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Sample records for chicken bone presenting

  1. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  2. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    PubMed Central

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Antibiotherapy did not relieve the patient’s symptoms and signs. A 3-cm linear foreign body was observed in X-ray and computed tomography scans. The symptoms of the patient were relieved after excision of the foreign body. Conclusion Although it is a rare situation, migration of a foreign body ingested through the aerodigestive tract to the neck should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with neck masses. PMID:27994927

  3. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  4. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In Experiment 1 (3 replications), chicken thigh meat was separated from bones at 0.45 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h and trimmed to obtain iliotibialis muscle. The iliotibiali...

  5. Embedded Bone Fragment Detection in Chicken Fillets using Transmittance Image Enhancement and Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the detection of bone fragments embedded in compressed de-boned skinless chicken breast fillets by enhancing single-band transmittance images generated by back-lighting and exploiting spectral information from hyperspectral reflectance images. Optical imaging of chicken ...

  6. Bone Mass and Bone Quality Are Altered by Hypoactivity in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Eric; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Goyenvalle, Eric; Audran, Maurice; Chappard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Disuse induces a rapid bone loss in adults; sedentarity is now recognized as a risk factor for osteoporosis. Hypoactivity or confinement also decrease bone mass in adults but their effects are largely unknown and only few animal models have been described. We have used 10 chickens of the rapidly growing strain 857K bred in a large enclosure (FREE group); 10 others were confined in small cages with little space to move around (HYPO group). They were sacrificed at 53 days and femurs and tibias were evaluated by texture analysis, dual energy X-ray densitometry, microcomputed tomography (microCT) and histomorphometry. Hypoactivity had no effect on the length and diameter of the bones. Bone mineral density (BMD), microCT (trabecular bone volume and trabecular microarchitecture) and texture analysis were always found significantly reduced in the animals of the HYPO group. BMD was reduced at both femur and tibia diaphysises; BMD of the metaphysis was significantly reduced in the femur but not in the tibia. An increase in osteoid volume and surfaces was noted in the HYPO group. However, there was no alteration of the mineral phase as the osteoid thickness did not differ from control animals. Bone loss was much more pronounced at the lower femur metaphysis than at the upper metaphysis of the tibia. At the tibia, only microarchitectural changes of trabecular bone could be evidenced. The confined chicken represents a new method for the study of hypodynamia since these animals do not have surgical lesions. PMID:25635404

  7. Post chicken pox neurological sequelae: Three distinct presentations.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rudrajit; Singhania, Pankaj; Hashmi, Ma; Bandyopadhyay, Ramtanu; Banerjee, Amit Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Varicella zoster infection is known to cause neurological involvement. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves without sequelae. We present a series of three cases with neurological presentations following chicken pox infection. The first case is a case of meningitis, cerebellitis and polyradiculopathy, the second is a florid case of acute infective demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillian-Barré syndrome) in a middle-aged female and the third case is a young man in whom we diagnosed acute transverse myelitis. All these cases presented with distinct neurological diagnoses and the etiology was established on the basis of history and serological tests confirmatory for chicken pox. The cases responded differently to treatment and the patients were left with minimum disability.

  8. [Destructive mastoiditis with thrombosis of the sigmoid sinus in a 8 year-old child presenting with concomitant chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Polunin, M M; Ivanenko, A M; Poliakov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The specific clinical feature of mastoidities that developed in a patient presenting with chicken pox was the rapid progress in temporal bone destruction with partial thrombosis of the sigmoid sinusis in the absence of typical manifestations of mastoiditis. The pronounced destructive changes found in a series of CT images were regarded as the indications for urgent antromastoidotomy with the puncture of the sigmoid sinusis.

  9. Genetic Regulation of Bone Metabolism in the Chicken: Similarities and Differences to Mammalian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and expression QTL (eQTL) mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken) and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone. PMID:26023928

  10. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  11. Effects of Hot-Pressure Extraction Time on Composition and Gelatin Properties of Chicken Bone Extracts.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jian-Ying; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia; Sun, Zhen

    2017-03-29

    Hot-pressure extraction was utilized in this study to extract proteins from chicken bones at 130 °C. The obtained extracts were further used to prepare gelatin gels. Results demonstrated that the extraction time can significantly affect the composition of the chicken bone extracts (P < 0.05). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the protein fraction of molecular weight (MW) >30 KDa was only visible in the extracts collected between 40 and 60 min. The highest contents of hydroxyproline, imino acids, and hydrophobic amino acids were all achieved in the chicken bone extracts after 120 min of extraction, being 3.9, 7.7, and 16.0 mg/g, respectively. The prepared gelatin properties were evaluated in terms of viscosity, storage and loss modulus, stability, gel strength, and their microstructures. Results indicated that gelatins made from chicken bone extracts of 20, 40, and 60 min extraction had better properties compared to that of 90 and 120 min. Significant correlations were identified between gelatin's composition and properties (P < 0.05). The abundance of proteins with MW of <10 KDa and 10 to 30 KDa was found to be the predominant factor that can affect the gelatin's properties. This study illustrated a promising and natural way to obtain edible gelatins from chicken bones.

  12. Post-translational processing of chicken bone phosphoproteins. Identification of bone (phospho)protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mikuni-Takagaki, Y; Glimcher, M J

    1990-01-01

    We have detected a protein kinase which phosphorylates bone phosphoproteins (BPPs) in the detergent extract of the membranous fractions in the periosteal bone strips of 12-day-embryonic-chick tibia. This enzyme, tentatively named BPP kinase, has a catalytic subunit of Mr approximately 39,000, utilizes GTP as well as ATP as a phospho-group donor, is inhibited by 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate and heparin, and is therefore similar to casein kinase II. The enzyme can phosphorylate dephosphorylated proteins such as casein, phosvitin and chicken BPPs, but the last-named are preferred substrates. The in vitro-phosphorylation-assay products of this enzyme in the extract were indistinguishable on an SDS/polyacrylamide gel from the major [32P]phosphoproteins metabolically labelled in the embryonic-chick bone tissue. The regulatory mechanisms of the phosphorylation process of BPPs by BPP kinase as well as the potential role of this enzyme in mineralization are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:2363697

  13. Primary Structure and Antibacterial Activity of Chicken Bone Marrow-Derived β-Defensins▿

    PubMed Central

    Derache, Chrystelle; Labas, Valérie; Aucagne, Vincent; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Delmas, Agnès F.; Magallon, Thierry; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Three biologically active β-defensins were purified by chromatography from chicken bone marrow extract: avian β-defensin 1 (AvBD1), AvBD2, and the newly isolated β-defensin AvBD7. Mass spectrometry analyses showed that bone marrow-derived AvBD1, -2, and -7 peptides were present as mature peptides and revealed posttranslational modifications for AvBD1 and AvBD7 in comparison to their in silico-predicted amino acid sequences. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the nanoelectrospray-quadrupole time of flight method showed N-terminal glutaminyl cyclization of mature AvBD7 and C-terminal amidation of mature AvBD1 peptide, while posttranslational modifications were absent in bone marrow-derived mature AvBD2 peptide. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis performed on intact cells confirmed the presence of these three peptides in mature heterophils. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the three β-defensins against a large panel of gram-positive and -negative bacteria were assessed. While the three defensins displayed similar antibacterial spectra of activity against gram-positive strains, AvBD1 and AvBD7 exhibited the strongest activity against gram-negative strains in comparison to AvBD2. PMID:19738012

  14. Gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih Yi; Li, Tsung Yu; Tsai, Chih Heng; Lo, Dan Yuan; Chen, Kuo Lung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens. Thirty male chickens were caponized at 8 weeks (capons); 15 capons were injected with estrogen (5 mg/bird estradiol 3-benzoate) every 2 weeks from 8 to 28 weeks, and 15 sham-operated male (shams) chickens and 15 females were selected for this trial. The results showed that the shams had lower relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than females (P < 0.05). The estrogen-treated capons had greater relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than shams and capons (P < 0.05), which might result from higher blood very low-density lipoproteins and triacylglycerol concentrations (P < 0.05). Caponization could dramatically increase relative abdominal fat (506%; P < 0.05). The shams had higher tibia weight and biomechanical properties, such as maximum bone strength and bending moment values than the capons (P < 0.05). Tibia biomechanical properties were reduced by estrogen treatment (P < 0.05). The females obtained the lowest biomechanical value in all treatments (P < 0.05). Histological examination revealed cavity formation in the cortical bone of estrogen-treated capons and female chickens, which suggested that estrogen reduced bone biomechanical properties by destroying its structural integrity.

  15. Optimization of a Multi-Step Procedure for Isolation of Chicken Bone Collagen

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chicken bone is not adequately utilized despite its high nutritional value and protein content. Although not a common raw material, chicken bone can be used in many different ways besides manufacturing of collagen products. In this study, a multi-step procedure was optimized to isolate chicken bone collagen for higher yield and quality for manufacture of collagen products. The chemical composition of chicken bone was 2.9% nitrogen corresponding to about 15.6% protein, 9.5% fat, 14.7% mineral and 57.5% moisture. The lowest amount of protein loss was aimed along with the separation of the highest amount of visible impurities, non-collagen proteins, minerals and fats. Treatments under optimum conditions removed 57.1% of fats and 87.5% of minerals with respect to their initial concentrations. Meanwhile, 18.6% of protein and 14.9% of hydroxyproline were lost, suggesting that a selective separation of non-collagen components and isolation of collagen were achieved. A significant part of impurities were selectively removed and over 80% of the original collagen was preserved during the treatments. PMID:26761863

  16. Infection of chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells with subgroup J avian leukosis virus inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and alters cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhang, Xu; Dai, Manman; Qin, Jianru; Hao, Jianjong; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus known to induce tumor formation and immunosuppression in infected chickens. One of the organs susceptible to ALV-J is the bone marrow, from which specialized antigen-presenting cells named dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are derived. Notably, these cells possess the unique ability to induce primary immune responses. In the present study, a method of cultivating and purifying DCs from chicken bone marrow in vitro was established to investigate the effects of ALV-J infection on BM-DC differentiation or generation. The results indicated that ALV-J not only infects the chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells but also appears to inhibit the differentiation and maturation of BM-DCs and to trigger apoptosis. Moreover, substantial reductions in the mRNA expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, MHCI, and MHCII and in cytokine production were detected in the surviving BM-DCs following ALV-J infection. These findings indicate that ALV-J infection disrupts the process of bone marrow mononuclear cell differentiation into BM-DCs likely via altered antigen presentation, resulting in a downstream immune response in affected chickens.

  17. Bone response of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Luo, J W; Zhou, Z L; Zhang, H; Ma, R S; Hou, J F

    2013-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone (CORT), with the aim of determining its effects on bone characteristics. At 7 d of age, the experimental birds were injected daily with CORT (4 mg/kg of body mass) for 1 week. CORT administration significantly decreased the body weight while increasing relative liver weight of the chickens and the bone parameters were also decreased. Histology and immunohistochemistry of type X collagen revealed that CORT reduced the lengths of proliferative and prehypertrophic zone in growth plate and the number of positive chondrocytes in the prehypertrophic zone. In conclusion exposure to CORT depressed the growth performance and retarded the longitudinal growth of the long bones by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in growth plate in broilers.

  18. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  19. Fungal osteomyelitis of maxillofacial bones: Rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B; Singh, Hanspal; Mohanty, Sujata; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is defined as inflammation of the medullary cavities, haversian system and adjacent cortex of bone. Osteomyelitis involving maxilla is quite rare when compared to that of mandible. Fungal osteomyelitis is very rarely seen and documented in the maxillofacial area. It is devastating to patients if it is invasive in nature. A prospective study was undertaken from December 2011 to December 2013. Biopsied hard tissue bits were decalcified and sections were stained with H&E, periodic acid Schiff and Grocott methenamine silver. Culture sensitivity was carried out in all cases. Surgical intervention followed by antifungal therapy was advocated to treat the patients. The current series showed five cases of fungal osteomyelitis which included candidal osteomyelitis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis with slight predominance of maxilla over mandible. Osteomyelitis of facial bones needs to be investigated thoroughly as there is no difference in clinical presentation between bacterial and fungal osteomyelitis. The diagnostic workup with biopsy and culture sensitivity helps to identify the pathogen at the earliest. Appropriate antifungal treatment needs to be advocated for successful treatment. PMID:27721629

  20. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Hu, Li; Li, Xia; Wu, Xiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB) containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group) were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry. PMID:27016175

  1. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding. PMID:27760160

  2. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  3. Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Hsu, Jenn-Chung; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (p<0.05) lower in capons after 12 wks of age (caponized treatment after 4 wks) than that of the intact males. The relative tibia weight, bone breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, bone calcium, bone phosphorus and bone magnesium contents were significantly (p<0.05) higher in intact males, while capons had higher (p<0.05) plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. The plasma testosterone concentration, relative tibia weight, tibia length, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents of intact males chickens increased significantly (p<0.05) with the advance of age. In addition, the relative tibia weight of capons peaked at 18 wks of age, and declined at 35 wks of age. The bone ash, calcium and phosphorus content increased most after 14 wks of age in male native chickens in Taiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus

  4. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  5. Gradual Colonic Impaction of a Chicken Bone Associated with Inflammatory Pseudotumor Formation and Nonocclusive Colon Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Fosi, Stefania; Bindi, Alessio; De Sanctis, Flavio; Ricciardi, Edoardo; Rossi, Piero; Petrella, Giuseppe; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common clinical problem and most FBs pass through the gastrointestinal tract without the need for intervention. A wide spectrum of clinical presentations may be possible and these can be either acute or chronic. We present a case of an 83-year-old woman featuring insidious abdominal discomfort who was hospitalized in our institution due to worsening symptoms. She underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) evaluation which showed the presence of a significant parietal thickening of the transverse and descending colon, a mesenteric loose tissue imbibition, venous engorgement, and no filling defect of visceral arteries, suggesting a condition of nonocclusive colon ischemia. A hyperdense FB was identified in the sigma and was associated with a small pseudotumoral mass. The patient underwent surgical exploration which confirmed the hypoperfusional state of the colon, showing the presence of a chicken bone perforating the sigma and lying in the context of a pseudotumoral mass. Our experience shows how contrast-enhanced CT is feasible and can be strongly recommended as a first-line imaging tool on suspicion of colon ischemia and also how it can easily identify the underlying cause, in our case a FB sealed perforation of the sigma with pseudotumoral mass formation. PMID:24707425

  6. Effect of daily lithium chloride administration on bone mass and strength in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B M; Eschbach, M; Glynn, E A; Kotha, S; Darre, M; Adams, D J; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R; Govoni, K E

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of oral lithium chloride supplementation on bone strength and mass in broiler chickens. Ninety-six broilers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (lithium chloride or control; n=48/treatment). Beginning at 1 or 3 wk of age, chickens were administered lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) or water daily by oral gavage. At 6 wk of age, chickens were euthanized and bone and muscle samples were collected. A 24 h lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) challenge determined that serum lithium chloride increased within 2 h and cleared the system within 24 h, demonstrating the effective delivery of lithium chloride. Treatment did not influence body weight (P≥0.20) or feed intake (P≥0.81), demonstrating that lithium chloride did not negatively affect broiler growth. To determine bone strength, 3-point bending was performed on the femora and tibiae obtained from control and lithium chloride-treated birds in the 1 wk group. Lithium chloride-treated birds had a 22% reduction in stiffness compared with control in the femora (P=0.02) without a corresponding reduction in elastic modulus. No differences were observed in yield or ultimate load and in the corresponding calculations of stresses (P≥0.26). The toughness of tibiae was not altered in lithium chloride compared with control (P=0.11). Bone length and micro-CT imaging were performed on the tibiae of control and lithium chloride groups. No differences (P≥0.52) in bone length, cortical or trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, number, or spacing were observed. Lithium chloride treatment did not affect pectoralis muscle color or lipid oxidation (P>0.05). In conclusion, lithium chloride treatment in broilers did not negatively affect growth or meat quality. A reduction in bone stiffness of the femur with lithium chloride treatment was observed, however unlike the mouse model, the dosages of lithium chloride used in the current study did not result in anabolic effects

  7. Genetic architecture of bone quality variation in layer chickens revealed by a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Sun, Congjiao; Qu, Liang; Shen, Manman; Dou, Taocun; Ma, Meng; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal problems in layer chickens are gaining attention due to animal welfare and economic losses in the egg industry. The genetic improvement of bone traits has been proposed as a potential solution to these issues; however, genetic architecture is not well understood. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on bone quality using a sample of 1534 hens genotyped with a 600 K Chicken Genotyping Array. Using a linear mixed model approach, a novel locus close to GSG1L, associated with femur bone mineral density (BMD), was uncovered in this study. In addition, nine SNPs in genes were associated with bone quality. Three of these genes, RANKL, ADAMTS and SOST, were known to be associated with osteoporosis in humans, which makes them good candidate genes for osteoporosis in chickens. Genomic partitioning analysis supports the fact that common variants contribute to the variations of bone quality. We have identified several strong candidate genes and genomic regions associated with bone traits measured in end-of-lay cage layers, which accounted for 1.3–7.7% of the phenotypic variance. These SNPs could provide the relevant information to help elucidate which genes affect bone quality in chicken. PMID:28383518

  8. Genetic determinism of bone and mineral metabolism in meat-type chickens: A QTL mapping study.

    PubMed

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.

  9. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  10. Cell-Autonomous Sex Differences in Gene Expression in Chicken Bone Marrow–Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Morales, Carla; Nandi, Sunil; Zhao, Debiao; Sauter, Kristin A.; Vervelde, Lonneke; McBride, Derek; Sang, Helen M.; Clinton, Mike

    2015-01-01

    We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome–specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN–responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes. PMID:25637020

  11. Cell-autonomous sex differences in gene expression in chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morales, Carla; Nandi, Sunil; Zhao, Debiao; Sauter, Kristin A; Vervelde, Lonneke; McBride, Derek; Sang, Helen M; Clinton, Mike; Hume, David A

    2015-03-01

    We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome-specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN-responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes.

  12. Allantoin, the oxidation product of uric acid is present in chicken and turkey plasma.

    PubMed

    Simoyi, Melvin F; Falkenstein, Elizabeth; Van Dyke, Knox; Blemings, Kenneth P; Klandorf, Hillar

    2003-06-01

    Urate oxidase is not present in birds yet allantoin, a product of this enzyme, has been measured in birds. Studies were designed to compare the concentrations of plasma purine derivatives in chickens and turkeys fed inosine-supplemented diets. The first study consisted of 12 male chicks that were fed diets supplemented with 0.6 mol inosine or hypoxanthine per kilogram diet from 3- to 6-week-old. Study 2 consisted of 12 turkey poults (toms) fed inosine-supplemented diets (0.7 mol/kg) from 6- to 8-week-old. Plasma allantoin and oxypurines concentrations were measured weekly using high performance liquid chromatography. Plasma uric acid (PUA) in chickens fed inosine-supplemented diets increased from 0.31 to 1.34 mM (P<0.05) at the end of week 2. In turkeys, those fed control diet had 0.17 mM PUA concentration compared to 0.3 mM in those fed the inosine diet at week 2 (P<0.05). Allantoin concentration increased in chickens from week 1 to 2 while a decrease was observed in turkeys (P<0.005) for both treatments. These data show that allantoin is present in turkey and chicken plasma. The presence of allantoin in avian plasma is consistent with uric acid acting as an antioxidant in these species.

  13. Bone Mass and Bone Quality are Altered by Hypoactivity in the Chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, E.; Libouban, H.; Basle, M. F.; Chappard, D.

    2008-06-01

    Disuse induces a rapid bone loss in adults. Hypoactivity also decreases bone mass in adults but its effects in young growing animals are largely unknown. 10 chicks of the rapidly growing strain 857K were grown in a large enclosure; 10 others were kept in small cages with little space to move around. They were sacrificed at 56 days and femur and tibia were evaluated by texture analysis, DEXA and microCT. Hypoactivity had no effect on the length and diameter the bones. BMD, microCT (BV/TV and trabecular microarchitecture) and texture analysis were always found significantly reduced in the bones of hypodynamic animals.

  14. Preparation of Substrate for Flavorant from Chicken Bone Residue with Hot-Pressure Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Dong, Xian-Bing; Yue, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Hot-pressure extraction (HPE), which is regarded as a "green" technology, was applied to extract nutrients (protein, collagen, and minerals) from chicken bone residue (CBR). Amino acids (AA), color, and volatile flavor compounds of chicken bone extract (CBE) were also investigated. Results showed that contents of protein, total soluble solids, minerals, and collagen of CBE were positively correlated with extraction time and temperature. High ratios of protein (83.51%) and collagen (96.81%) were obtained with 135 °C and 120 min. Essential AA accounted for 31.03% to 47.73% of total AA in CBE. The percentage of bitter AA in TAA decreased from 28.94% to 25.02% at 0 min to 20.19% and 21.41% at 120 min, although fresh AA increased from 46.35% to 50.84% (0 min) to 53.14% (120 min) at 130 and 135 °C, respectively, indicating CBE was nutritionally beneficial with good flavor. Color and volatile flavor of CBE improved significantly after extraction, although calcium in CBE (4.2 to 4.8 mg/100 g) was relatively low compared with that of CBR (1078 mg/100 g). It can be concluded that HPE is a promising way to transform CBR into a nutritious flavorant substrate, but it is not an efficient way to extract calcium.

  15. Sensorial quality and bone strength of female and male broiler chickens are influenced by weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Erdal, R; Richardson, I; Ljøkjel, K; Haug, A

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 98 male and 98 female broiler chickens (Ross 308) to study the effect of growth rate, induced by different dietary means, sex and live weight (1500 g and 2000 g) at slaughter on production parameters, bone strength and sensorial characteristics of the breast meat. 2. The birds were divided into four groups and individually fed a standard commercial diet, a high energy diet or low energy diet from d 11 to slaughter at between d 28 and 39. Three groups were fed ad libitum and a further group was fed a restricted amount of the high energy feed. Half of the birds in each group were slaughtered at approximately 1500 g and the other half at 2000 g live weight. 3. The diets resulted in different growth rates. The chickens fed the high energy and the commercial diet had the highest growth rate at both live weights at slaughter. The restricted fed chickens had lower bone strength than the chickens fed the low energy diet. 4. Breast meat from male broilers was juicer, more tender and less hard than breast meat from females. Chickens slaughtered at 2000 g live weight were juicer than those slaughtered at 1500 g. Chickens given the high energy feed ad libitum and restricted had different growth rates, but the sensory parameter related to texture showed no difference. 5. It was concluded that an increased slaughter weight might improve meat quality due to improved juiciness.

  16. Differences in carcass and meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to northern Thailand (Black-boned and Thai native) and imported extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island red).

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, S; Srikanchai, T; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 genotypes of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indigenous chicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chicken breeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The animals were fed until 16 wk of age. Breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles were studied in detail. Chickens of the imported breeds were heavier at slaughter than indigenous strains, especially Black-boned chickens. Proportions of retail cuts with bones were similar among genotypes, whereas deboned breast meat and lean:bone ratio were lowest in the layer breed (Rhode). The meat of the Black-boned chickens was darker than that of the other genotypes. Thai and Rhode chickens had a particularly yellow skin. The ratio of red and intermediate to white fibers was higher in the thigh muscle, and the diameter of all muscle fiber types in both muscles was smaller in the indigenous compared with the imported breeds. The meat of the 2 indigenous Thai strains had lower contents of fat and cholesterol compared with that of the imported breeds, especially relative to the Rhode chickens (thigh meat). The meat of the indigenous origins, especially of the Thai chickens, was higher in shear force and collagen content (thigh only) than meat of the imported breeds. The meat lipids of the Thai chickens had particularly high proportions of n-3 fatty acids and a favorably low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio compared with the other genotypes. In conclusion, meat of indigenous chickens has some unique features and seems to have more advantages over imported breeds than disadvantages, especially when determined for a niche market serving consumers who prefer chewy, low-fat chicken meat.

  17. Labial swelling: a rare presentation of pubic bone tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shende, Prajakta; Gandhewar, Manisha; Gaikwad, Pradip; Nanaware, Sandip; Risbud Joshi, Prachi

    2016-09-14

    Tuberculosis (TB), being a global health problem, represents variedly. Its presentation as a labial swelling secondary to pubic bone TB has been reported rarely in literature. We report a case of pubic bone TB presenting as a labial swelling in a woman of reproductive age. Early diagnosis with fine needle aspiration cytology, acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining, AFB culture and magnetic resonance imaging with early initiation of treatment resulted in a favourable outcome.

  18. Lesions in the thymus and bone marrow in chicks with experimentally induced chicken infectious anemia disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuscu, Burak

    2008-01-01

    One-day-old SPF chicks were inoculated with the Cux-l strain of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), and the clinical development of disease and its macroscopic and microscopic alterations in the thymus and bone marrow, were observed. Tissue sections of thymus and bone marrow were stained using the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method and examined under light microscope for evaluation of antigenic intensities in tissues. Those findings were then compared with blood parameters and ELISA results obtained through collected sera during sacrifice procedures. We sought to determine: the localization of viral antigens in thymus and bone marrow tissues after inoculation, the correlation between antigen intensities and hematologic, serologic and histopathologic findings, definitive diagnostic criteria using histopathologic and immunoperoxidase methods, and the reliability of these methods in the diagnosis of CIAV infection. For this purpose, 83, one-day-old SPF chicks were used. The birds were divided into experimental (n = 52) and control (n = 26) groups. A virus dose of TCID50 of 100,000/ml was administered intramuscularly to every bird in the experimental group. Based on the results of this study, we have suggested that clinical examination, along with macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the thymus and bone marrow, maybe undertaken starting from day 7 post-inoculation (PI). ELISA, might be of value, as it might give consistent results starting from day 14 PI. However, the most reliable results were obtained through examination of thymus and bone marrow sections from infected birds stained by immunoperoxidase technique, as early as day 4 PI. PMID:18296884

  19. Chicken major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of the B haplotype present self and foreign peptides.

    PubMed

    Cumberbatch, J A; Brewer, D; Vidavsky, I; Sharif, S

    2006-08-01

    The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or B-complex, mediates genetic resistance and susceptibility to infectious disease. For example, the B19 haplotype is associated with susceptibility to Marek's disease. Here, we describe the sequencing and analysis of peptides presented by B19 MHC class II molecules. A B19/B19 B-cell line was used for the immunoaffinity purification of MHC class II molecules, which was followed by acid elution of the bound peptides. The eluted peptides were then analysed using tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty peptide sequences were obtained, ranging from 11 to 25 amino acids in length. Source protein cellular localization included the plasma membrane, cytosol and endosomal pathway. In addition, five peptides from the envelope glycoprotein of chicken syncytial virus (CSV) were identified. Chicken syncytial virus had been used as a helper virus along with reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T for transformation of B19/B19B cells. Alignment and analysis of the peptide sequence pool provided a putative peptide-binding motif for the B19 MHC class II.

  20. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of chicken osteocalcin and its use in evaluation of perch effects on bone remodeling in caged White Leghorns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a sensitive biochemical marker for evaluating bone turnover in mammals. The role of avian OC is less clear because of a need for a chicken assay. Our objectives were to develop an assay using indirect competitive ELISA for detecting chicken serum OC and use the assay to examine t...

  1. Bone pain as the presenting manifestation of secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S; Rowntree, C; Rudge, S

    1990-08-01

    A 31 year old fireman presented with acute pain and tenderness in both shins and forearms. Radiographs were normal but bone scintigraphy showed widespread increased isotope uptake. Serology was consistent with a diagnosis of secondary syphilis, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely six weeks after a course of penicillin.

  2. Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible with unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Capote-Moreno, Ana; Acero, Julio; García-Recuero, Ignacio; Ruiz, Julián; Serrano, Rosario; de Paz, Víctor

    2009-03-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign lesions of bone tissue, infrequent in craneofacial skeleton with regard to other structures like long bones or the spine. They are composed of sinusoidal and vascular spaces blood-filled and surrounded by fibrous tissue septa. We present a case of a 29-year-old Caucasian male with a big swelling in the left mandible associated to pain and rapid growth. He referred previous extraction of the left inferior third molar. On the X-ray study, an expansive multilocular and high vascularized bony lesion within the mandibular angle was observed. It produced expansion and destruction of lingual and buccal cortex. An incisional biopsy was performed showing a fibrous tissue with blood-filled spaces lesion suggestive of an aneurysmal bone cyst. After selective embolization of the tumour, surgical resection was done with curettage and immediate reconstruction of the defect with an anterior iliac crest graft. Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-neoplastic but locally aggressive tumours with occasional rapid growth that may be differentiated from other multilocular process like ameloblastoma, ossifying fibroma, epithelial cyst, giant cell granuloma and sarcomas. Treatment of choice consists on conservative surgical excision of the mass with curettage or enucleation. When resection creates a big defect, primary surgical reconstruction is recommended.

  3. Measurement of true ileal calcium digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens using the direct method.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M N; Ravindran, V; Morel, P C H; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study that is presented herein was to determine the true ileal calcium (Ca) digestibility in meat and bone meal (MBM) for broiler chickens using the direct method. Four MBM samples (coded as MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4) were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, particle size distribution and bone to soft tissue ratio. The Ca concentrations of MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4 were determined to be 71, 118, 114 and 81 g/kg, respectively. The corresponding geometric mean particle diameters and bone to soft tissue ratios were 0.866, 0.622, 0.875 and 0.781 mm, and 1:1.49, 1:0.98, 1:0.92 and 1:1.35, respectively. Five experimental diets, including four diets with similar Ca concentration (8.3 g/kg) from each MBM and a Ca and phosphorus-free diet, were developed. Meat and bone meal served as the sole source of Ca in the MBM diets. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was incorporated in all diets as an indigestible marker. Each experimental diet was randomly allotted to six replicate cages (eight birds per cage) and offered from d 28 to 31 post-hatch. Apparent ileal Ca digestibility was calculated by the indicator method and corrected for ileal endogenous Ca losses to determine the true ileal Ca digestibility. Ileal endogenous Ca losses were determined to be 88 mg/kg dry matter intake. True ileal Ca digestibility coefficients of MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4 were determined to be 0.560, 0.446, 0.517 and 0.413, respectively. True Ca digestibility of MBM-1 was higher (P < 0.05) than MBM-2 and MBM-4 but similar (P > 0.05) to that of MBM-3. True Ca digestibility of MBM-2 was similar (P > 0.05) to MBM-3 and MBM-4, while that of MBM-3 was higher (P < 0.05) than MBM-4. These results demonstrated that the direct method can be used for the determination of true Ca digestibility in feed ingredients and that Ca in MBM is not highly available as often assumed. The variability in true Ca digestibility of MBM samples could not be attributed to Ca content, percentage

  4. Public health significance of major genotypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis present in both human and chicken isolates in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Su; Oh, Jae-Young; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Deog-Yong; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Choi, Byung-Kook; Youn, So-Youn; Jeon, Byung-Woo; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-02-17

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most common serotypes implicated in Salmonella infections in both humans and poultry worldwide. It has been reported that human salmonellosis is mainly associated with the consumption of poultry products contaminated with serovar Enteritidis. The present study was to extensively analyze the public health risk of serovar Enteritidis isolates from chickens in Korea. A total of 127 chicken isolates were collected from clinical cases, on-farm feces, and chicken meat between 1998 and 2012 and 20 human clinical isolates were obtained from patients with diarrhea between 2000 and 2006 in Korea. To characterize the isolates from chickens and humans, we compared the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles of the isolates. We further characterized representative isolates of different genotypes using a DNA microarray. PFGE revealed 28 patterns and MLVA identified 16 allelic profiles. The DNA microarray showed high genetic variability in plasmid regions and other fimbrial subunits of the isolates although the virulence gene contents of isolates from the same source and/or of the same genotype were unrelated. PFGE and MLVA showed that major genotypes were present in both human and chicken isolates. This result suggests that chickens in Korea pose a significant risk to public health as a source of serovar Enteritidis as has been noted in other countries.

  5. The role of pleiotropy and linkage in genes affecting a sexual ornament and bone allocation in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, M; Rubin, C-J; Höglund, A; Sahlqvist, A-S; Jonsson, K B; Kerje, S; Ekwall, O; Kämpe, O; Andersson, L; Jensen, P; Wright, D

    2014-05-01

    Sexual selection and the ornaments that inform such choices have been extensively studied, particularly from a phenotypic perspective. Although more is being revealed about the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments, much still remains to be discovered. The comb of the chicken is one of the most widely recognized sexual ornaments, which has been shown to be correlated with both fecundity and bone allocation. In this study, we use a combination of multiple intercrosses between White Leghorn populations and wild-derived Red Junglefowl to, first, map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bone allocation and, second, to identify expression QTL that correlate and colocalize with comb mass. These candidate quantitative genes were then assessed for potential pleiotropic effects on bone tissue and fecundity traits. We identify genes that correlate with both relative comb mass and bone traits suggesting a combination of both pleiotropy and linkage mediates gene regulatory variation in these traits.

  6. [Apical petrositis, osteomyelitis of the base of the skull bones and of the first cervical vertebra in a 5 year-old children following chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Zelikovich, E I; Soldatsky, Yu L; Burova, O V

    2016-01-01

    This publication was designed to describe a rare case of development of apicalpetrositis in a child presenting with acute otitis mediafollowing chicken pox experienced in the preceding period. We carried out the study with the use of computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated destruction of the temporal bone, bones of the base of the skull and of the first cervical vertebra. The treatment strategy chosen for the management of this condition that included antibiotic therapy and expectant observation proved justified and can be recommended as an algorithm of choice taking into consideration the difficulty of surgical approach to the apex of the petrous pyramid. However, this approach is associated with the high risk of disability arising from the potential injury to the craniocerebral nerves.

  7. Effects of caponization and different exogenous androgen on the bone characteristics of male chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, K-L; Tsay, S-M; Lee, T-Y; Chiou, P W-S

    2006-11-01

    The effects of caponization and androgen implantation on the bone characteristics of male chickens were evaluated. Healthy Single Comb White Leghorn cockerels were caponized or sham operated (sham) at 12 wk old. Sixteen birds from each group were selected for a 14-wk experiment in trial 1. Sixteen birds from the sham group and 64 from the caponized group (randomly allocated into 4 treatments) were implanted with 10.4 +/- 0.4 mg (1.62-mm i.d., 3.6-mm o.d.) of cholesterol, testosterone (TES), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT), or 19-nortestosterone (19-NorT) and were assigned to trial 2 for a 14-wk experiment. The results from trial 1 showed that caponization increased BW (P < 0.05) and decreased tibia stress, ash content, and P content with higher blood P concentration (P < 0.05) as compared with the sham group. In trial 2, the cholesterol implantation group showed the lowest tibia breaking strength, bending moment, stress, and ash content (P < 0.05). The 19-NorT implantation group showed decreased (P < 0.05) blood Ca and P concentration but increased tibia ash and P content, reaching the same level as the sham group (P > 0.05). The adverse effects of caponization on bone characteristics could be improved using androgen implantation. Among the implantation groups, the 19-NorT implantation group showed the best improvement in tibia breaking strength and bending moment, followed by the TES and 5alpha-DHT groups. The TES group showed the best improvement in tibia stress, followed by the 19-NorT and 5alpha-DHT groups.

  8. Systemic mastocytosis presenting with gastrointestinal, bone and skin involvement.

    PubMed

    Rosignuolo, Maria; Muscianese, Marta; Pranteda, Guglielmo

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is often the first imaging study performed in patient with abdominal pain or vague symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract. To this end, it has been demonstrated that transabdominal sonography achieves good to excellent results in potential bowel disorders; especially, if ultrasonography findings are framed in the context of clinical information. Systemic mastocytosis is not a common disease and it usually involves skin, gastrointestinal tract and bone. It results from a clonal neoplastic proliferation of abnormal mast cells and clinically it can ranges from 'asymptomatic' with normal life expectancy to 'highly aggressive'. Symptoms are caused by the release of mast cells mediators, such as histamine, and by the increase bulk of mast cells in the tissue. We present herein a case of systemic mastocytosis presenting with abdominal symptomatology due to thickened colonic involvement showed by US associated with bone and skin involvement.

  9. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juan; Chen, Jian; Kim, Jae Chan; Yao, Ke

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and involved in its destructive and regenerative disease course, tissue specimens were collected from 3 eyes of 3 patients with Mooren's ulcer that underwent lamellar keratectomy. Three normal donor limbal corneoscleras served as controls. Immunohistochemical staining patterns were analyzed by using the following antibodies: CD34 (a marker of hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelium), c-kit (a marker of hematopoietic and stromal progenitor cells) and STRO-1 (a differentiation antigen present on bone marrow fibroblast cells and on various nonhematopoietic progenitor cells). Strong positive CD34, c-kit and STRO-1 cells were revealed in Mooren's ulcer specimens, especially in the superficial stroma. A few weakly expressed CD34 stromal cells were seen in normal limbal cornea, but no immunoreactivity for c-kit and STRO-1 was found. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and contribute to its destructive and regeneration process by synergizing with other factors. Specific therapeutic strategies that target the role of these cells in Mooren's ulcer are anticipated.

  10. The effect of phytase and fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, bone quality, and phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Y; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Kim, W K

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and 2 levels of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, bone mineralization, and P utilization of broiler chickens. A total of 210 day-old male broiler chickens (Ross) were randomly placed into 7 dietary treatments consisting of 6 replicates with 5 birds per pen. The experiment was designed as an augmented 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 0 or 500 U/kg of phytase and 0, 0.5% or 1% of FOS added to a reduced Ca (0.8%) and available P (0.25%) negative control diet (NC). A positive control diet (PC) that contained 1% Ca and 0.45% available P was also included. During the entire experimental period, phytase supplementation significantly improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR), BW gain (BWG), and feed intake. Birds fed the PC diet showed significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in both femur and tibia bones (P < 0.0001) than those fed the NC diet. Phytase supplementation increased femur BMD (P < 0.05), whereas FOS decreased femur BMD and BMC (P < 0.05). Phosphorus utilization was significantly higher for the NC diet (P < 0.0001). Phytase alone and in combination with 0.5% FOS increased P utilization significantly when compared with other treatments (P < 0.05). Fructooligosaccharides, especially at the level of 0.5%, increased P retention. In conclusion, phytase supplementation in low Ca and P diets improved growth performance, bone quality, and P utilization. However, supplementing NC diets with phytase and FOS did not result in bone mineralization values comparable with that of the PC diet. The application of dietary FOS alone had a negative effect on broiler bone quality.

  11. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of chicken osteocalcin and its use in evaluation of perch effects on bone remodeling in caged White Leghorns.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Hester, P Y; Hou, J-F

    2013-08-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a sensitive biochemical marker for evaluating bone turnover in mammals. The role of avian OC is less clear because of the need for a chicken assay. Our objectives were to develop an assay using indirect competitive ELISA for detecting chicken serum OC and use the assay to examine the effects of perches on bone remodeling in caged hens. Anti-chicken OC polyclonal antibody was produced by immunization of rabbits with a recombinant OC from Escherichia coli. Chicken OC extracted from bone was used as a coated protein, and purified chicken OC was used for calibration. The limit of detection of the developed OC ELISA was 0.13 ng/mL. The intra- and interassay CV were <7 and <12%, respectively. The sensitivity of the developed OC ELISA was compared with a commercial Rat-Mid OC ELISA in laying hens housed in conventional cages with or without perches. Serum samples were collected from 71-wk-old White Leghorn hens subjected to 4 treatments. Treatment 1 was control chickens that never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 chickens had perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age), whereas treatment 3 chickens had perches only during the egg-laying phase of the life cycle (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens always had access to perches (0 to 71 wk of age). Correlation between the 2 assays was 0.62 (P < 0.0001). Levels of serum OC using the developed chicken ELISA were higher than that detected using the Rat-Mid ELISA (P < 0.0001). Results from the chicken ELISA assay showed that hens with perch access had higher concentrations of serum OC than hens without perches during egg laying (P = 0.04). Pullet access to perches did not affect serum OC levels in 71-wk-old hens (P = 0.15). In conclusion, a chicken OC ELISA has been validated that is sensitive and accurate with adequate discriminatory power for measuring bone remodeling in chickens.

  12. Age- and sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric and geometric parameters of tibiotarsal bone in Ross broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Charuta, Anna; Dzierzecka, Małgorzata; Komosa, Marcin; Kalinowski, Łukasz; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    For the first time computed tomography has been used to analyze densitometric and geometric parameters in proximal metaphyses and the mid-diaphyses of tibiotarsal bones in broiler chickens in posthatching development as influenced by age and sex. The research was conducted on 60 tibial bones of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) (10 males and 10 females in each age group). Statistical analysis has been conducted with the use of one-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Calculations have been performed separately for each sex, with age as a differentiation variable and separately for each of the developmental stages, with sex as a differentiation factor. Pearson's correlation coefficient have been calculated. Also, relative bone density has been determined. It was observed that volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the diaphyses was two times higher (app. 550 cm3) than in the proximal metaphyses (app. 230 cm ) of the tibiae in broiler chickens. In the proximal metaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones, densitometric and geometrical parameters increased with age of the birds. Densitometric parameters (vBMD, BMC) in 6-week-old males displayed (slightly) higher values than in females. It is worth emphasising that in both sexes bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the tibial proximal metaphyses than in the diaphyses. At the mid-diaphysis, most of the densitometric and geometrical parameters, i.e. bone mineral content (BMC), Strength-Strain Index (SSI), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endosteal circumference (ENDO_C), cortical area(CRT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A) and bone area (TOT_A), tended to grow with the birds' age. vBMD (volumetric bone mineral density in situ) is the only parameter that did not grow with age. It was also observed that in males in 4 wk, vBMD in the proximal metaphyses displayed the lowest values during posthatching development (217.47 cm3). Also between 2 and 4 wk of the development, vBMD in the diaphyses decreased from 637.64 cm3

  13. Evaluation of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation in broiler chickens fed on a rye-based diet.

    PubMed

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Bielke, L R; Vicente, J L; Wolfenden, R; Menconi, A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. 2. In the present study, control mash rye-based diets (CON) or Bacillus-DFM supplemented diets (TRT) were administered ad libitum to male broilers in three independent experiments. 3. In Experiments 1 and 2 (n = 25/group), liver samples were taken to evaluate bacterial translocation, digesta samples were used for viscosity measurements and the intestinal microbial flora was evaluated from different intestinal sections to enumerate total recovered gram-negative bacteria (TGB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic bacteria (TAB). Additionally, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone quality. 4. In Experiment 3, each experimental group had 8 replicates of 20 chickens (n = 160/group). Weekly, body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. At d 28-of-age, samples were taken to determine bacterial translocation, digesta viscosity and bone quality characteristics. 5. In all experiments, consumption of Bacillus-DFM reduced bacterial translocation to the liver and digesta viscosity. Additionally, DFM supplementation improved BW, bone quality measurements and FCR. Moreover, chickens fed on the Bacillus-DFM diet in Experiments 1 and 2 showed a significant reduction in the number of gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria in the duodenal content compared to control. 6. In summary, chickens fed on a rye-based diet without DFM inclusion showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by reduced performance and bone quality variables relative to the Bacillus-DFM candidate group. Hence, incorporation into the feed of a selected DFM ameliorated the adverse anti-nutritional effects related to utilisation of rye-based diets in broilers chickens.

  14. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Douglas H; Liu, Xiaoying; Ulusarac, Ozlem; Ponnuru, Kimberly D; Schnepp, Stephanie L

    2011-02-18

    An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always) innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body.

  15. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  16. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always) innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body. PMID:21333012

  17. Effect of inulin on growth performance, intestinal tract sizes, mineral retention and tibial bone mineralisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2009-05-01

    1. A 5-week feeding trial with 240 one-day-old male broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the responses of performance, intestinal tract measurements, relative apparent retention of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu), and tibial bone measurements and mineral content (ash and Ca) to dietary graded levels of inulin. Treatments consisted of a maize-soybean meal control diet without or with supplemental antibiotic (flavomycin, 40 mg/kg diet) and 4 diets containing inulin at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg. 2. Growth performance of birds and morphological measurements of intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caeca) showed no response to dietary levels of inulin as compared with the control diet and the control diet with flavomycin. 3. Dietary inulin improved the relative apparent retention of Ca, Zn and Cu (up to 18.4, 35.5 and 466%, respectively), did no affect that of Mg and impaired the retention of Fe. Differences among inulin treatments and control with flavomycin were significant only for Mg content. 4. Dietary inulin increased the concentration of ash and Ca in the tibiae. This effect was not reflected in the tibial bone morphology (weight, length and width). In conclusion, the results from the current study suggest that feeding inulin to broiler chickens may have a beneficial effect on bone quality.

  18. Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate true ileal phosphorus (P:) digestibility of 3 meat and bone meal samples (MBM-1, MBM-2: , and MBM-3:) for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each sample to contain graded concentrations of P. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 6 replicates (6 birds per replicate) per dietary treatment. A total of 432 Ross 308 broilers were assigned at 21 d of age to the 12 test diets. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P was determined by the indicator method, and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficient. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed diets containing MBM-1 and MBM-2 was unaffected by increasing dietary concentrations of P (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed the MBM-3 diets decreased with increasing P concentrations (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P < 0. 01). In birds fed the MBM-1 and MBM-2 diets, ileal endogenous P losses were estimated to be 0.049 and 0.142 g/kg DM intake (DMI:), respectively. In birds fed the MBM-3 diets, endogenous P loss was estimated to be negative (-0.370 g/kg DMI). True ileal P digestibility of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 was determined to be 0.693, 0.608, and 0.420, respectively. True ileal P digestibility coefficients determined for MBM-1 and MBM-2 were similar (P < 0.05), but were higher (P < 0.05) than that for MBM-3. Total P and true digestible P contents of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, respectively, on an as-fed basis.

  19. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds.

  20. A method of production of boneless chicken wings (drumettes and winglets) by separation of periosteum from bone without cutting skin and muscles.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ozimek, L

    2015-11-01

    The deboning of broiler chicken wings, including drumettes and winglets, is not common in the poultry processing industry. However, consumers who like convenient foods may be interested in boneless products. Samples of broiler wings were deboned by articular cartilage dislocation and periosteum stripping without cutting skin and muscles to obtain boneless drumettes and winglets, with each having inner space formed by bone removal. The average weight of bone-in winglets (30.7 g) was less (P < 0.05) than that of bone-in drumettes (39.9 g), whereas the average percentage of boneless product was less (P < 0.05) in the drumettes (74.9) than in the winglets (80.1). There was a smaller number of muscles in the drumettes than in the winglets, but major muscles in the drumettes were larger than any muscles in the winglets. The average weight of muscle was greater (P < 0.05) and that of skin was less (P < 0.05) in the drumettes than in the winglets, and thus the muscle/skin ratio was approximately twice as high (P < 0.05) in the drumettes. The size and shape were different between the bone-in and boneless products, as expected. When a cooked product was examined, no appreciable inner space (resulting from bone removal) was seen on its transverse section. The advantages of boneless wing products over bone-in wing products were discussed. It was concluded that the method described in the present study is useful for the production of high-quality boneless wing products.

  1. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Temporal Bone Presenting with Headache and Partial Facial Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kletke, Stephanie N.; Popovic, Snezana; Algird, Almunder; Alobaid, Abdullah; Reddy, Kesava K. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bony lesions that rarely affect the skull base. Very few cases of temporal bone ABCs have been reported. We describe the first case of a temporal bone ABC that was thought to be consistent with a meningioma based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Clinical Presentation An otherwise healthy 23-year-old woman presented with a pulsatile noise in her left ear and a 4-week history of throbbing headache with nausea. There was no associated emesis, visual or auditory changes, or other neurologic features. Neurologic examination revealed a left lower motor neuron facial paresis. Computed tomography and MRI studies demonstrated a large lesion in the left middle cranial fossa skull base with erosion of the petrous temporal bone. Based on the presence of a “dural tail” on preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, the lesion was interpreted to likely be consistent with a meningioma. An orbitozygomatic approach was utilized for surgical excision. Histopathologic evaluation was consistent with an ABC. Conclusion Postoperatively the patient had improvement in the lower motor neuron facial paresis. It is important to consider ABC in the differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions accompanied by the dural tail sign on MRI. PMID:26251800

  2. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with acute pancreatitis and asymptomatic bone involvement

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Aasem

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950

  3. Cytotoxic effects of oxytetracycline residues in the bones of broiler chickens following therapeutic oral administration of a water formulation.

    PubMed

    Odore, R; De Marco, M; Gasco, L; Rotolo, L; Meucci, V; Palatucci, A T; Rubino, V; Ruggiero, G; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Centenaro, S; Quarantelli, A; Terrazzano, G; Schiavone, A

    2015-08-01

    Tetracyclines, which represent one of the most commonly used antibiotics for poultry, are known to be deposited in bones, where they can remain, despite the observation of appropriate withdrawal times. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of oxytretracycline (OTC) residues in the bone and muscle of chickens, following the oral administration of a commercially available liquid formulation, and to test their cytotoxic effects on an in vitro cell culture model. Seventy-two 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted into 2 groups (control and treated animals). OTC (40 mg/kg BW) was administered via drinking water during the 1 to 5 and 20 to 25 days of life periods. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered and the OTC residues in the target tissues were measured by means of liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of the bone residues on the K562 erythroleukemic line and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In all the animals, the OTC residues in the muscle were far below the established MRL of 100 μg/kg. The OTC levels in the bones of the treated animals were instead found in the parts per million (ppm) range. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of OTC bone residues on the haematopoietic cell system. This in vitro system has revealed a significant pro-apoptotic effect on both the K562 cell line and PBMC cultures. This result suggests potential human and animal health risks due to the entry of tetracycline residues contained in the bones of treated livestock into the food-chain. This could be of concern, particularly for canine and feline diets, as meat, bone meal, and poultry by-products represent some of the main ingredients of pet foods, especially in the case of dry pet food. Further studies are needed to define the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to evaluate the in vivo toxicological

  4. A rare presentation of sarcoidosis with nasal bone involvement

    PubMed Central

    Uslu, Selen; Korkmaz, Hakan; Çetinkol, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous inflammatory disease that is induced by infectious or noninfectious environmental antigens in a genetically susceptible host. Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are two diseases with similar clinical and pathologic findings. The link between these two diseases has been extensively studied. Objective: Herein we describe a case of sarcoidosis associated with tuberculosis, treated for tuberculosis, and, 1 year, later presented with a nasal dorsal lump and skin lesions on the extremities. Methods: Case report with clinical description. Results: Our patient had a history of skin and cervical lymphadenopathy symptoms 1 year earlier and was treated with antituberculosis drugs in an outer medical center. Therapy had cured cervical lymphadenopathies, with no improvement in skin lesions. On appearance of the nasal dorsal lump, she presented to our outpatient clinic. We retrieved the previous specimens of the patient, which revealed coexistence of necrotizing granulomas with non-necrotizing granulomas, which was strongly indicative of the coexistence of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. Radiologic, histopathologic, and microbiologic investigation revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis with nasal, cutaneous, and pulmonary involvement. Treatment with prednisolone and hydroxychloroquine resulted in dramatic improvement of nasal bone, pulmonary, and skin lesions within 2 weeks. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of sarcoidosis can be complex, and the differential diagnosis from tuberculosis can be challenging. Atypical clinical pictures also can cause delays in diagnosis and proper management. In patients with granulomatous lesions that are unresponsive to antituberculosis therapy, physicians must be alerted to the possibility of coexistent sarcoidosis. PMID:27103561

  5. Bone grafting simultaneous to implant placement. Presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Gómez-Adrián, Maria Dolores; García-Mira, Berta; Ivorra-Sais, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    Bone defects at mandibular alveolar crest level complicate the placement of dental implants in the ideal location. Surgical reconstruction using autologous bone grafts allows implant fixation in an esthetic and functional manner. We describe a patient with large mandibular bone loss secondary to periodontal inflammatory processes. Reconstruction of the mandibular alveolar process was carried out using onlay block bone grafts harvested from the mandible. The grafts were stabilized by positioning the dental implants through them--a procedure that moreover afforded good primary implant fixation. After two years of follow-up the clinical and radiological outcome is good. In the lower jaw, where bone regeneration is complicated, we were able to achieve good results in this patient--minimizing the corresponding waiting time by grafting and placing the implants in the same surgical step.

  6. Chicken from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stuffed Chicken Marinating Partial Cooking Color of Skin Dark Bones Pink Meat Storage Times Color of Giblets ... mature male chicken with coarse skin and tough, dark meat. Requires long, moist cooking. [ Top of Page ] ...

  7. An unusual presentation of peripheral buttressing bone in anterior maxilla: Case report and management

    PubMed Central

    Balu, Pratebha; Ramalingam, Sudhakar; Raja, Manoj; Thomas, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of buttressing bone formation is relatively uncommon in the alveolar bone, more so in the anterior maxilla. In our case, peripheral buttressing bone formation presented as an isolated hard gingival swelling with relation to 21 in a 14-year-old girl. Radiographic presentation was normal with no evidence of bone loss or altered bone density. Therefore explorative surgery was planned. Buttressing bone formation could be appreciated, which also was the cause for swelling clinically. Osteoplasty was done and bone graft placed in the defect. On a subsequent recall visit gingivoplasty was done to reduce gingival thickness to improve esthetics. We report the case for its unusual presentation, its management with follow-up. PMID:23293489

  8. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  9. Solitary plasmacytoma of the mastoid bone presenting as coalescent mastoiditis.

    PubMed

    George, J C; Caldemeyer, K S; Kreipke, D L; Chalian, A A; Moran, C C

    1994-12-01

    Acute mastoiditis is a complication of acute otitis media that produces air cell opacification and coalescence on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. This appearance, however, is nonspecific and may be seen in patients with infection and tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can aid in differentiating the two on the basis of differences in tissue signal characteristics and by showing the presence or absence of an associated soft-tissue mass. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of MRI as a complementary imaging modality to CT in the diagnosis of a solitary plasmacytoma of the temporal bone that was initially thought to be coalescent mastoiditis.

  10. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as ''cold'' lesions on bone scan: a report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Caudle, R.J.; Crawford, A.H.; Gelfand, M.J.; Gruppo, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    ''Cold'' lesions on bone scan have been reported in a variety of disease processes, including infection, avascular necrosis, and cysts. We present two cases of children who presented with large ''cold'' areas on technetium bone scans and were treated initially for septic processes. Acute childhood leukemia frequently presents with bone or joint pain, fever, and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Although the diagnosis may be difficult if the characteristic clinical signs and laboratory findings are absent, the presence of anemia should alert the physician to the possibility of malignancy. Bone scanning provides a sensitive method of localizing pathology, but diagnosis requires biopsy or marrow aspiration.

  11. Transport of membrane-bound mineral particles in blood vessels during chicken embryonic bone development.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Koifman, Naama; Shimoni, Eyal; Rechav, Katya; Arraf, Alaa A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zelzer, Elazar; Weiner, Stephen; Addadi, Lia

    2016-02-01

    During bone formation in embryos, large amounts of calcium and phosphate are taken up and transported to the site where solid mineral is first deposited. The initial mineral forms in vesicles inside osteoblasts and is deposited as a highly disordered calcium phosphate phase. The mineral is then translocated to the extracellular space where it penetrates the collagen matrix and crystallizes. To date little is known about the transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in the vascular system, especially when high transport rates are needed and the concentrations of these ions in the blood serum may exceed the solubility product of the mineral phase. Here we used a rapidly growing biological model, the chick embryo, to study the bone mineralization pathway taking advantage of the fact that large amounts of bone mineral constituents are transported. Cryo scanning electron microscopy together with cryo energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused-ion beam imaging in the serial surface view mode surprisingly reveal the presence of abundant vesicles containing small mineral particles in the lumen of the blood vessels. Morphologically similar vesicles are also found in the cells associated with bone formation. This observation directly implicates the vascular system in solid mineral distribution, as opposed to the transport of ions in solution. Mineral particle transport inside vesicles implies that far larger amounts of the bone mineral constituents can be transported through the vasculature, without the danger of ectopic precipitation. This introduces a new stage into the bone mineral formation pathway, with the first mineral being formed far from the bone itself.

  12. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties.

  13. Linking ileal digestible phosphorus and bone mineralization in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase and highly soluble calcium.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Walk, C L

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestibility of P in potassium phosphate, phytase-related ileal digestible P release, bone-mineralization-based ileal digestible P equivalency of phytase, and phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization in broiler chickens at 2 dietary concentrations of highly soluble Ca (HSC). Birds were sorted by BW at d 15 posthatch and assigned to 8 cages per diet with 8 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 2 × 6 factorial of HSC at 5 or 6 g/kg and P supply treatment at 6 levels consisting of 4 added P levels (P from KH2PO4 added at 0, 0.7, 1.4, or 2.1 g/kg of diet) or 2 added phytase levels (500 or 1,000 phytase units). On d 24 posthatch, ileal digesta were collected for ileal P digestibility (IPD) determination and the left tibia was collected from the 4 heaviest birds in each cage for bone ash determination. Weight gain, G:F, and tibia ash were higher (P < 0.05) at 5 than at 6 g of HSC/kg. Added P from KH2PO4 or added phytase linearly increased (P < 0.001) weight gain, G:F, tibia ash, and IPD. The IPD of KH2PO4 derived from multiple linear regressions of digestible on total P intake for the diets without added phytase showed a reduction (P < 0.05) from 89.5 to 84.5% with increased HSC from 5 to 6 g/kg. Polynomial regressions of digestible P intake on phytase intake indicated that 1,000 units of added phytase released 1.701 or 1.561 g of digestible P in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. Polynomial regressions of tibia ash on digestible P or phytase intake in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg at 1,000 phytase units gave digestible P equivalency of 1.487 or 1.448 g, respectively. Thus, phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization was 87.4 and 92.8% in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively.

  14. Physicochemical, antioxidant and biocompatible properties of chondroitin sulphate isolated from chicken keel bone for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rani, Aruna; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun

    2017-03-01

    Chicken keel bone cartilage was explored for cheaper and sustainable source for isolation of chondroitin sulphate (CS) for its future use in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical industry. HPSEC analysis displayed two peaks of 100kDa for CS-keel polysaccharide and 1kDa for protein. DLS analysis of CS-keel displayed polydispersity. CS-keel yield was 15% and 53±5% uronic acid content. The quantified percentages of UA-GalNAc4S and UA-GalNAc6S disaccharide in CS-keel were 58% and 42%, respectively. FT-IR identified CS-keel to be chondroitin 4-sulphate. (1)H NMR of CS-keel confirmed the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine and Glucuronic acid. FESEM demonstrated layer structure and AFM displayed the size of CS-keel fibres. DSC, TGA and DTG studies of CS-keel showed Td at 243°C. In vitro cell proliferation assay and morphological analysis of mouse fibroblast L929 cell lines confirmed the biocompatibility of CS-keel. CS-keel (5mg/ml) exhibited ∼49% antioxidant activity against DPPH and 22% against superoxide radical protecting from oxidative damage. CS-keel demonstrated better (70.3%) emulsifying activity than commercial sodium alginate (60.2%).

  15. Network monitoring of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins: localization of the five canonical chicken proteins in embryonic and maturing bone and cartilage and their introduction as histochemical tools.

    PubMed

    Kaltner, Herbert; Singh, Tanuja; Manning, Joachim C; Raschta, Anne-Sarah; André, Sabine; Sinowatz, Fred; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Divergence from an ancestral gene leads to a family of homologous proteins. Whether they are physiologically distinct, similar, or even redundant is an open question in each case. Defining profiles of tissue localization is a step toward giving diversity a functional meaning. Due to the significance of endogenous sugar receptors (lectins) as effectors for a wide range of cellular activities we have focused on galectins. The comparatively low level of network complexity constituted by only five canonical proteins makes chicken galectins (CGs) an attractive choice to perform comprehensive analysis, here studied on bone/cartilage as organ system. Galectin expression was monitored by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry using non-cross-reactive antibodies. Overall, three galectins (CG-1B, CG-3, CG-8) were present with individual expression patterns, one was found exclusively in the mesenchyme (CG-1A), the fifth (CG-2) not being detectable. The documented extents of separation are a sign for functional divergence; in cases with overlapping stainings, as for example in the osteoprogenitor layer or periosteum, cooperation may also be possible. Recombinant production enabled the introduction of the endogenous lectins as tools for binding-site localization. Their testing revealed developmental regulation and cell-type-specific staining. Of relevance for research on mammalian galectins, this study illustrates that certain cell types can express more than one galectin, letting functional interrelationships appear likely. Thus, complete network analysis irrespective of its degree of complexity is mandatory.

  16. Present status and future potential of enhancing bone healing using nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Stylios, George; Wan, Taoyu; Giannoudis, Peter

    2007-03-01

    An overview of the current state of tissue engineering material systems used in bone healing is presented. A variety of fabrication processes have been developed that have resulted in porous implant substrates that can address unresolved clinical problems. The merits of these biomaterial systems are evaluated in the context of the mechanical properties and biomedical performances most suitable for bone healing. An optimal scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications should be biocompatible and act as a 3D template for in vitro and in vivo bone growth; in addition, its degradation products should be non-toxic and easily excreted by the body. To achieve these features, scaffolds must consist of an interconnected porous network of micro- and nanoscale to allow extensive body fluid transport through the pores, which will trigger bone ingrowth, cell migration, tissue ingrowth, and eventually vascularization.

  17. Identification of trabecular excrescences, novel microanatomical structures, present in bone in osteoarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A M; Boyde, A; Davidson, J S; Jarvis, J C; Ranganath, L R; Gallagher, J A

    2012-04-21

    It is widely held that bone architecture is finely regulated in accordance with homeostatic requirements. Aberrant remodelling (hyperdensification and/or cyst formation in the immediately subchondral region) has previously been described in bone underlying cartilage in arthropathies. The present study examined the trabecular architecture of samples of bone, initially in the severe osteoarthropathy of alkaptonuria, but subsequently in osteoarthritis using a combination of light microscopy, 3D scanning electron microscopy and quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy. We report an extraordinary and previously unrecognised bone phenotype in both disorders, including novel microanatomical structures. The underlying subchondral trabecular bone contained idiosyncratic architecture. Trabecular surfaces had numerous outgrowths that we have termed "trabecular excrescences", of which three distinct types were recognised. The first type arose from incomplete resorption of branching secondary trabeculae arising from the deposition of immature (woven) bone in prior marrow space. These were characterised by very deeply scalloped surfaces and rugged edges. The second type had arisen in a similar way but been smoothed over by new bone deposition. The third type, which resembled coarse stucco, probably arises from resting surfaces that had been focally reactivated. These were poorly integrated with the prior trabecular wall. We propose that these distinctive microanatomical structures are indicative of abnormal osteoclast/osteoblast modelling in osteoarthropathies, possibly secondary to altered mechanical loading or other aberrant signalling. Identification of the mechanisms underlying the formation of trabecular excrescences will contribute to a better understanding of the role of aberrant bone remodelling in arthropathies and development of new therapeutic strategies.

  18. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  19. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  20. ALK Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Extensive Bone Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Gajendra, Smeeta; Lipi, Lipika; Goel, Shalini; Misra, Ruchira

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) represents approximately 2% of all Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas that commonly involves nodal as well as a wide variety of extra nodal sites, as skin, soft tissue, bones and lungs, although primary or secondary involvement of bone is rare. Herein, we report a case of 14-year-old female child presented as extensive bony involvement with a clinical diagnosis of bone tumour/ small round cell tumour, which was proved to be ALK positive ALCL on histopathological examination. PMID:25738071

  1. Resveratrol induces antioxidant and heat shock protein mRNA expression in response to heat stress in black-boned chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, L L; He, J H; Xie, H B; Yang, Y S; Li, J C; Zou, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary resveratrol at 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of diet on the performance, immune organ growth index, serum parameters, and expression levels of heat shock protein (Hsp) 27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen of 42-d-old female black-boned chickens exposed to heat stress at 37 ± 2°C for 15 d. The results showed that heat stress reduced daily feed intake and BW gain; decreased serum glutathione (GSH), growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels; and inhibited GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities compared with birds subjected to thermo-neutral circumstances. Chickens that were fed diets supplemented with resveratrol exhibited a linear increase in feed intake and BW gain (P < 0.001); serum GSH, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (P ≤ 0.01); and GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activities (P < 0.001) compared with chickens that were fed diets without resveratrol during heat stress. In contrast, serum malonaldehyde concentrations were decreased (P < 0.001) in the chickens fed a resveratrol-supplemented diet. Heat stress also reduced (P < 0.05) the growth index of the bursa of Fabricus and spleen; however, it had no effect on the growth index of the thymus. The growth index of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen increased (P < 0.05) upon heat stress and coincided with an increase in supplemental resveratrol levels. The expression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were increased (P < 0.01), but those of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus were decreased (P < 0.01) under heat stress compared with no heat stress. Resveratrol attenuated the heat stress-induced overexpression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen and increased the low expression of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus upon heat stress. The results suggest that supplemental resveratrol improves growth performance

  2. Metastatic colorectal cancer presenting with bone marrow metastasis: a case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Rita; Mukherji, Deborah; Haydar, Ali; Saroufim, Maya; Temraz, Sally

    2016-01-01

    With advances in treatment, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) are now living longer with an apparent increase in the incidence of bone and bone marrow metastases (BMM). Common sites of metastatic disease from CRC include the liver and lungs with bone metastasis rarely occurring in the absence of visceral metastatic disease. We report a series of three patients presenting with isolated bone and BMM leading to a diagnosis of primary CRC. We have reviewed the literature regarding diagnosis, potential mechanisms leading to the development of osseous metastasis and outcome. A high level of clinical suspicion and in-depth understanding of the natural history of these rare metastases may guide future management and treatment decisions. PMID:27034798

  3. [Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs].

    PubMed

    Fernández del Campo, José Antonio Cabezas

    2004-01-01

    Present data on influenza virus isolated from ducks and chickens, and influenza virus C. Anti-influenza drugs. Within the broad field of Glycopathology and Glycotherapeutics, research on influenza virus types A, B and C from humans and several bird species (particularly migratory birds such as ducks, since they are reservoirs for viruses), as well as the search for improved drugs designed for the prevention or treatment of epidemics/pandemics produced by most of those viruses are issues of relevant interest not only from a scientific point of view but also for repercussions on health and the important economical consequences. The research work begun by the author and collaborators at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Salamanca (Spain) in the middle of the 1970's, developed later in close cooperation with the "(Unité d'Ecologie Virale" of the Pasteur Institute of Paris (Prof. Claude Hannoun and collaborators), has been published in about twenty papers that mainly focus on the theoretic-experimental study of: The sialidase (neuraminidase) activity of human influenza viruses types A and B. The acetylesterase activity of type C virus from humans and dogs. The sialidase activity of type A virus from ducks and pigs, in comparison with that of humans. Certain sialidase inhibitors as useful anti-influenza drugs, especially in the case of possible future influenza pandemics of avian origin.

  4. The Produce of Methyl Ester from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Using Heterogene Catalyst Ash of Chicken Bone (CaO) using Ethanol as Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaga, M. S.; Fauzi, R.; Turnip, J. R.

    2017-03-01

    Methyl Ester (methyl ester) is generally made by trans esterification using heterogeneous base catalyst. To simplify the separation, the heterogeneous catalyst is used, such as CaO, which in this case was isolated from chicken bones made by softening chicken bones and do calcination process. Some other important variables other than the selection of the catalyst is the catalyst dosage, molar ratio of ethanol to the CPO and the reaction temperature. The best result from this observe is at the molar ratio of ethanol to the CPO is 17: 1, the reaction temperature is 70 ° C and 7% catalyst (w.t) with reaction time for 7 hours at 500 rpm as a constant variable, got 90,052 % purity, so that this result does not get the standard requirements of biodiesel, because of the purity of the biodiesel standard temporary must be achieve > 96.5 %. This study aims to produce methyl ester yield with the influence of the reaction temperature, percent of catalyst and molar ratio of ethanol and CPO. The most influential variable is the temperature of the reaction that gives a significant yield difference of methyl ester produced. It’s been proven by the increasing temperature used will also significantly increase the yield of methyl ester.

  5. The past, present, and future of bone morphometry: its contribution to an improved understanding of bone biology.

    PubMed

    Jee, Webster S S

    2005-01-01

    It was not until the 1950s that a better paradigm for bone biology evolved, which led to the birth of bone histomorphometry. Two clinicians, Harold Frost (1958-1964) and Lent Johnson (1964), were responsible for the paradigm stating that the primary function of bone is mechanical load bearing with subsidiary function to participate in plasma calcium homeostasis to support hematopoesis. Dynamic bone histomorphometry was born when Milch et al. (1958) discovered bone localization of tetracycline and Frost generated the methodology to study tetracycline-based dynamic histological analysis of cortical bone remodeling (1961-1965). Dynamic bone histomorphometry did not blossom until Frost, while a Sun Valley Workshop participant, developed it to address trabecular bone dynamics. The combination of Arnold (1948) producing thin sections of plastic-embedded undecalcified bone and Frost's (1977-1983) modification of dynamic cortical bone histology for cancellous bone made it possible to study tetracycline-based dynamic histomorphometry of cancellous bone. It led to the better understanding of basic metabolic unit (BMU) remodelling and to Frost's mechanostat hypothesis, and characterized the rat model to accelerate the development of several drugs in the treatment of bone diseases. Currently, dynamic bone histomorphometry has contributed to studies in bone's mechanical usage windows, mechanical usage setpoint hypothesis, muscle-bone relations, marrow-bone relations, the Utah paradigm of musculoskeletal physiology, apoptosis, genetics (transgenic mice) and bone structure, bone quality, the lacunocanalicular network and bone modelling, and remodeling hypothesis, osteocyte role as mechanosensory, chemosensory, and regulatory in bone maintenance, targeted and untargeted remodeling, the role of permissive agents, etc., items in bone biology expounded briefly by Lent Johnson (1965) and continuously by Harold Frost at the Sun Valley Workshop (1965-2003). Finally, "What's next

  6. New respiratory virus (chicken pox, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus) vaccines: efficacy, necessity and policy for the tropical world at present.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-09-01

    Several respiratory viruses are documented in medicine. Several infectious diseases due to these viruses are current global public health problems. Prevention of respiratory viral infections becomes the focus of the public health ministries of many tropical countries. Presently, there are many new vaccines for respiratory viruses. These vaccines include chicken pox vaccine, influenza vaccine and respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. In this article, the author will briefly discuss on these quoted vaccines focusing on efficacy, necessity and policy for tropical world at present.

  7. Background acetabular aneurysmal bone cyst in a 7 year-old: Presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Saus Milán, N; Pino Almero, L; Mínguez Rey, M F

    2016-01-01

    The bone cyst is a rare benign tumor that usually develops in childhood. There are several treatment options, however when it is located within the pelvis treatment is complex. A 7 year-old patient who presented with 3 months of right hip pain and limping. The initial radiograph showed a discrete periostic reaction and acetabulum effacement. The MRI and CT scans suggested the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst and was confirmed by open biopsy. Two serial embolizations were performed with good results, the patient was asymptomatic one year after.

  8. Traumatic retroperitoneal hematoma illustrated on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in a patient presenting with a fall.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Van; Chiam, Quee Li; Dixson, Hugh; Goddard, Kim A

    2007-08-01

    Retroperitoneal haematoma is rarely described in the context of bone scintigraphy, as it is usually an incidental discovery on bone scan carried out for another purpose. We report a case of a right retroperitoneal haematoma detected on Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy taken in an elderly patient presenting with a mechanical fall and a right acetabular fracture.

  9. Primary bone marrow lymphoma: an uncommon extranodal presentation of aggressive non-hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Antonio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Agostinelli, Claudio; Hebeda, Konnie M; Matutes, Estella; Peccatori, Jacopo; Campidelli, Cristina; Espinet, Blanca; Perea, Granada; Acevedo, Agustin; Mehrjardi, Ali Zare; Martinez-Bernal, Monica; Gelemur, Marta; Zucca, Emanuele; Pileri, Stefano; Campo, Elias; López-Guillermo, Armando; Rozman, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Bone marrow involvement by lymphoma is considered a systemic dissemination of the disease arising elsewhere, although some tumors may arise primarily in the bone marrow microenvironment. Primary bone marrow lymphoma (PBML) is a rare entity whose real boundaries and clinicobiological significance are not well defined. Criteria to diagnose PBML encompass isolated bone marrow infiltration, with no evidence of nodal or extranodal involvement, including the bone, and the exclusion of leukemia/lymphomas that are considered to primarily involve the bone marrow. Twenty-one out of 40 lymphomas retrospectively reviewed by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group from 12 institutions in 7 different countries over a 25-year period fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These cases comprised 4 follicular lymphomas (FLs), 15 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), and 2 peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified. The FL cases showed paratrabecular infiltration, BCL2 protein and CD10 expression, and BCL2 gene rearrangement. DLBCL showed nodular infiltration in 6 cases and was diffuse in 9 cases; it also showed positivity for BCL2 protein (9/10) and IRF4 (6/8). Median age was 65 years with male predominance. All but 3 FL patients were symptomatic. Most cases presented with cytopenias and high lactate dehydrogenase. Four patients (3 FL cases and 1 DLBCL case) had leukemic involvement. Most DLBCL patients received CHOP-like or R-CHOP-like regimens. The outcome was unfavorable, with a median overall survival of 1.8 years. In conclusion, PBML is a very uncommon lymphoma with particular clinical features and heterogenous histology. Its recognition is important to establish accurate diagnosis and adequate therapy.

  10. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor Presenting in Bone, Brain, Lungs, and Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric D.; Gulbahce, Evin; McNally, Joseph; Buys, Saundra S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast which are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Malignant PTs account for <1% of malignant breast tumors, and borderline tumors have potential to progress to malignant tumors. Metastatic recurrences are most commonly documented in bone and lungs. We report an extremely rare presentation of recurrent malignant PTs involving the brain, lung, lymph nodes, and bone. Case A 66-year-old female presented with a large breast mass. Biopsy identified malignant PT, treated by mastectomy. One year later she presented with acute back pain; imaging showed pathological L4 spinal compression fracture. Core biopsy confirmed PT. Staging identified additional metastases in the lymph nodes, brain, and lung. Discussion PTs are rare and fast-growing tumors that originate from periductal stromal tissues and are composed of both epithelial and stromal components. Histologically, they are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. The prognosis of the malignant type is poorly defined, with local recurrence occurring in 10–40% and metastases in 10%. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective in this tumor type. The most common metastatic sites for malignant cases are the lung and bones, but in rare instances, PTs may metastasize elsewhere. Conclusion We report a rare presentation of recurrent malignant PT presenting as pathological fracture of the lumbar spine with impingement on the spinal column, along with cerebellar, nodal, and pulmonary metastases. Only 1 similar case has been previously reported. PMID:28203179

  11. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Cervical Spine and Pelvic Bone Metastases Presenting as Unknown Primary Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sea Won; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jung Min; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Sung Hak; Jung, Eun Sun

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely associated with viral hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis. Although active surveillance is ongoing in Korea, advanced or metastatic HCC is found at initial presentation in many patients. Metastatic HCC presents with a hypervascular intrahepatic tumor and extrahepatic lesions such as lung or lymph node metastases. Cases of HCC presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary have been rarely reported. The authors experienced a case of metastatic HCC in a patient who presented with a metastatic bone lesion but no primary intrahepatic tumor. This case suggests that HCC should be considered as a differential diagnosis when evaluating the primary origin of metastatic carcinoma.

  12. A Rare Tumor with a Very Rare Initial Presentation: Thymic Carcinoma as Bone Marrow Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Leelavathi

    2017-01-01

    Tumors of thymus gland are rare and account for 0.2% to 1.5% of all the neoplasms. They constitute a heterogeneous group that has an unknown etiology and a complex as well as varied biology. This has led to difficulty in their histological classification and in predicting their prognostic and survival markers. Among them, thymic carcinoma is the most aggressive thymic epithelial tumor exhibiting cytological malignant features and a diversity of clinicopathological characteristics that can cause diagnostic dilemmas, misdiagnosis, and therapeutic challenge. We herein describe a case of a 60-year-old man who while undergoing evaluation for the cause of pancytopenia was discovered having bone marrow metastasis from an asymptomatic thymic carcinoma. Bone marrow metastasis is an extremely rare initial presentation of thymic carcinoma with only few cases reported in the literature. PMID:28116199

  13. Gastric MALT lymphoma presenting as Waldenström's macroglobulinemia without bone marrow involvement.

    PubMed

    Salle, Valéry; Smail, Amar; Joly, Jean-Paul; Capiod, Jean-Claude; Gontier, Marie-Francine; Duhaut, Pierre; Ducroix, Jean-Pierre

    2007-07-01

    We report a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with macroglobulinemia in a 59-year-old man who presented with melena. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed irregular thickening of the wall of the stomach, and endoscopic examination disclosed enlarged and inflammatory folds of the fundus. Histopathologic examination of gastric samples showed mucosal infiltration by small lymphocytes, which were positive for CD20 and negative for CD10 and CD23, confirming the diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma. Serum electrophoresis detected a monoclonal peak and immunoelectrophoresis revealed an immunoglobulin M kappa component. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy results were normal. The patient received chemotherapy. After treatment, he was in complete remission, and the serum monoclonal component had disappeared. Our observation is uncommon because of important macroglobulinemia occurring in gastric MALT lymphoma without bone marrow involvement.

  14. Effect of inulin and oligofructose on performance and bone characteristics of broiler chickens fed on diets with different concentrations of calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J; Arczewska-Włoek, A

    2011-08-01

    1. In a 6-week experiment with broilers, the effect of diet supplementation, using prebiotic fructans, on the performance and biomechanical and geometrical parameters of the tibia and femur bones was evaluated. 2. A total of 240, 1-d-old, Ross 308 chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments, each comprising 5 replicate cages, with 8 birds (4 male and 4 female) per cage. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was employed, with two dietary concentrations of calcium and available phosphorus (standard: 9 x 4/9 x 2 g Ca/kg and 4 x 3/4 x 0 g P available/kg; or reduced: 8 x 3/8 x 1 g Ca/kg and 3 x 7/3 x 5 g P available/kg, for the starter/finisher feeding phases, respectively), and with three diets supplemented by selected prebiotics (none; inulin, 7 x 0 g/kg; oligofructose, 7 x 0 g/kg). 3. The concentration of Ca and available P in the diet had no effect on performance parameters at 21 and 42 d of age. At 42 d, reducing the dietary concentrations of Ca and P significantly decreased such biomechanical parameters of bones as tibia stiffness (by 9 x 2%); and femur breaking strength (by 5 x 8%) and stiffness (by 5 x 1%). The diet with a lower concentration of Ca and P negatively affected such geometrical parameter of the tibia as the cross section area, but had no effect on cortex thickness, or bone weight and length. 4. At 21 or 42 d of age, broilers fed on diets supplemented with inulin or oligofructose displayed a performance similar to those fed on the unsupplemented diet. The prebiotics under study also had no statistically significant effects on the biomechanical and geometrical parameters of either bone. There were no significant Ca and P concentration x prebiotics interaction effects, on either performance parameters or on bone quality indices. 5. It was thus concluded that inulin and oligofructose do not improve the performance and bone quality of broilers, either when fed on diets with a standard concentration of Ca and available P, or with reduced concentrations

  15. Calcium sources and their interaction with the different levels of non-phytate phosphorus affect performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, M; Solà-Oriol, D; Davin, R; Perez, J F

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of different Ca sources (limestone, Ca chloride, and Lipocal, a fat-encapsulated tricalcium phosphate, TCP) in conjunction with 4 dietary levels of non-phytate P (NPP) on performance, ileal digestibility of Ca and P, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Calcium sources were also evaluated in vitro to measure acid-binding capacity (ABC) and Ca solubility at different pH values. Ca chloride showed the highest solubility of Ca, with TCP showing the highest ABC. Ross male broiler-chicks were sorted by BW at 1 d post-hatch and assigned to 5 cages per diet with 5 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 3×4 factorial of the 3 Ca sources and 4 levels of NPP (0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4% or 0.45%) consisting of 4 added P levels (Ca(H2PO4)2) with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in all diets. On d 14 post-hatch, 3 birds were euthanized, and ileal digesta and the right tibia were collected to determine ileal Ca and P digestibility and bone mineralization, respectively. Feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) on d 14 was higher (P<0.01) with TCP and limestone than with Ca chloride. Added P increased the tibia weight and tibia ash content in chicks fed TCP up to 0.4% NPP and limestone up to 0.35% NPP. Calcium ileal digestibility was higher (P<0.01) with Ca chloride (73.7%) than with limestone (67.1%) or TCP (66.8%), which increased (P<0.05) with added levels of P from monocalcium phosphate. Phosphorus ileal digestibility was not affected by the Ca source and increased (P<0.001) with added levels of NPP. It can be concluded that starting broilers responded better to low-soluble Ca sources compared to high-soluble sources. A level of 0.35%-0.40% NPP with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in diets including limestone or TCP is sufficient to guarantee performance and bone formation for broiler chickens from d 0 to d 14.

  16. A rare presentation of locally re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Andrew; Babikir, Osman Mahdi; Abboud, Amer; Theodorakis, Spyridon

    2014-10-29

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the USA. While locally advanced rectal cancer involving bone has been described extensively, colon cancer locally involving bone has only been described, to our knowledge, in a single case report. In this case report, we describe the presentation and treatment of locally advanced re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone. We also discuss the available literature on treatment for recurrent and re-recurrent colorectal cancer.

  17. A rare presentation of locally re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Andrew; Mahdi Babikir, Osman; Abboud, Amer; Theodorakis, Spyridon

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the USA. While locally advanced rectal cancer involving bone has been described extensively, colon cancer locally involving bone has only been described, to our knowledge, in a single case report. In this case report, we describe the presentation and treatment of locally advanced re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone. We also discuss the available literature on treatment for recurrent and re-recurrent colorectal cancer. PMID:25355743

  18. Bilateral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Temporal Bone: A Rare and Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Jyoti; Chandorkar, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the temporal bone is an unusual finding in clinical practice and bilateral affection is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bilateral primary temporal bone lymphoma without middle ear involvement in the English medical literature so far. We report, for the first time, a case of primary lymphoma involving both temporal bones which presented with left-sided infranuclear facial palsy. A combination of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to characterize and to map the extent of the lesion, as well as to identify the exact site of facial nerve affection. An excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL). Whole body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography study (PET-CT) was performed to stage the disease. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy and is now on regular follow-up. The patient is alive and asymptomatic without disease progression for the last twenty months after initial diagnosis. PMID:28116198

  19. Gorham-Stout disease presenting with dyspnea and bone pain in a 9-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Davalos, Eric A; Gandhi, Nishant M; Barank, David; Varma, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Gorham-Stout (GS) disease is a rare bone disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by local proliferation of small vascular or lymphatic channels, resulting in progressive osteolysis and bone resorption. The diagnosis of GS disease is one of exclusion, with radiography and histopathology playing key roles. We describe a 9-year-old girl who presented to us with dyspnea and bone pain. She was found to have a cystic mass of the upper extremity, multiple cystic bone lesions, multiple fractures of different ages, and pleural effusions. We review the radiologic images that helped establish the diagnosis of GS disease.

  20. Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Ramírez, José Miguel; Quiroz, Daniel; Burley, David V.; Addison, David J.; Walter, Richard; Anderson, Atholl J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Athens, J. Stephen; Huynen, Leon; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Two issues long debated among Pacific and American prehistorians are (i) whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken (Gallus gallus) to the Americas and (ii) whether Polynesian contact with South America might be identified archaeologically, through the recovery of remains of unquestionable Polynesian origin. We present a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence from a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile. These results not only provide firm evidence for the pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to the Americas, but strongly suggest that it was a Polynesian introduction. PMID:17556540

  1. Presentation of a novel model of chitosan- polyethylene oxide-nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers together with bone marrow stromal cells to repair and improve minor bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholi, Asgar; Rahimi, Mohsen; Kaka, Gholamreza; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Najafi, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Various methods for repairing bone defects are presented. Cell therapy is one of these methods. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seem to be suitable for this purpose. On the other hand, lots of biomaterials are used to improve and repair the defect in the body, so in this study we tried to produce a similar structure to the bone by the chitosan and hydroxyapatite. Materials and Methods: In this study, the solution of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite-polyethylene oxide (PEO) Nanofibers was produced by electrospinning method, and then the BMSCs were cultured on this solution. A piece of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite Nanofibers with BMSCs was placed in a hole with the diameter of 1 mm at the distal epiphysis of the rat femur. Then the biomechanical and radiographic studies were performed. Results: Biomechanical testing results showed that bone strength was significantly higher in the Nanofiber/BMSCs group in comparison with control group. Also the bone strength in nanofiber/BMSCs group was significant, but in nanofiber group was nearly significant. Radiographic studies also showed that the average amount of callus formation (radio opacity) in nanofiber and control group was not significantly different. The callus formation in nanofiber/BMSCs group was increased compared to the control group, and it was not significant in the nanofiber group. Conclusion: Since chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers with BMSCs increases the rate of bone repair, the obtained cell-nanoscaffold shell can be used in tissue engineering and cell therapy, especially for bone defects. PMID:26523221

  2. Rare aggressive natural killer cell leukemia presented with bone marrow fibrosis - a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Dina S; Sabbagh, Ahmad Al; Omri, Halima El; Ibrahim, Firyal A; Amer, Aliaa M; Otazu, Ivone B

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia is an extraordinary rare aggressive malignant neoplasm of natural killer cells. Although its first recognition as a specific entity was approximately 20 years ago, this leukemia has not yet been satisfactorily characterized as fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the literature and up to our knowledge, this is the first case report in Qatar. Reaching a diagnosis of aggressive natural killer leukemia was a challenging experience, because in addition to being a rare entity, the relative scarcity of circulating neoplastic cells, failure to obtain an adequate aspirate sample sufficient to perform flow cytometric analysis, together with the absence of applicable method to prove NK clonality (as it lack specific clonal marker); our case had atypical confusing presentation of striking increase in bone marrow fibrosis that was misleading and complicated the case further. The bone marrow fibrosis encountered may be related to the neoplastic natural killer cells' chemokine profile and it may raise the awareness for considering aggressive natural killer leukemia within the differential diagnosis of leukemia with heightened marrow fibrosis.

  3. Performance of fuel cell using calcium phosphate hydrogel membrane prepared from waste incineration fly ash and chicken bone powder.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kunihiro; Arimitsu, Naoki; Jikihara, Kenji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideto

    2009-09-15

    Waste incineration fly ash and bone powder could be successfully recycled to calcium phosphate hydrogel, a type of fast proton conductor. The electric conductivity of the crystallized hydrogel from them was compared with that from calcium carbonate reagent. It was found that the conductivity of the hydrogel from bone powder is almost equal to that from calcium carbonate reagent, which is higher than that from incineration fly ash. Because the crystallized hydrogel from incineration ash has a lower crystallinity than that from bone powder and calcium carbonate reagent. However, the difference of the conductivity among them can be hardly observed above 100 degrees C. The fuel cell with membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using the calcium phosphate hydrogel membrane prepared from incineration fly ash and bone powder was observed to generate electricity. The performance of fuel cells having the hydrogel membrane obtained from all raw materials increases with the cell temperature, and the fuel cell containing the hydrogel membrane from incineration fly ash has the highest dependence of the fuel cell performance. For this reason, the difference in the cell performance among them can be hardly observed above 120 degrees C. This tendency agrees with the change in the electric conductivity with the temperature. Further, the performance of all fuel cells with the hydrogel membrane is superior to that of the fuel cell with perfluorosulfonic polymer membrane at temperatures greater than approximately 85 degrees C.

  4. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  5. Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineralisation and walking ability of broiler chickens fed with dietary inclusion of various unconventional mineral sources.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Idowu, A A; Niameh, O T

    2011-08-01

    Growth response, nutrient and mineral retention, bone mineral content and walking ability of broiler chicken fed dietary inclusion of various unconventional calcium sources were studied using 160-day-old broilers. Four isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets balanced for Ca and P were formulated such that oyster shell, snail shell, wood ash and limestone were used as main non-phytate (Ca from other sources apart from plant) calcium sources. Each dietary treatment consisted of 40 birds replicated four times with 10 birds per replicate. A single diet was fed to the broilers throughout the duration of the study which lasted for 8 weeks. Broilers fed diet containing oyster shell as calcium sources recorded the highest (p < 0.05) feed intake of 5863.30 g, while those fed diet containing limestone consumed the least intake (p < 0.05) of 5432.56 g. Occurrence of lameness and evidences of gaits were highest (p < 0.05) for broilers fed diet containing wood ash. Lowest (p < 0.05) Ca and ash retention were recorded for broiler fed diet containing wood ash as Ca sources. Similar tibia ash values were recorded for broilers fed oyster shell, snail shell and limestone. Wood ash inclusion resulted in a low Ca availability hence its inclusion in feeds for broilers should be discouraged.

  6. Modalities for Visualization of Cortical Bone Remodeling: The Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kimberly D; Cooper, David M L

    2015-01-01

    Bone's ability to respond to load-related phenomena and repair microdamage is achieved through the remodeling process, which renews bone by activating groups of cells known as basic multicellular units (BMUs). The products of BMUs, secondary osteons, have been extensively studied via classic two-dimensional techniques, which have provided a wealth of information on how histomorphology relates to skeletal structure and function. Remodeling is critical in maintaining healthy bone tissue; however, in osteoporotic bone, imbalanced resorption results in increased bone fragility and fracture. With increasing life expectancy, such degenerative bone diseases are a growing concern. The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of BMUs and their correlation to function, however, are not well-characterized and little is known about the specific mechanisms that initiate and regulate their activity within cortical bone. We believe a key limitation has been the lack of 3D information about BMU morphology and activity. Thus, this paper reviews methodologies for 3D investigation of cortical bone remodeling and, specifically, structures associated with BMU activity (resorption spaces) and the structures they create (secondary osteons), spanning from histology to modern ex vivo imaging modalities, culminating with the growing potential of in vivo imaging. This collection of papers focuses on the theme of "putting the 'why' back into bone architecture." Remodeling is one of two mechanisms "how" bone structure is dynamically modified and thus an improved 3D understanding of this fundamental process is crucial to ultimately understanding the "why."

  7. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  8. Effect of supplementing different concentrations of organic trace minerals on performance, antioxidant activity, and bone mineralization in Vanaraja chickens developed for free range farming.

    PubMed

    Rao, Savaram Venkata Rama; Prakash, Bhukya; Kumari, Kanya; Raju, Mantena Venkata Laxmi Narasimha; Panda, Arun Kumar

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance, antioxidation activity, and bone mineral content in Vanaraja chickens fed diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (oTM) at reduced levels. A total of 360 day-old chicks were selected and distributed randomly into 60 battery brooder pens. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet was supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (iTM), i.e., Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu at 50, 45, 40, and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively, and varying concentration of oTM, i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, I, Se, and Cr at 45, 50, 7.5, 40, 2, 0.30, and 0.25 mg/kg (diet II); 33.75, 37.50, 5.63, 30.0, 1.50, 0.23, and 0.19 mg/kg (diet III); 22.5, 25.0, 3.75, 20.0, 1.0, 0.15, and 0.13 mg/kg (diet IV); 18.0, 20.0, 3.0, 16.0, 0.80, 0.12, and 0.10 mg/kg (diet V); and 13.5, 15.0, 2.25, 12.0, 0.60, 0.09, and 0.08 mg/kg (diet VI), respectively. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates and fed ad libitum from 1 to 42 days of age. The body weight at 14, 28, and 42 days was not affected by reducing the supplementation of oTM concentration in the diets. Similarly, feed intake at 14 days of age was not affected but reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the group fed diet IV (50% oTM) compared to that in the other groups. The higher feed conversion ratio and increased concentration of Ca, P, and trace minerals in tibia were evident in the group fed oTM-supplemented diets compared to the diet containing iTM. Activities of glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing ability in plasma did not differ in the groups fed on lower concentration of oTM compared to those fed on diet I (control diet). Therefore, it is concluded that the dietary supplementation of trace minerals can be reduced greatly when supplemented as organic form without affecting growth and antioxidant status in Vanaraja chickens.

  9. Variation in osteocytes morphology vs bone type in turtle shell and their exceptional preservation from the Jurassic to the present.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edwin A; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe variations in osteocytes derived from each of the three bone layers that comprise the turtle shell. We examine osteocytes in bone from four extant turtle species to form a morphological 'baseline', and then compare these with morphologies of osteocytes preserved in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossils. Two different morphotypes of osteocytes are recognized: flattened-oblate osteocytes (FO osteocytes), which are particularly abundant in the internal cortex and lamellae of secondary osteons in cancellous bone, and stellate osteocytes (SO osteocytes), principally present in the interstitial lamellae between secondary osteons and external cortex. We show that the morphology of osteocytes in each of the three bone layers is conserved through ontogeny. We also demonstrate that these morphological variations are phylogenetically independent, as well as independent of the bone origin (intramembranous or endochondral). Preservation of microstructures consistent with osteocytes in the morphology in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossil turtle bones appears to be common, and occurs in diverse diagenetic environments including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. These data have potential to illuminate aspects of turtle biology and evolution previously unapproachable, such as estimates of genome size of extinct species, differences in metabolic rates among different bones from a single individual, and potential function of osteocytes as capsules for preservation of ancient biomolecules.

  10. An acute inflammatory response alters bone homeostasis, body composition, and the humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mireles, A J; Kim, S M; Klasing, K C

    2005-04-01

    To quantify the effects of an acute phase response in broilers, chicks were injected with 1 mg/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 15 and 23 d. Lipopolysaccharide injection increased feed/gain (P = 0.03), increased liver weight (P = 0.09), and decreased tibia calcium (P = 0.05) and breaking strength (P < 0.04) by d 28. In a second experiment, 3 d postinjection of chicks at d 31, LPS decreased BW (P < 0.01), breast weight (P = 0.08), and tibia breaking strength (P = 0.05), and increased liver weight (P < 0.01), mortality (P = 0.05), and titers to bronchitis and Mycoplasma gallisepticum that were induced by vaccination at hatch or by field exposure, respectively (P = 0.04). For experiment 3, chicks were challenged with LPS at 23d and 27d. Lipopolysaccharide-injected chicks had decreased BW (P = 0.06), feed consumption (P = 0.05), tibia weight (P< 0.01), and breaking strength (P < 0.01), and increased feed/gain (P < 0.01), liver weight (P < 0.01), and plasma ionized calcium level (P = 0.08). For experiment 4, chicks were injected with 0, 0.33, 0.66, 1.00, or 4.25 mg of LPS/kg of BW. There was an inverse relationship between LPS level and BW or bone breaking strength. Experiment 5 compared 4 broiler strains. Strain x LPS interactions were found for bone breaking strength (P = 0.01). Mortality before LPS challenge was inversely correlated to liver weight (r2 = 0.95, P = 0.02) and bone breaking strength (r2 = 0.99, P = 0.01) only after an LPS challenge.

  11. Local calibrated bone mineral density in the mandible presented using a color coding scheme.

    PubMed

    Homolka, P; Beer, A; Birkfellner, W; Gahleitner, A; Nowotny, R; Bergmann, H

    2001-11-01

    Calibrated information on bone mineral density (BMD) may be used in dental implantology to measure "bone quality". It can be used to estimate the expected primary implant stability preoperatively and to guide the surgeon in selecting optimum implant types and operation techniques. Using a preoperative dental computed tomography (Dental-CT) scan, all of this information can be obtained without additional examinations and thus without additional X-ray exposure of the patient. In contrast to bone mineral determination in other body regions, local BMD values are important in the jaw bone. Therefore, a regimen where color-coded information on local bone mineralization is superimposed on Dental-CT images is proposed using the original CT volumes as well as reformatted views.

  12. Genetic response and morphologic characterization of chicken bone-marrow derived dendritic cells during infection with high and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system that function to initiate primary immune responses. Progenitors of DCs are derived from haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) that migrate in non-lymphoid tissues to develop into immature DCs. Here, they ...

  13. Effects of distance and barriers between resources on bone and tendon strength and productive performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Feria, C A; Arroyo-Villegas, J J; Pro-Martinez, A; Bautista-Ortega, J; Cortes-Cuevas, A; Narciso-Gaytan, C; Hernandez-Cazares, A; Gallegos-Sanchez, J

    2014-07-01

    Lameness or leg weakness is becoming an important problem in broilers selected for rapid growth, and although the causes are not known, sedentary behavior could be a cause. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of distance and the presence of ramps between resources (feed and water) on bone and tendon strength, ability to stand, and productive performance. In experiment 1, straight run Ross 708 chicks (n = 1,260) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1.0, 3.3, or 6.6 m between resources (6 pen replicates/treatment). In experiment 2, Cobb 500 male chicks (n = 864) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (2 × 2 factorial, 4 pen replications/treatment) consisting of 2 distances (3 or 8 m) with (WR) or without (NR) a ramp (a triangular prism 31 cm high and 132 cm wide at the base). At d 21, 45, and 56 (experiment 1), or at d 28, 35, 42, and 49 (experiment 2), birds were weighed, killed, and tibias collected to measure breaking strength (BBS), and abdominal fat (AbF) content. At d 49 (experiment 2), calcaneus tendons were also collected to measure breaking strength (TBS). Foot pad lesions and latency to lie (LTL) were determined before killing the birds. In experiment 1, distance did not affect BBS, LTL, foot pad lesions, or BW, but at d 49, birds in the 6.6 m treatment had lower AbF than birds in the other treatments. In experiment 2 at d 49, birds in the 8 m treatment tended to have a higher BBS than birds in the 3 m treatment (P = 0.09), whereas WR birds had lower tendon breaking strength than NR birds (P < 0.01); however, LTL was highest in 8-m NR birds. Final BW was not affected by distance, but birds in the NR group were heavier than birds in the WR group. Furthermore, AbF was lower in 8 m than in 3 m birds. Our results suggest that longer distances between resources have limited effects on bone strength, but increase the LTL, and may change feeding patterns and carcass characteristics, as evidenced by the lower AbF content. Ramps or

  14. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  15. Successful conservative management of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects presenting with cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Kwee, Thomas C; Sonneveld, Heleen; Nix, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    The dorsal patellar defect is a relatively rare entity that involves the superolateral quadrant of the patella. It is usually considered to represent a delayed ossification process, although its exact origin remains unclear. Because of its usually innocuous nature and clinical course, invasive interventions are generally deemed unnecessary, although curretage has been successfully performed on symptomatic cases. This case report presents a rather unusual case of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects with cartilage involvement and widespread surrounding bone marrow edema as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema should be considered part of the spectrum of associated MRI findings that can be encountered in this entity. Furthermore, the presented case shows that symptomatic dorsal patellar defects can be treated conservatively with success and that (decrease of) pain symptoms are likely related to (decrease of) bone marrow edema.

  16. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  17. The effects of distractor sounds presented through bone conduction headphones on the localization of critical environmental sounds.

    PubMed

    May, Keenan R; Walker, Bruce N

    2017-05-01

    Bone conduction headphones are devices that transmit sound through the bones of a listener's head rather than through the air in their outer ear. They have been marketed as a safer way to enjoy audio content while walking, jogging, or cycling. However, listening to distracting sounds over bone conduction may still disrupt a listener's awareness of their auditory environment. The present study investigated the nature of this interference with the faculty of sound source localization-a key prerequisite for generating situation awareness through audio. Participants sat in the middle of a circle of loudspeakers and listened for target sounds played from different directions. Each time they heard a sound, they responded by indicating what direction they judged the sound to have come from. Meanwhile, participants listened to distractor sounds played through bone conduction headphones. Participants heard (1) no distractor sounds, (2) a spoken story that they were instructed to ignore, and (3) the same spoken story that they were instructed to attend to. For conditions (2) and (3), some participants heard a version of the story with background music, while others heard the spoken story without the music. Participants had greater localization error in the distractor-present conditions. Additionally, participants who heard the spoken story with music exhibited greater localization error. However, there was no effect of whether participants ignored or attended to distractors. This pattern was attributed to masking effects, and was more pronounced for narrow-band targets compared to broadband targets. Post-hoc analyses found evidence of a 'pulling' effect, in which localization judgments were systematically biased toward the apparent direction of the bone conducted distractors. These results indicate that using bone conduction headphones can be expected to cause a decline in a person's awareness of their environment, in a subtle way that a jogger or cyclist might not be

  18. [The potential of cone beam computed tomography of the temporal bones in the patients presenting with otosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Karpishchenko, S A; Zubareva, A A; Filimonov, V N; Shavgulidze, M A; Azovtseva, E A

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the potential of cone beam computed tomography of the temporal bones in the patients presenting with otosclerosis for the detection of surgically significant specific structural features of the labyrinth wall of the tympanic cavity. More than 400 tomograms of the temporal bones were obtained with the use of a cone beam tomographwere available for the investigation during the period from 2012 till 2016. The study was carried out in several steps, viz. the search for the optimal (for the given instrument) position of the patient, the experimental stage, the retrospective analysis of the tomograms and the comparison of the temporal bones of different types (pneumatic, mixed, and sclerotic) in individual patients, the comparison of the results of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with the intraoperative observations, and the modification of the algorithm for the analysis of temporal bone cone beam tomograms. The study included a total of 16 patients (15 women at the age from 32 to 56 years and one managed 58 years) presenting with the clinical diagnosis of otosclerosis. The results of the study were used to elaborate the algorithm for the analysis of cone beam tomograms of the temporal bones to be performed inthe stage by stage manner including the qualitative analysis of tomograms, evaluation of their quantitative parameters and additional characteristics to be taken into consideration when planning the surgical interventions on the labyrinth wall and the tympanic cavity as a preparation for the stapedoplastic treatment. The results of CBCT obtained in the present study were compared with the surgical observations. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the method were estimated to be 100% and 83% respectively. It is concluded that cone beam computed tomography can be employed as a component of the diagnostic algorithm prior to the planning of surgical interventions onthe medial wall of the tympanic cavity

  19. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  20. Non-osteoporotic women with low-trauma fracture present altered birefringence in cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Chin, Jesse; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Areal bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA, although an important index, does not accurately assess risk of fragility fracture. Another bone structural parameter, the orientation of type I collagen, is known to add to risk determination, independently of BMD. Accordingly, we investigated the Haversian systems of transiliac crest biopsies from non-osteoporotic women with low-trauma fractures, matched to healthy women without fracture by age and BMD. We employed circularly polarized light (CPL) microscopy because 1) each of the extinct and bright birefringent signals of CPL corresponds to a specific collagen arrangement; and 2) CPL can employ magnification suitable to provide data, of manageable size, from the whole cortical component of a section of biopsy. Under CPL, the coaxial layers of osteons, called lamellae, appear either birefringent extinct or bright. On a section transverse to the Haversian system, the extinct lamella comprises mainly collagen forming small angles, and the bright lamella comprises mainly collagen forming large angles, relative to the general orientation of the Haversian system. We performed semi-automatic morphometry for birefringent and structural parameters for which we computed intra- and inter-observer errors. The statistical analysis used a linear mixed model to compare fracturing and non-fracturing groups while addressing pairing of fracturing and non-fracturing subjects, and linear regression to assess differences between matched subjects. We found significant reduction in 1) lamellar width and area for extinct lamella and bright lamella; 2) percentage of extinct birefringence in osteons, and 3) single osteon area; in the fracturing group; and in lamellar width in the fracturing subject of all pairs. Our results evidence the need to investigate, in a larger sample of subjects, the distribution of collagen orientation as a parameter diagnostic of increased fracture risk.

  1. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  2. The influence of MAP condition and active compounds on the radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi present in chicken breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Chiasson, F.

    2004-09-01

    The efficiency of carvacrol, thymol, trans-cinnamaldehyde (Tc) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Tp) on the radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in chicken breast was determined. Chicken breast were dipped in a bath of working cultures of E. coli or S. typhi (5×10 7 CFU/ml). Active compounds were added at the concentration corresponding to {1}/{30} of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Samples were packed under air and gamma irradiation was done at doses from 0.1 to 0.7 kGy. The efficiencies of the active compounds against E. coli were 32%, 10%, 3% and 0% for thymol, Tp and carvacrol, respectively. For S. typhi, the efficiencies in the chicken breast were 47%, 19%, 17% and 11% for Tc, Tp, carvacrol and thymol, respectively. Without active compounds, D10 values were 0.145 kGy for E. coli and 0.64 kGy for S. typhi as compared to 0.098 kGy for E. coli and 0.341 kGy for S. typhi in presence of Tc. Under modified atmospheric packaging condition and in presence of Tc, D10 values were reduced to 0.046 for E. coli and to 0.110 for S. typhi.

  3. The effects of dietary 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera root on bone mineralisation, strength and histological characteristics in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mirakzehi, M T; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Raji, A R

    2013-01-01

    . Tibia shear force and stiffness were significantly increased by supplementation of WS. Administration of 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 resulted in a significantly lower width of the proliferative zone at 21 d of age. Reduction of the Ca supply significantly reduced the mineralised zone and cortical thickness at this age. 8. The present study showed that WS supplementation improved Ca retention, bone calcification and mechanical properties with no adverse effects on performance. Also, synergistic effects of WS and 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 were observed on Ca retention and bone calcification.

  4. Recombinase Activating Gene 1 Deficiencies Without Omenn Syndrome May Also Present With Eosinophilia and Bone Marrow Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Ezgi; Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Azarsiz, Elif; Berdeli, Afig; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes are a heterogenous group of diseases characterized by impairment in both cellular and humoral immunity with a range of genetic disorders. Complete recombinase activating gene (RAG) deficiency is associated with classical T-B-NK+ SCID which is the most common phenotype of Turkish SCID patients. There is a broad spectrum of hypomorfic RAG mutations including Omenn syndrome, leaky or atypical SCID with expansion of γδ T cells, autoimmunity and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Methods Twenty-one (44%) patients had RAG1 deficiency of all 44 SCID patients followed up by pediatric immunology department. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the medical records of all SCID patients with RAG1 deficiency. Results Eight patients were classified as T-B-NK+ SCID, five patients as T+B-NK+ SCID (three of these were Omenn phenotype), and eight patients as T+B+NK+ SCID phenotype. Mean age of the whole study group, mean age at onset of symptoms and mean age at diagnosis were 87.7 ± 73.8 (12 - 256), 4.4 ± 8.2 (1 - 36) and 29.1 ± 56.8 (1 - 244) months, respectively. Consanguinity was present in 11 (52%) of 21 patients. Autoimmunity was found in six patients (28%). Ten patients (47%) had CMV infection, four (19%) had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and three (14%) had Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infections. Seven patients who had refractory cytopenia (two pancytopenia and five bicytopenia) underwent bone marrow biopsy, three of whom had bone marrow fibrosis. Future evaluations must be considered about bone marrow fibrosis in RAG1 deficiency patients. Eosinophilia was observed in 10 patients, seven of whom did not have Omenn phenotype. Conclusion Non-Omenn phenotype RAG1 deficiencies can also present with eosinophilia. This report is presented to emphasize that RAG1 mutations may lead to diverse clinical phenotypes. PMID:27081423

  5. Tibial stress reaction presenting as bilateral shin pain in a man taking denosumab for giant cell tumor of the bone.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sian Yik; Rastalsky, Naina; Choy, Edwin; Bolster, Marcy B

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged bisphosphonate use has been associated with increased risk of atypical femoral fractures. Very few cases of atypical femoral fractures have been reported with denosumab. We report a case of bilateral tibial stress reactions in a 60-year-old man with no history of osteoporosis who was on prolonged high-dose denosumab for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone. He presented with a 3-month history of pain in his bilateral shins worsening with activity and improving with rest. Although initial radiographs were unremarkable, he was found to have changes consistent with a stress reaction on magnetic resonance imaging of the distal tibia. To our knowledge, bilateral tibial stress reactions have not been previously reported with anti-resorptive therapies (neither bisphosphonates nor denosumab). Our case is intriguing in terms of the development of stress reactions as a precursor to stress fractures which may also relate to atypical fractures. Our case suggests a possible association between denosumab use and stress reactions. Of note the indication for denosumab in our case was for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone where the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved dose is substantially higher than the FDA approved dose for osteoporosis treatment. Although rare, clinicians should consider the possibility of stress fractures in patients on anti-resorptive medications such as denosumab, especially when a patient presents with new onset thigh pain, hip pain or pain over an area affecting the long bones. Evaluation by imaging of affected areas should be pursued to enable early detection and intervention, as well as prevention of morbidity and associated ongoing risk to the patient.

  6. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  7. Primary adamantinoma of the rib. Unusual presentation for a bone neoplasm of uncertain origin.

    PubMed

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Del Valle, Luis; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael; Mendoza-Ramón, Hilda; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Adamantinomas are rare, low-grade malignant intra-osseous tumors composed of epithelial and mesenchymal elements, which show a marked predilection for the tibia and fibula of young adult male patients. Although cases of adamantinoma located to the axial skeleton have been reported either as recurrent or metastatic disease, only two cases of primary adamantinoma located to the thoracic wall have been previously described. In this study we present the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of a 24-year-old male with a slow growing, solid-cystic, painful mass, located to the right 11th rib, which was morphological and immunohistochemically diagnosed as a primary classic adamantinoma. Radiological studies showed a multiloculated lesion with a solid component. The patient underwent a whole surgical resection of the lesion. Histologically, multiple foci of epithelial cells with basaloid and squamous components were found intermixed within a fibrous stromal tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated expression of cytokeratins, EMA, vimentin and other epithelial markers. Primary affection of the rib is an unusual feature of classic adamantinomas.

  8. Histological determination of the human origin of bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Porta, David; Gibelli, Daniele; Gamba, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    A frequently encountered task in the forensic scenario is verification of the human origin of severely degraded fragments of bone. In these cases histological methods which consider osteon size and morphology can prove to be useful. The authors in the present study verify the applicability of published algorithms to flat and subadult bones from human, dog, cat, cow, rabbit, sheep, pig, chicken, quail, and turkey samples. Metric analysis was performed on 2031 Haversian canals. Analyses carried out on human samples confirmed a success rate of around 70% on long adult bones; however the percentage of wrong answers was particularly high in the case of newborns and older subadults as well as on flat bones in general. Results therefore suggest that such regression equations should be limited only to bone fragments from long adult bones.

  9. Recruitment of bone marrow CD11b+Gr-1+ cells by polymeric nanoparticles for antigen cross-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Wun; Luo, Wen-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) on the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses via the CD11b+Gr−1+ myeloid subpopulations in murine bone marrow (BM). PLGA NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) were fabricated by the double-emulsion method. The CD11b+Gr-1lowLy-6Chigh and CD11b+Gr-1highLy-6Clow subsets from mice bone marrow were sorted and treated with the PLGA/OVA NPs, followed by co-culture with the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells. Co-culture of OT-I CD8+ T cells with PLGA/OVA NPs-primed CD11b+Gr-1+ subsets upregulated the expression of IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme B, and perforin, resulting in proliferation of CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In vivo proliferation of CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells in response to OVA was also obtained in the animals immunized with PLGA/OVA NPs. The results presented in this study demonstrate the ability of polymeric NPs to recruit two CD11b+Gr−1+ myeloid subsets for effective presentation of exogenous antigen to OT-I CD8+ T cells in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, leading to an induction of antigen-specific cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells. PMID:28317931

  10. Recruitment of bone marrow CD11b+Gr-1+ cells by polymeric nanoparticles for antigen cross-presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ya-Wun; Luo, Wen-Hui

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) on the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses via the CD11b+Gr‑1+ myeloid subpopulations in murine bone marrow (BM). PLGA NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) were fabricated by the double-emulsion method. The CD11b+Gr-1lowLy-6Chigh and CD11b+Gr-1highLy-6Clow subsets from mice bone marrow were sorted and treated with the PLGA/OVA NPs, followed by co-culture with the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells. Co-culture of OT-I CD8+ T cells with PLGA/OVA NPs-primed CD11b+Gr-1+ subsets upregulated the expression of IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme B, and perforin, resulting in proliferation of CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In vivo proliferation of CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells in response to OVA was also obtained in the animals immunized with PLGA/OVA NPs. The results presented in this study demonstrate the ability of polymeric NPs to recruit two CD11b+Gr‑1+ myeloid subsets for effective presentation of exogenous antigen to OT-I CD8+ T cells in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, leading to an induction of antigen-specific cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells.

  11. A chicken leptin-specific radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Dridi, S; Williams, J; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, M; Raver, N; Decuypere, E; Djiane, J; Gertler, A; Taouis, M

    2000-04-01

    Recombinant chicken leptin was used to produce an antiserum in order to develop a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chicken leptin in plasma and serum. We have used either murine or chicken leptin as tracer and competition curves were performed using recombinant chicken leptin. Variations in leptin plasma levels in different chicken strains and various nutritional states were correlated with the physiological status. Leptin plasma concentrations were regulated by the nutritional state with higher levels in the fed state as compared to the fasted state (3.36 +/- 0. 13 versus 2.78 +/- 0.11 ng/ml) and being dependent upon the age. Higher leptin levels were found in 22 week-old as compared to 15 week-old layer chickens (2.709 +/- 0.172 versus 1.478 +/- 0.102 ng/ml). We have also shown that the multispecies leptin RIA kit (LINCO Inc.) underestimated leptinemia compared to the chicken leptin- specific RIA reported here. In conclusion the RIA developed in the present study is specific to the chicken and thus may be considered as powerful tool for investigating the physiological significance of leptin in chickens.

  12. Osteoclasts and their precursors are present in the induced-membrane during bone reconstruction using the Masquelet technique.

    PubMed

    Gouron, Richard; Petit, Laurent; Boudot, Cédric; Six, Isabelle; Brazier, Michel; Kamel, Said; Mentaverri, Romuald

    2017-02-01

    In 2000, Masquelet reported a long bone reconstruction technique using an induced membrane formed around a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacer placed in the defect with appropriate stabilization followed by secondary bone graft after PMMA removal. This reconstruction procedure allows rapid and safe bone reformation for septic, traumatic, neoplastic or congenital bone defects. A rat model of the Masquelet technique was developed to further characterize the biological activities of this induced membrane. Our model allows healing of a critical-sized femoral defect (8 mm) by means of this procedure over a period of 18 weeks. Comparison of induced membranes obtained 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after PMMA insertion indicated that this tissue changes over time. Several mineralization spots and bone cells were observed in contact with the PMMA, when assessed by Alizarin Red, Von Kossa, Alkaline phosphatase and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining of the membranes. CTR (calcitonin receptor)- and RANK (Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor Kappa B)- positive mononuclear cells were detected in the induced membrane, confirming the presence of osteoclasts in this tissue. These cells were observed in a thin, highly cellular layer in the induced membrane in contact with the PMMA. Together, these findings suggest that the membrane is able to promote osteointegration of autologous corticocancellous bone grafts during the Masquelet technique by creating local conditions that may be favourable to graft bone remodelling and osteointegration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  14. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  15. Biological characterization of Nigerian chicken anaemia virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Olaleye, O D; Todd, D

    2010-12-01

    Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) DNA was extracted from thymus, liver and bone marrow samples obtained from broiler and pullet chicken flocks in southwestern Nigeria, which presented with clinical signs and lesions suggestive of both infectious bursal disease and chicken infectious anaemia. While CAV was successfully isolated in MDCC-MSB1 cells from four of the pooled tissue samples, the remaining two samples failed to grow in cells. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) characterization using four MAbs produced against the reference Cuxhaven-1 (Cux-1) CAV isolate showed that Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other and to the Cux-1 virus. Pathogenicity studies with the Cux-1 virus and one of the Nigerian isolates (NGR-1) revealed that NGR-1 was more pathogenic that the former. We conclude that although Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other, they differ in terms of cell culture growth characteristics and probably pathogenicity. These findings further confirm that CAV exists and can no longer be ignored in poultry disease diagnosis in Nigeria. Cases hitherto diagnosed as IBD may actually be CIA or a co-infection of the two.

  16. [The effect of cells presenting the erythroblast antigen on the natural suppressor activity of nonadhesive bone marrow cells].

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, S A; Agranovich, I M; Bel'skiĭ, Iu P; Goncharskaia, M A

    1993-06-01

    Concanavalin A-induced proliferation of spleen cells of C57B1/6 mice was inhibited by syngeneic normal bone marrow cells. Elimination of Ag-Eb-positive cells by panning was shown to result in markedly reduced inhibitory activity of bone marrow cells. To evaluate the role of Ag-Eb in natural suppressor activity, bone marrow cells were preincubated with different dilutions of MAE-15 monoclonal antibody and then added to spleen cells. The inhibitory effect of bone marrow cells decreased with the increasing concentration of the monoclonal antibody in a dose-dependent manner and nearly disappeared at a concentration of MAE-15 of 150 m micrograms/ml and 300 m micrograms/ml. In control experiments, bone marrow cells were preincubated with antibodies non-reactive with Ag-Eb under the same conditions. It is concluded that the decrease of natural suppressor activity after incubation of bone marrow cells with MAE-15 monoclonal antibody is specific for anti-Ag-Eb antibodies.

  17. Lipoprotein metabolism differs between Marek's disease susceptible and resistant chickens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, P; Yu, Y; Luo, J; Tian, F; Zhang, H; Chang, S; Ramachandran, R; Zhang, L; Song, J

    2012-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus and has an important impact on the poultry industry worldwide. There have been reports showing different physiological characteristics between MD susceptible and resistant chickens. However, little is known about whether there are differences in lipid metabolism between MD susceptible and resistant lines of chickens. In this study, we examined the BW and the weight of tissues (abdominal fat, breast muscle with bone, leg muscle with bone, liver, and heart), the lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations and distributions, and the plasma and tissue levels of adiponectin and its receptors in the highly resistant and susceptible lines during chicken growth. Our data showed that the increase in total cholesterol during growth was mainly due to the elevation of cholesterol in the low-density/very low-density lipoprotein fraction in MD susceptible chickens, whereas the increase of total cholesterol was mainly attributable to the increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in MD resistant chickens. Meanwhile, the MD resistant line appeared to have increased plasma adiponectin levels compared with MD susceptible chickens during growth. Taken together, our data suggested that lipoprotein-cholesterol and adiponectin metabolism are different between MD susceptible and resistant chickens.

  18. Initial contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to acquire data on contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and to acquire data on cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation. Whole raw chickens (n = 31) were obtained from local retail stores and cut into two wings, two breasts without skin or bones, two thighs, and two drumsticks. Data for cross-contamination were obtained by cutting up a sterile, cooked chicken breast with the same board and knife used to cut up the raw chicken. The board, knife, and latex gloves used by the food handler were not rinsed or washed before cutting up the sterile, cooked chicken breast, thus providing a worst-case scenario for cross-contamination. Standard curves for the concentration of Salmonella bacteria in 400 ml of buffered peptone water after 6 h of incubation of chicken parts as a function of the initial log number of Salmonella bacteria inoculated onto chicken parts were developed and used to enumerate Salmonella bacteria. Standard curves were not affected by the type of chicken part but did differ (P < 0.05) among the five isolates of Salmonella examined. Consequently, Salmonella bacteria were enumerated on naturally contaminated chicken parts using a standard curve developed with the serotype of Salmonella that was isolated from the original sample. The prevalence of contamination was 3 % (4 of 132), whereas the incidence of cross-contamination was 1.8 % (1 of 57). The positive chicken parts were a thigh from chicken 4, which contained 3 CFU of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky, and both wings, one thigh, and one cooked breast portion from chicken 15, which all contained 1 CFU of serotype 8,20:-:z(6). These results indicated that the poultry industry is providing consumers in the studied area with chicken that has a low prevalence and low number of Salmonella bacteria at retail and that has a low incidence and low level of cross-contamination of cooked chicken with

  19. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  20. Downregulation of Blood Monocyte HLA-DR in ICU Patients Is Also Present in Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Faivre, Valérie; Lukaszewicz, Anne-Claire; Payen, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Background The downregulation of blood monocyte HLA-DR expression also occurs in tissue infiltrative cells in a context of acute clinical inflammation, especially sepsis. This context favors the development of secondary infections and results from various mechanisms. Little is known about HLA-DR expression on bone marrow (BM) cells of the monocyte lineage, the source of circulating monocytes. This study analyzed the BM HLA-DR expression in ICU patients compared to BM monocytes from non-ICU patients and to blood monocytes of control healthy donors. A potential dysfunction of myeloid differentiation was investigated in a sub-population of these ICU patients to characterize the phenotype of the immature forms of monocytes and granulocytes in BM. Methods and Findings BM and blood were drawn from 33 ICU and 9 non-ICU patients having a BM analysis to precise the etiology of abnormal low count in blood cells. The data were compared with blood cells of 28 control donors. Flow cytometry was used for both HLA-DR expression and phenotyping of immature forms of monocytes and granulocytes. HLA-DR expression was downregulated in both blood and BM monocyte in ICU patients compared to BM of non-ICU patients and blood of control donors. Amplitude of HLA-DR downregulation was comparable in septic and non-septic ICU patients. The phenotype of immature forms of monocytes and granulocytes in BM (n = 11) did not show abnormal myeloid (monocyte + granulocyte) differentiation. Conclusion The downregulation of HLA-DR in BM monocyte lineage is present in ICU patients without major changes in myeloid cells. It may result from a regulation mediated by soluble and/or neuro-endocrine factors present in BM cell microenvironment. PMID:27893741

  1. Retroperitoneal cold abscess with tuberculosis of sacro-iliac joint and pubic bone: a case report of unusual presentation of osteo-articular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, V P; Jain, V; Choon, A T; Rao, B H

    2000-03-01

    Tuberculosis involving sacro-iliac joint and pubic bone presenting with massive retroperitoneal abscess is a rare entity. A 29-year-old female presented with history of discharging sinus in the sacrococcygeal region of 2 months duration. Plain x-ray revealed osteolytic lesion in right pubic bone and left sacro-iliac joint. Computed tomography scan revealed massive pus collection in the retroperitoneal region. Pus was drained extraperitoneally. Biopsy of the scraping of the abscess wall showed granulation tissue with foreign body type of giant cell. On follow-up the patient was doing well.

  2. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment.

    PubMed

    Gambaracci, Giulio; Mecarini, Eleonora; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Scialpi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies - like chicken and fish bones - can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  3. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

  4. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of pigeon osteoblasts seeded on xenogeneic demineralised cancellous bone scaffold for bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Harvanová, Denisa; Hornák, Slavomír; Amrichová, Judita; Spaková, Tímea; Mikes, Jaromír; Plsíková, Jana; Ledecký, Valent; Rosocha, Ján

    2014-09-01

    Avian osteoblasts have been isolated particularly from chicken embryo, but data about other functional tissue sources of adult avian osteoblast precursors are missing. The method of preparation of pigeon osteoblasts is described in this study. We demonstrate that pigeon cancellous bone derived osteoblasts have particular proliferative capacity in vitro in comparison to mammalian species and developed endogenous ALP. Calcium deposits formation in vitro was confirmed by alizarin red staining. Only a few studies have attempted to investigate bone grafting and treatment of bone loss in birds. Lack of autologous bone grafts in birds has prompted investigation into the use of avian xenografts for bone augmentation. Here we present a method of xenografting of ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold seeded with allogeneic adult pigeon osteoblasts. Ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold supported proliferation of pigeon osteoblasts during two weeks of co - cultivation in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated homogeneous adult pigeon osteoblasts attachment and distribution on the surface of xenogeneic ostrich demineralised cancellous bone. Our preliminary in vitro results indicate that demineralised cancellous bone from ostrich tibia could provide an effective biological support for growth and proliferation of allogeneic osteoblasts derived from cancellous bone of pigeons.

  5. [Literature review and presentation of our own research results regarding the effects on bone of tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib used in the treatment of oncohematological diseases].

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János; Horváth, Péter; Kövesdi, Andrea; Lakatos, Gergely; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Tóbiás, Bálint; Árvai, Kristóf; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are widely used for treatment of certain oncohematological diseases. Several clinical studies have confirmed that specific BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors alter the physiological process of bone tissue in a complex and unclearly identified manner. Since these treatments are being given to more and more patients, and the therapy takes decades or lasts even lifelong, it is justifiable to obtain more detailed knowledge of the molecular background of these mechanisms. In this article the authors summarize preliminary research results and human clinical observations on imatinib and nilotinib which are related to bone metabolism, and present the results of their own experiments in in vitro osteoblast cultures. Based on the presented results, the effects of imatinib and nilotinib on bone cells depend on the concentration of imatinib and nilotinib, the maturation stage of the cells and the distribution ratio of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. In this study the authors firstly prepared a stop-gap, comprehensive review in the Hungarian literature, regarding the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on bone metabolism. In addition they firstly performed whole transcriptome analysis on osteoblasts in order to obtain a better understanding of the cellular molecular mechanisms. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(36), 1429-1437.

  6. Human bone marrow stem cells cultured under hypoxic conditions present altered characteristics and enhanced in vivo tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Tae-Wan; Jung, Byung-Joo; Lee, Youngseok; Shim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Soyon; Choi, Eun-Young; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Kim, Chang-Sung

    2015-09-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of the vertebral body. The hBMSCs were cultured under either hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic (21% O2; control) conditions and the characteristics as mesenchymal stem cells were compared. Results revealed that hypoxia reduced proliferative potential and colony-forming efficiency of hBMSCs, and significantly enhanced osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The hBMSCs enhanced the regenerative potential of bone in vivo. In vitro synthesis of soluble and insoluble collagen was significantly increased in the hypoxic condition. In vivo collagen tissue regeneration was also enhanced under the hypoxic condition, with concomitant increased expressions of various subtypes of collagen and lysyl-oxidase family mRNA. MicroRNA assays revealed that miR-155-5p, which negatively regulates HIF-1α, was significantly highly expressed. These observations demonstrate that hBMSCs obtained from human vertebrae exhibit altered characteristics under hypoxic conditions, and each factor contributing to hBMSC-mediated tissue healing should be evaluated with the goal of allowing their clinical application.

  7. Effect of Brand's glucosamine with essence of chicken on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsi, Daniel; Khow, Agatha; Iino, Taeko; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2003-10-24

    The anti-arthritic effects of glucosamine incorporated in a chicken-meat extract known as Brand's Glucosamine with Essence of Chicken versus glucosamine or Essence of Chicken (EOC) alone were investigated on collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in dark agouti (DA) rats. Four groups of rats received basic food (control), 1.2% glucosamine (GLU), 0.8% EOC and 1.2% GLU + 0.8% EOC (GLU + EOC) admixed with basic food for 25 days following CIA. Foot pads were isolated on day 25 for histopathological evaluation. Clinical assessment of hind paw swelling as measured by foot pad volumes and histopathological scoring based on the degree of edema, periosteal new bone formation, periostitis and inflammatory cell infiltration of the isolated foot pad were performed. Arthritic rats given GLU + EOC showed significant reduction in left hind paw swelling following onset of arthritis. Correspondingly, a lesser degree of edema, periosteal new bone formation, periostitis and inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in histological sections of the left hind foot pads of these rats. A similar trend of reduced hind paw swelling was observed in the right hind paws of the same rats and those fed with EOC. Rats fed with GLU alone did not demonstrate these beneficial effects. The present findings demonstrate that a combination of glucosamine and EOC is effective in reducing the histopathological severity of arthritis, probably due to its ability to reduce the inflammatory conditions in CIA.

  8. Origin and timing of New Zealand's earliest domestic chickens: Polynesian commensals or European introductions?

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jamie R.; Herrera, Michael J. B.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material. The chickens belong to the widespread mitochondrial control region haplogroup E. Radiocarbon dating reveals that the bones are not prehistoric, but are still the earliest chicken remains known from New Zealand. Two of the bones pre-date permanent European settlement (ca 1803s onwards) but overlap with the arrival of James Cook's second voyage (1773–1774), and, therefore, they are likely to be chickens, or progeny thereof, liberated during that voyage. Our results support the idea that chickens were first introduced to New Zealand by Europeans, and provide new insights into Māori uptake and integration of resources introduced during the early post-European period. PMID:27853601

  9. Origin and timing of New Zealand's earliest domestic chickens: Polynesian commensals or European introductions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Herrera, Michael J. B.; Scofield, R. Paul; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2016-08-01

    Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material. The chickens belong to the widespread mitochondrial control region haplogroup E. Radiocarbon dating reveals that the bones are not prehistoric, but are still the earliest chicken remains known from New Zealand. Two of the bones pre-date permanent European settlement (ca 1803s onwards) but overlap with the arrival of James Cook's second voyage (1773-1774), and, therefore, they are likely to be chickens, or progeny thereof, liberated during that voyage. Our results support the idea that chickens were first introduced to New Zealand by Europeans, and provide new insights into Māori uptake and integration of resources introduced during the early post-European period.

  10. Duodenal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Presenting with Disseminated Liver and Bone Metastases as the Primary Manifestation: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tao; Ng, Ka Kei; Chiang, Hoi Wan; Ma, Man Fei; Lin, Yi; Qian, Jia Ming

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are composed by a heterogeneous group of tumors with a wide range of morphologic, functional, and behavioral characteristics. These tumors are generally slow growing and behave in an indolent fashion. However, they have the potential to spread, especially for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, and when they do, they can be very aggressive, with high propensity for distant metastases, and difficult to treat with current modalities. As poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas rarely occur in extrapulmonary sites, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a poorly differentiated duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with diffuse liver and bone metastases as the primary manifestation. Despite receiving a trial of chemotherapeutic regimen, the patient had progressive intrahepatic cholestasis and died of subacute hepatic failure.

  11. [Present status of research in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shu-Juan; Jia, Chi-Yu

    2012-08-01

    The delayed healing of diabetic ulcer has been haunting the surgeons and researchers for a long time. Although we have been researching and exploring the effective therapies for many years, the progress has been limited. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have gradually won worldwide attention for their characteristics of differentiating into tissue repair cells and secreting multiple cytokines as well as growth factors. In recent years, the role of BMSCs in the treatment of diabetic ulcer has been drawing more and more attention. This article reviewed the advancement in the research of BMSCs in promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer. Through a discussion of the treatment of diabetic ulcer, the related research in BMSCs, as well as its role in diabetic ulcer treatment, the mechanism of BMSCs in promoting healing of diabetic ulcers is discussed. We expect through further research, unified criteria for the quality of BMSCs, application approach and dosage of BMSCs could be established.

  12. Bone image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Liew, H L; Clement, J G; Thomas, C D

    1999-05-01

    Characteristics of microscopic structures in bone cross sections carry essential clues in age determination in forensic science and in the study of age-related bone developments and bone diseases. Analysis of bone cross sections represents a major area of research in bone biology. However, traditional approaches in bone biology have relied primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples. As a consequence, it is difficult to reach reliable and consistent conclusions. In this paper we present an image processing system that uses microstructural and relational knowledge present in the bone cross section for bone image segmentation. This system automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on quantitative measurements from a large number of bone images. As a result, using large databases of bone images to study the correlation between bone structural features and age-related bone developments becomes feasible.

  13. Chicken trunk neural crest migration visualized with HNK1.

    PubMed

    Giovannone, Dion; Ortega, Blanca; Reyes, Michelle; El-Ghali, Nancy; Rabadi, Maes; Sao, Sothy; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2015-04-01

    The development of the nervous system involves cells remaining within the neural tube (CNS) and a group of cells that delaminate from the dorsal neural tube and migrate extensively throughout the developing embryo called neural crest cells (NCC). These cells are a mesenchymal highly migratory group of cells that give rise to a wide variety of cell derivatives: melanocytes, sensory neurons, bone, Schwann cells, etc. But not all NCC can give rise to all derivatives, they have fate restrictions based on their axial level of origin: cranial, vagal, trunk and sacral. Our aim was to provide a thorough presentation on how does trunk neural crest cell migration looks in the chicken embryo, in wholemount and in sections using the unique chicken marker HNK1. The description presented here makes a good guideline for those interested in viewing trunk NCC migration patterns. We show how before HH14 there are few trunk NCC delaminating and migrating, but between HH15 through HH19 trunk NCC delaminate in large numbers. Melanocytes precursors begin to enter the dorsolateral pathway by HH17. We found that by HH20 HNK1 is not a valid good marker for NCC and that HNK1 is a better marker than Sox10 when looking at neural crest cells morphology and migration details.

  14. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  15. Deboning broiler chicken legs and wings by dislocation of articular cartilage followed by stripping periosteum.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ozimek, L; Betti, M

    2012-11-01

    The yield of deboned meat is an important economic factor affecting the profit of the meat industry. This study was undertaken to determine whether the yield of boneless meat from broiler chicken leg (thigh and drumstick) and wing (drumette and winglet) is improved by introducing a new deboning method consisting of articular cartilage dislocation followed by stripping periosteum. A total of 44 broiler chicken carcasses were used in the deboning experiment. Right and left legs or wings from the first 22 carcasses were assigned to the new and ordinary hand deboning methods, respectively. For the remaining 22 carcasses, right and left legs or wings were assigned to the ordinary and new methods, respectively. The weight of residue, composed of bone and small amounts of cartilage and noncartilaginous tissues obtained after deboning, was then compared between the right and left legs or wings to see the difference between the 2 methods. The removal of tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, or ulna resulted in formation of a hollow in boneless meat obtained. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between the right and left legs or wings in the weight of residue obtained after deboning as expected. The weight of residue was less (P < 0.05) with the new method compared with the ordinary method in all chicken parts examined. The difference of residue weight between the 2 methods accounted for 10, 12, 14, and 21% of the weight of residue obtained by the ordinary method in thigh, drumstick, drumette, and winglet, respectively. The new method may be useful to deboners at home kitchens as well as the poultry meat industry. The present study also showed the development of a secondary ossification center at the proximal end of the carpometacarpus of chickens. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of development of secondary ossification center in chicken wings.

  16. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  17. Bone graft

    MedlinePlus

    Autograft - bone; Allograft - bone; Fracture - bone graft; Surgery - bone graft; Autologous bone graft ... Fuse joints to prevent movement Repair broken bones (fractures) that have bone loss Repair injured bone that ...

  18. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  19. Tibial bone metastasis as an initial presentation of endometrial carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Boukhar, Sarag Aboujafar; Kaneshiro, Ricky; Schiller, Alan; Terada, Keith; Tauchi-Nishi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. However, bony metastasis is infrequent and exceptionally rare as the initial presentation. We report a case of a 77-year-old female with a clinically silent endometrial carcinoma who presented with a left tibial metastasis as the first manifestation of her disease. Ours is only the third case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, and the first to detail the cytomorphologic features of metastatic endometrial cancer to bone. These microscopic findings, including three-dimensional cohesive clusters with cellular overlapping and cuboidal to columnar cells exhibiting low nuclear: cytoplasmic ratios and partially vacuolated cytoplasm, differ significantly from those of endometrial carcinoma on a Papanicolaou test. The tumor bore similarity to the more commonly encountered metastatic colon cancer, but immunohistochemical staining enabled reliable distinction between these entities. A review of osseous metastases of endometrial cancer demonstrates a predilection for bones of the lower extremity and pelvis with a predominance of the endometrioid histologic subtype. In about a quarter of the cases, the bony metastasis was the first manifestation of the cancer. FNA was an effective diagnostic modality for this unusual presentation of a common malignancy. Awareness of this entity and its differential diagnosis is essential for accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:26085835

  20. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from organic chicken, conventional chicken, and turkey meat: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J M; Guarddon, M; Mondragon, A; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2007-04-01

    The mean counts of Enterococcus spp. were determined for 30 samples each of organic chicken meat, conventional chicken meat, and turkey meat, and differences for Enterococcus contamination in meat were determined. Two enterococci strains from each sample were isolated to obtain a total of 180 strains, and resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, and vancomycin was determined by a disk diffusion method. Average counts obtained showed that Enterococcus mean counts from organic chicken meat (3.18 log CFU/g) were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional chicken meat (2.06 log CFU/g) or conventional turkey meat (1.23 log CFU/g). However, the resistance data obtained showed that isolates from organic chicken meat were less resistant than enterococci isolates from conventional chicken meat to ampicillin (P = 0.0067), chloramphenicol (P = 0.0154), doxycycline (P = 0.0277), ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0024), erythromycin (P = 0.0028), and vancomycin (P = 0.0241). In addition, isolates from organic chicken were less resistant than conventional turkey meat isolates to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001) and erythromycin (P = 0.0137). Multidrug-resistant isolates were found in every group tested, but rates of multidrug-resistant strains were significantly higher in conventional chicken and turkey than those obtained from organic chicken meat. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species isolated from organic chicken (36.67%), whereas Enterococcus durans was the most common species isolated from conventional chicken (58.33%) and turkey (56.67%). The rates obtained for antimicrobial resistance suggest that although organic chicken meat may have higher numbers of Enterococcus, these bacteria present a lower level of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  4. The Chicken Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  5. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. Bone and soft tissue tumors presenting as sciatic notch dumbbell masses: A critical differential diagnosis of sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Harimaya, Katsumi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Okada, Seiji; Doi, Toshio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the clinical findings and characteristic features in sciatic notch dumbbell tumors (SNDTs). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes and characteristic features of consecutive cases of SNDTs (n = 8). RESULTS Buttock masses occurred in three patients with SNDT (37.5%). Severe buttock tenderness and pain at rest were observed in seven patients with SNDTs (87.5%). Remarkably, none of the patients with SNDTs experienced back pain. Mean tumor size was 8.4 ± 2.0 cm (range, 3.9 to 10.6 cm) and part of the tumor mass was detected in 2 patients in the sagittal view of lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CONCLUSION The clinical information regarding to SNDTs is scarce. The authors consider that above mentioned characteristic findings may facilitate the suspicion of pelvic pathology and a search for SNDT by MRI or computed tomography should be considered in patients presenting with sciatica without evidence of spinal diseases. PMID:27777884

  7. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-08-11

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth-second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later.

  8. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth–second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later. PMID:26195775

  9. Evaluation of Cross-presentation in Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells in vitro and Splenic Dendritic Cells ex vivo Using Antigen-coated Beads

    PubMed Central

    Alloatti, Andrés; Kotsias, Fiorella; Hoffmann, Eik; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules, also referred to as cross-presentation, elicits cytotoxic immune responses. In particular, dendritic cells (DC) are the most proficient cross-presenting cells, since they have developed unique means to control phagocytic and degradative pathways. This protocol allows the evaluation of antigen cross-presentation both in vitro (by using bone marrow-derived DC) and ex vivo (by purifying CD8+ DC from spleen after incorporation of particulate antigen) using ovalbumin (OVA)-coupled particles. Cross-presentation efficiency is measured by three different readouts: the B3Z hybridoma T cell line (Karttunen et al., 1992) and stimulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells (OT-I) (Kurts et al., 1996), either analyzing OT-I activation by CD69 expression or OT-I proliferation after labeling them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). By using this approach, we could show recently that DCs are able to increase cross-presentation efficiency transiently upon engagement of TLR4 (Alloatti et al., 2015). PMID:28239619

  10. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  11. Concomitant Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma of Lymph Node and cMYC-Positive Burkitt Leukemia/Lymphoma of the Bone Marrow Presented Concurrently at the Time of Presentation: A Rare Combination of Discordant Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Dina S; Fareed, Shehab; Alkuwari, Einas; El-Omri, Halima; Al-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Gameel, Amna; Yassin, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Discordant lymphoma is rare condition in which different types of malignant lymphomas occurring in different anatomic sites. The two diseases may present clinically as concurrent or sequential disease (10). Herein we are reporting a Pakistani female in her 60s, a carrier of hepatitis B virus with multiple comorbidities presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, diagnosed as Hodgkin's lymphoma, mixed cellularity. During the staging workup, the patient was discovered to have extensive bone marrow (BM) involvement by Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL). Cytogenetic analysis revealed positivity for t(8;14)(q24;q32) confirmed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for IGH/MYC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was demonstrated heavily in our case, with (EBV) DNA of 24,295,560 copies/ml by PCR at time of presentation, in addition, the neoplastic cells in both diagnostic tissues (cervical lymph node and BM) demonstrated positivity for EBV. A diagnosis of concomitant EBV related discordant lymphoma (classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in leukemic phase was made. Among all reported cases, this case is highly exceptional because it is the first case of discordant/composite lymphoma, with this combination and concomitant presentation. Since we are dealing with a case with an exceptionally rare combination, we found it significant to elaborate more on its clinical features, contributing factors including EBV role, response to treatment, complications, and prognosis.

  12. Concomitant Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma of Lymph Node and cMYC-Positive Burkitt Leukemia/Lymphoma of the Bone Marrow Presented Concurrently at the Time of Presentation: A Rare Combination of Discordant Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Dina S.; Fareed, Shehab; Alkuwari, Einas; El-Omri, Halima; Al-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Gameel, Amna; Yassin, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Discordant lymphoma is rare condition in which different types of malignant lymphomas occurring in different anatomic sites. The two diseases may present clinically as concurrent or sequential disease (10). Herein we are reporting a Pakistani female in her 60s, a carrier of hepatitis B virus with multiple comorbidities presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, diagnosed as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, mixed cellularity. During the staging workup, the patient was discovered to have extensive bone marrow (BM) involvement by Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL). Cytogenetic analysis revealed positivity for t(8;14)(q24;q32) confirmed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for IGH/MYC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was demonstrated heavily in our case, with (EBV) DNA of 24,295,560 copies/ml by PCR at time of presentation, in addition, the neoplastic cells in both diagnostic tissues (cervical lymph node and BM) demonstrated positivity for EBV. A diagnosis of concomitant EBV related discordant lymphoma (classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in leukemic phase was made. Among all reported cases, this case is highly exceptional because it is the first case of discordant/composite lymphoma, with this combination and concomitant presentation. Since we are dealing with a case with an exceptionally rare combination, we found it significant to elaborate more on its clinical features, contributing factors including EBV role, response to treatment, complications, and prognosis. PMID:27512341

  13. Interpreting Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weymouth, Patricia P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity which introduces students to the nature and challenges of paleoanthropology. In the exercise, students identify diagrammed bones and make interpretations about the creature. Presents questions and tasks employed in the lesson. (ML)

  14. The Chicken Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hawkridge, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    The chicken is a unique experimental model for studying the spontaneous onset and progression of ovarian cancer (OVC). The prevalence of OVC in chickens can range from 10–35% depending on age, genetic strain, reproductive history, and diet. Furthermore, the chicken presents epidemiological, morphological, and molecular traits that are similar to human OVC making it a relevant experimental model for translation research. Similarities to humans include associated increased risk of OVC with the number of ovulations, common histopathological sub-types including high-grade serous, and molecular-level markers or pathways such as CA-125 expression and p53 mutation frequency. Collectively, the similarities between chicken and human OVC combined with a tightly controlled genetic background and predictable onset window provides an outstanding experimental model for studying the early events and progression of spontaneous OVC tumors under controlled environmental conditions. This review will cover the existing literature on OVC in the chicken and highlight potential opportunities for further exploitation (e.g, biomarkers, prevention, treatment, and genomics). PMID:25130871

  15. Bone scan in metabolic bone diseases. Review.

    PubMed

    Abdelrazek, Saeid; Szumowski, Piotr; Rogowski, Franciszek; Kociura-Sawicka, Agnieszka; Mojsak, Małgorzata; Szorc, Małgorzata

    2012-08-25

    Metabolic bone disease encompasses a number of disorders that tend to present a generalized involvement of the whole skeleton. The disorders are mostly related to increased bone turnover and increased uptake of radiolabelled diphosphonate. Skeletal uptake of 99mTc-labelled diphosphonate depends primarily upon osteoblastic activity, and to a lesser extent, skeletal vascularity. A bone scan image therefore presents a functional display of total skeletal metabolism and has valuable role to play in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disorders. However, the bone scan appearances in metabolic bone disease are often non-specific, and their recognition depends on increased tracer uptake throughout the whole skeleton. It is the presence of local lesions, as in metastatic disease, that makes a bone scan appearance obviously abnormal. In the early stages, there will be difficulty in evaluating the bone scans from many patients with metabolic bone disease. However, in the more severe cases scan appearances can be quite striking and virtually diagnostic.

  16. Optimal dietary inclusion of organically complexed zinc for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal content of organically complexed zinc (Zn) for broiler chickens. 2. Five different Zn and manganese (Mn) dietary contents from organically complexed supplements including a control diet containing 15 mg Mn and 20 mg Zn/kg diet, were randomly fed to one-day-old Cobb broilers (each treatment had 6 replicates of 4 birds) for 35 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, two birds from each cage were killed and their right tibia were collected to measure bone size, strength and mineral contents. 3. Body weight gain and total tibia copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Mn and Zn contents increased linearly with supplemental Zn and Mn intake. The optimal Zn requirements for broilers at 1-14 and 14-35 d of age were 58 and 68 mg/kg diet, respectively. 4. Supplementation of Mn and Zn had no effect on tibia bone width and strength, but increased tibia length. 5. In commercial practice, organically complexed Zn may need to be supplemented during the entire period of production at a higher content than NRC recommendation but it is not necessary to exceed 70 mg/kg diet.

  17. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors.

  18. Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

  19. Effect of tibial dyschondroplasia on broiler growth and cancellous bone mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Capps, S G

    1998-01-01

    The increased incidence of leg abnormalities, particularly tibial dyschondroplasia, in chickens could be related to changes in tibiotarsal cancellous bone properties. To explore this hypothesis, the relationship between lesion occurrence and various tibiotarsal growth parameters, and subchondral bone strength characteristics was investigated. A higher elastic modulus, meaning the cancellous bone was more rigid, was seen for tibiotarsal cancellous bone with lesions. Microfractures in cancellous bone, particularly in the medial growth plate region, may lead to overall bone conformation changes and therefore to lameness.

  20. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  1. Genetic Analysis of Two Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus Variants-Related Gyrovirus in Stray Mice and Dogs: The First Report in China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Li, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) causes acute viral infection in chickens worldwide. It can infect chickens of all ages, but the disease is seen only in young chickens and is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions in the muscles, atrophic changes in the lymphoid organs, aplastic bone marrow, and immunosuppression causing increased mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that CIAV can be isolated from blood specimens of humans and fecal samples of stray cats. In the present study, two variants of CIAV were isolated from fecal samples of mice (CIAV-Mouse) and stray dogs (CIAV-Dog), respectively. The genome of the two CIAV variants was sequenced and the results of the recombination detection program suggested that the CIAV-Dog strain could be a recombinant viral strain generated from parental CIAV strains, AB119448 and GD-1-12, with high confidence. Particularly, these findings were obtained from the comparison of genetic diversity and the relationship of CIAV between different hosts. This is the first report indicating that there is a significant difference in the number of transcription factor binding sites in CIAV noncoding regions from different hosts. Further studies are required to investigate the large geographic distribution of CIAV and monitor the variants, host range, and associated diseases. PMID:28326326

  2. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir.

  3. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  4. Genetic regulation of bone strength: a review of animal model studies

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Douglas J; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L

    2015-01-01

    Population- and family-based studies have established that fragility fracture risk is heritable; yet, the genome-wide association studies published to date have only accounted for a small fraction of the known variation for fracture risk of either the femur or the lumbar spine. Much work has been carried out using animal models toward finding genetic loci that are associated with bone strength. Studies using animal models overcome some of the issues associated with using patient data, but caution is needed when interpreting the results. In this review, we examine the types of tests that have been used for forward genetics mapping in animal models to identify loci and/or genes that regulate bone strength and discuss the limitations of these test methods. In addition, we present a summary of the quantitative trait loci that have been mapped for bone strength in mice, rats and chickens. The majority of these loci co-map with loci for bone size and/or geometry and thus likely dictate strength via modulating bone size. Differences in bone matrix composition have been demonstrated when comparing inbred strains of mice, and these matrix differences may be associated with differences in bone strength. However, additional work is needed to identify loci that act on bone strength at the materials level. PMID:26157577

  5. Bone Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  6. Dietary restrictions, bone density, and bone quality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-hai; Ables, Gene P

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), protein restriction (PR), and specific amino acid restriction (e.g., methionine restriction (MR)) are different dietary interventions that have been confirmed with regard to their comprehensive benefits to metabolism and health. Based on bone densitometric measurements, weight loss induced by dietary restriction is known to be accompanied by reduced areal bone mineral density, bone mass, and/or bone size, and it is considered harmful to bone health. However, because of technological advancements in bone densitometric instruments (e.g., high-resolution X-ray tomography), dietary restrictions have been found to cause a reduction in bone mass/size rather than volumetric bone mineral density. Furthermore, when considering bone quality, bone health consists of diverse indices that cannot be fully represented by densitometric measurements alone. Indeed, there is evidence that moderate dietary restrictions do not impair intrinsic bone material properties, despite the reduction in whole-bone strength because of a smaller bone size. In the present review, we integrate research evidence from traditional densitometric measurements, metabolic status assays (e.g., energy metabolism, oxidative stresses, and inflammatory responses), and biomaterial analyses to provide revised conclusions regarding the effects of CR, PR, and MR on the skeleton.

  7. Bone scan appearances following bone and bone marrow biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow and bone biopsies are performed not infrequently in patients referred for bone scans and represent a potential cause of a ''false positive'' focal abnormality on the bone scan. The authors have therefore examined the scan appearances in a series of patients who had undergone either sternal marrow biopsy, (Salah needle, diameter 1.2 mm) trephine iliac crest marrow biopsy (Jamshidi 11 gauge needle, diameter 3.5 mm) or a transiliac bone biopsy (needle diameter 8 mm). Of 18 patients studied 1 to 45 days after sternal marrow 17 had normal scan appearances at the biopsy site and 1 had a possible abnormality. None of 9 patients studied 4 to 19 days after trephine iliac crest marrow biopsy had a hot spot at the biopsy site. A focal scan abnormality was present at the biopsy site in 9/11 patients studied 5 to 59 days after a trans iliac bone biopsy. No resultant scan abnormality was seen in 4 patients imaged within 3 days of the bone biopsy or in 3 patients imaged 79 to 138 days after the procedure. Bone marrow biopsy of the sternum or iliac crest does not usually cause bone scan abnormalities. A focal abnormality at the biopsy site is common in patients imaged 5 days to 2 months after bone biopsy. The gauge of the needle employed in the biopsy and thus the degree of bone trauma inflicted, is likely to be main factor determining the appearance of bone scan abnormalities at the biopsy site.

  8. Analysis of gelsolin expression pattern in developing chicken embryo reveals high GSN expression level in tissues of neural crest origin.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Antonina Joanna; Morosan-Puopolo, Gabriela; Makowiecka, Aleksandra; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria; Nowak, Dorota; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Gelsolin is one of the most intensively studied actin-binding proteins. However, in the literature comprehensive studies of GSN expression during development have not been performed yet in all model organisms. In zebrafish, gelsolin is a dorsalizing factor that modulates bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathways, whereas knockout of the gelsolin coding gene, GSN is not lethal in murine model. To study the role of gelsolin in development of higher vertebrates, it is crucial to estimate GSN expression pattern during development. Here, we examined GSN expression in the developing chicken embryo. We applied numerous methods to track GSN expression in developing embryos at mRNA and protein level. We noted a characteristic GSN expression pattern. Although GSN transcripts were present in several cell types starting from early developmental stages, a relatively high GSN expression was observed in eye, brain vesicles, midbrain, neural tube, heart tube, and splanchnic mesoderm. In older embryos, we observed a high GSN expression in the cranial ganglia and dorsal root ganglia. A detailed analysis of 10-day-old chicken embryos revealed high amounts of gelsolin especially within the head region: in the olfactory and optic systems, meninges, nerves, muscles, presumptive pituitary gland, and pericytes, but not oligodendrocytes in the brain. Obtained results suggest that GSN is expressed at high levels in some tissues of ectodermal origin including all neural crest derivatives. Additionally, we describe that silencing of GSN expression in brain vesicles leads to altered morphology of the mesencephalon. This implies gelsolin is crucial for chicken brain development.

  9. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ASB15 gene and their associations with chicken growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y C; Jiang, R R; Kang, X T; Li, Z J; Han, R L; Geng, J; Fu, J X; Wang, J F; Wu, J P

    2015-09-25

    ASB15 is a member of the ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box family, and is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. In the present study, an F2 resource population of Gushi chickens crossed with Anka broilers was used to investigate the genetic effects of the chicken ASB15 gene. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs315759231 A>G and rs312619270 T>C) were identified in exon 7 of the ASB15 gene using forced chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. One was a missense SNP (rs315759231 A>G) and the other was a synonymous SNP (rs312619270 T>C). The rs315759231 A>G polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight at birth, 12-week body slanting length, semi-evisceration weight, evisceration weight, leg muscle weight, and carcass weight (P < 0.05). The rs312619270 T>C polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight at birth, 4, 8, and 12-week body weight, 8-week shank length, 12-week breast bone length, 8 and 12-week body slanting length, breast muscle weight, and carcass weight (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the ASB15 gene profoundly affects chicken growth and carcass traits.

  10. Progress from chicken genetics to the chicken genome.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P B; Dodgson, J B; Andersson, L

    2006-12-01

    The chicken has a proud history, both in genetic research and as a source of food. Here we attempt to provide an overview of past contributions of the chicken in both arenas and to link those contributions to the near future from a genetic perspective. Companion articles will discuss current poultry genetics research in greater detail. The chicken was the first animal species in which Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated. A century later, the chicken was the first among farm animals to have its genome sequenced. Between these firsts, the chicken remained a key organism used in genetic research. Breeding programs, based on sound genetic principles, facilitated the global emergence of the chicken meat and egg industries. Concomitantly, the chicken served as a model whose experimental populations and mutant stocks were used in basic and applied studies with broad application to other species, including humans. In this paper, we review some of these contributions, trace the path from the origin of molecular genetics to the sequence of the chicken genome, and discuss the merits of the chicken as a model organism for furthering our understanding of biology.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  12. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  13. Chicken thymocyte-specific antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies: characterization and distribution in normal tissues and in tumoral tissues from Marek's disease chicken.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, O; Cauchy, L; Coudert, F; Richard, J

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were obtained against purified thymocyte membrane extracts. Five MAbs TA3, TB1, TB6 (IgG1), TC4, and TA1 (IgG2a), were tested by immunofluorescence and by immunoperoxidase tests against normal cells from different organs, Marek's disease (MD) cell lines, and MD tumoral cells from chickens. Three of them, TA3, TB1, and TB6, reacted exclusively with lymphoid cells in both cortical and medullary areas of the thymus and with less than 8% bursa cells. They identified a protein of apparently 40 kD. The other two revealed antigenic determinants on most medullar thymocytes and some cortical thymocytes, and on some splenic and peripheral blood lymphocytes. They were positive with MD cell lines and cells deriving from MD tumors. TC4 and TA1 detected molecular masses of about 110 kD and 16 kD, respectively. No MAbs reacted with erythrocytes, bone marrow, liver, brain, and skin cells. Not all of the tested cells were stained after contact with an anti-chicken immunoglobulin serum. In this paper, we determine a specific antigen restricted to T cells from thymus and different markers belonging to the mature T cells. The latter are also present on MD cell lines and MD tumoral cells.

  14. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  15. A consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis is present in sites prior to bone loss in a longitudinal study of localized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Daniel H; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J; Dewhirst, Floyd E

    2013-09-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  16. A Consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis Is Present in Sites Prior to Bone Loss in a Longitudinal Study of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  17. [Chicken pox recurrence revealing a renal adenocarcinoma in an adult].

    PubMed

    Thieulent, N; Grezard, P; Wolf, F; Barrut, D; Perrot, H

    2000-09-01

    A new episode of chicken pox in adults who had a well documented infection previously is usually observed in immunocompromised individuals. The principal immunodeficiency factors are hematology diseases, acquired immunodeficiency disease and old age. We report here the case of a young woman who after a contaminating contact presented a recurrence of typical chicken pox. Morphological investigations evidenced a right kidney tumor which pathology revealed to be a renal adenocarcinoma. We discuss this pathological association and review cases reported in the literature.

  18. Haemolysis in chicken serum

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, Ann E.; Pickering, R. J.; Linna, T. J.; Good, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Development of total complement (C) and C1 activity was followed in Line 96 chickens from day 13 of embryonic life to 40 days post-hatching. Both activities were demonstrable on day 13, and levels rose slowly in the late prehatching period. At hatching, on day 21, there was a sharp rise in both activities; both titres were roughly five times those of day 19 embryos. Further increases were seen to about day 10, followed by a levelling off (perhaps even a drop in the case of C1) for about 10 days. On about the twenty-first day the titration curve rose again. The source of the C detected in the embryo and young chicken is unknown. The pattern is consistent with transfer from the egg, but it might also reflect synthesis by the developing animal. PMID:4733800

  19. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    PubMed

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending).

  20. Three isozymes of peptidylarginine deiminase in the chicken: molecular cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akira; Handa, Kenji; Honda, Tomonori; Abe, Naoki; Kojima, Toshio; Takahara, Hidenari

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD; EC 3.5.3.15) is a post-translational modification enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline (deimination) in a calcium ion dependent manner. Although PADI genes are widely conserved among vertebrates, their function in the chicken is poorly understood. Here, we cloned and sequenced three chicken PADI cDNAs and analyzed the expression of their proteins in various tissues. Immunoblotting analysis showed that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 were present in cells of several central neuron system tissues including the retina; the chicken PAD2 protein was not detected in any tissue. We expressed recombinant chicken PADs in insect cells and characterized their enzymatic properties. The chicken PAD1 and PAD3 recombinant proteins required calcium ions as an essential cofactor for their catalytic activity. The two recombinant proteins showed similar substrate specificities toward synthetic arginine derivatives. By contrast to them, chicken PAD2 did not show any activity. We found that one of the conserved active centers in mammalian PADs had been altered in chicken PAD2; we prepared a reverse mutant but we did not detect an activity. We conclude that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 might play specific roles in the nervous system, but that chicken PAD2 might not be functional under normal physiological conditions.

  1. Demonstration of Birbeck (Langerhans cells) granules in the normal chicken epidermis

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, ARMANDO; USTARROZ-CANO, MARTHA

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian Langerhans cells (LC) are epidermal dendritic cells which originate in bone marrow and migrate toward the T cell area of lymph nodes, where they act as professional antigen-presenting cells. A variety of cell surface markers, such as the ectoenzyme adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Ia and CD1a antigens, have been used extensively to identify LC. Ultrastructural identification of this cell type in the mammalian epidermis is made by the demonstration of a typical and unique cytoplasmic organelle, the Birbeck granule (BG). Although we had earlier demonstrated the coexpression of ATPase and Ia antigens on epidermal dendritic cells of the chicken epidermis, the presence of the BG has not previously been documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chicken epidermal LC-like cells possess an organelle similar to the BG, and thus to complete their identification. Our findings are the first demonstration of characteristic rod-shaped, racket-shaped and disc-shaped intracytoplasmic organelles, morphologically similar to the mammalian BG, in avian LC. PMID:11693310

  2. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    Moiseyeva, Irina G; Romanov, Michael N; Nikiforov, Andrey A; Sevastyanova, Antonina A; Semyenova, Serafima K

    2003-01-01

    Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world. PMID:12927074

  3. Acute pancreatitis: rare complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Jain, A P; Pandit, A K

    2007-01-01

    Chicken pox is a highly contagious infection, caused by the varicella zoster virus. Although generally a benign, self-limited disease, varicella may be associated with serious complications especially in adults. We present acute pancreatitis- a rare complication, in otherwise healthy patients suffering from chicken pox. The presence of pancreatitis in association with chickenpox in immunocompetent patients can influence the outcome of the latter. This interesting case will hopefully increase awareness about this complication and its fatality in chicken pox.

  4. Investigating the Global Dispersal of Chickens in Prehistory Using Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Athens, J. Stephen; Bryant, David; Carson, Mike; Emery, Kitty; deFrance, Susan; Higham, Charles; Huynen, Leon; Intoh, Michiko; Jones, Sharyn; Kirch, Patrick V.; Ladefoged, Thegn; McCoy, Patrick; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Quiroz, Daniel; Reitz, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Walter, Richard; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Data from morphology, linguistics, history, and archaeology have all been used to trace the dispersal of chickens from Asian domestication centers to their current global distribution. Each provides a unique perspective which can aid in the reconstruction of prehistory. This study expands on previous investigations by adding a temporal component from ancient DNA and, in some cases, direct dating of bones of individual chickens from a variety of sites in Europe, the Pacific, and the Americas. The results from the ancient DNA analyses of forty-eight archaeologically derived chicken bones provide support for archaeological hypotheses about the prehistoric human transport of chickens. Haplogroup E mtDNA signatures have been amplified from directly dated samples originating in Europe at 1000 B.P. and in the Pacific at 3000 B.P. indicating multiple prehistoric dispersals from a single Asian centre. These two dispersal pathways converged in the Americas where chickens were introduced both by Polynesians and later by Europeans. The results of this study also highlight the inappropriate application of the small stretch of D-loop, traditionally amplified for use in phylogenetic studies, to understanding discrete episodes of chicken translocation in the past. The results of this study lead to the proposal of four hypotheses which will require further scrutiny and rigorous future testing. PMID:22848352

  5. Temporal bone meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R; Siu, K; Cousins, V

    1990-10-01

    Meningiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of space-occupying lesions of the temporal bone. Five cases of meningiomas of the temporal bone are described and the literature reviewed. These tumours may stimulate Schwannomas and glomus tumours in their presentation and radiological findings. The tumours were managed by combining standard neurosurgical approaches with temporal bone and skull base techniques.

  6. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne; Held, Suzanne; Jones, Charlotte; Troisi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary For a domestic chick, the mother hen is an important role model; chicks learn a great deal from their mother about what to peck, when to rest and how to behave when there is a threat. However, in large farms, natural brooding is not commercially viable and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially. Chicks reared without a mother in this way are more fearful and more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. We discuss the important features of maternal care in chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation, and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to simulate natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice. Abstract In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural

  7. [Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].

    PubMed

    Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

    2010-06-01

    Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics.

  8. Horizontal bone augmentation by means of guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2014-10-01

    The development of bone augmentation procedures has allowed placement of dental implants into jaw bone areas lacking an amount of bone sufficient for standard implant placement. Thus, the indications for implants have broadened to include jaw regions with bone defects and those with a bone anatomy that is unfavorable for implant anchorage. Of the different techniques, the best documented and the most widely used method to augment bone in localized alveolar defects is guided bone regeneration. A large body of evidence has demonstrated the successful use of guided bone regeneration to regenerate missing bone at implant sites with insufficient bone volume and the long-term success of implants placed simultaneously with, or after, guided bone regeneration. However, the influence of guided bone regeneration on implant survival and success rates, and the long-term stability of the augmented bone, remain unknown. Many of the materials and techniques currently available for bone regeneration of alveolar ridge defects were developed many years ago. Recently, various new materials and techniques have been introduced. Many of them have, however, not been sufficiently documented in clinical studies. The aim of this review was to present the scientific basis of guided bone regeneration and the accepted clinical procedures. A classification of bone defects has been presented, aiming at simplifying the decision-making process regarding the choice of strategy for bone augmentation. Finally, an outlook into actual research and the possible future options related to bone augmentation has been provided.

  9. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  10. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  11. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  12. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  13. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  14. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  15. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  16. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  17. Disseminated Histoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Patient Diagnosed on Bone Marrow Aspirate – A Rare Presentation from a Non-Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetika; Phansalkar, Manjiri Dilip; Varghese, Renug’Boy

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis causing systemic fungal infection is commonly seen in endemic areas. In India, disease prevalence is more in eastern part of the country and there have been very few reports from southern part of India. The occurrence of disseminated histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individual is rare. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual with no underlying risk factors. The disease was not suspected clinically and was diagnosed by bone marrow aspirate incidentally. PMID:26816901

  18. Somatostatin Analogue Treatment of a TSH-Secreting Adenoma Presenting With Accelerated Bone Metabolism and a Pericardial Effusion: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mousiolis, Athanasios C; Rapti, Eleni; Grammatiki, Maria; Yavropoulou, Maria; Efstathiou, Maria; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Daniilidis, Michalis; Kotsa, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    Increased bone turnover and other less frequent comorbidities of hyperthyroidism, such as heart failure, have only rarely been reported in association with central hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma). Treatment is highly empirical and relies on eliminating the tumor and the hyperthyroid state.We report here an unusual case of a 39-year-old man who was initially admitted for management of pleuritic chest pain and fever of unknown origin. Diagnostic work up confirmed pericarditis and pleural effusion both refractory to treatment. The patient had a previous history of persistently elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), indicative of increased bone turnover. He had also initially been treated with thyroxine supplementation due to elevated TSH levels. During the diagnostic process a TSHoma was revealed. Thyroxine was discontinued, and resection of the pituitary tumor followed by treatment with a somatostatin analog led to complete recession of the effusions, normalization of ALP, and shrinkage of pituitary tumor.Accelerated bone metabolism and pericardial and pleural effusions attributed to a TSHoma may resolve after successful treatment of the tumor. The unexpected clinical course of this case highlights the need for careful long-term surveillance in patients with these rare pituitary adenomas.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 supports growth of chicken embryo intestinal organoids in Matrigel matrix.

    PubMed

    Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Grabacka, Maja; Michalik, Marta; Zyla, Krzysztof; Pierzchalski, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Investigating intestinal physiology in vitro remains challenging due to the lack of an effective primary enterocyte culture system. Recently developed protocols for growing organoids containing crypts and villus from adult mouse intestinal epithelium in Matrigel present an attractive alternative to the classical techniques. However, these approaches require the use of sophisticated and expensive serum-free medium supplemented with epithelial growth factor (EGF), Wnt agonist (R-spondin 1), and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor (Noggin) in high concentrations. Here we demonstrate that is possible to use an isolated chicken embryonic intestinal epithelium to create such an organoid culture. Structures formed in Matrigel matrix in the first two days following isolation survive and enlarge during ensuing weeks. They have the appearance of empty spheres and comprise cells expressing cytokeratin (an epithelial cell marker), villin (a marker of enterocytes), and Sox-9 (a transcription factor characteristic of progenitors and stem cells of intestinal crypts). With chicken embryonic tissue as a source of organoids, prostaglandin E2 is as effective as R-spondin 1 and Noggin in promoting sustained growth and survival of epithelial spheroids.

  20. Production of chicken progeny (Gallus gallus domesticus) from interspecies germline chimeric duck (Anas domesticus) by primordial germ cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhai; Khazanehdari, Kamal A; Baskar, Vijaya; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Chang, Il-Kuk

    2012-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the differentiation of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) in duck (Anas domesticus) gonads. Chimeric ducks were produced by transferring chicken PGCs into duck embryos. Transfer of 200 and 400 PGCs resulted in the detection of a total number of 63.0 ± 54.3 and 116.8 ± 47.1 chicken PGCs in the gonads of 7-day-old duck embryos, respectively. The chimeric rate of ducks prior to hatching was 52.9% and 90.9%, respectively. Chicken germ cells were assessed in the gonad of chimeric ducks with chicken-specific DNA probes. Chicken spermatogonia were detected in the seminiferous tubules of duck testis. Chicken oogonia, primitive and primary follicles, and chicken-derived oocytes were also found in the ovaries of chimeric ducks, indicating that chicken PGCs are able to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in duck ovaries and participate in the progression of duck ovarian folliculogenesis. Chicken DNA was detected using PCR from the semen of chimeric ducks. A total number of 1057 chicken eggs were laid by Barred Rock hens after they were inseminated with chimeric duck semen, of which four chicken offspring hatched and one chicken embryo did not hatch. Female chimeric ducks were inseminated with chicken semen; however, no fertile eggs were obtained. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that chicken PGCs could interact with duck germinal epithelium and complete spermatogenesis and eventually give rise to functional sperm. The PGC-mediated germline chimera technology may provide a novel system for conserving endangered avian species.

  1. Probiotics Stimulate Production of Natural Antibodies in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Hamid R.; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L.; Hayes, M. Anthony; Zhou, Huaijun; Sanei, Babak; Chambers, James R.; Sharif, Shayan

    2006-01-01

    Commensal bacteria in the intestine play an important role in the development of immune response. These bacteria interact with cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Among cells of the GALT, B-1 cells are of note. These cells are involved in the production of natural antibodies. In the present study, we determined whether manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotics, which we had previously shown to enhance specific systemic antibody response, could affect the development of natural antibodies in the intestines and sera of chickens. Our findings demonstrate that when 1-day-old chicks were treated with probiotics, serum and intestinal antibodies reactive to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in addition to intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) reactive to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were increased in unimmunized chickens. Moreover, IgG antibodies reactive to TT were increased in the intestines of probiotic-treated chickens compared to those of untreated controls. In serum, IgG and IgM reactive to TT and alpha-toxin were increased in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens compared to levels in untreated controls. However, no significant difference in serum levels of IgM or IgG response to BSA was observed. These results are suggestive of the induction of natural antibodies in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens. Elucidating the role of these antibodies in maintenance of the chicken immune system homeostasis and immune response to pathogens requires further investigation. PMID:16960107

  2. Bone scan appearances following biopsy of bone and bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

    1984-10-01

    The influence of sternal marrow aspiration, iliac crest marrow aspiration, and iliac crest bone biopsy on bone scan appearances was examined. Eighteen patients were scanned a mean of 9.9 days after sternal marrow aspiration with a Salah needle. Bone scans obtained in 9 patients a mean of 10 days aftr iliac crest trephine marrow biopsy with a Jamshidi needle showed no abnormality at the biopsy site. In 18 patients with metabolic bone disease who had undergone iliac crest bone biopsy with an 8 mm needle, a scan abnormality due to the biopsy was usually present when the interval between the biopsy and the scan was 5 days to 2 months. Patients who were scanned within 3 days of iliac crest bone biopsy or more than 2 months after biopsy had normal scan appearance at the biopsy site.

  3. Volatiles produced by microorganisms isolated from refrigerated chicken at spoilage.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L R; Silverman, G J; Angelini, P; Merritt, C; Esselen, W B

    1976-01-01

    Volatile components present at spoilage of refrigerated chicken breasts were identified using high-vacuum-low-temperature distillation techniques followed by analysis with combined temperature-programmed gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A comparison was made of the compounds detected from both irradiated and non-irradiated muscle stored at 2 and 10 degrees C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Isolates were randomly selected from the spoiled poultry, identified, and evaluated for their ability to produce volatile spoilage noted when grown on radiation-sterilized chicken. Several isolates that produced off-odors on sterile chicken breasts were examined. Twenty-two compounds were associated with spoilage. Some of the compounds found on both irradiated and unirradiated samples were considered to play only a minor role in the spoilage aroma or were present in low concentrations, since the aroma of spoiled irradiated chicken lacked the harsh odor notes typical of spoiled unirradiated chicken. Fifteen of the 22 compounds were considered to be unique to unirradiated, aerobically spoiled samples. Nine of these compounds, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, heptadiene, methanol, and ethanol, were found on chicken spoiled at both 2 and 10 degrees C. xylene, benzaldehyde, and 2,3-dithiahexane were detected only in samples stored at 2 degrees C and methyl thiolacetate, 2-butanone, and ethyl propionate were associated with 10 degrees C spoilage. Fifty-eight isolates randomly selected from fresh, radiation-pasteurized, and unirradiated spoiled poultry were classified taxonomically, and 10 of them, which produced spoilage odors on sterilized chicken breasts, were selected for subsequent analysis of their volatiles. Isolates identified as Pseudomonas putrefaciens and Pseudomonas species that were members of groups I and II of Shewan's classification, as well as Flavobacterium and oxidative

  4. CD87-positive tumor cells in bone marrow aspirates identified by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Noack, F; Helmecke, D; Rosenberg, R; Thorban, S; Nekarda, H; Fink, U; Lewald, J; Stich, M; Schutze, K; Harbeck, N; Magdolen, V; Graeff, H; Schmitt, M

    1999-10-01

    Dissemination of single tumor cells to the bone marrow is a common event in cancer. The clinical significance of cytokeratin-positive cells detected in the bone marrow of cancer patients is still a matter of debate. In gastric cancer, overexpression of the receptor (uPAR or CD87) for the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in disseminated cancer cells indicates shorter survival of cancer patients. A new immunofluorescence approach, applying confocal laser scanning microscopy, is introduced to locate CD87 antigen in cytokeratin-positive tumor cells and to quantify the CD87 antigen by consecutive scanning. At first, cytokeratin 8/18/19-positive carcinoma cells are identified at excitation wavelength 488 nm using monoclonal antibody A45B/B3 to the cytokeratins and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with the fluorochrome Alexa488. Next, CD87 in tumor cells is identified by chicken antibody HU277 to the uPA-receptor and goat anti-chicken IgY labeled with fluorochrome Alexa568 (excitation wavelength 568 nm) and the fluorescence signal quantified on a single cell basis using fluorescently labeled latex beads as the fluorescence reference. From 16 patients with gastric or esophageal carcinoma, bone marrow aspirates were obtained, stained for cytokeratins and CD87 and then subjected to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Three of six gastric cancer patients had tumor cells present in the bone marrow of which 2 stained for CD87. Three of ten esophageal carcinoma patients had tumor cells in the bone marrow, all three samples stained for CD87. CD87-positive tumor cells were also dissected from stained bone marrow aspirates by laser microdissection microscope to allow analysis of single cells at the gene level.

  5. Pathogenicity of Five Strains of Toxoplasma gondii from Different Animals to Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Wang, Wang; Zhang, Zhen-Chao; Shen, Bo; Hassan, I A; Xie, Qing; Yan, Ruo-Feng; Song, Xiao-Kai; Xu, Li-Xin; Li, Xiang-Rui

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad range of intermediate hosts. Chickens as important food-producing animals can also serve as intermediate hosts. To date, experimental studies on the pathogenicity of T. gondii in broiler chickens were rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to compare the pathogenicity of 5 different T. gondii strains (RH, CN, JS, CAT2, and CAT3) from various host species origin in 10-day-old chickens. Each group of chickens was infected intraperitoneally with 5×10(8), 1×10(8), 1×10(7), and 1×10(6) tachyzoites of the 5 strains, respectively. The negative control group was mockly inoculated with PBS alone. After infection, clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures of all the chickens were checked daily. Dead chickens during acute phage of the infection were checked for T. gondii tachyzoites by microscope, while living cases were checked for T. gondii infection at day 53 post-inoculation (PI) by PCR method. Histopathological sections were used to observe the pathological changes in the dead chickens and the living animals at day 53 PI. No significant differences were found in survival periods, histopathological findings, and clinical symptoms among the chickens infected with the RH, CN, CAT2, and CAT3 strains. Histopathological findings and clinical symptoms of the JS (chicken origin) group were similar to the others. However, average survival times of infected chickens of the JS group inoculated with 5×10(8) and 1×10(8) tachyzoites were 30.0 and 188.4 hr, respectively, significantly shorter than those of the other 4 mammalian isolates. Chickens exposed to 10(8) of T. gondii tachyzoites and higher showed acute signs of toxoplasmosis, and the lesions were relatively more severe than those exposed to lower doses. The results indicated that the pathogenicity of JS strain was comparatively stronger to the chicken, and the pathogenicity was dose-dependent.

  6. Pathogenicity of Five Strains of Toxoplasma gondii from Different Animals to Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Wang, Wang; Zhang, Zhen-Chao; Shen, Bo; Hassan, I. A.; Xie, Qing; Yan, Ruo-Feng; Song, Xiao-Kai; Xu, Li-Xin; Li, Xiang-Rui

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad range of intermediate hosts. Chickens as important food-producing animals can also serve as intermediate hosts. To date, experimental studies on the pathogenicity of T. gondii in broiler chickens were rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to compare the pathogenicity of 5 different T. gondii strains (RH, CN, JS, CAT2, and CAT3) from various host species origin in 10-day-old chickens. Each group of chickens was infected intraperitoneally with 5×108, 1×108, 1×107, and 1×106 tachyzoites of the 5 strains, respectively. The negative control group was mockly inoculated with PBS alone. After infection, clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures of all the chickens were checked daily. Dead chickens during acute phage of the infection were checked for T. gondii tachyzoites by microscope, while living cases were checked for T. gondii infection at day 53 post-inoculation (PI) by PCR method. Histopathological sections were used to observe the pathological changes in the dead chickens and the living animals at day 53 PI. No significant differences were found in survival periods, histopathological findings, and clinical symptoms among the chickens infected with the RH, CN, CAT2, and CAT3 strains. Histopathological findings and clinical symptoms of the JS (chicken origin) group were similar to the others. However, average survival times of infected chickens of the JS group inoculated with 5×108 and 1×108 tachyzoites were 30.0 and 188.4 hr, respectively, significantly shorter than those of the other 4 mammalian isolates. Chickens exposed to 108 of T. gondii tachyzoites and higher showed acute signs of toxoplasmosis, and the lesions were relatively more severe than those exposed to lower doses. The results indicated that the pathogenicity of JS strain was comparatively stronger to the chicken, and the pathogenicity was dose-dependent. PMID:25925173

  7. Skeletal Metastases Presenting as Superscan on Technetium 99m Methylene Diphosphonate Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy in Different Type of Cancers: A 5-Year Retro-prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, P. Ram; Rather, Tanveer A.; Khan, Shoukat H.; Malik, Dharmender

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out the overall incidence of superscan among different type of cancers, causes of superscan and its relationship with other parameters such as age, sex, duration of disease, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. This was a retro-prospective study. Records of all previous bone scans and reported patients of superscan were re-evaluated retrospectively. Patients who were diagnosed as having superscan in the preceding 3 years with confirmed histopathological diagnosis were included in the retrospective group. In the prospective group, all the patients who were reported to have superscan appearance over the past 2 years of prospective period were included. Total of 6027 bone scans were examined in a 5-year period and out of which 80 cases were diagnosed as superscan. The overall incidence of superscan in different type of cancers was 1.3% (80/6027). Prostate cancer (46/80) was the most common cause of superscan appearance followed by breast cancer (10/80). Out of 6027 patients referred for bone scan, 307 patients had prostate cancer on histopathological examination. Out of 307 patients with prostate cancer, 46 had superscan appearance. Incidence of superscan in prostate cancer was 14.98% (46/307), and 71.73% (33/46) prostate cancer patients with superscan had Gleason score of 8 and above 8 with mean serum prostate-specific antigen level was 178.42 ng/ml in symptomatic patients and 122 ng/ml in asymptomatic patients. Out of all patients with superscan, 71 patients (88.7%) had elevated serum ALP levels. Overall incidence of superscan in our study was 1.3% in different type of cancer patients, and the most common cause of superscan appearance was prostate cancer. Incidence of superscan appearance in prostatic cancer patients was 14.98%. PMID:28217018

  8. The preparation of monoclonal antibodies to human bone and liver alkaline phosphatase and their use in immunoaffinity purification and in studying these enzymes when present in serum.

    PubMed Central

    Bailyes, E M; Seabrook, R N; Calvin, J; Maguire, G A; Price, C P; Siddle, K; Luzio, J P

    1987-01-01

    1. Liver and bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were solubilized with the zwitterionic detergent sulphobetaine 14, and purified to homogeneity by using a monoclonal antibody previously raised against a partially-purified preparation of the liver isoenzyme. Both purified isoenzymes had a specific activity in the range 1100-1400 mumol/min per mg of protein with a subunit Mr of 80,000 determined by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Butanol extraction instead of detergent solubilization, before immunoaffinity purification of the liver enzyme, resulted in the same specific activity and subunit Mr. The native Mr of the sulphobetaine 14-solubilized enzyme was consistent with the enzyme being a dimer of two identical subunits and was higher than that of the butanol-extracted enzyme, presumably due to the binding of the detergent micelle. 2. Pure bone and liver alkaline phosphatase were used to raise further antibodies to the two isoenzymes. Altogether, 27 antibody-producing cell lines were cloned from 12 mice. Several of these antibodies showed a greater than 2-fold preference for bone alkaline phosphatase in the binding assay used for screening. No antibodies showing a preference for liver alkaline phosphatase were successfully cloned. None of the antibodies showed significant cross-reaction with placental or intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Epitope analysis of the 27 antibodies using liver alkaline phosphatase as antigen gave rise to six groupings, with four antibodies unclassified. The six major epitope groups were also observed using bone alkaline phosphatase as antigen. 3. Serum from patients with cholestasis contains soluble and particulate forms of alkaline phosphatase. The soluble serum enzyme had the same size and charge as butanol-extracted liver enzyme on native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis separated the soluble and particulate serum alkaline phosphatases as slow- and fast-moving forms respectively. In the

  9. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  10. A new chicken genome assembly provides insight into avian genome structure.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing t...

  11. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  12. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens.

  13. Bone marrow transplantation alters lung antigen presenting cells to promote TH17 response and the development of pneumonitis and fibrosis following gammaherpesvirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Loomis-King, Hillary; Gurczynski, Stephen J.; Wilke, Carol A.; Konopka, Kristine E.; Ptaschinski, Catherine; Coomes, Stephanie M; Iwakura, Yoichiro; van Dyk, Linda F.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Moore, Bethany B.

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) efficacy is limited by numerous pulmonary complications. We developed a model of syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) followed by infection with murine gamma herpesvirus (γHV-68) that results in pneumonitis and fibrosis and mimics human “non-infectious” HSCT complications. BMT mice experience increased early lytic replication, but establish viral latency by 21 days post infection (dpi). CD4 T cells in BMT mice are skewed towards IL-17A rather than IFN-γ production. Transplantation of bone marrow from Il-17a−/− donors or treatment with anti-IL-17A neutralization antibodies at late stages attenuates pneumonitis and fibrosis in infected BMT mice, suggesting that hematopoietic-derived IL-17A is essential for development of pathology. IL-17A directly influences activation and extracellular matrix production by lung mesenchymal cells. Lung CD11c+ cells of BMT mice secrete more TGF-β1, and pro-TH17 mRNAs for IL-23 and IL-6, and less TH1-promoting cytokine mRNA for IFN-γ but slightly more IL-12 mRNA in response to viral infection. Adoptive transfer of non-BMT lung CD11c-enriched cells restores robust TH1 response and suppresses aberrant TH17 response in BMT mice to improve lung pathology. Our data suggest “non-infectious” HSCT lung complications may reflect preceding viral infections and demonstrate that IL-17A neutralization may offer therapeutic advantage even after disease onset. PMID:26376362

  14. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  15. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  16. Bone Metastasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... metastasis, surgeons can stabilize the bone using metal plates, screws and nails (orthopedic fixation). Orthopedic fixation can ... that can't be easily reinforced with metal plates or screws, such as pelvic bones and bones ...

  17. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  18. Annotation and genetic diversity of the chicken collagenous lectins.

    PubMed

    Hamzić, Edin; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2015-06-01

    Collectins and ficolins are multimeric proteins present in various tissues and are actively involved in innate immune responses. In chickens, six different collagenous lectins have been characterized so far: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), surfactant protein A (SP-A), collectin 10 (COLEC10), collectin 11 (COLEC11), collectin 12 (COLEC12), lung lectin (LL) and one ficolin (FCN). However, the structural and functional features of the chicken collectins and ficolin are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to make an overview of the genetic structure and function of chicken collectins and the ficolin, (ii) to investigate the variation in the chicken collectins and the ficolin gene in different chicken populations, and (iii) to assess the presence of MBL gene variants in different chicken populations. We performed comparative genomic analysis using publically available data. The obtained results showed that collectins and ficolins have conserved protein sequences and gene structure across all vertebrate groups and this is especially notable for COLEC10, COLEC11 and COLEC12. For the purpose of studying the genetic variation, 179 animals from 14 populations were genotyped using 31 SNPs covering five genomic regions. The obtained results revealed low level of heterozygosity in the collagenous lectins except for the COLEC12 gene and the LL-SPA-MBL region compared to heterozygosity at neutral microsatellite markers. In addition, the MBL gene variants were assessed in different chicken populations based on the polymorphisms in the promoter region. We observed 10 previously identified MBL variants with A2/A8 and A4 as the most frequent alleles.

  19. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (p<0.05). On the other hand, the increase in pre-rigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle. PMID:26761884

  20. Generation of mice with functional inactivation of talpid3, a gene first identified in chicken.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Fiona; Antonio, Nicole; Thongnuek, Peerapat; Welten, Monique; Davey, Megan G; Briscoe, James; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-08-01

    Specification of digit number and identity is central to digit pattern in vertebrate limbs. The classical talpid(3) chicken mutant has many unpatterned digits together with defects in other regions, depending on hedgehog (Hh) signalling, and exhibits embryonic lethality. The talpid(3) chicken has a mutation in KIAA0586, which encodes a centrosomal protein required for the formation of primary cilia, which are sites of vertebrate Hh signalling. The highly conserved exons 11 and 12 of KIAA0586 are essential to rescue cilia in talpid(3) chicken mutants. We constitutively deleted these two exons to make a talpid3(-/-) mouse. Mutant mouse embryos lack primary cilia and, like talpid(3) chicken embryos, have face and neural tube defects but also defects in left/right asymmetry. Conditional deletion in mouse limb mesenchyme results in polydactyly and in brachydactyly and a failure of subperisoteal bone formation, defects that are attributable to abnormal sonic hedgehog and Indian hedgehog signalling, respectively. Like talpid(3) chicken limbs, the mutant mouse limbs are syndactylous with uneven digit spacing as reflected in altered Raldh2 expression, which is normally associated with interdigital mesenchyme. Both mouse and chicken mutant limb buds are broad and short. talpid3(-/-) mouse cells migrate more slowly than wild-type mouse cells, a change in cell behaviour that possibly contributes to altered limb bud morphogenesis. This genetic mouse model will facilitate further conditional approaches, epistatic experiments and open up investigation into the function of the novel talpid3 gene using the many resources available for mice.

  1. The Influence of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Presentation on Tubule Organization by Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Coculture.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Emily A; Fedorchak, Morgan V; Little, Steven R

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional in vitro Matrigel plug was used as a model to explore delivery patterns of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to a coculture of human mesenchymal and endothelial cells. While BMP-2 is well recognized for its role in promoting fracture healing through proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors, it is not a growth factor known to promote the process of angiogenesis, which is also critical for complete bone tissue repair. PDGF, in contrast, is a known regulator of angiogenesis, and also a powerful chemoattractant for osteoblast precursor cells. It has been suggested that presentation of PDGF followed by BMP may better promote vascularized bone tissue formation. Yet, it is unclear as to how cells would respond to various durations of delivery of each growth factor as well as to various amounts of overlap in presentation in terms of angiogenesis. Using a three-dimensional in vitro Matrigel plug model, we observed how various presentation schedules of PDGF and BMP-2 influenced tubule formation by human mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. We observed that sequential presentation of PDGF to BMP-2 led to increased tubule formation over simultaneous delivery of these growth factors. Importantly, a 2-4 day overlap in the sequential presentation of PDGF and BMP-2 increased tubule formation as compared with groups with zero or complete growth factor overlap, suggesting that a moderate amount of angiogenic and osteogenic growth factor overlap may be beneficial for processes associated with angiogenesis.

  2. Bone and bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely affect bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified.

  3. Adenosine triphosphatase-positive Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Pérez Torres, A; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S

    1991-06-01

    In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chickens can develop contact dermatitis, the finding is taken as the first formal demonstration of the presence of Langerhans cells in this group of vertebrates.

  4. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  5. Kidney lesions associated with mortality in chickens inoculated with waterfowl influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slemons, R.D.; Locke, L.N.; Sheerar, Martha G.; Duncan, R.M.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Easterday, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-six type A influenza viruses recovered from waterfowl in Wisconsin, California, South Dakota, Florida, Texas, Alabama, and Nebraska were tested for virulence in chickens. The challenge to chickens was intravenous inoculation of first-, second-, or third-egg-passage virus. Each of the virus strains was tested separately in three or four chickens. Eighteen of the 76 viruses caused the death of one or more chickens following inoculation. Postmortem lesions were similar in all dead birds. In decreasing order of frequency, gross lesions included: swollen kidneys evident as accentuated lobular patterns, urates in the pericardial sac, and urates on the surface of the liver. Microscopic lesions present in kidneys were consistent with visceral gout. Mortality was associated with inoculations having higher concentrations of infectious virus. These results indicate that the influenza A viruses circulating in duck populations may include strains potentially pathogenic for chickens.

  6. Genome-wide association study reveals novel variants for growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Liao, R; Zhang, X; Chen, Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Q; Yang, C; Pan, Y

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the genetic basis of growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and White Leghorn chickens. In this study, we employed a reduced representation sequencing approach called genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing to detect genome-wide SNPs in 252 Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and 252 White Leghorn chickens. The Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken breed has many specific traits and is characterized by blue-shelled eggs, black plumage, black skin, black bone and black organs. The White Leghorn chicken is an egg-type breed with high productivity. As multibreed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) can improve precision due to less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, a multibreed GWAS was performed with 156 575 SNPs to identify the associated variants underlying growth and egg traits within the two chicken breeds. The analysis revealed 32 SNPs exhibiting a significant genome-wide association with growth and egg traits. Some of the significant SNPs are located in genes that are known to impact growth and egg traits, but nearly half of the significant SNPs are located in genes with unclear functions in chickens. To our knowledge, this is the first multibreed genome-wide report for the genetics of growth and egg traits in the Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens.

  7. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  8. A serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Wit, J J; van Eck, J H; Crooijmans, R P; Pijpers, A

    2004-05-15

    To get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the Netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. These flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the Netherlands, regions with a high poultry density. The owners of the tested flocks showed their chicken at national and international poultry exhibitions. Antibodies against Avian Influenza, Egg Drop Syndrome '76 virus, Pox virus, Salmonella pullorum/gallinarum, Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium were not detected. However, antibodies against other Salmonella species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, chicken anaemia virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, and avian leukosis virus, subgroups A and B, and subgroup J were detected in a varying proportion of the flocks. This study shows that antibodies against many chicken pathogens are present among the flocks of old fancy chicken breeds that are exhibited at international poultry exhibitions.

  9. Bone scanning in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Noyek, A M

    1979-09-01

    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  10. Association between BMP15 Gene Polymorphism and Reproduction Traits and Its Tissues Expression Characteristics in Chicken.

    PubMed

    Han, Haixia; Lei, Qiuxia; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Jinbo; Liu, Wei; Li, Fuwei; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yan; Cao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) is an oocyte-secreted growth factor required for ovarian follicle development and ovulation in mammals, but its effects on reproduction in chickens are unclear. In this study, the association between BMP15 polymorphisms and reproduction traits were analyzed, and its expression characteristics in different tissues were explored in LaiWu Black chickens. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in four hundred LaiWu Black chickens. One SNP (NC_006091.3:g.1773T>C) located in exon 2 which was significantly associated with egg weight at first egg (EWFE) (P = 0.0389), was novel. Diplotypes based on the three SNPs were found to be significantly associated with egg weight at age of 43W (EW43) (P = 0.0058). The chickens with H3H3 diplotype had their first egg 0.57 days later than chickens with H5H5 diplotype and 1.21 days-3.96 days earlier than the other five diplotype chickens. The egg production at age of 43W (E43), egg production at age of 46W (E46) and egg production at age of 48W (E48) for chickens with H3H3 diplotype were the highest among all the chickens, and the E48 of chickens with H3H3 diplotype had 11.83 eggs higher than chickens with H1H5 diplotype. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of BMP15 gene in ovarian follicle was in the order of 4 mm>6 mm -8 mm> 15 mm -19 mm> 23 mm -29 mm > 33 mm -34 mm in diameter. The mRNA level in follicles of 4 mm and 6-8 mm in diameter were significantly higher than that in the other follicles (P<0.01). In the same week, the highest mRNA level was found in the ovary, and it was significantly different from that found in the liver and oviduct (P<0.01). Our results indicate that BMP15 plays a vital role in the development of ovary and follicles, especially in the development of primary follicles. H3H3 may be an potential advantageous molecular marker for improving reproduction traits in chickens.

  11. Association between BMP15 Gene Polymorphism and Reproduction Traits and Its Tissues Expression Characteristics in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Gao, Jinbo; Liu, Wei; Li, Fuwei; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yan; Cao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) is an oocyte-secreted growth factor required for ovarian follicle development and ovulation in mammals, but its effects on reproduction in chickens are unclear. In this study, the association between BMP15 polymorphisms and reproduction traits were analyzed, and its expression characteristics in different tissues were explored in LaiWu Black chickens. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in four hundred LaiWu Black chickens. One SNP (NC_006091.3:g.1773T>C) located in exon 2 which was significantly associated with egg weight at first egg (EWFE) (P = 0.0389), was novel. Diplotypes based on the three SNPs were found to be significantly associated with egg weight at age of 43W (EW43) (P = 0.0058). The chickens with H3H3 diplotype had their first egg 0.57 days later than chickens with H5H5 diplotype and 1.21 days-3.96 days earlier than the other five diplotype chickens. The egg production at age of 43W (E43), egg production at age of 46W (E46) and egg production at age of 48W (E48) for chickens with H3H3 diplotype were the highest among all the chickens, and the E48 of chickens with H3H3 diplotype had 11.83 eggs higher than chickens with H1H5 diplotype. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of BMP15 gene in ovarian follicle was in the order of 4 mm>6 mm -8 mm> 15 mm -19 mm> 23 mm -29 mm > 33 mm -34 mm in diameter. The mRNA level in follicles of 4 mm and 6–8 mm in diameter were significantly higher than that in the other follicles (P<0.01). In the same week, the highest mRNA level was found in the ovary, and it was significantly different from that found in the liver and oviduct (P<0.01). Our results indicate that BMP15 plays a vital role in the development of ovary and follicles, especially in the development of primary follicles. H3H3 may be an potential advantageous molecular marker for improving reproduction traits in chickens. PMID:26574748

  12. Aging and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Boskey, A.L.; Coleman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Bones provide mechanical and protective function, while also serving as housing for marrow and a site for regulation of calcium ion homeostasis. The properties of bones do not remain constant with age; rather, they change throughout life, in some cases improving in function, but in others, function deteriorates. Here we review the modifications in the mechanical function and shape of bones, the bone cells, the matrix they produce, and the mineral that is deposited on this matrix, while presenting recent theories about the factors leading to these changes. PMID:20924069

  13. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1996-03-12

    The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  14. EPIDEMIC TREMOR, AN ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AFFECTING YOUNG CHICKENS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E. Elizabeth

    1934-01-01

    A new disease having a characteristic and well defined symptom complex is described as occurring in young chickens in four New England states. Tremor, principally of the head and neck, and progressive ataxia are the characteristic symptoms, either or both of which may be present in a single bird. Age at onset in field epidemics ranges from 3 days to 6 weeks, with a majority of cases reported at 3 weeks. Morbidity in commercial flocks ranges from 5 to 50 per cent; mortality in affected hatches may be 50 per cent. The disease may or may not recur in successive hatches, and in the same flock in successive years. Although birds may survive an attack of the disease, nervous symptoms persist in a majority of cases. There is no evidence that nutritional factors are involved. Normal chickens have not contracted the disease by contact with affected birds. The disease has been reproduced in normal chickens by intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from affected birds. Twenty brain-to-brain passages have been made up to the present time. The incubation period in laboratory passages ranges from 6 to 44 days with symptoms appearing usually between 21 and 28 days. The proportion of inoculated birds developing symptoms has increased with successive passages. The infective agent in the brain has survived in 50 per cent glycerine for 69 days. No organism has been cultivated. The disease has been reproduced after inoculation with bacteriologically sterile filtrates obtained with Seitz and Berkefeld N filters. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of the infective agent in the chicken embryo have been inconclusive. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by birds which had survived the disease were not infected, nor were they immune to inoculation at 6 weeks of age. The characteristic lesion of the disease consists of microscopic focal collections of glia cells, perivascular infiltration, degeneration of Purkinje's cells, and degeneration of nerve cells. Foci of infiltration are

  15. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  16. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  17. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  18. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  19. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.

  20. The identification of loci for polydactyly in chickens using a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xihui; Chen, Yu; Jia, Yaxiong; Qi, Xiaolong; Feng, Yun; Huang, Zhen; Guo, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Polydactyly is a commonly observed limb malformation in humans and other vertebrates. The Beijing-You chicken expressing the polydactyly phenotype provides an opportunity to investigate the potential cause for polydactyly. Here we extensively exploited genetic determinants of the chicken polydactyly in a genome wide association study using over 580,000 SNPs characterized in a Beijing-You × Lohmann F1 cross, consisting of 79 animals. A total of 10 loci clustered on the short arm of chromosome 2 were identified to be significantly associated with the trait. Among the 10 significant SNPs, 7 were located in a linkage disequilibrium block of 1737kb. The strongest association signal (rs317674023, P=5.48×10(-8)) residing nearby Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor-Associated Molecule 1 (BRAM1) was identified in the genomic region. Our results provide insights to the genetic basis underlying chicken polydactyly and may facilitate studies of the limb malformation in humans and other species.

  1. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens.

  2. Efficacy of early treatment with toltrazuril in prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, efficacy of the toltrazuril treatment for prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis was tested. Ninety-six 14-day-old commercial broiler chickens were caged and divided into eight groups (n=12), designated groups 1 to 8. Chickens of groups 1 to 6 were inoculated orally at 18 days of age with 25,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella and 75,000 oocysts of Eimeria brunetti. At 22 days of age, chickens of groups 1 to 6 were infected with 10(9) colony-forming unit Clostridium perfringens. Chickens of group 1 were treated with 75 parts/10(6) toltrazuril in drinking water for 8 h on two consecutive days up to 12 h before Eimeria infection, while chickens of groups 2 to 5 were treated with the same dose of toltrazuril at 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 84 h after Eimeria infection, respectively. The non-treated group 6 served as a positive control. Chickens in group 7 were treated with toltrazuril at 17 and 18 days of age, and those of group 8 remained uninfected and non-treated as a negative control. The feed conversion ratio was higher in the positive control compared with other groups. The mortality rates were 16.8% and 41.7% in the late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) and infected non-treated chickens, respectively. Lesions scores of necrotic enteritis or coccidiosis in infected, non-treated chickens were significantly more severe compared with negative controls (P<0.01) and late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) chickens (P<0.05). In conclusion, application of toltrazuril before Eimeria challenge protected chickens from coccidiosis and indirectly from successive necrotic enteritis caused by C. perfringens infection.

  3. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    PubMed

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens.

  4. Multifunctional properties of chicken embryonic prenatal mesenchymal stem cells- pluripotency, plasticity, and tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanalakshmi, G; Arfuso, Frank; Dharmarajan, Arun; Warrier, Sudha

    2014-12-01

    The chick embryo represents an accessible and economical in vivo model, which has long been used in developmental biology, gene expression analysis, and loss/gain of function experiments. In the present study, we assessed and characterized bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from prenatal day 13 chicken embryos (chBMMSCs) and determined some novel properties. After assessing the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) properties of these cells by the presence of their signature markers (CD 44, CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, and vimentin), we ascertained a very broad spectrum of multipotentiality as these MSCs not only differentiated into the classic tri-lineages of MSCs but also into ectodermal, endodermal, and mesodermal lineages such as neuron, hepatocyte, islet cell, and cardiac. In addition to wide plasticity, we detected the presence of several pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. This is the first study characterizing prenatal chBMMSCs and their ability to not only differentiate into mesenchymal lineages but also into all the germ cell layer lineages. Furthermore, our studies indicate that prenatal chBMMSCs derived from the chick provide an excellent model for multi-lineage development studies because of their broad plasticity and faithful reproduction of MSC traits as seen in the human. Here, we also present evidence for the first time that media derived from prenatal chBMMSC cultures have an anti-tumorigenic, anti-migratory, and pro-apoptotic effect on human tumors cells acting through the Wnt-ß-catenin pathway. These data confirm that chBMMSCs are enriched with factors in their secretome that are able to destroy tumor cells. This suggests a commonality of properties of MSCs across species between human and chicken.

  5. Marble Bone Disease: A Rare Bone Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harinathbabu, Maheswari; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Prabhu, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis, or marble bone disease, is a rare skeletal disorder due to a defective function of the osteoclasts. This defect renders bones more susceptible to osteomyelitis due to decreased vascularity. This disorder is inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive. Healthcare professionals should urge these patients to maintain their oral health as well as general health, as this condition makes these patients more susceptible to frequent infections and fractures. This case report emphasizes the signs and symptoms of marble bone disease and presents clinical and radiographic findings.  PMID:26594603

  6. Characterization of chicken epidermal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Igyártó, Botond-Zoltán; Lackó, Erzsébet; Oláh, Imre; Magyar, Attila

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for 15 years that the chicken epidermis contains ATPase+ and major histocompatibility complex class II-positive (MHCII+) dendritic cells. These cells were designated as Langerhans cells but neither their detailed phenotype nor their function was further investigated. In the present paper we demonstrate a complete overlapping of ATPase, CD45 and vimentin staining in all dendritic cells of the chicken epidermis. The CD45+ ATPase+ vimentin+ dendritic cells could be divided into three subpopulations: an MHCII+ CD3– KUL01+ and 68.1+ (monocyte-macrophage subpopulation markers) subpopulation, an MHCII– CD3– KUL01– and 68.1– subpopulation and an MHCII– CD3+ KUL01– and 68.1– subpopulation. The first population could be designated as chicken Langerhans cells. The last population represents CD4– CD8– T-cell receptor-αβ– and -γδ– natural killer cells with cytoplasmic CD3 positivity. The epidermal dendritic cells have a low proliferation rate as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that dendritic cells could be mobilized from the epidermis. Hapten treatment of epidermis resulted in the decrease of the frequency of epidermal dendritic cells and hapten-loaded dendritic cells appeared in the dermis or in in vitro culture of isolated epidermis. Hapten-positive cells were also found in the so-called dermal lymphoid nodules. We suggest that these dermal nodules are responsible for some regional immunological functions similar to the mammalian lymph nodes. PMID:16889640

  7. Physicochemical Characterization of a Heat Treated Calcium Alginate Dry Film Prepared with Chicken Stock.

    PubMed

    Báez, Germán D; Piccirilli, Gisela N; Ballerini, Griselda A; Frattini, Agustín; Busti, Pablo A; Verdini, Roxana A; Delorenzi, Néstor J

    2017-04-01

    Solid sodium alginate was dissolved into chicken stock in order to give a final alginate concentration of 0.9 percent (w/v). Calcium ions present in chicken stock were enough to induce ionic gelation. After drying, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness and mechanical properties of films obtained were determined. Calcium alginate-chicken stock films were heated at 130 °C for different times between 0 and 15 min. Mechanical and optical studies, differential scanning calorimetry, visual aspect and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to describe physicochemical properties of heat treated films. Heating developed a maroon ochre color and increased the brittleness (crispness) of the films related to the intensity of the treatment. Differential scanning thermometry and study on appearance of the films suggested that Maillard reactions may be responsible for the observed changes. Maillard reactions mainly occurred between reducing sugar monomers and free amino groups of gelatin peptides present in the chicken stock, and between alginate and gelatin peptides to a lesser extent. In addition, the plasticizing effect of fat added with chicken stock was also studied. These studies suggest a potential use of heat treated chicken stock films as a substitute of roasted chicken skin.

  8. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: Seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lehmann, T; Lautner, F; Kwok, O C H; Gamble, H R

    2015-11-30

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chickens. In the present study 90 Toxoplasma gondii seronegative, sentinel chickens were placed on three (30 each) swine farms in New England in November, 2003. Chickens were bled monthly and their sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Chickens that seroconverted were euthanized and their tissues were bioassayed in mice, cats, or both. Over the course of the experiment (7 months), 31 of 71 chickens seroconverted (MAT 1:100 or higher). Tissues of 26 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in both cats and mice; viable T. gondii was isolated, by bioassay in mice, from hearts (whole) of all 26 chickens, brains (whole) of 3 chickens and leg muscles (25 g) of 11 chickens; 21 of 26 cats fed 250 g of muscle from seropositive chickens excreted T. gondii oocysts. Results indicated that the density of T. gondii in poultry muscle is low but heart is the tissue of choice for isolation of viable parasites.

  9. Keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycan from chicken egg white.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Sun, Xiaojun; He, Wenqin; Cai, Chao; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Zhangguo

    2016-07-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) was isolated from chicken egg white in amounts corresponding to ∼0.06 wt% (dry weight). This KS had a weight-average molecular weight of ∼36-41 kDa with a polydispersity of ∼1.3. The primary repeating unit present in chicken egg white KS was →4) β-N-acetyl-6-O-sulfo-d-glucosamine (1 → 3) β-d-galactose (1→ with some 6-O-sulfo galactose residues present. This KS was somewhat resistant to depolymerization using keratanase 1 but could be depolymerized efficiently through the use of reactive oxygen species generated using copper (II) and hydrogen peroxide. Of particular interest was the presence of substantial amounts of 2,8- and 2,9-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid residues in the form of oligosialic acid terminating the non-reducing ends of the KS chains. Most of the KS appears to be N-linked to a protein core as evidenced by its sensitivity to PNGase F.

  10. RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

    The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

  11. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  12. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  13. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  14. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  15. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner.

  16. Bone impairment in oxalosis: An ultrastructural bone analysis.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Justine; Farlay, Delphine; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman; Lebourg, Ludivine; Cochat, Pierre; Boivin, Georges

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney and bone is a hallmark of systemic oxalosis. Since the bone compartment can store massive amounts of oxalate, patients present with recurrent low-trauma fractures, bone deformations, severe bone pains and specific oxalate osteopathy on plain X-ray. Bone biopsy from the iliac crest displays specific features such as oxalate crystals surrounded by a granulomatous reaction due to an invasion of bone surface by macrophages. We present data obtained in 10 samples from 8 patients with oxalosis (16-68 years) who underwent iliac crest bone biopsy and bone quality analysis using modern methods (microradiography, microindentation, Fourier Transform InfraRed Microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy) in addition to histomorphometry. Disseminated calcium oxalate deposits (whewellite) were found in the bone marrow space (with a granulomatous reaction) but not in the bone matrix. Calcium oxalate deposits were totally surrounded by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, and a phagocytosis activity was sometimes observed. Very few calcium oxalate crystals were directly in close contact with the mineral substance of the bone. Bone mineralization was not modified by the presence of calcium oxalate even in close vicinity. Bone quality analysis also revealed a harder bone than normal, perhaps in relationship with decreased carbonate content in the mineral. This increase in bone hardness could explain a more "brittle" bone. In patients with oxalosis, the formation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals in the bone appeared independent of apatite. The mechanisms leading to nucleation and growth of oxalate deposits are still unclear and deserve further studies.

  17. Update on pediatric bone health.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Maria J; Binkovitz, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis has long been considered a health problem unique to older adults. Children and adolescents with chronic illness, primary bone disease, or poor nutrition, however, are also predisposed to impaired skeletal health. The present review discusses normal skeletal development, risk factors for low bone mineral density, and prevention and treatment strategies that can help optimize bone health in the pediatric population.

  18. Bone Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mayo Clinic Staff A bone scan is a nuclear imaging test that helps diagnose and track several ... you're nursing. A bone scan is a nuclear imaging procedure. In nuclear imaging, tiny amounts of ...

  19. Bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Matthew J W

    2002-09-01

    Bone grafts are used in musculoskeletal surgery to restore structural integrity and enhance osteogenic potential. The demand for bone graft for skeletal reconstruction in bone tumor, revision arthroplasty, and trauma surgery, couple with recent advances in understanding and application of the biology of bone transplantation, has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of bone-grafting procedures performed over the last decade. It is estimated that 1.5 million bone-grafting procedures are currently performed worldwide each year, compared to a fraction of that number 20 years ago. Major developments also have resulted in the harvesting, storage, and use of bone grafts and production of graft derivatives, substitutes, and bone-inducing agents.

  20. Deletion of Indian hedgehog gene causes dominant semi-lethal Creeper trait in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sihua; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yanyun; Yi, Guoqiang; Li, Junying; Lian, Ling; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Jiao, Rengang; Gong, Yu; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Creeper trait, a classical monogenic phenotype of chicken, is controlled by a dominant semi-lethal gene. This trait has been widely cited in the genetics and molecular biology textbooks for illustrating autosomal dominant semi-lethal inheritance over decades. However, the genetic basis of the Creeper trait remains unknown. Here we have utilized ultra-deep sequencing and extensive analysis for targeting causative mutation controlling the Creeper trait. Our results indicated that the deletion of Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene was only found in the whole-genome sequencing data of lethal embryos and Creeper chickens. Large scale segregation analysis demonstrated that the deletion of IHH was fully linked with early embryonic death and the Creeper trait. Expression analysis showed a much lower expression of IHH in Creeper than wild-type chickens. We therefore suggest the deletion of IHH to be the causative mutation for the Creeper trait in chicken. Our findings unravel the genetic basis of the longstanding Creeper phenotype mystery in chicken as the same gene also underlies bone dysplasia in human and mouse, and thus highlight the significance of IHH in animal development and human haploinsufficiency disorders. PMID:27439785

  1. Bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc. PMID:26403875

  2. Bone Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810, Which Can Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chicken Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoji

    2016-01-01

    We present the 2.05-Mb draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810, a chicken intestinal isolate with the ability to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonization in chickens. The genome sequence will provide insights on the probiotic mechanisms of L. crispatus JCM5810. PMID:27081134

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810, Which Can Reduce Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Chicken Intestine.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoji; Miller, Michael J

    2016-04-14

    We present the 2.05-Mb draft genome sequence ofLactobacillus crispatusJCM5810, a chicken intestinal isolate with the ability to reduceCampylobacter jejunicolonization in chickens. The genome sequence will provide insights on the probiotic mechanisms ofL. crispatusJCM5810.

  5. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent injury to the bone. You may also be at risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

  6. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload.

  7. Genome-wide Census and Expression Profiling of Chicken Neuropeptide and Prohormone Convertase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, K. R.; Southey, B. R.; Sweedler, J. V.; Rodriguez-Zas, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropeptides regulate cell-cell signaling and influence many biological processes in vertebrates, including development, growth, and reproduction. The complex processing of neuropeptides from prohormone proteins by prohormone convertases, combined with the evolutionary distance between the chicken and mammalian species that have experienced extensive neuropeptide research, has led to the empirical confirmation of only 18 chicken prohormone proteins. To expand our knowledge of the neuropeptide and prohormone convertase gene complement, we performed an exhaustive survey of the chicken genomic, EST, and proteomic databases using a list of 95 neuropeptide and 7 prohormone convertase genes known in other species. Analysis of the EST resources and 22 microarray studies offered a comprehensive portrait of gene expression across multiple conditions. Five neuropeptide genes (apelin, cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein, insulin-like 5, neuropeptide S, and neuropeptide B) previously unknown in chicken were identified and 62 genes were confirmed. Although most neuropeptide gene families known in human are present in chicken, there are several gene not present in the chicken. Conversely, several chicken neuropeptide genes are absent from mammalian species, including C-RF amide, c-type natriuretic peptide 1 precursor, and renal natriuretic peptide. The prohormone convertases, with one exception, were found in the chicken genome. Bioinformatic models used to predict prohormone cleavages confirm that the processing of prohormone proteins into neuropeptides is similar between species. Neuropeptide genes are most frequently expressed in the brain and head, followed by the ovary and small intestine. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression of adrenomedullin, chromogranin-A, augurin, neuromedin-U, platelet-derived growth factor A and D, proenkephalin, relaxin-3, prepronociceptin, and insulin-like growth factor I was most susceptible (P-value < 0.001) to

  8. Valgus-Varus Deformity of the Intertarsal Joint in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A lateral or medial angulation of the shaft of the distal tibiotarsal bone resulting in deviation of the lower part of the leg and frequently with bending of the proximal shaft of the tarsometatarsus is the most common leg deformity in broiler chickens. This lateral or medial deviation of the legs in broiler chickens, which has been described by many workers, deserves a specific name such as angular bone deformity or valgus-varus deformity of intertarsal joint, so that it may be separated from other varieties of lameness in broilers. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2A.Figure 2B.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figure 8. PMID:17422417

  9. Endoscopically and Fluoroscopically Assisted Curettage and Bone Grafting of the Navicular Bone Cyst.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    Simple bone cyst is a common tumorlike lesion of the bone and can involve the bones of the foot. It is usually asymptomatic but can also present with pain or pathologic fracture. The purpose of this technical note is to describe the uni-osseous portal approach of endoscopic curettage and bone grafting of simple bone cyst of the navicular bone. The single-portal approach reduces the risk of iatrogenic fracture of the navicular bone. This is indicated for painful bone cyst of the navicular bone resistant to conservative treatment. It is contraindicated in multiple septated cysts, the presence of pathologic fracture, or the presence of aggressive cystic lesions.

  10. On the origins and genetic diversity of South American chickens: one step closer.

    PubMed

    Luzuriaga-Neira, A; Villacís-Rivas, G; Cueva-Castillo, F; Escudero-Sánchez, G; Ulloa-Nuñez, A; Rubilar-Quezada, M; Monteiro, R; Miller, M R; Beja-Pereira, A

    2017-01-17

    Local chicken populations are a major source of food in the rural areas of South America. However, very little is known about their genetic composition and diversity. Here, we analyzed five populations from South America to investigate their maternal genetic origin and diversity, hoping to mitigate the lack of information on local chicken populations from this region. We also included three populations of chicken from the Iberian Peninsula and one from Easter Island, which are potential sources of the first chickens introduced in South America. The obtained sequencing data from South American chickens indicate the presence of four haplogroups (A, B, E and D) that can be further subdivided into nine sub-haplogroups. Of these, four (B1, D1a, E1a(b), E1b) were absent from local Iberian Peninsula chickens and one (D1a) was present only on Easter Island. The presence of the sub-haplogroups A1a(b) and E1a(b) in South America, previously only observed in Eastern Asia, and the significant population differentiation between Iberian Peninsula and South American populations, suggest a second maternal source of the extant genetic pool in South American chickens.

  11. High-throughput and Cost-effective Chicken Genotyping Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pértille, Fábio; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Silva, Vinicius Henrique da; Boschiero, Clarissa; Nunes, José de Ribamar da Silva; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Jensen, Per; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Chicken genotyping is becoming common practice in conventional animal breeding improvement. Despite the power of high-throughput methods for genotyping, their high cost limits large scale use in animal breeding and selection. In the present paper we optimized the CornellGBS, an efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequence approach developed in plants, for its application in chickens. Here we describe the successful genotyping of a large number of chickens (462) using CornellGBS approach. Genomic DNA was cleaved with the PstI enzyme, ligated to adapters with barcodes identifying individual animals, and then sequenced on Illumina platform. After filtering parameters were applied, 134,528 SNPs were identified in our experimental population of chickens. Of these SNPs, 67,096 had a minimum taxon call rate of 90% and were considered ‘unique tags’. Interestingly, 20.7% of these unique tags have not been previously reported in the dbSNP. Moreover, 92.6% of these SNPs were concordant with a previous Whole Chicken-genome re-sequencing dataset used for validation purposes. The application of CornellGBS in chickens showed high performance to infer SNPs, particularly in exonic regions and microchromosomes. This approach represents a cost-effective (~US$50/sample) and powerful alternative to current genotyping methods, which has the potential to improve whole-genome selection (WGS), and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chicken production. PMID:27220827

  12. Diabetes, biochemical markers of bone turnover, diabetes control, and bone.

    PubMed

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone markers and the similarities and differences of type 1- and type 2-diabetics regarding bone markers will be evaluated. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and SveMed+ with the search terms: "Diabetes mellitus," "Diabetes mellitus type 1," "Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus," "Diabetes mellitus type 2," "Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus," "Bone," "Bone and Bones," "Bone diseases," "Bone turnover," "Hemoglobin A Glycosylated," and "HbA1C." After removing duplicates from this search 1,188 records were screened by title and abstract and 75 records were assessed by full text for inclusion in the review. In the end 43 records were chosen. Bone formation and resorption markers are investigated as well as bone regulating systems. T1D is found to have lower osteocalcin and CTX, while osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid are found to be lower in T2D, and sclerostin is increased and collagen turnover markers altered. Other bone turnover markers do not seem to be altered in T1D or T2D. A major problem is the lack of histomorphometric studies in humans linking changes in turnover markers to actual changes in bone turnover and further research is needed to strengthen this link.

  13. Chicken wing training model for endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To present and validate a chicken wing model for endoscopic endonasal microsurgical skill development. Setting A surgical environment was constructed using a Styrofoam box and measurements from radiological studies. Endoscopic visualization and instrumentation were utilized in a manner to mimic operative setting. Design Five participants were instructed to complete four sequential tasks: (1) opening the skin, (2) exposing the main artery in its neurovascular sheath, (3) opening the neurovascular sheath, and (4) separating the nerve from the artery. Time to completion of each task was recorded. Participants Three junior attendings, one senior resident, and one medical student were recruited internally. Main Outcome Measures Time to perform the surgical tasks measured in seconds. Results The average time of the first training session was 48.8 minutes; by the 10th training session, the average time was 22.4 minutes. The range of improvement was 25.7 minutes to 72.4 minutes. All five participants exhibited statistically significant decrease in time after 10 trials. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that an improvement of 50% was achieved by an average of five attempts at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The ex vivo chicken wing model is an inexpensive and relatively realistic model to train endoscopic dissection using microsurgical techniques.

  14. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  15. Bone poroelasticity.

    PubMed

    Cowin, S C

    1999-03-01

    Poroelasticity is a well-developed theory for the interaction of fluid and solid phases of a fluid-saturated porous medium. It is widely used in geomechanics and has been applied to bone by many authors in the last 30 years. The purpose of this work is, first, to review the literature related to the application of poroelasticity to the interstitial bone fluid and, second, to describe the specific physical and modeling considerations that establish poroelasticity as an effective and useful model for deformation-driven bone fluid movement in bone tissue. The application of poroelasticity to bone differs from its application to soft tissues in two important ways. First, the deformations of bone are small while those of soft tissues are generally large. Second, the bulk modulus of the mineralized bone matrix is about six times stiffer than that of the fluid in the pores while the bulk moduli of the soft tissue matrix and the pore water are almost the same. Poroelasticity and electrokinetics can be used to explain strain-generated potentials in wet bone. It is noted that strain-generated potentials can be used as an effective tool in the experimental study of local bone fluid flow, and that the knowledge of this technique will contribute to the answers of a number of questions concerning bone mineralization, osteocyte nutrition and the bone mechanosensory system.

  16. Reduction of bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Cindy

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on reduction of bone strength are presented. WEHI 231 B growth rates, experimental chambers used to apply the electric field to the cell cultures, and a mouse suspended by rotating cuff in electromagnetic field are shown.

  17. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-12-04

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait-gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species.

  18. Bone and Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Longobardi, Vanesa; Bai, Julio César

    2016-04-01

    More than 50% of untreated patients with celiac disease (CD) have bone loss detected by bone densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry:DXA). Moreover, patients with CD are more likely to have osteoporosis and fragility fractures, especially of the distal radius. Although still controversial, we recommend DXA screening in all celiac disease patients, particularly in those with symptomatic CD at diagnosis and in those who present risk factors for fracture such as older age, menopausal status, previous fracture history, and familial hip fracture history. Bone microarchitecture, especially the trabecular network, may be deteriorated, explaining the higher fracture risk in these patients. Adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation are also recommended to optimize bone recovery, especially during the first years of gluten free diet (GFD). If higher fracture risk persists after 1 or 2 years of GFD, specific osteoactive treatment may be necessary to improve bone health.

  19. Meat Juice Serology for Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Bacci, Cristina; Kramer, Laura

    2016-01-18

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 free-range chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4%) were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls), while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  20. Novel SNPs in the PRDM16 gene and their associations with performance traits in chickens.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruili; Wei, Yang; Kang, Xiangtao; Chen, Hong; Sun, Guirong; Li, Guoxi; Bai, Yichun; Tian, Yadong; Huang, Yanqun

    2012-03-01

    The PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) is a member of the Prdm family, and is known to regulate cell differentiation. In the present study, DNA pool sequencing methods were employed to screen genetic variations in the chicken PRDM16 gene. The results revealed four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): NC_006108.2: g.92188G>A, XM_417551: c.1161C>T (Ala/Ala, 387aa), c.1233C>T (Ser/Ser, 411aa) and c.1433G>A (Ser/Asn, 478aa). The BglI polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect c.1161C>T, while HhaI Forced PCR-RFLP methods were used to detect 1233C>T and c.1433G>A in 964 chickens. The chickens comprised 38 grandparents, 66 F(1) parents and 860 F(2) birds derived from an F(2) resource population of Gushi chickens crossed with Anka broilers. The associations of the polymorphisms in the chicken PRDM16 gene with performance traits were analyzed in the 860 F(2) chickens. The results indicated that the three SNPs were significantly associated with growth, fatness and meat quality traits in the chickens. In particular, the polymorphisms of the missense SNP (c.1433G>A) had positive effects on chicken body weight and body size at different stages. It affected also fatness traits significantly. Comparison of the different genotypes of c.1433G>A showed that the GG genotype favored chicken growth and fatness traits.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Lestari, Shofiyah Ika; Pu, Shuaihua; Ge, Beilei

    2009-03-01

    Effective in September 2005, enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone group antimicrobial, was withdrawn from use in the U.S. poultry farms. In this 1-year study initiated in October 2006, we isolated and characterized Campylobacter spp. from Louisiana retail conventionally raised (n = 141) and organic (n = 53) chickens as a comparison to evaluate the postban bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Campylobacter was present in 43.3% of the chickens; similar rates were observed among conventional and organic chickens. A total of 165 Campylobacter isolates were recovered, with Campylobacter jejuni being the predominant species (66.7%). No apparent seasonal trend was deduced from the prevalence data. Further, the two main conventional and one organic chicken brands did not carry significantly different rates of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). The most common resistance observed was to tetracycline (31.5%), followed by erythromycin (20%) and ciprofloxacin (6.1%). No resistance to gentamicin was identified. All Campylobacter isolates recovered from organic chickens (n = 48) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, compared to 8.5% resistance rate for those from conventional chickens (n = 117). Additionally, the resistance rate to erythromycin was significantly higher in Campylobacter isolates from conventional chickens (23.9%) than those from organic chickens (10.4%; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated a low prevalence and low ciprofloxacin resistance rate of Campylobacter in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban. Further studies involving a larger sample size over time are warranted to better assess the effects of banning enrofloxacin use in poultry and the levels of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

  2. Trends in occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Larsen, Lars S; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, Stefan S; Ejlertsen, Tove; Holt, Hanne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hammerum, Anette M

    2009-05-31

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food. In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997 through 2007, C. jejuni isolates were obtained from The Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) and susceptibility tested for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Erythromycin resistance was at a low level in all the reservoirs during the study period. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in C. jejuni from imported broiler chicken meat compared to Danish broiler chicken meat. In domestically acquired human C. jejuni isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was for most years significantly higher compared to the level found in isolates from Danish broiler chicken meat, whereas the resistance level was similar to the level found in isolates from imported broiler chicken meat. Imported broiler chicken meat may therefore contribute to the high level of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in C. jejuni isolates from domestically acquired human infections. In 2006 and 2007, the occurrence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in travel associated C. jejuni isolates compared to isolates acquired domestically. Even though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or

  3. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  4. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  5. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P<0.05). The flow cytometry results from both trials demonstrated that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 groups were able to induce CD4+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 group was able to induce CD8+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05) in Trial 2 only. In the present study, pDis/NP was not significant (P>0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens.

  6. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR.

  7. Bursal transcriptome of chickens protected by DNA vaccination versus those challenged with infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Kim, Bong-Suk; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection destroys the bursa of Fabricius, causing immunosuppression and rendering chickens susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections. IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA has been shown to confer complete protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). The purpose of the present study was to compare DNA-vaccinated chickens and unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge by transcriptomic analysis of bursa regarding innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at weekly intervals with IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA. Chickens were challenged orally with 8.2 × 10(2) times the egg infective dose (EID)50 of IBDV strain variant E (VE) one week after the last vaccination. Bursae collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-challenge (dpc) were subjected to real-time RT-PCR quantification of bursal transcripts related to innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. The expression levels of granzyme K and CD8 in DNA-vaccinated chickens were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge at 0.5 or 1 dpc. The expression levels of other genes involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport were not upregulated or downregulated in DNA-vaccinated chickens during IBDV challenge. Bursal transcripts related to innate immunity and inflammation, including TLR3, MDA5, IFN-α, IFN-β, IRF-1, IRF-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, granzyme A, granzyme K and IL-10, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. The expression levels of genes related to immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, including CD4, CD8, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12(p40), IL-18, GM-CSF, GATA-3

  8. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  9. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens.

  10. Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Militino Dias, Flavia; Nayak, Baibaswata; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2010-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) are divided into nine serotypes. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two divergent strains of APMV-3, Netherlands and Wisconsin, in (i) 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, (ii) 1-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks and turkeys, and (iii) 2-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was 112 h for APMV-3 strain Netherlands and > 168 h for strain Wisconsin. The intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks for strain Netherlands was 0.39 and for strain Wisconsin was zero. Thus, both strains are lentogenic. Both the strains replicated well in brain tissue when inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old SPF chicks, but without causing death. Mild respiratory disease signs were observed in 1-day-old chickens and turkeys when inoculated through oculonasal route with either strain. There were no overt signs of illness in 2-weeks-old chickens and turkeys by either strain, although all the birds seroconverted after infection. The viruses were isolated predominantly from brain, lungs, spleens, trachea, pancreas and kidney. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of large amount of viral antigens in both epithelial and sub-epithelial lining of respiratory and alimentary tracts. Our result suggests systemic spread of APMV-3 even though the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin proteases cleavage site. Furthermore, there was little or no disease despite systemic viral spread and abundant viral replication in all the tissues tested.

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Chicken Vessels as Microvascular Anastomosis Training Model

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bo Young; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lee, Kyeong-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonliving chickens are commonly used as a microvascular anastomosis training model. However, previous studies have investigated only a few types of vessel, and no study has compared the characteristics of the various vessels. The present study evaluated the anatomic characteristics of various chicken vessels as a training model. Methods Eight vessels—the brachial artery, basilic vein, radial artery, ulnar artery, ischiatic artery and vein, cranial tibial artery, and common dorsal metatarsal artery—were evaluated in 26 fresh chickens and 30 chicken feet for external diameter (ED) and thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media. The dissection time from skin incision to application of vessel clamps was also measured. Results The EDs of the vessels varied. The ischiatic vein had the largest ED of 2.69±0.33 mm, followed by the basilic vein (1.88±0.36 mm), ischiatic artery (1.68±0.24 mm), common dorsal metatarsal artery (1.23±0.23 mm), cranial tibial artery (1.18±0.19 mm), brachial artery (1.08±0.15 mm), ulnar artery (0.82±0.13 mm), and radial artery (0.56±0.12 mm), and the order of size was consistent across all subjects. Thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media were also diverse, ranging from 74.09±19.91 µm to 158.66±40.25 µm (adventitia) and from 31.2±7.13 µm to 154.15±46.48 µm (media), respectively. Mean dissection time was <3 minutes for all vessels. Conclusions Our results suggest that nonliving chickens can provide various vessels with different anatomic characteristics, which can allow trainees the choice of an appropriate microvascular anastomosis training model depending on their purpose and skillfulness. PMID:28194342

  12. Extraction of a monospecific Coombs-reagent from chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Calzado, Esteban; Cruz Mario, Eduardo; Samón Chávez, Tomás; Vázquez Luna, Ernesto; Corona Ochoa, Zelma; Schade, Rüdiger

    2003-01-01

    During the last ten years the extraction of specific antibodies (ab) from the yolk of eggs of immunised chickens is more and more accepted as an useful alternative to the immunisation of mammals. The subject of this work is the immunisation of chickens with human IgG and the extraction of specific anti human IgG ab from egg yolk in order to obtain monospecific Coombs reagent. 12 Leghorn hens (25 weeks old) were immunised with intact human IgG (INTACGLOBIN). The chickens were immunised with 100 microg IgG/animal once per week for a period of seven weeks. The highest titre was observed after the 5th immunisation, the following immunisations achieved no further titre increase. The IgY purification was performed according to the method of Akita and Nakai (1993). The resulting IgY preparation was tested for the presence of hetero-agglutinine by means of direct agglutination using human erythrocytes of all blood groups. Thereafter 58 blood donors were tested by means of direct or indirect Coombs-test using a reference reagent (DAKO) and a Coombs reagent isolated from chicken eggs (IgY antibodies). No differences have been found between the results obtained using both Coombs reagents. Presented results show that there is a possibility to produce Coombs-reagent in chickens. Advantages of this method are: 1) non invasive antibody sampling by egg collection instead of bleeding the animal (refinement of antibody production); 2) decreasing amount of animals necessary to produce high amounts of reagent; 3) IgY-preparation contains no hetero-agglutinine in contrast to serum ab from mammals, therefore additional step in reagent production e.g. the absorption of hetero-agglutinins is not necessary.

  13. Molecular detection of novel picornaviruses in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tibor; Fey, Brittney; Hargitt, Edwin; Parcells, Mark; Ladman, Brian; Murgia, Maria; Saif, Yehia

    2012-04-01

    Fecal specimens, including swabs and litter extracts, collected from chickens, domestic ducks, turkeys, and Canadian geese were tested using degenerate primers targeting regions encoding for conserved amino acid motifs (YGDD and DY(T/S)(R/K/G)WDST) in calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Similar motifs are also present in other RNA viruses. Two fecal specimens and 18 litter extracts collected from chickens and turkeys yielded RT-PCR products. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all amplicons represented picornaviruses that clustered into two major groups. Four chicken and one turkey samples yielded 250 bp amplicons with 84-91% nucleotide identity to the recently described turkey hepatitis viruses, while 280 and 283 bp amplicons obtained from 11 chicken and 4 turkey samples represented novel picornaviruses with the closest nucleotide identity to kobuviruses (54-61%) and turdiviruses (47-54%). Analysis of 2.2-3.2 kb extended genome sequences including the partial P2 (2C) and complete P3 (3A, 3B (VPg), 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)) regions of selected strains indicated that viruses yielding the 280/283 bp amplicons represent a putative new genus of Picornaviridae. The 3'-non-translated region (NTR) of the turkey hepatitis-like viruses described in this study was significantly longer (641-654 nt) than that of any of the other piconaviruses and included a putative short open reading frame (ORF). In summary, we report the molecular detection of novel picornaviruses that appear to be endemic in both chickens and turkeys.

  14. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  15. Engineering Endochondral Bone: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Serafim M.; Amaral, Isabel F.; Barbosa, Mário A.

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan scaffolds have been shown to possess biological and mechanical properties suitable for tissue engineering and clinical applications. In the present work, chitosan sponges were evaluated regarding their ability to support cartilage cell proliferation and maturation, which are the first steps in endochondral bone formation. Chitosan sponges were seeded with chondrocytes isolated from chicken embryo sterna. Chondrocyte/chitosan constructs were cultured for 20 days, and treated with retinoic acid (RA) to induce chondrocyte maturation and matrix synthesis. At different time points, samples were collected for microscopic, histological, biochemical, and mechanical analyses. Results show chondrocyte attachment, proliferation, and abundant matrix synthesis, completely obliterating the pores of the sponges. RA treatment caused chondrocyte hypertrophy, characterized by the presence of type X collagen in the extracellular matrix and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, hypertrophy markedly changed the mechanical properties of the chondrocyte/chitosan constructs. In conclusion, we have developed chitosan sponges with adequate pore structure and mechanical properties to serve as a support for hypertrophic chondrocytes. In parallel studies, we have evaluated the ability of this mature cartilage scaffold to induce endochondral ossification. PMID:18759672

  16. Juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M; Dellaero, D T; Harrelson, J M; Scully, S P

    1999-07-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign primary or secondary lesions that commonly arise in long bones and often before skeletal maturity. Little has been written about aneurysmal bone cysts that abut the physeal plate. The records of 15 patients with juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts were reviewed. Fourteen of the patients were referred with abnormal radiographs after evaluation for pain in the affected limb. One patient presented with abnormal radiographs after fracture about the aneurysmal bone cyst. None of the patients had evidence of growth plate disruption. The children's ages ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean of 9.8 years. There were 10 boys and five girls. Lesion locations included: six in the proximal tibia, three in the distal fibula, two in the distal tibia, two in the proximal femur, one in the distal femur, and one in the distal radius. All of the lesions abutted the physeal plate and fell into one of the types in Campanacci's classification of juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts. Three lesions were classified as Type 1, eight were Type 2, and four were Type 3. This study included no cases of Type 4 or 5 lesions. Treatment of all lesions consisted of excision, curettage, and bone grafting with care taken to preserve the growth plate. Adjunctive cauterization was performed in two cases. There were no incidences of postoperative physeal plate arrest. Overgrowth of the fibula occurred in one patient. Three patients experienced recurrent lesions. One of the children underwent repeat curettage and bone grafting with no additional recurrence. In the other two children with recurrence, the lesion had grown away from the physeal plate while remaining static in size and asymptomatic. Based on this study, juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts may be treated satisfactorily with intralesional surgery and bone grafting with expectation of normal physeal growth.

  17. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  18. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  19. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  20. Bone cutting.

    PubMed

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  1. Anatomical parameters of cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens: further evidence for involvement in ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Gilanpour, Hassan; Charkhkar, Saied; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the related physiological parameters in these chickens were followed. Lung weight as a percentage of body weight, the relative lung and heart volume, and the volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared with the layer and native chickens. Additionally, most of these parameters (e.g. relative lung weight, lung volume and thorax cavity) were significantly decreased with age in broiler chickens but were increased in layer and native chickens, which was concomitant with the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens. Our data indicate that all cardiopulmonary parameters investigated are extremely unfavourable to broiler chickens and suggest a reduction in gas exchange area in broilers, and therefore higher susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension and ascites.

  2. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    PubMed

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  3. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    PubMed Central

    Straehl, Fiona R.; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Forasiepi, Analía M.; MacPhee, Ross D.; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

  4. Generation of mice with functional inactivation of talpid3, a gene first identified in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Bangs, Fiona; Antonio, Nicole; Thongnuek, Peerapat; Welten, Monique; Davey, Megan G.; Briscoe, James; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-01-01

    Specification of digit number and identity is central to digit pattern in vertebrate limbs. The classical talpid3 chicken mutant has many unpatterned digits together with defects in other regions, depending on hedgehog (Hh) signalling, and exhibits embryonic lethality. The talpid3 chicken has a mutation in KIAA0586, which encodes a centrosomal protein required for the formation of primary cilia, which are sites of vertebrate Hh signalling. The highly conserved exons 11 and 12 of KIAA0586 are essential to rescue cilia in talpid3 chicken mutants. We constitutively deleted these two exons to make a talpid3–/– mouse. Mutant mouse embryos lack primary cilia and, like talpid3 chicken embryos, have face and neural tube defects but also defects in left/right asymmetry. Conditional deletion in mouse limb mesenchyme results in polydactyly and in brachydactyly and a failure of subperisoteal bone formation, defects that are attributable to abnormal sonic hedgehog and Indian hedgehog signalling, respectively. Like talpid3 chicken limbs, the mutant mouse limbs are syndactylous with uneven digit spacing as reflected in altered Raldh2 expression, which is normally associated with interdigital mesenchyme. Both mouse and chicken mutant limb buds are broad and short. talpid3–/– mouse cells migrate more slowly than wild-type mouse cells, a change in cell behaviour that possibly contributes to altered limb bud morphogenesis. This genetic mouse model will facilitate further conditional approaches, epistatic experiments and open up investigation into the function of the novel talpid3 gene using the many resources available for mice. PMID:21750036

  5. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  6. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  7. Bovine bone matrix/poly(l-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone)/gelatin hybrid scaffold (SmartBone(®)) for maxillary sinus augmentation: A histologic study on bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Delfo; Perale, Giuseppe; Milazzo, Mario; Moscato, Stefania; Stefanini, Cesare; Pertici, Gianni; Danti, Serena

    2016-10-18

    The ideal scaffold for bone regeneration is required to be highly porous, non-immunogenic, biostable until the new tissue formation, bioresorbable and osteoconductive. This study aimed at investigating the process of new bone formation in patients treated with granular SmartBone(®) for sinus augmentation, providing an extensive histologic analysis. Five biopsies were collected at 4-9 months post SmartBone(®) implantation and processed for histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Histomorphometric analysis was performed. Bone-particle conductivity index (BPCi) was used to assess SmartBone(®) osteoconductivity. At 4 months, SmartBone(®) (12%) and new bone (43.9%) were both present and surrounded by vascularized connective tissue (37.2%). New bone was grown on SmartBone(®) (BPCi=0.22). At 6 months, SmartBone(®) was almost completely resorbed (0.5%) and new bone was massively present (80.8%). At 7 and 9 months, new bone accounted for a large volume fraction (79.3% and 67.4%, respectively) and SmartBone(®) was resorbed (0.5% and 0%, respectively). Well-oriented lamellae and bone scars, typical of mature bone, were observed. In all the biopsies, bone matrix biomolecules and active osteoblasts were visible. The absence of inflammatory cells confirmed SmartBone(®) biocompatibility and non-immunogenicity. These data indicate that SmartBone(®) is osteoconductive, promotes fast bone regeneration, leading to mature bone formation in about 7 months.

  8. SILICON AND BONE HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  9. Silicon and bone health.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R

    2007-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health.

  10. Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  11. Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  12. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  13. Ascites syndrome in SPF Light Sussex chickens.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L

    1991-11-01

    An ascites syndrome was induced in 17 to 28 per cent of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Light Sussex (LSX) chickens given a low protein (16 per cent crude protein) high calcium (3.5 per cent calcium) layer crumble feed on two separate occasions 6 months apart. Affected chickens had increased right ventricular weight as a proportion of either total heart weight or live-weight at 3 weeks of age, compared with non-affected LSX chickens on the same feed, thus indicating right ventricular hypertrophy. The incidence of ascites was not increased by infection with avian nephritis virus, nor by limited cold-stress during brooding. It was not produced in LSX chickens given other feeds, nor in SPF Rhode Island Red chickens.

  14. Your Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... shoulder blade or scapula (say: SKA-pyuh-luh), a large triangular bone on the upper back corner of each side of the ribcage. The arm is made up of three bones: the humerus (say: HYOO-muh-rus), which is above your elbow, and the radius (say: RAY-dee-us) and ulna (say: UL- ...

  15. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  16. Post-traumatic bone loss of the femur treated with segmental bone allograft and bone morphogenetic protein: a case report.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Priscilla; Stassen, Pierre; Delloye, Christian

    2007-06-01

    Reconstruction of a major bone loss remains a challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon. Most of the bone defects result from a bone tumour resection whereas a post-traumatic bone loss is more rare due to the numerous options available for bone fixation. However in high-energy trauma, the injury to bone may be so extensive as to justify removal of fragmented bone. A 57-year-old man presented with a severe injury at the thigh after a hunting accident, including a comminuted fracture of the femoral shaft. After thorough debridement, he was left with a large diaphyseal bone defect which was subsequently treated with a structural bone allograft, autogenous graft and rhBMP-7. Bone healing was achieved after several months.

  17. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  18. Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic marek's disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5ΔMeq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101ΔMeq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101ΔMeq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101ΔMeq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101ΔMeq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101ΔMeq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens. PMID:21205328

  19. γ-Crystallins of the chicken lens: remnants of an ancient vertebrate gene family in birds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingwei; Sagar, Vatsala; Len, Hoay-Shuen; Peterson, Katherine; Fan, Jianguo; Mishra, Sanghamitra; McMurtry, John; Wilmarth, Phillip A; David, Larry L; Wistow, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    γ-Crystallins, abundant proteins of vertebrate lenses, were thought to be absent from birds. However, bird genomes contain well-conserved genes for γS- and γN-crystallins. Although expressed sequence tag analysis of chicken eye found no transcripts for these genes, RT-PCR detected spliced transcripts for both genes in chicken lens, with lower levels in cornea and retina/retinal pigment epithelium. The level of mRNA for γS in chicken lens was relatively very low even though the chicken crygs gene promoter had lens-preferred activity similar to that of mouse. Chicken γS was detected by a peptide antibody in lens, but not in other ocular tissues. Low levels of γS and γN proteins were detected in chicken lens by shotgun mass spectroscopy. Water-soluble and water-insoluble lens fractions were analyzed and 1934 proteins (< 1% false discovery rate) were detected, increasing the known chicken lens proteome 30-fold. Although chicken γS is well conserved in protein sequence, it has one notable difference in leucine 16, replacing a surface glutamine conserved in other γ-crystallins, possibly affecting solubility. However, L16 and engineered Q16 versions were both highly soluble and had indistinguishable circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and heat stability (melting temperature Tm ~ 65 °C) profiles. L16 has been present in birds for over 100 million years and may have been adopted for a specific protein interaction in the bird lens. However, evolution has clearly reduced or eliminated expression of ancestral γ-crystallins in bird lenses. The conservation of genes for γS- and γN-crystallins suggests they may have been preserved for reasons unrelated to the bulk properties of the lens.

  20. Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2010-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions.

  1. Quantification of campylobacter species cross-contamination during handling of contaminated fresh chicken parts in kitchens.

    PubMed

    Luber, Petra; Brynestad, Sigrid; Topsch, Daniela; Scherer, Kathrin; Bartelt, Edda

    2006-01-01

    Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies for campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a risk factor for infection and illness. There is currently extremely limited quantitative data on the levels of Campylobacter cross-contamination in the kitchen, hindering risk assessments for the pathogen commodity combination of Campylobacter and chicken meat. An exposure assessment needs to quantify the transfer of the bacteria from chicken to hands and the kitchen environment and from there onto ready-to-eat foods. We simulated some typical situations in kitchens and quantified the Campylobacter transfer from naturally contaminated chicken parts most commonly used in Germany. One scenario simulated the seasoning of five chicken legs and the reuse of the same plate for cooked meat. In another, five chicken breast filets were cut into small slices on a wooden board where, without intermediate cleaning, a cucumber was sliced. We also investigated the transfer of the pathogen from chicken via hands to a bread roll. The numbers of Campylobacter present on the surfaces of the chicken parts, hands, utensils, and ready-to-eat foods were detected by using Preston enrichment and colony counting after surface plating on Karmali agar. The mean transfer rates from legs and filets to hands were 2.9 and 3.8%. The transfer from legs to the plate (0.3%) was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the percentage transferred from filets to the cutting board and knife (1.1%). Average transfer rates from hands or kitchen utensils to ready-to-eat foods ranged from 2.9 to 27.5%.

  2. Quantification of Campylobacter Species Cross-Contamination during Handling of Contaminated Fresh Chicken Parts in Kitchens

    PubMed Central

    Luber, Petra; Brynestad, Sigrid; Topsch, Daniela; Scherer, Kathrin; Bartelt, Edda

    2006-01-01

    Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies for campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a risk factor for infection and illness. There is currently extremely limited quantitative data on the levels of Campylobacter cross-contamination in the kitchen, hindering risk assessments for the pathogen commodity combination of Campylobacter and chicken meat. An exposure assessment needs to quantify the transfer of the bacteria from chicken to hands and the kitchen environment and from there onto ready-to-eat foods. We simulated some typical situations in kitchens and quantified the Campylobacter transfer from naturally contaminated chicken parts most commonly used in Germany. One scenario simulated the seasoning of five chicken legs and the reuse of the same plate for cooked meat. In another, five chicken breast filets were cut into small slices on a wooden board where, without intermediate cleaning, a cucumber was sliced. We also investigated the transfer of the pathogen from chicken via hands to a bread roll. The numbers of Campylobacter present on the surfaces of the chicken parts, hands, utensils, and ready-to-eat foods were detected by using Preston enrichment and colony counting after surface plating on Karmali agar. The mean transfer rates from legs and filets to hands were 2.9 and 3.8%. The transfer from legs to the plate (0.3%) was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the percentage transferred from filets to the cutting board and knife (1.1%). Average transfer rates from hands or kitchen utensils to ready-to-eat foods ranged from 2.9 to 27.5%. PMID:16391026

  3. Unique profile of chicken adiponectin, a predominantly heavy molecular weight multimer, and relationship to visceral adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gilbert L; Hadley, Jill A; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Vasilatos-Younken, Regina; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2009-07-01

    Adiponectin, a 30-kDa adipokine hormone, circulates as heavy, medium, and light molecular weight isoforms in mammals. Plasma heavy molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin isoform levels are inversely correlated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in humans. The objectives of the present study were to characterize adiponectin protein and quantify plasma adiponectin levels in chickens, which are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. Using gel filtration column chromatography and Western blot analysis under nonreducing and non-heat-denaturing native conditions, adiponectin in chicken plasma, and adipose tissue is predominantly a multimeric HMW isoform that is larger than 669 kDa mass. Under reducing conditions and heating to 70-100 C, however, a majority of the multimeric adiponectin in chicken plasma and adipose tissue was reduced to oligomeric and/or monomeric forms. Immunoprecipitation and elution under neutral pH preserved the HMW adiponectin multimer, whereas brief exposure to acidic pH led to dissociation of HMW multimer into multiple oligomers. Mass spectrometric analysis of chicken adiponectin revealed the presence of hydroxyproline and differential glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues in the collagenous domain. An enzyme immunoassay was developed and validated for quantifying plasma adiponectin in chickens. Plasma adiponectin levels were found to be significantly lower in 8- compared with 4-wk-old male chickens and inversely related to abdominal fat pad mass. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that adiponectin in chicken plasma and tissues is predominantly a HMW multimer, suggesting the presence of unique multimerization and stabilization mechanisms in the chicken that favors preponderance of HMW adiponectin over other oligomers.

  4. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  5. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Free-Range Chicken in Sidi Thabet, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Enteric diseases are an important concern to the poultry industry and coccidiosis is imposing a significant economic burden worldwide. Objectives. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in free-range chicken in Sidi Thabet, northeast Tunisia. Methods. Six hundred and thirty free-range chickens along with fecal samples were collected from 15 flocks in this region and two hundred chickens were found positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Intestines were dissected and examined for macroscopic lesions. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The mean lesion scores were usually low (<2+) in different intestinal portions of different types of chicken and high scores (>2+) were attributed mainly to the caeca. Results. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%: E. tenella (61.5%), E. maxima (12%), and E. acervulina (1.5%). Mixed Eimeria species infection was observed with overall prevalence 26.5%. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) among infection rates, age groups, season, diarrhea, and type of chicken. Conclusion. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in free-range chicken in this region. Further additional studies are needed to develop better preventive measures against coccidiosis in the country. PMID:27213084

  6. Signatures of Selection in the Genomes of Commercial and Non-Commercial Chicken Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Elferink, Martin G.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Vereijken, Addie; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Groenen, Martien A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chicken breeds (67 in total) using a high-density (58 K) SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations. PMID:22384281

  7. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens.

  8. Possible correlation of selenoprotein W with inflammation factors in chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Yao, Hai-Dong; Tan, Si-Ran; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation of selenoprotein W (SelW) with inflammatory injury induced by dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in chicken. One-day-old male chickens were fed either a commercial diet or a Se-deficient diet for 55 days. Then, the expression levels of SelW messenger RNA (mRNA) and inflammation-related genes (NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PTGES) in chicken skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, and thigh muscle) were determined at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days old, respectively. In addition, the correlation between SelW mRNA expression and inflammation-related genes were assessed. The results showed that dietary Se deficiency reduced the mRNA expression of SelW in chicken wing, pectorals, and thigh muscles. In contrast, Se deficiency increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in chicken skeletal muscle tissues at different time points. The Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes were significantly negative related to SelW (p < 0.05). These data showed that Se deficiency induced the inflammatory response in chicken skeletal muscle. As one important selenoprotein gene in skeletal muscles, SelW may play a role in the regulation of inflammation reaction in Se-deficiency myopathy.

  9. Chicken albumin exhibits natural resistance to glycation.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Jessica; Borges, Chad R; Braun, Eldon J; Sweazea, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    Glycation of proteins and subsequent production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to compare the glycation of avian and human serum albumin to elucidate the mechanisms by which protein glycation in birds is prevented in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. Solutions of purified chicken and human serum albumin (CSA and HSA) were prepared with four different glucose concentrations (0, 5.56, 11.1, and 22.2mM) and incubated at three temperatures (37.0, 39.8, and 41.4°C) for seven days. The solutions were sampled on Days 0, 3, and 7 and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the presence of glycated albumin. Four-way repeated measures ANOVA (p=0.032) indicate that all independent variables (albumin type, glucose concentration, temperature and time) interacted to affect the degree of glycation. With increasing glucose concentration, the glycation of both HSA and CSA increased with time at all temperatures. In addition, HSA was glycated to a greater extent than CSA at the two higher glucose concentrations for all temperature conditions. Glycation was elevated with increasing temperatures for HSA but not CSA. The results suggest an inherent difference between human and chicken albumin that contributes to the observed differences in glycation. Further research is needed to characterize this inherent difference in an effort to elucidate mechanisms by which avian plasma protein is glycated to a lesser degree than that of mammals (humans).

  10. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    PubMed

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-08-21

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  11. Copy number variation identification and analysis of the chicken genome using a 60K SNP BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y S; Li, J; Zhang, R; Lin, X R; Xu, J G; Xie, L; Xu, Z Q; Wang, L; Gan, J K; Xie, X J; He, J; Zhang, X Q

    2016-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important source of genetic variation in organisms and a main factor that affects phenotypic variation. A comprehensive study of chicken CNV can provide valuable information on genetic diversity and facilitate future analyses of associations between CNV and economically important traits in chickens. In the present study, an F2 full-sib chicken population (554 individuals), established from a cross between Xinghua and White Recessive Rock chickens, was used to explore CNV in the chicken genome. Genotyping was performed using a chicken 60K SNP BeadChip. A total of 1,875 CNV were detected with the PennCNV algorithm, and the average number of CNV was 3.42 per individual. The CNV were distributed across 383 independent CNV regions (CNVR) and covered 41 megabases (3.97%) of the chicken genome. Seven CNVR in 108 individuals were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and 81 of these individuals (75%) also were detected with the PennCNV algorithm. In total, 274 CNVR (71.54%) identified in the current study were previously reported. Of these, 147 (38.38%) were reported in at least 2 studies. Additionally, 109 of the CNVR (28.46%) discovered here are novel. A total of 709 genes within or overlapping with the CNVR was retrieved. Out of the 2,742 quantitative trait loci (QTL) collected in the chicken QTL database, 43 QTL had confidence intervals overlapping with the CNVR, and 32 CNVR encompassed one or more functional genes. The functional genes located in the CNVR are likely to be the QTG that are associated with underlying economic traits. This study considerably expands our insight into the structural variation in the genome of chickens and provides an important resource for genomic variation, especially for genomic structural variation related to economic traits in chickens.

  12. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  13. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  14. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  15. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs mediated signaling to induce immunity by chicken BMDCs.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Imran Rashid; Hussain, Altaf; Li, Ya Li; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Xin; Long, Mao Yu; You, Dong Yu; Li, Wei Fen

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a critical role to activate immune response. They may be targeted for immunomodulation by microbes, including probiotics. In this study, chicken bone marrow dendrite cells (chi-BMDCs) were stimulated with lipopolysachride (LPS), Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb), Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs), co-culture of Sb + Bs and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a control group (Ctr) at 3, 6, and 12 h intervals. Results revealed that treatment groups modulated the phenotype and biological functions of chi-BMDCs. Scan electron microscopy showed attachment of probiotics on the surface of chi-BMDCs. Additionally transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed efficiently engulfing and degradation of probiotics. Gene expression levels of MHC-II, CD40, CD80 and CD86 up-regulated in stimulated groups. Furthermore, toll-like receptors TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and chicken specific TLR15 expressions were improved and downstream associated factors MyD88, TRAF6, TAB1, and NFκ-B mRNA levels increased in all treatment groups as compared to control. Surprisingly, NFκ-B response was noted significant higher in LPS treatment among all groups. Moreover, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-4, TGF-β, and IL-10 production levels were found higher, and lower concentration of INF-γ and IL-8 were observed in Sb, Bs, and Sb + Bs treatment groups. In contrast, LPS groups showed prominent increase in IL-12, INF-γ, and IL-8 concentration levels as compared to control group. Altogether, these results emphasize a potentially important role of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 in modulating immunological functions of chi-BMDCs by targeting specific toll like receptors (TLRs) and associated factors. The role of probiotics on chi-BMDCs functionality in a non-mammalian species have been presented for the first time.

  16. Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Paget's Disease of Bone What is Paget's Disease of Bone? Click for more information Enlarged and Misshapen Bones Paget's disease of bone causes affected bones to ...

  17. Diversity and origin of South African chickens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Chimonyo, M; Groeneveld, E; Weigend, S; Dzama, K

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and structure of South African conserved and field chicken populations and to investigate the maternal lineages of these chicken populations. Four South African conserved chicken populations (n = 89), namely, Venda (VD_C), Ovambo, Naked Neck, and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, and 2 field populations, the Venda and Ovambo (OV_F), from which the Ovambo and the Venda conservation flocks were assumed to have been sampled, were genotyped for 460 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. Haplotypes of these chickens were aligned to 7 Japanese and 9 Chinese and Eurasian chicken mtDNA D-loop sequences taken from GenBank and reflecting populations from presumed centers of domestication. Sequence analysis revealed 48 polymorphic sites that defined 13 haplotypes in the South African chicken populations. All 6 South African conserved and field chicken populations observed were found to be polymorphic, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 3 for VD_C to 8 for OV_F. The lowest haplotype diversity, 0.54 ± 0.08, was observed in VD_C chickens, whereas the highest value, 0.88 ± 0.05, was observed in OV_F chickens. Genetic diversity between the 4 South African conserved and 2 field chicken populations constituted 12.34% of the total genetic variation, whereas within-population diversity constituted 87.66% of the total variation. The median network analysis of the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes observed in the South African conserved and field populations and the reference set resulted in 5 main clades. All 6 South African chickens were equally represented in the major clade, E, which is presumed to be of Indian subcontinent maternal origin and may have its roots in Southeast Asia. The results showed multiple maternal lineages of South African chickens. Conservation flocks and field chicken populations shared the major haplotypes A, D and E

  18. Method for Automated Bone Shape Correction within Bone Distraction Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blynskiy, F. Yu

    2016-01-01

    The method for automated bone shape correction within bone distraction procedure is presented. High precision deformation angle measurement is provided by the software for X- Ray images processing. Special BDC v.1.0.1. application is designed. The purpose of the BDC is modeling of the bone geometry structure to calculate the appropriate distraction forces. The correction procedure control is realized by the hardware of the distraction system.

  19. [Bone grafts using tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Delloye, C

    2001-01-01

    An overview of bone grafts and, in particular, the allografts is presented. The availability of bone allografts, has promoted their use at the expense of the autograft. However, the loss of the cellular activity in an allograft, makes them less performant than an autograft. The use of an allograft in a small size defect can be advocated provided that the implantation technique is stringent. In case of a large segmental bone defect, an allograft can be considered whereas an autograft is not anymore possible. A massive bone allograft allows an anatomical reconstruction and the preservation of strong tendon insertions. In tumor surgery, a bone allograft has become one of the best options to reshape the skeleton. To offset the poor remodeling of the massive bone allografts, and to improve the take of small size bone allografts, researches are presently carried on, using tissue engineering in order to recover a cellular population. The aim is to combine an acellular bone graft with the cells of the recipient. Cells are procured from the bone marrow. Stromal cells are isolated, cultured, so that they will grow with an osteoblastic phenotype. They can be used alone or in association with a bone graft. It is believed that tomorrow such cellular therapy will become a routine procedure.

  20. Bone densitometry.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kwang J

    2011-05-01

    Conventional radiographic methods allow physicians to visualize bone structure. However, they do not offer information on the bone mineral density (BMD), which can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Bone densitometry, by contrast, helps to detect bone mineral loss at an early stage because it provides accurate quantitative measurement of BMD. With an emphasis on quantification, shorter scanning time and precision, scientists have been developing BMD measurement devices that use absorption technique. They first developed single-energy absorptiometry (single-photon absorptiometry) by using I-125, which could measure BMD of peripheral bones. Single-photon absorptiometry was replaced by dual-energy absorptiometry (dual photon absorptiometry [DPA]) that used gadolinium-153. DPA had greater accuracy in measuring the BMD of central skeletal bones. Single-energy x-ray absorptiometry was also developed but it had limitations in measuring central skeletal BMD. In the mid-1980s, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was introduced and widely accepted for the early detection, treatment, and follow-up study of osteoporosis. There are several reasons for the popularity. DXA can measure BMD of posteroanterior spine and hip in a much shorter time than DPA while being capable of measuring BMD of peripheral bones. Other advantages include very low radiation doses to the patients, high image resolution, precision, and stable calibration of the instruments. In recent years, DXA has also been applied to lateral spine for the density of trabecular bone, to the whole body for the measurement of total body bone density and for the body composition, and to the spine for the vertebral fracture assessment. Still, posteroanterior spine and hip scans remain the most common applications of DXA because data on the normal range of BMD of the skeletal sites for different age, sex, and ethnic groups are compiled and made available with the devices, which gives the physician

  1. [Management of chicken pox purpura fulminans: a pediatric case report].

    PubMed

    Domergue, S; Rodiere, M; Bigorre, M; Guye, E; Captier, G

    2006-06-01

    The authors report a case of a 4 years old girl who had presented a chicken-pox purpura fulminans. Lesions appeared 5 days after chicken-pox start and were quickly evoluted in cutaneous and sub-cutaneous necrosis on external side of thighs and behind side of right calf. A medical management was done with fresh plasma, blood, antithrombine 3, and fibrin. Specifics treatments were done: heparin and activated C protein. Surgical treatment was realised 5 weeks later. It consisted of clean necrosis areas and put a thin skin graft witch was took on the scalp. The evolution was fast good. The follow-up is 3 years without big esthetic and functional consequences. Some cases of this pathology were described in literature with serious lesions. The management should be multidisciplinary. Surgical treatment should be realised when lesions are stabilized. Scalp is a donor site for skin graft very interesting because of big quantity of skin and not esthetic consequence.

  2. Muscle beta-actinin is not chicken serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Kimura, S

    1981-08-01

    Recently, Heizmann et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 78, 74-77 (1981)) reported that muscle beta-actinin and serum albumin of the chicken are indistinguishable by physicochemical and immunological criteria. It should, however, be stated that the protein the above authors called beta-actinin was entirely different from genuine muscle beta-actinin (Maruyama et. al. (1977) J. Biochem 81, 215-232). In the present study, it was experimentally shown that chicken serum albumin does not have any of the actions of beta-actinin: inhibition of reassociation of F-actin fragments, retardation of depolymerization of F-actin, instability of F-actin, acceleration of polymerization of G-actin, and formation of Mg polymer. The role of muscle beta-actinin, a heterodimer of 37,000 and 34,000 daltons, in the regulation of myofibrillar structure is summarized.

  3. Detection of Bacillus cereus on selected retail chicken products.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Berrang, M E; Feldner, P W; Phillips, R W; Meinersmann, R J

    2004-08-01

    Samples from five chicken meat products, obtained at retail stores, were evaluated for the presence of Bacillus cereus. The products tested were as follows: breaded, fully cooked, frozen nuggets (NUGGETS); breaded, fully cooked, frozen tenders (TENDERS); fully cooked, frozen, white-meat fajita-style strips (STRIPS); raw, refrigerated, boneless, skinless, marinated breast fillets (FILLETS); and raw, refrigerated, cut-up, tray-pack bone-in parts (PARTS), either split breasts or thighs. Four packages of each item were obtained on three different days (n = 60). Frozen and refrigerated products were held overnight in their respective environments as appropriate; then packages were opened aseptically, and a total of 25 g of tissue was excised from multiple pieces within a package. The 25-g samples were enriched in 225 ml of Trypticase soy-polymixin broth for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C and then plated on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar and incubated for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C. Colonies characteristic of B. cereus were chosen and replated for isolation on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar. Suspect colonies were confirmed as Bacillus spp. by Gram stain, hemolysis on blood agar, and a biochemical test strip. Isolates were further confirmed as B. cereus using Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures, including tests for motility, rhizoid growth, hemolysis, and protein toxin crystal production. B. cereus was detected in 27 of 60 total samples. By product, the prevalence levels were as follows: NUGGETS, 11 of 12 positive; TENDERS, 8 of 12 positive; STRIPS, 6 of 12 positive; FILLETS, 0 of 12 positive; and PARTS, 2 of 12 positive. Isolates were tested by PCR for presence of the toxin-encoding genes bceT, nheABC, hblACD, and cytK. Results indicate that B. cereus organisms were present on four of the five retail poultry products tested in this study, with the highest rates reported for the three fully cooked items, especially the two breaded products. All strains isolated

  4. Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter in raw retail chickens and imported chicken portions.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter isolates from raw retail chickens (n = 434) sampled between 1998 and 2000 were tested for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Among 208 campylobacters tested, more than 90% of isolates were susceptible to 4 out of 9 antibiotics (nalidixic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin). Most campylobacters were resistant to 3 antibiotics and multiple resistance was found in 4%. Ciprofloxacin resistance was 11%. Campylobacter contamination (28%) in imported chickens (n = 150) was almost half that found in local whole chickens (50%), but the resistance of imported isolates (n = 42) was similar to that of local campylobacters. Resistance in isolates from imported chicken breasts was generally more common, but to only 4 antibiotics. Resistance patterns of chicken isolates were compared to human clinical isolates (n = 494), and a greater similarity was found between the clinical and local isolates than with imported campylobacters. Lower chloramphenicol resistance was found in clinical Campylobacter isolates than in those from chicken sources. PMID:14959786

  5. Piwil1 mediates meiosis during spermatogenesis in chicken.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Chang, Guobin; Ma, Teng; Wang, Hongzhi; Chen, Jing; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Wan, Fang; Ren, Lichen; Lu, Wei; Chen, Guohong

    2016-03-01

    Piwil1 mediates spermatogenesis and ensures stable cell division rates in germline cells in mammals. However, the involvement of Piwil1 in poultry spermatogenesis and meiosis is poorly understood. In the present study, we used TaqMan RT-qPCR to characterize Piwil1 mRNA expression in different types of spermatogenic cells, including primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), spermatogonia cells (Sa), tetraploid cells (Tp), round sperm cells (Rs), mature sperm, and in PGCs treated with retinoic acid. Our results revealed that Piwil1 is differentially expressed during spermatogenesis in chicken. Compared to PGCs, SSCs, Tp, and Sa, Rs cells presented the highest Piwil1 mRNA expression levels. Retinoic acid significantly upregulated Piwil1 and Stra8 mRNA expression as well as Piwil1 levels in chicken PGCs. In addition, retinoic acid induced PGCs to progress through all the meiotic stages, eventually leading to haploid cell formation, which was determined using flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results showed that during spermatogenesis, Piwil1 was first expressed at low levels in germ stem cells, PGCs, and SSCs. Its expression levels increased during later meiosis stages. Finally, no expression was detected in mature sperm after meiosis. Treatment of PGCs with retinoic acid further demonstrated that Piwil1 plays a key role in meiosis during chicken spermatogenesis.

  6. Spatial probability dynamically modulates visual target detection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Knudsen, Eric I

    2013-01-01

    The natural world contains a rich and ever-changing landscape of sensory information. To survive, an organism must be able to flexibly and rapidly locate the most relevant sources of information at any time. Humans and non-human primates exploit regularities in the spatial distribution of relevant stimuli (targets) to improve detection at locations of high target probability. Is the ability to flexibly modify behavior based on visual experience unique to primates? Chickens (Gallus domesticus) were trained on a multiple alternative Go/NoGo task to detect a small, briefly-flashed dot (target) in each of the quadrants of the visual field. When targets were presented with equal probability (25%) in each quadrant, chickens exhibited a distinct advantage for detecting targets at lower, relative to upper, hemifield locations. Increasing the probability of presentation in the upper hemifield locations (to 80%) dramatically improved detection performance at these locations to be on par with lower hemifield performance. Finally, detection performance in the upper hemifield changed on a rapid timescale, improving with successive target detections, and declining with successive detections at the diagonally opposite location in the lower hemifield. These data indicate the action of a process that in chickens, as in primates, flexibly and dynamically modulates detection performance based on the spatial probabilities of sensory stimuli as well as on recent performance history.

  7. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  8. Chicken blood provides a suitable meal for the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis and does not inhibit Leishmania development in the gut

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to address the role of chickens as bloodmeal sources for female Lutzomyia longipalpis and to test whether chicken blood is harmful to Leishmania parasite development within the sand flies. Bloodmeal ingestion, excretion of urate, reproduction, fecundity, as well as Leishmania infection and development were compared in sand flies fed on blood from chickens and different mammalian sources. Results Large differences in haemoglobin and protein concentrations in whole blood (dog>human>rabbit> chicken) did not correlate with differences in bloodmeal protein concentrations (dog = chicken>human>rabbit). This indicated that Lu. longipalpis were able to concentrate bloodmeals taken from different hosts using prediuresis and this was confirmed by direct observation. Sand flies fed on chickens or dogs produced significantly more eggs than those fed on human blood. Female Lu. longipalpis retained significantly more urate inside their bodies when fed on chicken blood compared to those fed on rabbit blood. However, when the amounts of urate excreted after feeding were measured, sand flies fed on rabbit blood excreted significantly more than those fed on chicken blood. There was no difference in female longevity after feeding on avian or mammalian blood. Sand flies infected via chicken blood produced Leishmania mexicana infections with a similar developmental pattern but higher overall parasite populations than sand flies infected via rabbit blood. Conclusions The results of this study help to define the role that chickens play in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. The present study using a Lu. longipalpis/L. mexicana model indicates that chickens are suitable hosts to support a Lu. longipalpis population and that chicken blood is likely to support the development of transmissible Leishmania infections in Lu. longipalpis. PMID:20205803

  9. Diagnosis of metabolic bone disease

    SciTech Connect

    Grech, P.; Martin, T.J.; Barrington, N.A.; Ell, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents a reference on the radiologic evaluation, features, and differential diagnosis of metabolic diseases involving the whole skeleton, calcium deficiencies resulting from pharmacologic agents, and bone changes related to endocrine disturbances. It also stresses how radiology, nuclear medicine, and biochemistry - either alone or in concert - contribute to clinical diagnosis. It covers renal bone disease, Paget's disease, hyperphosphatasia, extraskeletal mineralization, metabolic bone disorders related to malnutrition, tumors, plus radionuclide studies including materials and methods.

  10. A mutation in the NLRC5 promoter limits NF-κB signaling after Salmonella Enteritidis infection in the spleen of young chickens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guobin; Liu, Xiangping; Ma, Teng; Xu, Lu; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2015-09-01

    To date, the functions of the NLRC5 in chickens remain undefined. In the current study, chicken NLRC5 was cloned and an A1017G mutation was detected in its promoter region. The relative expression levels of the NLRC5 and key NF-κB pathway genes, IKKα, IKKβ, NF-κB, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ, in the spleens of wild and mutant type birds, AA and GG, were determined using FQ-PCR at 7 day post-infection (DPI) with Salmonella Enteritidis. Additionally, the bacterial burden in the caecum and various immune response parameters were measured to evaluate immune responses. All of the examined immune response parameters were significantly different between the AA chickens and the GG chickens. Specifically, the mRNA expression levels of IKKα, NF-κB, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ were higher in AA chickens than those in GG chickens, while the mRNA expression levels of NLRC5 were lower in AA chickens than those in GG chickens (P<0.05). Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and MyD88 were not affected in either group. Collectively, considering former NLRC5 functional study in vitro, the wild genotype birds presented with better resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis through the actions of the NLRC5 and subsequent inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in chickens.

  11. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health.

  12. Bone and bone marrow: the same organ.

    PubMed

    Del Fattore, Andrea; Capannolo, Marta; Rucci, Nadia

    2010-11-01

    Interplays between bone and bone marrow are not limited to merely anatomic and histological connections, but include a tight functional correlation. Bone marrow resides within the medullary cavity of the bones and the process of hematopoiesis is regulated, at least in part, by bone cells. Moreover, osteoclasts and osteoblasts derive from precursors of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin, respectively, both residing within the bone marrow. Alterations in one of these components typically cause impairment in the other, so diseases of the bone marrow compartment often affect the bone and vice versa. All these findings could make us to speculate that bone and bone marrow are not two separate districts, but can be considered as the two elements of the same unique functional unit, the bone-bone marrow organ. Here we will describe histological and functional interplays between bone and bone marrow, and will illustrate some diseases in which this tight correlation is evident.

  13. Analysis of the function of IL-10 in chickens using specific neutralising antibodies and a sensitive capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiguang; Hu, Tuanjun; Rothwell, Lisa; Vervelde, Lonneke; Kaiser, Pete; Boulton, Kay; Nolan, Matthew J; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Hume, David A

    2016-10-01

    In mammals, the inducible cytokine interleukin 10 is a feedback negative regulator of inflammation. To determine the extent to which this function is conserved in birds, recombinant chicken IL-10 was expressed as a secreted human Ig Fc fusion protein (chIL-10-Fc) and used to immunise mice. Five monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which specifically recognise chicken IL-10 were generated and characterised. Two capture ELISA assays were developed which detected native chIL-10 secreted from chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (chBMMs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Three of the mAbs detected intracellular IL-10. This was detected in only a subset of the same LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The ELISA assay also detected massive increases in circulating IL-10 in chickens challenged with the coccidial parasite, Eimeria tenella. The same mAbs neutralised the bioactivity of recombinant chIL-10. The role of IL-10 in feedback control was tested in vitro. The neutralising antibodies prevented IL-10-induced inhibition of IFN-γ synthesis by mitogen-activated lymphocytes and increased nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The results confirm that IL-10 is an inducible feedback regulator of immune response in chickens, and could be the target for improved vaccine efficacy or breeding strategies.

  14. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in free-range chicken(Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, revealed widespread and dominance of clonal type III parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the present cross sectional study were to estimate the prevalence and to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with ...

  15. Adenosine triphosphatase-positive Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Pérez Torres, A; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S

    1991-01-01

    In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chickens can develop contact dermatitis, the finding is taken as the first formal demonstration of the presence of Langerhans cells in this group of vertebrates. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1717417

  16. First biologic and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Karhemere, S; Dahl, E; Sreekumar, C; Diabaté, A; Dabiré, K R; Vianna, M C B; Kwok, O C H; Lehmann, T

    2005-02-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in chickens from Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya is reported. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of 50 free-range chickens from Congo was 50% based on the modified agglutination test (MAT); antibody titers were 1:5 in 7, 1:10 in 7, 1:20 in 6, 1:40 in 1, and 1:160 or more in 4 chickens. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 11 chickens with titers of 1:20 or more were bioassayed individually in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 9, from the hearts of 9, brains of 3, and muscles of 3 chickens. Tissues of each of the 14 chickens with titers of 1:5 or 1:10 were pooled and bioassayed in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 1 chicken with a titer of 1:10. Tissues from the remaining 25 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 1 T. gondii-free cat. Feces of the cat were examined for oocysts, but none was seen. The results indicate that T. gondii localizes in the hearts more often than in other tissues of naturally infected chickens. Genotyping of these 10 isolates using the SAG2 locus indicated that 8 were isolates were type III, 1 was type II, and 1 was type I. Two isolates (1 type I and 1 type III) were virulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by mouse bioassay from a pool of brains and hearts of 5 of 48 chickens from Mali and 1 of 40 chickens from Burkina Faso; all 6 isolates were avirulent for mice. Genetically, 4 isolates were type III and 2 were type II. Sera were not available from chickens from Mali and Burkina Faso. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (MAT 100 or more) were found in 4 of 30 chickens from Kenya, and T. gondii was isolated from the brain of 1 of 4 seropositive chickens; this strain was avirulent for mice and was type II. This is the first report on isolation and genotyping

  17. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-27

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  18. Lack of oblique astigmatism in the chicken eye.

    PubMed

    Maier, Felix M; Howland, Howard C; Ohlendorf, Arne; Wahl, Siegfried; Schaeffel, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Primate eyes display considerable oblique off-axis astigmatism which could provide information on the sign of defocus that is needed for emmetropization. The pattern of peripheral astigmatism is not known in the chicken eye, a common model of myopia. Peripheral astigmatism was mapped out over the horizontal visual field in three chickens, 43 days old, and in three near emmetropic human subjects, average age 34.7years, using infrared photoretinoscopy. There were no differences in astigmatism between humans and chickens in the central visual field (chicks -0.35D, humans -0.65D, n.s.) but large differences in the periphery (i.e. astigmatism at 40° in the temporal visual field: humans -4.21D, chicks -0.63D, p<0.001, unpaired t-test). The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks was not due to differences in corneal shape. Perhaps related to their superior peripheral optics, we found that chickens had excellent visual performance also in the far periphery. Using an automated optokinetic nystagmus paradigm, no difference was observed in spatial visual performance with vision restricted to either the central 67° of the visual field or to the periphery beyond 67°. Accommodation was elicited by stimuli presented far out in the visual field. Transscleral images of single infrared LEDs showed no sign of peripheral astigmatism. The chick may be the first terrestrial vertebrate described to lack oblique astigmatism. Since corneal shape cannot account for the difference in astigmatism in humans and chicks, it must trace back to the design of the crystalline lens. The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks also excludes a role in emmetropization.

  19. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Fang, Lichun; Cui, Shuai; Fu, Jiayuan; Li, Xiaohan; Zhang, Huanmin; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Shi, Weifeng; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immunodepression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farms in Northern China during 2014–2015. In addition, two CAVs were also isolated from stray mouse and dog feces, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of CAV from mouse and dog feces. Phylogenetic analysis of 121 full-length CAV genome sequences showed that all available CAV could be classified into eight lineages, supported by phylogenetic trees estimated using different methods. Furthermore, the 24 novel CAV sequences scattered across different branches, lack of clear spatio-temporal distribution characterization. Analysis of the 450 amino acids of VP1 protein identified 33 amino acid substitutions that were specific for CAVs from northern China. Putative gene recombination events were also detected in the genomes of newly isolated CAVs. In particular, a putative recombinant event was detected in the CAV-Dog genome with high statistical support. In summary, we established a robust classification system for CAV, revealed additional genomic diversity of CAV, and therefore, warranted additional efforts to explore CAV genomics and epidemiology. PMID:28344576

  20. Investigation of possible antivitamin B-6 properties in irradiation sterilized chicken. Final report, November 1979-August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McGown, E.L.; Lewis, C.M.; Robles, A.; Waring, P.P.; Skala, J.H.

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether irradiation (gamma or electron) or thermal processing of chicken produces factors which are antagonistic to vitamin B-6 in the diet of rats. (These methods of preservation all result in lowered vitamin B-6 contents relative to frozen chicken.) Male and female rats (156 each) were made vitamin B-6 deficient by feeding a semi-purified diet devoid of vitamin B-6. They were then repleted with various test diets containing chicken which had been preserved by one of four methods: frozen, thermally processed, electron or gamma irradiated. All repletion diets were supplemented to contain carefully controlled (marginal or high) levels of vitamin B-6. Recovery rates were monitored by growth (weight gain) and measurements of vitamin B-6-dependent blood enzymes (plasma and red cell aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). No differences were observed in weight gain among the chicken-fed groups. The enzyme responses of rats fed frozen, thermally processed or electron irradiated chicken were similar. Responses of some of the enzymatic parameters were slightly delayed in the groups fed gamma irradiated chicken at the marginal vitamin level. No consistent differences were observed between any of the high vitamin groups. If an antivitamin B-6 factor is present in gamma irradiated chicken, it is minimal, is detectable only under conditions of marginal vitamin B-6 status, and is overcome by added dietary pyridoxine.

  1. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and display the bone density measurements on a computer monitor. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... passed over the area, generating images on a computer monitor. You must hold very still and may be ...

  2. Nutritional factors affecting poultry bone health.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Robert H

    2008-05-01

    Outlined are two main current research concerns relating to skeletal disorders in poultry: (a) osteoporosis in egg-laying hens; (b) leg problems caused by rapid bone growth in broiler chickens. Surveys indicate that 30% of caged laying hens suffer at least one lifetime fracture (a severe welfare issue). Modern hybrids produce one egg per d for 50 weeks. For this period 'normal' bone turnover ceases; only medullary bone (MB) is formed, a woven bone type of limited structural value. MB is resorbed for eggshell formation alongside structural bone, leading to increased fracture risk. Avian osteoporosis is reduced by activity and genetic selection but nutrition is also important. Fluoride and vitamin K are beneficial but the timing of nutritional intervention is important. Ca, inorganic P and vitamin D must be adequate and the form of Ca is critical. Limestone fed as particulates benefits skeletal and eggshell quality. In hens fed particulate limestone compared with flour-fed hens the tibiotarsus breaking strength and radiographic density are increased at 56 weeks of age (P<0.01 and P<0.001 respectively) and the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive stained active osteoclasts (mean number per microscopic field) is decreased (P<0.001). In broiler (meat) chickens selection for rapid growth from approximately 50 g to 3 kg in 42 d has inadvertently produced skeletal disorders such as tibial dyschondroplasia, rickets and associated valgus-varus deformities leading to lameness. The beneficial skeletal effects during growth of increased dietary n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA (utilising salmon oil) have been demonstrated. Experiments simulating daylight UVB levels have produced beneficial skeletal effects in Ca- and vitamin D-deficient chicks.

  3. Temporal Bone Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Vrionis, Fotios D.; Robertson, Jon H.; Gardner, Gale; Heilman, Carl B.

    1999-01-01

    Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3p134-aFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171128

  4. Controversies in chicken-pox immunization.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Swati Y

    2003-06-01

    Chicken-pox is one more newer vaccine in our armamentarium against infectious diseases. Due to its extremely contagious nature, varicella is experienced by almost every child or young adult in the world. Each year from 1990 to 1994, prior to availability of varicella vaccine, about 4 million cases of varicella occurred in the United States. Of these cases approximately 10,000 required hospitalization and 100 died. Although varicella is not commonly perceived as an important public health problem, the socioeconomic consequences in industrialized countries of a disease that affects practically every child and causes the carrier absence from work should not be underestimated. The varicella vaccines available in the market are safe and effective. A recent cost-benefit analysis in USA showed that routine chicken-pox vaccination is likely to save five times the investment. Even when only direct costs were considered, benefits almost balanced the costs. At present similar studies from developing countries are not available. The public health impact of varicella and zoster may be increasing in regions with high endemic rates of HIV infection. Varicella vaccine may be used either at an individual level to protect susceptible adolescents and adults, or at a population level, to cover all children as part of a national immunization programme. Vaccination of adolescents and adults will protect at-risk individuals, but will not have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease on a population basis. On the other hand, extensive use as a routine vaccine in children will have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease. If sustained high coverage can be achieved, the disease may virtually disappear. If only partial coverage can be obtained, the epidemiology may shift, leading to an increase in the number of cases in older children and adults. Hence, routine childhood varicella immunization programmes should emphasize high, sustained coverage. At present

  5. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  6. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens.

  7. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; ...

  8. Embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative model for mixed Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-06-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryo eggs is a suitable model for viral and bacterial infections. In the present study, a new approach for testing the pathogenesis and virulence of Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella dual infections as a model using the CAM of embryonated chicken eggs was developed. For this purpose, 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups (n = 6) and designated group E, group CP, group CPE, and NC. Sporozoites of E. tenella (20,000 sporozoites) were inoculated into 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs (groups E and CPE) via allantoic sac route. At 15-day-old, eggs of groups CP and CPE were infected with 10 (4)  cfu C. perfringens via the same route. Assessment of pathogenicity was assessed using gross and histopathological lesions. Embryo mortality reached 17 % after mono-infection with C. perfringens and/or E. tenella and 50 % in the mixed-infected group. Lesions in the CAMs were most numerous and most severe in co-infected eggs (group CPE), reaching the maximum score of 3 in 50 % of the inoculated eggs (P < 0.01). In Eimeria spp.-infected eggs (group E), lesions of score were between 1 and 2. Mono-infection with C. perfringens did not lead to a significant occurrence of lesions. Histopathological investigations of the CAM revealed clusters of Gram-positive bacteria, infiltration with leukocytes, lymphocytes, and developmental stages of E. tenella in the co-infected group. These data suggest that embryonated eggs could be an in ovo model for studying the pathogenesis of mixed infection with Eimeria and C. perfringens.

  9. Inhibition of Autoimmune Chagas-Like Heart Disease by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Guimaro, Maria C.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Rose, Ester; Sousa, Alessandro O.; de Cássia Rosa, Ana; Hecht, Mariana M.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Andrade, Rafael R.; Vital, Tamires; Plachy, Jiří; Nitz, Nadjar; Hejnar, Jiří; Gomes, Clever C.; L. Teixeira, Antonio R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi manifests in mammals as Chagas heart disease. The treatment available for chagasic cardiomyopathy is unsatisfactory. Methods/Principal Findings To study the disease pathology and its inhibition, we employed a syngeneic chicken model refractory to T. cruzi in which chickens hatched from T. cruzi inoculated eggs retained parasite kDNA (1.4 kb) minicircles. Southern blotting with EcoRI genomic DNA digests revealed main 18 and 20 kb bands by hybridization with a radiolabeled minicircle sequence. Breeding these chickens generated kDNA-mutated F1, F2, and F3 progeny. A targeted-primer TAIL-PCR (tpTAIL-PCR) technique was employed to detect the kDNA integrations. Histocompatible reporter heart grafts were used to detect ongoing inflammatory cardiomyopathy in kDNA-mutated chickens. Fluorochromes were used to label bone marrow CD3+, CD28+, and CD45+ precursors of the thymus-dependent CD8α+ and CD8β+ effector cells that expressed TCRγδ, vβ1 and vβ2 receptors, which infiltrated the adult hearts and the reporter heart grafts. Conclusions/Significance Genome modifications in kDNA-mutated chickens can be associated with disruption of immune tolerance to compatible heart grafts and with rejection of the adult host's heart and reporter graft, as well as tissue destruction by effector lymphocytes. Autoimmune heart rejection was largely observed in chickens with kDNA mutations in retrotransposons and in coding genes with roles in cell structure, metabolism, growth, and differentiation. Moreover, killing the sick kDNA-mutated bone marrow cells with cytostatic and anti-folate drugs and transplanting healthy marrow cells inhibited heart rejection. We report here for the first time that healthy bone marrow cells inhibited heart pathology in kDNA+ chickens and thus prevented the genetically driven clinical manifestations of the disease. PMID:25521296

  10. Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

    1980-08-01

    Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

  11. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Takao; Matsumura, Sachiko; Iizuka, Tadashi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  12. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Takao; Matsumura, Sachiko; Iizuka, Tadashi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2011-02-01

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  13. Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens.

    PubMed

    Wragg, D; Mwacharo, J M; Alcalde, J A; Hocking, P M; Hanotte, O

    2012-07-01

    Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional breeds, Kenyan, Ethiopian and Chilean village chickens. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveals useful LD (r(2) ≥ 0.3) in both traditional and village chickens at pairwise marker distances of ~10 Kb; while haplotype block analysis indicates a median block size of 11-12 Kb. Association mapping yielded refined mapping intervals for duplex comb (Gga 2:38.55-38.89 Mb) and rose comb (Gga 7:18.41-22.09 Mb) phenotypes in traditional breeds. Combined mapping information from traditional breeds and Chilean village chicken allows the oocyan phenotype to be fine mapped to two small regions (Gga 1:67.25-67.28 Mb, Gga 1:67.28-67.32 Mb) totalling ~75 Kb. Mapping the unmapped earlobe pigmentation phenotype supports previous findings that the trait is sex-linked and polygenic. A critical assessment of the number of SNPs required to map simple traits indicate that between 90 and 110K SNPs are required for full genome-wide analysis of haplotype block structure/ancestry, and for association mapping in both traditional and village chickens. Our results demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of phenotypic diversity and genetic structure of traditional chicken breeds for fine-scale mapping of Mendelian traits in the species, with village chicken populations providing further opportunities to enhance mapping resolutions.

  14. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  15. Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wragg, D; Mwacharo, J M; Alcalde, J A; Hocking, P M; Hanotte, O

    2012-01-01

    Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional breeds, Kenyan, Ethiopian and Chilean village chickens. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveals useful LD (r2⩾0.3) in both traditional and village chickens at pairwise marker distances of ∼10 Kb; while haplotype block analysis indicates a median block size of 11–12 Kb. Association mapping yielded refined mapping intervals for duplex comb (Gga 2:38.55–38.89 Mb) and rose comb (Gga 7:18.41–22.09 Mb) phenotypes in traditional breeds. Combined mapping information from traditional breeds and Chilean village chicken allows the oocyan phenotype to be fine mapped to two small regions (Gga 1:67.25–67.28 Mb, Gga 1:67.28–67.32 Mb) totalling ∼75 Kb. Mapping the unmapped earlobe pigmentation phenotype supports previous findings that the trait is sex-linked and polygenic. A critical assessment of the number of SNPs required to map simple traits indicate that between 90 and 110K SNPs are required for full genome-wide analysis of haplotype block structure/ancestry, and for association mapping in both traditional and village chickens. Our results demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of phenotypic diversity and genetic structure of traditional chicken breeds for fine-scale mapping of Mendelian traits in the species, with village chicken populations providing further opportunities to enhance mapping resolutions. PMID:22395157

  16. Lesser prairie-chicken avoidance of trees in a grassland landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Plumb, Reid T.; Robinson, Samantha G.; Hagen, Christian A.; Haukos, David A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands are among the most imperiled ecosystems in North America. Reasons that grasslands are threatened include conversion to row-crop agriculture, fragmentation, and changes in fire regimes. The reduction of fire processes in remaining prairies has resulted in tree encroachment and establishment in grasslands, further reducing grassland quantity and quality. Grassland birds have been experiencing precipitous population declines in recent decades, commensurate with landscape changes to grasslands. The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus Ridgway) is a declining species of prairie grouse of conservation concern. We used second- and third-order habitat selection metrics to test if female lesser prairie-chickens avoid grasslands where trees were present. Our results indicated that female lesser prairie-chickens selected habitats avoiding the nearest trees by 283 m on average, nearly twice as far as would be expected at random. Lesser prairie-chickens were 40 times more likely to use habitats with tree densities of 0 trees ∙ ha− 1 than habitats with 5 trees ∙ ha− 1. Probability of use indicated that lesser prairie-chickens were 19 times more likely to use habitats 1000 m from the nearest tree when compared with using habitats 0 m from the nearest tree. Nest survival was not affected at densities < 2 trees ∙ ha− 1; however, we could not test if nest survival was affected at greater tree densities as no nests were detected at densities > 2 trees ∙ ha− 1. Avoidance of trees could be due to perceived increased predation risk, reduced habitat quality, or a combination of these potentially confounding factors. Preventing further establishment and expansion of trees in landscapes occupied by lesser prairie-chickens could contribute to the continued persistence of the species. Additionally, restoring grasslands through tree removal may facilitate conservation efforts for grassland species such as the lesser prairie-chicken by improving

  17. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  18. Duck TRIM27-L enhances MAVS signaling and is absent in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Alysson H; Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Campbell, Lee K; Aldridge, Jerry R; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Wild waterfowl, including mallard ducks, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza A virus and they are resistant to strains that would cause fatal infection in chickens. Here we investigate potential involvement of TRIM proteins in the differential response of ducks and chickens to influenza. We examine a cluster of TRIM genes located on a single scaffold in the duck genome, which is a conserved synteny group with a TRIM cluster located in the extended MHC region in chickens and turkeys. We note a TRIM27-like gene is present in ducks, and absent in chickens and turkeys. Orthologous genes are predicted in many birds and reptiles, suggesting the gene has been lost in chickens and turkeys. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show that TRIM27-L, and the related TRIM27.1, are upregulated 5- and 9-fold at 1 day post-infection with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004. To assess whether TRIM27.1 or TRIM27-L are involved in modulation of antiviral gene expression, we overexpressed them in DF1 chicken cells, and neither show any direct effect on innate immune gene expression. However, when co-transfected with duck RIG-I-N (d2CARD) to constitutively activate the MAVS pathway, TRIM27.1 weakly decreases, while TRIM27-L strongly activates innate immune signaling leading to increased transcription of antiviral genes MX1 and IFN-β. Furthermore, when both are co-expressed, the activation of the MAVS signaling pathway by TRIM27-L over-rides the inhibition by TRIM27.1. Thus, ducks have an activating TRIM27-L to augment MAVS signaling following RIG-I detection, while chickens lack both TRIM27-L and RIG-I itself.

  19. Insulin immuno-neutralization in fed chickens: effects on liver and muscle transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean; Milenkovic, Dragan; Godet, Estelle; Cabau, Cedric; Collin, Anne; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Rideau, Nicole; Tesseraud, Sophie; Derouet, Michel; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Gespach, Christian; Porter, Tom E; Duclos, Michel J; Dupont, Joëlle; Cogburn, Larry A

    2012-03-01

    Chickens mimic an insulin-resistance state by exhibiting several peculiarities with regard to plasma glucose level and its control by insulin. To gain insight into the role of insulin in the control of chicken transcriptome, liver and leg muscle transcriptomes were compared in fed controls and "diabetic" chickens, at 5 h after insulin immuno-neutralization, using 20.7K-chicken oligo-microarrays. At a level of false discovery rate <0.01, 1,573 and 1,225 signals were significantly modified by insulin privation in liver and muscle, respectively. Microarray data agreed reasonably well with qRT-PCR and some protein level measurements. Differentially expressed mRNAs with human ID were classified using Biorag analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Multiple metabolic pathways, structural proteins, transporters and proteins of intracellular trafficking, major signaling pathways, and elements of the transcriptional control machinery were largely represented in both tissues. At least 42 mRNAs have already been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, energy expenditure, or identified as sensors of metabolism in mice or humans. The contribution of the pathways presently identified to chicken physiology (particularly those not yet related to insulin) needs to be evaluated in future studies. Other challenges include the characterization of "unknown" mRNAs and the identification of the steps or networks, which disturbed tissue transcriptome so extensively, quickly after the turning off of the insulin signal. In conclusion, pleiotropic effects of insulin in chickens are further evidenced; major pathways controlled by insulin in mammals have been conserved despite the presence of unique features of insulin signaling in chicken muscle.

  20. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of bone structure using reconstructed in-vitro μCT images: A pilot study for bone microarchitecture analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Shari, Mohd Aliff Bin Mohd

    2014-03-24

    Micro Computed Tomography (μCT) has been largely used to perform micrometer scale imaging of specimens, bone biopsies and small animals for the study of porous or cavity-containing objects. One of its favored applications is for assessing structural properties of bone. In this research, we perform a pilot study to visualize and characterize bone structure of a chicken bone thigh, as well as to delineate its cortical and trabecular bone regions. We utilize an In-Vitro μCT scanner Skyscan 1173 to acquire a three dimensional image data of a chicken bone thigh. The thigh was scanned using X-ray voltage of 45 kV and current of 150 μA. The reconstructed images have spatial resolution of 142.50 μm/pixel. Using image processing and analysis e.i segmentation by thresholding the gray values (which represent the pseudo density) and binarizing the images, we were able to visualize each part of the bone, i.e., the cortical and trabecular regions. Total volume of the bone is 4663.63 mm{sup 3}, and the surface area of the bone is 7913.42 mm{sup 2}. The volume of the cortical is approximately 1988.62 mm{sup 3} which is nearly 42.64% of the total bone volume. This pilot study has confirmed that the μCT is capable of quantifying 3D bone structural properties and defining its regions separately. For further development, these results can be improved for understanding the pathophysiology of bone abnormality, testing the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention, or estimating bone biomechanical properties.

  1. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of bone structure using reconstructed in-vitro μCT images: A pilot study for bone microarchitecture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Shari, Mohd Aliff Bin Mohd

    2014-03-01

    Micro Computed Tomography (μCT) has been largely used to perform micrometer scale imaging of specimens, bone biopsies and small animals for the study of porous or cavity-containing objects. One of its favored applications is for assessing structural properties of bone. In this research, we perform a pilot study to visualize and characterize bone structure of a chicken bone thigh, as well as to delineate its cortical and trabecular bone regions. We utilize an In-Vitro μCT scanner Skyscan 1173 to acquire a three dimensional image data of a chicken bone thigh. The thigh was scanned using X-ray voltage of 45 kV and current of 150 μA. The reconstructed images have spatial resolution of 142.50 μm/pixel. Using image processing and analysis e.i segmentation by thresholding the gray values (which represent the pseudo density) and binarizing the images, we were able to visualize each part of the bone, i.e., the cortical and trabecular regions. Total volume of the bone is 4663.63 mm3, and the surface area of the bone is 7913.42 mm2. The volume of the cortical is approximately 1988.62 mm3 which is nearly 42.64% of the total bone volume. This pilot study has confirmed that the μCT is capable of quantifying 3D bone structural properties and defining its regions separately. For further development, these results can be improved for understanding the pathophysiology of bone abnormality, testing the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention, or estimating bone biomechanical properties.

  2. Rapid localization of bone fragments on surfaces using back-projection and hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Alsberg, Bjørn K; Rosvold, Jørgen

    2014-03-01

    Manual localization of bone fragments on the ground or on complex surfaces in relation to accidents or criminal activity may be time-consuming and challenging. It is here investigated whether combining a near-infrared hyperspectral camera and chemometric modeling with false color back-projection can be used for rapid localization of bone fragments. The approach is noninvasive and highlights the spatial distribution of various compounds/properties to facilitate manual inspection of surfaces. Discriminant partial least squares regression is used to classify between bone and nonbone spectra from the hyperspectral camera. A predictive model (>95% prediction ability) is constructed from raw chicken bones mixed with stone, sand, leaves, moss, and wood. The model uses features in the near-infrared spectrum which may be selective for bones in general and is able to identify a wide variety of bones from different animals and contexts, including aged and weathered bone.

  3. Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow in patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Duncker, C.M.; Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Estorch, M.; Alonso, C.; Ojeda, B.; Blanco, R.; Germa, J.R.; Ortega, V. )

    1990-09-01

    Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow was performed by technetium-99m- (99mTc) labeled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody BW 250/183 (AGMoAb) scans in 32 patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer. AGMoAb scans showed bone marrow defects in 25/32 (78%) patients; bone invasion was subsequently confirmed in 23 (72%) patients. Conventional bone scans performed within the same week detected bone metastases in 17/32 (53%) patients (p less than 0.001). AGMoAb scans detected more sites indicating metastatic disease than bone scans in 12 of these 17 patients (71%). All patients with bone metastases in the axial skeleton had bone marrow defects at least at the sites of bone metastases. Of 15 patients with normal, or indicative of, benign disease bone scans, 8 patients (53%) presented with bone marrow defects in the AGMoAb scans. Bone invasion was confirmed in six of them. AGMoAb bone marrow scans provide a method for the early detection of bone metastatic invasion in patients with breast cancer and suspected bone metastases.

  4. The effect of increased gravitational stress on bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, R. S.; Chacko, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    A group of 34 adult male chickens were chronically accelerated over an 18-week period; for the last 4 weeks the surviving animals were subjected to a 3-g field. Males of a similar weight and age were used as static controls. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an altered gravitational state on the physical properties of the tibia bone tested for torsional fracture. Of the 34 initial animals, 15 survived for the entire period and were subjected to analysis. The results suggest that the altered morphology produced by increased gravitational fields does not materially affect bone strength, at least in torsion. Decreased bone diameters were accompanied by increased cortical thickness without change in the bone resistance to torsion. The findings of increased cortical thickness with decreased bone diameter suggest reversal of the usual cellular dynamics of adult bone. Data on bone ash and density failed to reveal any substantial changes in bone mineral or organic content. Histological examination of the cortical bone did not disclose any evidence of pathology.

  5. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  6. Bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products under aerobic conditions at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rongrong; Yu, Xiaoqiao; Wang, Renhuan; Luo, Xin; Mao, Yanwei; Zhu, Lixian; Zhang, Yimin

    2012-06-01

    This study analyzed the bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically at 4°C, using "bone and chicken string," a product popular in the People's Republic of China, as the study subject. Samples collected from three different factories were tray packaged with cling film and stored at 4°C. Bacterial diversity and dominant bacteria were analyzed using PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Combined with selective cultivation of the dominant bacteria and correlation analysis, the dominant spoilage microbiota was determined. The results showed that bacterial diversity varied with different manufacturers. Such bacteria as Acinetobacter sp., Carnobacterium sp., Rahnella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix sp., and Weissella sp. were detected in freshly prepared chicken products during storage. And Carnobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Brochothrix sp. bacteria were the common dominant spoilage bacteria groups in most freshly prepared chicken products from different factories. Carnobacterium was, for the first time, shown to be an important contributor to the spoilage-related microflora of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration. Our work shows the bacterial diversity and dominant spoilage microbiota of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration.

  7. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubin, Gerard; Goldman, Debra S.; Luce, Judith; Neiman, Paul E.; Cooper, Geoffrey M.

    1983-03-01

    A transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA has been isolated by molecular cloning. It is homologous to a conserved family of sequences present in normal chicken and human DNAs but is not related to transforming genes of acutely transforming retroviruses. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned transforming gene suggests that it encodes a protein that is partially homologous to the amino terminus of transferrin and related proteins although only about one tenth the size of transferrin.

  8. Ia antigens are expressed on ATPase-positive dendritic cells in chicken epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Torres, A; Millan Aldaco, D A

    1994-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells located in mammalian epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. We recently demonstrated the presence of Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken using ultrastructural histochemistry for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The aim of the present study was to test whether ATPase-positive dendritic cells also express class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia antigens) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a double staining technique, in separated chicken epidermal sheets. We concluded that the epidermal dendritic cells observed are the LC of the chicken, based on their morphology and spatial distribution, but mainly on the complete overlap for ATPase reaction and Ia antigen expression, these being reliable markers for the identification of mammalian LC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs 7,8 Figs 9,10 Figs 11,12 PMID:7928646

  9. The biology of bone lengthening.

    PubMed

    Hvid, Ivan; Horn, Joachim; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2016-12-01

    Distraction osteogenesis biologically resembles fracture healing with distinctive characteristics notably in the distraction phase of osteogenesis. In the latency phase of bone lengthening, like in the inflammatory phase of fracture repair, interleukines are released and act with growth factors released from platelets in the local haematoma, leading to attraction, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and other differentiated mesenchymal cells. These in turn produce matrix, collagen fibers and growth factors. A callus containing cells, collagen fibers, osteoid and cartilage matrix is formed. Provided stable fixation, distraction will trigger intramembranous bone formation. As distraction proceeds, the distraction gap develops five distinctive zones with unmineralized bone in the middle, remodelling bone peripherally, and mineralizing bone in between. During consolidation, the high concentration of anabolic growth factors in the regenerate diminishes with time as remodelling takes over to form mature cortical and cancellous bone. Systemic disease, congenital bone deficiencies, medications and substance abuse can influence the quality and quantity of regenerate bone, usually in a negative way. The regenerate bone can be manipulated when needed by using injection of mesenchymal stem cells and platelets, growth factors (BMP-2 and -7), and systemic medications (bisphosphonates and parathyroid hormone). Growth factors and systemic anabolic and antiresorptive drugs are prescribed on special indications, while distraction osteogenesis is not an authorized indication. To some extent, however, these compounds can be used off-label. Use in children presents special problems since growth factors and specific anabolic medications may involve a risk of inducing cancer.

  10. Effect of Bacillus Subtilis-based Direct-fed Microbials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens Raised on Fresh or Used Litter.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Lee, S H; Bautista, D A; Siragusa, G R

    2013-11-01

    Type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining the homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction among litter, DFMs and immunity in broiler chickens exposed to a field-simulated environment. Immune status of broiler chickens was assessed by serum antibodies against Eimeria spp. and Clostridium spp. and intestinal cytokine mRNA expression. The current experimental design had a 3 ×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with three types of litter, i.e., fresh litter or used litter that was obtained from a farm with no disease outbreak (used litter) or a farm with history of a gangrenous dermatitis outbreak (GD litter), and two dietary treatments with or without DFMs. It was found that either DFM addition or type of litter significantly affected anticoccidial antibody levels of broiler chickens at d 42. In general, dietary DFMs increased the anticoccidial antibodies in the fresh-litter raised chickens, but lowered the levels in the GD-litter raised chickens. Serum antibodies against Clostridium perfringens α-toxin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in chickens raised on GD litter compared with those raised on fresh litter. Cytokine mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05) altered by either the type of litter or DFMs. Of interest, dietary DFMs lowered interferon-γ, interleukin 1beta, and CXCLi2 cytokine mRNA expression in chickens raised on fresh litter but increased them in GD-litter raised chickens. In conclusion, dietary DFMs modulate various immune parameters of broiler chickens, but the DFM-mediated effects were dependent upon the type of litter on which chickens were raised.

  11. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  12. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  13. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  14. Bone biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  15. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... amputation. This is called limb-salvage or limb-sparing surgery . In going over treatment options, it is ... 2016 Treating Bone Cancer Surgery for Bone Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bone Cancer Chemotherapy for Bone Cancer Targeted ...

  16. Facts about Broken Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > Broken Bones Print A A ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  17. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Tina S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-03-15

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. galli infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases increased mortality. More importantly, the parasitised chickens are more susceptible to secondary infections and their ability to develop vaccine-induced protective immunity against other diseases may be compromised. Detailed information about the immune response to the natural infection may be exploited to enable future vaccine development. In the present study, expression of immune genes in the chicken spleen during an experimental infection with A. galli was investigated using the Fluidigm(®) BioMark™ microfluidic qPCR platform which combines automatic high-throughput with attractive low sample and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens. Increased expression of MBL, CRP, IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12β and IL-18 followed at week 6 p.i. and at both week 6 and 9 p.i. expression of DEFβ1 was highly increased in infected chickens. In summary, apart from also earlier reported increased expression of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-13 we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal lumen. Increased expression of DEFβ1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the

  18. Gravity, calcium, and bone - Update, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Recent results obtained on skeletal adaptation, calcium metabolism, and bone browth during short-term flights and ground simulated-microgravity experiments are presented. Results demonstrate that two principal components of calcium metabolism respond within days to changes in body position and to weightlessness: the calcium endocrine system and bone characteristics. Furthermore, results of recent studies imply that bone biomechanics are more severely affected by spaceflight exposures than is the bone mass.

  19. Bone allografts in reconstructive middle ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Gersdorff, M; Vilain, J; Maisin, J P; Munting, E; Delloye, C

    1989-01-01

    The authors present their current experience with stored bone grafts, using allografts shaped from the cortices of long bones for reconstructing the tympano-ossicular chain. The materials and the methods are described. The anatomical results have been good in 97% of the cases, while the functional results are as satisfactory as those obtained with bioceramics. In addition to ossiculoplasty, the bone allografts can also be used in otology for reconstructing large bony defects of the temporal bone.

  20. Bone healing in 2016

    PubMed Central

    Buza, John A.; Einhorn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Delayed fracture healing and nonunion occurs in up to 5–10% of all fractures, and can present a challenging clinical scenario for the treating physician. Methods for the enhancement of skeletal repair may benefit patients that are at risk of, or have experienced, delayed healing or nonunion. These methods can be categorized into either physical stimulation therapies or biological therapies. Physical stimulation therapies include electrical stimulation, low-intensity pulsed ultrasonography, or extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Biological therapies can be further classified into local or systemic therapy based on the method of delivery. Local methods include autologous bone marrow, autologous bone graft, fibroblast growth factor-2, platelet-rich plasma, platelet-derived growth factor, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Systemic therapies include parathyroid hormone and bisphosphonates. This article reviews the current applications and supporting evidence for the use of these therapies in the enhancement of fracture healing. PMID:27920804

  1. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  2. The chicken alimentary tract and factors that influence feed passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken alimentary track differs in several ways from most other domestic food production animals. Chickens are considered monogastric omnivores although their stomach consists of two adjacent segments; the chemical proventriculus followed by the mechanical ventriculus (gizzard). The names used ...

  3. 1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Chicken House, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  4. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  5. Chicken GHR natural antisense transcript regulates GHR mRNA in LMH cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Lilong; Ma, Jinge; Qiu, Fengfang; Jia, Rumin; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Dexiang; Luo, Qingbin; Li, Ting; Wang, Zhang; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone receptor (GHR) played key roles in human and animal growth. Both human laron type dwarfism and sex linked dwarf chicken were caused by the mutation of GHR gene. In this study, we identified an endogenously expressed long non-coding natural antisense transcript, GHR-AS, which overlapped with the GHR mRNA (GHR-S) in a tail to tail manner. Spatial and temporal expression analyses indicated that GHR-AS were highly expressed in chicken liver and displayed ascending with the development of chicken from E10 to 3 w of age. Interfering GHR-AS caused GHR-S decreasing, accompanied with increasing of the inactive gene indicator, H3K9me2, in the GHR-S promoter regions in LMH cells. RNase A experiment exhibited that GHR-AS and GHR-S can form double strand RNAs at the last exon of GHR gene in vivo and in vitro, which hinted they could act on each other via the region. In addition, the levels of GHR-S and GHR-AS can be affected by DNA methylation. Compared the normal chicken with the dwarfs, the negative correlation trends were showed between the GHR-S promoter methylation status and the GHR-AS levels. This is the first report of that GHR gene possessed natural antisense transcript and the results presented here further highlight the fine and complicated regulating mechanism of GHR gene in chicken development. PMID:27713155

  6. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Martins, J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P

    2011-12-15

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N. caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the present study we studied seroprevalence of N. caninum in free range chickens from different countries in America as an indicator of soil contamination due to N. caninum oocysts. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in sera of 524 (39.5%) of 1324 chickens using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, titer 1:25 or higher). Seropositive chickens from different countries were: 18.5% of 97 from Mexico, 7.2% of 97 from USA, 39.5% of 144 from Costa Rica, 71.5% of 102 from Grenada, 44% of 50 from Guatemala, 83.6% of 98 from Nicaragua, 58.1% of 55 from Argentina, 34.3% of 358 from Brazil, 62.3% of 85 from Chile, 11.2% of 62 from Colombia, 38.7% of 80 from Guyana, 18% of 50 from Peru and 21.7% of 46 from Venezuela. The results indicate widespread exposure of chickens to N. caninum.

  7. Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Lead Toxicity Are Related to the Ion Profile in Chicken Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Liu, Chun Peng; Teng, Xiao Hua; Fu, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Complex antagonistic interactions between Selenium (Se) and heavy metals have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Se on lead (Pb)-induced toxicity and the ion profile in the muscles of chickens. In this present study, we fed chickens either Se or Pb or both Se and Pb supplement and later analyzed the concentrations of 26 ions in chicken muscle tissues. We determined that a Se- and Pb-containing diets significantly affected microelements in chicken muscle. Treatment with Se increased the content of Se but resulted in a reduced concentration of Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Ba. Treatment with Pb increased concentrations of Ni while reducing those of B, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Mo. Moreover, Se also reduced the concentration of Pb, Zn, Co, Fe, V, and Cr, which in contrast were induced by Pb. Additionally, we also found that synergistic and antagonistic interactions existed between Se and Pb supplementation. Our findings suggested that Se can exert a negative effect on Pb in chicken muscle tissues and may be related to changes in ion profiles.

  8. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis on chicken wings using scallop-shell powder.

    PubMed

    Cagri-Mehmetoglu, A

    2011-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the inhibitory effect of scallop-shell powder (SSP) on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis on chicken wings. Chicken wings artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (8.3 log(10) cfu/g) or S. enteritidis (8.8 log(10) cfu/g) were immersed in distilled water (0.10 or 0.50% wt/vol) of SSP slurries for 10 or 30 min, respectively. The amount of L. monocytogenes, S. enteritidis, mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), and yeast or mold was determined for the chicken wings at d 0 or 7 of storage at 4°C. Results indicated that 0.5% SSP decreased the amount of L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis on chicken wings by 3.7 and 5.0 log(10) cfu/g, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes, S. enteritidis, MAB, and yeast or mold was inhibited by SSP during the 7-d refrigerated storage. Color and odor of chicken wings were not significantly changed by SSP treatment (P > 0.05).

  9. Characteristics of expression and regulation of sirtuins in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Junxiao; Xu, Naiyi; Ma, Zheng; Li, Yanmin; Li, Cuicui; Wang, Yanbin; Tian, Yadong; Liu, Xiaojun; Kang, Xiangtao

    2016-11-25

    Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) are a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that are linked to post-translational regulation of many metabolic processes. There are few reports available for chicken sirtuins (designated cSIRT1-cSIRT7), whose expression and regulation in the liver have yet to be explored. In the present study, we characterized the expression and regulation of sirtuin family members in chicken liver. The results showed that the sirtuin family members in chicken share the same conserved functional SIR2 domains. All the sirtuin family members were expressed extensively in all tissues examined, and the expression levels of cSIRT1, cSIRT2, cSIRT4, cSIRT6, and cSIRT7 in the liver increased significantly with sexual maturity. However, all sirtuin family members were downregulated (P < 0.05) in chicken livers and cultured primary hepatocytes treated with 17β-estradiol. We concluded that the expression levels of some chicken sirtuin family members in the liver were upregulated with sexual maturation, but might not be regulated directly by estrogen. Whereas estrogen could be used as an inhibitor of all sirtuins, both in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Accelerating sample preparation through enzyme-assisted microfiltration of Salmonella in chicken extract.

    PubMed

    Vibbert, Hunter B; Ku, Seockmo; Li, Xuan; Liu, Xingya; Ximenes, Eduardo; Kreke, Thomas; Ladisch, Michael R; Deering, Amanda J; Gehring, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Microfiltration of chicken extracts has the potential to significantly decrease the time required to detect Salmonella, as long as the extract can be efficiently filtered and the pathogenic microorganisms kept in a viable state during this process. We present conditions that enable microfiltration by adding endopeptidase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to chicken extracts or chicken rinse, prior to microfiltration with fluid flow on both retentate and permeate sides of 0.2 μm cutoff polysulfone and polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes. After treatment with this protease, the distribution of micron, submicron, and nanometer particles in chicken extracts changes so that the size of the remaining particles corresponds to 0.4-1 μm. Together with alteration of dissolved proteins, this change helps to explain how membrane fouling might be minimized because the potential foulants are significantly smaller or larger than the membrane pore size. At the same time, we found that the presence of protein protects Salmonella from protease action, thus maintaining cell viability. Concentration and recovery of 1-10 CFU Salmonella/mL from 400 mL chicken rinse is possible in less than 4 h, with the microfiltration step requiring less than 25 min at fluxes of 0.028-0.32 mL/cm(2) min. The entire procedure-from sample processing to detection by polymerase chain reaction-is completed in 8 h.

  11. Influence of in-feed virginiamycin on the systemic and mucosal antibody response of chickens.

    PubMed

    Brisbin, J T; Gong, J; Lusty, C A; Sabour, P; Sanei, B; Han, Y; Shewen, P E; Sharif, S

    2008-10-01

    Subtherapeutic and prophylactic doses of virginiamycin are capable of altering the intestinal microbiota as well as increasing several growth parameters in chickens. In spite of the fact that the microbiota plays a role in shaping the host's immune system, little information is available on the effects of in-feed antibiotics on the chicken immune system. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an antibiotic, virginiamycin, on the development of antibody responses. Chickens were fed diets containing no antibiotics, along with either subtherapeutic (11 ppm) or prophylactic (22 ppm) doses of virginiamycin. Chickens were then immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and sheep red blood cells systemically, and with BSA and KLH orally. Although antibodies were detected against BSA in the intestinal contents of birds that were orally immunized, there was no difference among different treatment groups. Systemic IgG, and to a lesser extent IgM, antibody responses to KLH were greater (P < 0.05) in birds fed a diet containing 11 or 22 ppm of virginiamycin compared with control birds fed no antibiotic. No treatment effect was found in the sheep red blood cell-immunized birds. Results of the present study implicate virginiamycin in enhancing antibody responses to some antigens in chickens. Further studies are required to determine to what extent these effects on antibody response are mediated through changes in the composition of the microbiota.

  12. Molecular tracking of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat chain: from slaughterhouse reception to end cuts.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Bersot, Luciano Dos Santos; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Due to the importance of Salmonella spp. in poultry products, this study aimed to track its main contamination routes since slaughtering reception to processing of chicken end cuts. Samples from different steps of slaughtering and processing (n = 277) were collected from two chicken slaughterhouses (Sl1 and Sl2) located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and subjected to Salmonella spp. detection. The obtained isolates were subjected to serological identification and tested by PCR for specific Salmonella spp. genes (ompC and sifB). Also, Salmonella spp. isolates were subjected to XbaI macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty-eight samples were positive for Salmonella spp. and 172 isolates were obtained. Sl1 and Sl2 presented similar frequencies of Salmonella spp. positive samples during reception, slaughtering and processing (p > 0.05), except for higher frequencies in Sl1 for chicken carcasses after de-feathering and evisceration (p < 0.05). PFGE allowed the identification of cross contamination and persistence of Salmonella spp. strains in Sl1. The results highlighted the relevance of the initial steps of chicken slaughtering for Salmonella spp. contamination, and the pre-chilling of carcasses as an important controlling tool. In addition, the presence of Salmonella spp. in chicken end cuts samples represents a public health concern.

  13. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis Diseases in Backyard Chickens with Unusual Pox Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Fusae; Yamamoto, Yu; Sato, Yasuo; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Goto, Makiko; Murakami, Ryukoh

    2016-09-01

    Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca. Interestingly, hyperplastic interfollicular epithelium with rare virus inclusions was observed in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Some bursal follicles were replaced by proliferating epithelial cells. These proliferating cells immunohistochemically stained positive for cytokeratin. PCR and subsequent genetic sequencing detected the C. albicans gene in the crop, and fowlpox virus genes in the BF. These results indicate that this outbreak was a rare presentation of fowlpox in spontaneously infected chickens, with unusual pox lesions in the BF.

  14. Bone defect rehabilitation using lyophilized bone preshaped on a stereolithographic model

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; Mukai, Eduardo; Mukai, Sueli; Tortamano, Pedro; Sesma, Newton

    2016-01-01

    Bone grafting provides ideal conditions to the patient's rehabilitation with dental implants. In addition, prototyped tridimensional models allow the surgical procedure to be simulated and enable important anatomic structures to be visualized. To present a bone defect rehabilitated with xenogenic bone preshaped on a stereolithographic model and the follow-up after 7 years of treatment. The present case report describes a bone defect rehabilitated with a lyophilized bone block preshaped on a stereolithographic model. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, was referred to the dental office presenting a bone defect in the anterior maxilla. Bone regeneration intervention was performed with xenogenic grafting and barrier membrane. The follow-up of the postoperative period and after 7 years is presented. After 7 years, the tomographic exam showed the maintenance of bone at the grafted site, representing the long-term success of the treatment. PMID:27630509

  15. A decade of bisphosphonate bone complications: what it has taught us about bone physiology.

    PubMed

    Marx, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    While the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s taught the medical and dental professions much about immune cells and the immune system's cellular relationships, the bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis epidemic of the past decade has taught these same professions much about bone turnover, bone cell cross talk, the response and functional relationship of bone cells to loading, and drug effects on cellular dynamic relationships. The present article explores the literature as well as both evidence- and experience-based data to discuss known bone pathologies and physiologic mechanisms as well as uncover new findings: (1) bone remodeling is the mechanism by which bone adapts to loading stresses, termed either bone modeling or Wolff's law, and it is also the mechanism for bone renewal; (2) osteoclastic bone resorption triggers bone renewal at a rate of about 0.7%/day by its release of growth factors; (3) bisphosphonates prevent the renewal of old and injured bone, thus making it brittle and more likely to fracture over time; (4) bisphosphonates have a half-life in bone of 11 years because of their irreversible binding to bone via their central carbon atom; (5) when administered intravenously, bisphosphonate loads bone and accumulates in bone 142.8 times faster than when administered orally; (6) osteoclastic resorption of bisphosphonate-loaded bone results in osteoclast death in which the cell bursts, releasing the bisphosphonate molecules to reenter the local bone or bone marrow in a re-dosing effect; (7) endosteal osteoblasts are dependent on the osteoclastic resorption/growth factor release/new bone formation mechanism of bone renewal, whereas periosteal osteoblasts are not; and (8) it is likely that endosteal osteoblasts and periosteal osteoblasts have different cell membrane receptors and arise from separate embryologic niches.

  16. Isolation and RFLP Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Range Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, Revealed Widespread and Dominance of Clonal Type III Parasites.

    PubMed

    Chikweto, Alfred; Sharma, Ravindra N; Tiwari, Keshaw P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Kwok, Oliver C; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with titers of 25 in 7 chickens, 50 in 6 chickens, 100 in 2 chickens, and 200 or higher in 24 chickens. The hearts of the 39 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice; viable T. gondii was isolated from 20 and further propagated in cell culture. Genotyping of T. gondii DNA extracted from cell-cultured tachyzoites using the 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed 4 genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP no. 2 (Type III), no. 7, no. 13, and no. 259 (new). These results indicated that T. gondii population genetics in free-range chickens seems to be moderately diverse with ToxoDB no. 2 (Type III) as the most frequent (15/20 = 75%) compared to other genotypes in Grenada.

  17. Prevalence and genotypes of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from human stool and chicken meat in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Belmar Campos, Cristina; Fenner, Ines; Wiese, Nicole; Lensing, Carmen; Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Fenner, Thomas; Hentschke, Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Chicken meat has been proposed to constitute a source for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-carrying Enterobacteriaceae that colonize and infect humans. In this study the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool samples from ambulatory patients who presented in the emergency department of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf with gastrointestinal complains and in chicken meat samples from the Hamburg region were analysed and compared with respect to ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance profiles. Twenty-nine (4.1%) of 707 stool samples and 72 (60%) of 120 chicken meat samples were positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The distribution of ESBL genes in the stool vs. chicken meat isolates (given as % of total isolates from stool vs. chicken meat) was as follows: CTX-M-15 (38% vs. 0%), CTX-M-14 (17% vs. 6%), CTX-M-1 (17% vs. 69%), SHV-12 (3% vs. 18%) and TEM-52 (3% each). Comparison of ESBL- and multilocus sequence type revealed no correlation between isolates of human and chicken. Furthermore, ESBL-producing E. coli from stool samples were significantly more resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than chicken isolates. The differences in ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance patterns indicate that in our clinical setting chicken meat is not a major contributor to human colonization with ESBL-carrying Enterobacteriaceae.

  18. Effects of nutritionally balanced and stabilized flaxmeal-based diets on Eimeria tenella infections in chickens.

    PubMed

    Allen, P C; Danforth, H; Stitt, P A

    2000-04-01

    Twenty Sex Sal cockerels were randomly assigned to each of eight groups; each of four nutritionally balanced diets were fed to two groups from 1 d through 4 wk of age. These diets contained 0, 2, 5, or 10% stabilized flaxseed meal that provided a calculated 0, 0.45, 1.11, or 2.22% n-3 fatty acids, primarily linolenic acid. At 3 wk of age, one group of chickens from each diet treatment was infected with Eimeria tenella and was housed in separate but similar conditions to uninfected control chickens. At 6 d postinfection, chickens were weighed, bled, killed, and scored for lesions. No level of dietary flaxmeal tested provided protection against weight gain depression, increased feed conversion ratios, or lesions. We concluded that these diets did not protect against E. tenella infection because levels of linolenic acid were not high enough, and the oxidative potentials were well suppressed by vitamin E and other stabilizers present.

  19. Identification of a Chicken Anemia Virus Variant-Related Gyrovirus in Stray Cats in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanjia; Ji, Jun; Chen, Feng; Sun, Baoli; Xue, Chunyi; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2014-01-01

    The chicken anemia virus (CAV), is a known member of the genus Gyrovirus and was first isolated from chickens in Japan in 1979. Some reports have also demonstrated that CAV can be identified in human stool specimens. In this study, a variant of CAV was detected using PCR with CAV-based primers in fecal samples of stray cats. The genome of CAV variant was sequenced and the results suggest that it could be a recombinant viral strain from parental CAV strains JQ690762 and AF311900. Recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism that contributes to genetic diversification. These findings indicate that CAV variant might have originated from CAV-infected chickens. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of this novel virus remains to be elucidated. This study underscores the importance of CAV surveillance and it presents the first evidence suggesting the possibility of CAV homologous recombination in cat. PMID:24689034

  20. Identification of the rate of chimerism of different tissues with microsatellite markers in chicken chimeras.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Maria; Sławińska, Anna; Łakota, Paweł; Grajewski, Bartosz; Wawrzyńska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Pławski, Andrzej; Słomski, Ryszard; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2010-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether private alleles can be defined in microsatellite markers for the breeds under investigation; to evaluate if these private alleles distinguish chicken chimera when using different tissues; to trace them back to the donor: Green-Legged Partridgelike and recipient: White Leghorn chicken breeds, and further on, to estimate the level of chimerism in each tissue. Private and common alleles were defined for donor and recipient chicken breeds in 3 loci. The rate of chimerism was defined based on private alleles present in liver, heart, breast muscle, femoral muscle and gonads. The highest rate of chimerism was observed in liver. A lower rate of chimersim was observed in gonads, and femoral muscle, and finally the lowest rate of chimerism was observed in breast muscle and heart.

  1. Sequence analysis of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II mRNA from ascitic and nonascitic commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Cisar, C R; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Donoghue, A M

    2003-10-01

    Ascites syndrome, also known as pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), is a common metabolic disorder in rapidly growing meat-type chickens. Environmental factors, such as cold, altitude, and diet, play significant roles in development of the disease, but there is also an important genetic component to PHS susceptibility. The human disease familial primary pulmonary hypertension (FPPH) is similar to PHS in broilers both genetically and physiologically. Several recent studies have shown that mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) gene are a cause of FPPH in humans. To determine whether mutations in the chicken BMPR2 gene play a similar role in PHS susceptibility, BMPR-II mRNA from ascitic and nonascitic commercial broilers were sequenced and compared with the published Leghorn chicken BMPR-II mRNA sequence. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in the commercial broiler BMPR-II mRNA. No mutations unique to ascites-susceptible broilers were present in the coding, 5' untranslated or 3' untranslated regions of BMPR-II mRNA. The twelve SNP present within the coding region of BMPR-II mRNA were synonymous substitutions and did not alter the BMPR-II protein sequence. In addition, analysis of BMPR2 gene expression by reverse transcriptase-PCR indicated that there were no differences in BMPR-II mRNA levels in ascitic and nonascitic birds. Therefore, it appears unlikely that mutations in the BMPR2 gene were responsible for susceptibility to PHS in these commercial broilers.

  2. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  3. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  4. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed.

  5. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  6. A prospective study of prenatal and postnatal development of thymus of Deshi chicken.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M; Khan, Z I; Khalil, M; Islam, R

    2003-01-01

    Thymus was one of the primary lymphoid organs along with the bursa in birds. The growth of the thymus of deshi chicken (Gallus Domesticus) from prenatal embryonic day fifteen (ED15) to postnatal day ninety (D90) were studied. In macroscopic study, it was found as a paired, lobulated gland, one half of which was located on either side of the neck. Each half consists of six to eight, flattened, ovoid to elongated, pale white to yellowish white lobes of varing size and shape of lymphoid tissue lying in the sub-dermal connective tissue of the neck. Histologically, the thymus of deshi chicken at embryonic day fifteen was covered by a very thin connective tissue capsule from which septa arises and divides the gland into lobes and lobules. The lobules were homogenous, small in size and the cortex and medulla were demarcated. Lobules have developing Hassall's corpuscles and they were of uniform shape and size. The lobules become well developed with advancing age. The cortex gradually becomes thicker and was packed with large lymphocytes. Hassall's corpuscles became larger and there number increases at postnatal period (D90) in the medulla of the thymus. The growth and development of thymus at each stage of the study period were found to be significantly high. The present finding of thymus of deshi chicken was found similar to the adult hybrid chicken. The study also indicates that the chicken thymic cell population, structure & functions was similar to the human thymus histologically. It was also found that the chicken embryo allows easy experimental access to all the stages of the thymic development so the present study will be helpful for experimentation on lymphoid organs and to understand pathophysiology of immunological diseases of human.

  7. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-03-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  8. Microbiological quality of chicken wings damaged on the farm or in the processing plant.

    PubMed

    Malpass, M C; Williams, A P; Jones, D L; Omed, H M

    2010-06-01

    Selling of damaged chicken wings (those with bone protrusion) for human consumption is prohibited in the European Union on the grounds of possible risks to human health arising from microbial contamination. Standard food industry tests were used to assess different categories of chicken wings (undamaged, farm damaged and factory damaged; n = 264) for, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, total viable counts, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. No significant differences in bacterial numbers existed among wings belonging to the three categories. Only low numbers of bacteria were found throughout, and 97% of all results would pass the standards of a leading UK retailer. These results were strengthened by a longitudinal survey of wing breakage, which showed almost all wing puncturing occurred during the de-feathering process, limiting the likelihood of microbial contamination. Combined, these results indicate there is no increased health risk from consumption of damaged, compared to undamaged, chicken wings. The existing imposed regulations may therefore be an unnecessary burden on the poultry industry.

  9. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  10. Functional expression of chicken calmodulin in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Y; Anraku, Y

    1989-01-31

    The coding region of a chicken calmodulin cDNA was fused to a galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter, and an expression system was constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of calmodulin was demonstrated by purifying the heterologously expressed protein and analyzing its biochemical properties. When the expression plasmid was introduced into a calmodulin gene (cmd1)-disrupted strain of yeast, the cells grew in galactose medium, showing that chicken calmodulin could complement the lesion of yeast calmodulin functionally. Repression of chicken calmodulin in the (cmd1)-disrupted strain caused cell cycle arrest with a G2/M nucleus, as observed previously with a conditional-lethal mutant of yeast calmodulin. These results suggest that the essential function of calmodulin for cell proliferation is conserved in cells ranging from yeast to vertebrate cells.

  11. Iron absorption by small intestine of chickens.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, M P; Martí, M T; Mitjavila, M T; Planas, J

    1993-01-01

    Iron (Fe) absorption by three segments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) of the small intestine of chickens was studied by a perfusion technique in vivo in closed circuit using 59Fe Cl3 and was related to the histological characteristics of each segment. The serosal transfers of Fe for the duodenum and jejunum were the same (14%/cm), but significantly different (p < 0.05) from those of the ileum (9%/cm), which may be explained by the morphological and histological properties of the gut of chickens. However, the presence of Fe in blood and in liver was significantly lower after perfusion of the jejunum and ileum than after perfusion of the duodenum. It is concluded that chickens show an early adaptation of small intestine to Fe absorption in response to the considerable loss of Fe suffered during the laying process.

  12. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor pathway genes in chicken embryo fibroblasts from chickens resistant and susceptible to Marek's disease.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, Santosh; Cheng, Hans H

    2014-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is one of the innate immune defense mechanisms against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the role of TLR in non-MHC genetic resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in the chicken is yet to be elucidated. Chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells from MD susceptible and resistant lines were infected either with Marek's disease virus (MDV) or treated with polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of dsRNA, and the expression of TLR and pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied at 8 and 36 h posttreatment by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Findings of the present study reveal that MDV infection and polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid treatment significantly elevated the mRNA expression of TLR3, IL6, and IL8 in both susceptible and resistant lines. Furthermore, basal expression levels in uninfected CEF for TLR3, TLR7, and IL8 genes were significantly higher in resistant chickens compared with those of susceptible chickens. Our results suggest that TLR3 together with pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a significant role in genetic resistance to MD.

  13. Hyponatremia and bone disease.

    PubMed

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ayus, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-24

    Hip fractures represent a serious health risk in the elderly, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. There is now a considerable volume of literature suggesting that chronic hyponatremia increases the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for both falls and fractures in the elderly. Hyponatremia appears to contribute to falls and fractures by two mechanisms. First, it produces mild cognitive impairment, resulting in unsteady gait and falls; this is probably due to the loss of glutamate (a neurotransmitter involved in gait function) as an osmolyte during brain adaptation to chronic hyponatremia. Second, hyponatremia directly contributes to osteoporosis and increased bone fragility by inducing increased bone resorption to mobilize sodium stores in bone. Low extracellular sodium directly stimulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorptive activity through decreased cellular uptake of ascorbic acid and the induction of oxidative stress; these effects occur in a sodium level-dependent manner. Hyponatremic patients have elevated circulating arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels, and AVP acting on two receptors expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, Avpr1α and Avpr2, can increase bone resorption and decrease osteoblastogenesis. Should we be screening for low serum sodium in patients with osteoporosis or assessing bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with hyponatremia? The answers to these questions have not been established. Definitive answers will require randomized controlled studies that allocate elderly individuals with mild hyponatremia to receive either active treatment or no treatment for hyponatremia, to determine whether correction of hyponatremia prevents gait disturbances and changes in BMD, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Until such studies are conducted, physicians caring for elderly patients must be aware of the association between hyponatremia and bone disorders. As serum sodium is a readily available, simple, and affordable biochemical measurement

  14. The cellular basis of bone turnover and bone loss: a rebuttal of the osteocytic resorption--bone flow theory.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, A M

    1977-01-01

    There is now sufficient evidence to conclude that the osteocytic resorption--bone flow theory of bone turnove is untenable. According to this theory bone is resorbed not from the surface by osteoclasts but from within by osteocytes, towards which bone flows through tissue space away from bone forming surfaces. The need to invoke resorption by osteocytes stems from the belief that too few osteoclasts are present to account for normal bone resoption, a belief which reflects unawareness of the enormous capacity of the osteoclast and the rapidity of its advance. The belief that osteocytes resorb substantial amounts of bone rests on invalid conclusions from indirect techniques, various artifacts of specimen processing and unawareness of the microscopic characteristics of woven bone. Osteocytes enlarge their lacunae by resorbing bone only as a prelude to resorption from the surface, the osteocyte and osteoclast working together as a resorbing unit. The belief that bone can flow is incompatible both with the physical properties of bone and with a substantial body of evidence relating to Haversian remodelling; the experimental data purporting to demonstrate such flow can all be explained by conventional concepts of bone turnover.

  15. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  16. Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

    1992-01-01

    The large, aggregating chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of cartilage, aggrecan, has served as a generic model of proteoglycan structure. Molecular cloning of aggrecans has further defined their amino acid sequences and domain structures. In this study, we have obtained the complete coding sequence of chicken sternal cartilage aggrecan by a combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. The composite sequence is 6117 bp in length, encoding 1951 amino acids. Comparison of chicken aggrecan protein primary structure with rat, human and bovine aggrecans has disclosed both similarities and differences. The domains which are most highly conserved at 70-80% identity are the N-terminal domains G1 and G2 and the C-terminal domain G3. The chondroitin sulphate domain of chicken aggrecan is smaller than that of rat and human aggrecans and has very distinctive repeat sequences. It has two separate sections, one comprising 12 consecutive Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 20 amino acids each, adjacent to the other which has 23 discontinuous Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 10 amino acids each; this latter region, N-terminal to the former one, appears to be unique to chicken aggrecan. The two regions contain a total of 94 potential chondroitin sulphate attachment sites. Genomic comparison shows that, although chicken exons 11-14 are identical in size to the rat and human exons, chicken exon 10 is the smallest of the three species. This is also reflected in the size of its chondroitin sulphate coding region and in the total number of Ser-Gly pairs. The putative keratan sulphate domain shows 31-45% identity with the other species and lacks the repetitive sequences seen in the others. In summary, while the linear arrangement of specific domains of chicken aggrecan is identical to that in the aggrecans of other species, and while there is considerable identity of three separate domains, chicken aggrecan demonstrates unique features, notably in its chondroitin sulphate domain and its keratan sulphate

  17. An argument for the chicken embryo as a model for the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs)

    SciTech Connect

    Henshel, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article will present the argument that the chicken embryo is especially appropriate as an animal model for studying the mechanism of the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The PHAHs are a group of toxicologically related compounds including, in part, the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. The chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo is relatively sensitive to the toxicological effects of the PHAHs being approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the mature bird. The chicken embryo has been used to demonstrate general toxicological teratogeneicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Many of these effects, or analogous effects, have also been observed in mammals and fish. Thus, most animals appear to respond to the PHAHs with a similar toxicological profile, indicating that many of the biomarkers used for the PHAHs are valid across a number of species, including the chicken. Furthermore, the chicken embryo is relatively inexpensive to use for toxicity testing. In addition, all effects detected are due to direct effects on the embryo and are not complicated by maternal interactions. In short, for sensitivity, ease of use, cost and applicability of results to other animals, the chicken embryo is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicological effects of the PHAHs.

  18. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

  19. Immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharides extracted from the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata (higher Basidiomycetes) in specific pathogen-free chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Ai-Rong; Qin, Dan; Zhao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Le; Huang, Fang; Kong, Chao; Yang, Song

    2014-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharides extracted from mycelia of the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata in submerged culture was studied in 100 specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups (50 per group). For the treated group, each kilogram of SPF chickens was fed 5 mg of A. camphorata extract (ACE) for 35 consecutive days. Chickens were killed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, and lymphocytes were separated from the blood, spleen, thymus, bursa, kidney, and pancreas of the chickens. The results showed that, compared to the control group, the immune organ indices (except for the thymus) were higher after 14 days (P < 0.05), and the contents of globulin in blood were significantly increased on the 21st day (P < 0.05). The most of biochemical indices did not significantly changed within 35 days of treatment. Moreover, the response of proliferation and the rates of positive T lymphocytes in blood were higher than in the control group (P < 0.05).The results presented herein indicate that ACE could enhance the immune functions of the organs in SPF chickens and could be an attractive application of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  20. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  1. Transcriptional Response of Chicken Macrophages to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) continues to be the predominant etiologic agent of salmonellosis, with contaminated egg products being the primary source of infection. At the present time, the molecular and immunological mechanisms involved in SE colonization of chicken hosts are not we...

  2. Variable regulation of chicken embryo fibroblasts gene expression by H5N1 avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause severe clinical disease associated with high mortality in chickens and other gallinaceous species. However, the mechanism by which different strains of AIV overcome host response is still not clear. In the present study, differences in early t...

  3. Metabolic and hormonal responses of growing modern meat type chickens to fasting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared the effects of fasting on circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and glucagon in male and female modern meat-type chickens (Ross 708) at three ages (19 d, 33 d and 47 d). Plasma concentrations of glucose were reduced by fasting with reductions of 24.9% (19-d-old),...

  4. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  5. Effects of chicken interferon Gamma on Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFN') during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFN' wit...

  6. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus C25 Isolated from Chicken Cecum

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Morvarid; Mendoza, Mary; Koci, Matthew D.; Daron, Caitlyn; Levy, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are important members of the gut microbiota of humans and animals. Here, we present the genome sequence of Lactobacillus crispatus strain C25, originally isolated from the cecum of 4-week-old chicken fed a standard diet. This isolate represents a potential probiotic strain for poultry. PMID:27811103

  8. Accelerating sample preparation through enzyme-assisted microfiltration of Salmonella in chicken extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microfiltration of chicken extracts has the potential to significantly decrease the time required to detect Salmonella, as long as the extract can be efficiently filtered and the pathogenic microorganisms kept in a viable state during this process. We present conditions that enable microfiltration ...

  9. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken CD80

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CD80 is one of the ligands for CD28 and is an important co-stimulator molecule on antigen presenting cells necessary for T-cell activation. Although CD80 is well characterized in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine species, there is no information on its chicken counterpart. This study was car...

  10. Use of enrichment real time-Polymerase Chain Reaction to enumerate Salmonella on chicken parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella that survive cooking and that cross-contaminate other food during meal preparation and serving represent primary routes of consumer exposure to this pathogen from chicken. Consequently, the present study was undertaken to use enrichment real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to enu...

  11. Mortality of one-week-old chickens during naturally occurring Marek's disease virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a serious economic disease of chickens which occurs worldwide. MD can present as one of several forms, with the most commonly occurring forms being the lymphoproliferative diseases. Under experimental conditions, an early mortality syndrome has been recognized following infec...

  12. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry.

  13. Development and evaluation of an experimental vaccination program using a live avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain to protect immunized chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R

    1994-01-01

    A stable live avirulent, genetically modified delta cya delta crp Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain, chi 3985, was used in several vaccination strategies to evaluate its use in the control of Salmonella infection in chickens. Oral vaccination of chickens at 1 and at 14 days of age with 10(8) CFU of chi 3985 protected against invasion of spleen, ovary, and bursa of Fabricius and colonization of the ileum and cecum in chickens challenged with 10(6) CFU of virulent homologous Salmonella strains from group B. Chickens challenged with heterologous Salmonella strains from groups C, D, and E were protected against visceral invasion of spleen and ovary, while invasion of the bursa of Fabricius and colonization of ileum and cecum was reduced in vaccinated chickens. Oral vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age induced an excellent protection against challenge with virulent group B Salmonella serotypes and very good protection against challenge with group D or E Salmonella serotypes, while protection against challenge with group C Salmonella serotypes was marginal but significant. Vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age also protected vaccinated chickens against challenge with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains. The protection of chickens vaccinated with chi 3985 against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes is outstanding, and the complete protection against ovarian invasion in chickens challenged with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains suggests that vaccination of chickens with chi 3985 can complement the present hygiene- and sanitation-based Salmonella control measures. This paper reports a breakthrough in the use of live avirulent vaccine to control Salmonella carriers in chickens. PMID:7960134

  14. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry. PMID:26733732

  15. A short insertion mutation disrupts genesis of miR-16 and causes increased body weight in domesticated chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xinzheng; Lin, Huiran; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan; Lamont, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is one of the most important quantitative traits with high heritability in chicken. We previously mapped a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for body weight by genome-wide association study (GWAS) in an F2 chicken resource population. To identify the causal mutations linked to this QTL, expression profiles were determined on livers of high-weight and low-weight chicken lines by microarray. Combining the expression pattern with SNP effects by GWAS, miR-16 was identified as the most likely potential candidate with a 3.8-fold decrease in high-weight lines. Re-sequencing revealed that a 54-bp insertion mutation in the upstream region of miR-15a-16 displayed high allele frequencies in high-weight commercial broiler line. This mutation resulted in lower miR-16 expression by introducing three novel splicing sites instead of the missing 5′ terminal splicing of mature miR-16. Elevating miR-16 significantly inhibited DF-1 chicken embryo cell proliferation, consistent with a role in suppression of cellular growth. The 54-bp insertion was significantly associated with increased body weight, bone size and muscle mass. Also, the insertion mutation tended towards fixation in commercial broilers (Fst > 0.4). Our findings revealed a novel causative mutation for body weight regulation that aids our basic understanding of growth regulation in birds. PMID:27808177

  16. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but was only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs.

  17. Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses infect chicken layers by different routes of inoculation.

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Smith, Diane M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Spackman, Erica

    2012-06-01

    In order to develop better control measures against avian influenza, it is necessary to understand how the virus transmits in poultry. In a previous study in which the infectivity and transmissibility of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus was examined in different poultry species, we found that no or minimal infection occurred in chicken and turkeys intranasally (IN) inoculated with the virus. However, we demonstrated that the virus can infect laying turkey hens by the intracloacal (IC) and intraoviduct (IO) routes, possibly explaining the drops in egg production observed in turkey breeder farms affected by the virus. Such novel routes of exposure have not been previously examined in chickens and could also explain outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) that cause a decrease in egg production in chicken layers and breeders. In the present study, 46-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chicken layers were infected by the IN, IC, or IO routes with one of two LPAI viruses: a poultry origin virus, A/chicken/CA/1255/02 (H6N2), and a live bird market isolate, A/chicken/NJ/12220/97 (H9N2). Only hens IN inoculated with the H6N2 virus presented mild clinical signs consisting of depression and anorexia. However, a decrease in number of eggs laid was observed in all virus-inoculated groups when compared to control hens. Evidence of infection was found in all chickens inoculated with the H6N2 virus by any of the three routes and the virus transmitted to contact hens. On the other hand, only one or two hens from each of the groups inoculated with the H9N2 virus shed detectable levels of virus, or seroconverted and did not transmit the virus to contacts, regardless of the route of inoculation. In conclusion, LPAI viruses can also infect chickens through other routes besides the IN route, which is considered the natural route of exposure. However, as seen with the H9N2 virus, the infectivity of the virus did not increase when given by these alternate routes.

  18. Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized. PMID:22110789

  19. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Results Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid. PMID:24731599

  20. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health. PMID:27800493

  1. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2

    PubMed Central

    MIYAHARA, Daichi; OISHI, Isao; MAKINO, Ryuichi; KURUMISAWA, Nozomi; NAKAYA, Ryuma; ONO, Tamao; KAGAMI, Hiroshi; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  2. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus), GLUT12

    PubMed Central

    Coudert, Edouard; Pascal, Géraldine; Dupont, Joëlle; Simon, Jean; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Tesseraud, Sophie; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals. PMID:26431526

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health.

  4. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals New Potential Players of Gonad Differentiation in the Chicken Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Couty, Isabelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Govoroun, Marina S.

    2011-01-01

    Background In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein) and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. Conclusion/Significance This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors of chicken gonad

  5. Evaluation of Relative Bioavailability of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol to Cholecalciferol for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, J. G.; Zhang, J. L.; Qu, H. X.; Zhang, C. M.; Yan, Y. F.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in 1- to 21-d-old broiler chickens fed with calcium (Ca)- and phosphorus (P)-deficient diets. On the day of hatch, 450 female Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to nine treatments, with five replicates of ten birds each. The basal diet contained 0.50% Ca and 0.25% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and was not supplemented with vitamin D. Vitamin D3 was fed at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 μg/kg, and 25-OH-D3 was fed at 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μg/kg. The RBV of 25-OH-D3 was determined using vitamin D3 as the standard source by the slope ratio method. Vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 intake was used as the independent variable for regression analysis. The linear relationships between the level of vitamin D3 or 25-OH-D3 and body weight gain (BWG) and the weight, length, ash weight, and the percentage of ash, Ca, and P in femur, tibia, and metatarsus of broiler chickens were observed. Using BWG as the criterion, the RBV value of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 was 1.85. Using the mineralization of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus as criteria, the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 ranged from 1.82 to 2.45, 1.86 to 2.52, and 1.65 to 2.05, respectively. These data indicate that 25-OH-D3 is approximately 2.03 times as active as vitamin D3 in promoting growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chicken diets. PMID:26954155

  6. Comparative pathologic features and development of Sphaeridiotrema globulus (Trematoda) infections in the mute swan and domestic chicken and chicken chorioallantois.

    PubMed

    Huffman, J E; Fried, B; Roscoe, D E; Cali, A

    1984-02-01

    The natural infection of Sphaeridiotrema globulus in the mute swan and the experimental infection in the chicken resulted in an ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis. Swans and chickens died from the resultant blood loss. Culturing of the parasite on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chicken egg resulted in hemorrhage and a cellular response of the chorioallantois to the trematode. Experimental infections in the domestic chicken and chicken embryo can be of use for the study of ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis produced by the trematode, pathologic features, identification of the metacercaria to the adult, and developmental aspects of the parasite.

  7. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  8. Chicken IL-17F: Identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-Infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), belonging to the IL-17 family, is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was first identified from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of chickens. The chIL-17F share...

  9. Evolutionary Pets: Offspring Numbers Reveal Speciation Process in Domesticated Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75%±7.10%, M±SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75%±15.32%, M±SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal. PMID:22879889

  10. Bone Density Test

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Bone density test By Mayo Clinic Staff A bone density test determines if you have osteoporosis — a disease that causes bones to ... your bones could be quite weak. A bone density test enhances the accuracy of calculating your risk ...

  11. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft