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Sample records for chicken bone presenting

  1. Proctalgia and colorectal stricture as the result of a 2-year transit of a retained rectal chicken bone: a case presentation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elmoghrabi, Adel; Mohamed, Mohamed; Wong, Kristoffer; McCann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with progressively increasing intensity of lower abdominal, pelvic and rectal pain of 3-day duration. She had similar symptoms intermittently over the preceding 2 years. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed the presence of a 3.8×0.4 cm linear foreign body in the colorectal region. History obtained from relatives recalled inadvertent ingestion of a chicken bone 2 years prior to presentation. Trials of foreign body retrieval, both manually and via rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy, however, were unsuccessful due to the presence of obstruction by a circumferential rectal stricture. Consequently, an exploratory laparotomy was performed, with segmental resection of 17 cm of rectum and distal sigmoid. Dissection of the strictured segment revealed the presence of a chicken bone. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, was discharged and is to continue following up on an outpatient basis. PMID:27325671

  2. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-01-01

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  3. Bone mineralization pathways during the rapid growth of embryonic chicken long bones.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Asscher, Yotam; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The uptake and transport of ions from the environment to the site of bone formation is only partially understood and, for the most part, based on disparate observations in different animals. Here we study different aspects of the biomineralization pathways in one system, the rapidly forming long bones of the chicken embryo. We mainly used cryo-fixation and cryo-electron imaging to preserve the often unstable mineral phases in the tissues. We show the presence of surprisingly large amounts of mineral particles located inside membrane-delineated vesicles in the bone forming tissue between the blood vessels and the forming bone surface. Some of these particles are also located inside mitochondrial networks. The surfaces of the forming bones in the extracellular space contain abundant aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate particles, but these are not enveloped by vesicle membranes. In the bone resorbing region, osteoclasts also contain many particles in both mitochondrial networks and within vesicles. Some of these particles are present also between cells. These observations, together with the previously reported observation that CaP mineral particles inside membranes are present in blood vessels, leads us to the conclusion that important components of the bone mineralization pathways in rapidly forming chicken bone are dense phase mineral particles bound within membranes. It remains to be determined whether these mineral particles are transported to the site of bone formation in the solid state, fluid state or dissolve and re-precipitate. PMID:27108185

  4. Bone mineralization pathways during the rapid growth of embryonic chicken long bones.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Asscher, Yotam; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The uptake and transport of ions from the environment to the site of bone formation is only partially understood and, for the most part, based on disparate observations in different animals. Here we study different aspects of the biomineralization pathways in one system, the rapidly forming long bones of the chicken embryo. We mainly used cryo-fixation and cryo-electron imaging to preserve the often unstable mineral phases in the tissues. We show the presence of surprisingly large amounts of mineral particles located inside membrane-delineated vesicles in the bone forming tissue between the blood vessels and the forming bone surface. Some of these particles are also located inside mitochondrial networks. The surfaces of the forming bones in the extracellular space contain abundant aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate particles, but these are not enveloped by vesicle membranes. In the bone resorbing region, osteoclasts also contain many particles in both mitochondrial networks and within vesicles. Some of these particles are present also between cells. These observations, together with the previously reported observation that CaP mineral particles inside membranes are present in blood vessels, leads us to the conclusion that important components of the bone mineralization pathways in rapidly forming chicken bone are dense phase mineral particles bound within membranes. It remains to be determined whether these mineral particles are transported to the site of bone formation in the solid state, fluid state or dissolve and re-precipitate.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of cathelicidin genes in chicken bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang In; Jang, Hyun June; Jeon, Mi-hyang; Lee, Mi Ock; Kim, Jeom Sun; Jeon, Ik-Soo; Byun, Sung June

    2016-04-01

    Cathelicidins form a family of vertebrate-specific immune molecules with an evolutionarily conserved gene structure. We analyzed the expression patterns of cathelicidin genes (CAMP, CATH3, and CATHB1) in chicken bone marrow cells (BMCs) and chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs). We found that CAMP and CATHB1 were significantly up-regulated in BMCs, whereas the expression of CATH3 did not differ significantly between BMCs and CEFs. To study the mechanism underlying the up-regulation of cathelicidin genes in BMCs, we predicted the transcription factors (TFs) that bind to the 5'-flanking regions of cathelicidin genes. CEBPA, EBF1, HES1, MSX1, and ZIC3 were up-regulated in BMCs compared to CEFs. Subsequently, when a siRNA-mediated knockdown assay was performed for MSX1, the expression of CAMP and CATHB1 was decreased in BMCs. We also showed that the transcriptional activity of the CAMP promoter was decreased by mutation of the MSX1-binding sites present within the 5'-flanking region of CAMP. These results increase our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling cathelicidin genes in BMCs.

  6. Detection of irradiated chicken by ESR spectroscopy of bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Del Mastro, N. L.; Wiendl, F. M.

    1995-02-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used to treat poultry to remove harmful microorganisms, mainly Salmonella, which contaminates chicken, goose and other fresh and frozen poultry. This microorganism is sensitive to low dose radiation. Thus, irradiating these foods with doses between 1 to 7 kGy results in a large reduction of bacteria. Since it is necessary to determine whether irradiation has occurred and to what extend, this work studied the signal produced by ionizing radiation within the hard crystalline matrix of chicken's bone to establish a control method. Chicken's drumsticks were irradiated and bones separated from flesh were lyophilized and milled. ESR spectrum was then obtained. The ESR signal increased linearly with dose over the range 0.25 to 8.0 kGy. Free radicals evaluated during 30 days after irradiation showed stable in this period.

  7. Culture of the 'aquatic chicken': present concerns and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Coward, K; Little, D C

    2001-02-01

    This is not actually a swimming chicken, but rather a fish that fulfils a similar role for subsistence farmers and can also be farmed on a commercial scale. Like the chicken, the tilapiines are meeting protein needs in an affordable way world-wide. However, present farming strategies are struggling to meet ever-rising consumer demand.

  8. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In Experiment 1 (3 replications), chicken thigh meat was separated from bones at 0.45 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h and trimmed to obtain iliotibialis muscle. The iliotibiali...

  9. Bone Fragment Detection in Chicken Breast Fillets using Transmittance Image Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the detection of bone fragments embedded in de-boned skinless chicken breast fillets by modeling optical images generated by back-lighting. Imaging of chicken fillets is often dominated by multiple scattering properties of the fillets. Thus, resulting images from multi...

  10. Embedded Bone Fragment Detection in Chicken Fillets using Transmittance Image Enhancement and Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the detection of bone fragments embedded in compressed de-boned skinless chicken breast fillets by enhancing single-band transmittance images generated by back-lighting and exploiting spectral information from hyperspectral reflectance images. Optical imaging of chicken ...

  11. The effect of temperature on radiation-induced radicals in irradiated chicken drumstick bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, M.; Korkmaz, M.; Korkmaz, Ö.

    1997-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the ESR spectra of well characterized unirradiated and irradiated samples of chicken drumstick bones under standardized experimental conditions has been investigated in detail over the temperature range 100-150 K. No significant changes in the linewidth and g factor of the endogenous signal were observed, but the signal intensity was found to decrease markedly in an irreversible way when the temperature was increased. The radiation-induced signal turned out to be the sum of a narrow and a broad line which were assigned to an inorganic and an organic radical, respectively. The thermal stability of the radiation-induced inorganic radical used in poultry irradiation dose determination and in dating was found to be much better than that of organic and endogenous radicals. The results of the present work highlight the need to define properly calibration factors which can be used in conjunction with pre- or post-irradiation thermal treatment of chicken drumstick bones.

  12. Bone Mass and Bone Quality Are Altered by Hypoactivity in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Eric; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Goyenvalle, Eric; Audran, Maurice; Chappard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Disuse induces a rapid bone loss in adults; sedentarity is now recognized as a risk factor for osteoporosis. Hypoactivity or confinement also decrease bone mass in adults but their effects are largely unknown and only few animal models have been described. We have used 10 chickens of the rapidly growing strain 857K bred in a large enclosure (FREE group); 10 others were confined in small cages with little space to move around (HYPO group). They were sacrificed at 53 days and femurs and tibias were evaluated by texture analysis, dual energy X-ray densitometry, microcomputed tomography (microCT) and histomorphometry. Hypoactivity had no effect on the length and diameter of the bones. Bone mineral density (BMD), microCT (trabecular bone volume and trabecular microarchitecture) and texture analysis were always found significantly reduced in the animals of the HYPO group. BMD was reduced at both femur and tibia diaphysises; BMD of the metaphysis was significantly reduced in the femur but not in the tibia. An increase in osteoid volume and surfaces was noted in the HYPO group. However, there was no alteration of the mineral phase as the osteoid thickness did not differ from control animals. Bone loss was much more pronounced at the lower femur metaphysis than at the upper metaphysis of the tibia. At the tibia, only microarchitectural changes of trabecular bone could be evidenced. The confined chicken represents a new method for the study of hypodynamia since these animals do not have surgical lesions. PMID:25635404

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Xuefeng black-boned chicken.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Li; Xie, Hong-Bing; Yang, Yong-Sheng; Yu, Qi-Fang; He, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xuefeng black-boned chicken is one of the famous native breeds in China. In this work, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xuefeng black-boned chicken for the first time, which was determined through PCR-based method. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,783 bp, with the base composition of 30.24% for A, 23.72% for T, 32.52% for C, 13.53% for G, in the order C > A > T > G feature occurring in the Xuefeng black-boned chicken. It contained the typical structure, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). It was similar to the gene arrangement in Silky chicken. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xuefeng black-boned chicken provided an important data for further study on the genetic mechanism.

  14. Genetic Regulation of Bone Metabolism in the Chicken: Similarities and Differences to Mammalian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and expression QTL (eQTL) mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken) and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone. PMID:26023928

  15. Genetic regulation of bone metabolism in the chicken: similarities and differences to Mammalian systems.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-05-01

    Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and expression QTL (eQTL) mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken) and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone. PMID:26023928

  16. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  17. Strontium administration in young chickens improves bone volume and architecture but does not enhance bone structural and material strength.

    PubMed

    Shahnazari, M; Lang, D H; Fosmire, G J; Sharkey, N A; Mitchell, A D; Leach, R M

    2007-03-01

    Genetic selection for rapid body growth in broiler chickens has resulted in adverse effects on the skeletal system exemplified by a higher rate of cortical fractures in leg bones. Strontium (Sr) has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation and strength. We supplemented the diet of 300-day-old chicks with increasing dosages of Sr (0%, 0.12%, or 0.24%) to study the capacity of the element to improve bone quality and mechanical integrity. Treatment with Sr increased cortical bone volume and reduced bone porosity as measured by micro-computed tomography. The higher level of Sr significantly reduced bone Ca content (34.7%) relative to controls (37.2%), suggesting that Sr replaced some of the Ca in bone. Material properties determined by the three-point bending test showed that bone in the Sr-treated groups withstood greater deformation prior to fracture. Load to failure and ultimate stress were similar across groups. Our results indicate that Sr treatment in rapidly growing chickens induced positive effects on bone volume but did not improve the breaking strength of long bones. PMID:17340224

  18. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P < or = 0.01). Bone mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P < or = 0.0001) from BMC determined in vivo by DXA; however, there were no differences in ex vivo BMC and BMC ash, although they were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P < or = 0.0001). We concluded that there was no effect of n-3 fatty acids on tibia bone in mature White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens.

  19. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P < or = 0.01). Bone mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P < or = 0.0001) from BMC determined in vivo by DXA; however, there were no differences in ex vivo BMC and BMC ash, although they were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P < or = 0.0001). We concluded that there was no effect of n-3 fatty acids on tibia bone in mature White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens. PMID:18212376

  20. Lighting schedule and dimming period in early life: consequences for broiler chicken leg bone development.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Carla W; Molenaar, Roos; Buitink, Christiaan J; van Roovert-Reijrink, Inge A M; Maatjens, Conny M; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged (>20 h) light periods during grow-out of broiler chickens have been shown to increase the occurrence of skeletal abnormalities, but the effects of early life light-dark schedules are not well known. The present experiment investigated the effect of lighting schedule and light-dark transition during the first days of a broiler chicken's life on leg bone development. In 2 experiments, Ross-308 broiler chicks (n = 2,500 per experiment) were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments for 4 d: 24L; 2L:1D lighting schedule with either an abrupt or gradual light-dark transition ("dimming"); and a 2L:6D lighting schedule with an abrupt transition or dimming. At d 4, tibia and femur weight, length, and diameter, yolk free body mass, organ weights, realized weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were determined. In Experiment 2, chick length and relative asymmetry of the femur and tibia were determined additionally. Data were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. 24L resulted in higher femur diameter (P<0.028; both experiments), tibia diameter (P<0.001; Experiment 1), relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.002; Experiment 2), and relative asymmetry of femur length (P=0.003) than applying a light-dark schedule. A 2L:1D lighting schedule resulted in higher femur length (P=0.039; Experiment 1) and relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.032; Experiment 2) and lower relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.016) than a 2L:6D lighting schedule. An abrupt light-dark transition resulted in higher relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.004; Experiment 2) and relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.018) than dimming. To conclude, leg bone development in the first 4 d of a broiler chicken's life was higher for 24L than when a lighting schedule was applied, but relative asymmetry was higher as well, suggesting developmental instability. The effect of dimming on leg bone development was less pronounced, but the decreased relative asymmetry levels in the dimming

  1. Bone Tissue Engineering: Past-Present-Future.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Rodolfo; Giannoni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the few tissues to display a true potential for regeneration. Fracture healing is an obvious example where regeneration occurs through tightly regulated sequences of molecular and cellular events which recapitulate tissue formation seen during embryogenesis. Still in some instances, bone regeneration does not occur properly (i.e. critical size lesions) and an appropriate therapeutic intervention is necessary. Successful replacement of bone by tissue engineering will likely depend on the recapitulation of this flow of events. In fact, bone regeneration requires cross-talk between microenvironmental factors and cells; for example, resident mesenchymal progenitors are recruited and properly guided by soluble and insoluble signaling molecules. Tissue engineering attempts to reproduce and to mimic this natural milieu by delivering cells capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, inducing growth factors and biomaterials to support cellular attachment, proliferation, migration, and matrix deposition. In the last two decades, a significant effort has been made by the scientific community in the development of methods and protocols to repair and regenerate tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. In this same period, great advancements have been achieved in the biology of stem cells and on the mechanisms governing "stemness". Unfortunately, after two decades, effective clinical translation does not exist, besides a few limited examples. Many years have passed since cell-based regenerative therapies were first described as "promising approaches", but this definition still engulfs the present literature. Failure to envisage translational cell therapy applications in routine medical practice evidences the existence of unresolved scientific and technical struggles, some of which still puzzle researchers in the field and are presented in this chapter.

  2. Infection of chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells with subgroup J avian leukosis virus inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and alters cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhang, Xu; Dai, Manman; Qin, Jianru; Hao, Jianjong; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng

    2016-10-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus known to induce tumor formation and immunosuppression in infected chickens. One of the organs susceptible to ALV-J is the bone marrow, from which specialized antigen-presenting cells named dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are derived. Notably, these cells possess the unique ability to induce primary immune responses. In the present study, a method of cultivating and purifying DCs from chicken bone marrow in vitro was established to investigate the effects of ALV-J infection on BM-DC differentiation or generation. The results indicated that ALV-J not only infects the chicken bone marrow mononuclear cells but also appears to inhibit the differentiation and maturation of BM-DCs and to trigger apoptosis. Moreover, substantial reductions in the mRNA expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, MHCI, and MHCII and in cytokine production were detected in the surviving BM-DCs following ALV-J infection. These findings indicate that ALV-J infection disrupts the process of bone marrow mononuclear cell differentiation into BM-DCs likely via altered antigen presentation, resulting in a downstream immune response in affected chickens.

  3. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Kogut, Michael H; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Bottje, Walter G; Bielke, Lisa R; Faulkner, Olivia B

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated.

  4. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Hu, Li; Li, Xia; Wu, Xiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB) containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group) were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry. PMID:27016175

  5. Phosvitin phosphorus is involved in chicken embryo bone formation through dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Geng, Fang; Huang, Xi; Ma, Meihu; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of phosvitin in bone formation in chicken embryos. The yolk P content, P/N ratio and secondary structure of phosvitin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the tibia, and body length were determined during incubation. A high correlation was found between the phosphate group content of phosvitin and both secondary structure and bone metabolism (ALP activity in the tibia, body length). The ALP activity and body length growth slightly lagged behind changes in the P/N ratio and the secondary structure of phosvitin. The phosphate content of phosvitin decreased, the γ-random coil and β-turn gradually transformed into α-helixes, and the secondary structure of protein tended to become more orderly; these changes mainly occurred on d 13 to 16. Bone formation of the chicken embryos occurred primarily on d 14 to 18, whereas ALP activity and body length growth increased substantially. The results indicate that phosvitin P is involved in chicken embryo bone formation through dephosphorylation.

  6. Fungal osteomyelitis of maxillofacial bones: Rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B; Singh, Hanspal; Mohanty, Sujata; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is defined as inflammation of the medullary cavities, haversian system and adjacent cortex of bone. Osteomyelitis involving maxilla is quite rare when compared to that of mandible. Fungal osteomyelitis is very rarely seen and documented in the maxillofacial area. It is devastating to patients if it is invasive in nature. A prospective study was undertaken from December 2011 to December 2013. Biopsied hard tissue bits were decalcified and sections were stained with H&E, periodic acid Schiff and Grocott methenamine silver. Culture sensitivity was carried out in all cases. Surgical intervention followed by antifungal therapy was advocated to treat the patients. The current series showed five cases of fungal osteomyelitis which included candidal osteomyelitis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis with slight predominance of maxilla over mandible. Osteomyelitis of facial bones needs to be investigated thoroughly as there is no difference in clinical presentation between bacterial and fungal osteomyelitis. The diagnostic workup with biopsy and culture sensitivity helps to identify the pathogen at the earliest. Appropriate antifungal treatment needs to be advocated for successful treatment. PMID:27721629

  7. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding. PMID:27760160

  8. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  9. Cell-autonomous sex differences in gene expression in chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morales, Carla; Nandi, Sunil; Zhao, Debiao; Sauter, Kristin A; Vervelde, Lonneke; McBride, Derek; Sang, Helen M; Clinton, Mike; Hume, David A

    2015-03-01

    We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome-specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN-responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes.

  10. Cell-Autonomous Sex Differences in Gene Expression in Chicken Bone Marrow–Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Morales, Carla; Nandi, Sunil; Zhao, Debiao; Sauter, Kristin A.; Vervelde, Lonneke; McBride, Derek; Sang, Helen M.; Clinton, Mike

    2015-01-01

    We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome–specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN–responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes. PMID:25637020

  11. Bone Mass and Bone Quality are Altered by Hypoactivity in the Chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, E.; Libouban, H.; Basle, M. F.; Chappard, D.

    2008-06-01

    Disuse induces a rapid bone loss in adults. Hypoactivity also decreases bone mass in adults but its effects in young growing animals are largely unknown. 10 chicks of the rapidly growing strain 857K were grown in a large enclosure; 10 others were kept in small cages with little space to move around. They were sacrificed at 56 days and femur and tibia were evaluated by texture analysis, DEXA and microCT. Hypoactivity had no effect on the length and diameter the bones. BMD, microCT (BV/TV and trabecular microarchitecture) and texture analysis were always found significantly reduced in the bones of hypodynamic animals.

  12. Preparation of Substrate for Flavorant from Chicken Bone Residue with Hot-Pressure Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Dong, Xian-Bing; Yue, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Hot-pressure extraction (HPE), which is regarded as a "green" technology, was applied to extract nutrients (protein, collagen, and minerals) from chicken bone residue (CBR). Amino acids (AA), color, and volatile flavor compounds of chicken bone extract (CBE) were also investigated. Results showed that contents of protein, total soluble solids, minerals, and collagen of CBE were positively correlated with extraction time and temperature. High ratios of protein (83.51%) and collagen (96.81%) were obtained with 135 °C and 120 min. Essential AA accounted for 31.03% to 47.73% of total AA in CBE. The percentage of bitter AA in TAA decreased from 28.94% to 25.02% at 0 min to 20.19% and 21.41% at 120 min, although fresh AA increased from 46.35% to 50.84% (0 min) to 53.14% (120 min) at 130 and 135 °C, respectively, indicating CBE was nutritionally beneficial with good flavor. Color and volatile flavor of CBE improved significantly after extraction, although calcium in CBE (4.2 to 4.8 mg/100 g) was relatively low compared with that of CBR (1078 mg/100 g). It can be concluded that HPE is a promising way to transform CBR into a nutritious flavorant substrate, but it is not an efficient way to extract calcium. PMID:26809140

  13. Preparation of Substrate for Flavorant from Chicken Bone Residue with Hot-Pressure Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Zhi; Dong, Xian-Bing; Yue, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Jia, Wei; Li, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Hot-pressure extraction (HPE), which is regarded as a "green" technology, was applied to extract nutrients (protein, collagen, and minerals) from chicken bone residue (CBR). Amino acids (AA), color, and volatile flavor compounds of chicken bone extract (CBE) were also investigated. Results showed that contents of protein, total soluble solids, minerals, and collagen of CBE were positively correlated with extraction time and temperature. High ratios of protein (83.51%) and collagen (96.81%) were obtained with 135 °C and 120 min. Essential AA accounted for 31.03% to 47.73% of total AA in CBE. The percentage of bitter AA in TAA decreased from 28.94% to 25.02% at 0 min to 20.19% and 21.41% at 120 min, although fresh AA increased from 46.35% to 50.84% (0 min) to 53.14% (120 min) at 130 and 135 °C, respectively, indicating CBE was nutritionally beneficial with good flavor. Color and volatile flavor of CBE improved significantly after extraction, although calcium in CBE (4.2 to 4.8 mg/100 g) was relatively low compared with that of CBR (1078 mg/100 g). It can be concluded that HPE is a promising way to transform CBR into a nutritious flavorant substrate, but it is not an efficient way to extract calcium.

  14. Bone marrow metastasis presenting as bicytopenia originating from hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Mi; Yoon, Ki Tae; Cho, Mong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook; Choi, Cheol Woong; Park, Su Bum; Heo, Jeong; Woo, Hyun Young; Lim, Won; Bakhtiar UI Islam, SM

    2016-01-01

    The bone is a common site for metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, bone marrow metastasis from HCC is rarely reported, and its frequency is unclear. Here we report a rare case of bone marrow metastasis that presented as bicytopenia originating from HCC without bone metastasis. A 58-year-old man was admitted for investigation of a liver mass with extensive lymph node enlargement that was detected when examining his general weakness and weight loss. Laboratory findings revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, mild elevated liver enzymes, normal prothrombin time percentage and high levels of tumor markers (α-fetoprotein and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin). Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple enhanced masses in the liver and multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the abdomen. A bone marrow biopsy revealed only a few normal hematopoietic cells and abundant tumor cells. Despite its rarity, bone marrow metastasis should always be suspected in HCC patients even if accompanied by cirrhosis. PMID:27184470

  15. Turner's syndrome presenting as metabolic bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Balachandran, Karthik; Ananthakrishnan, Ramesh; Hamide, Abdoul

    2012-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a genetic disorder with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome with characteristic phenotypic features. The prevalence of renal anomalies in turner syndrome is 30–40%. However, the renal function is usually normal. We report a case of Turner's syndrome presenting with chronic kidney disease and renal osteodystrophy. PMID:22837932

  16. Distinct functional responses to stressors of bone marrow derived dendritic cells from diverse inbred chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Van Goor, Angelica; Slawinska, Anna; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Differences in responses of chicken bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) to in vitro treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat, and LPS + heat were identified. The Fayoumi is more disease resistant and heat tolerant than the Leghorn line. Nitric Oxide (NO) production, phagocytic ability, MHC II surface expression and mRNA expression were measured. NO was induced in BMDC from both lines in response to LPS and LPS + heat stimulation; Fayoumi produced more NO with LPS treatment. Fayoumi had higher phagocytic ability and MHC II surface expression. Gene expression for the heat-related genes BAG3, HSP25, HSPA2, and HSPH1 was strongly induced with heat and few differences existed between lines. Expression for the immune-related genes CCL4, CCL5, CD40, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12β, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and iNOS was highly induced in response to LPS and different between lines. This research contributes to the sparse knowledge of genetic differences in chicken BMDC biology and function. PMID:27238770

  17. Chimaerism of immunocompetent cells in allogeneic bone marrow-reconstituted lethally irradiated chickens.

    PubMed

    Lydyard, P M; Ivanvi, J

    1975-08-01

    Injection of parental bone marrow cells into 12-day-old lethally irradiated F1 hybrid chickens resulted in chimaerism of donor-type graft-versus-host (GVH)-reactive cells and suppression of antisheep red blood cell antibody response. These manifestations of a chronic graft-versus-host reaction were prevented by pretreatment of the donor marrow with specific anti-T cell globulin. In some chimaeras donor-type GVH-reactive cells developed gradually from T cells precursors of donor origin. Transplantation of spleen and marrow cells from sheep red blood cell-primed F1 hybrid donors into lethally irradiated parental recipients resulted in the loss of memory potential within 1-2 weeks of transfer, whereas donor-type IgG allotype synthesis was preserved. Injection of goat antichicken thymocyte serum to recipients 1 day before reconstitution enabled the antibody response of memory cells at 1-2 weeks, although it failed to prevent their rejection by 8-9 weeeks after transplantation. Split chimaerism of donor-type GVH-reactive cells was demonstrated in chickens which had previously rejected the B cells derived from the same graft. PMID:241144

  18. Bone-remodeling transcript levels are independent of perching in end-of-lay white leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Dale, Maurice D; Mortimer, Erin M; Kolli, Santharam; Achramowicz, Erik; Borchert, Glenn; Juliano, Steven A; Halkyard, Scott; Sietz, Nick; Gatto, Craig; Hester, Patricia Y; Rubin, David A

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease that commonly results in a 30% incidence of fracture in hens used to produce eggs for human consumption. One of the causes of osteoporosis is the lack of mechanical strain placed on weight-bearing bones. In conventionally-caged hens, there is inadequate space for chickens to exercise and induce mechanical strain on their bones. One approach is to encourage mechanical stress on bones by the addition of perches to conventional cages. Our study focuses on the molecular mechanism of bone remodeling in end-of-lay hens (71 weeks) with access to perches. We examined bone-specific transcripts that are actively involved during development and remodeling. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined seven transcripts (COL2A1 (collagen, type II, alpha 1), RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand), OPG (osteoprotegerin), PTHLH (PTH-like hormone), PTH1R (PTH/PTHLH type-1 receptor), PTH3R (PTH/PTHLH type-3 receptor), and SOX9 (Sry-related high mobility group box)) in phalange, tibia and femur. Our results indicate that the only significant effect was a difference among bones for COL2A1 (femur > phalange). Therefore, we conclude that access to a perch did not alter transcript expression. Furthermore, because hens have been used as a model for human bone metabolism and osteoporosis, the results indicate that bone remodeling due to mechanical loading in chickens may be a product of different pathways than those involved in the mammalian model. PMID:25625518

  19. Bone-Remodeling Transcript Levels Are Independent of Perching in End-of-Lay White Leghorn Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Maurice D.; Mortimer, Erin M.; Kolli, Santharam; Achramowicz, Erik; Borchert, Glenn; Juliano, Steven A.; Halkyard, Scott; Sietz, Nick; Gatto, Craig; Hester, Patricia Y.; Rubin, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease that commonly results in a 30% incidence of fracture in hens used to produce eggs for human consumption. One of the causes of osteoporosis is the lack of mechanical strain placed on weight-bearing bones. In conventionally-caged hens, there is inadequate space for chickens to exercise and induce mechanical strain on their bones. One approach is to encourage mechanical stress on bones by the addition of perches to conventional cages. Our study focuses on the molecular mechanism of bone remodeling in end-of-lay hens (71 weeks) with access to perches. We examined bone-specific transcripts that are actively involved during development and remodeling. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined seven transcripts (COL2A1 (collagen, type II, alpha 1), RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand), OPG (osteoprotegerin), PTHLH (PTH-like hormone), PTH1R (PTH/PTHLH type-1 receptor), PTH3R (PTH/PTHLH type-3 receptor), and SOX9 (Sry-related high mobility group box)) in phalange, tibia and femur. Our results indicate that the only significant effect was a difference among bones for COL2A1 (femur > phalange). Therefore, we conclude that access to a perch did not alter transcript expression. Furthermore, because hens have been used as a model for human bone metabolism and osteoporosis, the results indicate that bone remodeling due to mechanical loading in chickens may be a product of different pathways than those involved in the mammalian model. PMID:25625518

  20. The role of pleiotropy and linkage in genes affecting a sexual ornament and bone allocation in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, M; Rubin, C-J; Höglund, A; Sahlqvist, A-S; Jonsson, K B; Kerje, S; Ekwall, O; Kämpe, O; Andersson, L; Jensen, P; Wright, D

    2014-05-01

    Sexual selection and the ornaments that inform such choices have been extensively studied, particularly from a phenotypic perspective. Although more is being revealed about the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments, much still remains to be discovered. The comb of the chicken is one of the most widely recognized sexual ornaments, which has been shown to be correlated with both fecundity and bone allocation. In this study, we use a combination of multiple intercrosses between White Leghorn populations and wild-derived Red Junglefowl to, first, map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bone allocation and, second, to identify expression QTL that correlate and colocalize with comb mass. These candidate quantitative genes were then assessed for potential pleiotropic effects on bone tissue and fecundity traits. We identify genes that correlate with both relative comb mass and bone traits suggesting a combination of both pleiotropy and linkage mediates gene regulatory variation in these traits. PMID:24655072

  1. The role of pleiotropy and linkage in genes affecting a sexual ornament and bone allocation in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, M; Rubin, C-J; Höglund, A; Sahlqvist, A-S; Jonsson, K B; Kerje, S; Ekwall, O; Kämpe, O; Andersson, L; Jensen, P; Wright, D

    2014-05-01

    Sexual selection and the ornaments that inform such choices have been extensively studied, particularly from a phenotypic perspective. Although more is being revealed about the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments, much still remains to be discovered. The comb of the chicken is one of the most widely recognized sexual ornaments, which has been shown to be correlated with both fecundity and bone allocation. In this study, we use a combination of multiple intercrosses between White Leghorn populations and wild-derived Red Junglefowl to, first, map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bone allocation and, second, to identify expression QTL that correlate and colocalize with comb mass. These candidate quantitative genes were then assessed for potential pleiotropic effects on bone tissue and fecundity traits. We identify genes that correlate with both relative comb mass and bone traits suggesting a combination of both pleiotropy and linkage mediates gene regulatory variation in these traits.

  2. Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible with unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Capote-Moreno, Ana; Acero, Julio; García-Recuero, Ignacio; Ruiz, Julián; Serrano, Rosario; de Paz, Víctor

    2009-03-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign lesions of bone tissue, infrequent in craneofacial skeleton with regard to other structures like long bones or the spine. They are composed of sinusoidal and vascular spaces blood-filled and surrounded by fibrous tissue septa. We present a case of a 29-year-old Caucasian male with a big swelling in the left mandible associated to pain and rapid growth. He referred previous extraction of the left inferior third molar. On the X-ray study, an expansive multilocular and high vascularized bony lesion within the mandibular angle was observed. It produced expansion and destruction of lingual and buccal cortex. An incisional biopsy was performed showing a fibrous tissue with blood-filled spaces lesion suggestive of an aneurysmal bone cyst. After selective embolization of the tumour, surgical resection was done with curettage and immediate reconstruction of the defect with an anterior iliac crest graft. Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-neoplastic but locally aggressive tumours with occasional rapid growth that may be differentiated from other multilocular process like ameloblastoma, ossifying fibroma, epithelial cyst, giant cell granuloma and sarcomas. Treatment of choice consists on conservative surgical excision of the mass with curettage or enucleation. When resection creates a big defect, primary surgical reconstruction is recommended.

  3. [Apical petrositis, osteomyelitis of the base of the skull bones and of the first cervical vertebra in a 5 year-old children following chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Zelikovich, E I; Soldatsky, Yu L; Burova, O V

    2016-01-01

    This publication was designed to describe a rare case of development of apicalpetrositis in a child presenting with acute otitis mediafollowing chicken pox experienced in the preceding period. We carried out the study with the use of computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated destruction of the temporal bone, bones of the base of the skull and of the first cervical vertebra. The treatment strategy chosen for the management of this condition that included antibiotic therapy and expectant observation proved justified and can be recommended as an algorithm of choice taking into consideration the difficulty of surgical approach to the apex of the petrous pyramid. However, this approach is associated with the high risk of disability arising from the potential injury to the craniocerebral nerves.

  4. [Apical petrositis, osteomyelitis of the base of the skull bones and of the first cervical vertebra in a 5 year-old children following chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Zelikovich, E I; Soldatsky, Yu L; Burova, O V

    2016-01-01

    This publication was designed to describe a rare case of development of apicalpetrositis in a child presenting with acute otitis mediafollowing chicken pox experienced in the preceding period. We carried out the study with the use of computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated destruction of the temporal bone, bones of the base of the skull and of the first cervical vertebra. The treatment strategy chosen for the management of this condition that included antibiotic therapy and expectant observation proved justified and can be recommended as an algorithm of choice taking into consideration the difficulty of surgical approach to the apex of the petrous pyramid. However, this approach is associated with the high risk of disability arising from the potential injury to the craniocerebral nerves. PMID:26977573

  5. Systemic mastocytosis presenting with gastrointestinal, bone and skin involvement.

    PubMed

    Rosignuolo, Maria; Muscianese, Marta; Pranteda, Guglielmo

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is often the first imaging study performed in patient with abdominal pain or vague symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract. To this end, it has been demonstrated that transabdominal sonography achieves good to excellent results in potential bowel disorders; especially, if ultrasonography findings are framed in the context of clinical information. Systemic mastocytosis is not a common disease and it usually involves skin, gastrointestinal tract and bone. It results from a clonal neoplastic proliferation of abnormal mast cells and clinically it can ranges from 'asymptomatic' with normal life expectancy to 'highly aggressive'. Symptoms are caused by the release of mast cells mediators, such as histamine, and by the increase bulk of mast cells in the tissue. We present herein a case of systemic mastocytosis presenting with abdominal symptomatology due to thickened colonic involvement showed by US associated with bone and skin involvement.

  6. Evaluation of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation in broiler chickens fed on a rye-based diet.

    PubMed

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Bielke, L R; Vicente, J L; Wolfenden, R; Menconi, A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. 2. In the present study, control mash rye-based diets (CON) or Bacillus-DFM supplemented diets (TRT) were administered ad libitum to male broilers in three independent experiments. 3. In Experiments 1 and 2 (n = 25/group), liver samples were taken to evaluate bacterial translocation, digesta samples were used for viscosity measurements and the intestinal microbial flora was evaluated from different intestinal sections to enumerate total recovered gram-negative bacteria (TGB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic bacteria (TAB). Additionally, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone quality. 4. In Experiment 3, each experimental group had 8 replicates of 20 chickens (n = 160/group). Weekly, body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. At d 28-of-age, samples were taken to determine bacterial translocation, digesta viscosity and bone quality characteristics. 5. In all experiments, consumption of Bacillus-DFM reduced bacterial translocation to the liver and digesta viscosity. Additionally, DFM supplementation improved BW, bone quality measurements and FCR. Moreover, chickens fed on the Bacillus-DFM diet in Experiments 1 and 2 showed a significant reduction in the number of gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria in the duodenal content compared to control. 6. In summary, chickens fed on a rye-based diet without DFM inclusion showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by reduced performance and bone quality variables relative to the Bacillus-DFM candidate group. Hence, incorporation into the feed of a selected DFM ameliorated the adverse anti-nutritional effects related to utilisation of rye-based diets in broilers chickens.

  7. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  8. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Temporal Bone Presenting with Headache and Partial Facial Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kletke, Stephanie N.; Popovic, Snezana; Algird, Almunder; Alobaid, Abdullah; Reddy, Kesava K. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bony lesions that rarely affect the skull base. Very few cases of temporal bone ABCs have been reported. We describe the first case of a temporal bone ABC that was thought to be consistent with a meningioma based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Clinical Presentation An otherwise healthy 23-year-old woman presented with a pulsatile noise in her left ear and a 4-week history of throbbing headache with nausea. There was no associated emesis, visual or auditory changes, or other neurologic features. Neurologic examination revealed a left lower motor neuron facial paresis. Computed tomography and MRI studies demonstrated a large lesion in the left middle cranial fossa skull base with erosion of the petrous temporal bone. Based on the presence of a “dural tail” on preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, the lesion was interpreted to likely be consistent with a meningioma. An orbitozygomatic approach was utilized for surgical excision. Histopathologic evaluation was consistent with an ABC. Conclusion Postoperatively the patient had improvement in the lower motor neuron facial paresis. It is important to consider ABC in the differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions accompanied by the dural tail sign on MRI. PMID:26251800

  9. Cytotoxic effects of oxytetracycline residues in the bones of broiler chickens following therapeutic oral administration of a water formulation.

    PubMed

    Odore, R; De Marco, M; Gasco, L; Rotolo, L; Meucci, V; Palatucci, A T; Rubino, V; Ruggiero, G; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Centenaro, S; Quarantelli, A; Terrazzano, G; Schiavone, A

    2015-08-01

    Tetracyclines, which represent one of the most commonly used antibiotics for poultry, are known to be deposited in bones, where they can remain, despite the observation of appropriate withdrawal times. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of oxytretracycline (OTC) residues in the bone and muscle of chickens, following the oral administration of a commercially available liquid formulation, and to test their cytotoxic effects on an in vitro cell culture model. Seventy-two 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted into 2 groups (control and treated animals). OTC (40 mg/kg BW) was administered via drinking water during the 1 to 5 and 20 to 25 days of life periods. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered and the OTC residues in the target tissues were measured by means of liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of the bone residues on the K562 erythroleukemic line and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In all the animals, the OTC residues in the muscle were far below the established MRL of 100 μg/kg. The OTC levels in the bones of the treated animals were instead found in the parts per million (ppm) range. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of OTC bone residues on the haematopoietic cell system. This in vitro system has revealed a significant pro-apoptotic effect on both the K562 cell line and PBMC cultures. This result suggests potential human and animal health risks due to the entry of tetracycline residues contained in the bones of treated livestock into the food-chain. This could be of concern, particularly for canine and feline diets, as meat, bone meal, and poultry by-products represent some of the main ingredients of pet foods, especially in the case of dry pet food. Further studies are needed to define the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to evaluate the in vivo toxicological

  10. Temporal bone chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as an intracranial mass with clinical seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Christopher J; Walcott, Brian P; Linskey, Katy R; Kahle, Kristopher T; Nahed, Brian V; Asaad, Wael F

    2011-06-01

    Chondroblastomas are rare tumors that characteristically arise from the epiphyseal cartilage of long bones of the immature skeleton. Intracranial involvement is uncommon, though the squamous portion of the temporal bone is preferentially affected due to its cartilaginous origin. Patients with temporal bone chondroblastomas classically present with otologic symptoms, while primary neurological complaints are rare. In this report, we describe a 33 year-old man with a chondroblastoma of the temporal bone and an associated aneurysmal bone cyst constituting a large intracranial mass lesion who presented with new-onset seizure activity. We review issues relevant to the pathology and treatment of these lesions.

  11. Bone biosensors: knowing the present and predicting the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashayar, Patricia; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Larijani, Bagher; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Bone is an active organ with the capacity of continuous remodeling throughout adult life. In view of the fact that the current gold standard to assess bone remodeling, bone mineral density, suffers from certain limitations, newer techniques are being developed. Currently enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is commonly used to assess bone turnover markers; the technique, however, is expensive, time consuming and needs trained personnel. Thus, there is a growing demand to fabricate different types of biosensors to provide low cost miniaturized platforms to assess the bone remodeling process more accurately. This review focuses on the latest advancements in the field of bone biosensing technologies. Its results might help provide possible solutions for translation of this technology for point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  12. Guided bone regeneration using an allograft material: review and case presentations.

    PubMed

    Bhola, Monish; Kinaia, Bassam M; Chahine, Katy

    2008-10-01

    Post extraction sites may have residual ridge deformities with insufficient bone present for future implant placement. This presents a challenge to the clinician attempting to obtain optimum results. To predictably augment these areas and obtain aesthetically pleasing results, bone grafting may be required. Guided bone regeneration with an allograft material is a predictable means by which to solve this challenge. This article describes three case presentations utilizing on allograft material for bone regeneration prior to implant placement.

  13. Intraosseous angiosarcoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cysts presenting as an elusive diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Lung Fung; Ek, Eugene TH; Slavin, John L; Schlicht, Stephen M; Choong, Peter FM

    2008-01-01

    Angiosarcoma of bone is an exceedingly rare primary bone malignancy that can present as an aggressive osteolytic lesion. Histological diagnosis can be extremely challenging, as the pathological features often resemble that of aneurysmal bone cysts. We report an interesting and peculiar case of an intraosseous angiosarcoma that presented as a diagnostic dilemma and discuss the relevant radiological and pathologic findings. PMID:18492283

  14. Histological Analyses Demonstrate the Temporary Contribution of Yolk Sac, Liver, and Bone Marrow to Hematopoiesis during Chicken Development

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Priscila Tavares; de Oliveira, Barbara Cristina Euzébio Pereira Dias; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM) region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3) and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage. PMID:24621665

  15. Specific 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ binding macromolecule in chicken bone

    SciTech Connect

    Mellon, W.S.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1980-05-10

    Cytosol prepared from homogenates of bone from vitamin D/sub 3/-deficient chicks contains a 3.7 S macromolecule having high affinity and low capacity for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Employing 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ (160 Ci/mmol) an apparent K/sub d/ has been calcuated to be 7.6 x 10/sup -11/ M while the association and dissociation rate constants for the binding process at 25/sup 0/C were determined to be 9.5 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/min/sup -1/ and 2.3 x 10/sup -2/ min/sup -1/, respectively. A 5.5 S molecule is also present which binds 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ and 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ but appears to prefer 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ and is increased by the addition of chick serum to cytosol. The 3.7 S material is neither a serum contaminant nor a component of the 5.5 S molecular species and is likely of intracellular origin. Under low salt conditions the 3.7 S macromolecule migrates to 4.3 S and 5.5 S regions on sucrose gradients suggesting aggregation of the protein. Several vitamin D/sub 3/ metabolites are capable of specifically binding to the 3.7 S macromolecule. The relative order of potency for several analogs causing displacement of specifically bound 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ is: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ > 1 ..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ greater than or equal to 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ > 24(R),25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. It is concluded that chick bone cytosol contains a macromolecule of high affinity and low capacity for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ which may function as a receptor for some physiological events in bone.

  16. Transport of membrane-bound mineral particles in blood vessels during chicken embryonic bone development.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Koifman, Naama; Shimoni, Eyal; Rechav, Katya; Arraf, Alaa A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zelzer, Elazar; Weiner, Stephen; Addadi, Lia

    2016-02-01

    During bone formation in embryos, large amounts of calcium and phosphate are taken up and transported to the site where solid mineral is first deposited. The initial mineral forms in vesicles inside osteoblasts and is deposited as a highly disordered calcium phosphate phase. The mineral is then translocated to the extracellular space where it penetrates the collagen matrix and crystallizes. To date little is known about the transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in the vascular system, especially when high transport rates are needed and the concentrations of these ions in the blood serum may exceed the solubility product of the mineral phase. Here we used a rapidly growing biological model, the chick embryo, to study the bone mineralization pathway taking advantage of the fact that large amounts of bone mineral constituents are transported. Cryo scanning electron microscopy together with cryo energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused-ion beam imaging in the serial surface view mode surprisingly reveal the presence of abundant vesicles containing small mineral particles in the lumen of the blood vessels. Morphologically similar vesicles are also found in the cells associated with bone formation. This observation directly implicates the vascular system in solid mineral distribution, as opposed to the transport of ions in solution. Mineral particle transport inside vesicles implies that far larger amounts of the bone mineral constituents can be transported through the vasculature, without the danger of ectopic precipitation. This introduces a new stage into the bone mineral formation pathway, with the first mineral being formed far from the bone itself. PMID:26481471

  17. Transport of membrane-bound mineral particles in blood vessels during chicken embryonic bone development.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Koifman, Naama; Shimoni, Eyal; Rechav, Katya; Arraf, Alaa A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zelzer, Elazar; Weiner, Stephen; Addadi, Lia

    2016-02-01

    During bone formation in embryos, large amounts of calcium and phosphate are taken up and transported to the site where solid mineral is first deposited. The initial mineral forms in vesicles inside osteoblasts and is deposited as a highly disordered calcium phosphate phase. The mineral is then translocated to the extracellular space where it penetrates the collagen matrix and crystallizes. To date little is known about the transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in the vascular system, especially when high transport rates are needed and the concentrations of these ions in the blood serum may exceed the solubility product of the mineral phase. Here we used a rapidly growing biological model, the chick embryo, to study the bone mineralization pathway taking advantage of the fact that large amounts of bone mineral constituents are transported. Cryo scanning electron microscopy together with cryo energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused-ion beam imaging in the serial surface view mode surprisingly reveal the presence of abundant vesicles containing small mineral particles in the lumen of the blood vessels. Morphologically similar vesicles are also found in the cells associated with bone formation. This observation directly implicates the vascular system in solid mineral distribution, as opposed to the transport of ions in solution. Mineral particle transport inside vesicles implies that far larger amounts of the bone mineral constituents can be transported through the vasculature, without the danger of ectopic precipitation. This introduces a new stage into the bone mineral formation pathway, with the first mineral being formed far from the bone itself.

  18. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties.

  19. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties. PMID:26162903

  20. A case of a temporal bone meningioma presenting as a serous otitis media

    PubMed Central

    De Foer, Bert; Bernaerts, Anja; Van Dinther, Joost; Parizel, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    We report the imaging features of a case of a temporal bone meningioma extending into the middle ear cavity and clinically presenting as a serous otitis media. Temporal bone meningioma extending in the mastoid or the middle ear cavity, however, is very rare. In case of unexplained or therapy-resistant serous otitis media and a nasopharyngeal tumor being ruled out, a temporal bone computed tomography (CT) should be performed. If CT findings are suggestive of a temporal bone meningioma, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination with gadolinium will confirm diagnosis and show the exact extension of the lesion. PMID:25535569

  1. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  2. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  3. Lessons from the space experiment SL-J/FMPT/L7: the effect of microgravity on chicken embryogenesis and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Suda, T

    1998-05-01

    Thirty fertilized chicken eggs preincubated for 0, 7, and 10 days on earth (10 eggs each) were flown in the space shuttle "Endeavour" and further incubated for 7 days under microgravity. Twenty out of 30 eggs (nine out of ten 10-day-old eggs; 10 out of ten 7-day-old eggs; 1 out of ten 0-day-old eggs) were recovered alive after landing. The only living embryo of the 0-day-old egg died 24 days after launch, and was comparable to a 16-day-old embryo when it died. The high mortality of the 0-day-old eggs appeared to be related to the specific inner structure of the egg. The yolk (specific gravity, 1.029) would not have separated from the albumen (1.040) during space flight. The subtle difference in specific gravity between the yolk and the albumen appeared to play a critical role in early chick embryogenesis. All the tissues, including cartilage and bone, were formed normally in 7- and 10-day-old chicken embryos during space flight. When the 7- and 10-day-old embryos recovered at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) were further incubated on earth, they hatched normally. No appreciable changes were recognized in these chicks. The reason for these unexpected results is not known. Further space experiments are needed to explain the failure of the effects of microgravity on chicken embryogenesis.

  4. Skull Base Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presented with Foramen Jugular Syndrome and Multi-Osseous Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Aghaghazvini, Leila; Sedighi, Nahid; Karami, Parisa; Yeganeh, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansile bone lesion that usually involves the long bones. Skull base involvement is rare. Hereby, we describe a 17-year-old man with hoarseness, facial asymmetry, left sided sensorineural hearing loss and left jugular foramen syndrome. CT scan and MRI showed a skull base mass that was confirmed as ABC in histopathology. The case was unusual and interesting due to the clinical presentation of jugular foramen syndrome and radiological findings such as severe enhancement and multiosseous involvement. PMID:23329983

  5. Skull base aneurysmal bone cyst presented with foramen jugular syndrome and multi-osseous involvement.

    PubMed

    Aghaghazvini, Leila; Sedighi, Nahid; Karami, Parisa; Yeganeh, Omid

    2012-09-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansile bone lesion that usually involves the long bones. Skull base involvement is rare. Hereby, we describe a 17-year-old man with hoarseness, facial asymmetry, left sided sensorineural hearing loss and left jugular foramen syndrome. CT scan and MRI showed a skull base mass that was confirmed as ABC in histopathology. The case was unusual and interesting due to the clinical presentation of jugular foramen syndrome and radiological findings such as severe enhancement and multiosseous involvement.

  6. Solitary bone cysts—A rare occurrence with bilaterally symmetrical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, Elavenil; Panneerselvam, Karthika; Chanrashekar, Sai Shamini

    2014-01-01

    Solitary bone cysts (SBCs) are bone cavities that lack a true epithelial lining. They are more commonly seen during the first 2decades of age.Very few cases have been reported over 40 years of age.SBCs are usually discovered as an accidental coexisting finding during a routine radiologic examination or during another unrelated dental complaint. They present as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesion associated with vital teeth with mild or no cortical expansion. Bilateral presentation is however very rare. We present a case of 52-year-old female patient with bilateral presentation of SBCs. PMID:25949013

  7. Temporal bone central giant-cell granuloma presenting as a serous otitis media.

    PubMed

    Rudic, Milan; Grayeli, Alexis Bozorg; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Cyna-Gorse, Françoise; Bouccara, Didier; Sterkers, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Central giant cell granuloma is a benign intraosseous lesion that most commonly occurs in the facial bones. Its location in the temporal bone is extremely rare and only 20 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of an adult female patient presenting with a right serous otitis media and mastoiditis associated with a mixed hearing loss during 6 months. CT-scan and MRI revealed a temporal bone tumor involving the mastoid, and surrounding the right temporo-mandibular joint. Tumor was totally removed after a canal-wall-down mastoidectomy and middle ear exclusion. Pathology revealed a central giant cell granuloma. Seven months following the surgery there was no evidence of recurrence. Central giant cell granuloma is a rare temporal bone lesion, with non specific clinical and imaging signs but characteristic pathological features. Today, a total surgical removal and regular MRI follow-up is the best management option.

  8. Molecular detection of chicken parvovirus in broilers with enteric disorders presenting curving of duodenal loop, pancreatic atrophy, and mesenteritis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, L F N; Sá, L R M; Parra, S H S; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Carranza, C; Ferreira, A J P

    2016-04-01

    Enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. Several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. Thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian rotavirus (ArtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1), and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Postmortem examinations revealed a curving of the duodenal loop (J-like appearance) and intestines filled with liquid and gaseous content. Histopathological analysis of the duodenal loop showed pancreatic atrophy, acute mesenteritis, and enteritis. PCR results showed that ChPV was the sole viral agent detected in samples with lesions such as the curved duodenal loop and pancreatic atrophy. Molecular characterization of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity with other strains of ChPV from Brazil, Canada, United States, Europe, and Asia. These findings suggest an association between ChPV and the development of enteritis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy, which may lead to curling of the duodenal loop. Together, these alterations may disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive system, diminishing digestion and the absorption of dietary nutrients and consequently leading to reduced weight gain, flock impairment, dwarfism, and an elevated feed conversion rate. PMID:26908891

  9. Molecular detection of chicken parvovirus in broilers with enteric disorders presenting curving of duodenal loop, pancreatic atrophy, and mesenteritis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, L F N; Sá, L R M; Parra, S H S; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Carranza, C; Ferreira, A J P

    2016-04-01

    Enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. Several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. Thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian rotavirus (ArtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1), and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Postmortem examinations revealed a curving of the duodenal loop (J-like appearance) and intestines filled with liquid and gaseous content. Histopathological analysis of the duodenal loop showed pancreatic atrophy, acute mesenteritis, and enteritis. PCR results showed that ChPV was the sole viral agent detected in samples with lesions such as the curved duodenal loop and pancreatic atrophy. Molecular characterization of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity with other strains of ChPV from Brazil, Canada, United States, Europe, and Asia. These findings suggest an association between ChPV and the development of enteritis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy, which may lead to curling of the duodenal loop. Together, these alterations may disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive system, diminishing digestion and the absorption of dietary nutrients and consequently leading to reduced weight gain, flock impairment, dwarfism, and an elevated feed conversion rate.

  10. Identification of Viruses Present in Tissues Collected from Chickens with Hypoglycemia-Spiking Mortality Syndrome (H-SMS).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissues were collected, over a 10-year period, from broiler chickens diagnosed with severe H-SMS at the Georgia Poultry Lab, in Oakwood, GA. All samples were stored in tissue culture media, with antibiotics and 15% fetal bovine serum, in an ultra-cold freezer @ -80F. Specimens were homogenized,...

  11. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone presenting with pulsatile tinnitus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone is an unusual but distinct disease entity. The most common presenting symptoms are otalgia, otorrhea, hearing loss, facial palsy, and vertigo. We describe here what we believe to be the first reported case of a patient presenting with persistent pulsatile tinnitus. The clinical features, radiological and histopathologic findings, and treatment outcomes of the patient are presented. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman of Chinese Han origin presented with complaints of left-sided pulsatile tinnitus and progressive hearing loss for several years. Clinical evaluations revealed a reddish mass behind the intact tympanic membrane, and a moderately severe conductive hearing loss in the left ear. The computed tomographic imaging of the temporal bone demonstrated a slightly ill-defined left middle ear soft tissue mass involving the posterior portion of the mesotympanum and epitympanum, and the mastoid antrum. The patient underwent surgical excision of the lesion which subsequently resolved her symptoms. Postoperative pathology was consistent with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Conclusions An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone can present clinically with pulsatile tinnitus and masquerade as venous hum or vascular tumors of the middle ear; therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of pulsatile tinnitus. PMID:23787119

  12. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Cervical Spine and Pelvic Bone Metastases Presenting as Unknown Primary Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sea Won; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jung Min; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Sung Hak; Jung, Eun Sun

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely associated with viral hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis. Although active surveillance is ongoing in Korea, advanced or metastatic HCC is found at initial presentation in many patients. Metastatic HCC presents with a hypervascular intrahepatic tumor and extrahepatic lesions such as lung or lymph node metastases. Cases of HCC presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary have been rarely reported. The authors experienced a case of metastatic HCC in a patient who presented with a metastatic bone lesion but no primary intrahepatic tumor. This case suggests that HCC should be considered as a differential diagnosis when evaluating the primary origin of metastatic carcinoma.

  13. Calcium sources and their interaction with the different levels of non-phytate phosphorus affect performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, M; Solà-Oriol, D; Davin, R; Perez, J F

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of different Ca sources (limestone, Ca chloride, and Lipocal, a fat-encapsulated tricalcium phosphate, TCP) in conjunction with 4 dietary levels of non-phytate P (NPP) on performance, ileal digestibility of Ca and P, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Calcium sources were also evaluated in vitro to measure acid-binding capacity (ABC) and Ca solubility at different pH values. Ca chloride showed the highest solubility of Ca, with TCP showing the highest ABC. Ross male broiler-chicks were sorted by BW at 1 d post-hatch and assigned to 5 cages per diet with 5 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 3×4 factorial of the 3 Ca sources and 4 levels of NPP (0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4% or 0.45%) consisting of 4 added P levels (Ca(H2PO4)2) with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in all diets. On d 14 post-hatch, 3 birds were euthanized, and ileal digesta and the right tibia were collected to determine ileal Ca and P digestibility and bone mineralization, respectively. Feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) on d 14 was higher (P<0.01) with TCP and limestone than with Ca chloride. Added P increased the tibia weight and tibia ash content in chicks fed TCP up to 0.4% NPP and limestone up to 0.35% NPP. Calcium ileal digestibility was higher (P<0.01) with Ca chloride (73.7%) than with limestone (67.1%) or TCP (66.8%), which increased (P<0.05) with added levels of P from monocalcium phosphate. Phosphorus ileal digestibility was not affected by the Ca source and increased (P<0.001) with added levels of NPP. It can be concluded that starting broilers responded better to low-soluble Ca sources compared to high-soluble sources. A level of 0.35%-0.40% NPP with a high dose of phytase (1,150 U/kg) in diets including limestone or TCP is sufficient to guarantee performance and bone formation for broiler chickens from d 0 to d 14.

  14. Trabecular and cortical bone deficits are present in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Andrea; Schall, Joan; Stallings, Virginia A; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-09-01

    Osteopenia and increased fracture rates are well-recognized in adults with CF, but neither the specific contributions of cortical and trabecular bone deficits to bone fragility nor their presence in youth with CF are well-characterized. This study sought to characterize cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and biomechanical competence in children with CF and determine their relationship to growth, body composition, and disease severity. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) measures of total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD, cortical, muscle, and fat cross-sectional areas (CSA), periosteal and endosteal circumferences, and the polar unweighted section modulus (Zp) of the tibia were converted to age- and tibial length-adjusted Z-scores in 97 CF and 199 healthy children (aged 8-21y). Effects of body composition and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1s, FEV1) upon pQCT outcomes were determined using linear regression. Children with CF (FEV1%-predicted: 84.4+19.7) had lower weight-, height-, BMI-, and whole body lean mass (LBM)-Z and tibial length. Females with CF had lower (p<0.01) total and trabecular vBMD; cortical, muscle, and fat CSA; Zp and periosteal circumference than females in the healthy reference group. These bone differences persisted after adjustment for BMI-Z and to a great extent following adjustment for muscle CSA. Males with CF had lower (p<0.01) cortical, muscle, and fat CSA and their trabecular vBMD deficit approached significance (p=0.069). Deficits were attenuated by adjustment for BMI-Z and to a greater extent adjustment for muscle CSA-Z. The relationship between FEV1%-predicted and pQCT outcomes persisted only in males following adjustment for age and BMI-Z. The CF cohort had lower tibial muscle CSA than expected for their LBM. In this relatively healthy, young CF cohort, deficits in trabecular and multiple cortical bone parameters were present. In females, deficits were greater

  15. Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Ramírez, José Miguel; Quiroz, Daniel; Burley, David V.; Addison, David J.; Walter, Richard; Anderson, Atholl J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Athens, J. Stephen; Huynen, Leon; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Two issues long debated among Pacific and American prehistorians are (i) whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken (Gallus gallus) to the Americas and (ii) whether Polynesian contact with South America might be identified archaeologically, through the recovery of remains of unquestionable Polynesian origin. We present a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence from a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile. These results not only provide firm evidence for the pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to the Americas, but strongly suggest that it was a Polynesian introduction. PMID:17556540

  16. Barotrauma presenting as temporal lobe injury secondary to temporal bone rupture.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Maria D P; Longridge, Neil S; Lepawsky, Michael; Nugent, Robert A

    2005-05-01

    We present the case of a scuba diver who experienced acute ear pain during ascent from a dive. CT imaging was performed because of severe unrelenting headache. Blood and gas was identified within the epidural space of the middle fossa and over the petrous bone, as well as hemorrhage within the adjacent temporal lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of CT-documented barotrauma affecting the brain as a result of middle-ear gas rupturing through the tegmen tympani.

  17. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presenting as a Pathologic Fracture in a 12-Year-Old Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Welk, Aaron B.; Norman W., Kettner

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this report is to describe a case of an aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a pathologic fracture in a young athlete. Case report A 12-year-old patient presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic with a 1-week history of posterior neck pain and stiffness following a helmet-to-helmet collision in football practice. Cervical spine radiographs were taken. Lateral view radiograph demonstrated a pathologic fracture through a lytic, expansive lesion in the posterior arch of C7 with mild subluxation of the C7/T1 apophyseal joints and angulation of the C7/T1 disk space. Based upon these findings, additional diagnostic imaging was ordered. Findings on advanced imaging studies included the following: On computed tomography, the C7 lesion showed medullary destruction, cortical thinning and expansion, and a horizontally oriented fracture through the spinous and lamina. Magnetic resonance imaging studies for sagittal T2 and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed fluid/fluid levels in the C7 spinous and peripheral enhancement with contrast. Outcome The patient was referred to a local hospital for treatment. The lesion was treated with resection of the posterior arch, and an aneurysmal bone cyst was confirmed histologically. The patient developed a kyphotic deformity at the site of resection and cervical instability. A subsequent fusion was performed. Conclusion Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare lesions. In this case, the initial traumatic history masked the underlying pathology. Although rare, pathologic fracture should be considered in cases of vertebral fracture in young patients. PMID:24711787

  18. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  19. Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: New bone formation in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gaurav; Andreou, Zenon; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Owa, Anthony

    2014-09-16

    The objective of this study is to increase awareness of the rare presentation, diagnostic difficulties and management of glomus tympanicum of the middle ear. A 49 years old male, with a background of hypertension and epilepsy, presented with a two month history of left sided conductive hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus and headache. Clinically and radiologically a diagnosis of glomus tympanicum was made. Intraoperatively, extensive osteogenesis of the middle ear resulting in ossicular fixation and erosion was found. This patient required a two stage operation for full clearance of disease. A stapedectomy drill was used to drill off the bony overgrowth surrounding the ossicles resulting in improved hearing thresholds and full clearance of the disease at two year follow up. Glomus tympanicum can result in new bone formation in the middle ear with resultant ossicular fixation and conductive hearing loss. This can be effectively treated surgically with restoration of hearing. PMID:25232551

  20. Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: New bone formation in the middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gaurav; Andreou, Zenon; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Owa, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to increase awareness of the rare presentation, diagnostic difficulties and management of glomus tympanicum of the middle ear. A 49 years old male, with a background of hypertension and epilepsy, presented with a two month history of left sided conductive hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus and headache. Clinically and radiologically a diagnosis of glomus tympanicum was made. Intraoperatively, extensive osteogenesis of the middle ear resulting in ossicular fixation and erosion was found. This patient required a two stage operation for full clearance of disease. A stapedectomy drill was used to drill off the bony overgrowth surrounding the ossicles resulting in improved hearing thresholds and full clearance of the disease at two year follow up. Glomus tympanicum can result in new bone formation in the middle ear with resultant ossicular fixation and conductive hearing loss. This can be effectively treated surgically with restoration of hearing. PMID:25232551

  1. Presentation of multiple myeloma mimicking bone metastasis from colon adenocarcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HAICHENG; LV, JURONG; LV, CHAOLIANG; ZHANG, HONGMEI

    2016-01-01

    We herein present the case report of a 83-year-old female patient who had undergone right colon resection for adenocarcinoma 2 years earlier, and developed osteolytic lesions of the right femur 6 months ago. A roentgenogram of the right thigh, technetium-99m phosphate bone scintigraphy and combined 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging were performed, and the results revealed multiple osteolytic lesions in the humerus bilaterally, the right scapula and the right femur. The lesions were suspected to be colon cancer metastases. To improve the quality of life of the patient, palliative surgery was performed. However, the intraoperative biopsy of the focal lesions and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed multiple myeloma (MM). Chemotherapy was administered 2 weeks after surgery and the patient recovered uneventfully. The manifestations of MM and bone metastases are occasionally similar. Although the coexistence of the two diseases is rare, both conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteolytic lesions. PMID:26870352

  2. Modalities for Visualization of Cortical Bone Remodeling: The Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kimberly D; Cooper, David M L

    2015-01-01

    Bone's ability to respond to load-related phenomena and repair microdamage is achieved through the remodeling process, which renews bone by activating groups of cells known as basic multicellular units (BMUs). The products of BMUs, secondary osteons, have been extensively studied via classic two-dimensional techniques, which have provided a wealth of information on how histomorphology relates to skeletal structure and function. Remodeling is critical in maintaining healthy bone tissue; however, in osteoporotic bone, imbalanced resorption results in increased bone fragility and fracture. With increasing life expectancy, such degenerative bone diseases are a growing concern. The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of BMUs and their correlation to function, however, are not well-characterized and little is known about the specific mechanisms that initiate and regulate their activity within cortical bone. We believe a key limitation has been the lack of 3D information about BMU morphology and activity. Thus, this paper reviews methodologies for 3D investigation of cortical bone remodeling and, specifically, structures associated with BMU activity (resorption spaces) and the structures they create (secondary osteons), spanning from histology to modern ex vivo imaging modalities, culminating with the growing potential of in vivo imaging. This collection of papers focuses on the theme of "putting the 'why' back into bone architecture." Remodeling is one of two mechanisms "how" bone structure is dynamically modified and thus an improved 3D understanding of this fundamental process is crucial to ultimately understanding the "why."

  3. Effect of supplementing different concentrations of organic trace minerals on performance, antioxidant activity, and bone mineralization in Vanaraja chickens developed for free range farming.

    PubMed

    Rao, Savaram Venkata Rama; Prakash, Bhukya; Kumari, Kanya; Raju, Mantena Venkata Laxmi Narasimha; Panda, Arun Kumar

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance, antioxidation activity, and bone mineral content in Vanaraja chickens fed diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (oTM) at reduced levels. A total of 360 day-old chicks were selected and distributed randomly into 60 battery brooder pens. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet was supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (iTM), i.e., Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu at 50, 45, 40, and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively, and varying concentration of oTM, i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, I, Se, and Cr at 45, 50, 7.5, 40, 2, 0.30, and 0.25 mg/kg (diet II); 33.75, 37.50, 5.63, 30.0, 1.50, 0.23, and 0.19 mg/kg (diet III); 22.5, 25.0, 3.75, 20.0, 1.0, 0.15, and 0.13 mg/kg (diet IV); 18.0, 20.0, 3.0, 16.0, 0.80, 0.12, and 0.10 mg/kg (diet V); and 13.5, 15.0, 2.25, 12.0, 0.60, 0.09, and 0.08 mg/kg (diet VI), respectively. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates and fed ad libitum from 1 to 42 days of age. The body weight at 14, 28, and 42 days was not affected by reducing the supplementation of oTM concentration in the diets. Similarly, feed intake at 14 days of age was not affected but reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the group fed diet IV (50% oTM) compared to that in the other groups. The higher feed conversion ratio and increased concentration of Ca, P, and trace minerals in tibia were evident in the group fed oTM-supplemented diets compared to the diet containing iTM. Activities of glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing ability in plasma did not differ in the groups fed on lower concentration of oTM compared to those fed on diet I (control diet). Therefore, it is concluded that the dietary supplementation of trace minerals can be reduced greatly when supplemented as organic form without affecting growth and antioxidant status in Vanaraja chickens.

  4. Genetic response and morphologic characterization of chicken bone-marrow derived dendritic cells during infection with high and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system that function to initiate primary immune responses. Progenitors of DCs are derived from haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) that migrate in non-lymphoid tissues to develop into immature DCs. Here, they ...

  5. Impaction bone grafting in revision hip surgery: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Iain R

    2010-02-01

    Joint replacement surgery can have excellent clinical results. However, as the number of patients undergoing surgery increases, the number of failed joint replacements is set to rise. One of the greatest challenges for the revision surgeon is the restoration of bone stock. This article focuses upon revision hip surgery, with particular reference to the scope of the problem; historical and current solutions to bone loss in the femur and acetabulum; the clinical results following revision surgery; and the basic science behind impaction bone grafting, before ending with possible future directions for improving the restoration of bone stock.

  6. Acute lymphocytic leukemia presented as back pain and revealed by bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Gwal, Kriti; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-08-01

    A previously healthy 8-year-old girl underwent MDP bone scintigraphy to evaluate possible spondylolysis due to worsening back pain. Unexpectedly, the bone scan images revealed intense activity in several thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, which was not consistent with spondylolysis. Further examinations proved that the patient had acute lymphocytic leukemia.

  7. [Cholesterol content in chicken meat and chicken products].

    PubMed

    Rincón, A M; Carrillo de Padilla, F; Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-03-01

    High cholesterol saturated lipids ingestion has been linked to the increment of coronary diseases, particularly atherosclerosis. In this study, samples of viscera and chicken meat, as well as manufactured chicken products are characterized from the point of view of their sterol content, specially cholesterol, with the purpose to determine their nutritional quality and to contribute with the development of Venezuelan food composition tables. Gas-liquid chromatography was the method chosen for the separation and quantification of cholesterol and fitosterols eventually present. The method involves lipids extraction, direct saponification, extraction of the unsaponifiable matter and its injection in the gas chromatograph. The average cholesterol values in mg/100 g. wet sample were: 31.13 (manufactured chicken breast); 57,35 (ham like type of product made with chicken); 69.02 (chicken sausages); 60.46 (chicken "bologna").

  8. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  9. Microwave drilling of bones.

    PubMed

    Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling.

  10. Alternative autogenous bone graft donor sites in brachymetatarsia reconstruction: a review of the literature with clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Kashuk, K B; Hanft, J R; Schabler, J A; Kopelman, J

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a literature review on the surgical treatment of brachymetatarsia. They discuss the identification of donor sites for autogenous bone graft harvesting from the foot. Three case reports of brachymetatarsia, one of iatrogenic, and two of congenital origin are presented. PMID:1874999

  11. The effects of dietary 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera root on bone mineralisation, strength and histological characteristics in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mirakzehi, M T; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Raji, A R

    2013-01-01

    . Tibia shear force and stiffness were significantly increased by supplementation of WS. Administration of 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 resulted in a significantly lower width of the proliferative zone at 21 d of age. Reduction of the Ca supply significantly reduced the mineralised zone and cortical thickness at this age. 8. The present study showed that WS supplementation improved Ca retention, bone calcification and mechanical properties with no adverse effects on performance. Also, synergistic effects of WS and 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 were observed on Ca retention and bone calcification.

  12. The influence of MAP condition and active compounds on the radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi present in chicken breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Chiasson, F.

    2004-09-01

    The efficiency of carvacrol, thymol, trans-cinnamaldehyde (Tc) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Tp) on the radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in chicken breast was determined. Chicken breast were dipped in a bath of working cultures of E. coli or S. typhi (5×10 7 CFU/ml). Active compounds were added at the concentration corresponding to {1}/{30} of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Samples were packed under air and gamma irradiation was done at doses from 0.1 to 0.7 kGy. The efficiencies of the active compounds against E. coli were 32%, 10%, 3% and 0% for thymol, Tp and carvacrol, respectively. For S. typhi, the efficiencies in the chicken breast were 47%, 19%, 17% and 11% for Tc, Tp, carvacrol and thymol, respectively. Without active compounds, D10 values were 0.145 kGy for E. coli and 0.64 kGy for S. typhi as compared to 0.098 kGy for E. coli and 0.341 kGy for S. typhi in presence of Tc. Under modified atmospheric packaging condition and in presence of Tc, D10 values were reduced to 0.046 for E. coli and to 0.110 for S. typhi.

  13. Temporal Bone Localized Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Hasan; Acioğlu, Engin; Durna, Yusuf Muhammed; Yiğit, Özgür; Bozkurt, Erol Rüştü; Karagöz, Yeşim

    2015-11-01

    Chondroblastoma is a highly destructive tumor originating from immature cartilage cells. Although chondroblastoma is defined as a benign tumor, it may exhibit malign tumor behaviors such as invasion or metastasis on neighboring structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) image is a solid mass lesion, which included heterogeneous hypointense in T2A and heterogeneous minimal hyperintense in T1A with destructive expansile characteristics and millimetric calcifications. Temporal bone chondroblastomas may complicate the diagnosis because of their different histologic characteristics. Microscopically, chondroblastic cell nests and calcification of locally "chicken wire" type around the cells are observed. These tumors secrete s-100 and vimentin and are used for differential diagnosis. In this study, a temporal bone localized chondroblastoma case is presented.

  14. Temporal Bone Localized Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Hasan; Acioğlu, Engin; Durna, Yusuf Muhammed; Yiğit, Özgür; Bozkurt, Erol Rüştü; Karagöz, Yeşim

    2015-11-01

    Chondroblastoma is a highly destructive tumor originating from immature cartilage cells. Although chondroblastoma is defined as a benign tumor, it may exhibit malign tumor behaviors such as invasion or metastasis on neighboring structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) image is a solid mass lesion, which included heterogeneous hypointense in T2A and heterogeneous minimal hyperintense in T1A with destructive expansile characteristics and millimetric calcifications. Temporal bone chondroblastomas may complicate the diagnosis because of their different histologic characteristics. Microscopically, chondroblastic cell nests and calcification of locally "chicken wire" type around the cells are observed. These tumors secrete s-100 and vimentin and are used for differential diagnosis. In this study, a temporal bone localized chondroblastoma case is presented. PMID:26517458

  15. Osteosarcoma is characterised by reduced expression of markers of osteoclastogenesis and antigen presentation compared with normal bone

    PubMed Central

    Endo-Munoz, L; Cumming, A; Sommerville, S; Dickinson, I; Saunders, N A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumour in children and adolescents. Patients who respond poorly to chemotherapy have a higher risk of metastatic disease and 5-year survival rates of only 10–20%. Therefore, identifying molecular targets that are specific for OS, or more specifically, metastatic OS, will be critical to the development of new treatment strategies to improve patient outcomes. Methods: We performed a transcriptomic analysis of chemo-naive OS biopsies and non-malignant bone biopsies to identify differentially expressed genes specific to OS, which could provide insight into OS biology and chemoresistance. Results: Statistical analysis of the OS transcriptomes found differential expression of several metallothionein family members, as well as deregulation of genes involved in antigen presentation. Tumours also exhibited significantly increased expression of ID1 and profound down-regulation of S100A8, highlighting their potential as therapeutic targets for OS. Finally, we found a significant correlation between OS and impaired osteoclastogenesis and antigen-presenting activity. The reduced osteoclastogenesis and antigen-presenting activity were more profound in the chemoresistant OS samples. Conclusion: Our results indicate that OS displays gene signatures consistent with decreased antigen-presenting activity, enhanced chemoresistance, and impaired osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, these alterations are more pronounced in chemoresistant OS tumour samples. PMID:20551950

  16. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from chicken and chicken-derived products.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M Z; Sanz, M E; Irino, K; Krüger, A; Lucchesi, P M A; Padola, N L

    2016-04-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains from chicken and chicken-derived products were isolated and characterised. The strains presented a wide variety of serotypes, some have been reported in other animal species (O2:H40, O5:H40) and in children with diarrhoea (O8:H-). Most of the strains carried intimin β. The results indicate that chicken and chicken products are important sources of atypical EPEC strains that could be associated with human disease, and highlight the need to improve hygiene practices in chicken slaughtering and meat handling. PMID:26810335

  17. Histological determination of the human origin of bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Porta, David; Gibelli, Daniele; Gamba, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    A frequently encountered task in the forensic scenario is verification of the human origin of severely degraded fragments of bone. In these cases histological methods which consider osteon size and morphology can prove to be useful. The authors in the present study verify the applicability of published algorithms to flat and subadult bones from human, dog, cat, cow, rabbit, sheep, pig, chicken, quail, and turkey samples. Metric analysis was performed on 2031 Haversian canals. Analyses carried out on human samples confirmed a success rate of around 70% on long adult bones; however the percentage of wrong answers was particularly high in the case of newborns and older subadults as well as on flat bones in general. Results therefore suggest that such regression equations should be limited only to bone fragments from long adult bones.

  18. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  19. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  20. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a giant cervical mass: A clinical, radiological, histopathological dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Savardekar, Amey R.; Patra, Deviprasad; Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Ahuja, Chirag K.; Salunke, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typical aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are osteolytic, multicystic lesions with parietal sclerosis and blood-filled cysts. In rare instances, the cystic components may be completely absent. Such solid variants in ABC (s-ABC) exhibit a solid architecture; making the clinical, radiological, and histological differentiation from other solid bone tumors like osteosarcoma (especially giant cell rich osteosarcoma) and giant cell tumor, a difficult task. Case Report: We report the case of a 45–year-old male presenting with a giant solid cervical spine lesion. Histopathology revealed solid variant of ABC, even though the radiological and fine needle aspiration cytology studies pointed toward a giant cell tumor. Conclusion: We aim to discuss the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of solid ABC (a rare benign entity) vis-à-vis the common neoplastic entities of osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor. The histopathological nuisances in making the diagnosis of s-ABC are put forth, along with its impact on management of such giant bony spinal lesions. PMID:26005581

  1. A Case Presenting with Splenic Infarct Diagnosed as Primary Bone Marrow CD5 Positive DLBCL: A Clinicopathological Correlation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anupriya; Mittal, Suchi; Dass, Jasmita; Gupta, Nitin; Agarwal, P K; Kotwal, Jyoti

    2016-06-01

    De novo CD5+ Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of DLBCL. It is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with complex molecular profile and poor prognosis. A 59 year old female presented with pyrexia of unknown origin since 1 month. On examination, there was severe pallor, hepatosplenomegaly and no palpable lymphadenopathy. Complete blood count revealed bicytopenia with normal total leucocyte count. Liver and renal function tests were normal. Ultrasonography abdomen revealed splenic enlargement with two focal lesions attributed to either splenic abscess or infarcts. Patient was being managed as splenic infarct but continued to have bicytopenia. Further investigation showed elevated serum ferritin, triglycerides and LDH. With a clinical suspicion of infection and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis bone marrow aspiration (BMA) and biopsy (BMBx) was done. BMA showed extensive haemophagocytosis and ~7.4 % large lymphoma-like cells. On this basis PET-CT was suggested which showed enlarged spleen with diffuse uptake. BMBx showed nodular and intrasinusoidal collection of abnormal lymphoid cells. On immunohistochemistry, these cells were positive for CD20, CD5, MUM1, BCL-2, BCL-6 and negative for CD3, CD10 and CD23. CD34 highlighted focal intrasinusoidal pattern. The complete clinicopathological profile suggested the diagnosis of de novo CD5+ DLBCL, with primary hepatosplenic pattern of involvement. CD5+ DLBCL presenting as splenic infarct is very rare. This case was unusual as the diagnosis of a primary aggressive lymphoma with haemophagocytosis was established in a patient who presented with fever and splenic infarct without lymphadenopathy. This indicates the importance of good morphological assessment of a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:27408381

  2. Improved Method for Ex Ovo-Cultivation of Developing Chicken Embryos for Human Stem Cell Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Schomann, Timo; Qunneis, Firas; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of human stem cells for the usability in regenerative medicine is particularly based on investigations regarding their differentiation potential in vivo. In this regard, the chicken embryo model represents an ideal model organism. However, the access to the chicken embryo is only achievable by windowing the eggshell resulting in limited visibility and accessibility in subsequent experiments. On the contrary, ex ovo-culture systems avoid such negative side effects. Here, we present an improved ex ovo-cultivation method enabling the embryos to survive 13 days in vitro. Optimized cultivation of chicken embryos resulted in a normal development regarding their size and weight. Our ex ovo-approach closely resembles the development of chicken embryos in ovo, as demonstrated by properly developed nervous system, bones, and cartilage at expected time points. Finally, we investigated the usability of our method for trans-species transplantation of adult stem cells by injecting human neural crest-derived stem cells into late Hamburger and Hamilton stages (HH26–HH28/E5—E6) of ex ovo-incubated embryos. We demonstrated the integration of human cells allowing experimentally easy investigation of the differentiation potential in the proper developmental context. Taken together, this ex ovo-method supports the prolonged cultivation of properly developing chicken embryos enabling integration studies of xenografted mammalian stem cells at late developmental stages. PMID:23554818

  3. Applications of hyperspectral imaging in chicken meat safety and quality detection and evaluation: a review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Xie, Anguo; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the issue of food safety and quality is a great public concern. In order to satisfy the demands of consumers and obtain superior food qualities, non-destructive and fast methods are required for quality evaluation. As one of these methods, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique has emerged as a smart and promising analytical tool for quality evaluation purposes and has attracted much interest in non-destructive analysis of different food products. With the main advantage of combining both spectroscopy technique and imaging technique, HSI technique shows a convinced attitude to detect and evaluate chicken meat quality objectively. Moreover, developing a quality evaluation system based on HSI technology would bring economic benefits to the chicken meat industry. Therefore, in recent years, many studies have been conducted on using HSI technology for the safety and quality detection and evaluation of chicken meat. The aim of this review is thus to give a detailed overview about HSI and focus on the recently developed methods exerted in HSI technology developed for microbiological spoilage detection and quality classification of chicken meat. Moreover, the usefulness of HSI technique for detecting fecal contamination and bone fragments of chicken carcasses are presented. Finally, some viewpoints on its future research and applicability in the modern poultry industry are proposed.

  4. Cellular composition of the bone marrow in the chicken. II. Effect of age and the influence of the bursa of Fabricius on the size of cellular compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, B.; Rosse, C.

    1981-01-01

    The blood and bone marrow of New Hampshire chicks were analyzed quantitatively from the time of hatch to 8 weeks of age. Hormonal bursectomy was performed by treating embryonating eggs on the 11th day of incubation with testosterone propionate (TP) which resulted in severe hypogammaglobulinemia and complete atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius. TP-treated birds exhibited some lymphocytopenia, reduced splenic weight, and lack of plasma cells in their bone marrow. The number of cells per milligram bone marrow was comparable in normal and TP-treated birds, falling in the range reported for laboratory rodents. The chick medullary hemopoiesis is characterized by the predominance of erythroblasts throughout early development; granulocytes and lymphocytes represent much smaller cellular compartments than in rodents. In the chick granulocytes tend to decrease after hatch, whereas in rodents they tend to increase. The normal chick shows a temporary increase in marrow lymphocytes after hatch, similar to that observed in some young rodents, but on a much smaller scale. Hormonal bursectomy did not prevent the development of a lymphocyte population in the bone marrow. These cells were fewer in TP-treated birds at hatch and at 4 weeks than in normal birds, but at 8 weeks of age normal and bursectomized chicks had comparable numbers of lymphocytes in their marrow. Although some lymphocytes in avain bone marrow may depend on the bursa of Fabricius for their development, a substantial proportion of bone marrow lymphocytes in the chick are bursa independent. The cell surface phenotype and site of origin of these cells remains to be investigated. 40 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  5. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  6. Initial contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to acquire data on contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and to acquire data on cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation. Whole raw chickens (n = 31) were obtained from local retail stores and cut into two wings, two breasts without skin or bones, two thighs, and two drumsticks. Data for cross-contamination were obtained by cutting up a sterile, cooked chicken breast with the same board and knife used to cut up the raw chicken. The board, knife, and latex gloves used by the food handler were not rinsed or washed before cutting up the sterile, cooked chicken breast, thus providing a worst-case scenario for cross-contamination. Standard curves for the concentration of Salmonella bacteria in 400 ml of buffered peptone water after 6 h of incubation of chicken parts as a function of the initial log number of Salmonella bacteria inoculated onto chicken parts were developed and used to enumerate Salmonella bacteria. Standard curves were not affected by the type of chicken part but did differ (P < 0.05) among the five isolates of Salmonella examined. Consequently, Salmonella bacteria were enumerated on naturally contaminated chicken parts using a standard curve developed with the serotype of Salmonella that was isolated from the original sample. The prevalence of contamination was 3 % (4 of 132), whereas the incidence of cross-contamination was 1.8 % (1 of 57). The positive chicken parts were a thigh from chicken 4, which contained 3 CFU of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky, and both wings, one thigh, and one cooked breast portion from chicken 15, which all contained 1 CFU of serotype 8,20:-:z(6). These results indicated that the poultry industry is providing consumers in the studied area with chicken that has a low prevalence and low number of Salmonella bacteria at retail and that has a low incidence and low level of cross-contamination of cooked chicken with

  7. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment.

    PubMed

    Gambaracci, Giulio; Mecarini, Eleonora; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Scialpi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies - like chicken and fish bones - can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  8. Giant Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Anterior Cranial Fossa and Paranasal Sinuses Presenting in Pregnancy: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hnenny, Luke; Roundy, Neil; Zherebitskiy, Victor; Grafe, Marjorie; Mansoor, Atiya; Dogan, Aclan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) rarely involve the cranium and have seldom been reported in pregnancy. Clinical Presentation We describe a case of a 28-year-old woman who presented at 37 weeks of gestation with 3 months of gradually worsening vision, 10 months of proptosis, and restricted ocular motility on the left. Brain imaging revealed a multicystic enhancing mass measuring 5.9 × 5.3 × 3.7 cm, centered on the cribriform plate on the left, extending into the anterior cranial fossa superiorly as well as the left nasal cavity, maxillary, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses. Her clinical course is described in detail; 3-month postoperative imaging demonstrated no residual mass. Conclusion A literature review revealed five previous cases of ABCs associated with pregnancy. We report a rare case of a giant ABC of fibrous dysplasia involving the paranasal sinuses and anterior cranial fossa. We postulate on the possible influence of pregnancy on the clinical course. PMID:26623230

  9. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of pigeon osteoblasts seeded on xenogeneic demineralised cancellous bone scaffold for bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Harvanová, Denisa; Hornák, Slavomír; Amrichová, Judita; Spaková, Tímea; Mikes, Jaromír; Plsíková, Jana; Ledecký, Valent; Rosocha, Ján

    2014-09-01

    Avian osteoblasts have been isolated particularly from chicken embryo, but data about other functional tissue sources of adult avian osteoblast precursors are missing. The method of preparation of pigeon osteoblasts is described in this study. We demonstrate that pigeon cancellous bone derived osteoblasts have particular proliferative capacity in vitro in comparison to mammalian species and developed endogenous ALP. Calcium deposits formation in vitro was confirmed by alizarin red staining. Only a few studies have attempted to investigate bone grafting and treatment of bone loss in birds. Lack of autologous bone grafts in birds has prompted investigation into the use of avian xenografts for bone augmentation. Here we present a method of xenografting of ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold seeded with allogeneic adult pigeon osteoblasts. Ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold supported proliferation of pigeon osteoblasts during two weeks of co - cultivation in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated homogeneous adult pigeon osteoblasts attachment and distribution on the surface of xenogeneic ostrich demineralised cancellous bone. Our preliminary in vitro results indicate that demineralised cancellous bone from ostrich tibia could provide an effective biological support for growth and proliferation of allogeneic osteoblasts derived from cancellous bone of pigeons. PMID:24915787

  10. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of pigeon osteoblasts seeded on xenogeneic demineralised cancellous bone scaffold for bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Harvanová, Denisa; Hornák, Slavomír; Amrichová, Judita; Spaková, Tímea; Mikes, Jaromír; Plsíková, Jana; Ledecký, Valent; Rosocha, Ján

    2014-09-01

    Avian osteoblasts have been isolated particularly from chicken embryo, but data about other functional tissue sources of adult avian osteoblast precursors are missing. The method of preparation of pigeon osteoblasts is described in this study. We demonstrate that pigeon cancellous bone derived osteoblasts have particular proliferative capacity in vitro in comparison to mammalian species and developed endogenous ALP. Calcium deposits formation in vitro was confirmed by alizarin red staining. Only a few studies have attempted to investigate bone grafting and treatment of bone loss in birds. Lack of autologous bone grafts in birds has prompted investigation into the use of avian xenografts for bone augmentation. Here we present a method of xenografting of ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold seeded with allogeneic adult pigeon osteoblasts. Ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold supported proliferation of pigeon osteoblasts during two weeks of co - cultivation in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated homogeneous adult pigeon osteoblasts attachment and distribution on the surface of xenogeneic ostrich demineralised cancellous bone. Our preliminary in vitro results indicate that demineralised cancellous bone from ostrich tibia could provide an effective biological support for growth and proliferation of allogeneic osteoblasts derived from cancellous bone of pigeons.

  11. [Literature review and presentation of our own research results regarding the effects on bone of tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib used in the treatment of oncohematological diseases].

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János; Horváth, Péter; Kövesdi, Andrea; Lakatos, Gergely; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Tóbiás, Bálint; Árvai, Kristóf; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are widely used for treatment of certain oncohematological diseases. Several clinical studies have confirmed that specific BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors alter the physiological process of bone tissue in a complex and unclearly identified manner. Since these treatments are being given to more and more patients, and the therapy takes decades or lasts even lifelong, it is justifiable to obtain more detailed knowledge of the molecular background of these mechanisms. In this article the authors summarize preliminary research results and human clinical observations on imatinib and nilotinib which are related to bone metabolism, and present the results of their own experiments in in vitro osteoblast cultures. Based on the presented results, the effects of imatinib and nilotinib on bone cells depend on the concentration of imatinib and nilotinib, the maturation stage of the cells and the distribution ratio of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. In this study the authors firstly prepared a stop-gap, comprehensive review in the Hungarian literature, regarding the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on bone metabolism. In addition they firstly performed whole transcriptome analysis on osteoblasts in order to obtain a better understanding of the cellular molecular mechanisms. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(36), 1429-1437. PMID:27596510

  12. [Immunisation of fancy chickens against Newcastle disease].

    PubMed

    Freund, I; Dzapo, V; Vielitz, E; Redmann, T; Kaleta, E F

    2001-10-01

    The German Regulation on Fowl plague which is in force since 1994 laid down that any chicken of all races and all hybrids must be vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) in a mode that an adequate immunity is achieved. Onset, duration, and resistance to challenge of immunity induced by vaccination is well documented in the scientific literature for hybrid chicken of the layer and meat types. These data prove also innocuity and efficacy of the registered vaccines. In contrast, only a few and incomplete data exist on the development of ND directed immunity in fancy chickens. The present study describes vaccinations of chickens of 14 different hobby breeds with live LaSota vaccine (conjunctival application of 10(6) embryo-infective dose50 per bird) and with an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine (intramuscular application of 0.5 ml per bird) and subsequent intramuscular challenge infections using the highly virulent NDV strain Herts 33/66. Chickens of all 14 breeds tolerated the application of both vaccines. All fancy chickens reacted with the production of serum antibodies which were measured in the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralisation (VN) tests. According to the scientific literature, maximal antibody levels are reached in hybrid chickens between day 10 and 20 post vaccination. In contrast, in fancy chickens the antibody maxima are delayed to the seventh to eighth week post vaccination. All fancy chickens vaccinated either once with live LaSota virus or with live and inactivated vaccines resisted challenge with the highly virulent Herts 33/66 strain of NDV and did not develop any signs of disease. There are indications for gradual differences in susceptibility of different breeds of fancy chickens. The levels of non-specific neutralisation as measured in the virus neutralisation test differ between breed. Also, the viral content in tissues obtained from non-vaccinated but challenged birds differ markedly. It is concluded from the results of

  13. Origin and timing of New Zealand's earliest domestic chickens: Polynesian commensals or European introductions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Herrera, Michael J. B.; Scofield, R. Paul; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2016-08-01

    Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material. The chickens belong to the widespread mitochondrial control region haplogroup E. Radiocarbon dating reveals that the bones are not prehistoric, but are still the earliest chicken remains known from New Zealand. Two of the bones pre-date permanent European settlement (ca 1803s onwards) but overlap with the arrival of James Cook's second voyage (1773-1774), and, therefore, they are likely to be chickens, or progeny thereof, liberated during that voyage. Our results support the idea that chickens were first introduced to New Zealand by Europeans, and provide new insights into Māori uptake and integration of resources introduced during the early post-European period.

  14. Isolation of chicken astrovirus from specific pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Luis Fabian N; Parra, Silvana H Santander; Mettifogo, Elena; Catroxo, Márcia Helena B; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J

    2015-05-01

    Astroviruses have been associated with enteric disorders in many animal species, including chickens. Here, we describe the isolation, propagation, and pathological characteristics of chicken astrovirus (CAstV) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) from chickens with diarrhea and runting-stunting syndrome. The CEE were inoculated via the yolk sac route. Viral confirmation was carried out using PCR techniques and transmission electron microscopy negative staining with ammonium molybdate. The intestinal contents were screened for CAstV, and differential diagnostic testing was performed for avian nephritis virus, avian rotavirus, avian reovirus, chicken parvovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and fowl adenovirus Group I to detect co-infection with other infectious agents. Seven- or 14-day-old CEEs presented with hemorrhages, edema, a gelatinous aspect, deformities, and dwarfism. The supporting membranes did not show any alterations. Here, we have described the isolation of CAstV and its pathological characteristics in SPF CEE. PMID:25805833

  15. Sex determination in the chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Smith, C A; Sinclair, A H

    2001-12-01

    The chicken embryo represents a suitable model for studying vertebrate sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. While the basic mechanism of sex determination in birds is still unknown, gonadal morphogenesis is very similar to that in mammals, and most of the genes implicated in mammalian sex determination have avian homologues. However, in the chicken embryo, these genes show some interesting differences in structure or expression patterns to their mammalian counterparts, broadening our understanding of their functions. The novel candidate testis-determining gene in mammals, DMRT1, is also present in the chicken, and is expressed specifically in the embryonic gonads. In chicken embryos, DMRT1 is more highly expressed in the gonads and Müllerian ducts of male embryos than in those of females. Meanwhile, expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, Steroidogenic Factor 1 (SF1) is up-regulated during ovarian differentiation in the chicken embryo. This contrasts with the expression pattern of SF1 in mouse embryos, in which expression is down-regulated during female differentiation. Another orphan receptor initially implicated in mammalian sex determination, DAX1, is poorly conserved in the chicken. A chicken DAX1 homologue isolated from a urogenital ridge library lacked the unusual DNA-binding motif seen in mammals. Chicken DAX1 is autosomal, and is expressed in the embryonic gonads, showing somewhat higher expression in female compared to male gonads, as in mammals. However, expression is not down-regulated at the onset of testicular differentiation in chicken embryos, as occurs in mice. These comparative data shed light on vertebrate sex determination in general. PMID:11748617

  16. Bone image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Liew, H L; Clement, J G; Thomas, C D

    1999-05-01

    Characteristics of microscopic structures in bone cross sections carry essential clues in age determination in forensic science and in the study of age-related bone developments and bone diseases. Analysis of bone cross sections represents a major area of research in bone biology. However, traditional approaches in bone biology have relied primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples. As a consequence, it is difficult to reach reliable and consistent conclusions. In this paper we present an image processing system that uses microstructural and relational knowledge present in the bone cross section for bone image segmentation. This system automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on quantitative measurements from a large number of bone images. As a result, using large databases of bone images to study the correlation between bone structural features and age-related bone developments becomes feasible.

  17. Using chicken embryos for teratology studies.

    PubMed

    Henshel, Diane S; DeWitt, Jamie; Troutman, Andrea

    2003-02-01

    This unit describes methods for injecting, incubating, handling and analyzing domestic chicken embryos used in teratology studies. It also includes a discussion of caveats and special handling issues as well as some discussion of statistical analyses that differentiate working with chicken embryos from working with clutches of eggs or litters of pups. As an example of potential data, preliminary data from a study of abnormalities in early embryos and hatchling chicks exposed to chlordane are presented.

  18. Isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging chickens from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Venturini, M C; Venturini, L; Piscopo, M; Graham, D H; Dahl, E; Sreekumar, C; Vianna, M C; Lehmann, T

    2003-10-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens can be considered a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the environment because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in 29 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Argentina was investigated. Blood, heart, and brain from each chicken were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii, assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT), were found in 19 of 29 (65.5%) chickens. Hearts and brains of seropositive (MAT > or = 1:5) chickens were bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 9 of 19 seropositive chickens. Genotyping of chicken isolates of T. gondii using the SAG2 locus indicated that 1 was type I, 1 was type II, and 7 were type III. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Argentina.

  19. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  20. Model experiments for immunomagnetic elimination of leukemic cells from human bone marrow. Presentation of a novel magnetic separation system.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, B; Häfer, R; Müller, A; Andrä, W; Danan, H; Zintl, F

    1991-11-01

    Optimal conditions for removing leukemic cells from human bone marrow with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and magnetic immunobeads were investigated. Monodisperse 3 microns polystyrene microspheres containing magnetite were coated with affinity-purified rabbit antimouse IgG at 4 degrees C, pH 9.6 for 18 h. SKW-3 cells (T-CLL cell line) were marked with the supravital DNA stain Hoechst 33342, seeded into normal human bone marrow, and then incubated with the mAb CD1, CD6, and CD8 at 4 degrees C for 30 min. In preliminary experiments REH cells (cALL cells) and mouse anti-REH cell antibodies were used to find the most favorable conditions for the binding of magnetic beads to tumor cells. Optimal formation of cell-bead rosettes was achieved by rotating beads and tumor cells together at room temperature at a concentration of 1 x 10(7) cells/ml, a bead: tumor cell ratio of 100:1 and an incubation time of one hour. The novel magnetic separation apparatus consists of three polystyrene chambers connected by silicone rubber tubing. The chambers contain four steel inserts each equipped with 32 nickel wires, which are magnetized by permanent magnets in such a way that the inhomogeneous high gradient magnetic field could be established within the cell suspension containing the cells to be depleted. The fluid flow was established by a peristaltic pump. At a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and a field strength of 160 kA/m, no beads could be detected in the purged marrow. A cocktail of the three mAb was more effective than any single antibody in forming bead-cell rosettes. Two sequential purging cycles were superior to one. The marrow recovered was highly viable as assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion and by growth of CFU-GM. PMID:1786986

  1. Model experiments for immunomagnetic elimination of leukemic cells from human bone marrow. Presentation of a novel magnetic separation system.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, B; Häfer, R; Müller, A; Andrä, W; Danan, H; Zintl, F

    1991-11-01

    Optimal conditions for removing leukemic cells from human bone marrow with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and magnetic immunobeads were investigated. Monodisperse 3 microns polystyrene microspheres containing magnetite were coated with affinity-purified rabbit antimouse IgG at 4 degrees C, pH 9.6 for 18 h. SKW-3 cells (T-CLL cell line) were marked with the supravital DNA stain Hoechst 33342, seeded into normal human bone marrow, and then incubated with the mAb CD1, CD6, and CD8 at 4 degrees C for 30 min. In preliminary experiments REH cells (cALL cells) and mouse anti-REH cell antibodies were used to find the most favorable conditions for the binding of magnetic beads to tumor cells. Optimal formation of cell-bead rosettes was achieved by rotating beads and tumor cells together at room temperature at a concentration of 1 x 10(7) cells/ml, a bead: tumor cell ratio of 100:1 and an incubation time of one hour. The novel magnetic separation apparatus consists of three polystyrene chambers connected by silicone rubber tubing. The chambers contain four steel inserts each equipped with 32 nickel wires, which are magnetized by permanent magnets in such a way that the inhomogeneous high gradient magnetic field could be established within the cell suspension containing the cells to be depleted. The fluid flow was established by a peristaltic pump. At a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and a field strength of 160 kA/m, no beads could be detected in the purged marrow. A cocktail of the three mAb was more effective than any single antibody in forming bead-cell rosettes. Two sequential purging cycles were superior to one. The marrow recovered was highly viable as assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion and by growth of CFU-GM.

  2. Content and distribution of different phosphorus forms in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, X-K; Wang, J-Z; Zhang, C-H; Li, X; Tang, C-H

    2016-04-01

    To understand the background value of phosphorus in chickens, the quantitative distribution of different phosphorus forms, including total phosphorus (TP), free phosphate (FP) and phospholipid (PL), in viscera, blood and bones of broiler chickens was investigated. Results showed that phosphorus contents exhibited significant differences in different parts of chickens. TP content of breast and thigh meat was over 5.0 g/kg, in which most of the phosphorus was in the form of water-soluble phosphates. TP content in viscera was higher than that in meat, and spleen was observed to contain the highest amount of phosphorus (10.0 g/kg). In all tested organs, FP and PL contents in liver were the highest, ranging between 1207-1989 and 81-369 mg/kg respectively. TP content in chicken bone was in the range of 52,716-136,643 mg/kg, and FP content in the bone was relatively lower than that in chicken meat. PMID:26189915

  3. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  4. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  5. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from India.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, C; Graham, D H; Dahl, E; Lehmann, T; Raman, M; Bhalerao, D P; Vianna, M C B; Dubey, J P

    2003-12-30

    The present study was undertaken to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from villages in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states of central and south India, respectively. Blood, heart, and brain from a total of 741 chickens were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii, as assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT >or = 1:5) were found in 133 (17.9%) chickens. Hearts and brains of 186 chickens were bioassayed in mice. Additionally, hearts and/or brains of most of the seronegative (MAT < 1:5) chickens were fed to 20 T. gondii-free cats, while 32 seropositive chickens (MAT 1:5) were fed to 3 cats. T. gondii was not isolated from any of the chickens by mouse bioassay. Five of the cats that were fed seronegative chickens shed oocysts, while isolates were not obtained from any of the other cats fed seropositive chickens. These five isolates, along with the two that were previously isolated in India through cat bioassay, were genetically analyzed. Genotyping using the SAG 2 locus indicated that two isolates were type II and five were type III. Microsatellite analysis revealed allelic differences between and within the lineages. This is the first report of genetic characterization of any T. gondii isolate from India.

  6. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  7. The Chicken Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  8. Laser welding of bone: Successful in vitro experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1994-02-01

    A method for ``welding`` bones is being developed. Tensile joint strengths of chicken bones welded in vitro have exceeded one kilogram. Welding was performed with either a Nd:YAG (1064 nm) or a diode laser (820 nm). Light was delivered with an optical fiber held a few millimeters from the bone surface. A solder was developed to assist in the welding process.

  9. Isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging chickens from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Morales, E S; Lehmann, T

    2004-04-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the presence of T. gondii oocysts in the environment because chickens feed from the soil. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in 208 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Mexico was investigated. Blood, heart, and brain from each animal were obtained to test for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii, assayed with the modified agglutination test (1:10 or higher), were found in 13 (6.2%) chickens. Hearts and brains of 13 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice, and T. gondii was isolated from 6 chickens. All 6 isolates were avirulent for mice. Genotyping of chicken isolates of T. gondii using the SAG2 locus indicated that 5 were type III and 1 was type I. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Mexico.

  10. Primary splenic histiocytic sarcoma complicated with prolonged idiopathic thrombocytopenia and secondary bone marrow involvement: a unique surgical case presenting with splenomegaly but non-nodular lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A 67-year-old Japanese female was followed up due to prolonged idiopathic thrombocytopenia with non-response to steroid therapy for 4 years, but recent progressive pancytopenia, hypo-albuminemia, and hypo-γ-globulinemia were presented. An abdominal CT scan revealed heterogeneously enhanced splenomegaly without any nodular lesions. A splenectomy was performed, and gross examination showed markedly hyperemic red pulp, weighing 760 g, accompanied by multiple foci of peripheral anemic infarction. Surprisingly, microscopic findings exhibited a diffuse proliferation of medium-sized to large tumor cells having pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, predominantly within the sinuses and cords of the red pulp, which occasionally displayed conspicuous hemophagocytosis and vascular permeation. In immunohistochemistry, these atypical cells were specifically positive for CD68 (KP-1), CD163, and lysozyme, which was consistent with histiocytic sarcoma (HS) of the spleen. Subsequently, section from the aspiration of bone marrow showed infiltration of the neoplastic cells associated with erythrophagocytosis 2 months after the operation, but never before it. Therefore, primary splenic HS presenting with secondary bone marrow involvement was conclusively diagnosed. Since early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the HS patients with poor outcomes, splenic HS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases with chronic thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1009474924812827 PMID:23075171

  11. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth–second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later. PMID:26195775

  12. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-08-11

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth-second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later.

  13. Genotypes and oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and chicken meat in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A

    2014-12-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat.

  14. The Chicken Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hawkridge, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    The chicken is a unique experimental model for studying the spontaneous onset and progression of ovarian cancer (OVC). The prevalence of OVC in chickens can range from 10–35% depending on age, genetic strain, reproductive history, and diet. Furthermore, the chicken presents epidemiological, morphological, and molecular traits that are similar to human OVC making it a relevant experimental model for translation research. Similarities to humans include associated increased risk of OVC with the number of ovulations, common histopathological sub-types including high-grade serous, and molecular-level markers or pathways such as CA-125 expression and p53 mutation frequency. Collectively, the similarities between chicken and human OVC combined with a tightly controlled genetic background and predictable onset window provides an outstanding experimental model for studying the early events and progression of spontaneous OVC tumors under controlled environmental conditions. This review will cover the existing literature on OVC in the chicken and highlight potential opportunities for further exploitation (e.g, biomarkers, prevention, treatment, and genomics). PMID:25130871

  15. Bone and soft tissue tumors presenting as sciatic notch dumbbell masses: A critical differential diagnosis of sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Harimaya, Katsumi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Okada, Seiji; Doi, Toshio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the clinical findings and characteristic features in sciatic notch dumbbell tumors (SNDTs). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes and characteristic features of consecutive cases of SNDTs (n = 8). RESULTS Buttock masses occurred in three patients with SNDT (37.5%). Severe buttock tenderness and pain at rest were observed in seven patients with SNDTs (87.5%). Remarkably, none of the patients with SNDTs experienced back pain. Mean tumor size was 8.4 ± 2.0 cm (range, 3.9 to 10.6 cm) and part of the tumor mass was detected in 2 patients in the sagittal view of lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CONCLUSION The clinical information regarding to SNDTs is scarce. The authors consider that above mentioned characteristic findings may facilitate the suspicion of pelvic pathology and a search for SNDT by MRI or computed tomography should be considered in patients presenting with sciatica without evidence of spinal diseases. PMID:27777884

  16. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens from Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Navarro, I T; Graham, D H; Dahl, E; Freire, R L; Prudencio, L B; Sreekumar, C; Vianna, M C; Lehmann, T

    2003-11-14

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the environment because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in 40 free range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from a rural area surrounding Paraná, Brazil was assessed. Blood, heart, and brain from each chicken were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii, assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT> or =1:5) were found in 16 chickens. Hearts and brains of seropositive (MAT> or =1:5) chickens were bioassayed in mice. Additionally, hearts and brains of seronegative (MAT<1:5) chickens were bioassayed in two T. gondii-free cats (12 chickens per cat). T. gondii was isolated from 13 of 16 (81%) seropositive chickens. Of the two cats fed tissues pooled form seronegative chickens, one shed T. gondii oocysts. Nine of the 13 T. gondii isolates killed 100% of infected mice. The T. gondii isolate from the cat was also virulent for mice. Genotyping of 13 chicken isolates of T. gondii using the SAG2 locus indicated that seven isolates were type I and six were type III; three of these type III isolates killed all infected mice suggesting that all strains virulent for mice are not type I. The isolate from the feces of the cat fed chicken tissues was type I.

  17. Survival of salmonella in processed chicken products during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Silvia A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2009-10-01

    Frozen chicken products have been identified recently as a cause of salmonellosis. At least eight salmonellosis outbreaks from 1998 to 2008 have implicated undercooked frozen chicken nuggets, strips, and entrees as infection vehicles. Thus, the presence of Salmonella in frozen products may pose an infection risk if the product is improperly cooked. The objective of this study was to assess the survivability of Salmonella during frozen storage (-20 degrees ) when inoculated in processed chicken products. Four Salmonella strains originally isolated from poultry were inoculated into frozen chicken nuggets (fully cooked) and frozen chicken strips (containing raw poultry) at initial populations of 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g. Survival was assessed during storage at -20 degrees for 16 weeks by measuring bacterial growth on minimal, selective, and nonselective agars. Results indicate that cell populations measured in nonselective agars (plate count agar and plate count agar supplemented with tetracycline) and minimal (M9) agar remained relatively constant during the entire -20 degrees storage period studied (16 weeks) for both chicken nuggets and strips. However, cell populations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when measured in selective agar (XLT4) during the 16 weeks of frozen storage for both chicken nuggets and strips, suggesting that these cells were structurally injured. The data presented in this study indicate that Salmonella can survive frozen storage when inoculated in frozen, processed chicken products and confirm that microbial counts on selective agar are not representative of the total population of samples subject to freezing.

  18. Campylobacter and Salmonella contaminating fresh chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Geilhausen, B; Schütt-Gerowitt, H; Aleksic, S; Koenen, R; Mauff, G; Pulverer, G

    1996-07-01

    1853 packages of fresh chicken breast meat of German, Dutch and French origin were investigated for their contamination with Campylobacter and/or Salmonella. Swabs were taken and cultured from dripwater, meat surface, meat interior and packet bowl. Campylobacter was isolated from 619 meat samples (= 33%), Salmonella from 377 meat packages (= 20%). In 111 of these contaminated chicken samples, both Salmonella and Campylobacter were present. The contamination rate and the species spectrum observed differed depending on the origin of the packages and the time of control.

  19. Concomitant Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma of Lymph Node and cMYC-Positive Burkitt Leukemia/Lymphoma of the Bone Marrow Presented Concurrently at the Time of Presentation: A Rare Combination of Discordant Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Dina S.; Fareed, Shehab; Alkuwari, Einas; El-Omri, Halima; Al-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Gameel, Amna; Yassin, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Discordant lymphoma is rare condition in which different types of malignant lymphomas occurring in different anatomic sites. The two diseases may present clinically as concurrent or sequential disease (10). Herein we are reporting a Pakistani female in her 60s, a carrier of hepatitis B virus with multiple comorbidities presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, diagnosed as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, mixed cellularity. During the staging workup, the patient was discovered to have extensive bone marrow (BM) involvement by Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL). Cytogenetic analysis revealed positivity for t(8;14)(q24;q32) confirmed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for IGH/MYC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was demonstrated heavily in our case, with (EBV) DNA of 24,295,560 copies/ml by PCR at time of presentation, in addition, the neoplastic cells in both diagnostic tissues (cervical lymph node and BM) demonstrated positivity for EBV. A diagnosis of concomitant EBV related discordant lymphoma (classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in leukemic phase was made. Among all reported cases, this case is highly exceptional because it is the first case of discordant/composite lymphoma, with this combination and concomitant presentation. Since we are dealing with a case with an exceptionally rare combination, we found it significant to elaborate more on its clinical features, contributing factors including EBV role, response to treatment, complications, and prognosis. PMID:27512341

  20. Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Jinzhou, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Song, Xingshuai; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fengyang; Cao, Lili; Liu, Quan

    2012-12-01

    There is a lack of epidemiological data on Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in China. In the present study, serum samples from 160 free-range chickens and 450 caged chickens collected from Jinzhou, northeastern China were examined for T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 30 of 160 free-range chickens (18.8%) and in 25 of 450 caged chickens (5.6%), with a significantly higher prevalence in free-range chickens (P < 0.01). In caged chickens, 8 of 100 breeders (8.0%), 15 of 190 layers (7.9%), and 2 of 160 broilers (1.3%) were positive, with the highest prevalence in breeders and layers (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in comparing free-range chickens and caged chickens from different regions. The results of the present study indicated that infection with T. gondii in chickens, particularly in free-range chickens, is common in Jinzhou and that the meat from the poultry may be an important source for human infection by T. gondii .

  2. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM) tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and will be updated on regular

  3. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  4. Chicken Dance (Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Wayne

    1990-01-01

    Draws a humorous analogy between superstitious behavior induced in chickens and the beliefs and folkways that are manifested in the teaching of beginning reading and the teaching of study strategies. Argues that it is very easy and natural to fall into patterns of superstitious, meaningless behavior, such as teaching from basal readers. (RS)

  5. Bone Grafts

    MedlinePlus

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, ... fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone graft, it provides a framework for growth of new, ...

  6. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  7. Cross-dressing by donor dendritic cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation contributes to formation of the immunological synapse and maximizes responses to indirectly presented antigen.

    PubMed

    Markey, Kate A; Koyama, Motoko; Gartlan, Kate H; Leveque, Lucie; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Hill, Geoffrey R

    2014-06-01

    The stimulation of naive donor T cells by recipient alloantigen is central to the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Using mouse models of transplantation, we have observed that donor cells become "cross-dressed" in very high levels of recipient hematopoietic cell-derived MHC class I and II molecules following BMT. Recipient-type MHC is transiently present on donor dendritic cells (DCs) after BMT in the setting of myeloablative conditioning but is persistent after nonmyeloablative conditioning, in which recipient hematopoietic cells remain in high numbers. Despite the high level of recipient-derived alloantigen present on the surface of donor DCs, donor T cell proliferative responses are generated only in response to processed recipient alloantigen presented via the indirect pathway and not in response to cross-dressed MHC. Assays in which exogenous peptide is added to cross-dressed MHC in the presence of naive TCR transgenic T cells specific to the MHC class II-peptide combination confirm that cross-dressed APC cannot induce T cell proliferation in isolation. Despite failure to induce T cell proliferation, cross-dressing by donor DCs contributes to generation of the immunological synapse between DCs and CD4 T cells, and this is required for maximal responses induced by classical indirectly presented alloantigen. We conclude that the process of cross-dressing by donor DCs serves as an efficient alternative pathway for the acquisition of recipient alloantigen and that once acquired, this cross-dressed MHC can assist in immune synapse formation prior to the induction of full T cell proliferative responses by concurrent indirect Ag presentation.

  8. Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can phagocytize the Sporothrix schenckii, and mature and activate the immune response by secreting interleukin-12 and presenting antigens to T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kusuhara, Masahiro; Qian, Hua; Li, Xiaoguang; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Ishii, Norito; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    In sporotrichosis, dermal dendritic cells were considered to participate in induction of the immune responses against Sporothrix schenckii infection. However, it is still unclear whether and how dermal dendritic cells were involved in the progress. To clarify the pathogenic role of dermal dendritic cells (DC) in sporotrichosis, we examined the phagocytosis, maturation stages, cytokine production and antigen-presenting ability of mouse bone marrow-derived DC after stimulation with S. schenckii. By analysis of flow cytometry, electron microscope and confocal microscope, mouse bone marrow-derived DC were proved to be able to phagocytize the S. schenckii. The increased expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86 on the surface of S. schenckii-pulsed mouse bone marrow-derived DC was detected by flow cytometer, indicating that the S. schenckii-pulsed mouse bone marrow-derived DC underwent the maturation program. The secretory enhancement of interleukin (IL)-12, but not IL-4, was found in S. schenckii-pulsed mouse bone marrow-derived DC, suggesting the possible activation of T-helper 1 prone immune responses. Furthermore, S. schenckii-pulsed mouse bone marrow-derived DC were demonstrated to be capable of inducing the proliferation of T lymphocytes from BALB/c mice that were pre-sensitized with S. schenckii. Together, all the results implied that dermal DC may participate in the induction of immune responses against S. schenckii infection in sporotrichosis.

  9. Progress from chicken genetics to the chicken genome.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P B; Dodgson, J B; Andersson, L

    2006-12-01

    The chicken has a proud history, both in genetic research and as a source of food. Here we attempt to provide an overview of past contributions of the chicken in both arenas and to link those contributions to the near future from a genetic perspective. Companion articles will discuss current poultry genetics research in greater detail. The chicken was the first animal species in which Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated. A century later, the chicken was the first among farm animals to have its genome sequenced. Between these firsts, the chicken remained a key organism used in genetic research. Breeding programs, based on sound genetic principles, facilitated the global emergence of the chicken meat and egg industries. Concomitantly, the chicken served as a model whose experimental populations and mutant stocks were used in basic and applied studies with broad application to other species, including humans. In this paper, we review some of these contributions, trace the path from the origin of molecular genetics to the sequence of the chicken genome, and discuss the merits of the chicken as a model organism for furthering our understanding of biology.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  11. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  12. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  13. A Consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis Is Present in Sites Prior to Bone Loss in a Longitudinal Study of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  14. Neogenin May Functionally Substitute for Dcc in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Keith Dai; Croteau, Louis-Philippe; Kam, Joseph Wai Keung; Kania, Artur; Cloutier, Jean-François; Butler, Samantha Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Dcc is the key receptor that mediates attractive responses of axonal growth cones to netrins, a family of axon guidance cues used throughout evolution. However, a Dcc homolog has not yet been identified in the chicken genome, raising the possibility that Dcc is not present in avians. Here we show that the closely related family member neogenin may functionally substitute for Dcc in the developing chicken spinal cord. The expression pattern of chicken neogenin in the developing spinal cord is a composite of the distribution patterns of both rodent Dcc and neogenin. Moreover, whereas the loss of mouse neogenin has no effect on the trajectory of commissural axons, removing chicken neogenin by RNA interference results in a phenotype similar to the functional inactivation of Dcc in mouse. Taken together, these data suggest that the chick neogenin is functionally equivalent to rodent Dcc. PMID:21779375

  15. Investigating the Global Dispersal of Chickens in Prehistory Using Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Athens, J. Stephen; Bryant, David; Carson, Mike; Emery, Kitty; deFrance, Susan; Higham, Charles; Huynen, Leon; Intoh, Michiko; Jones, Sharyn; Kirch, Patrick V.; Ladefoged, Thegn; McCoy, Patrick; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Quiroz, Daniel; Reitz, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Walter, Richard; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Data from morphology, linguistics, history, and archaeology have all been used to trace the dispersal of chickens from Asian domestication centers to their current global distribution. Each provides a unique perspective which can aid in the reconstruction of prehistory. This study expands on previous investigations by adding a temporal component from ancient DNA and, in some cases, direct dating of bones of individual chickens from a variety of sites in Europe, the Pacific, and the Americas. The results from the ancient DNA analyses of forty-eight archaeologically derived chicken bones provide support for archaeological hypotheses about the prehistoric human transport of chickens. Haplogroup E mtDNA signatures have been amplified from directly dated samples originating in Europe at 1000 B.P. and in the Pacific at 3000 B.P. indicating multiple prehistoric dispersals from a single Asian centre. These two dispersal pathways converged in the Americas where chickens were introduced both by Polynesians and later by Europeans. The results of this study also highlight the inappropriate application of the small stretch of D-loop, traditionally amplified for use in phylogenetic studies, to understanding discrete episodes of chicken translocation in the past. The results of this study lead to the proposal of four hypotheses which will require further scrutiny and rigorous future testing. PMID:22848352

  16. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne; Held, Suzanne; Jones, Charlotte; Troisi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary For a domestic chick, the mother hen is an important role model; chicks learn a great deal from their mother about what to peck, when to rest and how to behave when there is a threat. However, in large farms, natural brooding is not commercially viable and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially. Chicks reared without a mother in this way are more fearful and more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. We discuss the important features of maternal care in chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation, and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to simulate natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice. Abstract In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural

  17. An activating G{sub s}{alpha} mutation is present in fibrous dysplasia of bone in the McCune-Albright syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, A.; Weinstein, L.S.; Spiegel, A.M.; Sweet, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a sporadic disease characterized by polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cafe-au-lait spots, and multiple endocrinopathies. The etiology of fibrous dysplasia is unknown. Activating mutations of codon 201 in the gene encoding the {alpha}-subunit of G{sub s}, the G-protein that stimulates adenylyl cyclase, have been found in all affected MAS tissues that have been studied. Initial attempts to amplify DNA from decalcified paraffin-embedded bone specimens from frozen surgical bone specimens from five MAS patients using polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. Most of the cells in four specimens of dysplastic bone contained a heterozygous mutation encoding substitution of Arg{sup 201} of G{sub s}{alpha} with His, but the mutation was barely detectable in peripheral blood specimens from the patients. Only a small amount of mutant allele was detected in a specimen of normal cortical bone from the fifth patient, although this patients had a high proportion of mutation in other, affected tissues. The mosaic distribution of mutant alleles is consistent with an embryological somatic cell mutation of the G{sub s}{alpha} gene in MAS. The presence of an activating mutation of G{sub s}{alpha} in osteoblastic progenitor cells may cause them to exhibit increased proliferation and abnormal differentiation, thereby producing the lesions of fibrous dysplasia. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Joanne; Held, Suzanne; Jones, Charlotte; Troisi, Camille

    2016-01-05

    In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks' behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks' response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks' behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice.

  19. Cloning of TPO gene and associations of polymorphisms with chicken growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xinyan; Han, Ruili; Tian, Yadong; Xie, Wanying; Sun, Guirong; Li, Guoxi; Jiang, Ruirui; Kang, Xiangtao

    2013-04-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO), which located on the apical membrane surface of thyrocytes, is the key enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, mainly catalyses the iodination of tyrosine residues and the coupling of iodotyrosines on thyroglobulin to form thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of the chicken TPO gene and to analyze potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and growth and carcass traits in chicken. Partial sequences of TPO gene were cloned firstly. The nucleotide sequence was found to have 72 % identity with that of humans. The chicken TPO amino acid sequence was 71 %. Through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods, three novel mutations of the chicken TPO gene were detected in the F2 resource population from Gushi chickens and Anka broilers. The association analysis indicated that all of the three SNPs showed association with chicken growth at different periods. The g.29996C>T polymorphisms was significantly associated with body weight, breast bone length, pectoral angle at 12 weeks, claw weight and leg muscle weight (P < 0.05). In addition, individuals with the TT genotype had higher value for almost all the traits than CC and CT genotype. Meanwhile for CLW, the additive effects were significant (P < 0.05). Hence, we suggest that genotype TT can be regarded as a potential molecular marker for later growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  20. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  1. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  2. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  3. Production of chicken progeny (Gallus gallus domesticus) from interspecies germline chimeric duck (Anas domesticus) by primordial germ cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhai; Khazanehdari, Kamal A; Baskar, Vijaya; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Chang, Il-Kuk

    2012-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the differentiation of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) primordial germ cells (PGCs) in duck (Anas domesticus) gonads. Chimeric ducks were produced by transferring chicken PGCs into duck embryos. Transfer of 200 and 400 PGCs resulted in the detection of a total number of 63.0 ± 54.3 and 116.8 ± 47.1 chicken PGCs in the gonads of 7-day-old duck embryos, respectively. The chimeric rate of ducks prior to hatching was 52.9% and 90.9%, respectively. Chicken germ cells were assessed in the gonad of chimeric ducks with chicken-specific DNA probes. Chicken spermatogonia were detected in the seminiferous tubules of duck testis. Chicken oogonia, primitive and primary follicles, and chicken-derived oocytes were also found in the ovaries of chimeric ducks, indicating that chicken PGCs are able to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in duck ovaries and participate in the progression of duck ovarian folliculogenesis. Chicken DNA was detected using PCR from the semen of chimeric ducks. A total number of 1057 chicken eggs were laid by Barred Rock hens after they were inseminated with chimeric duck semen, of which four chicken offspring hatched and one chicken embryo did not hatch. Female chimeric ducks were inseminated with chicken semen; however, no fertile eggs were obtained. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that chicken PGCs could interact with duck germinal epithelium and complete spermatogenesis and eventually give rise to functional sperm. The PGC-mediated germline chimera technology may provide a novel system for conserving endangered avian species.

  4. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  5. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  6. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies.

  7. Somatostatin Analogue Treatment of a TSH-Secreting Adenoma Presenting With Accelerated Bone Metabolism and a Pericardial Effusion: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mousiolis, Athanasios C; Rapti, Eleni; Grammatiki, Maria; Yavropoulou, Maria; Efstathiou, Maria; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Daniilidis, Michalis; Kotsa, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    Increased bone turnover and other less frequent comorbidities of hyperthyroidism, such as heart failure, have only rarely been reported in association with central hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma). Treatment is highly empirical and relies on eliminating the tumor and the hyperthyroid state.We report here an unusual case of a 39-year-old man who was initially admitted for management of pleuritic chest pain and fever of unknown origin. Diagnostic work up confirmed pericarditis and pleural effusion both refractory to treatment. The patient had a previous history of persistently elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), indicative of increased bone turnover. He had also initially been treated with thyroxine supplementation due to elevated TSH levels. During the diagnostic process a TSHoma was revealed. Thyroxine was discontinued, and resection of the pituitary tumor followed by treatment with a somatostatin analog led to complete recession of the effusions, normalization of ALP, and shrinkage of pituitary tumor.Accelerated bone metabolism and pericardial and pleural effusions attributed to a TSHoma may resolve after successful treatment of the tumor. The unexpected clinical course of this case highlights the need for careful long-term surveillance in patients with these rare pituitary adenomas. PMID:26765410

  8. Carpal bone analysis in bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Kurkowska-Pospiech, Sylwia; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2006-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed in our Laboratory based on features extracted from regions of interest (ROI) in phalanges in a digital hand atlas. Due to various factors, including, the diversity of size, shape and orientation of carpal bones, non-uniformity of soft tissue, low contrast between the bony structure and soft tissue, the automatic identification and segmentation of bone boundaries is an extremely challenging task. Past research work on carpal bone segmentation has been done utilizing dynamic thresholding. However, due to the discrepancy of carpal bones developments and the limitations of segmentation algorithms, carpal bone ROI has not been taken into consideration in the bone age assessment procedure. In this paper, we present a method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and feature analysis in hand X-ray radiograph. The purpose of this paper is to automatically segment the carpal bones by anisotropic diffusion and Canny edge detection techniques. By adding their respective features extracted from carpal bones ROI to the phalangeal ROI feature space, the accuracy of bone age assessment can be improved especially when the image processing in the phalangeal ROI fails in younger children.

  9. Pathogenicity of Five Strains of Toxoplasma gondii from Different Animals to Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Wang, Wang; Zhang, Zhen-Chao; Shen, Bo; Hassan, I. A.; Xie, Qing; Yan, Ruo-Feng; Song, Xiao-Kai; Xu, Li-Xin; Li, Xiang-Rui

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad range of intermediate hosts. Chickens as important food-producing animals can also serve as intermediate hosts. To date, experimental studies on the pathogenicity of T. gondii in broiler chickens were rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to compare the pathogenicity of 5 different T. gondii strains (RH, CN, JS, CAT2, and CAT3) from various host species origin in 10-day-old chickens. Each group of chickens was infected intraperitoneally with 5×108, 1×108, 1×107, and 1×106 tachyzoites of the 5 strains, respectively. The negative control group was mockly inoculated with PBS alone. After infection, clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures of all the chickens were checked daily. Dead chickens during acute phage of the infection were checked for T. gondii tachyzoites by microscope, while living cases were checked for T. gondii infection at day 53 post-inoculation (PI) by PCR method. Histopathological sections were used to observe the pathological changes in the dead chickens and the living animals at day 53 PI. No significant differences were found in survival periods, histopathological findings, and clinical symptoms among the chickens infected with the RH, CN, CAT2, and CAT3 strains. Histopathological findings and clinical symptoms of the JS (chicken origin) group were similar to the others. However, average survival times of infected chickens of the JS group inoculated with 5×108 and 1×108 tachyzoites were 30.0 and 188.4 hr, respectively, significantly shorter than those of the other 4 mammalian isolates. Chickens exposed to 108 of T. gondii tachyzoites and higher showed acute signs of toxoplasmosis, and the lesions were relatively more severe than those exposed to lower doses. The results indicated that the pathogenicity of JS strain was comparatively stronger to the chicken, and the pathogenicity was dose-dependent. PMID:25925173

  10. High-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken from MT-COI and ATP-6 perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan

    2016-09-01

    The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.

  11. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  12. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Sajahan, Nor Adzliana; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) by chicken (CES) and duck eggshells (DES) as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3). CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH4)2HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:25383364

  13. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  14. Bone Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common types of primary bone cancer are: • Multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is the most common primary bone cancer. It ... Any bone can be affected by this cancer. Multiple myeloma affects approximately six people per 100,000 each ...

  15. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  16. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  17. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  18. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  19. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  20. Bone marrow transplantation alters lung antigen-presenting cells to promote TH17 response and the development of pneumonitis and fibrosis following gammaherpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Loomis-King, H; Gurczynski, S J; Wilke, C A; Konopka, K E; Ptaschinski, C; Coomes, S M; Iwakura, Y; van Dyk, L F; Lukacs, N W; Moore, B B

    2016-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) efficacy is limited by numerous pulmonary complications. We developed a model of syngeneic bone marrow transplantion (BMT) followed by infection with murine gamma herpesvirus-68 that results in pneumonitis and fibrosis and mimics human "noninfectious" HSCT complications. BMT mice experience increased early lytic replication, but establish viral latency by 21 days post infection. CD4 T cells in BMT mice are skewed toward interleukin (IL)-17A rather than interferon (IFN)-γ production. Transplantation of bone marrow from Il-17a(-/-) donors or treatment with anti-IL-17A neutralization antibodies at late stages attenuates pneumonitis and fibrosis in infected BMT mice, suggesting that hematopoietic-derived IL-17A is essential for development of pathology. IL-17A directly influences activation and extracellular matrix production by lung mesenchymal cells. Lung CD11c+ cells of BMT mice secrete more transforming growth factor beta-β1, and pro-TH17 mRNAs for IL-23 and IL-6, and less TH1-promoting cytokine mRNA for IFN-γ but slightly more IL-12 mRNA in response to viral infection. Adoptive transfer of non-BMT lung CD11c-enriched cells restores robust TH1 response and suppresses aberrant TH17 response in BMT mice to improve lung pathology. Our data suggest that "noninfectious" HSCT lung complications may reflect preceding viral infections and demonstrate that IL-17A neutralization may offer therapeutic advantage even after disease onset. PMID:26376362

  1. The risk of lead contamination in bone broth diets.

    PubMed

    Monro, J A; Leon, R; Puri, B K

    2013-04-01

    The preparation and consumption of bone broth is being increasingly recommended to patients, for example as part of the gut and psychology syndrome (GAPS) diet for autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia, depression and schizophrenia, and as part of the paleolithic diet. However, bones are known to sequester the heavy metal lead, contamination with which is widespread throughout the modern environment. Such sequestered lead can then be mobilised from the bones. We therefore hypothesised that bone broth might carry a risk of being contaminated with lead. A small, blinded, controlled study of lead concentrations in three different types of organic chicken broth showed that such broths do indeed contain several times the lead concentration of the water with which the broth is made. In particular, broth made from skin and cartilage taken off the bone once the chicken had been cooked with the bones in situ, and chicken-bone broth, were both found to have markedly high lead concentrations, of 9.5 and 7.01 μg L(-1), respectively (compared with a control value for tap water treated in the same way of 0.89 μg L(-1)). In view of the dangers of lead consumption to the human body, we recommend that doctors and nutritionists take the risk of lead contamination into consideration when advising patients about bone broth diets. PMID:23375414

  2. Culture of chicken embryo in interspecific surrogate egg white.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Zu, J; Baskar, V; Wernery, U; Chang, I K

    2012-11-01

    The effect of interspecific egg white on the development of chicken embryos was investigated in a surrogate eggshell culture system. Egg yolks were separated from fertile White Leghorn chicken eggs and cultured in different egg whites from turkey (group TK), guineafowl (group GF), and duck (group DK), and chicken (group CK) was used as control. The viability of chicken embryos in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK after 3 d culture in system II was 98.3, 90.2, 96.1, and 91.1%. The whole contents (egg yolk and surrogate egg white) were further transferred into an eggshell from a 1.5 times heavier chicken egg with air space (system III), and incubated for further 16 d, before moving them to a hatcher. No significant difference between the 4 groups was found in their viabilities, which ranged between 72.9 and 81.3%, until 14 d postincubation (P > 0.05). After 21 d, the viability decreased to 60.4, 57.4, 50.0, and 27.7% in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK. The viability in group DK was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Weight loss in system III was approximately 12% in all the 4 groups without significant difference (P > 0.05). Hatchability of the chicken embryo was 60.4, 55.3, 47.9, and 19.1% in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK, respectively, and that in group DK was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the other groups (P > 0.05). These results show that chicken embryos can develop to hatch in duck, guineafowl, and turkey egg whites. However, the hatchability decreases according to the phylogenetic distance. The present study will provide a tool for manipulation of avian embryos and eventual conservation of endangered wild birds.

  3. Annotation and genetic diversity of the chicken collagenous lectins.

    PubMed

    Hamzić, Edin; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2015-06-01

    Collectins and ficolins are multimeric proteins present in various tissues and are actively involved in innate immune responses. In chickens, six different collagenous lectins have been characterized so far: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), surfactant protein A (SP-A), collectin 10 (COLEC10), collectin 11 (COLEC11), collectin 12 (COLEC12), lung lectin (LL) and one ficolin (FCN). However, the structural and functional features of the chicken collectins and ficolin are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to make an overview of the genetic structure and function of chicken collectins and the ficolin, (ii) to investigate the variation in the chicken collectins and the ficolin gene in different chicken populations, and (iii) to assess the presence of MBL gene variants in different chicken populations. We performed comparative genomic analysis using publically available data. The obtained results showed that collectins and ficolins have conserved protein sequences and gene structure across all vertebrate groups and this is especially notable for COLEC10, COLEC11 and COLEC12. For the purpose of studying the genetic variation, 179 animals from 14 populations were genotyped using 31 SNPs covering five genomic regions. The obtained results revealed low level of heterozygosity in the collagenous lectins except for the COLEC12 gene and the LL-SPA-MBL region compared to heterozygosity at neutral microsatellite markers. In addition, the MBL gene variants were assessed in different chicken populations based on the polymorphisms in the promoter region. We observed 10 previously identified MBL variants with A2/A8 and A4 as the most frequent alleles.

  4. Generation of mice with functional inactivation of talpid3, a gene first identified in chicken.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Fiona; Antonio, Nicole; Thongnuek, Peerapat; Welten, Monique; Davey, Megan G; Briscoe, James; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-08-01

    Specification of digit number and identity is central to digit pattern in vertebrate limbs. The classical talpid(3) chicken mutant has many unpatterned digits together with defects in other regions, depending on hedgehog (Hh) signalling, and exhibits embryonic lethality. The talpid(3) chicken has a mutation in KIAA0586, which encodes a centrosomal protein required for the formation of primary cilia, which are sites of vertebrate Hh signalling. The highly conserved exons 11 and 12 of KIAA0586 are essential to rescue cilia in talpid(3) chicken mutants. We constitutively deleted these two exons to make a talpid3(-/-) mouse. Mutant mouse embryos lack primary cilia and, like talpid(3) chicken embryos, have face and neural tube defects but also defects in left/right asymmetry. Conditional deletion in mouse limb mesenchyme results in polydactyly and in brachydactyly and a failure of subperisoteal bone formation, defects that are attributable to abnormal sonic hedgehog and Indian hedgehog signalling, respectively. Like talpid(3) chicken limbs, the mutant mouse limbs are syndactylous with uneven digit spacing as reflected in altered Raldh2 expression, which is normally associated with interdigital mesenchyme. Both mouse and chicken mutant limb buds are broad and short. talpid3(-/-) mouse cells migrate more slowly than wild-type mouse cells, a change in cell behaviour that possibly contributes to altered limb bud morphogenesis. This genetic mouse model will facilitate further conditional approaches, epistatic experiments and open up investigation into the function of the novel talpid3 gene using the many resources available for mice.

  5. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (p<0.05). On the other hand, the increase in pre-rigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle. PMID:26761884

  6. Bone and bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely affect bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified.

  7. Bone marrow transplantation alters lung antigen presenting cells to promote TH17 response and the development of pneumonitis and fibrosis following gammaherpesvirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Loomis-King, Hillary; Gurczynski, Stephen J.; Wilke, Carol A.; Konopka, Kristine E.; Ptaschinski, Catherine; Coomes, Stephanie M; Iwakura, Yoichiro; van Dyk, Linda F.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Moore, Bethany B.

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) efficacy is limited by numerous pulmonary complications. We developed a model of syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) followed by infection with murine gamma herpesvirus (γHV-68) that results in pneumonitis and fibrosis and mimics human “non-infectious” HSCT complications. BMT mice experience increased early lytic replication, but establish viral latency by 21 days post infection (dpi). CD4 T cells in BMT mice are skewed towards IL-17A rather than IFN-γ production. Transplantation of bone marrow from Il-17a−/− donors or treatment with anti-IL-17A neutralization antibodies at late stages attenuates pneumonitis and fibrosis in infected BMT mice, suggesting that hematopoietic-derived IL-17A is essential for development of pathology. IL-17A directly influences activation and extracellular matrix production by lung mesenchymal cells. Lung CD11c+ cells of BMT mice secrete more TGF-β1, and pro-TH17 mRNAs for IL-23 and IL-6, and less TH1-promoting cytokine mRNA for IFN-γ but slightly more IL-12 mRNA in response to viral infection. Adoptive transfer of non-BMT lung CD11c-enriched cells restores robust TH1 response and suppresses aberrant TH17 response in BMT mice to improve lung pathology. Our data suggest “non-infectious” HSCT lung complications may reflect preceding viral infections and demonstrate that IL-17A neutralization may offer therapeutic advantage even after disease onset. PMID:26376362

  8. Defective bursa regeneration after irradiation of young thymectomized chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Bhogal, B.S.; Chi, D.S.; Galton, J.E.; Bell, M.K.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1984-08-01

    The ability of the bursa of Fabricius to regenerate after gamma-irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was examined in chickens thymectomized (TX) immediately after hatching. Irradiation (2 X 500 R) 3 weeks after hatching was followed by impaired bursa regeneration, as judged both by bursa/body weight ratios and by bursa follicle development 3-6 weeks later in TX as compared to control birds. Germinal center formation in the spleen was deficient, and immune responses to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and B. abortus (BA) were moderately reduced in the TX as compared to control birds irradiated at 3 weeks but not in TX birds irradiated at 5 weeks of age.

  9. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  10. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  11. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  12. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  13. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of different breeds of domestic chickens in selected area of Peninsular Malaysia inferred from partial cytochrome b gene information and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Yap, Fook Choy; Yan, Yap Jin; Loon, Kiung Teh; Zhen, Justina Lee Ning; Kamau, Nelly Warau; Kumaran, Jayaraj Vijaya

    2010-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to study the phylogenetic analysis of different breeds of domestic chickens in Peninsular Malaysia inferred from partial cytochrome b gene information and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Phylogenetic analysis using both neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods produced three clusters that encompassed Type-I village chickens, the red jungle fowl subspecies and the Japanese Chunky broilers. The phylogenetic analysis also revealed that majority of the Malaysian commercial chickens were randomly assembled with the Type-II village chickens. In RAPD assay, phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining produced six clusters that were completely distinguished based on the locality of chickens. High levels of genetic variations were observed among the village chickens, the commercial broilers, and between the commercial broilers and layer chickens. In this study, it was found that Type-I village chickens could be distinguished from the commercial chickens and Type-II village chickens at the position of the 27th nucleotide of the 351 bp cytochrome b gene. This study also revealed that RAPD markers were unable to differentiate the type of chickens, but it showed the effectiveness of RAPD in evaluating the genetic variation and the genetic relationships between chicken lines and populations.

  15. Bone impairment in primary hyperoxaluria: a review.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Justine; Boivin, Georges; Cochat, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney and bone is a hallmark of primary hyperoxaluria (PH). Since the bone compartment can store massive amounts of oxalate, patients present with recurrent low-trauma fractures, bone deformations, severe bone pains, and specific oxalate osteopathy on X-ray. Bone biopsy from the iliac crest displays specific features such as oxalate crystals surrounded by a granulomatous reaction corresponding to an invasion of bone surface by macrophages. The objective of this manuscript is therefore to provide an overview of bone impairment in PH, by reviewing the current literature on bone and dental symptoms as well as imaging techniques used for assessing bone disease.

  16. Genome-wide association study reveals novel variants for growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Liao, R; Zhang, X; Chen, Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Q; Yang, C; Pan, Y

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the genetic basis of growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and White Leghorn chickens. In this study, we employed a reduced representation sequencing approach called genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing to detect genome-wide SNPs in 252 Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and 252 White Leghorn chickens. The Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken breed has many specific traits and is characterized by blue-shelled eggs, black plumage, black skin, black bone and black organs. The White Leghorn chicken is an egg-type breed with high productivity. As multibreed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) can improve precision due to less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, a multibreed GWAS was performed with 156 575 SNPs to identify the associated variants underlying growth and egg traits within the two chicken breeds. The analysis revealed 32 SNPs exhibiting a significant genome-wide association with growth and egg traits. Some of the significant SNPs are located in genes that are known to impact growth and egg traits, but nearly half of the significant SNPs are located in genes with unclear functions in chickens. To our knowledge, this is the first multibreed genome-wide report for the genetics of growth and egg traits in the Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens. PMID:27166871

  17. Bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L D; Bennett, L R

    1975-03-01

    Scanning is based on the uptake of a nuclide by the crystal lattice of bone and is related to bone blood flow. Cancer cells do not take up the tracer. Normally, the scan visualizes the highly vascular bones. Scans are useful and are indicated in metastatic bone disease, primary bone tumors, hematologic malignancies and some non-neoplastic diseases. The scan is more sensitive than x-ray in the detection of malignant diseases of the skeleton. PMID:1054210

  18. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  19. Kidney lesions associated with mortality in chickens inoculated with waterfowl influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slemons, R.D.; Locke, L.N.; Sheerar, Martha G.; Duncan, R.M.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Easterday, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-six type A influenza viruses recovered from waterfowl in Wisconsin, California, South Dakota, Florida, Texas, Alabama, and Nebraska were tested for virulence in chickens. The challenge to chickens was intravenous inoculation of first-, second-, or third-egg-passage virus. Each of the virus strains was tested separately in three or four chickens. Eighteen of the 76 viruses caused the death of one or more chickens following inoculation. Postmortem lesions were similar in all dead birds. In decreasing order of frequency, gross lesions included: swollen kidneys evident as accentuated lobular patterns, urates in the pericardial sac, and urates on the surface of the liver. Microscopic lesions present in kidneys were consistent with visceral gout. Mortality was associated with inoculations having higher concentrations of infectious virus. These results indicate that the influenza A viruses circulating in duck populations may include strains potentially pathogenic for chickens.

  20. Kidney lesions associated with mortality in chickens inoculated with waterfowl influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Slemons, R D; Locke, L N; Sheerar, M G; Duncan, R M; Hinshaw, V S; Easterday, B C

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-six type A influenza viruses recovered from waterfowl in Wisconsin, California, South Dakota, Florida, Texas, Alabama, and Nebraska were tested for virulence in chickens. The challenge to chickens was intravenous inoculation of first-, second-, or third-egg-passage virus. Each of the virus strains was tested separately in three or four chickens. Eighteen of the 76 viruses caused the death of one or more chickens following inoculation. Postmortem lesions were similar in all dead birds. In decreasing order of frequency, gross lesions included: swollen kidneys evident as accentuated lobular patterns, urates in the pericardial sac, and urates on the surface of the liver. Microscopic lesions present in kidneys were consistent with visceral gout. Mortality was associated with inoculations having higher concentrations of infectious virus. These results indicate that the influenza A viruses circulating in duck populations may include strains potentially pathogenic for chickens. PMID:2322222

  1. B haplotype influence on the relative efficacy of Marek's disease vaccines in commercial chickens.

    PubMed

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1994-04-01

    The objectives were to investigate whether or not B haplotypes influence vaccinal immunity against Marek's disease (MD) in commercial chickens and to evaluate whether retrospective analysis would detect the influence. This method involved evaluating the B haplotypes of turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-vaccinated sick vs normal chickens from a flock afflicted with MD symptoms. An analysis of the retrospective data disclosed that MD symptoms were present in a higher proportion of B2B19 than B2B21 chickens. A prospective study was then conducted with blood-typed chickens of the strain vaccinated with HVT or HVT + 301B bivalent MD vaccines prior to inoculation of the very virulent Md5 virus. The bivalent vaccine provided better protection than HVT alone, but with either vaccine fewer B2B21 chickens developed MD lesions. We conclude that the B haplotype influence on vaccinal immunity against MD previously demonstrated in B-congenic strains of chickens is also significant in commercial chickens and that the influence can be detected through analysis of B haplotypes in sick vs normal chickens of an affected flock.

  2. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1996-03-12

    The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  3. ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS : TRANSMISSION OF VIRUS TO CHICKENS BY INFECTED MITES DERMANYSSUS GALLINAE AND RESULTING VIREMIA AS SOURCE OF VIRUS FOR INFECTION OF MITES.

    PubMed

    Smith, M G; Blattner, R J; Heys, F M

    1947-08-31

    Transmission of the virus of St. Louis encephalitis to normal chickens by the bite of infected mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) has been demonstrated. Both experimentally infected and naturally infected mites were shown to be capable of transferring the virus of St. Louis encephalitis to chickens by bite. Virus is present in the blood of such chickens in small amounts, so that demonstration of viremia was possible only by utilizing chorioallantoic passage in hens' eggs. However, there is sufficient virus present in the blood for uninfected chicken mites to acquire the virus by feeding on chickens in which viremia has resulted from previous bite of infected mites. Thus it has been shown that the arachnid vector Dermanyssus gallinae is capable of transmitting the virus of St. Louis encephalitis to normal chickens by bite and that such chickens can serve as a source of virus for uninfected mites.

  4. Association between BMP15 Gene Polymorphism and Reproduction Traits and Its Tissues Expression Characteristics in Chicken.

    PubMed

    Han, Haixia; Lei, Qiuxia; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Jinbo; Liu, Wei; Li, Fuwei; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yan; Cao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) is an oocyte-secreted growth factor required for ovarian follicle development and ovulation in mammals, but its effects on reproduction in chickens are unclear. In this study, the association between BMP15 polymorphisms and reproduction traits were analyzed, and its expression characteristics in different tissues were explored in LaiWu Black chickens. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in four hundred LaiWu Black chickens. One SNP (NC_006091.3:g.1773T>C) located in exon 2 which was significantly associated with egg weight at first egg (EWFE) (P = 0.0389), was novel. Diplotypes based on the three SNPs were found to be significantly associated with egg weight at age of 43W (EW43) (P = 0.0058). The chickens with H3H3 diplotype had their first egg 0.57 days later than chickens with H5H5 diplotype and 1.21 days-3.96 days earlier than the other five diplotype chickens. The egg production at age of 43W (E43), egg production at age of 46W (E46) and egg production at age of 48W (E48) for chickens with H3H3 diplotype were the highest among all the chickens, and the E48 of chickens with H3H3 diplotype had 11.83 eggs higher than chickens with H1H5 diplotype. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of BMP15 gene in ovarian follicle was in the order of 4 mm>6 mm -8 mm> 15 mm -19 mm> 23 mm -29 mm > 33 mm -34 mm in diameter. The mRNA level in follicles of 4 mm and 6-8 mm in diameter were significantly higher than that in the other follicles (P<0.01). In the same week, the highest mRNA level was found in the ovary, and it was significantly different from that found in the liver and oviduct (P<0.01). Our results indicate that BMP15 plays a vital role in the development of ovary and follicles, especially in the development of primary follicles. H3H3 may be an potential advantageous molecular marker for improving reproduction traits in chickens.

  5. Association between BMP15 Gene Polymorphism and Reproduction Traits and Its Tissues Expression Characteristics in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Gao, Jinbo; Liu, Wei; Li, Fuwei; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yan; Cao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) is an oocyte-secreted growth factor required for ovarian follicle development and ovulation in mammals, but its effects on reproduction in chickens are unclear. In this study, the association between BMP15 polymorphisms and reproduction traits were analyzed, and its expression characteristics in different tissues were explored in LaiWu Black chickens. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in four hundred LaiWu Black chickens. One SNP (NC_006091.3:g.1773T>C) located in exon 2 which was significantly associated with egg weight at first egg (EWFE) (P = 0.0389), was novel. Diplotypes based on the three SNPs were found to be significantly associated with egg weight at age of 43W (EW43) (P = 0.0058). The chickens with H3H3 diplotype had their first egg 0.57 days later than chickens with H5H5 diplotype and 1.21 days-3.96 days earlier than the other five diplotype chickens. The egg production at age of 43W (E43), egg production at age of 46W (E46) and egg production at age of 48W (E48) for chickens with H3H3 diplotype were the highest among all the chickens, and the E48 of chickens with H3H3 diplotype had 11.83 eggs higher than chickens with H1H5 diplotype. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of BMP15 gene in ovarian follicle was in the order of 4 mm>6 mm -8 mm> 15 mm -19 mm> 23 mm -29 mm > 33 mm -34 mm in diameter. The mRNA level in follicles of 4 mm and 6–8 mm in diameter were significantly higher than that in the other follicles (P<0.01). In the same week, the highest mRNA level was found in the ovary, and it was significantly different from that found in the liver and oviduct (P<0.01). Our results indicate that BMP15 plays a vital role in the development of ovary and follicles, especially in the development of primary follicles. H3H3 may be an potential advantageous molecular marker for improving reproduction traits in chickens. PMID:26574748

  6. A serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Wit, J J; van Eck, J H; Crooijmans, R P; Pijpers, A

    2004-05-15

    To get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the Netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. These flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the Netherlands, regions with a high poultry density. The owners of the tested flocks showed their chicken at national and international poultry exhibitions. Antibodies against Avian Influenza, Egg Drop Syndrome '76 virus, Pox virus, Salmonella pullorum/gallinarum, Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium were not detected. However, antibodies against other Salmonella species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, chicken anaemia virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, and avian leukosis virus, subgroups A and B, and subgroup J were detected in a varying proportion of the flocks. This study shows that antibodies against many chicken pathogens are present among the flocks of old fancy chicken breeds that are exhibited at international poultry exhibitions.

  7. Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  8. Marble Bone Disease: A Rare Bone Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harinathbabu, Maheswari; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Prabhu, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis, or marble bone disease, is a rare skeletal disorder due to a defective function of the osteoclasts. This defect renders bones more susceptible to osteomyelitis due to decreased vascularity. This disorder is inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive. Healthcare professionals should urge these patients to maintain their oral health as well as general health, as this condition makes these patients more susceptible to frequent infections and fractures. This case report emphasizes the signs and symptoms of marble bone disease and presents clinical and radiographic findings.  PMID:26594603

  9. Benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Steffner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Benign bone lesions are a broad category that demonstrates a spectrum of activities from latent to aggressive. Differentiating the various tumors is important in order to properly determine necessary intervention. This chapter focuses on the presentation, imaging, diagnostic features, and treatment of the most common benign bone tumors in order to help guide diagnosis and management. PMID:25070230

  10. Screening and Identification of Highly Specific MAbs for Discovering Novel Biomarkers of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingyuan; Lin, Nanjing; Kang, Yanyan; Li, Linfeng; Zheng, Wenyun

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are very useful model systems for a better understanding of cell behavior and differential gene expression. Up to now, there have not been specific markers and MAbs for BMSCs that hamper the identification and isolation of BMSCs populations. In this study, chicken BMSCs were isolated from 1-day-old Beijing fatty chickens by adherent culture. After biological characteristics were detected, the chicken BMSCs were used to immunize BALB/c mice to prepare BMSCs-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by the routine hybridoma technique. These MAbs were characterized by FACS analysis, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, subtype identification, and Western blotting assay and were used to explore markers of chicken BMSCs. Our data showed that BMSCs expressing antigens CD29, CD44, and CD105, but not expressing antigens CD34, CD45, and CD11b, could be isolated from postnatal chicken bone marrow and hold great potential for multiline age differentiation. Meanwhile, we obtained two hybridoma cell lines secreting chicken BMSCs-specific MAbs (named CHK1 and CHK2), which specifically recognized the surface antigens expressed on chicken BMSCs. According to our subtype identification, heavy chains of CHK1 and CHK2 were typed as IgG1 and IgG2b, respectively; all the light strands were kappa subtype. MAbs CHK1 and CHK2 can be used to develop the detection assay and to discover novel biomarkers of chicken BMSCs. PMID:27556910

  11. The identification of loci for polydactyly in chickens using a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xihui; Chen, Yu; Jia, Yaxiong; Qi, Xiaolong; Feng, Yun; Huang, Zhen; Guo, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Polydactyly is a commonly observed limb malformation in humans and other vertebrates. The Beijing-You chicken expressing the polydactyly phenotype provides an opportunity to investigate the potential cause for polydactyly. Here we extensively exploited genetic determinants of the chicken polydactyly in a genome wide association study using over 580,000 SNPs characterized in a Beijing-You × Lohmann F1 cross, consisting of 79 animals. A total of 10 loci clustered on the short arm of chromosome 2 were identified to be significantly associated with the trait. Among the 10 significant SNPs, 7 were located in a linkage disequilibrium block of 1737kb. The strongest association signal (rs317674023, P=5.48×10(-8)) residing nearby Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor-Associated Molecule 1 (BRAM1) was identified in the genomic region. Our results provide insights to the genetic basis underlying chicken polydactyly and may facilitate studies of the limb malformation in humans and other species.

  12. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens.

  13. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens. PMID:25421422

  14. Specific discrimination of chicken DNA from other poultry DNA in processed foods using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Tanabe, Soichi; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, specific discrimination of chicken DNA contamination in processed foods using the polymerase chain reaction was investigated. The primer pair was designed to amplify a 102-bp fragment of the chicken mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. While the DNA from chicken meat was amplified, the DNA from other poultry meat, mammalian meat, fish, shellfish, and cereals was not amplified. The primer amplified DNA fragments derived from model processed and nonprocessed food samples containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100% chicken.

  15. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  16. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM CHICKENS FROM BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, Toxoplasma gondii was considered clonal with very little genetic variability. Recent studies indicate that T. gondii isolates from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. In the present study, we retyped 151 free range chicken is...

  17. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  18. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    PubMed

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens.

  19. Efficacy of early treatment with toltrazuril in prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, efficacy of the toltrazuril treatment for prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis was tested. Ninety-six 14-day-old commercial broiler chickens were caged and divided into eight groups (n=12), designated groups 1 to 8. Chickens of groups 1 to 6 were inoculated orally at 18 days of age with 25,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella and 75,000 oocysts of Eimeria brunetti. At 22 days of age, chickens of groups 1 to 6 were infected with 10(9) colony-forming unit Clostridium perfringens. Chickens of group 1 were treated with 75 parts/10(6) toltrazuril in drinking water for 8 h on two consecutive days up to 12 h before Eimeria infection, while chickens of groups 2 to 5 were treated with the same dose of toltrazuril at 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 84 h after Eimeria infection, respectively. The non-treated group 6 served as a positive control. Chickens in group 7 were treated with toltrazuril at 17 and 18 days of age, and those of group 8 remained uninfected and non-treated as a negative control. The feed conversion ratio was higher in the positive control compared with other groups. The mortality rates were 16.8% and 41.7% in the late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) and infected non-treated chickens, respectively. Lesions scores of necrotic enteritis or coccidiosis in infected, non-treated chickens were significantly more severe compared with negative controls (P<0.01) and late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) chickens (P<0.05). In conclusion, application of toltrazuril before Eimeria challenge protected chickens from coccidiosis and indirectly from successive necrotic enteritis caused by C. perfringens infection.

  20. Xenogenic oogenesis of chicken (Gallus domesticus) female primordial germ cells in germline chimeric quail (Coturnix japonica) ovary.

    PubMed

    Liu, C H; Chang, I K; Sasse, J; Dumatol, C J; Basker, J V; Wernery, U

    2007-10-01

    In present study, chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) were transferred into quail embryos to investigate the development of these germ cells in quail ovary. Briefly, 2 microl of chicken embryonic blood (stage 14) or about 100 purified circulating PGCs were transferred into quail embryo. Contribution of chicken PGCs were detected in gonads of chimeric quail embryos (stage 28) by immunocytochemical staining of cell surface antigen SSEA-1, and by in situ hybridization (ISH) with female chicken specific DNA probe. As a result, 52.0+/-43.2 (n=18) and 42.7+/-27.3 (n=17) chicken PGCs were found in the gonads of chimeric quail embryo that was injected with chicken embryonic blood (stage 14) and about 100 purified circulating PGCs, respectively. Furthermore, the ovaries of 81.8% (9/11) 12 days post incubation (dpi) chimeric quail embryos were observed with a mean of 457.6+/-237.1 female chicken PGCs-derived oogonia scattered in ovarian cortex area. In 9 out of 12 newly hatched and one week old chimeric quail chicks, on average of 2883.0+/-1924.1 primary oocytes and 3 follicles derived from chicken PGCs were found, respectively. The present results suggest that chicken female PGCs are able to migrate, colonize, proliferate and differentiate into oogonia, primary oocytes in chimeric quail ovary.

  1. Profiling of chicken adipose tissue gene expression by genome array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bao; Li, Hui; Wang, Qi-Gui; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is a major problem in the present-day broiler industry. However, few studies have analyzed the expression of adipose tissue genes that are involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to adiposity in chickens. Gene expression profiling of chicken adipose tissue could provide key information about the ontogenesis of fatness and clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays were used to construct an adipose tissue gene expression profile of 7-week-old broilers, and to screen adipose tissue genes that are differentially expressed in lean and fat lines divergently selected over eight generations for high and low abdominal fat weight. Results The gene expression profiles detected 13,234–16,858 probe sets in chicken adipose tissue at 7 weeks, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and immunity such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP), thyroid hormone-responsive protein (Spot14), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7(IGFBP7) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC), were highly expressed. In contrast, some genes related to lipogenesis, such as leptin receptor, sterol regulatory element binding proteins1 (SREBP1), apolipoprotein B(ApoB) and insulin-like growth factor 2(IGF2), were not detected. Moreover, 230 genes that were differentially expressed between the two lines were screened out; these were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, tumorigenesis and immunity. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate fifteen differentially expressed genes screened out by the microarray approach and high consistency was observed between the two methods. Conclusion Our results establish the groundwork for further studies of the basic genetic control of growth and development of chicken adipose tissue, and will be beneficial in clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens. PMID

  2. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... may also be ordered to monitor the disease: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  3. Bone Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alkaline Phosphatase; Osteocalcin; P1NP; Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling ... tests for evaluating bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker ...

  4. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  5. RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

    The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

  6. Chicken from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... labeling is required on raw poultry stored at temperatures between 0 and 25 °F (-17.8 °C ... raw or undercooked chicken. They multiply rapidly at temperatures between 40 and 140 °F (4.4 and ...

  7. Carbon Microtubes from Chicken Feathers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Melissa M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2007-03-01

    Chicken feathers, an agricultural waste problem, are a promising bio-based alternative to composite reinforcement. Approximately 5 billion pounds of chicken feathers are produced per year in the United States poultry industry alone. Containing 47.83% carbon, chicken feathers are hollow and strong in nature due to the 91% keratin content. Carbonized chicken feather (CCF) fibers are produced by heating to 220 C for 26 hours to optimize the crosslinking of the amino acids (predominantly cysteine). The feathers are then heated at 450 C for an additional two hours to reduce the content to mainly carbon. Wide angle xray scattering shows a structural change in the carbonized fiber from an interplanar spacing of 4.4 å (d200) in the raw feather to 3.36å in the CCF, resembling 3.43 å of commercial fiber. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that the hollow structure is kept intact. Dynamic mechanical analysis shows a 194% increase in the storage modulus of the composite from 0.730 GPa to 2.145 GPa at 35 C with the addition of only 3.45 wt% CCF mat. Assuming a density of 1 g/cm^3 the upper limit of the fiber modulus is approximately 40 GPa, compared to 3 GPa for the natural keratin fiber. The low cost carbon microtubes are being explored for polymer composite reinforcement and Hydrogen Storage substrates. Supported by USDA-NRI.

  8. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  9. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…

  10. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  11. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: Seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lehmann, T; Lautner, F; Kwok, O C H; Gamble, H R

    2015-11-30

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chickens. In the present study 90 Toxoplasma gondii seronegative, sentinel chickens were placed on three (30 each) swine farms in New England in November, 2003. Chickens were bled monthly and their sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Chickens that seroconverted were euthanized and their tissues were bioassayed in mice, cats, or both. Over the course of the experiment (7 months), 31 of 71 chickens seroconverted (MAT 1:100 or higher). Tissues of 26 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in both cats and mice; viable T. gondii was isolated, by bioassay in mice, from hearts (whole) of all 26 chickens, brains (whole) of 3 chickens and leg muscles (25 g) of 11 chickens; 21 of 26 cats fed 250 g of muscle from seropositive chickens excreted T. gondii oocysts. Results indicated that the density of T. gondii in poultry muscle is low but heart is the tissue of choice for isolation of viable parasites.

  12. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner.

  13. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner. PMID:26730409

  14. Echistatin is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption in culture.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Sardana, M K; Grasser, W A; Garsky, V M; Murray, J M; Gould, R J

    1990-10-01

    The venom protein, s-echistatin, originally derived from the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, was found to be a potent inhibitor of bone resorption by isolated osteoclasts. This Arg24-Gly25-Asp26-(RGD)-containing protein inhibited the excavation of bone slices by rat osteoclasts (IC50 = 0.1 nM). It also inhibited the release of [3H]proline from labeled bone particles by chicken osteoclasts (IC50 = 100 nM). By comparison, the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) inhibited resorption by rat or chicken osteoclasts with an IC50 of 0.1 mM while ala24-echistatin was inactive. Video microscopy showed that rat osteoclast attachment to substrate was more sensitive to s-echistatin than was the attachment of mononuclear cells or chicken osteoclasts. The difference in sensitivity of rat and chicken osteoclasts to s-echistatin may be due to differences between receptors on rat and chicken osteoclasts for s-echistatin. Antibody localization of echistatin on these cells showed much greater echistatin binding to rat osteoclasts than to chicken osteoclasts. Laser scanning confocal microscopy after immunohistochemical staining showed that s-echistatin binds to osteoclasts, that s-echistatin receptors are most abundant at the osteoclast/glass interface, and that s-echistatin colocalizes with vinculin. Confocal interference reflection microscopy of osteoclasts incubated with s-echistatin, demonstrated colocalization of s-echistatin with the outer edges of clusters of grey contacts at the tips of some lamellipodia. Identification of the echistatin receptor as an integrin was confirmed by colocalization of echistatin fluorescence with staining for an alpha-like subunit. Attachment of bone particles labeled with [3H]proline to chicken osteoclasts confirmed that the mechanism of action of echistatin was to inhibit osteoclast binding to bone presumably by disrupting adhesion structures. These data demonstrate that osteoclasts bind to bone via an RGD-sequence as an obligatory step in bone

  15. Deletion of Indian hedgehog gene causes dominant semi-lethal Creeper trait in chicken.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sihua; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yanyun; Yi, Guoqiang; Li, Junying; Lian, Ling; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Jiao, Rengang; Gong, Yu; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Creeper trait, a classical monogenic phenotype of chicken, is controlled by a dominant semi-lethal gene. This trait has been widely cited in the genetics and molecular biology textbooks for illustrating autosomal dominant semi-lethal inheritance over decades. However, the genetic basis of the Creeper trait remains unknown. Here we have utilized ultra-deep sequencing and extensive analysis for targeting causative mutation controlling the Creeper trait. Our results indicated that the deletion of Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene was only found in the whole-genome sequencing data of lethal embryos and Creeper chickens. Large scale segregation analysis demonstrated that the deletion of IHH was fully linked with early embryonic death and the Creeper trait. Expression analysis showed a much lower expression of IHH in Creeper than wild-type chickens. We therefore suggest the deletion of IHH to be the causative mutation for the Creeper trait in chicken. Our findings unravel the genetic basis of the longstanding Creeper phenotype mystery in chicken as the same gene also underlies bone dysplasia in human and mouse, and thus highlight the significance of IHH in animal development and human haploinsufficiency disorders. PMID:27439785

  16. Deletion of Indian hedgehog gene causes dominant semi-lethal Creeper trait in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sihua; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yanyun; Yi, Guoqiang; Li, Junying; Lian, Ling; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Jiao, Rengang; Gong, Yu; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Creeper trait, a classical monogenic phenotype of chicken, is controlled by a dominant semi-lethal gene. This trait has been widely cited in the genetics and molecular biology textbooks for illustrating autosomal dominant semi-lethal inheritance over decades. However, the genetic basis of the Creeper trait remains unknown. Here we have utilized ultra-deep sequencing and extensive analysis for targeting causative mutation controlling the Creeper trait. Our results indicated that the deletion of Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene was only found in the whole-genome sequencing data of lethal embryos and Creeper chickens. Large scale segregation analysis demonstrated that the deletion of IHH was fully linked with early embryonic death and the Creeper trait. Expression analysis showed a much lower expression of IHH in Creeper than wild-type chickens. We therefore suggest the deletion of IHH to be the causative mutation for the Creeper trait in chicken. Our findings unravel the genetic basis of the longstanding Creeper phenotype mystery in chicken as the same gene also underlies bone dysplasia in human and mouse, and thus highlight the significance of IHH in animal development and human haploinsufficiency disorders. PMID:27439785

  17. Chicken wing training model for endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To present and validate a chicken wing model for endoscopic endonasal microsurgical skill development. Setting A surgical environment was constructed using a Styrofoam box and measurements from radiological studies. Endoscopic visualization and instrumentation were utilized in a manner to mimic operative setting. Design Five participants were instructed to complete four sequential tasks: (1) opening the skin, (2) exposing the main artery in its neurovascular sheath, (3) opening the neurovascular sheath, and (4) separating the nerve from the artery. Time to completion of each task was recorded. Participants Three junior attendings, one senior resident, and one medical student were recruited internally. Main Outcome Measures Time to perform the surgical tasks measured in seconds. Results The average time of the first training session was 48.8 minutes; by the 10th training session, the average time was 22.4 minutes. The range of improvement was 25.7 minutes to 72.4 minutes. All five participants exhibited statistically significant decrease in time after 10 trials. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that an improvement of 50% was achieved by an average of five attempts at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The ex vivo chicken wing model is an inexpensive and relatively realistic model to train endoscopic dissection using microsurgical techniques. PMID:24436926

  18. Chicken wing training model for endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To present and validate a chicken wing model for endoscopic endonasal microsurgical skill development. Setting A surgical environment was constructed using a Styrofoam box and measurements from radiological studies. Endoscopic visualization and instrumentation were utilized in a manner to mimic operative setting. Design Five participants were instructed to complete four sequential tasks: (1) opening the skin, (2) exposing the main artery in its neurovascular sheath, (3) opening the neurovascular sheath, and (4) separating the nerve from the artery. Time to completion of each task was recorded. Participants Three junior attendings, one senior resident, and one medical student were recruited internally. Main Outcome Measures Time to perform the surgical tasks measured in seconds. Results The average time of the first training session was 48.8 minutes; by the 10th training session, the average time was 22.4 minutes. The range of improvement was 25.7 minutes to 72.4 minutes. All five participants exhibited statistically significant decrease in time after 10 trials. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that an improvement of 50% was achieved by an average of five attempts at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The ex vivo chicken wing model is an inexpensive and relatively realistic model to train endoscopic dissection using microsurgical techniques.

  19. Bone and Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Longobardi, Vanesa; Bai, Julio César

    2016-04-01

    More than 50% of untreated patients with celiac disease (CD) have bone loss detected by bone densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry:DXA). Moreover, patients with CD are more likely to have osteoporosis and fragility fractures, especially of the distal radius. Although still controversial, we recommend DXA screening in all celiac disease patients, particularly in those with symptomatic CD at diagnosis and in those who present risk factors for fracture such as older age, menopausal status, previous fracture history, and familial hip fracture history. Bone microarchitecture, especially the trabecular network, may be deteriorated, explaining the higher fracture risk in these patients. Adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation are also recommended to optimize bone recovery, especially during the first years of gluten free diet (GFD). If higher fracture risk persists after 1 or 2 years of GFD, specific osteoactive treatment may be necessary to improve bone health.

  20. High-throughput and Cost-effective Chicken Genotyping Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Pértille, Fábio; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Silva, Vinicius Henrique da; Boschiero, Clarissa; Nunes, José de Ribamar da Silva; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Jensen, Per; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Chicken genotyping is becoming common practice in conventional animal breeding improvement. Despite the power of high-throughput methods for genotyping, their high cost limits large scale use in animal breeding and selection. In the present paper we optimized the CornellGBS, an efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequence approach developed in plants, for its application in chickens. Here we describe the successful genotyping of a large number of chickens (462) using CornellGBS approach. Genomic DNA was cleaved with the PstI enzyme, ligated to adapters with barcodes identifying individual animals, and then sequenced on Illumina platform. After filtering parameters were applied, 134,528 SNPs were identified in our experimental population of chickens. Of these SNPs, 67,096 had a minimum taxon call rate of 90% and were considered 'unique tags'. Interestingly, 20.7% of these unique tags have not been previously reported in the dbSNP. Moreover, 92.6% of these SNPs were concordant with a previous Whole Chicken-genome re-sequencing dataset used for validation purposes. The application of CornellGBS in chickens showed high performance to infer SNPs, particularly in exonic regions and microchromosomes. This approach represents a cost-effective (~US$50/sample) and powerful alternative to current genotyping methods, which has the potential to improve whole-genome selection (WGS), and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chicken production. PMID:27220827

  1. High-throughput and Cost-effective Chicken Genotyping Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pértille, Fábio; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Silva, Vinicius Henrique da; Boschiero, Clarissa; Nunes, José de Ribamar da Silva; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Jensen, Per; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Chicken genotyping is becoming common practice in conventional animal breeding improvement. Despite the power of high-throughput methods for genotyping, their high cost limits large scale use in animal breeding and selection. In the present paper we optimized the CornellGBS, an efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequence approach developed in plants, for its application in chickens. Here we describe the successful genotyping of a large number of chickens (462) using CornellGBS approach. Genomic DNA was cleaved with the PstI enzyme, ligated to adapters with barcodes identifying individual animals, and then sequenced on Illumina platform. After filtering parameters were applied, 134,528 SNPs were identified in our experimental population of chickens. Of these SNPs, 67,096 had a minimum taxon call rate of 90% and were considered ‘unique tags’. Interestingly, 20.7% of these unique tags have not been previously reported in the dbSNP. Moreover, 92.6% of these SNPs were concordant with a previous Whole Chicken-genome re-sequencing dataset used for validation purposes. The application of CornellGBS in chickens showed high performance to infer SNPs, particularly in exonic regions and microchromosomes. This approach represents a cost-effective (~US$50/sample) and powerful alternative to current genotyping methods, which has the potential to improve whole-genome selection (WGS), and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chicken production. PMID:27220827

  2. Brahma Rasayana enhances in vivo antioxidant status in cold-stressed chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramnath, V.; Rekha, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Materials and Methods: Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days). The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR) supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally) during cold stress was also studied. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and serum reduced glutathione (GSH) in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT) and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Conclusions: Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress. PMID:20442818

  3. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  4. Gene structure, transcripts and calciotropic effects of the PTH family of peptides in Xenopus and chicken

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) belong to a family of endocrine factors that share a highly conserved N-terminal region (amino acids 1-34) and play key roles in calcium homeostasis, bone formation and skeletal development. Recently, PTH-like peptide (PTH-L) was identified in teleost fish raising questions about the evolution of these proteins. Although PTH and PTHrP have been intensively studied in mammals their function in other vertebrates is poorly documented. Amphibians and birds occupy unique phylogenetic positions, the former at the transition of aquatic to terrestrial life and the latter at the transition to homeothermy. Moreover, both organisms have characteristics indicative of a complex system in calcium regulation. This study investigated PTH family evolution in vertebrates with special emphasis on Xenopus and chicken. Results The PTH-L gene is present throughout the vertebrates with the exception of placental mammals. Gene structure of PTH and PTH-L seems to be conserved in vertebrates while PTHrP gene structure is divergent and has acquired new exons and alternative promoters. Splice variants of PTHrP and PTH-L are common in Xenopus and chicken and transcripts of the former have a widespread tissue distribution, although PTH-L is more restricted. PTH is widely expressed in fish tissue but from Xenopus to mammals becomes largely restricted to the parathyroid gland. The N-terminal (1-34) region of PTH, PTHrP and PTH-L in Xenopus and chicken share high sequence conservation and the capacity to modify calcium fluxes across epithelia suggesting a conserved role in calcium metabolism possibly via similar receptors. Conclusions The parathyroid hormone family contains 3 principal members, PTH, PTHrP and the recently identified PTH-L. In teleosts there are 5 genes which encode PTHrP (2), PTH (2) and PTH-L and in tetrapods there are 3 genes (PTHrP, PTH and PTH-L), the exception is placental mammals which have 2 genes and lack

  5. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno-competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal

    PubMed Central

    Moravej, Hoseein; Alahyari-Shahrasb, Majid; Kiani, Ali; Bagherirad, Mona; Shivazad, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ˚C. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing. PMID:25593680

  6. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-12-04

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait-gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species.

  7. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2016-02-01

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait-gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species. PMID:26637433

  8. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait–gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species. PMID:26637433

  9. Meat Juice Serology for Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Kramer, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 free-range chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4%) were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls), while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation. PMID:27800433

  10. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Lestari, Shofiyah Ika; Pu, Shuaihua; Ge, Beilei

    2009-03-01

    Effective in September 2005, enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone group antimicrobial, was withdrawn from use in the U.S. poultry farms. In this 1-year study initiated in October 2006, we isolated and characterized Campylobacter spp. from Louisiana retail conventionally raised (n = 141) and organic (n = 53) chickens as a comparison to evaluate the postban bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Campylobacter was present in 43.3% of the chickens; similar rates were observed among conventional and organic chickens. A total of 165 Campylobacter isolates were recovered, with Campylobacter jejuni being the predominant species (66.7%). No apparent seasonal trend was deduced from the prevalence data. Further, the two main conventional and one organic chicken brands did not carry significantly different rates of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). The most common resistance observed was to tetracycline (31.5%), followed by erythromycin (20%) and ciprofloxacin (6.1%). No resistance to gentamicin was identified. All Campylobacter isolates recovered from organic chickens (n = 48) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, compared to 8.5% resistance rate for those from conventional chickens (n = 117). Additionally, the resistance rate to erythromycin was significantly higher in Campylobacter isolates from conventional chickens (23.9%) than those from organic chickens (10.4%; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated a low prevalence and low ciprofloxacin resistance rate of Campylobacter in Louisiana retail chickens after the enrofloxacin ban. Further studies involving a larger sample size over time are warranted to better assess the effects of banning enrofloxacin use in poultry and the levels of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:19099357

  12. Novel SNPs in the PRDM16 gene and their associations with performance traits in chickens.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruili; Wei, Yang; Kang, Xiangtao; Chen, Hong; Sun, Guirong; Li, Guoxi; Bai, Yichun; Tian, Yadong; Huang, Yanqun

    2012-03-01

    The PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) is a member of the Prdm family, and is known to regulate cell differentiation. In the present study, DNA pool sequencing methods were employed to screen genetic variations in the chicken PRDM16 gene. The results revealed four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): NC_006108.2: g.92188G>A, XM_417551: c.1161C>T (Ala/Ala, 387aa), c.1233C>T (Ser/Ser, 411aa) and c.1433G>A (Ser/Asn, 478aa). The BglI polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect c.1161C>T, while HhaI Forced PCR-RFLP methods were used to detect 1233C>T and c.1433G>A in 964 chickens. The chickens comprised 38 grandparents, 66 F(1) parents and 860 F(2) birds derived from an F(2) resource population of Gushi chickens crossed with Anka broilers. The associations of the polymorphisms in the chicken PRDM16 gene with performance traits were analyzed in the 860 F(2) chickens. The results indicated that the three SNPs were significantly associated with growth, fatness and meat quality traits in the chickens. In particular, the polymorphisms of the missense SNP (c.1433G>A) had positive effects on chicken body weight and body size at different stages. It affected also fatness traits significantly. Comparison of the different genotypes of c.1433G>A showed that the GG genotype favored chicken growth and fatness traits. PMID:21761141

  13. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P<0.05). The flow cytometry results from both trials demonstrated that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 groups were able to induce CD4+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 group was able to induce CD8+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05) in Trial 2 only. In the present study, pDis/NP was not significant (P>0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens.

  14. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR.

  15. Repeated treatment with furazolidone induces multiple cytochrome p450-related activities in chicken liver, but not in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Matumoto, Tomoyuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2013-11-01

    The nitrofuran antimicrobial agent, furazolidone (FZ), is still used in veterinary medicine in some countries in the Middle and Far Eastern countries. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of successive bolus doses of FZ and its metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-related activities in the livers of rats and chickens. Female Wistar rats and white Leghorn chickens were orally administered FZ once a day for 4 consecutive days. FZ-treated chickens showed an increase in multiple CYP-related activities, however, rats treated with FZ did not show these changes. In chickens, treatment with FZ also induced production of microsomal CYP2C6-like apoprotein. The present study demonstrated that FZ caused a multiple-type induction of CYP-related activities in chickens, but not in rats.

  16. Repeated Treatment with Furazolidone Induces Multiple Cytochrome P450-Related Activities in Chicken Liver, but Not in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Nobuo; MATUMOTO, Tomoyuki; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M. M.; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi; KAZUSAKA, Akio; FUJITA, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nitrofuran antimicrobial agent, furazolidone (FZ), is still used in veterinary medicine in some countries in the Middle and Far Eastern countries. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of successive bolus doses of FZ and its metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-related activities in the livers of rats and chickens. Female Wistar rats and white Leghorn chickens were orally administered FZ once a day for 4 consecutive days. FZ-treated chickens showed an increase in multiple CYP-related activities, however, rats treated with FZ did not show these changes. In chickens, treatment with FZ also induced production of microsomal CYP2C6-like apoprotein. The present study demonstrated that FZ caused a multiple-type induction of CYP-related activities in chickens, but not in rats. PMID:23774039

  17. Ingested bone fragment in the bowel: Two cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Emir, Seyfi; Özkan, Zeynep; Altınsoy, Hasan Baki; Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Sözen, Selim; Bali, İlhan

    2013-01-01

    Generally, ingested foreign bodies are excreted from the digestive tract without any complications or morbidity. In adults, ingestion of foreign bodies frequently occurs in alcoholics and elderly individuals with dentures. The most commonly ingested foreign bodies are food stuffs or their parts, such as fish bones or fragments of bone and phytobezoars. Sharp foreign bodies like fish and chicken bones can lead to intestinal perforation and peritonitis. We report herein two cases, one of bowel perforation and another of anal impaction, both caused by ingested bone fragments. Complications due to ingested bone fragments are not common and preoperative diagnosis remains a challenge and therefore it must be considered in susceptible cases. PMID:24340269

  18. Ingested bone fragment in the bowel: Two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Emir, Seyfi; Ozkan, Zeynep; Altınsoy, Hasan Baki; Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Sözen, Selim; Bali, Ilhan

    2013-10-16

    Generally, ingested foreign bodies are excreted from the digestive tract without any complications or morbidity. In adults, ingestion of foreign bodies frequently occurs in alcoholics and elderly individuals with dentures. The most commonly ingested foreign bodies are food stuffs or their parts, such as fish bones or fragments of bone and phytobezoars. Sharp foreign bodies like fish and chicken bones can lead to intestinal perforation and peritonitis. We report herein two cases, one of bowel perforation and another of anal impaction, both caused by ingested bone fragments. Complications due to ingested bone fragments are not common and preoperative diagnosis remains a challenge and therefore it must be considered in susceptible cases.

  19. [Many issues about bone quality].

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsuru

    2012-06-01

    According to the present definition of osteoporosis, bone mineral density, architecture, and tissue material properties are important factors in determining bone strength. Bone matrix consists of a two-phase composite material in which the mineral phase provides stiffness and collagen provide tensile strength and ductility. The proposed determinants of bone strength at the material level are the degree of mineralization of basic structure units, microdamage accumulation, and collagen cross-link formation. These are regulated by cellular activities, tissue turnover rate, and the levels of oxidative stress and glycation. In this review, I describe the concerns regarding bone qualities. PMID:22653026

  20. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  1. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and functions to dissipate energy and avert fracture. Microdamage formation is a key determinant of bone quality, and through a range of biological and physical mechanisms, accumulates with age and disease. Accumulated microdamage in bone decreases bone strength and increases bone’s propensity to fracture. Thus, a thorough assessment of microdamage, across the hierarchical levels of bone, is crucial to better understand bone quality and bone fracture. This review article details multiple imaging modalities that have been used to study and characterize microdamage; from bulk staining techniques originally developed by Harold Frost to assess linear microcracks, to atomic force microscopy, a modality that revealed mechanistic insights into the formation diffuse damage at the ultrastructural level in bone. New automated techniques using imaging modalities such as microcomputed tomography are also presented for a comprehensive overview. PMID:25664772

  2. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  3. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders. PMID:23960123

  4. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  5. Molecular detection of novel picornaviruses in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tibor; Fey, Brittney; Hargitt, Edwin; Parcells, Mark; Ladman, Brian; Murgia, Maria; Saif, Yehia

    2012-04-01

    Fecal specimens, including swabs and litter extracts, collected from chickens, domestic ducks, turkeys, and Canadian geese were tested using degenerate primers targeting regions encoding for conserved amino acid motifs (YGDD and DY(T/S)(R/K/G)WDST) in calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Similar motifs are also present in other RNA viruses. Two fecal specimens and 18 litter extracts collected from chickens and turkeys yielded RT-PCR products. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all amplicons represented picornaviruses that clustered into two major groups. Four chicken and one turkey samples yielded 250 bp amplicons with 84-91% nucleotide identity to the recently described turkey hepatitis viruses, while 280 and 283 bp amplicons obtained from 11 chicken and 4 turkey samples represented novel picornaviruses with the closest nucleotide identity to kobuviruses (54-61%) and turdiviruses (47-54%). Analysis of 2.2-3.2 kb extended genome sequences including the partial P2 (2C) and complete P3 (3A, 3B (VPg), 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)) regions of selected strains indicated that viruses yielding the 280/283 bp amplicons represent a putative new genus of Picornaviridae. The 3'-non-translated region (NTR) of the turkey hepatitis-like viruses described in this study was significantly longer (641-654 nt) than that of any of the other piconaviruses and included a putative short open reading frame (ORF). In summary, we report the molecular detection of novel picornaviruses that appear to be endemic in both chickens and turkeys.

  6. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    PubMed Central

    Straehl, Fiona R.; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Forasiepi, Analía M.; MacPhee, Ross D.; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

  7. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    PubMed

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

  8. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    PubMed

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  9. Stress shielding in bone of a bone-cement interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hang; Cossey, Andrew; Tong, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Cementation is one of the main fixation methods used in joint replacement surgeries such as Total Knee Replacement (TKR). This work was prompted by a recent retrieval study, which shows losses up to 75% of the bone stock at the bone-cement interface ten years post TKR. It aims to examine the effects of cementation on the stress shielding of the interfacing bone, when the influence of an implant is removed. A micromechanics finite element study of a generic bone-cement interface is presented here, where bone elements in the partially and the fully interdigitated regions were evaluated under selected load cases. The results revealed significant stress shielding effect in the bone of all bone-cement interface regions, particularly in fully interdigitated region. This finding may be useful in the studies of implant fixation and other related orthopedic treatment strategies. PMID:26904919

  10. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  11. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  12. Safety assessment of rice bran oil in a chicken embryo model

    PubMed Central

    Araghi, Atefeh; Seifi, Saeed; Sayrafi, Reza; Sadighara, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is extracted from the outer layer of rice. Little information is available regarding its safety. The present study was conducted to assess its safety in chicken embryo model. Materials and Methods: RBO was injected on day 4 of incubation of chickens. The tissues and serum samples were collected. Oxidative stress parameters in the liver, kidney and brain and biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The deformities were also investigated. Results: The changes in the liver enzymes activity were not statistically significant. There was significant decrease and increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione level, respectively. It is suggested that RBO is a natural antioxidant source. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) also decreased. No abnormal findings were observed in the chickens. Conclusion: No toxic effect was observed following RBO administration in chicken embryos. This study showed that RBO is not a safety concern. PMID:27462559

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic ducks, free-range and caged chickens in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yan, C; Yue, C L; Yuan, Z G; He, Y; Yin, C C; Lin, R Q; Dubey, J P; Zhu, X Q

    2009-11-12

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in humans and other animals including domestic poultry throughout the world, but little is known of the prevalence of T. gondii in chickens and ducks in People's Republic of China. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were investigated in 349 domestic ducks (Anas spp.), 361 free-range, and 244 caged chickens (Gallus domesticus) raised in commercial flocks in Southern China's Guangdong Province using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT titer of 1:5 or higher) were found in 56 (16%) of 349 ducks, 41 (11.4%) of 361 free-range, and 10 (4.1%) of 244 caged chickens. The results indicate soil contamination due to T. gondii oocysts because free-range chickens feed from the ground, and suggest that the meat from the domestic poultry may be an important source for human infection by T. gondii in People's Republic of China.

  14. The area centralis in the chicken retina contains efferent target amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Cynthia; Lindstrom, Sarah H.; De Grip, Willem J.; Wilson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The retinas of birds receive a substantial efferent, or centrifugal, input from a midbrain nucleus. The function of this input is presently unclear but previous work in the pigeon has shown that efferent input is excluded from the area centralis, suggesting that the functions of the area centralis and the efferent system are incompatible. Using an antibody specific to rods, we have identified the area centralis in another species, the chicken, and mapped the distribution of the unique amacrine cells that are the postsynaptic partners of efferent fibers. Efferent target amacrine cells are found within the chicken area centralis and their density is continuous across the border of the area centralis. In contrast to the pigeon retina then, we conclude that the chicken area centralis receives efferent input. We suggest that the difference between the 2 species is attributable to the presence of a fovea within the area centralis of the pigeon and its absence from that of the chicken. PMID:19296862

  15. Biomaterials and bone.

    PubMed

    Pili, Daniele; Tranquilli Leali, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    The healing process of bone is influenced by several biochemical, biomechanics, cellular, hormonal and pathological mechanisms. The ideal biomaterials should therefore guarantee the same mechanisms and be able to "heal". At present we do not have such materials at our disposal. We can anyway select among several biomaterials with different characteristics to best suit our need. In this paper we will overview some of the biomaterials used today in bone surgery with regard to their main biological properties as well as their compatibility.

  16. SILICON AND BONE HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  17. [Clinical nuclear medicine in bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Shiomi, Susumu

    2013-03-01

    (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases. PMID:23445892

  18. Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  19. Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  20. [Genetic analysis of feather color and shank color traits based on F-2 resource population in Tibetan chicken].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cun-Fang; Li, Ning; Wu, Chang-Xin

    2006-07-01

    Tibetan chickens were crossed reciprocally with White Leghorn and Shou-Guang chicken respectively, and inter se matings in F1 were carried out to generate the F2 population. Feather color and shank color appearance and segregation ratio in F1 and F2 were observed. Results indicate that white feather of White Leghorn chicken and black feather of Shou-Guang chicken exhibit complete dominant heredity to hemp feather of Tibetan chicken. Hemp feather is determined by two or more alleles. Only when these two or more alleles are concurrently present, will hemp feather then be displayed. The Id/id allele that determines shank color demonstrates sex-linked inheritance, and the recessive id is expressed gradually in the homozygotes. We confirm that genotype of shank color in White Leghorn rooster used in this study is the dominant homozygote. PMID:16825167

  1. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  2. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  3. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  4. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  5. Modular adaptive bone plate for humerus bone osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N; Bîzdoacă, N; Tarniţă, Corina; Berceanu, C; Boborelu, C

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes a bionics application of shape memory alloy in construction of orthopedic implant. The main idea of this paper is related to design modular adaptive implants for fractured bones. In order to target the efficiency of medical treatment, the implant has to protect the fractured bone, for the healing period, undertaking much as is possible from the daily usual load of the healthy bones. The adaptability of this design is related to medical possibility of the doctor to made the implant to correspond to patient specifically anatomy. Using a CT-realistic numerical humerus bone model, the mechanical simulation of the osteosyntesis process for humerus bone using staples made out of Nitinol. The stress and displacements diagrams for bone, for plate modules and for staples, are presented. PMID:19690773

  6. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  7. Metastatic Bone Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone Disease cont. Page ( 4 ) MBD vs. Primary Bone Cancer The diagnosis of metastatic bone disease should not ... from an unknown primary carcinoma or a primary bone cancer (sarcoma). For example, if an area of bone ...

  8. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (p<0.05), and increased with increasing the concentrations of SFM-1 and SFM-2. The addition of SFM-1 and SFM-2 had no significant effect on the pH of the samples. The lightness value of uncooked chicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  9. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    PubMed

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-08-21

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  10. Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic marek's disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5ΔMeq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101ΔMeq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101ΔMeq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101ΔMeq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101ΔMeq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101ΔMeq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens. PMID:21205328

  11. γ-Crystallins of the chicken lens: remnants of an ancient vertebrate gene family in birds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingwei; Sagar, Vatsala; Len, Hoay-Shuen; Peterson, Katherine; Fan, Jianguo; Mishra, Sanghamitra; McMurtry, John; Wilmarth, Phillip A; David, Larry L; Wistow, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    γ-Crystallins, abundant proteins of vertebrate lenses, were thought to be absent from birds. However, bird genomes contain well-conserved genes for γS- and γN-crystallins. Although expressed sequence tag analysis of chicken eye found no transcripts for these genes, RT-PCR detected spliced transcripts for both genes in chicken lens, with lower levels in cornea and retina/retinal pigment epithelium. The level of mRNA for γS in chicken lens was relatively very low even though the chicken crygs gene promoter had lens-preferred activity similar to that of mouse. Chicken γS was detected by a peptide antibody in lens, but not in other ocular tissues. Low levels of γS and γN proteins were detected in chicken lens by shotgun mass spectroscopy. Water-soluble and water-insoluble lens fractions were analyzed and 1934 proteins (< 1% false discovery rate) were detected, increasing the known chicken lens proteome 30-fold. Although chicken γS is well conserved in protein sequence, it has one notable difference in leucine 16, replacing a surface glutamine conserved in other γ-crystallins, possibly affecting solubility. However, L16 and engineered Q16 versions were both highly soluble and had indistinguishable circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and heat stability (melting temperature Tm ~ 65 °C) profiles. L16 has been present in birds for over 100 million years and may have been adopted for a specific protein interaction in the bird lens. However, evolution has clearly reduced or eliminated expression of ancestral γ-crystallins in bird lenses. The conservation of genes for γS- and γN-crystallins suggests they may have been preserved for reasons unrelated to the bulk properties of the lens.

  12. HB-GAM/pleiotrophin: localization of mRNA and protein in the chicken developing leg.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, J; Brunet-de Carvalho, N; Duprez, D; Raulais, D; Vigny, M

    1998-03-01

    The heparin-binding growth-associated molecule HB-GAM (also named pleiotrophin) is a developmentally-regulated protein that belongs to a new family of heparin-binding molecules with putative functions during cell growth and differentiation. In order to study the localization of HB-GAM during chicken embryogenesis, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies to this factor. HB-GAM protein is first observed at stage 23 in the developing nervous system and later in the forming cartilage. We present an investigation of the HB-GAM mRNA expression and HB-GAM protein distribution in the developing leg by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical studies. We focused our attention on the development of the tibia, where the HB-GAM protein appears at stage 27-28, i.e., just after the condensation of the mesodermal precursor cells of the chondrocytes. The protein then progressively accumulates in the central part of the embryonic cartilage (diaphysis). It persists until stage 42-44 in the regions where hypertrophic cartilage is being replaced by bone marrow. In contrast to the protein, the transcript is first detected at stage 26-27 and later expressed essentially in the epiphysis until stage 37. Therefore the localization of the mRNA does not parallel that of the protein and our data suggest a long half-life of the protein in the hypertrophic cartilage. In addition, the layer of stacked cells surrounding the cartilage core (usually considered as the osteoprogenitor cells) clearly expresses the HB-GAM message between stages 30-37 whereas differentiated osteoblasts do not. Furthermore, the distribution of HB-GAM protein in the osteoblast/osteoid layer suggests an involvement of this protein in early steps of osteogenesis. HB-GAM is absent from the newly formed bone.

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from chickens and ducks from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Graham, D H; Dahl, E; Hilali, M; El-Ghaysh, A; Sreekumar, C; Kwok, O C H; Shen, S K; Lehmann, T

    2003-05-30

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the environment because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in 121 free range chickens (Gallus domesticus) and 19 ducks (Anas sp.) from a rural area surrounding Giza, Egypt was assessed. Blood, heart, and brain from each animal were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii, assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT), were found in 49 (40.4%) chickens in titers of 1:5 in 11, 1:10 in four, 1:20 in four, 1:40 in eight, 1:80 in 10, and 1:160 or more in 12 chickens. Antibodies were found in three ducks each with a titer of 1:80. Hearts and brains of seropositive (MAT > or = 1:5) chickens and ducks were bioassayed in mice. Additionally, hearts and brains of seronegative (MAT<1:5) animals were bioassayed in T. gondii-free cats. T. gondii was isolated from 19 of 49 seropositive chickens (one with a titer of 1:5, two with a titer of 1:20, one with a titer of 1:40, five with a titer of 1:80, three with a titer of 1:160, and seven with a titer of > or = 1:360). One cat fed tissues pooled from 15 seronegative chickens shed T. gondii oocysts, while two cats fed tissues of 34 seronegative chickens did not shed oocysts. T. gondii was isolated from one of the seropositive ducks by bioassay in mice. The two cats fed tissues from 16 seronegative ducks did not shed oocysts. Genotyping of 20 chicken isolates of T. gondii using the SAG 2 locus indicated that 17 isolates were type III and three were type II. The duck isolate of T. gondii was type III. The mice inoculated with tissue stages of all 21 isolates of T. gondii from chickens and ducks remained asymptomatic, indicating that phenotypically they were not type I because type I strains are lethal for mice. Infections with mixed genotypes were not found.

  14. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  15. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-05-13

    In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval.

  16. Outbreak of food-poisoning caused by Salmonella virchow in spit-roasted chicken.

    PubMed

    Semple, A B; Turner, G C; Lowry, D M

    1968-12-28

    Salmonella virchow food-poisoning acquired from eating chicken caused illness in at least 50 people who attended a tennis club function in Liverpool, and in many other people in the Merseyside area. In some cases the illness was severe, with positive blood cultures, and 35 people were admitted to hospital.The source of infection was a retail shop which received deep-frozen chickens already contaminated with S. virchow from a packing-station in Cheshire. These chickens were spit-roasted after inadequate thawing and subsequently handled under unhygienic conditions. The result was a massive build-up of salmonella contamination in the shop and in the chicken portions sold.S. virchow was isolated from over 160 patients and contacts in the Merseyside area during the outbreak and many continued to excrete the organism in the faeces after four months. Antibiotic treatment was not recomended because there was no evidence that it shortened the duration of excretion.A high rate of contamination of chickens from a packing-station by a salmonella type capable of causing serious disease in man is clearly a public health problem which cannot be ignored.The use of rotary spits for roasting chickens requires thorough investigation and appraisal, because as operated at present they evidently constitute a public health hazard.

  17. Global diversity and genetic contributions of chicken populations from African, Asian and European regions.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Eding, H; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2014-12-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of 113 chicken populations from Africa, Asia and Europe were studied using 29 microsatellite markers. Among these, three populations of wild chickens and nine commercial purebreds were used as reference populations for comparison. Compared to commercial lines and chickens sampled from the European region, high mean numbers of alleles and a high degree of heterozygosity were found in Asian and African chickens as well as in Red Junglefowl. Population differentiation (FST ) was higher among European breeds and commercial lines than among African, Asian and Red Junglefowl populations. Neighbour-Net genetic clustering and structure analysis revealed two main groups of Asian and north-west European breeds, whereas African populations overlap with other breeds from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Broilers and brown egg layers were situated between the Asian and north-west European clusters. structure analysis confirmed a lower degree of population stratification in African and Asian chickens than in European breeds. High genetic differentiation and low genetic contributions to global diversity have been observed for single European breeds. Populations with low genetic variability have also shown a low genetic contribution to a core set of diversity in attaining maximum genetic variation present from the total populations. This may indicate that conservation measures in Europe should pay special attention to preserving as many single chicken breeds as possible to maintain maximum genetic diversity given that higher genetic variations come from differentiation between breeds. PMID:25315897

  18. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:25135491

  19. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Free-Range Chicken in Sidi Thabet, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Enteric diseases are an important concern to the poultry industry and coccidiosis is imposing a significant economic burden worldwide. Objectives. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in free-range chicken in Sidi Thabet, northeast Tunisia. Methods. Six hundred and thirty free-range chickens along with fecal samples were collected from 15 flocks in this region and two hundred chickens were found positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Intestines were dissected and examined for macroscopic lesions. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The mean lesion scores were usually low (<2+) in different intestinal portions of different types of chicken and high scores (>2+) were attributed mainly to the caeca. Results. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%: E. tenella (61.5%), E. maxima (12%), and E. acervulina (1.5%). Mixed Eimeria species infection was observed with overall prevalence 26.5%. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) among infection rates, age groups, season, diarrhea, and type of chicken. Conclusion. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in free-range chicken in this region. Further additional studies are needed to develop better preventive measures against coccidiosis in the country. PMID:27213084

  20. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Free-Range Chicken in Sidi Thabet, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Kaboudi, Khaled; Umar, Sajid; Munir, Muhammad Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Enteric diseases are an important concern to the poultry industry and coccidiosis is imposing a significant economic burden worldwide. Objectives. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in free-range chicken in Sidi Thabet, northeast Tunisia. Methods. Six hundred and thirty free-range chickens along with fecal samples were collected from 15 flocks in this region and two hundred chickens were found positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Intestines were dissected and examined for macroscopic lesions. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The mean lesion scores were usually low (<2+) in different intestinal portions of different types of chicken and high scores (>2+) were attributed mainly to the caeca. Results. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%: E. tenella (61.5%), E. maxima (12%), and E. acervulina (1.5%). Mixed Eimeria species infection was observed with overall prevalence 26.5%. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) among infection rates, age groups, season, diarrhea, and type of chicken. Conclusion. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in free-range chicken in this region. Further additional studies are needed to develop better preventive measures against coccidiosis in the country.

  1. Prediction of selenoprotein T structure and its response to selenium deficiency in chicken immune organs.

    PubMed

    You, Lu; Liu, Ci; Yang, Zi-Jiang; Li, Ming; Li, Shu

    2014-08-01

    Selenoprotein T (SelT) is associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis and neuroendocrine secretion. SelT can also change cell adhesion and is involved in redox regulation and cell fixation. However, the structure and function of chicken SelT and its response to selenium (Se) remains unclear. In the present study, 150 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into a low Se group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.020 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.2 mg/kg Se). The immune organs (spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius) were collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days of age. We performed a sequence analysis and predicted the structure and function of SelT. We also investigated the effects of Se deficiency on the expression of SelT, selenophosphate synthetase-1 (SPS1), and selenocysteine synthase (SecS) using RT-PCR and the oxidative stress in the chicken immune organs. The data showed that the coding sequence (CDS) and deduced amino acid sequence of SelT were highly similar to those of 17 other animals. Se deficiency induced lower (P < 0.05) levels of SelT, SPS1, and SecS, reduced the catalase (CAT) activity, and increased the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (-OH) in immune organs. In conclusion, the CDS and deduced amino acid sequence of chicken SelT are highly homologous to those of various mammals. The redox function and response to the Se deficiency of chicken SelT may be conserved. A Se-deficient diet led to a decrease in SelT, SecS, and SPS1 and induced oxidative stress in the chicken immune organs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of predictions of chicken SelT structure and function. The present study demonstrated the relationship between the selenoprotein synthases (SPS1, SecS) and SelT expression in the chicken immune organs and further confirmed oxidative stress caused by Se deficiency. Thus, the information presented in this study is helpful to

  2. Copy number variation identification and analysis of the chicken genome using a 60K SNP BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y S; Li, J; Zhang, R; Lin, X R; Xu, J G; Xie, L; Xu, Z Q; Wang, L; Gan, J K; Xie, X J; He, J; Zhang, X Q

    2016-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important source of genetic variation in organisms and a main factor that affects phenotypic variation. A comprehensive study of chicken CNV can provide valuable information on genetic diversity and facilitate future analyses of associations between CNV and economically important traits in chickens. In the present study, an F2 full-sib chicken population (554 individuals), established from a cross between Xinghua and White Recessive Rock chickens, was used to explore CNV in the chicken genome. Genotyping was performed using a chicken 60K SNP BeadChip. A total of 1,875 CNV were detected with the PennCNV algorithm, and the average number of CNV was 3.42 per individual. The CNV were distributed across 383 independent CNV regions (CNVR) and covered 41 megabases (3.97%) of the chicken genome. Seven CNVR in 108 individuals were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and 81 of these individuals (75%) also were detected with the PennCNV algorithm. In total, 274 CNVR (71.54%) identified in the current study were previously reported. Of these, 147 (38.38%) were reported in at least 2 studies. Additionally, 109 of the CNVR (28.46%) discovered here are novel. A total of 709 genes within or overlapping with the CNVR was retrieved. Out of the 2,742 quantitative trait loci (QTL) collected in the chicken QTL database, 43 QTL had confidence intervals overlapping with the CNVR, and 32 CNVR encompassed one or more functional genes. The functional genes located in the CNVR are likely to be the QTG that are associated with underlying economic traits. This study considerably expands our insight into the structural variation in the genome of chickens and provides an important resource for genomic variation, especially for genomic structural variation related to economic traits in chickens. PMID:27118864

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  4. Copy number variation identification and analysis of the chicken genome using a 60K SNP BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y S; Li, J; Zhang, R; Lin, X R; Xu, J G; Xie, L; Xu, Z Q; Wang, L; Gan, J K; Xie, X J; He, J; Zhang, X Q

    2016-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important source of genetic variation in organisms and a main factor that affects phenotypic variation. A comprehensive study of chicken CNV can provide valuable information on genetic diversity and facilitate future analyses of associations between CNV and economically important traits in chickens. In the present study, an F2 full-sib chicken population (554 individuals), established from a cross between Xinghua and White Recessive Rock chickens, was used to explore CNV in the chicken genome. Genotyping was performed using a chicken 60K SNP BeadChip. A total of 1,875 CNV were detected with the PennCNV algorithm, and the average number of CNV was 3.42 per individual. The CNV were distributed across 383 independent CNV regions (CNVR) and covered 41 megabases (3.97%) of the chicken genome. Seven CNVR in 108 individuals were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and 81 of these individuals (75%) also were detected with the PennCNV algorithm. In total, 274 CNVR (71.54%) identified in the current study were previously reported. Of these, 147 (38.38%) were reported in at least 2 studies. Additionally, 109 of the CNVR (28.46%) discovered here are novel. A total of 709 genes within or overlapping with the CNVR was retrieved. Out of the 2,742 quantitative trait loci (QTL) collected in the chicken QTL database, 43 QTL had confidence intervals overlapping with the CNVR, and 32 CNVR encompassed one or more functional genes. The functional genes located in the CNVR are likely to be the QTG that are associated with underlying economic traits. This study considerably expands our insight into the structural variation in the genome of chickens and provides an important resource for genomic variation, especially for genomic structural variation related to economic traits in chickens.

  5. Mechanotransduction of bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Mullender, M; El Haj, A J; Yang, Y; van Duin, M A; Burger, E H; Klein-Nulend, J

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such as fluid shear, tension or compression, can influence cells in differing ways. During dynamic loading of intact bone, fluid is pressed through the osteocyte canaliculi, and it has been demonstrated that fluid shear stress stimulates osteocytes to produce signalling molecules. It is less clear how mechanical loads act on mature osteoblasts present on the surface of cancellous or trabecular bone. Although tissue strain and fluid shear stress both cause cell deformation, these stimuli could excite different signalling pathways. This is confirmed by our experimental findings, in human bone cells, that strain applied through the substrate and fluid flow stimulate the release of signalling molecules to varying extents. Nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 values increased by between two- and nine-fold after treatment with pulsating fluid flow (0.6 +/- 0.3 Pa). Cyclic strain (1000 microstrain) stimulated the release of nitric oxide two-fold, but had no effect on prostaglandin E2. Furthermore, substrate strains enhanced the bone matrix protein collagen I two-fold, whereas fluid shear caused a 50% reduction in collagen I. The relevance of these variations is discussed in relation to bone growth and remodelling. In applications such as tissue engineering, both stimuli offer possibilities for enhancing bone cell growth in vitro.

  6. Bone imaging in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Shikare, S; Samsi, A B; Tilve, G H

    1997-01-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public leads to increase in sports induced injuries including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis and host of musculotendenous maladies. We have studied twenty patients referred from sports clinic for bone scanning to evaluate clinically difficult problems. It showed stress fracture in twelve patients, bilateral shin splint in five patients and normal bone scan in three patients. Present study highlights the utility of bone imaging for the diagnosis of various sports injuries in sports medicine.

  7. Diagnosis of metabolic bone disease

    SciTech Connect

    Grech, P.; Martin, T.J.; Barrington, N.A.; Ell, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents a reference on the radiologic evaluation, features, and differential diagnosis of metabolic diseases involving the whole skeleton, calcium deficiencies resulting from pharmacologic agents, and bone changes related to endocrine disturbances. It also stresses how radiology, nuclear medicine, and biochemistry - either alone or in concert - contribute to clinical diagnosis. It covers renal bone disease, Paget's disease, hyperphosphatasia, extraskeletal mineralization, metabolic bone disorders related to malnutrition, tumors, plus radionuclide studies including materials and methods.

  8. [Determination of parasite fauna of chicken in the Van region].

    PubMed

    Orunç, Ozlem; Biçek, Kamile

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parasite fauna of the chicken in Van Province in 2002 and 2003. The material of the present study included endoparasites and ectoparasites determined by rutine parasitological examinations. Direct, flotation and sedimentation techniques for endoparasites were used. The total of endoparasites and ectoparasites were determined as 85% and 76% respectively. The ratios of endoparasites obtained from the chicken were coccidial oocystis 65%, Echinostoma spp. 2%, Davania proglottina 8%, Raillietina spp. 10%, Trichostrongylus tenuis 4%, Dispharynx nasuta 1%, Ascaridia galli 13%, Heterakis gallinarum 15%, Capillaria spp. 30% whereas ratios of ectoparasites were Goniocotes hologaster 32%, Lipeurus heteragraphus 6%, Eomenacanthus stramineus 42%, Menacanthus cornutus 11%, Menopon gallinae 22%.

  9. Piwil1 mediates meiosis during spermatogenesis in chicken.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Chang, Guobin; Ma, Teng; Wang, Hongzhi; Chen, Jing; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Wan, Fang; Ren, Lichen; Lu, Wei; Chen, Guohong

    2016-03-01

    Piwil1 mediates spermatogenesis and ensures stable cell division rates in germline cells in mammals. However, the involvement of Piwil1 in poultry spermatogenesis and meiosis is poorly understood. In the present study, we used TaqMan RT-qPCR to characterize Piwil1 mRNA expression in different types of spermatogenic cells, including primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), spermatogonia cells (Sa), tetraploid cells (Tp), round sperm cells (Rs), mature sperm, and in PGCs treated with retinoic acid. Our results revealed that Piwil1 is differentially expressed during spermatogenesis in chicken. Compared to PGCs, SSCs, Tp, and Sa, Rs cells presented the highest Piwil1 mRNA expression levels. Retinoic acid significantly upregulated Piwil1 and Stra8 mRNA expression as well as Piwil1 levels in chicken PGCs. In addition, retinoic acid induced PGCs to progress through all the meiotic stages, eventually leading to haploid cell formation, which was determined using flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results showed that during spermatogenesis, Piwil1 was first expressed at low levels in germ stem cells, PGCs, and SSCs. Its expression levels increased during later meiosis stages. Finally, no expression was detected in mature sperm after meiosis. Treatment of PGCs with retinoic acid further demonstrated that Piwil1 plays a key role in meiosis during chicken spermatogenesis.

  10. Spatial Probability Dynamically Modulates Visual Target Detection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L.; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2013-01-01

    The natural world contains a rich and ever-changing landscape of sensory information. To survive, an organism must be able to flexibly and rapidly locate the most relevant sources of information at any time. Humans and non-human primates exploit regularities in the spatial distribution of relevant stimuli (targets) to improve detection at locations of high target probability. Is the ability to flexibly modify behavior based on visual experience unique to primates? Chickens (Gallus domesticus) were trained on a multiple alternative Go/NoGo task to detect a small, briefly-flashed dot (target) in each of the quadrants of the visual field. When targets were presented with equal probability (25%) in each quadrant, chickens exhibited a distinct advantage for detecting targets at lower, relative to upper, hemifield locations. Increasing the probability of presentation in the upper hemifield locations (to 80%) dramatically improved detection performance at these locations to be on par with lower hemifield performance. Finally, detection performance in the upper hemifield changed on a rapid timescale, improving with successive target detections, and declining with successive detections at the diagonally opposite location in the lower hemifield. These data indicate the action of a process that in chickens, as in primates, flexibly and dynamically modulates detection performance based on the spatial probabilities of sensory stimuli as well as on recent performance history. PMID:23734188

  11. Ultrastructural identification of telocytes in the muscularis of chicken ileum

    PubMed Central

    YANG, PING; LIU, YA'AN; AHMED, NISAR; ULLAH, SHAKEEB; LIU, YI; CHEN, QIUSHENG

    2015-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a specialized type of interstitial cells, characterized by a small cell body and long, thin processes, that have recently been identified in various cavitary and non-cavitary organs of humans and laboratory mammals. Chickens present significant economical and scientific notability; however, ultrastructural identification of TCs remains unclear in birds. The aim of the present study was to describe electron microscopic evidence for the presence of TCs in the chicken gut. The ileum of healthy adult broiler chickens (n=10) was studied by transmission electron microscopy. TCs are characterized by several, long (tens to hundreds of µm) prolongations called telopodes (Tps). Tps, which are below the resolving power of light microscopy, display podomeres (thin segments of ≤0.2 µm) and podoms (dilations accommodating caveolae, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum). TCs were observed in every field, but were predominantly located in the myenteric plexus and the lamina propria. Tps frequently establish close spatial relationships with immune cells, blood vessels and nerve endings. On the basis of their distribution and morphology, it was hypothesized that the different locations of TCs may be associated with different roles. PMID:26668636

  12. Bone invasion in secondary syphilis: case reports.

    PubMed Central

    Ollé-Goig, J E; Barrio, J L; Gurgui, M; Mildvan, D

    1988-01-01

    The affinity of treponemes for bone tissue is well known, but the incidence of bone infection in the early stages of syphilis is uncertain. Although case reports of early bone invasion are few, reviews of large numbers of patients with early syphilis indicate that the incidence is probably greater than at present believed. Two case reports are presented. Images PMID:3410468

  13. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  14. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health.

  15. A Novel Population of Cells Expressing Both Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Markers Is Present in the Normal Adult Bone Marrow and Is Augmented in a Murine Model of Marrow Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ohishi, Masanobu; Ono, Wanida; Ono, Noriaki; Khatri, Richa; Marzia, Marilena; Baker, Emma K.; Root, Sierra H.; Wilson, Tremika Le-Shan; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Aguila, Hector L.; Purton, Louise E.; Schipani, Ernestina

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) fibrosis is a feature of severe hyperparathyroidism. Consistent with this observation, mice expressing constitutively active parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptors (PPR) in osteoblasts (PPR*Tg) display BM fibrosis. To obtain insight into the nature of BM fibrosis in such a model, a double-mutant mouse expressing constitutively active PPR and green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the type I collagen promoter (PPR*Tg/GFP) was generated. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry revealed the presence of a cell population expressing GFP (GFP+) that was also positive for the hematopoietic marker CD45 in the BM of both PPR*Tg/GFP and control animals. This cell population was expanded in PPR*Tg/GFP. The existence of cells expressing both type I collagen and CD45 in the adult BM was confirmed by IHC and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. An analysis of total RNA extracted from sorted GFP+CD45+ cells showed that these cells produced type I collagen and PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor and receptor activator for NF-κB mRNAs, further supporting their features of being both mesenchymal and hematopoietic lineages. Similar cells, known as fibrocytes, are also present in pathological fibroses. Our findings, thus, indicate that the BM is a permissive microenvironment for the differentiation of fibrocyte-like cells and raise the possibility that these cells could contribute to the pathogenesis of BM fibrosis. PMID:22155108

  16. Imaging characteristics of bone graft materials.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Francesca D; Bancroft, Laura W; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Kransdorf, Mark J; Menke, David M; DeOrio, James K

    2006-01-01

    Bone graft materials are widely used in reconstructive orthopedic procedures to promote new bone formation and bone healing, provide a substrate and scaffolding for development of bone structure, and function as a means for direct antibiotic delivery. Bone graft materials include autografts, allografts, and synthetic substitutes. An autograft (from the patient's own bone) supplies both bone volume and osteogenic cells capable of new bone formation. The imaging appearance of an autograft depends on its type, composition, and age. Autografts often appear as osseous fragments at radiography. At computed tomography (CT), autografts appear similar to the adjacent cortical bone. At magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, however, autografts have a variable appearance as a consequence of the viable marrow inside them, a feature not present in other graft materials. An allograft (from cadaveric bone) has an appearance similar to that of cortical bone on radiographs and CT images. An allograft in the form of bone chips or morsels does not show those features on radiographs and CT images, but instead appears as a conglomerate with medium to high opacity and attenuation within the bone defect. In the immediate postoperative period, allografts appear hypointense on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images. Hematopoietic tissue replaces the normal fatty marrow in the later phases of graft incorporation. Synthetic bone substitutes are much more variable in imaging appearance. As the use of bone allografts and synthetic substitutes increases, familiarity with postoperative imaging features is essential for differentiation between grafts and residual or recurrent disease.

  17. Bone marrow-targeted liposomal carriers

    PubMed Central

    Sou, Keitaro; Goins, Beth; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Travi, Bruno L.; Phillips, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow targeted drug delivery systems appear to offer a promising strategy for advancing diagnostic, protective, and/or therapeutic medicine for the hematopoietic system. Liposome technology can provide a drug delivery system with high bone marrow targeting that is mediated by specific phagocytosis in bone marrow. Area covered This review focuses on a bone marrow specific liposome formulation labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc). Interspecies differences in bone marrow distribution of the bone marrow targeted formulation are emphasized. This review provides a liposome technology to target bone marrow. In addition, the selection of proper species for the investigation of bone marrow targeting is suggested. Expert opinion It can be speculated that the bone marrow macrophages have a role in the delivery of lipids to the bone marrow as a source of energy and for membrane biosynthesis or in the delivery of fat soluble vitamins for hematopoiesis. This homeostatic system offers a potent pathway to deliver drugs selectively into bone marrow tissues from blood. High selectivity of the present BMT-liposome formulation for bone marrow suggests the presence of an active and specific mechanism, but specific factors affecting the uptake of the bone marrow MPS are still unknown. Further investigation of this mechanism will increase our understanding of factors required for effective transport of agents to the bone marrow, and may provide an efficient system for bone marrow delivery for therapeutic purposes. PMID:21275831

  18. The brominated flame retardants TBP-AE and TBP-DBPE antagonize the chicken androgen receptor and act as potential endocrine disrupters in chicken LMH cells.

    PubMed

    Asnake, Solomon; Pradhan, Ajay; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2015-12-01

    Increased exposure of birds to endocrine disrupting compounds has resulted in developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. We have recently identified the flame retardants, allyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-AE), 2-3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE) and the TBP-DBPE metabolite 2-bromoallyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-BAE) as antagonists to both the human androgen receptor (AR) and the zebrafish AR. In the present study, we aimed at determining whether these compounds also interact with the chicken AR. In silico modeling studies showed that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE were able to dock into to the chicken AR ligand-binding pocket. In vitro transfection assays revealed that all three brominated compounds acted as chicken AR antagonists, inhibiting testosterone induced AR activation. In addition, qRT-PCR studies confirmed that they act as AR antagonists and demonstrated that they also alter gene expression patterns of apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, drug metabolizing and amino acid transporter genes. These studies, using chicken LMH cells, suggest that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE are potential endocrine disrupters in chicken.

  19. The brominated flame retardants TBP-AE and TBP-DBPE antagonize the chicken androgen receptor and act as potential endocrine disrupters in chicken LMH cells.

    PubMed

    Asnake, Solomon; Pradhan, Ajay; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2015-12-01

    Increased exposure of birds to endocrine disrupting compounds has resulted in developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. We have recently identified the flame retardants, allyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-AE), 2-3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE) and the TBP-DBPE metabolite 2-bromoallyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-BAE) as antagonists to both the human androgen receptor (AR) and the zebrafish AR. In the present study, we aimed at determining whether these compounds also interact with the chicken AR. In silico modeling studies showed that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE were able to dock into to the chicken AR ligand-binding pocket. In vitro transfection assays revealed that all three brominated compounds acted as chicken AR antagonists, inhibiting testosterone induced AR activation. In addition, qRT-PCR studies confirmed that they act as AR antagonists and demonstrated that they also alter gene expression patterns of apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, drug metabolizing and amino acid transporter genes. These studies, using chicken LMH cells, suggest that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE are potential endocrine disrupters in chicken. PMID:26318274

  20. Chicken genomics resource: sequencing and annotation of 35,407 ESTs from single and multiple tissue cDNA libraries and CAP3 assembly of a chicken gene index.

    PubMed

    Carre, Wilfrid; Wang, Xiaofei; Porter, Tom E; Nys, Yves; Tang, Jianshan; Bernberg, Erin; Morgan, Robin; Burnside, Joan; Aggrey, Samuel E; Simon, Jean; Cogburn, Larry A

    2006-05-16

    Its accessibility, unique evolutionary position, and recently assembled genome sequence have advanced the chicken to the forefront of comparative genomics and developmental biology research as a model organism. Several chicken expressed sequence tag (EST) projects have placed the chicken in 10th place for accrued ESTs among all organisms in GenBank. We have completed the single-pass 5'-end sequencing of 37,557 chicken cDNA clones from several single and multiple tissue cDNA libraries and have entered 35,407 EST sequences into GenBank. Our chicken EST sequences and those found in public databases (on July 1, 2004) provided a total of 517,727 public chicken ESTs and mRNAs. These sequences were used in the CAP3 assembly of a chicken gene index composed of 40,850 contigs and 79,192 unassembled singlets. The CAP3 contigs show a 96.7% match to the chicken genome sequence. The University of Delaware (UD) EST collection (43,928 clones) was assembled into 19,237 nonredundant sequences (13,495 contigs and 5,742 unassembled singlets). The UD collection contains 6,223 unique sequences that are not found in other public EST collections but show a 76% match to the chicken genome sequence. Our chicken contig and singlet sequences were annotated according to the highest BlastX and/or BlastN hits. The UD CAP3 contig assemblies and singlets are searchable by nucleotide sequence or key word (http://cogburn.dbi.udel.edu), and the cDNA clones are readily available for distribution from the chick EST website and clone repository (http://www.chickest.udel.edu). The present paper describes the construction and normalization of single and multiple tissue chicken cDNA libraries, high-throughput EST sequencing from these libraries, the CAP3 assembly of a chicken gene index from all public ESTs, and the identification of several nonredundant chicken gene sets for production of custom DNA microarrays.

  1. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in a commercial flock of chickens in Israel, and public health implications of free-range farming.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Salant, H; Sreekumar, C; Dahl, E; Vianna, M C B; Shen, S K; Kwok, O C H; Spira, D; Hamburger, J; Lehmann, T V

    2004-05-26

    Little is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in commercially raised chickens. In the present study, the prevalence of T. gondii in 96 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from a commercial farm in Israel was assessed. Blood, heart, and brain from each chicken were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii, assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT > or = 1:5), were found in 45 of the 96 chickens. Hearts and brains of seropositive (MAT > or = 1:5) chickens were bioassayed in mice. Additionally, hearts and brains of 51 seronegative (MAT < 1:5) chickens were bioassayed in two T. gondii-free cats. T. gondii was isolated from 19 of the 45 (42.2%) seropositive chickens by bioassay in mice. Both the cats fed tissues pooled from seronegative chickens shed T. gondii oocysts. Tachyzoites and tissue cysts of all 21 isolates of T. gondii from chickens were avirulent for mice. Seventeen of the 19 isolates genotyped were found to be type II, and 2 were type III. Understanding of the sources of infection on such farms could be the key to the development of better prevention strategies.

  2. A mutation in the NLRC5 promoter limits NF-κB signaling after Salmonella Enteritidis infection in the spleen of young chickens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guobin; Liu, Xiangping; Ma, Teng; Xu, Lu; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2015-09-01

    To date, the functions of the NLRC5 in chickens remain undefined. In the current study, chicken NLRC5 was cloned and an A1017G mutation was detected in its promoter region. The relative expression levels of the NLRC5 and key NF-κB pathway genes, IKKα, IKKβ, NF-κB, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ, in the spleens of wild and mutant type birds, AA and GG, were determined using FQ-PCR at 7 day post-infection (DPI) with Salmonella Enteritidis. Additionally, the bacterial burden in the caecum and various immune response parameters were measured to evaluate immune responses. All of the examined immune response parameters were significantly different between the AA chickens and the GG chickens. Specifically, the mRNA expression levels of IKKα, NF-κB, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ were higher in AA chickens than those in GG chickens, while the mRNA expression levels of NLRC5 were lower in AA chickens than those in GG chickens (P<0.05). Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and MyD88 were not affected in either group. Collectively, considering former NLRC5 functional study in vitro, the wild genotype birds presented with better resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis through the actions of the NLRC5 and subsequent inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in chickens.

  3. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-27

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  4. Analysis of the function of IL-10 in chickens using specific neutralising antibodies and a sensitive capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiguang; Hu, Tuanjun; Rothwell, Lisa; Vervelde, Lonneke; Kaiser, Pete; Boulton, Kay; Nolan, Matthew J; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Hume, David A

    2016-10-01

    In mammals, the inducible cytokine interleukin 10 is a feedback negative regulator of inflammation. To determine the extent to which this function is conserved in birds, recombinant chicken IL-10 was expressed as a secreted human Ig Fc fusion protein (chIL-10-Fc) and used to immunise mice. Five monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which specifically recognise chicken IL-10 were generated and characterised. Two capture ELISA assays were developed which detected native chIL-10 secreted from chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (chBMMs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Three of the mAbs detected intracellular IL-10. This was detected in only a subset of the same LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The ELISA assay also detected massive increases in circulating IL-10 in chickens challenged with the coccidial parasite, Eimeria tenella. The same mAbs neutralised the bioactivity of recombinant chIL-10. The role of IL-10 in feedback control was tested in vitro. The neutralising antibodies prevented IL-10-induced inhibition of IFN-γ synthesis by mitogen-activated lymphocytes and increased nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The results confirm that IL-10 is an inducible feedback regulator of immune response in chickens, and could be the target for improved vaccine efficacy or breeding strategies. PMID:27108075

  5. Analysis of the function of IL-10 in chickens using specific neutralising antibodies and a sensitive capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiguang; Hu, Tuanjun; Rothwell, Lisa; Vervelde, Lonneke; Kaiser, Pete; Boulton, Kay; Nolan, Matthew J; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Hume, David A

    2016-10-01

    In mammals, the inducible cytokine interleukin 10 is a feedback negative regulator of inflammation. To determine the extent to which this function is conserved in birds, recombinant chicken IL-10 was expressed as a secreted human Ig Fc fusion protein (chIL-10-Fc) and used to immunise mice. Five monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which specifically recognise chicken IL-10 were generated and characterised. Two capture ELISA assays were developed which detected native chIL-10 secreted from chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (chBMMs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Three of the mAbs detected intracellular IL-10. This was detected in only a subset of the same LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The ELISA assay also detected massive increases in circulating IL-10 in chickens challenged with the coccidial parasite, Eimeria tenella. The same mAbs neutralised the bioactivity of recombinant chIL-10. The role of IL-10 in feedback control was tested in vitro. The neutralising antibodies prevented IL-10-induced inhibition of IFN-γ synthesis by mitogen-activated lymphocytes and increased nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The results confirm that IL-10 is an inducible feedback regulator of immune response in chickens, and could be the target for improved vaccine efficacy or breeding strategies.

  6. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  7. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds- Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken - the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds - the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD= 0.341, LK= 0.357, DA=0.349 and CH= 0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The FST values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The FST values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. Conclusion These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken

  8. [Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism in Different Populations of Spangled Orloff Chickens].

    PubMed

    Oyuna, N Yu; Moiseyeva, I G; Sevastianova, A A; Vakhrameev, A B; Alexandrov, A V; Kuzevanova, A Yu; Alimov, A A; Sulimova, G E

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, the genetic diversity of the Spangled Orloff chickens was studied by analyzing the polymorphism of the hypervariable region in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Samples for the analysis were collected at the farms ofthe All-Russia Poultry Research and Technological Institute (VNITIP), the All-Russia Institute of Farm Animal Genetics and Breeding (VNIIGRZh), and the Moscow Zoo. The D-loop partial sequences (between nucleotide positions 57 and 523) were determined according to the reference sequence of Gallus gallus spadiceus mtDNA, NC_007235 in 39 individuals obtained from these populations (GenBank Accession Nos. KM391754-KM391792). In the analyzed mtDNA fragment, a total of 20 polymorphic sites localized between positions 167 and 368, as well as at position 446, were described in Spangled Orloff chickens. One polymorphic site at position 221 (haplogroup E, haplotype ORL-2) was unique. All of the identified nucleotide changes were transition-type substitutions. Overall, based on the analysis of poly- morphic sites in the hypervariable fragment of the D-loop of Spangled Orloff chicken mtDNA, we found seven haplotypes belonging to four haplogroups (A, B, C, and E). Haplogroup E (haplotypes ORL-1, ORL-2, and ORL-3) was present in the majority of the studied individual, with the frequencies of 0.77 in the total sample and 0.47 in the VNIIGRZh farm population. Haplogroups A (haplotypes ORL-4 and ORL-7), B (ORL-6), and C (ORL-5) were found only in samples from the VNIIGRZh farm. The studied mtDNA region revealed a lower level of polymorphism in the VNITIP and Moscow Zoo populations, which only had the ORL-1 and ORL-3 haplotypes belonging to Haplogroup E, respectively. Our data suggested that the studied Spangled Orloff chicken populations differed in the composition and frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups and haplotypes.

  9. Lack of oblique astigmatism in the chicken eye.

    PubMed

    Maier, Felix M; Howland, Howard C; Ohlendorf, Arne; Wahl, Siegfried; Schaeffel, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Primate eyes display considerable oblique off-axis astigmatism which could provide information on the sign of defocus that is needed for emmetropization. The pattern of peripheral astigmatism is not known in the chicken eye, a common model of myopia. Peripheral astigmatism was mapped out over the horizontal visual field in three chickens, 43 days old, and in three near emmetropic human subjects, average age 34.7years, using infrared photoretinoscopy. There were no differences in astigmatism between humans and chickens in the central visual field (chicks -0.35D, humans -0.65D, n.s.) but large differences in the periphery (i.e. astigmatism at 40° in the temporal visual field: humans -4.21D, chicks -0.63D, p<0.001, unpaired t-test). The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks was not due to differences in corneal shape. Perhaps related to their superior peripheral optics, we found that chickens had excellent visual performance also in the far periphery. Using an automated optokinetic nystagmus paradigm, no difference was observed in spatial visual performance with vision restricted to either the central 67° of the visual field or to the periphery beyond 67°. Accommodation was elicited by stimuli presented far out in the visual field. Transscleral images of single infrared LEDs showed no sign of peripheral astigmatism. The chick may be the first terrestrial vertebrate described to lack oblique astigmatism. Since corneal shape cannot account for the difference in astigmatism in humans and chicks, it must trace back to the design of the crystalline lens. The lack of peripheral astigmatism in chicks also excludes a role in emmetropization.

  10. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals

  11. Influence of bone parameters on peri-implant bone strain distribution in the posterior mandible

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kawakami, Masayoshi; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The success rate of dental implants depends on the type of bone at the implant site. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of the bone parameters at the implant-placement site on peri-implant bone strain distributions. Study Design: The morphologies and bone densities of seventy-five potential implant sites in the posterior mandible were measured using computed tomography (CT). Based on the CT data, we defined bone parameters (low and high in terms of cancellous-bone density and crestal-cortical bone density, and thin and thick in terms of crestal-cortical bone thickness), and we constructed finite-element models simulating the various bone types. A buccolingual oblique load of 200 N was applied to the top of the abutment. The von Mises equivalent (EQV) strains in the crestal-cortical bone and in the cancellous bone around the implant were calculated. Results: Cancellous-bone density greatly affected the maximum EQV strain regardless of the density and thickness of the crestal cortical-bone. The maximum EQV strains in the crestal cortical-bone and the cancellous bone in the low-density cancellous-bone models (of 150 Hounsfield units (HU) were 1.56 to 2.62-fold and 3.49 to 5.31-fold higher than those in the high-density cancellous-bone models (of 850 HU), respectively. The crestal cortical-bone density affected the maximum EQV strains in the crestal cortical-bone and in the cancellous bone in the low-density cancellous-bone models. The crestal cortical-bone thickness affected the maximum EQV strains in the cancellous bone and in the crestal cortical-bone in the low-density cancellous-bone models. Conclusions: Our results confirm the importance of bone types for the peri-implant bone strain distribution. Cancellous-bone density may be a critical factor for peri-implant bone strain. Key words:Dental implant, bone density, finite-element analysis. PMID:25129251

  12. Transmission and genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis among layer chickens during hatch

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on transmission of Enterococcus faecalis among chickens during hatch have not been carried out so far. Information about vertical transmission and subsequent spreading and colonization of the cloacal mucosa through cloacal 'drinking' during hatch are important to understand the epidemiology of E. faecalis infections. In the present investigation vertical transmission and subsequent spreading and colonization of the cloacal mucosa of chickens by E. faecalis through cloacal 'drinking' were examined. Methods Two different batches of layer chickens originating from 45 weeks old Brown and White Lohmann parents, respectively from the same farm were sampled in the hatcher. Isolates were confirmed to be E. faecalis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to state their population structure and comparison made to sequence types previously obtained from chicken. Results A total of 480 chickens were swabbed from the cloacae just after hatch and after 24 hours. A total of 101 isolates were confirmed as E. faecalis by a species specific PCR. The prevalence of E. faecalis increased from 14% at 0 h to 97% after 24 h for the Brown Lohmann chickens and from 0.5% to 23% for the White Lohmann flock. The 84 isolates analysed by MLST were distributed on 14 sequence types (ST). Three ST (401, 82 and 249) accounted for 64% of all isolates analysed by MLST after 24 h. ST 82 has previously been reported from amyloid arthropathy and other lesions in poultry. Conclusions The present findings demonstrated a high potential of a few contaminated eggs or embryos to rapidly facilitate the spread of E. faecalis to almost all chickens during hatch. PMID:22017822

  13. First biologic and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Karhemere, S; Dahl, E; Sreekumar, C; Diabaté, A; Dabiré, K R; Vianna, M C B; Kwok, O C H; Lehmann, T

    2005-02-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in chickens from Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya is reported. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of 50 free-range chickens from Congo was 50% based on the modified agglutination test (MAT); antibody titers were 1:5 in 7, 1:10 in 7, 1:20 in 6, 1:40 in 1, and 1:160 or more in 4 chickens. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 11 chickens with titers of 1:20 or more were bioassayed individually in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 9, from the hearts of 9, brains of 3, and muscles of 3 chickens. Tissues of each of the 14 chickens with titers of 1:5 or 1:10 were pooled and bioassayed in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 1 chicken with a titer of 1:10. Tissues from the remaining 25 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 1 T. gondii-free cat. Feces of the cat were examined for oocysts, but none was seen. The results indicate that T. gondii localizes in the hearts more often than in other tissues of naturally infected chickens. Genotyping of these 10 isolates using the SAG2 locus indicated that 8 were isolates were type III, 1 was type II, and 1 was type I. Two isolates (1 type I and 1 type III) were virulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by mouse bioassay from a pool of brains and hearts of 5 of 48 chickens from Mali and 1 of 40 chickens from Burkina Faso; all 6 isolates were avirulent for mice. Genetically, 4 isolates were type III and 2 were type II. Sera were not available from chickens from Mali and Burkina Faso. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (MAT 100 or more) were found in 4 of 30 chickens from Kenya, and T. gondii was isolated from the brain of 1 of 4 seropositive chickens; this strain was avirulent for mice and was type II. This is the first report on isolation and genotyping

  14. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING... comminuted chicken of skeletal origin that is produced in conformance with all applicable Food Safety...

  15. Investigation of possible antivitamin B-6 properties in irradiation sterilized chicken. Final report, November 1979-August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McGown, E.L.; Lewis, C.M.; Robles, A.; Waring, P.P.; Skala, J.H.

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether irradiation (gamma or electron) or thermal processing of chicken produces factors which are antagonistic to vitamin B-6 in the diet of rats. (These methods of preservation all result in lowered vitamin B-6 contents relative to frozen chicken.) Male and female rats (156 each) were made vitamin B-6 deficient by feeding a semi-purified diet devoid of vitamin B-6. They were then repleted with various test diets containing chicken which had been preserved by one of four methods: frozen, thermally processed, electron or gamma irradiated. All repletion diets were supplemented to contain carefully controlled (marginal or high) levels of vitamin B-6. Recovery rates were monitored by growth (weight gain) and measurements of vitamin B-6-dependent blood enzymes (plasma and red cell aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). No differences were observed in weight gain among the chicken-fed groups. The enzyme responses of rats fed frozen, thermally processed or electron irradiated chicken were similar. Responses of some of the enzymatic parameters were slightly delayed in the groups fed gamma irradiated chicken at the marginal vitamin level. No consistent differences were observed between any of the high vitamin groups. If an antivitamin B-6 factor is present in gamma irradiated chicken, it is minimal, is detectable only under conditions of marginal vitamin B-6 status, and is overcome by added dietary pyridoxine.

  16. The role of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 in fatty acids sensing in chicken oral tissues.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Ryo; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-03-01

    Clarification of the mechanism of chickens' taste sense will provide meaningful information for creating and improving new feedstuff for chickens, because the character of taste receptors in oral tissues affects feeding behavior in animals. Although fatty acids are partly recognized via G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) for fat taste in mammalian oral tissues, the fat taste receptor of chickens has not been elucidated. Here we cloned chicken GPR120 (cGPR120) from the chicken palate, which contains taste buds. By using Ca(2+) imaging methods, we identified oleic acid and linoleic acid as cGPR120 agonists. Interestingly, in a behavioral study the chickens preferred corn oil-rich feed over mineral oil (control oil)-rich feed. Because corn oil contains high amounts of oleic acid and linoleic acid, this result was thought to be reasonable. Taken together, the present results suggest that cGPR120 is one of the functional fat taste receptors in chickens.

  17. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Qisheng; Wang, Yinjie; Cheng, Shaoze; Lian, Chao; Tang, Beibei; Wang, Fei; Lu, Zhenyu; Ji, Yanqing; Zhao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Wenhui; Jin, Kai; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2016-01-01

    The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs) were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA) recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%). Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens. PMID:27172204

  18. Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

    1980-08-01

    Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

  19. The magnetic compass of domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident. PMID:24753787

  20. Electromechanical Properties of Bone Tissue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regimbal, Raymond L.

    Discrepancies between calculated and empirical properties of bone are thought to be due to a general lack of consideration for the extent and manner(s) with which bone components interact at the molecular level. For a bone component in physiological fluid or whenever two phases are in contact, there is a region between the bulk phases called the electrical double layer which is marked by a separation of electric charges. For the purpose of studying electrical double layer interactions, the method of particle microelectrophoresis was used to characterize bone and its major constituents on the basis of the net charge they bear when suspended in ionic media of physiological relevance. With the data presented as pH versus zeta (zeta ) potential, the figures reveal an isoelectric point (IEP) for bone mineral near pH 8.6, whereas intact and EDTA demineralized bone tissue both exhibit IEPs near pH 5.1. While these data demonstrate the potential for a significant degree of coulombic interaction between the bone mineral and organic constituent double layers, it was also observed that use of inorganic phosphate buffers, as a specific marker for bone mineral, resulted in (1) an immediate reversal, from positive to negative, of the bone mineral zeta potential (2) rendered the zeta potential of intact bone more negative in a manner linearly dependent on both time and temperature and (3) had no affect on demineralized bone (P < 0.01). In agreement with that shown in model protein-hydroxyapatite systems, it is suggested here that inorganic phosphate ions in solution compete with organic acid groups (e.g. carboxyl and phosphate of collagen, sialoprotein, ...) for positively charged sites on the bone mineral surface and effectively uncouple the bone mineral and organic phase double layers. Mechanically, this uncoupling is manifested as a loss of tissue rigidity when monitoring the midspan deflection of bone beams subject to constant load for a 3 day period. While it is thus

  1. Bone disease in primary hypercalciuria

    PubMed Central

    Sella, Stefania; Cattelan, Catia; Realdi, Giuseppe; Giannini, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Primary Hypercalciuria (PH) is very often accompanied with some degrees of bone demineralization. The most frequent clinical condition in which this association has been observed is calcium nephrolithiasis. In patients affected by this disorder bone density is very frequently low and increased susceptibility to fragility fractures is reported. The very poor definition of this bone disease from a histomorphometric point of view is a crucial aspect. At present, the most common finding seems to be a low bone turnover condition. Many factors are involved in the complex relationships between bone loss and PH. Since bone loss was mainly reported in patients with fasting hypercalciuria, a primary alteration in bone metabolism was proposed as a cause of both hypercalciuria and bone demineralization. This hypothesis was strengthened by the observation that some bone resorbing-cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α are high in hypercalciuric patients. The effect of an excessive response to the acid load induced by dietary protein intake seems an additional factor explaining a primitive alteration of bone. The intestine plays a major role in the clinical course of bone disease in PH. Patients with absorptive hypercalciuria less frequently show bone disease and a reduction in dietary calcium greatly increases the probability of bone loss in PH subjects. It has recently been reported that greater bone loss is associated with a larger increase in intestinal calcium absorption in PH patients. Considering the absence of PTH alterations, it was proposed that this is not a compensatory phenomenon, but probably the marker of disturbed cell calcium transport, involving both intestinal and bone tissues. While renal hypercalciuria is rather uncommon, the kidney still seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of bone loss of PH patients, possibly via the effect of mild to moderate urinary phosphate loss with secondary hypophosphatemia. In conclusion, bone loss is very common in PH

  2. Phylogeography and origin of Chinese domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y P; Huo, J H; Xie, J F; Liu, L X; Wei, Q P; Xie, M G; Kang, Z F; Ji, H Y; Ma, Y H

    2014-04-01

    The loss of local chicken breeds as result of replacement with cosmopolitan breeds indicates the need for conservation measures to protect the future of local genetic stocks. The aim of this study is to describe the patterns of polymorphism of the hypervariable control region of mitochondrial DNA (HVR1) in domestic chicken in China's Jiangxi province to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure and phylo-dynamics. To this end, we sequenced the mtDNA HVR1 in 231 chickens including 22 individuals which belonged to previously published sequences. A neighbor-joining tree revealed that these samples clustered into five lineages (Lineages A, B, C, E and G). The highest haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were both found in Anyi tile-liked gray breed. We estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the local chicken existed approximately 16 million years ago. The mismatch distribution analysis showed two major peaks at positions 4 and 9, while the neutrality test (Tajima's D = -2.19, p < 0.05) and Fu's F-statistics (-8.59, p < 0.05) revealed a significant departure from the neutrality assumption. These results support the idea that domestication of chickens facilitated population increases. Results of a global AMOVA indicated that there was no obvious geographic structure among the local chicken breeds analyzed in this study. The data obtained in this study will assist future conservation management of local breeds and also reveals intriguing implications for the history of human population movements and commerce. PMID:23617370

  3. Phylogeography and origin of Chinese domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y P; Huo, J H; Xie, J F; Liu, L X; Wei, Q P; Xie, M G; Kang, Z F; Ji, H Y; Ma, Y H

    2014-04-01

    The loss of local chicken breeds as result of replacement with cosmopolitan breeds indicates the need for conservation measures to protect the future of local genetic stocks. The aim of this study is to describe the patterns of polymorphism of the hypervariable control region of mitochondrial DNA (HVR1) in domestic chicken in China's Jiangxi province to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure and phylo-dynamics. To this end, we sequenced the mtDNA HVR1 in 231 chickens including 22 individuals which belonged to previously published sequences. A neighbor-joining tree revealed that these samples clustered into five lineages (Lineages A, B, C, E and G). The highest haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were both found in Anyi tile-liked gray breed. We estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the local chicken existed approximately 16 million years ago. The mismatch distribution analysis showed two major peaks at positions 4 and 9, while the neutrality test (Tajima's D = -2.19, p < 0.05) and Fu's F-statistics (-8.59, p < 0.05) revealed a significant departure from the neutrality assumption. These results support the idea that domestication of chickens facilitated population increases. Results of a global AMOVA indicated that there was no obvious geographic structure among the local chicken breeds analyzed in this study. The data obtained in this study will assist future conservation management of local breeds and also reveals intriguing implications for the history of human population movements and commerce.

  4. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  5. Inhibition of Autoimmune Chagas-Like Heart Disease by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Guimaro, Maria C.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Rose, Ester; Sousa, Alessandro O.; de Cássia Rosa, Ana; Hecht, Mariana M.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Andrade, Rafael R.; Vital, Tamires; Plachy, Jiří; Nitz, Nadjar; Hejnar, Jiří; Gomes, Clever C.; L. Teixeira, Antonio R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi manifests in mammals as Chagas heart disease. The treatment available for chagasic cardiomyopathy is unsatisfactory. Methods/Principal Findings To study the disease pathology and its inhibition, we employed a syngeneic chicken model refractory to T. cruzi in which chickens hatched from T. cruzi inoculated eggs retained parasite kDNA (1.4 kb) minicircles. Southern blotting with EcoRI genomic DNA digests revealed main 18 and 20 kb bands by hybridization with a radiolabeled minicircle sequence. Breeding these chickens generated kDNA-mutated F1, F2, and F3 progeny. A targeted-primer TAIL-PCR (tpTAIL-PCR) technique was employed to detect the kDNA integrations. Histocompatible reporter heart grafts were used to detect ongoing inflammatory cardiomyopathy in kDNA-mutated chickens. Fluorochromes were used to label bone marrow CD3+, CD28+, and CD45+ precursors of the thymus-dependent CD8α+ and CD8β+ effector cells that expressed TCRγδ, vβ1 and vβ2 receptors, which infiltrated the adult hearts and the reporter heart grafts. Conclusions/Significance Genome modifications in kDNA-mutated chickens can be associated with disruption of immune tolerance to compatible heart grafts and with rejection of the adult host's heart and reporter graft, as well as tissue destruction by effector lymphocytes. Autoimmune heart rejection was largely observed in chickens with kDNA mutations in retrotransposons and in coding genes with roles in cell structure, metabolism, growth, and differentiation. Moreover, killing the sick kDNA-mutated bone marrow cells with cytostatic and anti-folate drugs and transplanting healthy marrow cells inhibited heart rejection. We report here for the first time that healthy bone marrow cells inhibited heart pathology in kDNA+ chickens and thus prevented the genetically driven clinical manifestations of the disease. PMID:25521296

  6. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of bone structure using reconstructed in-vitro μCT images: A pilot study for bone microarchitecture analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Shari, Mohd Aliff Bin Mohd

    2014-03-24

    Micro Computed Tomography (μCT) has been largely used to perform micrometer scale imaging of specimens, bone biopsies and small animals for the study of porous or cavity-containing objects. One of its favored applications is for assessing structural properties of bone. In this research, we perform a pilot study to visualize and characterize bone structure of a chicken bone thigh, as well as to delineate its cortical and trabecular bone regions. We utilize an In-Vitro μCT scanner Skyscan 1173 to acquire a three dimensional image data of a chicken bone thigh. The thigh was scanned using X-ray voltage of 45 kV and current of 150 μA. The reconstructed images have spatial resolution of 142.50 μm/pixel. Using image processing and analysis e.i segmentation by thresholding the gray values (which represent the pseudo density) and binarizing the images, we were able to visualize each part of the bone, i.e., the cortical and trabecular regions. Total volume of the bone is 4663.63 mm{sup 3}, and the surface area of the bone is 7913.42 mm{sup 2}. The volume of the cortical is approximately 1988.62 mm{sup 3} which is nearly 42.64% of the total bone volume. This pilot study has confirmed that the μCT is capable of quantifying 3D bone structural properties and defining its regions separately. For further development, these results can be improved for understanding the pathophysiology of bone abnormality, testing the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention, or estimating bone biomechanical properties.

  7. [Bone transplant].

    PubMed

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  8. [Bone transplant].

    PubMed

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  9. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the ethmoid bone

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Noor; Cresswell, Manuela; Sharma, Rishi; Maheshwar, Arcot

    2014-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman presented with headache and diplopia, and a mass in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses was found on CT scan. The patient underwent examination under anaesthesia showing a mass arising from the ethmoid, apparently from the nasal septum. Biopsies taken showed an aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient opted against surgery and has been managed conservatively. A second CT scan 4 years later showed significant increase in size. PMID:24706701

  10. The effect of increased gravitational stress on bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, R. S.; Chacko, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    A group of 34 adult male chickens were chronically accelerated over an 18-week period; for the last 4 weeks the surviving animals were subjected to a 3-g field. Males of a similar weight and age were used as static controls. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an altered gravitational state on the physical properties of the tibia bone tested for torsional fracture. Of the 34 initial animals, 15 survived for the entire period and were subjected to analysis. The results suggest that the altered morphology produced by increased gravitational fields does not materially affect bone strength, at least in torsion. Decreased bone diameters were accompanied by increased cortical thickness without change in the bone resistance to torsion. The findings of increased cortical thickness with decreased bone diameter suggest reversal of the usual cellular dynamics of adult bone. Data on bone ash and density failed to reveal any substantial changes in bone mineral or organic content. Histological examination of the cortical bone did not disclose any evidence of pathology.

  11. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  12. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  13. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  14. Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens.

    PubMed

    Wragg, D; Mwacharo, J M; Alcalde, J A; Hocking, P M; Hanotte, O

    2012-07-01

    Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional breeds, Kenyan, Ethiopian and Chilean village chickens. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveals useful LD (r(2) ≥ 0.3) in both traditional and village chickens at pairwise marker distances of ~10 Kb; while haplotype block analysis indicates a median block size of 11-12 Kb. Association mapping yielded refined mapping intervals for duplex comb (Gga 2:38.55-38.89 Mb) and rose comb (Gga 7:18.41-22.09 Mb) phenotypes in traditional breeds. Combined mapping information from traditional breeds and Chilean village chicken allows the oocyan phenotype to be fine mapped to two small regions (Gga 1:67.25-67.28 Mb, Gga 1:67.28-67.32 Mb) totalling ~75 Kb. Mapping the unmapped earlobe pigmentation phenotype supports previous findings that the trait is sex-linked and polygenic. A critical assessment of the number of SNPs required to map simple traits indicate that between 90 and 110K SNPs are required for full genome-wide analysis of haplotype block structure/ancestry, and for association mapping in both traditional and village chickens. Our results demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of phenotypic diversity and genetic structure of traditional chicken breeds for fine-scale mapping of Mendelian traits in the species, with village chicken populations providing further opportunities to enhance mapping resolutions.

  15. Insulin immuno-neutralization in fed chickens: effects on liver and muscle transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean; Milenkovic, Dragan; Godet, Estelle; Cabau, Cedric; Collin, Anne; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Rideau, Nicole; Tesseraud, Sophie; Derouet, Michel; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Gespach, Christian; Porter, Tom E; Duclos, Michel J; Dupont, Joëlle; Cogburn, Larry A

    2012-03-01

    Chickens mimic an insulin-resistance state by exhibiting several peculiarities with regard to plasma glucose level and its control by insulin. To gain insight into the role of insulin in the control of chicken transcriptome, liver and leg muscle transcriptomes were compared in fed controls and "diabetic" chickens, at 5 h after insulin immuno-neutralization, using 20.7K-chicken oligo-microarrays. At a level of false discovery rate <0.01, 1,573 and 1,225 signals were significantly modified by insulin privation in liver and muscle, respectively. Microarray data agreed reasonably well with qRT-PCR and some protein level measurements. Differentially expressed mRNAs with human ID were classified using Biorag analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Multiple metabolic pathways, structural proteins, transporters and proteins of intracellular trafficking, major signaling pathways, and elements of the transcriptional control machinery were largely represented in both tissues. At least 42 mRNAs have already been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, energy expenditure, or identified as sensors of metabolism in mice or humans. The contribution of the pathways presently identified to chicken physiology (particularly those not yet related to insulin) needs to be evaluated in future studies. Other challenges include the characterization of "unknown" mRNAs and the identification of the steps or networks, which disturbed tissue transcriptome so extensively, quickly after the turning off of the insulin signal. In conclusion, pleiotropic effects of insulin in chickens are further evidenced; major pathways controlled by insulin in mammals have been conserved despite the presence of unique features of insulin signaling in chicken muscle.

  16. Duck TRIM27-L enhances MAVS signaling and is absent in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Alysson H; Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Campbell, Lee K; Aldridge, Jerry R; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Wild waterfowl, including mallard ducks, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza A virus and they are resistant to strains that would cause fatal infection in chickens. Here we investigate potential involvement of TRIM proteins in the differential response of ducks and chickens to influenza. We examine a cluster of TRIM genes located on a single scaffold in the duck genome, which is a conserved synteny group with a TRIM cluster located in the extended MHC region in chickens and turkeys. We note a TRIM27-like gene is present in ducks, and absent in chickens and turkeys. Orthologous genes are predicted in many birds and reptiles, suggesting the gene has been lost in chickens and turkeys. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show that TRIM27-L, and the related TRIM27.1, are upregulated 5- and 9-fold at 1 day post-infection with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004. To assess whether TRIM27.1 or TRIM27-L are involved in modulation of antiviral gene expression, we overexpressed them in DF1 chicken cells, and neither show any direct effect on innate immune gene expression. However, when co-transfected with duck RIG-I-N (d2CARD) to constitutively activate the MAVS pathway, TRIM27.1 weakly decreases, while TRIM27-L strongly activates innate immune signaling leading to increased transcription of antiviral genes MX1 and IFN-β. Furthermore, when both are co-expressed, the activation of the MAVS signaling pathway by TRIM27-L over-rides the inhibition by TRIM27.1. Thus, ducks have an activating TRIM27-L to augment MAVS signaling following RIG-I detection, while chickens lack both TRIM27-L and RIG-I itself.

  17. Duck TRIM27-L enhances MAVS signalling and is absent in chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Alysson H.; Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Campbell, Lee K.; Aldridge, Jerry R.; Webster, Robert G.; Magor, Katharine E.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl, including mallard ducks, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza A virus and they are resistant to strains that would cause fatal infection in chickens. Here we investigate potential involvement of TRIM proteins in the differential response of ducks and chickens to influenza. We examine a cluster of TRIM genes located on a single scaffold in the duck genome, which is a conserved synteny group with a TRIM cluster located in the extended MHC region in chickens and turkeys. We note a TRIM27-like gene is present in ducks, and absent in chickens and turkeys. Orthologous genes are predicted in many birds and reptiles, suggesting the gene has been lost in chickens and turkeys. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show that TRIM27-L, and the related TRIM27.1, are upregulated 5- and 9-fold at 1 day post-infection with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004. To assess whether TRIM27.1 or TRIM27-L are involved in modulation of antiviral gene expression, we overexpressed them in DF1 chicken cells, and neither show any direct effect on innate immune gene expression. However, when co-transfected with duck RIG-I-N (d2CARD) to constitutively activate the MAVS pathway, TRIM27.1 weakly decreases, while TRIM27-L strongly activates innate immune signalling leading to increased transcription of antiviral genes MX1 and IFN-β. Furthermore, when both are co-expressed, the activation of the MAVS signalling pathway by TRIM27-L over-rides the inhibition by TRIM27.1. Thus ducks have an activating TRIM27-L to augment MAVS signalling following RIG-I detection, while chickens lack both TRIM27-L and RIG-I itself. PMID:26254985

  18. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a person's ...

  19. Genetics of Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... study linked 32 novel genetic regions to bone mineral density. The findings may help researchers understand why ... or treating osteoporosis. Bones are made of a mineral and protein scaffold filled with bone cells. Bone ...

  20. Bone biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  1. Genetic parameters and genome-wide association study of hyperpigmentation of the visceral peritoneum in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperpigmentation of the visceral peritoneum (HVP) has recently garnered much attention in the poultry industry because of the possible risk to the health of affected animals and the damage it causes to the appearance of commercial chicken carcasses. However, the heritable characters of HVP remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic parameters of HVP by genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. Results HVP was found to be influenced by genetic factors, with a heritability score of 0.33. HVP had positive genetic correlations with growth and carcass traits, such as leg muscle weight (rg = 0.34), but had negative genetic correlations with immune traits, such as the antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (rg = −0.42). The GWAS for HVP using 39,833 single nucleotide polymorphisms indicated the genetic factors associated with HVP displayed an additive effect rather than a dominance effect. In addition, we determined that three genomic regions, involving the 50.5–54.0 Mb region of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 (GGA1), the 58.5–60.5 Mb region of GGA1, and the 10.5–12.0 Mb region of GGA20, were strongly associated (P < 6.28 × 10-7) with HVP in chickens. Variants in these regions explained >50% of additive genetic variance for HVP. This study also confirmed that expression of BMP7, which codes for a bone morphogenetic protein and is located in one of the candidate regions, was significantly higher in the visceral peritoneum of Huiyang Beard chickens with HVP than in that of chickens without pigmentation (P < 0.05). Conclusions HVP is a quantitative trait with moderate heritability. Genomic variants resulting in HVP were identified on GGA1 and GGA20, and expression of the BMP7 gene appears to be upregulated in HVP-affected chickens. Findings from this study should be used as a basis for further functional validation of candidate genes involved in HVP. PMID:23679099

  2. Joint bone radiobiology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Tomich, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Joint Bone Radiobiology Workshop was held on July 12--13, 1991 in Toronto, Canada. This document contains the papers presented at the meeting. The five sections were: Dose-effects, Endogenous Cofactors, Tumorigenesis, New Methods and Medical Implications. The papers covered risk assessment, tissue distribution of radionuclides, lifetime studies, biological half-lifes, the influence of age at time of exposure, tumor induction by different radionuclides, microscopic localization of radionuclides, and nuclear medicine issues including tissue distribution in the skeleton and bone marrow transplantation. (MHB)

  3. Bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products under aerobic conditions at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rongrong; Yu, Xiaoqiao; Wang, Renhuan; Luo, Xin; Mao, Yanwei; Zhu, Lixian; Zhang, Yimin

    2012-06-01

    This study analyzed the bacterial diversity and spoilage-related microbiota associated with freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically at 4°C, using "bone and chicken string," a product popular in the People's Republic of China, as the study subject. Samples collected from three different factories were tray packaged with cling film and stored at 4°C. Bacterial diversity and dominant bacteria were analyzed using PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Combined with selective cultivation of the dominant bacteria and correlation analysis, the dominant spoilage microbiota was determined. The results showed that bacterial diversity varied with different manufacturers. Such bacteria as Acinetobacter sp., Carnobacterium sp., Rahnella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix sp., and Weissella sp. were detected in freshly prepared chicken products during storage. And Carnobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Brochothrix sp. bacteria were the common dominant spoilage bacteria groups in most freshly prepared chicken products from different factories. Carnobacterium was, for the first time, shown to be an important contributor to the spoilage-related microflora of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration. Our work shows the bacterial diversity and dominant spoilage microbiota of freshly prepared chicken products stored aerobically under refrigeration.

  4. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future. PMID:26323514

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future. PMID:26323514

  6. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  7. Radiology of bone diseases. 5th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, G.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of bone. This book presents alterations in overall characteristics such as density and bone texture. It describes Salterations in specific anatomic regions of bone, as well ad discuss solitary bone lesions. The style in which the diseases are grouped according to specific regions and morphologic alterations rather than by individual pathologic condition is the most powerful aspect of this format.

  8. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubin, Gerard; Goldman, Debra S.; Luce, Judith; Neiman, Paul E.; Cooper, Geoffrey M.

    1983-03-01

    A transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA has been isolated by molecular cloning. It is homologous to a conserved family of sequences present in normal chicken and human DNAs but is not related to transforming genes of acutely transforming retroviruses. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned transforming gene suggests that it encodes a protein that is partially homologous to the amino terminus of transferrin and related proteins although only about one tenth the size of transferrin.

  9. BONE BANKS

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista; Vieira, Inácio Facó Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Bone banks are necessary for providing biological material for a series of orthopedic procedures. The growing need for musculoskeletal tissues for transplantation has been due to the development of new surgical techniques, and this has led to a situation in which a variety of hospital services have been willing to have their own source of tissue for transplantation. To increase the safety of transplanted tissues, standards for bone bank operation have been imposed by the government, which has limited the number of authorized institutions. The good performance in a bone bank depends on strict control over all stages, including: formation of well-trained harvesting teams; donor selection; conducting various tests on the tissues obtained; and strict control over the processing techniques used. Combination of these factors enables greater scope of use and numbers of recipient patients, while the incidence of tissue contamination becomes statistically insignificant, and there is traceability between donors and recipients. This paper describes technical considerations relating to how a bone bank functions, the use of grafts and orthopedic applications, the ethical issues and the main obstacles encountered. PMID:27026958

  10. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Tina S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-03-15

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. galli infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases increased mortality. More importantly, the parasitised chickens are more susceptible to secondary infections and their ability to develop vaccine-induced protective immunity against other diseases may be compromised. Detailed information about the immune response to the natural infection may be exploited to enable future vaccine development. In the present study, expression of immune genes in the chicken spleen during an experimental infection with A. galli was investigated using the Fluidigm(®) BioMark™ microfluidic qPCR platform which combines automatic high-throughput with attractive low sample and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens. Increased expression of MBL, CRP, IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12β and IL-18 followed at week 6 p.i. and at both week 6 and 9 p.i. expression of DEFβ1 was highly increased in infected chickens. In summary, apart from also earlier reported increased expression of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-13 we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal lumen. Increased expression of DEFβ1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the

  11. Bone defect rehabilitation using lyophilized bone preshaped on a stereolithographic model

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; Mukai, Eduardo; Mukai, Sueli; Tortamano, Pedro; Sesma, Newton

    2016-01-01

    Bone grafting provides ideal conditions to the patient's rehabilitation with dental implants. In addition, prototyped tridimensional models allow the surgical procedure to be simulated and enable important anatomic structures to be visualized. To present a bone defect rehabilitated with xenogenic bone preshaped on a stereolithographic model and the follow-up after 7 years of treatment. The present case report describes a bone defect rehabilitated with a lyophilized bone block preshaped on a stereolithographic model. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, was referred to the dental office presenting a bone defect in the anterior maxilla. Bone regeneration intervention was performed with xenogenic grafting and barrier membrane. The follow-up of the postoperative period and after 7 years is presented. After 7 years, the tomographic exam showed the maintenance of bone at the grafted site, representing the long-term success of the treatment.

  12. Bone defect rehabilitation using lyophilized bone preshaped on a stereolithographic model.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; Mukai, Eduardo; Mukai, Sueli; Tortamano, Pedro; Sesma, Newton

    2016-01-01

    Bone grafting provides ideal conditions to the patient's rehabilitation with dental implants. In addition, prototyped tridimensional models allow the surgical procedure to be simulated and enable important anatomic structures to be visualized. To present a bone defect rehabilitated with xenogenic bone preshaped on a stereolithographic model and the follow-up after 7 years of treatment. The present case report describes a bone defect rehabilitated with a lyophilized bone block preshaped on a stereolithographic model. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, was referred to the dental office presenting a bone defect in the anterior maxilla. Bone regeneration intervention was performed with xenogenic grafting and barrier membrane. The follow-up of the postoperative period and after 7 years is presented. After 7 years, the tomographic exam showed the maintenance of bone at the grafted site, representing the long-term success of the treatment. PMID:27630509

  13. Bone defect rehabilitation using lyophilized bone preshaped on a stereolithographic model

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; Mukai, Eduardo; Mukai, Sueli; Tortamano, Pedro; Sesma, Newton

    2016-01-01

    Bone grafting provides ideal conditions to the patient's rehabilitation with dental implants. In addition, prototyped tridimensional models allow the surgical procedure to be simulated and enable important anatomic structures to be visualized. To present a bone defect rehabilitated with xenogenic bone preshaped on a stereolithographic model and the follow-up after 7 years of treatment. The present case report describes a bone defect rehabilitated with a lyophilized bone block preshaped on a stereolithographic model. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, was referred to the dental office presenting a bone defect in the anterior maxilla. Bone regeneration intervention was performed with xenogenic grafting and barrier membrane. The follow-up of the postoperative period and after 7 years is presented. After 7 years, the tomographic exam showed the maintenance of bone at the grafted site, representing the long-term success of the treatment. PMID:27630509

  14. Is miniscrew primary stability influenced by bone density?

    PubMed

    Marquezan, Mariana; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Primary stability is absence of mobility in the bone bed after mini-implant placement and depends on bone quality among other factors. Bone quality is a subjective term frequently considered as bone density. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate bone density in two bovine pelvic regions and verify the primary stability of miniscrews inserted into them. Forty bone blocks were extracted from bovine pelvic bones, 20 from iliac and 20 from pubic bone, all of them containing cortical bone about 1 mm thick. Half of the sections extracted from each bone were designated for histological evaluation of bone density (trabecular bone area - TBA) and the other half for bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation by means of central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Then, twenty self-drilling miniscrews (INP®, São Paulo, Brazil) 1.4 mm in diameter and 6 mm long were inserted into the bone blocks used for BMD evaluation. Peak implant insertion torque (IT) and pull-out strength (PS) were used for primary stability evaluation. It was found that iliac and pubic bones present different bone densities, iliac bone being less dense considering BMD and TBA values (P > 0.05). However, the miniscrew primary stability was not different when varying the bone type (P < 0.05). IT and PS were not influenced by these differences in bone density when cortical thickness was about 1 mm thick. PMID:22031056

  15. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  16. 1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Chicken House, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  17. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  18. The chicken alimentary tract and factors that influence feed passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken alimentary track differs in several ways from most other domestic food production animals. Chickens are considered monogastric omnivores although their stomach consists of two adjacent segments; the chemical proventriculus followed by the mechanical ventriculus (gizzard). The names used ...

  19. Accelerating sample preparation through enzyme-assisted microfiltration of Salmonella in chicken extract.

    PubMed

    Vibbert, Hunter B; Ku, Seockmo; Li, Xuan; Liu, Xingya; Ximenes, Eduardo; Kreke, Thomas; Ladisch, Michael R; Deering, Amanda J; Gehring, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Microfiltration of chicken extracts has the potential to significantly decrease the time required to detect Salmonella, as long as the extract can be efficiently filtered and the pathogenic microorganisms kept in a viable state during this process. We present conditions that enable microfiltration by adding endopeptidase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to chicken extracts or chicken rinse, prior to microfiltration with fluid flow on both retentate and permeate sides of 0.2 μm cutoff polysulfone and polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes. After treatment with this protease, the distribution of micron, submicron, and nanometer particles in chicken extracts changes so that the size of the remaining particles corresponds to 0.4-1 μm. Together with alteration of dissolved proteins, this change helps to explain how membrane fouling might be minimized because the potential foulants are significantly smaller or larger than the membrane pore size. At the same time, we found that the presence of protein protects Salmonella from protease action, thus maintaining cell viability. Concentration and recovery of 1-10 CFU Salmonella/mL from 400 mL chicken rinse is possible in less than 4 h, with the microfiltration step requiring less than 25 min at fluxes of 0.028-0.32 mL/cm(2) min. The entire procedure-from sample processing to detection by polymerase chain reaction-is completed in 8 h.

  20. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Martins, J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P

    2011-12-15

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N. caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the present study we studied seroprevalence of N. caninum in free range chickens from different countries in America as an indicator of soil contamination due to N. caninum oocysts. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in sera of 524 (39.5%) of 1324 chickens using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, titer 1:25 or higher). Seropositive chickens from different countries were: 18.5% of 97 from Mexico, 7.2% of 97 from USA, 39.5% of 144 from Costa Rica, 71.5% of 102 from Grenada, 44% of 50 from Guatemala, 83.6% of 98 from Nicaragua, 58.1% of 55 from Argentina, 34.3% of 358 from Brazil, 62.3% of 85 from Chile, 11.2% of 62 from Colombia, 38.7% of 80 from Guyana, 18% of 50 from Peru and 21.7% of 46 from Venezuela. The results indicate widespread exposure of chickens to N. caninum.

  1. Expression profile of hypothalamic neuropeptides in chicken lines selected for high or low residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sintubin, P; Greene, E; Collin, A; Bordas, A; Zerjal, T; Tesseraud, S; Buyse, J; Dridi, S

    2014-08-01

    The R(+) and R(-) chicken lines have been divergently selected for high (R(+)) or low (R(-)) residual feed intake. For the same body weight and egg production, the R(+) chickens consume 40% more food than their counterparts R(-) lines. In the present study we sought to determine the hypothalamic expression profile of feeding-related neuropeptides in these lines maintained under fed or food-deprived conditions. In the fed condition, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was 17-fold lower (P<0.05) and the ghrelin receptor was 7-fold higher (P<0.05) in R(+) compared to R(-) chicken lines. The hypothalamic expression of the other studied genes remained unchanged between the two lines. In the fasted state, orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide were more responsive, with higher significant levels in the R(+) compared to R(-) chickens, while no significant differences were seen for the anorexigenic neuropeptides pro-opiomelanocortin and corticotropin releasing hormone. Interestingly, C-reactive protein, adiponectin receptor 1 and ghrelin receptor gene expression were significantly higher (12-, 2- and 3-folds, respectively), however ghrelin and melanocortin 5 receptor mRNA levels were lower (4- and 2-folds, P=0.05 and P=0.03, respectively) in R(+) compared to R(-) animals. We identified several key feeding-related genes that are differently expressed in the hypothalamus of R(+) and R(-) chickens and that might explain the difference in feed intake observed between the two lines.

  2. Molecular tracking of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat chain: from slaughterhouse reception to end cuts.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Bersot, Luciano Dos Santos; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Due to the importance of Salmonella spp. in poultry products, this study aimed to track its main contamination routes since slaughtering reception to processing of chicken end cuts. Samples from different steps of slaughtering and processing (n = 277) were collected from two chicken slaughterhouses (Sl1 and Sl2) located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and subjected to Salmonella spp. detection. The obtained isolates were subjected to serological identification and tested by PCR for specific Salmonella spp. genes (ompC and sifB). Also, Salmonella spp. isolates were subjected to XbaI macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty-eight samples were positive for Salmonella spp. and 172 isolates were obtained. Sl1 and Sl2 presented similar frequencies of Salmonella spp. positive samples during reception, slaughtering and processing (p > 0.05), except for higher frequencies in Sl1 for chicken carcasses after de-feathering and evisceration (p < 0.05). PFGE allowed the identification of cross contamination and persistence of Salmonella spp. strains in Sl1. The results highlighted the relevance of the initial steps of chicken slaughtering for Salmonella spp. contamination, and the pre-chilling of carcasses as an important controlling tool. In addition, the presence of Salmonella spp. in chicken end cuts samples represents a public health concern. PMID:27162388

  3. Systematic identification and characterization of chicken (Gallus gallus) ncRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jie; Huang, Shoujun; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Jun; Yang, Ning; Song, Dandan; Wu, Rimao; Deng, Wei; Skogerbø, Geir; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Chen, Runsheng; Zhu, Dahai

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles during development and evolution. Chicken, the first genome-sequenced non-mammalian amniote, possesses unique features for developmental and evolutionary studies. However, apart from microRNAs, information on chicken ncRNAs has mainly been obtained from computational predictions without experimental validation. In the present study, we performed a systematic identification of intermediate size ncRNAs (50–500 nt) by ncRNA library construction and identified 125 chicken ncRNAs. Importantly, through the bioinformatics and expression analysis, we found the chicken ncRNAs has several novel features: (i) comparative genomic analysis against 18 sequenced vertebrate genomes revealed that the majority of the newly identified ncRNA candidates is not conserved and most are potentially bird/chicken specific, suggesting that ncRNAs play roles in lineage/species specification during evolution. (ii) The expression pattern analysis of intronic snoRNAs and their host genes suggested the coordinated expression between snoRNAs and their host genes. (iii) Several spatio-temporal specific expression patterns suggest involvement of ncRNAs in tissue development. Together, these findings provide new clues for future functional study of ncRNAs during development and evolution. PMID:19720738

  4. Light microscopy of microfractures in burned bone.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christopher W; Uhlig, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Bone color changes depending upon the taphonomic agents that affect it. Burning turns bone black, brown, blue, gray, and white as the bone's temperature increases and collagen is lost. It also creates diagnostic fractures that are visible at the gross level. Usually heat-altered bone is readily identified as such, but there are times when dark organic stains can mimic bone that is charred black. This paper provides a means to observe and quantify microfractures in burned bone for those instances when macroscopic observations fail to clarify if a bone fragment is actually burned; specifically, it distinguishes charred from organically stained bone. It is based upon a study of 50 calcined (burned to a bright white), charred, and organically stained bone fragments (n = 150) that were viewed with a standard stereomicroscope at ×30. Microfractures are readily discerned on charred and calcined bones, being more common on the latter; they are not present on organically stained bone. Charred bones may have their cortical surfaces obscured by a microlayer of adhering soft tissues as well as by microflaking of the external circumferential lamella. Overall, the methods described here allow the detection of microfractures on bone using a very simple approach and readily available technology.

  5. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis Diseases in Backyard Chickens with Unusual Pox Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Fusae; Yamamoto, Yu; Sato, Yasuo; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Goto, Makiko; Murakami, Ryukoh

    2016-09-01

    Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca. Interestingly, hyperplastic interfollicular epithelium with rare virus inclusions was observed in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Some bursal follicles were replaced by proliferating epithelial cells. These proliferating cells immunohistochemically stained positive for cytokeratin. PCR and subsequent genetic sequencing detected the C. albicans gene in the crop, and fowlpox virus genes in the BF. These results indicate that this outbreak was a rare presentation of fowlpox in spontaneously infected chickens, with unusual pox lesions in the BF. PMID:27610735

  6. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine the level of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase. A large amount of this enzyme is present ... abnormal bone tissue. Because high levels of alkaline phosphatase are normal in growing children and adolescents, this ...

  7. [Bone grafts in orthopedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Zárate-Kalfópulos, Barón; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery the demand for the use of bone grafts increases daily because of the increasing quantity and complexity of surgical procedures. At present, the gold standard is the autologous bone graft but the failure rate, morbidity of the donor site and limited availability have stimulated a proliferation for finding materials that work as bone graft substitutes. In order to have good success, we must know the different properties of these choices and the environment where the graft is going to be used. As bone graft substitutes and growth factors become clinical realities, a new gold standard will be defined. Tissue engineering and gene therapy techniques have the objective to create an optimum bone graft substitute with a combination of substances with properties of osteconduction, osteogenesis and osteoinduction. PMID:16875525

  8. [Bone grafts in orthopedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Zárate-Kalfópulos, Barón; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery the demand for the use of bone grafts increases daily because of the increasing quantity and complexity of surgical procedures. At present, the gold standard is the autologous bone graft but the failure rate, morbidity of the donor site and limited availability have stimulated a proliferation for finding materials that work as bone graft substitutes. In order to have good success, we must know the different properties of these choices and the environment where the graft is going to be used. As bone graft substitutes and growth factors become clinical realities, a new gold standard will be defined. Tissue engineering and gene therapy techniques have the objective to create an optimum bone graft substitute with a combination of substances with properties of osteconduction, osteogenesis and osteoinduction.

  9. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations.

  10. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  11. Salmonella prevalence in free-range and certified organic chickens.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J S; Cosby, D E

    2005-11-01

    Many consumers assume that broiler chickens grownunder traditional commercial conditions will have more Salmonella than free-range or organic chickens, which usually are less crowded, have access to outside spaces during grow out, and are fed special diets. Despite these perceptions, there is a lack of published information about the microbiological status of free-range and organic chickens. A total of 135 processed free-range chickens from four different commercial free-range chicken producers were sampled in 14 different lots for the presence of Salmonella. Overall, 9 (64%) of 14 lots and 42 (31%) of 135 of the carcasses were positive for Salmonella. No Salmonella were detected in 5 of the 14 lots, and in one lot 100% of the chickens were positive for Salmonella. An additional 53 all-natural (no meat or poultry meal or antibiotics in the feed) processed chickens from eight lots were tested; 25% ofthe individual chickens from 37% of these lots tested positive for Salmonella. Three lots of chickens from a single organicfree-range producer were tested, and all three of the lots and 60% of the individual chickens were positive for Salmonella.The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service reported that commercial chickens processed from 2000 to 2003 had a Salmonella prevalence rate of 9.1 to 12.8%. Consumers should not assume that free-range or organicconditions will have anything to do with the Salmonella status of the chicken.

  12. Salmonella prevalence in free-range and certified organic chickens.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J S; Cosby, D E

    2005-11-01

    Many consumers assume that broiler chickens grownunder traditional commercial conditions will have more Salmonella than free-range or organic chickens, which usually are less crowded, have access to outside spaces during grow out, and are fed special diets. Despite these perceptions, there is a lack of published information about the microbiological status of free-range and organic chickens. A total of 135 processed free-range chickens from four different commercial free-range chicken producers were sampled in 14 different lots for the presence of Salmonella. Overall, 9 (64%) of 14 lots and 42 (31%) of 135 of the carcasses were positive for Salmonella. No Salmonella were detected in 5 of the 14 lots, and in one lot 100% of the chickens were positive for Salmonella. An additional 53 all-natural (no meat or poultry meal or antibiotics in the feed) processed chickens from eight lots were tested; 25% ofthe individual chickens from 37% of these lots tested positive for Salmonella. Three lots of chickens from a single organicfree-range producer were tested, and all three of the lots and 60% of the individual chickens were positive for Salmonella.The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service reported that commercial chickens processed from 2000 to 2003 had a Salmonella prevalence rate of 9.1 to 12.8%. Consumers should not assume that free-range or organicconditions will have anything to do with the Salmonella status of the chicken. PMID:16300088

  13. [The influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone tissue regeneration upon implantation of demineralized bone matrix].

    PubMed

    Krugliakov, P V; Sokolova, I B; Zin'kova, N N; Viĭde, S V; Cherednichenko, N N; Kisliakova, T V; Polyntsev, D G

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are resident pluripotent cells of bone marrow stroma. MSC are able to differentiate into chondroblasts, adipocytes, neurons, glia, cardiomyocytes, or osteoblasts. The problem of MSC usage in cell therapy of bone defects is widely discussed at present. The experiments were carried out using rats of inbred line Wistar-Kyoto. MSC were isolated from bone marrow and cultivated in vitro. Demineralized bone matrices (DBM) were obtained from parietal bones of rats and hens. Part of DBM was loaded with MSC. Bone defects were made in cranium parietal regions. DBM with or without MSC or metal plates were transplanted in these regions. It was shown that the application of MSC increased angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the damaged bone. The implantation of rat's DBM with MSC led to the formation of a full value bone. MSC suppressed inflammation, when transplantation of hen's DBM was carried out. The application of MSC always improved bone tissue regeneration.

  14. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  15. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lengmei; Xue, Xue; Li, Jianqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Yu, Yingchao; Du, Aifang

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II) were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang. PMID:25075975

  16. Cryptosporidiosis in broiler chickens in Zhejiang Province, China: molecular characterization of oocysts detected in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lengmei; Xue, Xue; Li, Jianqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Yu, Yingchao; Du, Aifang

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasites in poultry, and this pathogen can infect more than 30 avian species. The present study investigated the infection rate of Cryptosporidium among broiler chicken flocks. A total of 385 fecal samples from broiler chickens in 7 regions of Zhejiang Province collected from November 2010 to January 2012 were examined by microscopy. Thirty-eight (10%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection, and 3 genotypes (Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and avian genotype II) were identified by PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree of the isolates was analyzed. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is widespread in poultry in Zhejiang Province, and is a potential threat to public health as well as the economy. This is the first report about the infection rate and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in broiler chickens in Zhejiang.

  17. Identification of a chicken anemia virus variant-related gyrovirus in stray cats in china, 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinheng; Liu, Yuanjia; Ji, Jun; Chen, Feng; Sun, Baoli; Xue, Chunyi; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2014-01-01

    The chicken anemia virus (CAV), is a known member of the genus Gyrovirus and was first isolated from chickens in Japan in 1979. Some reports have also demonstrated that CAV can be identified in human stool specimens. In this study, a variant of CAV was detected using PCR with CAV-based primers in fecal samples of stray cats. The genome of CAV variant was sequenced and the results suggest that it could be a recombinant viral strain from parental CAV strains JQ690762 and AF311900. Recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism that contributes to genetic diversification. These findings indicate that CAV variant might have originated from CAV-infected chickens. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of this novel virus remains to be elucidated. This study underscores the importance of CAV surveillance and it presents the first evidence suggesting the possibility of CAV homologous recombination in cat. PMID:24689034

  18. Effects of bisphenol-A on male reproductive success in adult Kadaknath chicken.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram P; Shafeeque, Chathathayil M; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Singh, Renu; Kannan, Maharajan; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Raghunandanan, Sajith; Mohan, Jag; Azeez, Parappurath A

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) adversely affects human and animal reproductive success in many ways, but this information is scant on birds. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of BPA in adult Kadaknath chicken using two BPA dosages orally (1 or 5 mg/kg body weight) for seven weeks. In order to assess BPA toxicity, sperm functions, fertilizing ability, serum testosterone concentration and testis histopathology were measured in treated and control chickens. The semen volume was highest in birds exposed to 1mg/kg body weight BPA compared to other groups. 5 mg/kg body weight BPA reduced sperm concentration significantly more than other treatment and controls. However, overall fertility and testis histology were unaffected. These results indicate that BPA adversely affects sperm characteristics in adult kadaknath chicken without affecting fertilization potential.

  19. Fatty acid binding protein in the intestine of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Katongole, J B; March, B E

    1979-03-01

    The mucosa of the mesenteric intestine of the chicken has been found to contain a fatty acid binding protein (FABP) with a molecular weight of less than 12,400. The protein is present in the newly hatched chick before ingestion of feed and in the adult bird. When a low-fat diet is fed, the concentration of the FABP is highest in the proximal portion of the intestine and decreases posteriorly. When a high-fat diet is fed, an increase occurs in the amount of FABP in the lower section of the intestine.

  20. Microbiological quality of chicken wings damaged on the farm or in the processing plant.

    PubMed

    Malpass, M C; Williams, A P; Jones, D L; Omed, H M

    2010-06-01

    Selling of damaged chicken wings (those with bone protrusion) for human consumption is prohibited in the European Union on the grounds of possible risks to human health arising from microbial contamination. Standard food industry tests were used to assess different categories of chicken wings (undamaged, farm damaged and factory damaged; n = 264) for, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, total viable counts, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. No significant differences in bacterial numbers existed among wings belonging to the three categories. Only low numbers of bacteria were found throughout, and 97% of all results would pass the standards of a leading UK retailer. These results were strengthened by a longitudinal survey of wing breakage, which showed almost all wing puncturing occurred during the de-feathering process, limiting the likelihood of microbial contamination. Combined, these results indicate there is no increased health risk from consumption of damaged, compared to undamaged, chicken wings. The existing imposed regulations may therefore be an unnecessary burden on the poultry industry. PMID:20417402

  1. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  2. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-03-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications. PMID:22985619

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Bone 18F-NaF Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Czernin, Johannes; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Schiepers, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    There is renewed interest in 18F-NaF bone imaging with PET or PET/CT. The current brief discussion focuses on the molecular mechanisms of 18F-NaF deposition in bone and presents model-based approaches to quantifying bone perfusion and metabolism in the context of preclinical and clinical applications of bone imaging with PET. PMID:21078790

  4. AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N

    2013-01-01

    Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry.

  5. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  6. Chicken domestication: from archeology to genomics.

    PubMed

    Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Rognon, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Current knowledge on chicken domestication is reviewed on the basis of archaeological, historical and molecular data. Several domestication centres have been identified in South and South-East Asia. Gallus gallus is the major ancestor species, but Gallus sonneratii has also contributed to the genetic make-up of the domestic chicken. Genetic diversity is now distributed among traditional populations, standardized breeds and highly selected lines. Knowing the genome sequence has accelerated the identification of causal mutations determining major morphological differences between wild Gallus and domestic breeds. Comparative genome resequencing between Gallus and domestic chickens has identified 21 selective sweeps, one involving a non-synonymous mutation in the TSHR gene, which functional consequences remain to be explored. The resequencing approach could also identify candidate genes responsible of quantitative traits loci (QTL) effects in selected lines. Genomics is opening new ways to understand major switches that took place during domestication and subsequent selection.

  7. Linking chronic tryptophan deficiency with impaired bone metabolism and reduced bone accrual in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Lattuada, Norma; Greco, Antonella; Guidobono, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that serotonin may regulate bone metabolism. However, its role remains to be clarified. Serotonin seems to be either beneficial or detrimental for bone tissues depending on the pharmacological manipulation used. In this study we evaluated the impact of a reduction of serotonergic stores induced by chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion on various bone parameters in growing rats. For this purpose rats received a TRP-free diet for 60 days. Bone mass, mineral content and density were measured by DXA and by pQCT in the appendicular skeleton. Bone metabolic markers included urinary deoxypyridinoline and serum osteocalcin measurements. IGF-I levels were also evaluated. In TRP-free diet rats, we found a decrease in body weight, a delayed femoral bone growth and bone mineral content as measured by DXA. pQCT analysis showed that these effects were related to a reduction of both cortical and trabecular bone and are associated with a reduction of bone strength. These effects are due to a negative shift in the balance between bone formation and resorption with a significant decrease in bone formation as evidenced by a reduction both in osteocalcin and IGF-I levels. The present data extend our overall knowledge on the participation of serotonin in the regulation of growing bone and could be of interest in studying the impairment of bone growth in depressed subjects under particular condition of rapid bone accrual such as childhood and adolescence.

  8. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  9. Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

    1992-01-01

    The large, aggregating chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of cartilage, aggrecan, has served as a generic model of proteoglycan structure. Molecular cloning of aggrecans has further defined their amino acid sequences and domain structures. In this study, we have obtained the complete coding sequence of chicken sternal cartilage aggrecan by a combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. The composite sequence is 6117 bp in length, encoding 1951 amino acids. Comparison of chicken aggrecan protein primary structure with rat, human and bovine aggrecans has disclosed both similarities and differences. The domains which are most highly conserved at 70-80% identity are the N-terminal domains G1 and G2 and the C-terminal domain G3. The chondroitin sulphate domain of chicken aggrecan is smaller than that of rat and human aggrecans and has very distinctive repeat sequences. It has two separate sections, one comprising 12 consecutive Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 20 amino acids each, adjacent to the other which has 23 discontinuous Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 10 amino acids each; this latter region, N-terminal to the former one, appears to be unique to chicken aggrecan. The two regions contain a total of 94 potential chondroitin sulphate attachment sites. Genomic comparison shows that, although chicken exons 11-14 are identical in size to the rat and human exons, chicken exon 10 is the smallest of the three species. This is also reflected in the size of its chondroitin sulphate coding region and in the total number of Ser-Gly pairs. The putative keratan sulphate domain shows 31-45% identity with the other species and lacks the repetitive sequences seen in the others. In summary, while the linear arrangement of specific domains of chicken aggrecan is identical to that in the aggrecans of other species, and while there is considerable identity of three separate domains, chicken aggrecan demonstrates unique features, notably in its chondroitin sulphate domain and its keratan sulphate

  10. Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized. PMID:22110789

  11. [Modern poro-elastic biomechanical model of bone tissue. I. Biomechanical function of fluids in bone].

    PubMed

    Rogala, Piotr; Uklejewski, Ryszard; Stryła, Wanda

    2002-01-01

    The modern biomechanical two-phase poroelastic model of bone tissue is presented. Bone tissue is treated in this model as a porous elastically deformed solid filled with a viscous newtonian fluid. Traditional one-phase biomechanical model of bone tissue, which is characterized by the Young modulus and the Poisson's coefficient, is still valid and it can be treated as an approximate model in comparison with the more realistic two-phase model of bone tissue. The biomechanical function of fluids in bone is considered. Bone biodynamics is presented in form of the scheme which illustrates the mechano-adaptive, the mechano-electric and the electrophysiologic properties of bone tissue. Essentials of the poroelastic model of bone tissue is the mechanical load induced flow of intraosseous fluid and the associated strain generated electric potentials SGPs.

  12. Persistence of chicken anemia virus antigen and inclusions in spontaneous cases of Marek's disease visceral lymphomas in broiler chickens at slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Sabry; Ono, Hiroki; Sasaki, Jun; Ochiai, Kenji; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    The chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) infect chickens worldwide; a single or dual infection by these viruses has a great impact on poultry production. In the present study, we examined the existence of CAV antigen and its inclusions in Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas in chickens in the slaughterhouses of Iwate prefecture, Japan. Forty-nine spleens and 13 livers with different degrees of nodular lesions were histopathologically examined at our laboratory. Grossly, the tested organs showed various sizes and anatomical architectures. Based on the cellular morphology and the infiltrative nature of the neoplastic lymphocytes, MD was confirmed in 76% (37/49) of the spleens and 92% (12/13) of the livers. The lesions of MD, according to the pattern of lymphocytic accumulation in the affected organs, were divided into multifocal, coalesced and diffuse. CAV intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected within the small and the large bizarre lymphocytes of the MD lymphomas in 2 livers and 9 spleens, and the immunostaining test for CAV confirmed the persistence of CAV antigens and inclusions in the neoplastic cells. This study demonstrated the persistence of CAV infection within the neoplastic cells of naturally occurring MD lymphomas in chickens.

  13. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor pathway genes in chicken embryo fibroblasts from chickens resistant and susceptible to Marek's disease.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, Santosh; Cheng, Hans H

    2014-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway is one of the innate immune defense mechanisms against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the role of TLR in non-MHC genetic resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in the chicken is yet to be elucidated. Chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells from MD susceptible and resistant lines were infected either with Marek's disease virus (MDV) or treated with polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of dsRNA, and the expression of TLR and pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied at 8 and 36 h posttreatment by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Findings of the present study reveal that MDV infection and polyionosinic-polycytidylic acid treatment significantly elevated the mRNA expression of TLR3, IL6, and IL8 in both susceptible and resistant lines. Furthermore, basal expression levels in uninfected CEF for TLR3, TLR7, and IL8 genes were significantly higher in resistant chickens compared with those of susceptible chickens. Our results suggest that TLR3 together with pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a significant role in genetic resistance to MD.

  14. Mammalian tyrosinase-related protein-1 is recognized by autoantibodies from vitiliginous Smyth chickens. An avian model for human vitiligo.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, L. M.; Boissy, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The Smyth line (SL) chicken is an animal model for the human acquired depigmentary disorder vitiligo. Affected birds from this line express a postnatal loss of melanocytes in feather and ocular tissues. This vitiligo-like depigmentation is considered to be a disorder with two interacting components: melanocyte dysfunctions and autoimmune reactions. Previously, SL chicks were shown to express high levels of circulating autoantibodies that bind to chicken melanocyte proteins with molecular masses between 65 and 80 kd. Three mammalian melanocyte proteins known to have isoforms in this molecular mass range are tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2. Of these, only tyrosinase is reported to be expressed in chicken melanocytes. The results presented in this study indicate that, of these three candidate proteins, TRP-1 is the primary antigen recognized by the SL autoantibodies. SL autoantibodies recognize a chicken melanocyte protein that is different from that of tyrosinase or the candidate chicken TRP-2. In addition, several types of experiments incriminate TRP-1 as the primary mammalian melanocyte antigen recognized by SL autoantibodies. We further verified that chicken melanocytes expressed messages for TRP-1 by finding positive signals on Northern blots of chicken melanocyte RNA probed with mammalian TRP-1 cDNA fragments. Therefore, we conclude from these results that the SL autoantibodies primarily recognize TRP-1 in mammalian melanocytes and suggest that chicken melanocytes express a homologue of TRP-1 (the human gp75 and the murine brown/b locus protein). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7778691

  15. Evaluating growth models of Pseudomonas spp. in seasoned prepared chicken stored at different temperatures by the principal component analysis (PCA).

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Li, Yuanhui; Huang, Xianqing; Zhao, Gaiming; Tian, Wei

    2014-06-01

    The growth of Pseudomonas of pallet-packaged seasoned prepared chicken products under selected storage temperatures (5°°C, 10°°C, 15°°C, 20°°C and 25°°C) has been studied in this paper. The modified Gompertz, Baranyi and Huang models were used for data fitting. Statistical criteria such as residual sum of squares, mean square error, Akaike's information criterion, Pseudo-R(2) were used to evaluate model performance. Results showed that RSS (Residual sum of squares) index contribution rate was more than 90% of the variability, which could be explained by the first principal components analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). The index values reported in Sichuan-style chicken skewers and chicken flesh and bones were about 94.85% and 93.345% respectively, and both the rate were better than the standard (85%). Therefore, RSS can be used as the main evaluating index to analyze and compare the difference of those three models. With the smallest average values of RSS and the biggest pseudo-R2 at most temperatures, the Baranyi model was more suitable to fit the data of Pseudomonas obtained from the two prepared chicken products than Gompertz model and Huang model. PMID:24549196

  16. Diseases diagnosed in broiler chicken flocks in Victoria, Australia, 1977 to 1984.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L; Beddome, V D; Barr, D A

    1985-03-23

    During the period July 1977 to June 1984, specimens from 1402 broiler chicken flocks were submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Victoria, Australia for investigation of morbidity, mortality and, or, poor performance. A total of 19,450 post mortem examinations, as well as numerous ancillary tests, were performed. The findings on these flocks are presented and the consequences of some particular diseases noted.

  17. Effects of chicken interferon Gamma on Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFN') during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFN' wit...

  18. Accelerating sample preparation through enzyme-assisted microfiltration of Salmonella in chicken extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microfiltration of chicken extracts has the potential to significantly decrease the time required to detect Salmonella, as long as the extract can be efficiently filtered and the pathogenic microorganisms kept in a viable state during this process. We present conditions that enable microfiltration ...

  19. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken CD80

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CD80 is one of the ligands for CD28 and is an important co-stimulator molecule on antigen presenting cells necessary for T-cell activation. Although CD80 is well characterized in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine species, there is no information on its chicken counterpart. This study was car...

  20. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  1. Transcriptional Response of Chicken Macrophages to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) continues to be the predominant etiologic agent of salmonellosis, with contaminated egg products being the primary source of infection. At the present time, the molecular and immunological mechanisms involved in SE colonization of chicken hosts are not we...

  2. Metabolic and hormonal responses of growing modern meat type chickens to fasting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared the effects of fasting on circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and glucagon in male and female modern meat-type chickens (Ross 708) at three ages (19 d, 33 d and 47 d). Plasma concentrations of glucose were reduced by fasting with reductions of 24.9% (19-d-old),...

  3. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic ducks, free-range and caged chickens in southern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in human and other animals including domestic poultry throughout the world, but little is known of the prevalence of T. gondii in chickens and ducks in People’s Republic of China. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 349 domestic du...

  5. Presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens in farms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Nazir, Bushra; Mukhtar, Nadia; Hussain, Abid; Lone, Nazir Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-05-01

    One year after a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) outbreak in Pakistan, the causative strain was present in vaccinated chickens of multiple farms despite the existence of high-average NDV-specific antibody titers (>4.75 log2). The data suggest a possible role of vaccinated birds as reservoirs of vNDV.

  6. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  7. An argument for the chicken embryo as a model for the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs)

    SciTech Connect

    Henshel, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article will present the argument that the chicken embryo is especially appropriate as an animal model for studying the mechanism of the developmental toxicological effects of the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The PHAHs are a group of toxicologically related compounds including, in part, the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. The chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo is relatively sensitive to the toxicological effects of the PHAHs being approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the mature bird. The chicken embryo has been used to demonstrate general toxicological teratogeneicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Many of these effects, or analogous effects, have also been observed in mammals and fish. Thus, most animals appear to respond to the PHAHs with a similar toxicological profile, indicating that many of the biomarkers used for the PHAHs are valid across a number of species, including the chicken. Furthermore, the chicken embryo is relatively inexpensive to use for toxicity testing. In addition, all effects detected are due to direct effects on the embryo and are not complicated by maternal interactions. In short, for sensitivity, ease of use, cost and applicability of results to other animals, the chicken embryo is an excellent animal model for evaluation of the mechanism underlying the developmental toxicological effects of the PHAHs.

  8. Immunomodulatory effect of baculovirus in chickens: How it modifies the immune response against infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Chimeno Zoth, Silvina; Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Gravisaco, María José; Lucero, María Soledad; Richetta, Matías; Gómez, Evangelina; Berinstein, Analía

    2016-07-01

    Several reports have shown that baculoviruses (BVs) have strong adjuvant properties on the mammalian immune system. Recent studies of our group demonstrated the ability of BV to stimulate the innate immunity in chickens. In this investigation, we aimed to assess the potential antiviral effect of BV given both, before and after infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the first case, specific pathogen free chickens were intravenously inoculated with 5 × 10(7) pfu of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus and 3 h later were orally administered 2.5 × 10(5) egg infectious doses 50 of IBDV. In the second case, chickens received IBDV 3 h before BV inoculation. Five days later, chickens were bled and euthanized. RNA from the bursa was analyzed for cytokine production. Also, bursae were used for virus recovery, and processed for lymphocyte isolation. The results showed that the administration of BV 3 h after the inoculation with IBDV produced important changes in the effect that IBDV causes in the bursa. BV reduced the infiltration of T lymphocytes, decreased the expression pattern of IL-6 and IFN-γ and inhibited IBDV replication. The results herein presented demonstrate that this Lepidopteran virus shows antiviral activity in chickens under experimental conditions. Investigations under field conditions have to be done to probe this strategy as a valuable sanitary tool for the treatment and prevention of chicken diseases. PMID:27063861

  9. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

  10. Fusion of visible and X-ray sensing modalities for the enhancement of bone detection in poultry products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachtsevanos, George; Daley, Wayne D.; Heck, Bonnie S.; Yezzi, Anthony; Ding, Yuhua

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. demand for deboned chicken has risen greatly in the past 5 years, with the expectations that this demand will only continue at an accelerated level. The standard inspection process for bones in meat is for workers to manually feel for bones. It is clear that this time- consuming manual inspection method is insufficient to meet the increasing demand for deboned meat products. Georgia Tech Electrical Engineering faculty and Research Scientists in conjunction with a leading x-ray equipment manufacturer are working together on the development of a system to fuse information from visible images and x-ray images to enhance the accuracy of detection. Currently there are some bones that x-ray systems have difficulty detecting. These are usually relatively thin and are located near the surface of the meat. A primary example is a fanbone (so called because of its shape). We will describe and present results from work geared towards the development of an integrated system that would fuse visible and x-ray information. Significant benefits to the poultry industry are anticipated in terms of reduced processing costs, improved inspection performance and increased throughput through the use of the integrated system to be described. Additionally, generic aspects of the proposed technologies may be applicable to other food processing industries.

  11. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but were only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs. PMID:25218438

  12. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry.

  13. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry. PMID:26733732

  14. Regional bone change in intramuscular haemangioma mimicking primary bone tumour.

    PubMed

    Shikhare, Sumer; Chacko, Julio K; Chuah, Khoon L

    2015-04-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign soft-tissue tumours, commonly located in the extremities. We present a right-leg intramuscular haemangioma with florid periosteal reaction in adjacent tibia, mimicking a primary bone tumour. Plain radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging features are illustrated with the surgical and histopathological findings. Radiologists need to be familiar with reactive bone changes secondary to deep-seated intramuscular haemangiomas to avoid potential misdiagnosis.

  15. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Daichi; Oishi, Isao; Makino, Ryuichi; Kurumisawa, Nozomi; Nakaya, Ryuma; Ono, Tamao; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-04-22

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  16. Comparison of three diagnostic methods for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamidinejat, H; Nabavi, L; Mayahi, M; Ghourbanpoor, M; Pourmehdi Borojeni, M; Norollahi Fard, S; Shokrollahi, M

    2014-09-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens is an indicator of the prevalence and distribution pattern of T. gondii in the environment. For this purpose, serologic assays especially modified agglutination test (MAT) is the main approach in the literature. The main goal of this study was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of ribosomal DNA gene, ELISA, and MAT to demonstrate T. gondii infection in free range chicken. A total of 106 adult free - range chickens were killed. Blood, whole heart and brain samples were taken. Sera were examined for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and MAT as well. Selected tissues were used for PCR and bioassay in mice. The results revealed that 48.11%, 51.89%, 46.23% and 27.36% of chickens were positive in ELISA, MAT, PCR and bioassay in mice respectively. Good correlation between the results of PCR, ELISA and MAT were detected, but not with bioassay in mice. Compared with PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 92.16% and 96.36% respectively and also for MAT, the sensitivity was 81.81% and the specificity was 92.15%. The specific diagnosis of T. gondii infection in chickens is central to a better understanding of the epidemiology and dynamics of transmission among the various host population and is particularly important for planning effective optimal prevention and control programs. Our data in the present study demonstrated that PCR, ELISA and the MAT are helpful and precise methods to detect T. gondii in naturally infected free-range chickens.

  17. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Rudresh, B. H.; Murthy, H. N. N.; Jayashankar, M. R.; Nagaraj, C. S.; Kotresh, A. M.; Byregowda, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in isolation for a longer

  18. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus), GLUT12

    PubMed Central

    Coudert, Edouard; Pascal, Géraldine; Dupont, Joëlle; Simon, Jean; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Tesseraud, Sophie; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals. PMID:26431526

  19. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus), GLUT12.

    PubMed

    Coudert, Edouard; Pascal, Géraldine; Dupont, Joëlle; Simon, Jean; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Tesseraud, Sophie; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals.

  20. The detection of the meq gene in chicken infected with Marek's disease virus serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Sung-Il; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Onuma, Misao

    2002-05-01

    In the genome of strains of very virulent Marek's disease virus serotype 1(vvMDV1), such as Md5 and RB1B, the meq open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 339-amino-acid bZIP protein, is present, while a slightly longer meq ORF, termed as L-meq, in which a 180-bp sequence is inserted into the meq ORF is found in other strains of MDV1, such as CV1988/R6 and attenuated JM. When chickens were infected with vvMDV1 strains and the meq gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the meq gene was detected throughout the experimental period for 7 weeks post inoculation (pi). However, the L-meq gene was also detected at 3 to 5 weeks and 3 to 4 weeks pi. in Md5-infected and RB1B-infected chickens, respectively. In the case of chickens infected with an attenuated MDV1, the JM strain, the L-meq gene was detected at 2 to 7 weeks pi., and the meq gene was also detected at 2 to 6 weeks pi. Both L-meq and meq genes were detected in chickens infected with an attenuated nononcogenic vaccine strain of MDV1 (CVI988/R6), throughout the experimental period. Though quantitative PCR was not performed, a larger amount of the PCR products corresponding to the L-meq than the meq gene was amplified from chickens infected with JM or CVI988/R6. These results suggest that a dynamic population shift between the MDV subpopulations displaying meq and L-meq genes occurs in chickens during the course of MDV infection. Since the MDV subpopulation that displays the L-meq gene only displays it during the latent phase, the L-meq and its gene product, if any, might contribute to the maintenance of the MDV latency.

  1. Molecular characterization, expression, and functional analysis of NOD1 in Qingyuan partridge chicken.

    PubMed

    Tao, Z Y; Zhu, C H; Shi, Z H; Song, C; Xu, W J; Song, W T; Zou, J M; Qin, A J

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-1 (NOD1) is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and a key member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family. It has been reported that NLRs recognize a variety of microbial infections to induce the host innate immune response via modulation of NF-κB signaling. However, no reports on chicken NOD1 have been reported to date. In the current study, the full-length cDNA sequence of NOD1 was cloned. The complete open reading frame of NOD1 contains 2856 bp and encodes a 951 amino acid protein. Structurally, it is comprised of one caspase recruitment domain at the N-terminus, seven leucine-rich repeat regions at the C-terminus, and one NACHT domain between the N and C-termini. Phylogenetic analyses showed that chicken NOD1 clusters with duck and turkey. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression analyses of chicken NOD1 were performed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. NOD1 is widely distributed in various tissues, with the highest expression observed in testes. Finally, induced expression of chNOD1 and its associated adaptor molecule receptor-interacting protein 2, as well as the effector molecule NF-κB, was observed following S. enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. These findings highlight the important role of chicken NOD1 in response to pathogenic invasion. The present study is the first report of the cloning, expression, and functional analysis of chicken NOD1 and provides the foundation for future research on the structure and function of chicken NOD1. PMID:25867417

  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health. PMID:27800493

  3. Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, J; Hong, E C; Jang, A; Kang, H K; Oh, J S; Kim, B W; Park, B S

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested the utilization of maggots as a feed supplement forenhanced broiler performance. Maggots, which are a major dietary source of protein, appear during the biodegradation of chicken droppings using house flies. The objective ofthe present study was to investigate the effect of maggot supplementation on the meat quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 600 one-day-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross) were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 40 replicates of 3 birds. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% maggots. Overall, broiler chicken performance was influenced by the optimal amino acid profile; high protein (63.99%) and essential amino acid content (29.46%), or high protein digestibility (98.50%) of the maggots. Maggot supplementation caused linear increases in live weight gain but not the feed conversion ratio. The diets of 10 and 15% maggots was the most efficient in terms of average weight gain forthe 4-5 week old broiler chickens (p<0.05). It also significantly increased dressing percentage, breast muscle, and thigh muscle (p<0.05). No differences were observed forliver abdominalfat, or meat color, and the crude protein contents of breast muscle were constant. However, in the maggot-fed broilers, breast muscle lysine and tryptophan levels increased significantly as compared to the birds fed the basal diet (p<0.05). These results indicate that feeding diets containing 10 to 15% maggots in chicken dropping after biodegradation can improve the carcass quality and growth performance of broiler chickens.

  4. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  5. NACOB presentation to ASB Young Scientist Award: Postdoctoral. The impact of boundary conditions and mesh size on the accuracy of cancellous bone tissue modulus determination using large-scale finite-element modeling. North American Congress on Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C R; Davis, B R; Rieger, C J; Francis, J J; Saad, M; Fyhrie, D P

    1999-11-01

    The apparent properties of cancellous bone are determined by a combination of both hard tissue properties and microstructural organization. A method is desired to extract the underlying hard tissue properties from simple mechanical tests, free from the complications of microstructure. It has been suggested that microCT voxel-based large-scale finite element models could be employed to accomplish this goal (van Rietbergen et al., 1995, Journal of Biomechanics, 28, 69-81). This approach has recently been implemented and it is becoming increasingly popular as finite element models increase in size and sophistication (Fyhrie et al., 1997, Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA, p. 815; van Rietbergen et al., 1997, Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA, p. 62). However, no direct quantitative measurements of the accuracy of this method applied to porous structures such as cancellous bone have been made. This project demonstrates the feasibility of this approach by quantifying its best-case accuracy in determining the trabecular hard tissue modulus of analogues fabricated of a material with known material properties determined independently by direct testing. In addition we were able to assess the impact of mesh size and boundary conditions on accuracy. We found that the assumption of a frictionless boundary condition in the parallel plate compression loading configuration was a significant source of error that could be overcome with the use of rigid end-caps similar to those used by Keaveny et al. (1997 Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 15(1), 101-110). In conclusion, we found that this approach is an effective method for determining the average trabecular hard tissue properties of human cancellous bone with an expected practical accuracy level better than 5%.

  6. [PROPERTIES OF CHICKEN LIVER MEMBRANE-ASSOCIATED THIAMINE TRIPHOSPHATASE].

    PubMed

    Kolas, I K; Makarchikov, A F

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) metabolism in birds are not characterized so far. The aim of the present work was to study some properties of ThTPase in chicken liver. In liver homogenate, ThTPase activity has been found to display a bell-like pH-profile with a maximum of 5.5-6.0. Low activity was observed without divalent metal ions, while the addition of Mg2+ or Ca2+, each at 5 mM concentration, enhanced the rate of ThTP hydrolysis by a factor of 17-20. In the presence of 5 mM Mg2+ an apparent K(m) of the enzyme for ThTP was estimated by the method of non-linear regression as well as from the Hanes plot to be 1.7-2.2 mM. Monovalent anions such as I-, SCN-, NO3-, Br-, Cl- (at 150 mM concentration) showed inhibitory effect decreasing the rate of ThTPase reaction by 20-60%. After the homogenate was centrifuged, more than 85% of ThTPase activity was revealed in the fraction of insoluble particles indicating a membrane localization of the enzyme. The precipitate treatment with 1% sodium deoxycholate caused about 53% solubilization of the activity. During Toyopeal HW-55 chromatography, ThTPase activity was eluted simultaneously with ATPase and ITPase peaks in the void volume of the column. Thus, a non-specific high molecular mass protein complex seems to be involved in ThTP hydrolysis in the chicken liver. The chicken liver phosphatase is clearly distinguishable from all membrane-bound ThTPases reported previously. PMID:26502698

  7. [PROPERTIES OF CHICKEN LIVER MEMBRANE-ASSOCIATED THIAMINE TRIPHOSPHATASE].

    PubMed

    Kolas, I K; Makarchikov, A F

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) metabolism in birds are not characterized so far. The aim of the present work was to study some properties of ThTPase in chicken liver. In liver homogenate, ThTPase activity has been found to display a bell-like pH-profile with a maximum of 5.5-6.0. Low activity was observed without divalent metal ions, while the addition of Mg2+ or Ca2+, each at 5 mM concentration, enhanced the rate of ThTP hydrolysis by a factor of 17-20. In the presence of 5 mM Mg2+ an apparent K(m) of the enzyme for ThTP was estimated by the method of non-linear regression as well as from the Hanes plot to be 1.7-2.2 mM. Monovalent anions such as I-, SCN-, NO3-, Br-, Cl- (at 150 mM concentration) showed inhibitory effect decreasing the rate of ThTPase reaction by 20-60%. After the homogenate was centrifuged, more than 85% of ThTPase activity was revealed in the fraction of insoluble particles indicating a membrane localization of the enzyme. The precipitate treatment with 1% sodium deoxycholate caused about 53% solubilization of the activity. During Toyopeal HW-55 chromatography, ThTPase activity was eluted simultaneously with ATPase and ITPase peaks in the void volume of the column. Thus, a non-specific high molecular mass protein complex seems to be involved in ThTP hydrolysis in the chicken liver. The chicken liver phosphatase is clearly distinguishable from all membrane-bound ThTPases reported previously.

  8. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Deeply Located Trabecular Bones - Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieślik, Lucyna; Litniewski, Jerzy

    The analysis of ultrasonic signals scattered by soft tissues have been successfully applied for their characterization. Similarly, the trabecular bone backscattered signal contains information about the properties of the bone structure. Therefore scattering-based ultrasonic technique potentially enables the assessment of microstructure characteristics of a bone. The femoral neck fracture often occurs in the course of osteoporosis and can lead to severe complications. Therefore assessment of femoral bone microstructure and condition is important and essential for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring. As far most of the trabecular bone investigations have been performed in vitro. The only in vivo measurements were carried out in transmission and mostly concerned estimation of the attenuation in heel bone. We have built the ultrasonic scanner that could be useful in acquiring the RF (Radio Frequency) echoes backscattered by the trabecular bone in vivo. Moreover, the bone scanner provides data not only from heel bone but from deeply located bones as well (e.g. femoral bone). It can be also used for easily accessible bones like heel bone or breastbone. In this case a gel-pad is applied to assure focusing of ultrasound in trabecular bone (approximately 10 mm beneath the cortical bone). This study presents preliminary results of the attenuating properties evaluation of trabecular bone from the ultrasonic echoes backscattered by heel bone and femoral neck.

  9. Unsuspected pregnancy during bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.; Becker, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Despite careful screening efforts to avoid it, nuclear medicine studies are unintentionally performed on pregnant patients. Three-phase bone scanning is a common procedure performed in women of child-bearing age. Unsuspected pregnancies have been discovered on the flow and early view of the pelvis. The authors present a case of a pregnant girl, aged 15, who had a bone scan. They explain how this occurred and how they plan to prevent a recurrence. Dosimetry for the fetus also is considered.

  10. Treatment of Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Rajiv; Gibbs, C. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis In this article, the authors summarize the state of the art and future potential in the management of Osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and Chondrosarcoma. They cover systemic therapy, surgical therapy, and radiotherapy, along with targeted therapies to inhibit signal transduction pathways. They discuss staging and the role of imaging evaluation to provide an overview of bone tumor treatment. Images presenting pathologic-radiologic correlations are included. PMID:22328909

  11. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Benign (noncancerous) bone tumors include: Bone cyst Fibroma Osteoblastoma Osteoid osteoma Cancerous tumors include: Ewing sarcoma Multiple myeloma Osteosarcoma Other types of cancer that may have spread to the bone Abnormal ...

  12. Smoking and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... direct relationship between tobacco use and decreased bone density. Analyzing the impact of cigarette smoking on bone ... hard to determine whether a decrease in bone density is due to smoking itself or to other ...

  13. Menopause and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You reach your highest bone mass (size and density) at about age 30. Then, sometime between age ... your bones, your doctor may do a bone density test (DEXA scan). This test gives exact measurements ...

  14. Facts about Broken Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... las fracturas de huesos Your bones are tough stuff — but even tough stuff can break. Like a wooden pencil, bones will ... that? Get a lot of physical activity, especially stuff like jumping and running. Feed your bones the ...

  15. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  16. Quantifying human health risks from virginiamycin used in chickens.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis A; Popken, Douglas A

    2004-02-01

    countries where regulatory action for VM is being considered. We present a risk simulation model, thoroughly grounded in data, that incorporates recent nosocomial transmission and genetic typing data. The model is used to estimate human QD treatment failures over the next five years with and without continued VM use in chickens. The quantitative estimates and probability distributions were implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation model for a five-year horizon beginning in the first quarter of 2002. In Australia, a Q1-2002 ban of virginiamycin would likely reduce average attributable treatment failures by 0.35 x 10(-3) cases, expected mortalities by 5.8 x 10(-5) deaths, and life years lost by 1.3 x 10(-3) for the entire population over five years. In the United States, where the number of cases of VRE is much higher, a 1Q-2002 ban on VM is predicted to reduce average attributable treatment failures by 1.8 cases in the entire population over five years; expected mortalities by 0.29 cases; and life years lost by 6.3 over a five-year period. The model shows that the theoretical statistical human health benefits of a VM ban range from zero to less than one statistical life saved in both Australia and the United States over the next five years and are rapidly decreasing. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this conclusion is robust to key data gaps and uncertainties, e.g., about the extent of resistance transfer from chickens to people.

  17. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found. PMID:26752227

  18. Thermal stress on chickens in transit.

    PubMed

    Webster, A J; Tuddenham, A; Saville, C A; Scott, G B

    1993-05-01

    1. An artificial chicken, 'Gloria', was constructed to simulate heat exchanges of poultry during transport. Tests of the instrument in a wind tunnel showed it to have insulation properties similar to that of a live bird. 2. Gloria accompanied chickens in two types of transport modules, A (enclosed) and B (open). The average temperature difference between inside and outside the loaded vehicles when stationary and in motion were 14.0 and 7.6 for Type A and 8.8 and 6.0 for Type B. Average air movement while vehicles were in motion was 0.5 m/s for Type A and 3.3 m/s for Type B. 3. Measurements of sensible heat loss from Gloria at different temperatures and wind speeds were compared with published estimates of thermoneutral heat production and thermal insulation for well and poorly feathered chickens to estimate the range of thermal stresses likely to be experienced by chickens in transit. 4. The results showed that the combination of circumstances necessary to ensure thermal comfort for birds both at rest and in motion is very rare (e.g. only between 7 and 8 degrees C for well feathered birds in enclosed vehicles). It is, however, possible to ensure thermal comfort over a wide range of ambient air temperatures by appropriate control of air movement within the vehicle whether at rest or in motion. PMID:8513408

  19. Habitat management considerations for prairie chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, L.M.

    1974-01-01

    Lack of nesting and brood rearing habitat appears to be the universal limiting factor for prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) throughout their range. Grasslands are essential to prairie chickens, but vary widely in quality and thus in their ability to support prairie chickens. High-quality habitat is grassland providing residual vegetation averaging about 20 inches in height in spring and sufficiently dense to completely conceal a nesting prairie chicken. Annually grazed, annually hayed, or long-term (10 years or more) idled habitats are undesirable. The most successful method for maintaining high-quality nest-brood habitat is prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals; such habitat may be established by seeding grass or grass-legume mixtures. Seeded habitat may be maintained by prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals. Management units should contain at least 2 square miles of high-quality habitat within an area not to exceed 8 square miles. High-quality habitat blocks should be at least 160 acres with a minimum width of one-half mile. Based on available evidence, funding to provide winter food or cover is not recommended.

  20. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  1. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyomin, Alexander G.; Koshel, Elena I.; Kiselev, Artem M.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Galkina, Svetlana A.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5’ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3’ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity. PMID:27299357

  2. Triploid-diploid mosaic chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Bloom, S E; Buss, E G

    1966-08-12

    Cytological analysis of an underdeveloped chicken embryo at 6 days of incubation revealed a triploid-diploid mosaic condition. Of the 30 metaphases observed, 19 were triploid and 11 diploid. The triploid cells were 3A-ZZZ and diploid cells 2A-ZZ, as determined for the six largest pairs of chromnosomes. PMID:5328678

  3. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  4. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  5. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  6. Recent developments in metabolic bone diseases: a gnathic perspective.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, Erich J; Noffke, Claudia E; Hendrik, Hilde D

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic bone diseases often are asymptomatic and progress sub clinically. Many patients present at a late stage with catastrophic skeletal and extra skeletal complications. In this article, we provide an overview of normal bone remodeling and a synopsis of recent developments in the following conditions: osteoporosis, rickets/osteomalacia, endocrine-induced bone disease, chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder and Paget's disease of bone. Our discussion will emphasize the clinical and microscopic manifestations of these diseases in the jaws.

  7. Osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) seeded on irradiated allogenic bone.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Yasuaki; Dohi, Yoshiko; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tadokoro, Mika; Akahane, Manabu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-02-01

    Allogenic bone grafting, a technique used in orthopaedic surgery, has several problems, including low osteogenic activity. To overcome the problem, this study aimed to determine whether in vivo osteogenesis could be enhanced using allogenic irradiated bone grafts after seeding with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The allogenic bone cylinders were extracted from ACI rats and sterilized by irradiation. Donor BMSCs were obtained from fresh Fischer 344 (F344) rat bone marrow by cell culture. The allogenic bone with or without BMSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into syngeneic F344 rats. At 4 weeks after transplantation, high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, bone-specific osteocalcin mRNA expression and newly formed bone were detected in the allogenic bone with BMSCs. The origin of the newly formed bone was derived from cultured donor BMSCs. However, none of these identifiers of osteogenesis were detected in either the fresh or the irradiated allogenic bone without BMSCs. These results indicate the availability of autologous BMSCs to heighten the osteogenic response of allogenic bone. Our present tissue-engineering method might contribute to a wide variety of allogenic bone grafting techniques in clinical settings.

  8. Integrative Analyses of miRNA-mRNA Interactions Reveal let-7b, miR-128 and MAPK Pathway Involvement in Muscle Mass Loss in Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wen; Lin, Shumao; Li, Guihuan; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    The sex-linked dwarf (SLD) chicken is an ideal model system for understanding growth hormone (GH)-action and growth hormone receptor (GHR) function because of its recessive mutation in the GHR gene. Skeletal muscle mass is reduced in the SLD chicken with a smaller muscle fiber diameter. Our previous study has presented the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of the SLD chicken and normal chicken between embryo day 14 and seven weeks of age. However, the molecular mechanism of GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss is still unclear, and the key molecules and pathways underlying the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss also remain to be illustrated. Here, by functional network analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs between the SLD and normal chickens, we revealed that let-7b, miR-128 and the MAPK pathway might play key roles in the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss, and that the reduced cell division and growth are potential cellular processes during the SLD chicken skeletal muscle development. Additionally, we also found some genes and miRNAs involved in chicken skeletal muscle development, through the MAPK, PI3K-Akt, Wnt and Insulin signaling pathways. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying muscle mass loss in the SLD chickens, and some regulatory networks that are crucial for chicken skeletal muscle development. PMID:26927061

  9. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

  10. Retrospective Study on the Isolation of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale from Chickens and Turkeys in Central California: 294 cases (2000-12).

    PubMed

    Hauck, R; Chin, R P; Shivaprasad, H L

    2015-03-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, and mostly oxidase-positive bacterium that causes respiratory infections in chickens and turkeys worldwide and can also spread to nonrespiratory organs. The present report analyzes 294 cases in which O. rhinotracheale was isolated from turkeys or chickens in central California in the years 2000 through 2012. Two hundred sixteen cases were from turkey flocks and 78 from chicken flocks. The median age of turkey flocks was 8.7 wk; the median age of chicken flocks was 6.4 wk. From turkeys, O. rhinotracheale was more often isolated from August to January than during the rest of the year. Chickens cases were more evenly distributed throughout the year. The organs with the highest isolation rate were the infraorbital sinus and trachea, followed by lungs and air sacs. Isolation from other organs was rare. Pure cultures were obtained from relatively more turkey organs than chicken organs. The organ from which there was the highest chance to obtain a pure culture was the air sac. In 108 turkey flocks (50.0%) and 64 chicken flocks (82.1%) at least one other respiratory pathogen was detected. The most common gross lesions were increased mucus in trachea, caseous or fibrinous exudate in the air sacs, consolidated lungs indicating pneumonia, congested and edematous lungs, and a flattened trachea. For most types of lesions, the percentage of affected turkeys was higher than the percentage of affected chickens. The percentage of birds with lesions was higher if other respiratory pathogens were present. Overall, the host species (turkey or chicken) was a more important factor for the prevalence of most lesions than the detection of other respiratory pathogens. The most common histopathologic lesions in the sinus and trachea were heterophilic or mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. In the lungs and air sacs, the inflammation was characterized by heterophilic infiltration and/or fibrin accumulation. These results

  11. Inhibitory morphogens and monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung

    PubMed Central

    Gleghorn, Jason P.; Kwak, Jiyong; Pavlovich, Amira L.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis generates a diverse array of epithelial patterns, including dichotomous and monopodial geometries. Dichotomous branching can be instructed by concentration gradients of epithelial-derived inhibitory morphogens, including transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), which is responsible for ramification of the pubertal mammary gland. Here, we investigated the role of autocrine inhibitory morphogens in monopodial branching morphogenesis of the embryonic chicken lung. Computational modeling and experiments using cultured organ explants each separately revealed that monopodial branching patterns cannot be specified by a single epithelial-derived autocrine morphogen gradient. Instead, signaling via TGFβ1 and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) differentially affect the rates of branching and growth of the airways. Allometric analysis revealed that development of the epithelial tree obeys power-law dynamics; TGFβ1 and BMP4 have distinct but reversible effects on the scaling coefficient of the power law. These data suggest that although autocrine inhibition cannot specify monopodial branching, inhibitory morphogens define the dynamics of lung morphogenesis. PMID:22410853

  12. Bone feature analysis using image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Austin, T; Thomas, C D; Clement, J G

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish the correlation between bone structure and age, and information about age-related bone changes, it is necessary to study microstructural features of human bone. Traditionally, in bone biology and forensic science, the analysis if bone cross-sections has been carried out manually. Such a process is known to be slow, inefficient and prone to human error. Consequently, the results obtained so far have been unreliable. In this paper we present a new approach to quantitative analysis of cross-sections of human bones using digital image processing techniques. We demonstrate that such a system is able to extract various bone features consistently and is capable of providing more reliable data and statistics for bones. Consequently, we will be able to correlate features of bone microstructure with age and possibly also with age related bone diseases such as osteoporosis. The development of knowledge-based computer vision-systems for automated bone image analysis can now be considered feasible.

  13. Bone and bone marrow involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Yachoui, Ralph; Parker, Brian J; Nguyen, Thanhcuong T

    2015-11-01

    Bone and bone marrow involvement in sarcoidosis have been infrequently reported. We aimed to describe the clinical features, radiological descriptions, pathological examinations, and outcomes of three patients with osseous sarcoidosis and one patient with bone marrow sarcoidosis seen at our institution. Our case series included fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography descriptions in assessing the whole-body extent of sarcoidosis. In the era of advanced imaging, large bone and axial skeleton sarcoidosis lesions are more common than previously reported.

  14. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zebin; Nie, Changsheng; Jia, Yaxiong; Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome.

  15. The hinge region of chicken annexin I contains no site for tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sidis, Y; Horseman, N D

    1993-08-30

    Annexin I (AnxI) is a calcium-dependent membrane binding protein which has been implicated in various physiological activities. The region of the chicken anxI cDNA encoding the first 130 amino terminal residues was cloned by reverse transcription PCR in order to determine the relationship of its variable amino-terminal regulatory region with other known annexins. This nucleotide sequence shows 86% identity with pigeon AnxI isoforms, and 57% with its human homolog. The protein encoded by the chicken anxI cDNA lacks the canonical epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase phosphorylation site, which is present in AnxI of other species. In contrast, the putative protein kinase C phosphorylation site of the amino-terminus is present in the chicken AnxI. Whereas the pigeon genome contains two anxI genes, genomic Southern analysis shows that in the chicken AnxI is encoded by only a single gene. These data suggest that AnxI has undergone significant sequence variation in the avians, and clarifies the relationships of the avian anxI genes with their ancestral homologs.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of vitamin D3 or its metabolites on thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia in chickens.

    PubMed

    Rath, N C; Kannan, L; Pillai, P B; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Horst, R L; Emmert, J L

    2007-10-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine if thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in chickens was linked to a vitamin D deficiency and calcium homeostasis dysregulation, and whether feeding vitamin D fortified diets may prevent it. Day-old chickens were given grower diets containing different vitamin D products throughout the experiment until necropsy on day 16. Half of the birds in each feed group received thiram at levels of 100 ppm (trial 1) or 50 ppm (trial 2) between days 7-9 to induce TD. The birds were weighed, bled, and euthanized to determine TD incidences and severity by examining the growth plates. Tibial bones were used to measure biomechanical strength and ash content. Blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Ca, P, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine kinase were measured in serum that showed no differences between different groups. Thiram reduced body weight and induced TD regardless of any vitamin D treatment to the same extent as untreated birds.

  17. Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought”: Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class

    PubMed Central

    Hazel, Susan J.; O’Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Our attitudes to animals are linked to our beliefs about their cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and capacity to experience emotional states. In this study, undergraduate students were surveyed on their attitudes to chickens pre- and post- a practical class in which they learnt to clicker train chickens. Students were more likely to agree that chickens are intelligent and easy to teach tricks to, and that chickens feel emotions such as boredom, frustration and happiness, following the practical class. Similar workshops may be an effective method to improve animal training skills, and promote more positive attitudes to specific animal species. Abstract A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals. PMID

  18. Assessing bone banking activities at University of Malaya medical centre.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Suhaili; Samsuddin, Sharifah Mazni; Ramalingam, Saravana; Min, Ng Wuey; Yusof, Norimah; Zaman, T Kamarul; Mansor, Azura

    2015-12-01

    The main advantage of establishing in-house bone banks is its ability to readily provide allograft bones for local surgeries. Bone procurement activities of our university bone bank during the 10 years of operation were reviewed. Socio-demographic data of donors, types of bone procured, cases of rejected bones and types of allograft bones transplanted are presented. From 179 potential donors, 73 % were accepted with 213 procured bones. Femoral head was the common bone transplanted (45 %), as it was also the most common procured (82 %). Bones were rejected mainly due to non-technical reasons (83 %) rather than positive results of microbiological (13 %) and serological (4 %) tests. Comprehensive data could not be obtained for further analysis due to difficulties in retrieving information. Therefore, quality assurance system was improved to establish more systematic documentations, as the basis of good banking practice with process control hence allowing traceability. PMID:25656787

  19. Assessing bone banking activities at University of Malaya medical centre.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Suhaili; Samsuddin, Sharifah Mazni; Ramalingam, Saravana; Min, Ng Wuey; Yusof, Norimah; Zaman, T Kamarul; Mansor, Azura

    2015-12-01

    The main advantage of establishing in-house bone banks is its ability to readily provide allograft bones for local surgeries. Bone procurement activities of our university bone bank during the 10 years of operation were reviewed. Socio-demographic data of donors, types of bone procured, cases of rejected bones and types of allograft bones transplanted are presented. From 179 potential donors, 73 % were accepted with 213 procured bones. Femoral head was the common bone transplanted (45 %), as it was also the most common procured (82 %). Bones were rejected mainly due to non-technical reasons (83 %) rather than positive results of microbiological (13 %) and serological (4 %) tests. Comprehensive data could not be obtained for further analysis due to difficulties in retrieving information. Therefore, quality assurance system was improved to establish more systematic documentations, as the basis of good banking practice with process control hence allowing traceability.

  20. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  1. [Isolation and study of biological properties of non-oncogenic Marek's disease herpesviruses in chickens. 2. Characterization in vivo].

    PubMed

    Jurajda, V; Halouzka, R

    1992-01-01

    In a previous paper (Jurajda and Halouzka, 1992) the in vitro isolation of two chicken herpesviruses of Marek's disease (M and K strains) was described and results of their characterization were presented. The present paper deals with the in vivo characterization of both isolates: pathogenicity and immunosuppressive characteristics of isolates were observed in a five-week test period, along with the development and production dynamics of antibodies and viral antigen in the feathers of experimentally infected chickens of the Brown Leghorn breed. A technique of double immunodiffusion in agar gel according to Ouchterlony, modified by Woernl (1966), was used to determine the presence of antibodies to Marek's disease virus (MDV) in blood serum and of precipitating MDV-antigen in feather quills of tested chickens. Isolate multiplication and titration were performed in a system of chicken embryonal fibroblasts (CEF) (Jurajda et al., 1984). Chickens were infected i.m. with three virus doses - 10(2) to 10(4) PFU per chicken while the dose 10(4) corresponded to the titre of 10,800 PFU/0.2 ml for M isolate and to the titre of 8,600 PFU/0.2 ml for K isolate. The nature and rate of regressive changes in lymphatic organs were determined according to criteria described by Halouzka and Jurajda (1991). The results are summarized in Tabs. I and II. Neither of the isolates evoked clinical or pathomorphological macroscopic symptoms of the disease. M isolate induced microscopic MD-specific changes in the peripheral nerves (of C type) and only moderate and transient signs of immunosuppression in 11% of infected chickens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Pure keratin membrane and fibers from chicken feather.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bomou; Qiao, Xue; Hou, Xiuliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2016-08-01

    In this research, keratin was extracted from the disposable chicken feather using l-cysteine as reducing agent. Then, it was re-dissolved in the sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate buffer, and the pure keratin membrane and fiber were fabricated by doctor-blade casting process and wet spinning method, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the chemical and physical properties of resulting powder, membrane and fiber. Compared with the raw chicken feather, the regenerated keratin materials retain its chemical structure and thermal stability, their relative crystallinity is a little different depend on the shaping method, which leads to the difference in moisture regain. The mechanical results show that tensile strength of the keratin membrane researches 3.5MPa, have potential application in biomedical fields. However, the keratin fiber presents low tenacity, i.e. 0.5cN/dtex, this problem should be solved in order to apply the new fiber in textile and material science. PMID:27180293

  3. Safety evaluation of chicken breast extract containing carnosine and anserine.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Karasawa, N; Shimizu, M; Morimatsu, F; Yamada, R

    2008-02-01

    Chicken breast extract (CBEX) is obtained via hot water extraction of chicken breast and contains among its primary constituents carnosine and anserine, which are histidine-containing dipeptides present in the muscle tissues of most vertebrate species. Dietary intake of CBEX has been previously shown to buffer hydrogen ions formed during high-intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle cells, thereby inhibiting a decrease in muscle cell pH and subsequent muscle fatigue. The objective of this paper is to report the results of safety studies completed on CBEX. CBEX was determined to have an oral LD(50) value of more than 6000 mg/kg body weight in rats. Gavage doses of 500 or 2000 mg CBEX/kg body weight/day administered to rats for 90 days produced no toxicologically significant, dose-related, differences between control and treated animals with respect to body weight gain, food consumption, behavioral effects, hematological and clinical chemistry parameters, absolute and relative organ weights, or gross and microscopic findings. In the presence or absence of metabolic activation, CBEX exerted no mutagenic activity in the Ames assay conducted in various strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. The results of these studies support the safety of CBEX as a potential dietary source of carnosine and anserine. PMID:17919801

  4. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  5. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment. PMID:23815735

  6. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken offal at the retail level in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kuan, C H; Goh, S G; Loo, Y Y; Chang, W S; Lye, Y L; Puspanadan, S; Tang, J Y H; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Mahyudin, N A; Radu, S

    2013-06-01

    A total of 216 chicken offal samples (chicken liver = 72; chicken heart = 72; chicken gizzard = 72) from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia, were examined for the presence and density of Listeria monocytogenes by using a combination of the most probable number and PCR method. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in 216 chicken offal samples examined was 26.39%, and among the positive samples, the chicken gizzard showed the highest percentage at 33.33% compared with chicken liver (25.00%) and chicken heart (20.83%). The microbial load of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal samples ranged from <3 to 93.0 most probable number per gram. The presence of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal samples may indicate that chicken offal can act as a possible vehicle for the occurrence of foodborne listeriosis. Hence, there is a need to investigate the biosafety level of chicken offal in Malaysia. PMID:23687164

  7. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  9. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  10. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  11. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  12. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  13. Behavior of chickens prior to death from sudden death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Newberry, R C; Gardiner, E E; Hunt, J R

    1987-09-01

    A study was made to determine if chickens dying from sudden death syndrome (SDS) showed any unusual behavioral characteristics during the final 12 h preceding death. Continuous video recordings were made of floor pens of 50 to 120 individually marked male broiler chickens between 3 and 10 wk of age. Behavioral data were obtained from video tapes played back following death of chickens from SDS. Analysis of the video tapes revealed no significant differences between 10 SDS chickens and their matched controls in the frequencies or proportions of time spent in each of 19 different behavioral activities. All SDS chickens exhibited a sudden attack prior to death lasting an average of 53 s and characterized by loss of balance, violent flapping, and strong muscular contractions. There was no evidence that death was preceded by a particular environmental or behavioral event. It was concluded that there were no consistent behavioral symptoms which could be used to identify SDS chickens prior to death. PMID:3684869

  14. Slow cooker vs. oven preparation of meat loaves and chicken.

    PubMed

    Peters, C R; Sinwell, D D; Van Duyne, F O

    1983-10-01

    Meat loaves and chickens prepared by recommended methods for a slow electric cooker were not in the hazardous temperature zone long enough to allow appreciable growth of bacteria that might cause food-borne illness. Total plate counts were reduced to a greater extent than they were when meat loaves and chickens were prepared by conventional methods in a gas oven. Presumptive coliforms, C. perfringens, and coagulase positive staphylococci were not detected after either method of cooking. Other parameters of quality indicated that conventional methods of baking meat loaves and roasting chickens were superior to preparation in a slow electric cooker. Drip losses were significantly greater, as were total cooking losses (except for total losses for chickens in Experiment 2), when a slow electric cooker was used. All mean palatability scores except for interior color in meat loaves and tenderness in chickens were significantly higher after preparation in an oven. Significantly more thiamin was retained in oven-cooked meat loaves and chickens.

  15. [The pisiform bone: sesamoid or carpal bone?].

    PubMed

    May, O

    1996-01-01

    In man, the pisiform bone occupies an unusual place among the carpal bones. It is situated in an anterior plane to the other bones, sheathed within the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris, and ossifying almost four years the last of the carpal bones. Many theories have tried to explain the presence of this "exceptional" bone: the first theory, proposed by Flower and Mivart, suggested the possibility that this bone could be a sesamoid. The second theory supposes a polydactyl hand, assuming that polydactyly preceded pentadactyly; the pisiform would then be a post-minimus vestigial bone according to Bardeleben. Finally, Gegenbauer and Gillies, proposed a primary pentadactyl hand in which the carpus would be composed of three proximal elements, generally two central, and five distal. The pisiform would either be a derivative of the central series, or a distinct element in the carpus. This last theory appears to be the most likely. The primary carpus would therefore have consisted of 12 bones arranged in 3 distinct rows, a proximal row of 3 bones, a central row of 4 bones, and a distal row of 5 bones. According to this theory, the most ulnar of the central would have been displaced to the medial limit of the carpus, to become the pisiform. PMID:9026058

  16. Bone grafts in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prasanna; Vinitha, Belliappa; Fathima, Ghousia

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation. PMID:23946565

  17. [Development of a GeXP assay for simultaneous differentiation of six chicken respiratory viruses].

    PubMed

    Luo, Si-Si; Xie, Zhi-Xun; Xie, Li-Ji; Pang, Yao-Shan; Fan, Qing; Deng, Xian-Wen; Liu, Jia-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Qin

    2013-05-01

    A GeXP based multiplex PCR assay was developed to simultaneously detect six different chicken respiratory viruses including H5, H7, H9 subtypes of avian influenza virus(AIV), new castle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus(ILTV). According to the conserved sequences of genes of each pathogen, seven pairs of specific primers were designed, and the reaction conditions were optimized. The specificity and accuracy of GeXP were examined using samples of single and mixed infections of virus. The sensitivity was evaluated by performing the assay on serial 10-fold dilutions of cloned plasmids. To further evaluate the reliability, thirty-four clinical samples were detected by GeXP. The corresponding specific fragments of genes were amplified. The detection limit of GeXP was 10(2) copies/microL when all of 7 pre-mixed plasmids containing target genes of six chicken respiratory viruses were present. In the detection of thirty-four clinical samples, the results of GeXP were accorded with the viral isolation completely. In conclusion, this GeXP assay is a rapid, specific, sensitive and high-throughput method for the detection of chicken respiratory virus infections. It can be applied in rapid differential diagnosis for clinical samples, and also provide an effective tool to prevent and control chicken respiratory diseases with similar clinical symptoms.

  18. Distribution of the cellular prion protein in the central nervous system of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Atoji, Yasuro; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2009-12-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrP), a cell membrane-bound glycoprotein mainly located in the dendrites and axons of the central nervous system (CNS), is responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in mammals. PrP genes are widely conserved in vertebrates. In birds, the presence of PrP mRNA has been confirmed in neurons of the chicken brain, but localization of the protein remains to be determined. In the present study, we demonstrated the regional distribution of PrP in the CNS of adult chickens by immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody that recognizes chicken PrP 161-164. Immunoreactivity was observed in the neuropil, but not in neuronal somata or glial cells. It was preferentially intense in the olfactory bulb, the dorsal thalamus, the hypothalamus, and most regions of the telencephalon. Immunostaining became less intense toward the brainstem, but many nuclei were immunoreactive. Among brainstem nuclei, moderate immunostaining was observed in the nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, and substantia gelatinosa Rolandi. The cerebellar cortex was devoid of PrP immunoreactivity. The dorsal horn in the spinal cord was strongly immunoreactive. In situ hybridization with two probes of the C-terminal portion demonstrated localization of PrP mRNA in neurons of the brain and spinal cord. These findings suggest that PrP in the chicken CNS is localized in the dendrites and axons of neurons and that it is associated with certain sensory systems.

  19. Prokaryotic expression of the chicken xanthine oxidase (XOD) subunit and its localization in liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huayuan; Chen, Yanjun; Huang, Qiqi; Guo, Xiaoquan; Liu, Ping; Liu, Weilian; Zhang, Caiying; Cao, Huabin; Hu, Guoliang

    2016-06-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is the members of the molybdenum hydroxylase flavoprotein family and it plays a vital role in the body's purine catabolism. In this study, we cloned the XOD 37kDa subunit protein by using RT-PCR and pMD-18-T clone vector based on the total RNA extracted from chicken liver. The cloning XOD subunit protein gene was ligated into the pET-32a to construct the recombinant plasmid pET-XOD. After the pET-XOD expression vector was transformed into host cells Rosetta (DE3), the recombinant XOD subunit proteins (54.8kDa) were successfully induced by isopropy1 β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG). Rabbit antiserums were produced by using the purification of the recombinant XOD subunit protein as antigen. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:102,400 determined by using ELISA. The result of Western blot demonstrated that the antiserum could specifically recognize the chicken liver XOD. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the XOD mainly presented in the cytoplasm of chicken hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results indicated that the XOD subunit protein polyclonal antibody prepared by this method could be used for the further researches of the biological function of the XOD in the chicken. PMID:26949113

  20. An Efficient Genotyping Method in Chicken Based on Genome Reducing and Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rongrong; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Qiang; Tu, Yingying; Chen, Zhenliang; Wang, Qishan; Yang, Changsuo; Zhang, Xiangzhe; Pan, Yuchun

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are essential for identifying the genetic mechanisms of complex traits. In the present study, we applied genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing (GGRS) method to construct a 252-plex sequencing library for SNP discovery and genotyping in chicken. The library was successfully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencer with a paired-end pattern; approximately 400 million raw reads were generated, and an average of approximately 1.4 million good reads per sample were generated. A total of 91,767 SNPs were identified after strict filtering, and all of the 252 samples and all of the chromosomes were well represented. Compared with the Illumina 60K chicken SNP chip data, approximately 34,131 more SNPs were identified using GGRS, and a higher SNP density was found using GGRS, which could be beneficial for downstream analysis. Using the GGRS method, more than 3528 samples can be sequenced simultaneously, and the cost is reduced to $18 per sample. To the best of our knowledge, this study describes the first report of such highly multiplexed sequencing in chicken, indicating potential applications for genome-wide association and genomic selection in chicken.