, Li-Xin; Li, Xiang-Rui

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad range of intermediate hosts. Chickens as important food-producing animals can also serve as intermediate hosts. To date, experimental studies on the pathogenicity of T. gondii in broiler chickens were rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to compare the pathogenicity of 5 different T. gondii strains (RH, CN, JS, CAT2, and CAT3) from various host species origin in 10-day-old chickens. Each group of chickens was infected intraperitoneally with 5×108, 1×108, 1×107, and 1×106 tachyzoites of the 5 strains, respectively. The negative control group was mockly inoculated with PBS alone. After infection, clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures of all the chickens were checked daily. Dead chickens during acute phage of the infection were checked for T. gondii tachyzoites by microscope, while living cases were checked for T. gondii infection at day 53 post-inoculation (PI) by PCR method. Histopathological sections were used to observe the pathological changes in the dead chickens and the living animals at day 53 PI. No significant differences were found in survival periods, histopathological findings, and clinical symptoms among the chickens infected with the RH, CN, CAT2, and CAT3 strains. Histopathological findings and clinical symptoms of the JS (chicken origin) group were similar to the others. However, average survival times of infected chickens of the JS group inoculated with 5×108 and 1×108 tachyzoites were 30.0 and 188.4 hr, respectively, significantly shorter than those of the other 4 mammalian isolates. Chickens exposed to 108 of T. gondii tachyzoites and higher showed acute signs of toxoplasmosis, and the lesions were relatively more severe than those exposed to lower doses. The results indicated that the pathogenicity of JS strain was comparatively stronger to the chicken, and the pathogenicity was dose-dependent. PMID:25925173

  6. High-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken from MT-COI and ATP-6 perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan

    2016-09-01

    The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.

  7. Prediction of pH of fresh chicken breast fillets by VNIR hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (400–900 nm) was used to evaluate pH of fresh chicken breast fillets (pectoralis major muscle) from the bone (dorsal) side of individual fillets. After the principal component analysis (PCA), a band threshold method was applied to the first prin...

  8. Bone scan appearances following biopsy of bone and bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

    1984-10-01

    The influence of sternal marrow aspiration, iliac crest marrow aspiration, and iliac crest bone biopsy on bone scan appearances was examined. Eighteen patients were scanned a mean of 9.9 days after sternal marrow aspiration with a Salah needle. Bone scans obtained in 9 patients a mean of 10 days aftr iliac crest trephine marrow biopsy with a Jamshidi needle showed no abnormality at the biopsy site. In 18 patients with metabolic bone disease who had undergone iliac crest bone biopsy with an 8 mm needle, a scan abnormality due to the biopsy was usually present when the interval between the biopsy and the scan was 5 days to 2 months. Patients who were scanned within 3 days of iliac crest bone biopsy or more than 2 months after biopsy had normal scan appearance at the biopsy site.

  9. Isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from a 55 year old man and a positive tracing of the infection to chicken-raising premise.

    PubMed

    Salamah, A A

    1988-04-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the swollen finger of a 55 year old man. The swelling was due to a peck by an infected chicken. Tracing the infection to the chicken-raising premises has proven that the bacterium was present in some of the chicken and manure samples.

  10. CD87-positive tumor cells in bone marrow aspirates identified by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Noack, F; Helmecke, D; Rosenberg, R; Thorban, S; Nekarda, H; Fink, U; Lewald, J; Stich, M; Schutze, K; Harbeck, N; Magdolen, V; Graeff, H; Schmitt, M

    1999-10-01

    Dissemination of single tumor cells to the bone marrow is a common event in cancer. The clinical significance of cytokeratin-positive cells detected in the bone marrow of cancer patients is still a matter of debate. In gastric cancer, overexpression of the receptor (uPAR or CD87) for the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in disseminated cancer cells indicates shorter survival of cancer patients. A new immunofluorescence approach, applying confocal laser scanning microscopy, is introduced to locate CD87 antigen in cytokeratin-positive tumor cells and to quantify the CD87 antigen by consecutive scanning. At first, cytokeratin 8/18/19-positive carcinoma cells are identified at excitation wavelength 488 nm using monoclonal antibody A45B/B3 to the cytokeratins and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with the fluorochrome Alexa488. Next, CD87 in tumor cells is identified by chicken antibody HU277 to the uPA-receptor and goat anti-chicken IgY labeled with fluorochrome Alexa568 (excitation wavelength 568 nm) and the fluorescence signal quantified on a single cell basis using fluorescently labeled latex beads as the fluorescence reference. From 16 patients with gastric or esophageal carcinoma, bone marrow aspirates were obtained, stained for cytokeratins and CD87 and then subjected to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Three of six gastric cancer patients had tumor cells present in the bone marrow of which 2 stained for CD87. Three of ten esophageal carcinoma patients had tumor cells in the bone marrow, all three samples stained for CD87. CD87-positive tumor cells were also dissected from stained bone marrow aspirates by laser microdissection microscope to allow analysis of single cells at the gene level.

  11. Skeletal Metastases Presenting as Superscan on Technetium 99m Methylene Diphosphonate Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy in Different Type of Cancers: A 5-Year Retro-prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, P. Ram; Rather, Tanveer A.; Khan, Shoukat H.; Malik, Dharmender

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out the overall incidence of superscan among different type of cancers, causes of superscan and its relationship with other parameters such as age, sex, duration of disease, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. This was a retro-prospective study. Records of all previous bone scans and reported patients of superscan were re-evaluated retrospectively. Patients who were diagnosed as having superscan in the preceding 3 years with confirmed histopathological diagnosis were included in the retrospective group. In the prospective group, all the patients who were reported to have superscan appearance over the past 2 years of prospective period were included. Total of 6027 bone scans were examined in a 5-year period and out of which 80 cases were diagnosed as superscan. The overall incidence of superscan in different type of cancers was 1.3% (80/6027). Prostate cancer (46/80) was the most common cause of superscan appearance followed by breast cancer (10/80). Out of 6027 patients referred for bone scan, 307 patients had prostate cancer on histopathological examination. Out of 307 patients with prostate cancer, 46 had superscan appearance. Incidence of superscan in prostate cancer was 14.98% (46/307), and 71.73% (33/46) prostate cancer patients with superscan had Gleason score of 8 and above 8 with mean serum prostate-specific antigen level was 178.42 ng/ml in symptomatic patients and 122 ng/ml in asymptomatic patients. Out of all patients with superscan, 71 patients (88.7%) had elevated serum ALP levels. Overall incidence of superscan in our study was 1.3% in different type of cancer patients, and the most common cause of superscan appearance was prostate cancer. Incidence of superscan appearance in prostatic cancer patients was 14.98%. PMID:28217018

  12. The preparation of monoclonal antibodies to human bone and liver alkaline phosphatase and their use in immunoaffinity purification and in studying these enzymes when present in serum.

    PubMed Central

    Bailyes, E M; Seabrook, R N; Calvin, J; Maguire, G A; Price, C P; Siddle, K; Luzio, J P

    1987-01-01

    1. Liver and bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were solubilized with the zwitterionic detergent sulphobetaine 14, and purified to homogeneity by using a monoclonal antibody previously raised against a partially-purified preparation of the liver isoenzyme. Both purified isoenzymes had a specific activity in the range 1100-1400 mumol/min per mg of protein with a subunit Mr of 80,000 determined by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Butanol extraction instead of detergent solubilization, before immunoaffinity purification of the liver enzyme, resulted in the same specific activity and subunit Mr. The native Mr of the sulphobetaine 14-solubilized enzyme was consistent with the enzyme being a dimer of two identical subunits and was higher than that of the butanol-extracted enzyme, presumably due to the binding of the detergent micelle. 2. Pure bone and liver alkaline phosphatase were used to raise further antibodies to the two isoenzymes. Altogether, 27 antibody-producing cell lines were cloned from 12 mice. Several of these antibodies showed a greater than 2-fold preference for bone alkaline phosphatase in the binding assay used for screening. No antibodies showing a preference for liver alkaline phosphatase were successfully cloned. None of the antibodies showed significant cross-reaction with placental or intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Epitope analysis of the 27 antibodies using liver alkaline phosphatase as antigen gave rise to six groupings, with four antibodies unclassified. The six major epitope groups were also observed using bone alkaline phosphatase as antigen. 3. Serum from patients with cholestasis contains soluble and particulate forms of alkaline phosphatase. The soluble serum enzyme had the same size and charge as butanol-extracted liver enzyme on native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis separated the soluble and particulate serum alkaline phosphatases as slow- and fast-moving forms respectively. In the

  13. A new chicken genome assembly provides insight into avian genome structure.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing t...

  14. Microwave irradiation of nanohydroxyapatite from chicken eggshells and duck eggshells.

    PubMed

    Sajahan, Nor Adzliana; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) by chicken (CES) and duck eggshells (DES) as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3). CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH4)2HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  15. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Sajahan, Nor Adzliana; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) by chicken (CES) and duck eggshells (DES) as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3). CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH4)2HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:25383364

  16. Isolation and culture of chicken primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Leghari, Imdad Hussain; Zhao, Dan; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a primordial follicle culture system is important for the study of follicular development. Hence, the objective of this study was to isolate chicken primordial follicles and establish culture methods. Ovaries from 2-wk-old chickens were treated with trypsin-EDTA, collagenase II, or collagenase type IA, along with a mechanical isolation technique. Isolated follicles were cultured under different conditions. Results showed a significant difference in the follicular recovery and survival rates among different enzymes and methods used. The maximal follicular yield was obtained by trypsin+EDTA and collagenase II digestion, followed by collagenase type IA digestion. However, the highest follicular viability rate was observed in groups of collagenase type IA digestion and the mechanical isolation method. Enzymatic treatment resulted in higher misshapen oocytes or follicles, though the diameters of the follicles were not significantly changed. In addition, our follicle culture results for different conditions showed maximal survival rates of primordial follicles in alginate hydrogel beads after 12 d of culture. Thus, we successfully established methods for isolating and culturing chicken primordial follicles. The present method will greatly facilitate investigation of the regulation of follicular development. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Assessment of bone vascularization and its role in bone remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Roche, Bernard; Langer, Max; Cleret, Damien; Vanden Bossche, Arnaud; Olivier, Thomas; Vico, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a composite organ that fulfils several interconnected functions, which may conflict with each other in pathological conditions. Bone vascularization is at the interface between these functions. The roles of bone vascularization are better documented in bone development, growth and modeling than in bone remodeling. However, every bone remodeling unit is associated with a capillary in both cortical and trabecular envelopes. Here we summarize the most recent data on vessel involvement in bone remodeling, and we present the characteristics of bone vascularization. Finally, we describe the various techniques used for bone vessel imaging and quantitative assessment, including histology, immunohistochemistry, microtomography and intravital microscopy. Studying the role of vascularization in adult bone should provide benefits for the understanding and treatment of metabolic bone diseases. PMID:25861447

  18. Assessment of bone vascularization and its role in bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Roche, Bernard; Langer, Max; Cleret, Damien; Vanden Bossche, Arnaud; Olivier, Thomas; Vico, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a composite organ that fulfils several interconnected functions, which may conflict with each other in pathological conditions. Bone vascularization is at the interface between these functions. The roles of bone vascularization are better documented in bone development, growth and modeling than in bone remodeling. However, every bone remodeling unit is associated with a capillary in both cortical and trabecular envelopes. Here we summarize the most recent data on vessel involvement in bone remodeling, and we present the characteristics of bone vascularization. Finally, we describe the various techniques used for bone vessel imaging and quantitative assessment, including histology, immunohistochemistry, microtomography and intravital microscopy. Studying the role of vascularization in adult bone should provide benefits for the understanding and treatment of metabolic bone diseases.

  19. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens.

  20. Bone-Forming Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxia; Rosenberg, Andrew E

    2017-09-01

    Bone-forming tumors are defined by neoplastic cells that differentiate along the lines of osteoblasts that deposit neoplastic bone. The morphology and biological spectrum of bone-forming tumors is broad, and their accurate diagnosis requires the careful correlation of their clinical, morphologic, and radiologic characteristics. Immunohistochemical and molecular analyses have an important role in select instances. At present, the identification of neoplastic bone largely depends on histologic analysis, which can be subjective. The major types of osteosarcoma are defined according to their morphology, origin within or on the surface of the bone, and their histologic grade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  2. Annotation and genetic diversity of the chicken collagenous lectins.

    PubMed

    Hamzić, Edin; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2015-06-01

    Collectins and ficolins are multimeric proteins present in various tissues and are actively involved in innate immune responses. In chickens, six different collagenous lectins have been characterized so far: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), surfactant protein A (SP-A), collectin 10 (COLEC10), collectin 11 (COLEC11), collectin 12 (COLEC12), lung lectin (LL) and one ficolin (FCN). However, the structural and functional features of the chicken collectins and ficolin are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to make an overview of the genetic structure and function of chicken collectins and the ficolin, (ii) to investigate the variation in the chicken collectins and the ficolin gene in different chicken populations, and (iii) to assess the presence of MBL gene variants in different chicken populations. We performed comparative genomic analysis using publically available data. The obtained results showed that collectins and ficolins have conserved protein sequences and gene structure across all vertebrate groups and this is especially notable for COLEC10, COLEC11 and COLEC12. For the purpose of studying the genetic variation, 179 animals from 14 populations were genotyped using 31 SNPs covering five genomic regions. The obtained results revealed low level of heterozygosity in the collagenous lectins except for the COLEC12 gene and the LL-SPA-MBL region compared to heterozygosity at neutral microsatellite markers. In addition, the MBL gene variants were assessed in different chicken populations based on the polymorphisms in the promoter region. We observed 10 previously identified MBL variants with A2/A8 and A4 as the most frequent alleles.

  3. Bone marrow transplantation alters lung antigen presenting cells to promote TH17 response and the development of pneumonitis and fibrosis following gammaherpesvirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Loomis-King, Hillary; Gurczynski, Stephen J.; Wilke, Carol A.; Konopka, Kristine E.; Ptaschinski, Catherine; Coomes, Stephanie M; Iwakura, Yoichiro; van Dyk, Linda F.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Moore, Bethany B.

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) efficacy is limited by numerous pulmonary complications. We developed a model of syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) followed by infection with murine gamma herpesvirus (γHV-68) that results in pneumonitis and fibrosis and mimics human “non-infectious” HSCT complications. BMT mice experience increased early lytic replication, but establish viral latency by 21 days post infection (dpi). CD4 T cells in BMT mice are skewed towards IL-17A rather than IFN-γ production. Transplantation of bone marrow from Il-17a−/− donors or treatment with anti-IL-17A neutralization antibodies at late stages attenuates pneumonitis and fibrosis in infected BMT mice, suggesting that hematopoietic-derived IL-17A is essential for development of pathology. IL-17A directly influences activation and extracellular matrix production by lung mesenchymal cells. Lung CD11c+ cells of BMT mice secrete more TGF-β1, and pro-TH17 mRNAs for IL-23 and IL-6, and less TH1-promoting cytokine mRNA for IFN-γ but slightly more IL-12 mRNA in response to viral infection. Adoptive transfer of non-BMT lung CD11c-enriched cells restores robust TH1 response and suppresses aberrant TH17 response in BMT mice to improve lung pathology. Our data suggest “non-infectious” HSCT lung complications may reflect preceding viral infections and demonstrate that IL-17A neutralization may offer therapeutic advantage even after disease onset. PMID:26376362

  4. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  5. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (p<0.05). On the other hand, the increase in pre-rigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle. PMID:26761884

  6. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (p<0.05). On the other hand, the increase in pre-rigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle.

  7. Generation of mice with functional inactivation of talpid3, a gene first identified in chicken.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Fiona; Antonio, Nicole; Thongnuek, Peerapat; Welten, Monique; Davey, Megan G; Briscoe, James; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-08-01

    Specification of digit number and identity is central to digit pattern in vertebrate limbs. The classical talpid(3) chicken mutant has many unpatterned digits together with defects in other regions, depending on hedgehog (Hh) signalling, and exhibits embryonic lethality. The talpid(3) chicken has a mutation in KIAA0586, which encodes a centrosomal protein required for the formation of primary cilia, which are sites of vertebrate Hh signalling. The highly conserved exons 11 and 12 of KIAA0586 are essential to rescue cilia in talpid(3) chicken mutants. We constitutively deleted these two exons to make a talpid3(-/-) mouse. Mutant mouse embryos lack primary cilia and, like talpid(3) chicken embryos, have face and neural tube defects but also defects in left/right asymmetry. Conditional deletion in mouse limb mesenchyme results in polydactyly and in brachydactyly and a failure of subperisoteal bone formation, defects that are attributable to abnormal sonic hedgehog and Indian hedgehog signalling, respectively. Like talpid(3) chicken limbs, the mutant mouse limbs are syndactylous with uneven digit spacing as reflected in altered Raldh2 expression, which is normally associated with interdigital mesenchyme. Both mouse and chicken mutant limb buds are broad and short. talpid3(-/-) mouse cells migrate more slowly than wild-type mouse cells, a change in cell behaviour that possibly contributes to altered limb bud morphogenesis. This genetic mouse model will facilitate further conditional approaches, epistatic experiments and open up investigation into the function of the novel talpid3 gene using the many resources available for mice.

  8. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  9. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  10. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  11. Susceptibility of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to Trichinella patagoniensis.

    PubMed

    Pasqualetti, M; Fariña, F; Falzoni, E; Cardillo, N; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-15

    Trichinella spp. is a genus of parasites that is widespread all over the world. In Argentina, T. spiralis was for years the only species involved in human and animal outbreaks. During the last decade, T. patagoniensis, a new Trichinella species, was discovered in Argentina. Up to now, this species has only been found in cougars (Puma concolor). Experimental infections in pigs, cats, mice and rats with this new genotype showed that cats and mice were the most susceptible hosts. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the susceptibility of chickens to infection with T. patagoniensis. In order to study the intestinal and muscular phase, and the histopathological changes, 27 Leghorn chickens were inoculated per os with 1000 muscle larvae of T. patagoniensis and were euthanized on days 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Adult worms of T. patagoniensis were recovered from the small intestine of chickens up to day 14p.i. Gross examination of small intestine showed a moderate congestive appearance. Microscopically, an inflammatory response with lymphocytes and eosinophils in lamina propria, slight hyperemia, oedema and some haemorrhagic areas were detected. Lesions observed in chickens were similar to those described in different animal species during the intestinal phase. No muscular larvae were recovered from the muscle samples. These results suggest that T. patagoniensis is not capable to complete its entire life cycle in chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The magnetic compass of domestic chickens, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Freire, Rafael; Munro, Ursula; Ritz, Thorsten; Rogers, Lesley; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2007-07-01

    By directional training, young domestic chickens have been shown to use a magnetic compass; the same method has now been used to analyse the functional characteristics and the physical principles underlying the chickens' magnetic compass. Tests in magnetic fields with different intensities revealed a functional window around the intensity of the local geomagnetic field, with this window extending further towards lower than higher intensities. Testing chickens under monochromatic 465 nm blue and 645 nm red light suggested a wavelength dependence, with orientation possible under blue but not under red light. Exposing chickens to an oscillating field of 1.566 MHz led to disorientation, identifying an underlying radical pair mechanism. Local anesthesia of the upper beak, where iron-rich structures have been described as potential magnetoreceptors, did not affect the performance, suggesting that these receptors are not involved in compass orientation. These findings show obvious parallels to the magnetic compass described for European robins, indicating that chickens and small passerines use the same type of magnetic compass mechanism. This suggests that the avian magnetic compass may have evolved in the common ancestor of all present-day birds to facilitate orientation within the home range.

  13. Adenosine triphosphatase-positive Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Pérez Torres, A; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S

    1991-06-01

    In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chickens can develop contact dermatitis, the finding is taken as the first formal demonstration of the presence of Langerhans cells in this group of vertebrates.

  14. The Influence of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Presentation on Tubule Organization by Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Coculture.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Emily A; Fedorchak, Morgan V; Little, Steven R

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional in vitro Matrigel plug was used as a model to explore delivery patterns of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to a coculture of human mesenchymal and endothelial cells. While BMP-2 is well recognized for its role in promoting fracture healing through proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors, it is not a growth factor known to promote the process of angiogenesis, which is also critical for complete bone tissue repair. PDGF, in contrast, is a known regulator of angiogenesis, and also a powerful chemoattractant for osteoblast precursor cells. It has been suggested that presentation of PDGF followed by BMP may better promote vascularized bone tissue formation. Yet, it is unclear as to how cells would respond to various durations of delivery of each growth factor as well as to various amounts of overlap in presentation in terms of angiogenesis. Using a three-dimensional in vitro Matrigel plug model, we observed how various presentation schedules of PDGF and BMP-2 influenced tubule formation by human mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. We observed that sequential presentation of PDGF to BMP-2 led to increased tubule formation over simultaneous delivery of these growth factors. Importantly, a 2-4 day overlap in the sequential presentation of PDGF and BMP-2 increased tubule formation as compared with groups with zero or complete growth factor overlap, suggesting that a moderate amount of angiogenic and osteogenic growth factor overlap may be beneficial for processes associated with angiogenesis.

  15. Kidney lesions associated with mortality in chickens inoculated with waterfowl influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slemons, R.D.; Locke, L.N.; Sheerar, Martha G.; Duncan, R.M.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Easterday, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-six type A influenza viruses recovered from waterfowl in Wisconsin, California, South Dakota, Florida, Texas, Alabama, and Nebraska were tested for virulence in chickens. The challenge to chickens was intravenous inoculation of first-, second-, or third-egg-passage virus. Each of the virus strains was tested separately in three or four chickens. Eighteen of the 76 viruses caused the death of one or more chickens following inoculation. Postmortem lesions were similar in all dead birds. In decreasing order of frequency, gross lesions included: swollen kidneys evident as accentuated lobular patterns, urates in the pericardial sac, and urates on the surface of the liver. Microscopic lesions present in kidneys were consistent with visceral gout. Mortality was associated with inoculations having higher concentrations of infectious virus. These results indicate that the influenza A viruses circulating in duck populations may include strains potentially pathogenic for chickens.

  16. Cyclophosphamide induces bone marrow to yield higher numbers of precursor dendritic cells in vitro capable of functional antigen presentation to T cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed L.; El-Naggar, Sabry A.; Cole, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown recently that cyclophosphamide (CTX) treatment induced a marked increase in the numbers of immature dendritic cells (DCs) in blood, coinciding with enhanced antigen-specific responses of the adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells. Because this DC expansion was preceded by DC proliferation in bone marrow (BM), we tested whether BM post CTX treatment can generate higher numbers of functional DCs. BM was harvested three days after treatment of C57BL/6 mice with PBS or CTX and cultured with GM-CSF/IL-4 in vitro. Compared with control, BM from CTX-treated mice showed faster generation and yielded higher numbers of DCs with superior activation in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Vaccination with peptide-pulsed DCs generated from BM from CTX-treated mice induced comparable adjuvant effects to those induced by control DCs. Taken together, post CTX BM harbors higher numbers of DC precursors capable of differentiating into functional DCs, which be targeted to create host microenvironment riches in activated DCs upon treatment with TLR agonists. PMID:20036354

  17. Effect of eggshell temperature throughout incubation on broiler hatchling leg bone development.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, C W; van Roovert-Reijrink, I A M; Maatjens, C M; van den Anker, I; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2014-11-01

    Leg problems in broiler chickens may partly be prevented by providing optimal circumstances for skeletal development during incubation. One of the factors demonstrated to affect bone development is eggshell temperature (EST), which provides a reliable reflection of embryo temperature. The present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of EST on development and asymmetry of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus in broiler chicken hatchlings. Eggs were incubated from d 0 until hatch at 1 of 4 EST: low (36.9°C), normal (37.8°C), high (38.6°C), and very high (39.4°C). At hatch, chick quality was determined in terms of chick length, yolk-free body mass, navel score, and organ weights. Tibia, femur, and metatarsus were weighed, their length and width (mediolateral diameter) and depth (craniocaudal diameter) at the middle of the shaft were measured, and their ash content was determined. Relative asymmetry of the leg bones was determined from their relative dimensions. Hatchability, chick quality, and organ development were lower for very high EST compared with all other treatments. Very high EST resulted in lowest tibia and metatarsus lengths (-3.1 to -8.4%) compared with all other treatments, and lower metatarsus weight (-9.1%) and femur length (-4.9%) compared with high EST. Relative asymmetry and ash content did not differ among treatments and no relation between EST and bone parameters was found. To conclude, very high EST resulted in lower bone development, hatchability, and chick quality. Few differences in bone development and chick quality were found between low, normal, and high EST. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. [EFFECTIVENESS OF PREVENTIVE VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS OF CHICKEN POX IN MILITARY COLLECTIVES].

    PubMed

    Dubodelov, D V; Rybin, V V; Rikhter, V V; Yaroslavtsev, V V; Gritsik, A A; Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Semenenko, T A; Kuzin, S N

    2015-01-01

    Study the effectiveness of preventive vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox in military collectives. In the focus of chicken pox, 200 servicemen of the new addition by conscription were immunized once against chicken pox; 97 servicemen by conscription of the new addition (comparison group) were not vaccinated. Epidemiologic and immunologic effectiveness of conduction of preventive vaccine prophylaxis in chicken pox focus were studied. In the group of 200 soldiers, that were present in the focus of infection and were immunized once against chicken pox, only 2 cases of this disease were registered (10 per thousand). In the comparison group, that consisted of 97 unvaccinated servicemen, chicken pox disease was registered in 7 individuals (72 per thousand). Epidemiologic effectiveness of preventive vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox amounted to 86%. Immunologic effectiveness of vaccination 2-3 weeks after the immunization was 42%, and 2 months after--44%. Local reactions in the form of hyperemia (up to 1.5 cm) and edema were noted in 10% of the vaccinated at the location of preparation administration; in 1.7%--general reaction in the form of temperature increase to 37.8°C was observed. Post-vaccinal complications in the immunized group were not detected. Preventive vaccination of servicemen allows to minimize the spread of chicken pox, however can not serve as means of complete elimination of the infection from military collectives.

  19. Bone and bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely affect bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified.

  20. Genome-wide association study reveals novel variants for growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Liao, R; Zhang, X; Chen, Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Q; Yang, C; Pan, Y

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the genetic basis of growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and White Leghorn chickens. In this study, we employed a reduced representation sequencing approach called genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing to detect genome-wide SNPs in 252 Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and 252 White Leghorn chickens. The Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken breed has many specific traits and is characterized by blue-shelled eggs, black plumage, black skin, black bone and black organs. The White Leghorn chicken is an egg-type breed with high productivity. As multibreed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) can improve precision due to less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, a multibreed GWAS was performed with 156 575 SNPs to identify the associated variants underlying growth and egg traits within the two chicken breeds. The analysis revealed 32 SNPs exhibiting a significant genome-wide association with growth and egg traits. Some of the significant SNPs are located in genes that are known to impact growth and egg traits, but nearly half of the significant SNPs are located in genes with unclear functions in chickens. To our knowledge, this is the first multibreed genome-wide report for the genetics of growth and egg traits in the Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens.

  1. Allogenic bone grafts in post-traumatic juxta-articular defects: Need for allogenic bone banking.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S

    2017-07-01

    Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.

  2. A serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Wit, J J; van Eck, J H; Crooijmans, R P; Pijpers, A

    2004-05-15

    To get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the Netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. These flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the Netherlands, regions with a high poultry density. The owners of the tested flocks showed their chicken at national and international poultry exhibitions. Antibodies against Avian Influenza, Egg Drop Syndrome '76 virus, Pox virus, Salmonella pullorum/gallinarum, Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium were not detected. However, antibodies against other Salmonella species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, chicken anaemia virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, and avian leukosis virus, subgroups A and B, and subgroup J were detected in a varying proportion of the flocks. This study shows that antibodies against many chicken pathogens are present among the flocks of old fancy chicken breeds that are exhibited at international poultry exhibitions.

  3. Association between BMP15 Gene Polymorphism and Reproduction Traits and Its Tissues Expression Characteristics in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Gao, Jinbo; Liu, Wei; Li, Fuwei; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yan; Cao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) is an oocyte-secreted growth factor required for ovarian follicle development and ovulation in mammals, but its effects on reproduction in chickens are unclear. In this study, the association between BMP15 polymorphisms and reproduction traits were analyzed, and its expression characteristics in different tissues were explored in LaiWu Black chickens. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in four hundred LaiWu Black chickens. One SNP (NC_006091.3:g.1773T>C) located in exon 2 which was significantly associated with egg weight at first egg (EWFE) (P = 0.0389), was novel. Diplotypes based on the three SNPs were found to be significantly associated with egg weight at age of 43W (EW43) (P = 0.0058). The chickens with H3H3 diplotype had their first egg 0.57 days later than chickens with H5H5 diplotype and 1.21 days-3.96 days earlier than the other five diplotype chickens. The egg production at age of 43W (E43), egg production at age of 46W (E46) and egg production at age of 48W (E48) for chickens with H3H3 diplotype were the highest among all the chickens, and the E48 of chickens with H3H3 diplotype had 11.83 eggs higher than chickens with H1H5 diplotype. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of BMP15 gene in ovarian follicle was in the order of 4 mm>6 mm -8 mm> 15 mm -19 mm> 23 mm -29 mm > 33 mm -34 mm in diameter. The mRNA level in follicles of 4 mm and 6–8 mm in diameter were significantly higher than that in the other follicles (P<0.01). In the same week, the highest mRNA level was found in the ovary, and it was significantly different from that found in the liver and oviduct (P<0.01). Our results indicate that BMP15 plays a vital role in the development of ovary and follicles, especially in the development of primary follicles. H3H3 may be an potential advantageous molecular marker for improving reproduction traits in chickens. PMID:26574748

  4. Association between BMP15 Gene Polymorphism and Reproduction Traits and Its Tissues Expression Characteristics in Chicken.

    PubMed

    Han, Haixia; Lei, Qiuxia; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Jinbo; Liu, Wei; Li, Fuwei; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yan; Cao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) is an oocyte-secreted growth factor required for ovarian follicle development and ovulation in mammals, but its effects on reproduction in chickens are unclear. In this study, the association between BMP15 polymorphisms and reproduction traits were analyzed, and its expression characteristics in different tissues were explored in LaiWu Black chickens. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in four hundred LaiWu Black chickens. One SNP (NC_006091.3:g.1773T>C) located in exon 2 which was significantly associated with egg weight at first egg (EWFE) (P = 0.0389), was novel. Diplotypes based on the three SNPs were found to be significantly associated with egg weight at age of 43W (EW43) (P = 0.0058). The chickens with H3H3 diplotype had their first egg 0.57 days later than chickens with H5H5 diplotype and 1.21 days-3.96 days earlier than the other five diplotype chickens. The egg production at age of 43W (E43), egg production at age of 46W (E46) and egg production at age of 48W (E48) for chickens with H3H3 diplotype were the highest among all the chickens, and the E48 of chickens with H3H3 diplotype had 11.83 eggs higher than chickens with H1H5 diplotype. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of BMP15 gene in ovarian follicle was in the order of 4 mm>6 mm -8 mm> 15 mm -19 mm> 23 mm -29 mm > 33 mm -34 mm in diameter. The mRNA level in follicles of 4 mm and 6-8 mm in diameter were significantly higher than that in the other follicles (P<0.01). In the same week, the highest mRNA level was found in the ovary, and it was significantly different from that found in the liver and oviduct (P<0.01). Our results indicate that BMP15 plays a vital role in the development of ovary and follicles, especially in the development of primary follicles. H3H3 may be an potential advantageous molecular marker for improving reproduction traits in chickens.

  5. EPIDEMIC TREMOR, AN ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AFFECTING YOUNG CHICKENS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E. Elizabeth

    1934-01-01

    A new disease having a characteristic and well defined symptom complex is described as occurring in young chickens in four New England states. Tremor, principally of the head and neck, and progressive ataxia are the characteristic symptoms, either or both of which may be present in a single bird. Age at onset in field epidemics ranges from 3 days to 6 weeks, with a majority of cases reported at 3 weeks. Morbidity in commercial flocks ranges from 5 to 50 per cent; mortality in affected hatches may be 50 per cent. The disease may or may not recur in successive hatches, and in the same flock in successive years. Although birds may survive an attack of the disease, nervous symptoms persist in a majority of cases. There is no evidence that nutritional factors are involved. Normal chickens have not contracted the disease by contact with affected birds. The disease has been reproduced in normal chickens by intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from affected birds. Twenty brain-to-brain passages have been made up to the present time. The incubation period in laboratory passages ranges from 6 to 44 days with symptoms appearing usually between 21 and 28 days. The proportion of inoculated birds developing symptoms has increased with successive passages. The infective agent in the brain has survived in 50 per cent glycerine for 69 days. No organism has been cultivated. The disease has been reproduced after inoculation with bacteriologically sterile filtrates obtained with Seitz and Berkefeld N filters. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of the infective agent in the chicken embryo have been inconclusive. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by birds which had survived the disease were not infected, nor were they immune to inoculation at 6 weeks of age. The characteristic lesion of the disease consists of microscopic focal collections of glia cells, perivascular infiltration, degeneration of Purkinje's cells, and degeneration of nerve cells. Foci of infiltration are

  6. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  7. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  8. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  9. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.

  10. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  11. Efficacy of early treatment with toltrazuril in prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, efficacy of the toltrazuril treatment for prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis was tested. Ninety-six 14-day-old commercial broiler chickens were caged and divided into eight groups (n=12), designated groups 1 to 8. Chickens of groups 1 to 6 were inoculated orally at 18 days of age with 25,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella and 75,000 oocysts of Eimeria brunetti. At 22 days of age, chickens of groups 1 to 6 were infected with 10(9) colony-forming unit Clostridium perfringens. Chickens of group 1 were treated with 75 parts/10(6) toltrazuril in drinking water for 8 h on two consecutive days up to 12 h before Eimeria infection, while chickens of groups 2 to 5 were treated with the same dose of toltrazuril at 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 84 h after Eimeria infection, respectively. The non-treated group 6 served as a positive control. Chickens in group 7 were treated with toltrazuril at 17 and 18 days of age, and those of group 8 remained uninfected and non-treated as a negative control. The feed conversion ratio was higher in the positive control compared with other groups. The mortality rates were 16.8% and 41.7% in the late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) and infected non-treated chickens, respectively. Lesions scores of necrotic enteritis or coccidiosis in infected, non-treated chickens were significantly more severe compared with negative controls (P<0.01) and late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) chickens (P<0.05). In conclusion, application of toltrazuril before Eimeria challenge protected chickens from coccidiosis and indirectly from successive necrotic enteritis caused by C. perfringens infection.

  12. Histopathological and clinical investigations in Neospora caninum experimentally infected broiler chicken embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Maryam; Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Namavari, Mehdi

    2009-12-23

    To date, despite the limited information about the role of birds in Neospora caninum infection, there are no reports regarding the role of broiler chickens. In the present study, an experimental infection with N. caninum NC-1 isolate was conducted in embryonated eggs from 70 Lohman broiler chickens randomly divided into seven equal groups. At 8 days of incubation, six groups were inoculated via chorioallantoic (CA) liquid with different dilutions (10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6)) of tachyzoites/embryonated egg. The 7th group was considered the control. The mortality rate, gross and histopathologic changes of tissues of the dead embryos and live hatched chickens up to 60 days old were studied and evaluated. There were no hatchings in groups with 10(5) and 10(6) tachyzoites. In groups with 10, 10(2), 10(3) and 10(4) tachyzoites there were 8, 7, 5 and 2 hatchings, respectively. From the surviving chickens only one 10(4) tachyzoites inoculated chicken showed clinical neurologic signs. In all groups the main gross lesions were hemorrhage associated with thickening of the CA membranes. Three chickens (one chicken with 10(4) tachyzoites and two with 10(5) tachyzoites) showed arthritis in the feet joints after two weeks of inoculation. Microscopic examination of the heart, liver and chorioallantoic membrane revealed acute neosporosis and, in some cases, granulomatous inflammation. Our findings implied that broiler chicken embryonated egg is a completely suitable animal model for biological studies of acute neosporosis studies and genetic susceptibility can be propounded in different chicken breeds. It seems 10(3) tachyzoites dilution is equal to LD50 in N. caninum infection in broiler chicken embryonated eggs and can be used in other experimental investigations.

  13. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    PubMed

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens.

  14. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The identification of loci for polydactyly in chickens using a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xihui; Chen, Yu; Jia, Yaxiong; Qi, Xiaolong; Feng, Yun; Huang, Zhen; Guo, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Polydactyly is a commonly observed limb malformation in humans and other vertebrates. The Beijing-You chicken expressing the polydactyly phenotype provides an opportunity to investigate the potential cause for polydactyly. Here we extensively exploited genetic determinants of the chicken polydactyly in a genome wide association study using over 580,000 SNPs characterized in a Beijing-You × Lohmann F1 cross, consisting of 79 animals. A total of 10 loci clustered on the short arm of chromosome 2 were identified to be significantly associated with the trait. Among the 10 significant SNPs, 7 were located in a linkage disequilibrium block of 1737kb. The strongest association signal (rs317674023, P=5.48×10(-8)) residing nearby Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor-Associated Molecule 1 (BRAM1) was identified in the genomic region. Our results provide insights to the genetic basis underlying chicken polydactyly and may facilitate studies of the limb malformation in humans and other species.

  16. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between two chicken populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although several genetic linkage maps of the chicken genome have been published, the resolution of these maps is limited and does not allow the precise identification of recombination hotspots. The availability of more than 3.2 million SNPs in the chicken genome and the recent advances in high throughput genotyping techniques enabled us to increase marker density for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the chicken genome. This high-resolution linkage map allowed us to study recombination hotspots across the genome between two chicken populations: a purebred broiler line and a broiler × broiler cross. In total, 1,619 animals from the two different broiler populations were genotyped with 17,790 SNPs. Results The resulting linkage map comprises 13,340 SNPs. Although 360 polymorphic SNPs that had not been assigned to a known chromosome on chicken genome build WASHUC2 were included in this study, no new linkage groups were found. The resulting linkage map is composed of 31 linkage groups, with a total length of 3,054 cM for the sex-average map of the combined population. The sex-average linkage map of the purebred broiler line is 686 cM smaller than the linkage map of the broiler × broiler cross. Conclusions In this study, we present a linkage map of the chicken genome at a substantially higher resolution than previously published linkage maps. Regional differences in recombination hotspots between the two mapping populations were observed in several chromosomes near the telomere of the p arm; the sex-specific analysis revealed that these regional differences were mainly caused by female-specific recombination hotspots in the broiler × broiler cross. PMID:20141624

  17. Multifunctional properties of chicken embryonic prenatal mesenchymal stem cells- pluripotency, plasticity, and tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanalakshmi, G; Arfuso, Frank; Dharmarajan, Arun; Warrier, Sudha

    2014-12-01

    The chick embryo represents an accessible and economical in vivo model, which has long been used in developmental biology, gene expression analysis, and loss/gain of function experiments. In the present study, we assessed and characterized bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from prenatal day 13 chicken embryos (chBMMSCs) and determined some novel properties. After assessing the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) properties of these cells by the presence of their signature markers (CD 44, CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, and vimentin), we ascertained a very broad spectrum of multipotentiality as these MSCs not only differentiated into the classic tri-lineages of MSCs but also into ectodermal, endodermal, and mesodermal lineages such as neuron, hepatocyte, islet cell, and cardiac. In addition to wide plasticity, we detected the presence of several pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. This is the first study characterizing prenatal chBMMSCs and their ability to not only differentiate into mesenchymal lineages but also into all the germ cell layer lineages. Furthermore, our studies indicate that prenatal chBMMSCs derived from the chick provide an excellent model for multi-lineage development studies because of their broad plasticity and faithful reproduction of MSC traits as seen in the human. Here, we also present evidence for the first time that media derived from prenatal chBMMSC cultures have an anti-tumorigenic, anti-migratory, and pro-apoptotic effect on human tumors cells acting through the Wnt-ß-catenin pathway. These data confirm that chBMMSCs are enriched with factors in their secretome that are able to destroy tumor cells. This suggests a commonality of properties of MSCs across species between human and chicken.

  18. Chloride channels regulate chondrogenesis in chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Meiyu; Duan, Yinzhong; Duan, Xiaohong

    2010-12-01

    Voltage gated chloride channels (ClCs) play an important role in the regulation of intracellular pH and cell volume homeostasis. Mutations of these genes result in genetic diseases with abnormal bone deformation and body size, indicating that ClCs may have a role in chondrogenesis. In the present study, we isolated chicken mandibular mesenchymal cells (CMMC) from Hamburg-Hamilton (HH) stage 26 chick embryos and induced chondrocyte maturation by using ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA-BGP). We also determined the effect of the chloride channel inhibitor NPPB [5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid] on regulation of growth, differentiation, and gene expression in these cells using MTT and real-time PCR assays. We found that CLCN1 and CLCN3-7 mRNA were expressed in CMMC and NPPB reduced expression of CLCN3, CLCN5, and CLCN7 mRNA in these cells. At the same time, NPPB inhibited the growth of the CMMC, but had no effect on the mRNA level of cyclin D1 and cyclin E (P>0.05) with/without AA-BGP treatment. AA-BGP increased markers for early chondrocyte differentiation including type II collagen, aggrecan (P<0.01) and Sox9 (P<0.05), whilst had no effect on the late chondrocyte differentiation marker type X collagen. NPPB antagonized AA-BGP-induced expression of type II collagen and aggrecan (P<0.05). Furthermore, NPPB downregulated type X collagen (P<0.05) with/without AA-BGP treatment. We conclude that abundant chloride channel genes in CMMC play important roles in regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Type X collagen might function as a target of chloride channel inhibitors during the differentiation process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of chicken epidermal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Igyártó, Botond-Zoltán; Lackó, Erzsébet; Oláh, Imre; Magyar, Attila

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for 15 years that the chicken epidermis contains ATPase+ and major histocompatibility complex class II-positive (MHCII+) dendritic cells. These cells were designated as Langerhans cells but neither their detailed phenotype nor their function was further investigated. In the present paper we demonstrate a complete overlapping of ATPase, CD45 and vimentin staining in all dendritic cells of the chicken epidermis. The CD45+ ATPase+ vimentin+ dendritic cells could be divided into three subpopulations: an MHCII+ CD3– KUL01+ and 68.1+ (monocyte-macrophage subpopulation markers) subpopulation, an MHCII– CD3– KUL01– and 68.1– subpopulation and an MHCII– CD3+ KUL01– and 68.1– subpopulation. The first population could be designated as chicken Langerhans cells. The last population represents CD4– CD8– T-cell receptor-αβ– and -γδ– natural killer cells with cytoplasmic CD3 positivity. The epidermal dendritic cells have a low proliferation rate as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that dendritic cells could be mobilized from the epidermis. Hapten treatment of epidermis resulted in the decrease of the frequency of epidermal dendritic cells and hapten-loaded dendritic cells appeared in the dermis or in in vitro culture of isolated epidermis. Hapten-positive cells were also found in the so-called dermal lymphoid nodules. We suggest that these dermal nodules are responsible for some regional immunological functions similar to the mammalian lymph nodes. PMID:16889640

  20. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1996-03-12

    The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  1. Aging and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Boskey, A.L.; Coleman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Bones provide mechanical and protective function, while also serving as housing for marrow and a site for regulation of calcium ion homeostasis. The properties of bones do not remain constant with age; rather, they change throughout life, in some cases improving in function, but in others, function deteriorates. Here we review the modifications in the mechanical function and shape of bones, the bone cells, the matrix they produce, and the mineral that is deposited on this matrix, while presenting recent theories about the factors leading to these changes. PMID:20924069

  2. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  3. Physicochemical Characterization of a Heat Treated Calcium Alginate Dry Film Prepared with Chicken Stock.

    PubMed

    Báez, Germán D; Piccirilli, Gisela N; Ballerini, Griselda A; Frattini, Agustín; Busti, Pablo A; Verdini, Roxana A; Delorenzi, Néstor J

    2017-04-01

    Solid sodium alginate was dissolved into chicken stock in order to give a final alginate concentration of 0.9 percent (w/v). Calcium ions present in chicken stock were enough to induce ionic gelation. After drying, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness and mechanical properties of films obtained were determined. Calcium alginate-chicken stock films were heated at 130 °C for different times between 0 and 15 min. Mechanical and optical studies, differential scanning calorimetry, visual aspect and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to describe physicochemical properties of heat treated films. Heating developed a maroon ochre color and increased the brittleness (crispness) of the films related to the intensity of the treatment. Differential scanning thermometry and study on appearance of the films suggested that Maillard reactions may be responsible for the observed changes. Maillard reactions mainly occurred between reducing sugar monomers and free amino groups of gelatin peptides present in the chicken stock, and between alginate and gelatin peptides to a lesser extent. In addition, the plasticizing effect of fat added with chicken stock was also studied. These studies suggest a potential use of heat treated chicken stock films as a substitute of roasted chicken skin.

  4. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: Seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lehmann, T; Lautner, F; Kwok, O C H; Gamble, H R

    2015-11-30

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chickens. In the present study 90 Toxoplasma gondii seronegative, sentinel chickens were placed on three (30 each) swine farms in New England in November, 2003. Chickens were bled monthly and their sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Chickens that seroconverted were euthanized and their tissues were bioassayed in mice, cats, or both. Over the course of the experiment (7 months), 31 of 71 chickens seroconverted (MAT 1:100 or higher). Tissues of 26 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in both cats and mice; viable T. gondii was isolated, by bioassay in mice, from hearts (whole) of all 26 chickens, brains (whole) of 3 chickens and leg muscles (25 g) of 11 chickens; 21 of 26 cats fed 250 g of muscle from seropositive chickens excreted T. gondii oocysts. Results indicated that the density of T. gondii in poultry muscle is low but heart is the tissue of choice for isolation of viable parasites.

  5. Keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycan from chicken egg white

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li; Sun, Xiaojun; He, Wenqin; Cai, Chao; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Zhangguo

    2016-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) was isolated from chicken egg white in amounts corresponding to ∼0.06 wt% (dry weight). This KS had a weight-average molecular weight of ∼36–41 kDa with a polydispersity of ∼1.3. The primary repeating unit present in chicken egg white KS was →4) β-N-acetyl-6-O-sulfo-d-glucosamine (1 → 3) β-d-galactose (1→ with some 6-O-sulfo galactose residues present. This KS was somewhat resistant to depolymerization using keratanase 1 but could be depolymerized efficiently through the use of reactive oxygen species generated using copper (II) and hydrogen peroxide. Of particular interest was the presence of substantial amounts of 2,8- and 2,9-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid residues in the form of oligosialic acid terminating the non-reducing ends of the KS chains. Most of the KS appears to be N-linked to a protein core as evidenced by its sensitivity to PNGase F. PMID:26903438

  6. Keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycan from chicken egg white.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Sun, Xiaojun; He, Wenqin; Cai, Chao; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Zhangguo

    2016-07-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) was isolated from chicken egg white in amounts corresponding to ∼0.06 wt% (dry weight). This KS had a weight-average molecular weight of ∼36-41 kDa with a polydispersity of ∼1.3. The primary repeating unit present in chicken egg white KS was →4) β-N-acetyl-6-O-sulfo-d-glucosamine (1 → 3) β-d-galactose (1→ with some 6-O-sulfo galactose residues present. This KS was somewhat resistant to depolymerization using keratanase 1 but could be depolymerized efficiently through the use of reactive oxygen species generated using copper (II) and hydrogen peroxide. Of particular interest was the presence of substantial amounts of 2,8- and 2,9-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid residues in the form of oligosialic acid terminating the non-reducing ends of the KS chains. Most of the KS appears to be N-linked to a protein core as evidenced by its sensitivity to PNGase F.

  7. Marble Bone Disease: A Rare Bone Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harinathbabu, Maheswari; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Prabhu, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis, or marble bone disease, is a rare skeletal disorder due to a defective function of the osteoclasts. This defect renders bones more susceptible to osteomyelitis due to decreased vascularity. This disorder is inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive. Healthcare professionals should urge these patients to maintain their oral health as well as general health, as this condition makes these patients more susceptible to frequent infections and fractures. This case report emphasizes the signs and symptoms of marble bone disease and presents clinical and radiographic findings.  PMID:26594603

  8. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  9. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  10. RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

    The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

  11. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  12. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  13. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner.

  14. Ten genetic loci in the chicken that contain structural genes for endogenous avian leukosis viruses.

    PubMed

    Astrin, S M; Robinson, H L; Crittenden, L B; Buss, E G; Wyban, J; Hayward, W S

    1980-01-01

    Our interpretation of the results presented here may be summarized as follows: (1) Endogenous viral genes can be located at any of a large number of sites in the chicken chromsome. (2) Different phenotypes of viral gene expression are observed, depending on the nature of the viral sequences at a given site and depending on whether the necessary sequence elements for expression are present. (3) Endogenous viral genes perform no essential function in the chicken.

  15. Age-related expression profile of the SLC27A1 gene in chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yao, Yong-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2011-11-01

    The solute carrier family 27 (SLC27, also known as fatty acid transport proteins [FATPs]) plays important biological roles in cells. However, there is no report about the expression profile of SLC27 member in chicken. In this study, we quantified the expression of SLC27A1 (FATP1) mRNA in a mountainous black-boned chicken breed (MB) and a commercial meat type chicken breed (S01), to discern the tissue and age-related specific expression pattern and their potential involvement in fat deposition and muscle fatty acid metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed for accurate measurement of SLC27A1 mRNA levels in different tissues from chicken with different ages (0-12 weeks). Expression of SLC27A1 mRNA was detected in all tissues examined. There was a significantly age-related change of the SLC27A1 mRNAs in heart, breast muscle (BMW), leg muscle (LMW), liver, and abdominal fat (AF) tissues (P < 0.05). The breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of SLC27A1 mRNA than the other tissues from the same individual at 0, 2 and 4 weeks. The overall SLC27A1 mRNA level exhibited a "rise-decline" developmental change in all tissues except for breast muscle, subcutaneous fat, and brain. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the SLC27A1 mRNA in breast muscle, subcutaneous fat, and heart tissues than the MB chicken. Our results showed that the expression of SLC27A1 mRNA in chicken tissues exhibits specific developmental changes and age-related patterns.

  16. Biochemical and developmental characterization of carbonic anhydrase II from chicken erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA) of the chicken has attracted attention for a long time because it has an important role in the eggshell formation. The developmental profile of CA-II isozyme levels in chicken erythrocytes has not been determined or reported. Furthermore, the relations with CA-II in erythrocyte and egg production are not discussed. In the present study, we isolated CA-II from erythrocytes of chickens and determined age-related changes of CA-II levels in erythrocytes. Methods Chicken CA-II was purified by a combination of column chromatography. The levels of CA-II in the hemolysate of the chicken were determined using the ELISA system in blood samples from 279 female chickens, ages 1 to 93 weeks, 69 male chickens, ages 3 to 59 weeks and 52 weeks female Araucana-chickens. Results The mean concentration of CA-II in hemolysate from 1-week-old female was 50.8 ± 11.9 mg/g of Hb. The mean levels of CA-II in 25-week-old (188.1 ± 82.6 mg/g of Hb), 31-week-old (193.6 ± 69.7 mg/g of Hb) and 49-week-old (203.8 ± 123.5 mg/g of Hb) female-chickens showed the highest level of CA-II. The levels of CA-II in female WL-chickens significantly decreased at 63 week (139.0 ± 19.3 mg/g of Hb). The levels of CA-II in female WL-chicken did not change from week 63 until week 93.The mean level of CA-II in hemolysate of 3-week-old male WL-chickens was 78.3 ± 20.7 mg/g of Hb. The levels of CA-II in male WL-chickens did not show changes in the week 3 to week 59 timeframe. The mean level of CA-II in 53-week-old female Araucana-chickens was 23.4 ± 1.78 mg/g of Hb. These levels of CA-II were about 11% of those of 49-week-old female WL-chickens. Simple linear regression analysis showed significant associations between the level of CA-II and egg laying rate from 16 week-old at 63 week-old WL-chicken (p < 0.01). Conclusions Developmental changes and sexual differences of CA-II concentration in WL-chicken erythrocytes were observed. The concentration of CA-II in the erythrocyte

  17. Deletion of Indian hedgehog gene causes dominant semi-lethal Creeper trait in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sihua; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yanyun; Yi, Guoqiang; Li, Junying; Lian, Ling; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Jiao, Rengang; Gong, Yu; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Creeper trait, a classical monogenic phenotype of chicken, is controlled by a dominant semi-lethal gene. This trait has been widely cited in the genetics and molecular biology textbooks for illustrating autosomal dominant semi-lethal inheritance over decades. However, the genetic basis of the Creeper trait remains unknown. Here we have utilized ultra-deep sequencing and extensive analysis for targeting causative mutation controlling the Creeper trait. Our results indicated that the deletion of Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene was only found in the whole-genome sequencing data of lethal embryos and Creeper chickens. Large scale segregation analysis demonstrated that the deletion of IHH was fully linked with early embryonic death and the Creeper trait. Expression analysis showed a much lower expression of IHH in Creeper than wild-type chickens. We therefore suggest the deletion of IHH to be the causative mutation for the Creeper trait in chicken. Our findings unravel the genetic basis of the longstanding Creeper phenotype mystery in chicken as the same gene also underlies bone dysplasia in human and mouse, and thus highlight the significance of IHH in animal development and human haploinsufficiency disorders. PMID:27439785

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810, Which Can Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chicken Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoji

    2016-01-01

    We present the 2.05-Mb draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810, a chicken intestinal isolate with the ability to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization in chickens. The genome sequence will provide insights on the probiotic mechanisms of L. crispatus JCM5810. PMID:27081134

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810, Which Can Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chicken Intestine.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoji; Miller, Michael J

    2016-04-14

    We present the 2.05-Mb draft genome sequence ofLactobacillus crispatusJCM5810, a chicken intestinal isolate with the ability to reduceCampylobacter jejunicolonization in chickens. The genome sequence will provide insights on the probiotic mechanisms ofL. crispatusJCM5810.

  20. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload.

  1. Genome-wide census and expression profiling of chicken neuropeptide and prohormone convertase genes.

    PubMed

    Delfino, K R; Southey, B R; Sweedler, J V; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2010-02-01

    Neuropeptides regulate cell-cell signaling and influence many biological processes in vertebrates, including development, growth, and reproduction. The complex processing of neuropeptides from prohormone proteins by prohormone convertases, combined with the evolutionary distance between the chicken and mammalian species that have experienced extensive neuropeptide research, has led to the empirical confirmation of only 18 chicken prohormone proteins. To expand our knowledge of the neuropeptide and prohormone convertase gene complement, we performed an exhaustive survey of the chicken genomic, EST, and proteomic databases using a list of 95 neuropeptide and 7 prohormone convertase genes known in other species. Analysis of the EST resources and 22 microarray studies offered a comprehensive portrait of gene expression across multiple conditions. Five neuropeptide genes (apelin, cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein, insulin-like 5, neuropeptide S, and neuropeptide B) previously unknown in chicken were identified and 62 genes were confirmed. Although most neuropeptide gene families known in human are present in chicken, there are several gene not present in the chicken. Conversely, several chicken neuropeptide genes are absent from mammalian species, including C-RF amide, c-type natriuretic peptide 1 precursor, and renal natriuretic peptide. The prohormone convertases, with one exception, were found in the chicken genome. Bioinformatic models used to predict prohormone cleavages confirm that the processing of prohormone proteins into neuropeptides is similar between species. Neuropeptide genes are most frequently expressed in the brain and head, followed by the ovary and small intestine. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression of adrenomedullin, chromogranin-A, augurin, neuromedin-U, platelet-derived growth factor A and D, proenkephalin, relaxin-3, prepronociceptin, and insulin-like growth factor I was most susceptible (P-value<0.005) to changes

  2. Genome-wide Census and Expression Profiling of Chicken Neuropeptide and Prohormone Convertase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, K. R.; Southey, B. R.; Sweedler, J. V.; Rodriguez-Zas, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropeptides regulate cell-cell signaling and influence many biological processes in vertebrates, including development, growth, and reproduction. The complex processing of neuropeptides from prohormone proteins by prohormone convertases, combined with the evolutionary distance between the chicken and mammalian species that have experienced extensive neuropeptide research, has led to the empirical confirmation of only 18 chicken prohormone proteins. To expand our knowledge of the neuropeptide and prohormone convertase gene complement, we performed an exhaustive survey of the chicken genomic, EST, and proteomic databases using a list of 95 neuropeptide and 7 prohormone convertase genes known in other species. Analysis of the EST resources and 22 microarray studies offered a comprehensive portrait of gene expression across multiple conditions. Five neuropeptide genes (apelin, cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein, insulin-like 5, neuropeptide S, and neuropeptide B) previously unknown in chicken were identified and 62 genes were confirmed. Although most neuropeptide gene families known in human are present in chicken, there are several gene not present in the chicken. Conversely, several chicken neuropeptide genes are absent from mammalian species, including C-RF amide, c-type natriuretic peptide 1 precursor, and renal natriuretic peptide. The prohormone convertases, with one exception, were found in the chicken genome. Bioinformatic models used to predict prohormone cleavages confirm that the processing of prohormone proteins into neuropeptides is similar between species. Neuropeptide genes are most frequently expressed in the brain and head, followed by the ovary and small intestine. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression of adrenomedullin, chromogranin-A, augurin, neuromedin-U, platelet-derived growth factor A and D, proenkephalin, relaxin-3, prepronociceptin, and insulin-like growth factor I was most susceptible (P-value < 0.001) to

  3. Pathogenesis of histomonosis in experimentally infected specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layer-type chickens and SPF meat-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Abdulrahman; Hauck, Rüdiger; Olias, Philipp; Hafez, Hafez M

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have shown differences in the course of histomonosis, the infection with the trichomonad parasite Histomonas meleagridis, in different chicken breeds. In the present study, 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layer-type (LT) chickens and twelve SPF meat-type (MT) chickens were infected intracloacally with 200,000 H. meleagridis trophozoites. One and two weeks postinfection (p.i.), three birds of each group were euthanatized. The remaining birds were euthanatized 3 wk p.i. Infected birds showed severe gross lesions typical for histomonosis in ceca at the first and second week p.i., while livers showed necrotic foci at 2 and 3 wk p.i., but only very rarely at 1 wk p.i. Differences between groups in the severity of lesions were statistically insignificant. In histopathology, LT chickens showed a significantly more-severe necrosis and ablation of the cecal epithelium 1 wk p.i. Parasites without inflammation were also found in most investigated spleens and lungs but only in a few kidneys. Investigation of these organs for histomonal DNA by real-time PCR confirmed these results. In addition, the humoral immune response against histomonal actinin 1 and 3 was measured by an ELISA. The humoral immune response against actinin 1 started sooner and was significantly higher in LT chickens than in MT chickens. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the genetic background of the birds influences the reaction to infection with H. meleagridis.

  4. On the origins and genetic diversity of South American chickens: one step closer.

    PubMed

    Luzuriaga-Neira, A; Villacís-Rivas, G; Cueva-Castillo, F; Escudero-Sánchez, G; Ulloa-Nuñez, A; Rubilar-Quezada, M; Monteiro, R; Miller, M R; Beja-Pereira, A

    2017-06-01

    Local chicken populations are a major source of food in the rural areas of South America. However, very little is known about their genetic composition and diversity. Here, we analyzed five populations from South America to investigate their maternal genetic origin and diversity, hoping to mitigate the lack of information on local chicken populations from this region. We also included three populations of chicken from the Iberian Peninsula and one from Easter Island, which are potential sources of the first chickens introduced in South America. The obtained sequencing data from South American chickens indicate the presence of four haplogroups (A, B, E and D) that can be further subdivided into nine sub-haplogroups. Of these, four (B1, D1a, E1a(b), E1b) were absent from local Iberian Peninsula chickens and one (D1a) was present only on Easter Island. The presence of the sub-haplogroups A1a(b) and E1a(b) in South America, previously only observed in Eastern Asia, and the significant population differentiation between Iberian Peninsula and South American populations, suggest a second maternal source of the extant genetic pool in South American chickens. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Chicken 15-kDa selenoprotein plays important antioxidative function in splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huijie; Deng, Tingquan; Fu, Jiaxing

    2014-12-01

    The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) is a thioredoxin-like protein. The expression of Sep15 is regulated by dietary selenium (Se) and plays important roles in mammals. However, the structure and function of chicken Sep15 and its response to Se are still unclear. In the present study, we replicated the chicken Se deficiency models and Sep15 deficiency models in splenocytes. Then, the homology, structure analysis, and levels of Sep15 were analyzed. In addition, the oxidative stress levels were examined in Sep15 deficiency splenocytes. The results indicated that chicken Sep15 preserved high similarity with that of other 14 animals in the coding nucleotide sequences (CDS) and deduced amino acid sequence, which suggested that chicken Sep15 may be derived from the same ancestor with other animals. The predicted structure and function showed that chicken Sep15 preserved the conserved thioredoxin-like fold CxU, which suggested an antioxidative function. Chicken Sep15 was also decreased by Se deficiency in immune organs (P < 0.05). In addition, Sep15 deficiency induced the occurrence of higher oxidative stress and enhanced the sensitivity of cells to H2O2 (P < 0.05). So the in vitro study further verified its antioxidative function. Thus, similar to its mammal homolog, chicken Sep15 preserves the typical characteristic of selenoprotein and may play some roles in the redox regulation.

  6. High-throughput and Cost-effective Chicken Genotyping Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pértille, Fábio; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Silva, Vinicius Henrique da; Boschiero, Clarissa; Nunes, José de Ribamar da Silva; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Jensen, Per; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Chicken genotyping is becoming common practice in conventional animal breeding improvement. Despite the power of high-throughput methods for genotyping, their high cost limits large scale use in animal breeding and selection. In the present paper we optimized the CornellGBS, an efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequence approach developed in plants, for its application in chickens. Here we describe the successful genotyping of a large number of chickens (462) using CornellGBS approach. Genomic DNA was cleaved with the PstI enzyme, ligated to adapters with barcodes identifying individual animals, and then sequenced on Illumina platform. After filtering parameters were applied, 134,528 SNPs were identified in our experimental population of chickens. Of these SNPs, 67,096 had a minimum taxon call rate of 90% and were considered ‘unique tags’. Interestingly, 20.7% of these unique tags have not been previously reported in the dbSNP. Moreover, 92.6% of these SNPs were concordant with a previous Whole Chicken-genome re-sequencing dataset used for validation purposes. The application of CornellGBS in chickens showed high performance to infer SNPs, particularly in exonic regions and microchromosomes. This approach represents a cost-effective (~US$50/sample) and powerful alternative to current genotyping methods, which has the potential to improve whole-genome selection (WGS), and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chicken production. PMID:27220827

  7. [Function of inducible nitric oxide synthase on adaptability to hypoxia in Tibetan chicken].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Chamba, Yangzom; Zhao, Chun-Jiang; Bao, Hai-Gang; Ling, Yao; Wu, Chang-Xin

    2009-04-01

    The inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) can be induced by hypoxia to produce NO, which regulates blood flow and improves oxygen delivery to tissues. In present study, SNPs in coding and 5'-flanking regions of iNOS gene were examined in Tibetan chicken and lowland chicken using sequence and PCR-RFLP methods, and the quantitive express of mRNA of iNOS and the enzyme activity were measured in chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo that was incubated under hypoxic and normal conditions. The results showed that a special SNP (-870C-->T)was found in 5'-flanking region of iNOS gene. Tibetan chicken has higher frequencies in mutation allele T than lowland chicken. In hypoxic incubation, the mRNA expression of iNOS and enzyme activity were higher in Tibetan chicken than that in Dwarf chicken. It was concluded that the mutation of iNOS and hypoxic increase of its expression were important base for adaptability to hypoxia in Tibetan chicken.

  8. Bone impairment in oxalosis: An ultrastructural bone analysis.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Justine; Farlay, Delphine; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman; Lebourg, Ludivine; Cochat, Pierre; Boivin, Georges

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney and bone is a hallmark of systemic oxalosis. Since the bone compartment can store massive amounts of oxalate, patients present with recurrent low-trauma fractures, bone deformations, severe bone pains and specific oxalate osteopathy on plain X-ray. Bone biopsy from the iliac crest displays specific features such as oxalate crystals surrounded by a granulomatous reaction due to an invasion of bone surface by macrophages. We present data obtained in 10 samples from 8 patients with oxalosis (16-68 years) who underwent iliac crest bone biopsy and bone quality analysis using modern methods (microradiography, microindentation, Fourier Transform InfraRed Microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy) in addition to histomorphometry. Disseminated calcium oxalate deposits (whewellite) were found in the bone marrow space (with a granulomatous reaction) but not in the bone matrix. Calcium oxalate deposits were totally surrounded by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, and a phagocytosis activity was sometimes observed. Very few calcium oxalate crystals were directly in close contact with the mineral substance of the bone. Bone mineralization was not modified by the presence of calcium oxalate even in close vicinity. Bone quality analysis also revealed a harder bone than normal, perhaps in relationship with decreased carbonate content in the mineral. This increase in bone hardness could explain a more "brittle" bone. In patients with oxalosis, the formation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals in the bone appeared independent of apatite. The mechanisms leading to nucleation and growth of oxalate deposits are still unclear and deserve further studies.

  9. Valgus-Varus Deformity of the Intertarsal Joint in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A lateral or medial angulation of the shaft of the distal tibiotarsal bone resulting in deviation of the lower part of the leg and frequently with bending of the proximal shaft of the tarsometatarsus is the most common leg deformity in broiler chickens. This lateral or medial deviation of the legs in broiler chickens, which has been described by many workers, deserves a specific name such as angular bone deformity or valgus-varus deformity of intertarsal joint, so that it may be separated from other varieties of lameness in broilers. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2A.Figure 2B.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figure 8. PMID:17422417

  10. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... primary bone tumors include: Chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma Fibrosarcoma Osteosarcomas Cancers that most often spread to the bone are cancers of the: Breast Kidney Lung Prostate Thyroid These forms of cancer usually affect ...

  11. Bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Matthew J W

    2002-09-01

    Bone grafts are used in musculoskeletal surgery to restore structural integrity and enhance osteogenic potential. The demand for bone graft for skeletal reconstruction in bone tumor, revision arthroplasty, and trauma surgery, couple with recent advances in understanding and application of the biology of bone transplantation, has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of bone-grafting procedures performed over the last decade. It is estimated that 1.5 million bone-grafting procedures are currently performed worldwide each year, compared to a fraction of that number 20 years ago. Major developments also have resulted in the harvesting, storage, and use of bone grafts and production of graft derivatives, substitutes, and bone-inducing agents.

  12. Update on pediatric bone health.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Maria J; Binkovitz, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis has long been considered a health problem unique to older adults. Children and adolescents with chronic illness, primary bone disease, or poor nutrition, however, are also predisposed to impaired skeletal health. The present review discusses normal skeletal development, risk factors for low bone mineral density, and prevention and treatment strategies that can help optimize bone health in the pediatric population.

  13. Chicken wing training model for endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To present and validate a chicken wing model for endoscopic endonasal microsurgical skill development. Setting A surgical environment was constructed using a Styrofoam box and measurements from radiological studies. Endoscopic visualization and instrumentation were utilized in a manner to mimic operative setting. Design Five participants were instructed to complete four sequential tasks: (1) opening the skin, (2) exposing the main artery in its neurovascular sheath, (3) opening the neurovascular sheath, and (4) separating the nerve from the artery. Time to completion of each task was recorded. Participants Three junior attendings, one senior resident, and one medical student were recruited internally. Main Outcome Measures Time to perform the surgical tasks measured in seconds. Results The average time of the first training session was 48.8 minutes; by the 10th training session, the average time was 22.4 minutes. The range of improvement was 25.7 minutes to 72.4 minutes. All five participants exhibited statistically significant decrease in time after 10 trials. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that an improvement of 50% was achieved by an average of five attempts at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The ex vivo chicken wing model is an inexpensive and relatively realistic model to train endoscopic dissection using microsurgical techniques.

  14. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  15. Bone Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

  16. Bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc. PMID:26403875

  17. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent injury to the bone. You may also be at risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

  18. Gene structure, transcripts and calciotropic effects of the PTH family of peptides in Xenopus and chicken

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) belong to a family of endocrine factors that share a highly conserved N-terminal region (amino acids 1-34) and play key roles in calcium homeostasis, bone formation and skeletal development. Recently, PTH-like peptide (PTH-L) was identified in teleost fish raising questions about the evolution of these proteins. Although PTH and PTHrP have been intensively studied in mammals their function in other vertebrates is poorly documented. Amphibians and birds occupy unique phylogenetic positions, the former at the transition of aquatic to terrestrial life and the latter at the transition to homeothermy. Moreover, both organisms have characteristics indicative of a complex system in calcium regulation. This study investigated PTH family evolution in vertebrates with special emphasis on Xenopus and chicken. Results The PTH-L gene is present throughout the vertebrates with the exception of placental mammals. Gene structure of PTH and PTH-L seems to be conserved in vertebrates while PTHrP gene structure is divergent and has acquired new exons and alternative promoters. Splice variants of PTHrP and PTH-L are common in Xenopus and chicken and transcripts of the former have a widespread tissue distribution, although PTH-L is more restricted. PTH is widely expressed in fish tissue but from Xenopus to mammals becomes largely restricted to the parathyroid gland. The N-terminal (1-34) region of PTH, PTHrP and PTH-L in Xenopus and chicken share high sequence conservation and the capacity to modify calcium fluxes across epithelia suggesting a conserved role in calcium metabolism possibly via similar receptors. Conclusions The parathyroid hormone family contains 3 principal members, PTH, PTHrP and the recently identified PTH-L. In teleosts there are 5 genes which encode PTHrP (2), PTH (2) and PTH-L and in tetrapods there are 3 genes (PTHrP, PTH and PTH-L), the exception is placental mammals which have 2 genes and lack

  19. Effects of gastrin on calcium homeostasis in chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, P.; Gagnemo-Persson, R.; Orberg, J.; Chen, D.; Hakanson, R. )

    1991-09-01

    As in the rat, gastrin and an extract of the acid-producing part of the stomach (proventriculus) were found to lower the blood Ca2+ concentration in the chicken. Furthermore, gastrin enhanced the uptake of 45Ca into the femur. It has been suggested previously that gastrin causes hypocalcemia in the rat by releasing gastrocalcin, a hypothetical hormone thought to reside in the acid-producing part of the stomach. The results of the present study in the chicken are in agreement with this concept. Not only exogenous, but also endogenous gastrin lowered blood calcium levels. Thus, the serum gastrin concentration was increased in response to ranitidine-evoked blockade of the gastric acid output; the rise in gastrin was associated with a transient drop in blood calcium. Also, food intake produced a rise in the serum gastrin concentration and a transient drop in blood calcium. However, injection of ranitidine or food intake in proventriclectomized (acid-producing part of the stomach extirpated) chickens failed to lower blood calcium, supporting the view that the gastrin-evoked hypocalcemia depends upon an agent in the gastric (proventriculus) mucosa. The authors suggest that endogenous and exogenous gastrin evoke hypocalcemia in the chicken by the same mechanism as that which has been postulated in the rat, i.e. by mobilization of the candidate hormone gastrocalcin from endocrine cells in the acid-producing gastric mucosa.

  20. Meat Juice Serology for Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Bacci, Cristina; Kramer, Laura

    2016-01-18

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 free-range chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4%) were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls), while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  1. Varicella-associated purpura fulminans: chicken pox is not always benign.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalik, A; Al-Ateeqi, W; Al-Khawari, M; Al-Osaimi, S

    2006-01-01

    To report a 6-year-old boy with post-chicken pox purpura fulminans (PF). A 6-year-old boy presented with purpura of the legs that rapidly progressed to other parts of the limbs and the buttocks. The patient had had chicken pox 10 days prior to presentation. He was afebrile and the chicken pox lesions were dry. He received anti-coagulants, a large volume of fresh frozen plasma, immunoglobulin and steroids. The skin lesions regressed but both hands and parts of the lower limbs remained necrotic; the patient was transferred to an orthopaedic hospital for amputation and skin grafting. This case report shows that PF can occur as a post-infection syndrome after primary varicella. Early and aggressive treatment of post-chicken pox PF might reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with this condition. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Lestari, Shofiyah Ika; Pu, Shuaihua; Ge, Beilei

    2009-03-01

    Effective in September 2005, enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone group antimicrobial, was withdrawn from use in the U.S. poultry farms. In this 1-year study initiated in October 2006, we isolated and characterized Campylobacter spp. from Louisiana retail conventionally raised (n = 141) and organic (n = 53) chickens as a comparison to evaluate the postban bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Campylobacter was present in 43.3% of the chickens; similar rates were observed among conventional and organic chickens. A total of 165 Campylobacter isolates were recovered, with Campylobacter jejuni being the predominant species (66.7%). No apparent seasonal trend was deduced from the prevalence data. Further, the two main conventional and one organic chicken brands did not carry significantly different rates of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). The most common resistance observed was to tetracycline (31.5%), followed by erythromycin (20%) and ciprofloxacin (6.1%). No resistance to gentamicin was identified. All Campylobacter isolates recovered from organic chickens (n = 48) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, compared to 8.5% resistance rate for those from conventional chickens (n = 117). Additionally, the resistance rate to erythromycin was significantly higher in Campylobacter isolates from conventional chickens (23.9%) than those from organic chickens (10.4%; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated a low prevalence and low ciprofloxacin resistance rate of Campylobacter in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban. Further studies involving a larger sample size over time are warranted to better assess the effects of banning enrofloxacin use in poultry and the levels of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  3. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Holley, R A; Ahmed, R; Tabor, H; Nadon, C; Ng, L K; D'Aoust, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting foodborne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis as a result of consuming partly cooked chicken nuggets may be due in part to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterize the strains of Salmonella contaminating chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted feeds, in an attempt to demonstrate whether the same Salmonella strains present in broiler feed could be isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips available for human consumption. Salmonellae were recovered using the Health Canada MFHPB-20 method for the isolation and identification of Salmonella from foods. Strains were characterized by serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial resistance typing (R-typing), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonellae were isolated from 25-g samples in 27% (n=92) of nugget and strip samples, 95% (n=20) of chicken nugget meat samples, and from 9% (n=111) of pelleted feed samples. Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Orion were the most commonly isolated serovars from chicken nuggets and strips, nugget and strip meat, and pelleted broiler feeds, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0006 and R-type sensitive as well as Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0068 and R-type sensitive were isolated from pelleted feed, and chicken nugget and strip meat in two separate instances. Data showed that Salmonella strains isolated from broiler feed were indistinguishable from strains isolated from packaged raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips. However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella.

  4. Novel SNPs in the PRDM16 gene and their associations with performance traits in chickens.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruili; Wei, Yang; Kang, Xiangtao; Chen, Hong; Sun, Guirong; Li, Guoxi; Bai, Yichun; Tian, Yadong; Huang, Yanqun

    2012-03-01

    The PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) is a member of the Prdm family, and is known to regulate cell differentiation. In the present study, DNA pool sequencing methods were employed to screen genetic variations in the chicken PRDM16 gene. The results revealed four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): NC_006108.2: g.92188G>A, XM_417551: c.1161C>T (Ala/Ala, 387aa), c.1233C>T (Ser/Ser, 411aa) and c.1433G>A (Ser/Asn, 478aa). The BglI polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect c.1161C>T, while HhaI Forced PCR-RFLP methods were used to detect 1233C>T and c.1433G>A in 964 chickens. The chickens comprised 38 grandparents, 66 F(1) parents and 860 F(2) birds derived from an F(2) resource population of Gushi chickens crossed with Anka broilers. The associations of the polymorphisms in the chicken PRDM16 gene with performance traits were analyzed in the 860 F(2) chickens. The results indicated that the three SNPs were significantly associated with growth, fatness and meat quality traits in the chickens. In particular, the polymorphisms of the missense SNP (c.1433G>A) had positive effects on chicken body weight and body size at different stages. It affected also fatness traits significantly. Comparison of the different genotypes of c.1433G>A showed that the GG genotype favored chicken growth and fatness traits.

  5. Trends in occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Larsen, Lars S; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, Stefan S; Ejlertsen, Tove; Holt, Hanne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hammerum, Anette M

    2009-05-31

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food. In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997 through 2007, C. jejuni isolates were obtained from The Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) and susceptibility tested for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Erythromycin resistance was at a low level in all the reservoirs during the study period. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in C. jejuni from imported broiler chicken meat compared to Danish broiler chicken meat. In domestically acquired human C. jejuni isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was for most years significantly higher compared to the level found in isolates from Danish broiler chicken meat, whereas the resistance level was similar to the level found in isolates from imported broiler chicken meat. Imported broiler chicken meat may therefore contribute to the high level of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in C. jejuni isolates from domestically acquired human infections. In 2006 and 2007, the occurrence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in travel associated C. jejuni isolates compared to isolates acquired domestically. Even though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or

  6. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  7. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tianmu; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR). Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types. PMID:28486516

  8. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  9. Microbial community mapping in intestinal tract of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingping; Xiang, Yun; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Jinggang; Li, Kaifeng; Yang, Hua

    2016-10-06

    Domestic chickens are valuable sources of protein associated with producing meat and eggs for humans. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) houses a large microbial community, and these microbiota play an important role in growth and health of chickens, contributing to the enhancement of nutrient absorption and improvement of the birds' immune systems. To improve our understanding of the chicken intestinal microbial composition, microbiota inhabiting 5 different intestinal locations (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of 42-day-old broiler chickens were detected based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. As a result, 1,502,554 sequences were clustered into 796 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% sequence similarity value and identified into 15 phyla and 288 genera. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the major microbial groups and Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon accounting for > 60% of sequences, while Bacteroidetes was the dominant phylum in cecum (>50% of sequences), but little in the other four gut sections. At the genus level, the major microbial genera across all gut sections were Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Corynebacterium. Lactobacillus was the predominant genus in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (>35%), but was rarely present in cecum, and Bacteroides was the most dominant group in cecum (about 40%), but rarely present in the other 4 intestinal sections. Differences of microbial composition between the 5 intestinal locations might be a cause and consequence of gut functional differences and may also reflect host selection mediated by innate or adaptive immune responses. All these results could offer some information for the future study on the relationship between intestinal microbiota and broiler chicken growth performance as well as health.

  10. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-12-04

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait-gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species.

  11. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait–gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species. PMID:26637433

  12. Endoscopically and Fluoroscopically Assisted Curettage and Bone Grafting of the Navicular Bone Cyst.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    Simple bone cyst is a common tumorlike lesion of the bone and can involve the bones of the foot. It is usually asymptomatic but can also present with pain or pathologic fracture. The purpose of this technical note is to describe the uni-osseous portal approach of endoscopic curettage and bone grafting of simple bone cyst of the navicular bone. The single-portal approach reduces the risk of iatrogenic fracture of the navicular bone. This is indicated for painful bone cyst of the navicular bone resistant to conservative treatment. It is contraindicated in multiple septated cysts, the presence of pathologic fracture, or the presence of aggressive cystic lesions.

  13. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P<0.05). The flow cytometry results from both trials demonstrated that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 groups were able to induce CD4+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 group was able to induce CD8+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05) in Trial 2 only. In the present study, pDis/NP was not significant (P>0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens.

  14. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... In some communities, a CT scan with special software can also be used to diagnose or monitor ... patient's bone mineral density. DEXA machines feature special software that compute and display the bone density measurements ...

  15. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno-competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal

    PubMed Central

    Moravej, Hoseein; Alahyari-Shahrasb, Majid; Kiani, Ali; Bagherirad, Mona; Shivazad, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ˚C. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing. PMID:25593680

  16. Repeated Treatment with Furazolidone Induces Multiple Cytochrome P450-Related Activities in Chicken Liver, but Not in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Nobuo; MATUMOTO, Tomoyuki; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M. M.; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi; KAZUSAKA, Akio; FUJITA, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nitrofuran antimicrobial agent, furazolidone (FZ), is still used in veterinary medicine in some countries in the Middle and Far Eastern countries. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of successive bolus doses of FZ and its metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-related activities in the livers of rats and chickens. Female Wistar rats and white Leghorn chickens were orally administered FZ once a day for 4 consecutive days. FZ-treated chickens showed an increase in multiple CYP-related activities, however, rats treated with FZ did not show these changes. In chickens, treatment with FZ also induced production of microsomal CYP2C6-like apoprotein. The present study demonstrated that FZ caused a multiple-type induction of CYP-related activities in chickens, but not in rats. PMID:23774039

  17. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR.

  18. Diabetes, biochemical markers of bone turnover, diabetes control, and bone.

    PubMed

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone markers and the similarities and differences of type 1- and type 2-diabetics regarding bone markers will be evaluated. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and SveMed+ with the search terms: "Diabetes mellitus," "Diabetes mellitus type 1," "Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus," "Diabetes mellitus type 2," "Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus," "Bone," "Bone and Bones," "Bone diseases," "Bone turnover," "Hemoglobin A Glycosylated," and "HbA1C." After removing duplicates from this search 1,188 records were screened by title and abstract and 75 records were assessed by full text for inclusion in the review. In the end 43 records were chosen. Bone formation and resorption markers are investigated as well as bone regulating systems. T1D is found to have lower osteocalcin and CTX, while osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid are found to be lower in T2D, and sclerostin is increased and collagen turnover markers altered. Other bone turnover markers do not seem to be altered in T1D or T2D. A major problem is the lack of histomorphometric studies in humans linking changes in turnover markers to actual changes in bone turnover and further research is needed to strengthen this link.

  19. Flesh colour dominates consumer preference for chicken.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Orla B; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Mitchell, Peter C; Thurnham, David I

    2005-04-01

    Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of colour upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group discussion; and sensory assessment under controlled lighting conditions. Initial consumer sensory assessment indicated that wheat-fed chicken was perceived to be tenderer and to have a more intense flavour than that which was corn-fed. Qualitative enquiry discerned that this was because consumers perceived the yellow colour of corn-fed chicken negatively. Yellow-coloured corn-fed chicken was therefore again compared with wheat-fed chicken in terms of flavour, texture and overall liking with the flesh colour disguised by means of controlled lighting. Quality ratings for corn-fed chicken were more positive when the yellow flesh colour was disguised, with corn-fed chicken judged to be tenderer than wheat-fed chicken and more flavoursome. This study illustrates the importance of using a combination of methods to gain insight into interactions between different sensory modalities in consumer quality judgements and adds to previous research on the importance of colour upon consumer choice of real foods.

  20. Optimized CUBIC protocol for three-dimensional imaging of chicken embryos at single-cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gaviro, María Victoria; Balaban, Evan; Bocancea, Diana; Lorrio, María Teresa; Pompeiano, Maria; Desco, Manuel; Ripoll, Jorge; Vaquero, Juan José

    2017-06-01

    The CUBIC tissue-clearing protocol has been optimized to produce translucent immunostained whole chicken embryos and embryo brains. When combined with multispectral light-sheet microscopy, the validated protocol presented here provides a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method for acquiring accurate histological images that preserve three-dimensional structural relationships with single-cell resolution in whole early-stage chicken embryos and in the whole brains of late-stage embryos. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Virulence Factors and Clonal Relationships among Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Broiler Chickens with Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Gaziri, Luiz Carlos J.; Vidotto, Marilda C.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we compared Escherichia coli isolates from chickens with avian cellulitis with those from feces of healthy chickens. Cellulitis-derived strains presented phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of greater virulence than did the fecal isolates. Phylogenetic analysis by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR showed that, in agreement with their virulence characteristics, the cellulitis isolates form two clonal groups distinct from the fecal isolates. PMID:12819112

  2. Galactosaminoglycan composition in chicken eggshell.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ikawa, N; Ozimek, L

    2002-05-01

    Galactosaminoglycans, isolated from decalcified chicken eggshell by papain digestion and ion-exchange chromatography, were fractionated by selective precipitation at varying concentrations of ethanol and characterized by chemical and enzymatic methods. The eggshell contained 0.15 microg galactosaminoglycan uronic acid/mg dry weight. Most (to approximately 87% of total) galactosaminoglycans were found to be chondroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate copolymers with iduronic acid contents being approximately 20 to 30% of uronic acid. The remaining (to approximately 12% of total) galactosaminoglycans were chondroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate copolymers with higher iduronic acid contents averaging 59% of uronic acid. Results of chondroitinase-ABC digestion demonstrated 4-sulfated disaccharides to be the major repeating units in the chicken eggshell galactosaminoglycans.

  3. [Progress of bone graft substitute].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2008-10-01

    To sum up the recent progress of common bone graft substitute and to forecast the possible directions for further research. Recent original articles about investigation and application for bone graft substitute were extensively reviewed. Several common bone graft substitutes were selected and expounded in different categories. Bone graft was an essential treatment in order to provide structural support, fill bone cavity and promote bone defect healing. The gold standard for bone graft was autograft which is subject to many restrictions. In recent years, the research and development of bone graft substitute have received public attention. A very great progress has been made in the research and application of allograft bones, synthetic bones and engineered bones, and some research results have been put into use for real products. There still exist many problems in present bone graft substitutes. Combining various biomaterials and using the specific processing technology to develop a biomaterial which has the similar mechanical and chemical properties and physical structures to autograft so as to promote bone defect healing is the direction for future research.

  4. Bone poroelasticity.

    PubMed

    Cowin, S C

    1999-03-01

    Poroelasticity is a well-developed theory for the interaction of fluid and solid phases of a fluid-saturated porous medium. It is widely used in geomechanics and has been applied to bone by many authors in the last 30 years. The purpose of this work is, first, to review the literature related to the application of poroelasticity to the interstitial bone fluid and, second, to describe the specific physical and modeling considerations that establish poroelasticity as an effective and useful model for deformation-driven bone fluid movement in bone tissue. The application of poroelasticity to bone differs from its application to soft tissues in two important ways. First, the deformations of bone are small while those of soft tissues are generally large. Second, the bulk modulus of the mineralized bone matrix is about six times stiffer than that of the fluid in the pores while the bulk moduli of the soft tissue matrix and the pore water are almost the same. Poroelasticity and electrokinetics can be used to explain strain-generated potentials in wet bone. It is noted that strain-generated potentials can be used as an effective tool in the experimental study of local bone fluid flow, and that the knowledge of this technique will contribute to the answers of a number of questions concerning bone mineralization, osteocyte nutrition and the bone mechanosensory system.

  5. Reduction of bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Cindy

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on reduction of bone strength are presented. WEHI 231 B growth rates, experimental chambers used to apply the electric field to the cell cultures, and a mouse suspended by rotating cuff in electromagnetic field are shown.

  6. Bone and Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Longobardi, Vanesa; Bai, Julio César

    2016-04-01

    More than 50% of untreated patients with celiac disease (CD) have bone loss detected by bone densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry:DXA). Moreover, patients with CD are more likely to have osteoporosis and fragility fractures, especially of the distal radius. Although still controversial, we recommend DXA screening in all celiac disease patients, particularly in those with symptomatic CD at diagnosis and in those who present risk factors for fracture such as older age, menopausal status, previous fracture history, and familial hip fracture history. Bone microarchitecture, especially the trabecular network, may be deteriorated, explaining the higher fracture risk in these patients. Adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation are also recommended to optimize bone recovery, especially during the first years of gluten free diet (GFD). If higher fracture risk persists after 1 or 2 years of GFD, specific osteoactive treatment may be necessary to improve bone health.

  7. Bursal transcriptome of chickens protected by DNA vaccination versus those challenged with infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Kim, Bong-Suk; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection destroys the bursa of Fabricius, causing immunosuppression and rendering chickens susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections. IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA has been shown to confer complete protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). The purpose of the present study was to compare DNA-vaccinated chickens and unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge by transcriptomic analysis of bursa regarding innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at weekly intervals with IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA. Chickens were challenged orally with 8.2 × 10(2) times the egg infective dose (EID)50 of IBDV strain variant E (VE) one week after the last vaccination. Bursae collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-challenge (dpc) were subjected to real-time RT-PCR quantification of bursal transcripts related to innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. The expression levels of granzyme K and CD8 in DNA-vaccinated chickens were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge at 0.5 or 1 dpc. The expression levels of other genes involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport were not upregulated or downregulated in DNA-vaccinated chickens during IBDV challenge. Bursal transcripts related to innate immunity and inflammation, including TLR3, MDA5, IFN-α, IFN-β, IRF-1, IRF-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, granzyme A, granzyme K and IL-10, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. The expression levels of genes related to immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, including CD4, CD8, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12(p40), IL-18, GM-CSF, GATA-3

  8. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of Chicken Vessels as Microvascular Anastomosis Training Model

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bo Young; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lee, Kyeong-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonliving chickens are commonly used as a microvascular anastomosis training model. However, previous studies have investigated only a few types of vessel, and no study has compared the characteristics of the various vessels. The present study evaluated the anatomic characteristics of various chicken vessels as a training model. Methods Eight vessels—the brachial artery, basilic vein, radial artery, ulnar artery, ischiatic artery and vein, cranial tibial artery, and common dorsal metatarsal artery—were evaluated in 26 fresh chickens and 30 chicken feet for external diameter (ED) and thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media. The dissection time from skin incision to application of vessel clamps was also measured. Results The EDs of the vessels varied. The ischiatic vein had the largest ED of 2.69±0.33 mm, followed by the basilic vein (1.88±0.36 mm), ischiatic artery (1.68±0.24 mm), common dorsal metatarsal artery (1.23±0.23 mm), cranial tibial artery (1.18±0.19 mm), brachial artery (1.08±0.15 mm), ulnar artery (0.82±0.13 mm), and radial artery (0.56±0.12 mm), and the order of size was consistent across all subjects. Thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media were also diverse, ranging from 74.09±19.91 µm to 158.66±40.25 µm (adventitia) and from 31.2±7.13 µm to 154.15±46.48 µm (media), respectively. Mean dissection time was <3 minutes for all vessels. Conclusions Our results suggest that nonliving chickens can provide various vessels with different anatomic characteristics, which can allow trainees the choice of an appropriate microvascular anastomosis training model depending on their purpose and skillfulness. PMID:28194342

  10. Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Militino Dias, Flavia; Nayak, Baibaswata; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2010-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) are divided into nine serotypes. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two divergent strains of APMV-3, Netherlands and Wisconsin, in (i) 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, (ii) 1-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks and turkeys, and (iii) 2-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was 112 h for APMV-3 strain Netherlands and > 168 h for strain Wisconsin. The intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks for strain Netherlands was 0.39 and for strain Wisconsin was zero. Thus, both strains are lentogenic. Both the strains replicated well in brain tissue when inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old SPF chicks, but without causing death. Mild respiratory disease signs were observed in 1-day-old chickens and turkeys when inoculated through oculonasal route with either strain. There were no overt signs of illness in 2-weeks-old chickens and turkeys by either strain, although all the birds seroconverted after infection. The viruses were isolated predominantly from brain, lungs, spleens, trachea, pancreas and kidney. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of large amount of viral antigens in both epithelial and sub-epithelial lining of respiratory and alimentary tracts. Our result suggests systemic spread of APMV-3 even though the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin proteases cleavage site. Furthermore, there was little or no disease despite systemic viral spread and abundant viral replication in all the tissues tested.

  11. Extraction of a monospecific Coombs-reagent from chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Calzado, Esteban; Cruz Mario, Eduardo; Samón Chávez, Tomás; Vázquez Luna, Ernesto; Corona Ochoa, Zelma; Schade, Rüdiger

    2003-01-01

    During the last ten years the extraction of specific antibodies (ab) from the yolk of eggs of immunised chickens is more and more accepted as an useful alternative to the immunisation of mammals. The subject of this work is the immunisation of chickens with human IgG and the extraction of specific anti human IgG ab from egg yolk in order to obtain monospecific Coombs reagent. 12 Leghorn hens (25 weeks old) were immunised with intact human IgG (INTACGLOBIN). The chickens were immunised with 100 microg IgG/animal once per week for a period of seven weeks. The highest titre was observed after the 5th immunisation, the following immunisations achieved no further titre increase. The IgY purification was performed according to the method of Akita and Nakai (1993). The resulting IgY preparation was tested for the presence of hetero-agglutinine by means of direct agglutination using human erythrocytes of all blood groups. Thereafter 58 blood donors were tested by means of direct or indirect Coombs-test using a reference reagent (DAKO) and a Coombs reagent isolated from chicken eggs (IgY antibodies). No differences have been found between the results obtained using both Coombs reagents. Presented results show that there is a possibility to produce Coombs-reagent in chickens. Advantages of this method are: 1) non invasive antibody sampling by egg collection instead of bleeding the animal (refinement of antibody production); 2) decreasing amount of animals necessary to produce high amounts of reagent; 3) IgY-preparation contains no hetero-agglutinine in contrast to serum ab from mammals, therefore additional step in reagent production e.g. the absorption of hetero-agglutinins is not necessary.

  12. Molecular detection of novel picornaviruses in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tibor; Fey, Brittney; Hargitt, Edwin; Parcells, Mark; Ladman, Brian; Murgia, Maria; Saif, Yehia

    2012-04-01

    Fecal specimens, including swabs and litter extracts, collected from chickens, domestic ducks, turkeys, and Canadian geese were tested using degenerate primers targeting regions encoding for conserved amino acid motifs (YGDD and DY(T/S)(R/K/G)WDST) in calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Similar motifs are also present in other RNA viruses. Two fecal specimens and 18 litter extracts collected from chickens and turkeys yielded RT-PCR products. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all amplicons represented picornaviruses that clustered into two major groups. Four chicken and one turkey samples yielded 250 bp amplicons with 84-91% nucleotide identity to the recently described turkey hepatitis viruses, while 280 and 283 bp amplicons obtained from 11 chicken and 4 turkey samples represented novel picornaviruses with the closest nucleotide identity to kobuviruses (54-61%) and turdiviruses (47-54%). Analysis of 2.2-3.2 kb extended genome sequences including the partial P2 (2C) and complete P3 (3A, 3B (VPg), 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)) regions of selected strains indicated that viruses yielding the 280/283 bp amplicons represent a putative new genus of Picornaviridae. The 3'-non-translated region (NTR) of the turkey hepatitis-like viruses described in this study was significantly longer (641-654 nt) than that of any of the other piconaviruses and included a putative short open reading frame (ORF). In summary, we report the molecular detection of novel picornaviruses that appear to be endemic in both chickens and turkeys.

  13. Expression Pattern of Genes of RLR-Mediated Antiviral Pathway in Different-Breed Chicken Response to Marek's Disease Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ze-Qing; Lian, Ting; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21 d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN-β genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21 d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN-β genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV. PMID:23710447

  14. Expression pattern of genes of RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in different-breed chicken response to Marek's disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ze-Qing; Lian, Ting; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21 d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN- β genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21 d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN- β genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.

  15. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The area centralis in the chicken retina contains efferent target amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Cynthia; Lindstrom, Sarah H.; De Grip, Willem J.; Wilson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The retinas of birds receive a substantial efferent, or centrifugal, input from a midbrain nucleus. The function of this input is presently unclear but previous work in the pigeon has shown that efferent input is excluded from the area centralis, suggesting that the functions of the area centralis and the efferent system are incompatible. Using an antibody specific to rods, we have identified the area centralis in another species, the chicken, and mapped the distribution of the unique amacrine cells that are the postsynaptic partners of efferent fibers. Efferent target amacrine cells are found within the chicken area centralis and their density is continuous across the border of the area centralis. In contrast to the pigeon retina then, we conclude that the chicken area centralis receives efferent input. We suggest that the difference between the 2 species is attributable to the presence of a fovea within the area centralis of the pigeon and its absence from that of the chicken. PMID:19296862

  17. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  18. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  19. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Hulya; Altinel, Burak; Kumcuoglu, Seher; Kisla, Duygu; Tavman, Sebnem

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  20. Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolò; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico

    1993-01-01

    Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170912

  1. Anatomical parameters of cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens: further evidence for involvement in ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Gilanpour, Hassan; Charkhkar, Saied; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the related physiological parameters in these chickens were followed. Lung weight as a percentage of body weight, the relative lung and heart volume, and the volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared with the layer and native chickens. Additionally, most of these parameters (e.g. relative lung weight, lung volume and thorax cavity) were significantly decreased with age in broiler chickens but were increased in layer and native chickens, which was concomitant with the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens. Our data indicate that all cardiopulmonary parameters investigated are extremely unfavourable to broiler chickens and suggest a reduction in gas exchange area in broilers, and therefore higher susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension and ascites.

  2. A three-prong strategy to develop functional food using protein isolates recovered from chicken processing by-products with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    PubMed

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Sivanandan, Litha; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Skin-on bone-in chicken drumsticks were processed with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation to recover muscle proteins. The drumsticks were used as a model for dark chicken meat processing by-products. The main objective of this study was conversion of dark chicken meat processing by-products to restructured functional food product. An attempt was made to develop functional food product that would resemble respective product made from boneless skinless chicken breast meat. A three-prong strategy to address diet-driven cardiovascular disease (CVD)with a functional food was used in this study. The strategy included addition of three ingredients with well-documented cardiovascular benefits: (i) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oil (flaxseed-algae, 9:1); (ii) soluble fiber; and (iii) salt substitute. Titanium dioxide, potato starch, polyphosphate, and transglutaminase were also added. The batters were formulated and cooked resulting in heat-set gels. Color (L*a*b*), texture (torsion test, Kramer shear test, and texture profile analysis), thermal denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry), and gelation (dynamic rheology) of chicken drumstick gels and chicken breast gels were determined and compared. Chicken drumstick gels generally had comparable color and texture properties to the gels made from chicken breast meat. The endothermic transition (thermal denaturation) of myosin was more pronounced and gelation properties were better for the drumstick gels. This study demonstrated a feasibility to develop functional food made of muscle proteins recovered with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation from low-value dark chicken meat processing by-products. The functional food developed in this study was enriched with CVD-beneficial nutrients and had comparable instrumental quality attributes to respective products made of chicken breast meat. Although the results of this study point towards the potential for a novel, marketable functional food product, sensory

  3. Engineering Endochondral Bone: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Serafim M.; Amaral, Isabel F.; Barbosa, Mário A.

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan scaffolds have been shown to possess biological and mechanical properties suitable for tissue engineering and clinical applications. In the present work, chitosan sponges were evaluated regarding their ability to support cartilage cell proliferation and maturation, which are the first steps in endochondral bone formation. Chitosan sponges were seeded with chondrocytes isolated from chicken embryo sterna. Chondrocyte/chitosan constructs were cultured for 20 days, and treated with retinoic acid (RA) to induce chondrocyte maturation and matrix synthesis. At different time points, samples were collected for microscopic, histological, biochemical, and mechanical analyses. Results show chondrocyte attachment, proliferation, and abundant matrix synthesis, completely obliterating the pores of the sponges. RA treatment caused chondrocyte hypertrophy, characterized by the presence of type X collagen in the extracellular matrix and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, hypertrophy markedly changed the mechanical properties of the chondrocyte/chitosan constructs. In conclusion, we have developed chitosan sponges with adequate pore structure and mechanical properties to serve as a support for hypertrophic chondrocytes. In parallel studies, we have evaluated the ability of this mature cartilage scaffold to induce endochondral ossification. PMID:18759672

  4. Generation of mice with functional inactivation of talpid3, a gene first identified in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Bangs, Fiona; Antonio, Nicole; Thongnuek, Peerapat; Welten, Monique; Davey, Megan G.; Briscoe, James; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-01-01

    Specification of digit number and identity is central to digit pattern in vertebrate limbs. The classical talpid3 chicken mutant has many unpatterned digits together with defects in other regions, depending on hedgehog (Hh) signalling, and exhibits embryonic lethality. The talpid3 chicken has a mutation in KIAA0586, which encodes a centrosomal protein required for the formation of primary cilia, which are sites of vertebrate Hh signalling. The highly conserved exons 11 and 12 of KIAA0586 are essential to rescue cilia in talpid3 chicken mutants. We constitutively deleted these two exons to make a talpid3–/– mouse. Mutant mouse embryos lack primary cilia and, like talpid3 chicken embryos, have face and neural tube defects but also defects in left/right asymmetry. Conditional deletion in mouse limb mesenchyme results in polydactyly and in brachydactyly and a failure of subperisoteal bone formation, defects that are attributable to abnormal sonic hedgehog and Indian hedgehog signalling, respectively. Like talpid3 chicken limbs, the mutant mouse limbs are syndactylous with uneven digit spacing as reflected in altered Raldh2 expression, which is normally associated with interdigital mesenchyme. Both mouse and chicken mutant limb buds are broad and short. talpid3–/– mouse cells migrate more slowly than wild-type mouse cells, a change in cell behaviour that possibly contributes to altered limb bud morphogenesis. This genetic mouse model will facilitate further conditional approaches, epistatic experiments and open up investigation into the function of the novel talpid3 gene using the many resources available for mice. PMID:21750036

  5. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  6. Juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M; Dellaero, D T; Harrelson, J M; Scully, S P

    1999-07-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign primary or secondary lesions that commonly arise in long bones and often before skeletal maturity. Little has been written about aneurysmal bone cysts that abut the physeal plate. The records of 15 patients with juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts were reviewed. Fourteen of the patients were referred with abnormal radiographs after evaluation for pain in the affected limb. One patient presented with abnormal radiographs after fracture about the aneurysmal bone cyst. None of the patients had evidence of growth plate disruption. The children's ages ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean of 9.8 years. There were 10 boys and five girls. Lesion locations included: six in the proximal tibia, three in the distal fibula, two in the distal tibia, two in the proximal femur, one in the distal femur, and one in the distal radius. All of the lesions abutted the physeal plate and fell into one of the types in Campanacci's classification of juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts. Three lesions were classified as Type 1, eight were Type 2, and four were Type 3. This study included no cases of Type 4 or 5 lesions. Treatment of all lesions consisted of excision, curettage, and bone grafting with care taken to preserve the growth plate. Adjunctive cauterization was performed in two cases. There were no incidences of postoperative physeal plate arrest. Overgrowth of the fibula occurred in one patient. Three patients experienced recurrent lesions. One of the children underwent repeat curettage and bone grafting with no additional recurrence. In the other two children with recurrence, the lesion had grown away from the physeal plate while remaining static in size and asymptomatic. Based on this study, juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts may be treated satisfactorily with intralesional surgery and bone grafting with expectation of normal physeal growth.

  7. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and functions to dissipate energy and avert fracture. Microdamage formation is a key determinant of bone quality, and through a range of biological and physical mechanisms, accumulates with age and disease. Accumulated microdamage in bone decreases bone strength and increases bone’s propensity to fracture. Thus, a thorough assessment of microdamage, across the hierarchical levels of bone, is crucial to better understand bone quality and bone fracture. This review article details multiple imaging modalities that have been used to study and characterize microdamage; from bulk staining techniques originally developed by Harold Frost to assess linear microcracks, to atomic force microscopy, a modality that revealed mechanistic insights into the formation diffuse damage at the ultrastructural level in bone. New automated techniques using imaging modalities such as microcomputed tomography are also presented for a comprehensive overview. PMID:25664772

  8. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  9. The magnetic compass of domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident.

  10. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  11. PCR Assay Specific for Chicken Feces

    PubMed Central

    Cisar, Cindy R.; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Hatley, Jonathan; Arney, Lori; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Owen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Bacteroidales are fecal anaerobic bacteria that are common in the digestive systems and feces of warm-blooded animals. Some strains of Bacteroidales have been reported to be host-specific. In this study, Bacteroidales strains from chicken feces were examined for their potential use as indicators of chicken fecal contamination. Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from chicken feces were amplified, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using these sequences and published Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from human and bovine feces. Primers were designed based on putative chicken feces-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences and the primer pairs were tested for specificity in PCR assays. One set of primers, chBact F1 and chBact R16, specifically amplified DNA from chicken feces in a PCR assay, but did not amplify wild turkey, cat, bovine, or deer fecal DNAs. In addition, DNA from feces contaminated straw-based chicken litter produced a product in the PCR assay. However, DNA from feces contaminated wood shavings-based chicken litter was not amplified. The PCR assay described here may prove a useful tool for the detection of chicken feces and for source tracking in watersheds with fecal contamination. PMID:24839330

  12. PCR Assay Specific for Chicken Feces.

    PubMed

    Cisar, Cindy R; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Hatley, Jonathan; Arney, Lori; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Owen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bacteroidales are fecal anaerobic bacteria that are common in the digestive systems and feces of warm-blooded animals. Some strains of Bacteroidales have been reported to be host-specific. In this study, Bacteroidales strains from chicken feces were examined for their potential use as indicators of chicken fecal contamination. Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from chicken feces were amplified, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using these sequences and published Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from human and bovine feces. Primers were designed based on putative chicken feces-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences and the primer pairs were tested for specificity in PCR assays. One set of primers, chBact F1 and chBact R16, specifically amplified DNA from chicken feces in a PCR assay, but did not amplify wild turkey, cat, bovine, or deer fecal DNAs. In addition, DNA from feces contaminated straw-based chicken litter produced a product in the PCR assay. However, DNA from feces contaminated wood shavings-based chicken litter was not amplified. The PCR assay described here may prove a useful tool for the detection of chicken feces and for source tracking in watersheds with fecal contamination.

  13. Excessive Cytokine Response to Rapid Proliferation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Leads to Fatal Systemic Capillary Leakage in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kuribayashi, Saya; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Naoki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Isoda, Norikazu; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Sunden, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Nakajima, Noriko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kida, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause lethal infection in chickens. Severe cases of HPAIV infections have been also reported in mammals, including humans. In both mammals and birds, the relationship between host cytokine response to the infection with HPAIVs and lethal outcome has not been well understood. In the present study, the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A/turkey/Italy/4580/1999 (H7N1) (Ty/Italy) and A/chicken/Netherlands/2586/2003 (H7N7) (Ck/NL) and the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/Ibaraki) were intranasally inoculated into chickens. Ty/Italy replicated more extensively than Ck/NL in systemic tissues of the chickens, especially in the brain, and induced excessive mRNA expression of inflammatory and antiviral cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-α) in proportion to its proliferation. Using in situ hybridization, IL-6 mRNA was detected mainly in microglial nodules in the brain of the chickens infected with Ty/Italy. Capillary leakage assessed by Evans blue staining was observed in multiple organs, especially in the brains of the chickens infected with Ty/Italy, and was not observed in those infected with Ck/NL. In contrast, LPAIV caused only local infection in the chickens, with neither apparent cytokine expression nor capillary leakage in any tissue of the chickens. The present results indicate that an excessive cytokine response is induced by rapid and extensive proliferation of HPAIV and causes fatal multiple organ failure in chickens. PMID:23874602

  14. Bone cutting.

    PubMed

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  15. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  16. Ascites syndrome in SPF Light Sussex chickens.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L

    1991-11-01

    An ascites syndrome was induced in 17 to 28 per cent of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Light Sussex (LSX) chickens given a low protein (16 per cent crude protein) high calcium (3.5 per cent calcium) layer crumble feed on two separate occasions 6 months apart. Affected chickens had increased right ventricular weight as a proportion of either total heart weight or live-weight at 3 weeks of age, compared with non-affected LSX chickens on the same feed, thus indicating right ventricular hypertrophy. The incidence of ascites was not increased by infection with avian nephritis virus, nor by limited cold-stress during brooding. It was not produced in LSX chickens given other feeds, nor in SPF Rhode Island Red chickens.

  17. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  18. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    PubMed

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  19. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    PubMed Central

    Straehl, Fiona R.; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Forasiepi, Analía M.; MacPhee, Ross D.; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

  20. CPI-17-deficient smooth muscle of chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Toshio; Polzin, Atsuko N; Eto, Masumi

    2004-01-01

    Ca2+ sensitivity of arterial contractility is governed by regulating myosin phosphatase activity in response to agonist stimuli. CPI-17, a myosin phosphatase inhibitor phosphoprotein, is phosphorylated concomitantly with agonist-induced contractile Ca2+ sensitization in mammalian artery. CPI-17 has not been detected in chicken artery, but is readily detectable in pigeon artery. To evaluate a role of CPI-17, we compared contractility of the arteries of ‘CPI-17-deficient’ chicken with those of CPI-17-rich rabbit and pigeon, and studied the effect of CPI-17-reconstitution in chicken artery. Other major regulatory/contractile proteins for Ca2+ sensitization are expressed in both chicken and rabbit arteries. Agonists, such as an α1-