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Sample records for chickens resembles late

  1. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV). Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift. PMID:20109187

  2. Functional differences between the arteries perfusing gas exchange and nutritional membranes in the late chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Riazudin; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Kessels, Carolina G A; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The chicken extraembryonic arterial system comprises the allantoic arteries, which irrigate the gas exchange organ (the chorioallantoic membrane, CAM) and the yolk sac (YS) artery, which irrigates the nutritional organ (the YS membrane). We compared, using wire myography, the reactivity of allantoic and YS arteries from 19-day chicken embryos (total incubation 21 days). The contractions induced by KCl, the adrenergic agonists norepinephrine (NE, nonselective), phenylephrine (α1), and oxymetazoline (α2), electric field stimulation (EFS), serotonin, U46619 (TP receptor agonist), and endothelin (ET)-1 and the relaxations induced by acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor), forskolin (adenylate cyclase activator), and isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist) were investigated. Extraembryonic allantoic arteries did not show α-adrenergic-mediated contraction (either elicited by exogenous agonists or EFS) or ACh-induced (endothelium-dependent) relaxation, whereas these responses were present in YS arteries. Interestingly, the intraembryonic segment of the allantoic artery showed EFS- and α-adrenergic-induced contraction and ACh-mediated relaxation. Moreover, glyoxylic acid staining showed the presence of catecholamine-containing nerves in the YS and the intraembryonic allantoic artery, but not in the extraembryonic allantoic artery. Isoproterenol- and forskolin-induced relaxation and ET-1-induced contraction were higher in YS than in allantoic arteries, whereas serotonin- and U46619-induced contraction and SNP-induced relaxation did not significantly differ between the two arteries. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a different pattern of reactivity in the arteries perfusing the gas exchange and the nutritional membranes of the chicken embryo.

  3. Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: chicken or egg?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter

    1990-07-01

    The high altitudes of most mountain ranges have commonly been ascribed to late Cenozoic uplift, without reference to when crustal thickening and other tectonic processes occurred. Deep incision and recent denudation of these mountain ranges, abundant late Cenozoic coarse sediment near them, and palaeobotanical evidence for warmer climates, where high mountain climates today are relatively cold, have traditionally been interpreted as evidence for recent uplift. An alternative cause of these phenomena is late Cenozoic global climate change: towards lower temperatures, increased alpine glaciation, a stormier climate, and perturbations to humidity, vegetative cover and precipitation.

  4. Exploring Early and Late Toxoplasma gondii Strain RH Infection by Two-Dimensional Immunoblots of Chicken Immunoglobulin G and M Profiles

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashram, Saeed; Sun, Ximeng; Yin, Qing; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite infecting warm-blooded vertebrate hosts, with only early infection stage being contained with drugs. But diagnosis differencing early and late infection was not available. In the present investigation, 2-dimensional immunobloting was used to explore early and late infections in chickens. The protein expression of T. gondii was determined by image analysis of the tachyzoites proteome separated by standard-one and conventional two-dimentional gel polyacrylamide electrophoresis (2D- PAGE). Pooled gels were prepared from tachyzoites of T. gondii. A representative gel spanning a pH range of 3-10 of the tachyzoite proteome consisted of 1306 distinct polypeptide spots. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with 2-DE immunoblotting was used to resolve and compare immunoglobulins (Igs) M & G patterns against Toxoplasma gondii strain RH (mouse virulent strain). Total tachyzoite proteins of T. gondii were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by Western blotting for their reactivity with the 7 and 56 days post-infection (dpi) SPF chicken antisera. Different antigenic determinant patterns were detected during analysis with M and G immunoglobulins. Of the total number of polypeptide spots analyzed (1306 differentially expressed protein spots), 6.97% were identified as having shared antigenic polypeptide spots on immunoblot profiles with IgG and IgM antibodies regardless the time after infection. Furthermore, some of the immunoreactive polypeptide spots seemed to be related to the stage of infection. Interestingly, we found natural antibodies to toxoplasmic antigens, in addition to the highly conserved antigenic determinants that reacted with non-specific secondary antibody; goat anti-chicken IgG antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. In conclusion, unique reactive polypeptide spots are promising candidates for designation of molecular markers to discriminate early and late

  5. Exploring early and late Toxoplasma gondii strain RH infection by two-dimensional immunoblots of chicken immunoglobulin G and M profiles.

    PubMed

    El-Ashram, Saeed; Sun, Ximeng; Yin, Qing; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite infecting warm-blooded vertebrate hosts, with only early infection stage being contained with drugs. But diagnosis differencing early and late infection was not available. In the present investigation, 2-dimensional immunobloting was used to explore early and late infections in chickens. The protein expression of T. gondii was determined by image analysis of the tachyzoites proteome separated by standard-one and conventional two-dimentional gel polyacrylamide electrophoresis (2D- PAGE). Pooled gels were prepared from tachyzoites of T. gondii. A representative gel spanning a pH range of 3-10 of the tachyzoite proteome consisted of 1306 distinct polypeptide spots. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with 2-DE immunoblotting was used to resolve and compare immunoglobulins (Igs) M & G patterns against Toxoplasma gondii strain RH (mouse virulent strain). Total tachyzoite proteins of T. gondii were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by Western blotting for their reactivity with the 7 and 56 days post-infection (dpi) SPF chicken antisera. Different antigenic determinant patterns were detected during analysis with M and G immunoglobulins. Of the total number of polypeptide spots analyzed (1306 differentially expressed protein spots), 6.97% were identified as having shared antigenic polypeptide spots on immunoblot profiles with IgG and IgM antibodies regardless the time after infection. Furthermore, some of the immunoreactive polypeptide spots seemed to be related to the stage of infection. Interestingly, we found natural antibodies to toxoplasmic antigens, in addition to the highly conserved antigenic determinants that reacted with non-specific secondary antibody; goat anti-chicken IgG antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. In conclusion, unique reactive polypeptide spots are promising candidates for designation of molecular markers to discriminate early and late

  6. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  7. Localization of cerebellin-2 in late embryonic chicken brain: implications for a role in synapse formation and for brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Anton; Yang, Mao; Cagle, Michael C; Honig, Marcia G

    2011-08-01

    Cerebellin-1 (Cbln1), the most studied member of the cerebellin family of secreted proteins, is necessary for the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. However, the roles of the other Cblns have received little attention. We previously identified the chicken homolog of Cbln2 and examined its expression in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord (Yang et al. [2010] J Comp Neurol 518:2818-2840). Interestingly, Cbln2 is expressed by mechanoreceptive and proprioceptive neurons and in regions of the spinal cord where those afferents terminate, as well as by preganglionic sympathetic neurons and their sympathetic ganglia targets. These findings suggest that Cbln2 may demonstrate a tendency to be expressed by synaptically connected neuronal populations. To further assess this possibility, we examined Cbln2 expression in chick brain. We indeed found that Cbln2 is frequently expressed by synaptically connected neurons, although there are exceptions, and we discuss the implications of these findings for Cbln2 function. Cbln2 expression tends to be more common in primary sensory neurons and in second-order sensory regions than it is in motor areas of the brain. Moreover, we found that the level of Cbln2 expression for many regions of the chicken brain is very similar to that of the mammalian homologs, consistent with the view that the expression patterns of molecules playing fundamental roles in processes such as neuronal communication are evolutionarily conserved. There are, however, large differences in the pattern of Cbln2 expression in avian as compared to mammalian telencephalon and in other regions that show the most divergence between the two lineages.

  8. Localization of Cerebellin-2 in Late Embryonic Chicken Brain: Implications for a Role in Synapse Formation and for Brain Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Anton; Yang, Mao; Cagle, Michael C.; Honig, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebellin-1 (Cbln1), the most studied member of the cerebellin family of secreted proteins, is necessary for the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses. However, the roles of the other Cblns have received little attention. We previously identified the chicken homolog of Cbln2 and examined its expression in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord (Yang et al. [2010] J Comp Neurol 518:2818–2840). Interestingly, Cbln2 is expressed by mechanoreceptive and pro-prioceptive neurons and in regions of the spinal cord where those afferents terminate, as well as by pregan-glionic sympathetic neurons and their sympathetic ganglia targets. These findings suggest that Cbln2 may demonstrate a tendency to be expressed by synaptically connected neuronal populations. To further assess this possibility, we examined Cbln2 expression in chick brain. We indeed found that Cbln2 is frequently expressed by synaptically connected neurons, although there are exceptions, and we discuss the implications of these findings for Cbln2 function. Cbln2 expression tends to be more common in primary sensory neurons and in second-order sensory regions than it is in motor areas of the brain. Moreover, we found that the level of Cbln2 expression for many regions of the chicken brain is very similar to that of the mammalian homologs, consistent with the view that the expression patterns of molecules playing fundamental roles in processes such as neuronal communication are evolutionarily conserved. There are, however, large differences in the pattern of Cbln2 expression in avian as compared to mammalian telencephalon and in other regions that show the most divergence between the two lineages. PMID:21456003

  9. Short-term effects of altered shell conductance on oxygen uptake and hematological variables of late chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, H; Nakazawa, S; Okuda, A; Whittow, G C

    1988-11-01

    The preceding report on the O2 uptake (MO2) of chicken embryos whose shell conductance (GO2) was altered from the beginning of incubation showed that the MO2 was decreased despite increased GO2 [Okuda, A. and H. Tazawa (1988) Respir. Physiol. 74: 187-198]. This was attributed to an excess water loss which reduced the growth of the embryos. The present study was designed to investigate the short-term effects of altered GO2, obviating the effect of excess water loss, on the MO2 and simultaneously on the hematological variables of embryos on days 16-17 and days 18-19 of incubation. The MO2 measured 5 h after increasing the GO2 was neither decreased nor increased significantly. The diffusing capacity of the chorio-allantoic membrane, which was estimated using the Bohr integration procedure, decreased as the GO2 was increased. When the GO2 was decreased, on the other hand, the decrease in MO2 was not so large as expected from the decrease in GO2, for both 16- and 18-day-old embryos. The effect of reduced GO2 on MO2 was more prominent in 18-day-old embryos than 16-day-old embryos. One-day-long hypoxia due to decreased GO2 induced erythropoiesis in 18-19-day embryos, but did not do so in 16-17-day embryos. The increase in hematocrit value of the latter group of embryos was attributed to an increase in cell volume due to concurrent hypercapnia.

  10. Children's Explanations of Family Resemblances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horobin, Karen D.

    Four studies investigated children's explanations for family resemblance and species-typical characteristics, under different conditions of biological parentage and rearing environment. Participating were 226 children between 3 and 11 years. Children Children were presented with a number of different tasks, some involving people and some domestic…

  11. Marek’s Disease Virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-der...

  12. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  13. Haemolysis in chicken serum

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, Ann E.; Pickering, R. J.; Linna, T. J.; Good, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Development of total complement (C) and C1 activity was followed in Line 96 chickens from day 13 of embryonic life to 40 days post-hatching. Both activities were demonstrable on day 13, and levels rose slowly in the late prehatching period. At hatching, on day 21, there was a sharp rise in both activities; both titres were roughly five times those of day 19 embryos. Further increases were seen to about day 10, followed by a levelling off (perhaps even a drop in the case of C1) for about 10 days. On about the twenty-first day the titration curve rose again. The source of the C detected in the embryo and young chicken is unknown. The pattern is consistent with transfer from the egg, but it might also reflect synthesis by the developing animal. PMID:4733800

  14. A unique element resembling a processed pseudogene.

    PubMed

    Robins, A J; Wang, S W; Smith, T F; Wells, J R

    1986-01-05

    We describe a unique DNA element with structural features of a processed pseudogene but with important differences. It is located within an 8.4-kilobase pair region of chicken DNA containing five histone genes, but it is not related to these genes. The presence of terminal repeats, an open reading frame (and stop codon), polyadenylation/processing signal, and a poly(A) rich region about 20 bases 3' to this, together with a lack of 5' promoter motifs all suggest a processed pseudogene. However, no parent gene can be detected in the genome by Southern blotting experiments and, in addition, codon boundary values and mid-base correlations are not consistent with a protein coding region of a eukaryotic gene. The element was detected in DNA from different chickens and in peafowl, but not in quail, pheasant, or turkey.

  15. Late-Cainozoic climate change, erosion, and relief of mountain belts: 20 years of chickens and eggs (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Over the last two decades, the geoscience community has realized that surface erosion, considered for over a century to respond passively to tectonic forcing, in fact strongly interacts with tectonic processes to produce the variety of deformation styles and relief forms observed in nature. Multiple feedbacks between tectonics, climate and erosion have been identified. In particular, it has been proposed that Cainozoic uplift of mountain belts such as the Himalaya led to global cooling due to CO2 drawdown from the atmosphere by efficient silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. At the same time, however, late-Cainozoic climate change, characterized by overall cooling and increased climatic variability, has been suggested to be responsible for increased erosion rates as well as uplift of mountain peaks through the isostatic response to erosion. Some active mountain belts have even been argued to respond to late-Cainozoic climate change by tectonic reorganisation. Thus, the relative strengths of the tectonic and climatic controls on mountain-belt relief and erosion rates, and how to discriminate between these, have arisen as central questions in tectonic geomorphology since the start of this century. Pliocene-Pleistocene (post-5 Ma) increases in sediment flux have been reported from many major mountain belts such as the Himalaya and the European Alps. It has been suggested this is a global signal in response to increased climatic instability since the Pliocene, although recent work suggests that at least part of the signal may be intrinsic to the nature of the sedimentary record. Analysis of in-situ thermochronology data from the Alps appeared to support the Pliocene increase in erosion rates, which have been linked to increased precipitation subsequent to the Messinian Salinity Crisis and/or the onset of Gulf-Stream circulation. However, recent more detailed work, based on numerical inverse modelling and the use of new high-resolution thermochronometers

  16. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  17. A Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity Resembling Most Features of Human Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Della Vedova, Maria C.; Muñoz, Marcos D.; Santillan, Lucas D.; Plateo-Pignatari, Maria G.; Germanó, Maria J.; Rinaldi Tosi, Martín E.; Garcia, Silvina; Gomez, Nidia N.; Fornes, Miguel W.; Gomez Mejiba, Sandra E.; Ramirez, Dario C.

    2016-01-01

    Increased chicken-derived fat and fructose consumption in the human diet is paralleled by an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Herein, we aimed at developing and characterizing a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) resembling most of the key features of the human MS. To accomplish this, we fed male C57BL/6J mice for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks with either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-chicken-fat diet (HFD) and tap water with or without 10% fructose (F). This experimental design resulted in the following four experimental groups: LFD, LFD + F, HFD, and HFD + F. Over the feeding period, and on a weekly basis, the HFD + F group had more caloric intake and gained more weight than the other experimental groups. Compared to the other groups, and at the end of the feeding period, the HFD + F group had a higher adipogenic index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting basal glycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and atherogenic index and showed steatohepatitis and systemic oxidative stress/inflammation. A mouse model of DIO that will allow us to study the effect of MS in different organs and systems has been developed and characterized. PMID:27980421

  18. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  19. Intentions vs. resemblance: understanding pictures in typical development and autism.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L

    2014-04-01

    Research has debated whether children reflect on artists' intentions when comprehending pictures, or instead derive meaning entirely from resemblance. We explore these hypotheses by comparing how typically developing toddlers and low-functioning children with autism (a population impaired in intentional reasoning) interpret abstract pictures. In Experiment 1, both groups mapped familiar object names onto abstract pictures, however, they related the same representations to different 3-D referents. Toddlers linked abstract pictures with intended referents they did not resemble, while children with autism mapped picture-referent relations based on resemblance. Experiment 2 showed that toddlers do not rely upon linguistic cues to determine intended referential relations. Experiment 3 confirmed that the responding of children with autism was not due to perseveration or associative word learning, and also provided independent evidence of their intention-reading difficulties. We argue that typically developing children derive meaning from the social-communicative intentions underlying pictures when resemblance is an inadequate cue to meaning. By contrast, children with autism do not reflect on artists' intentions and simply relate pictures to whatever they happen to resemble.

  20. A hypothesis to explain accuracy of wasp resemblances.

    PubMed

    Boppré, Michael; Vane-Wright, Richard I; Wickler, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Mimicry is one of the oldest concepts in biology, but it still presents many puzzles and continues to be widely debated. Simulation of wasps with a yellow-black abdominal pattern by other insects (commonly called "wasp mimicry") is traditionally considered a case of resemblance of unprofitable by profitable prey causing educated predators to avoid models and mimics to the advantage of both (Figure 1a). However, as wasps themselves are predators of insects, wasp mimicry can also be seen as a case of resemblance to one's own potential antagonist. We here propose an additional hypothesis to Batesian and Müllerian mimicry (both typically involving selection by learning vertebrate predators; cf. Table 1) that reflects another possible scenario for the evolution of multifold and in particular very accurate resemblances to wasps: an innate, visual inhibition of aggression among look-alike wasps, based on their social organization and high abundance. We argue that wasp species resembling each other need not only be Müllerian mutualists and that other insects resembling wasps need not only be Batesian mimics, but an innate ability of wasps to recognize each other during hunting is the driver in the evolution of a distinct kind of masquerade, in which model, mimic, and selecting agent belong to one or several species (Figure  1b). Wasp mimics resemble wasps not (only) to be mistaken by educated predators but rather, or in addition, to escape attack from their wasp models. Within a given ecosystem, there will be selection pressures leading to masquerade driven by wasps and/or to mimicry driven by other predators that have to learn to avoid them. Different pressures by guilds of these two types of selective agents could explain the widely differing fidelity with respect to the models in assemblages of yellow jackets and yellow jacket look-alikes.

  1. The Chicken Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  2. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.

  4. ASL Nominal Constructions Involving Signs That Resemble Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Vivion Smith

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines six different types of noun phrases that commonly occur in American Sign Language. These noun phrases all include at least a head noun and one of four signs resembling a pronoun. Videos of natural ASL discourses are gathered, multiple instances of the six types of noun phrases are identified, and their meanings are…

  5. Differential grandparental investment - the impact of phenotypic resemblance.

    PubMed

    Schlee, Juliane; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Differential grandparental investment is mainly explained as a result of paternity uncertainty. Phenotypic resemblance may be interpreted as an indicator of genetically relatedness. Consequently the present study focused on the impact of phenotypic resemblance on grandparental investment, i.e. solicitude, contact frequency and quality of relationship. 213 adults persons between the age 19 and 32 years (x = 25.5; SD = 3.4) were enrolled in the study. Data concerning grandparental investment during childhood were collected retrospectively using a 30 item questionnaire. Grandparental investment patterns differed significantly according grandparent category. In detail maternal grandmothers showed the highest contact frequency and the highest solicitude while - as to be expected - the paternal grandfather exhibited the lowest degree of investment. Grandparental investment was independent of grandparent category mainly influenced by residential distance. Phenotypic resemblance had an impact on grandparental investment independent of residential distance. This was first of all true of paternal grandfathers. An impact of phenotypic resemblance on grandparental investment patters can be assumed.

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  7. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  8. Chicken from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stuffed Chicken Marinating Partial Cooking Color of Skin Dark Bones Pink Meat Storage Times Color of Giblets ... mature male chicken with coarse skin and tough, dark meat. Requires long, moist cooking. [ Top of Page ] ...

  9. Arteriovenous shunts resembling patent ductus arteriosus in dogs: 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoko; Aoki, Takuma; Takano, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Ryokichi; Wakao, Yoshito

    2009-12-01

    Three dogs presented for the evaluation of cardiac murmurs were diagnosed with aberrant arteriovenous shunts. All cases demonstrated the following findings: 1) relatively soft continuous murmur loudest at the left heart base resembling patent ductus arteriosus (PDA); 2) shunt flow signals in the pulmonary artery on echocardiography; and 3) no PDA on selective angiography, but evidence of anomalous shunting vessels from thoracic aorta to pulmonary vasculature. An aberrant arteriovenous shunt should be considered when a continuous murmur of relatively small intensity is heard.

  10. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors.

  11. Efficacy of early treatment with toltrazuril in prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, efficacy of the toltrazuril treatment for prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis was tested. Ninety-six 14-day-old commercial broiler chickens were caged and divided into eight groups (n=12), designated groups 1 to 8. Chickens of groups 1 to 6 were inoculated orally at 18 days of age with 25,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella and 75,000 oocysts of Eimeria brunetti. At 22 days of age, chickens of groups 1 to 6 were infected with 10(9) colony-forming unit Clostridium perfringens. Chickens of group 1 were treated with 75 parts/10(6) toltrazuril in drinking water for 8 h on two consecutive days up to 12 h before Eimeria infection, while chickens of groups 2 to 5 were treated with the same dose of toltrazuril at 12 h, 36 h, 60 h and 84 h after Eimeria infection, respectively. The non-treated group 6 served as a positive control. Chickens in group 7 were treated with toltrazuril at 17 and 18 days of age, and those of group 8 remained uninfected and non-treated as a negative control. The feed conversion ratio was higher in the positive control compared with other groups. The mortality rates were 16.8% and 41.7% in the late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) and infected non-treated chickens, respectively. Lesions scores of necrotic enteritis or coccidiosis in infected, non-treated chickens were significantly more severe compared with negative controls (P<0.01) and late toltrazuril-treated (at 84 h) chickens (P<0.05). In conclusion, application of toltrazuril before Eimeria challenge protected chickens from coccidiosis and indirectly from successive necrotic enteritis caused by C. perfringens infection.

  12. Extending disorder: essentialism, family resemblance and secondary sense.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Neil

    2013-05-01

    It is commonly thought that mental disorder is a valid concept only in so far as it is an extension of or continuous with the concept of physical disorder. A valid extension has to meet two criteria: determination and coherence. Essentialists meet these criteria through necessary and sufficient conditions for being a disorder. Two Wittgensteinian alternatives to essentialism are considered and assessed against the two criteria. These are the family resemblance approach and the secondary sense approach. Where the focus is solely on the characteristics or attributes of things, both these approaches seem to fail to meet the criteria for valid extension. However, this focus on attributes is mistaken. The criteria for valid extension are met in the case of family resemblance by the pattern of characteristics associated with a concept, and by the limits of intelligibility of applying a concept. Secondary sense, though it may have some claims to be a good account of the relation between physical and mental disorder, cannot claim to meet the two criteria of valid extension.

  13. Ritodrine-induced pustular eruptions distinctly resembling impetigo herpetiformis.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Atsuki; Abe, Hiroko; Abe, Sumino; Kawai, Naoki; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    A 27-year-old nulligravida woman without a history of dermatosis was hospitalized for threatened preterm labor at 29 weeks' gestation; therefore, continuous infusion of ritodrine hydrochloride was started. At 31 weeks' gestation, erythematous plaques appeared and spread over the body surface; therefore, a topical steroid preparation was applied. At 32 weeks' gestation, the eruptions developed into irregular annular areas of erythema with multiple pustules accompanied by severe itching, and oral prednisolone treatment was started. Bacterial cultures of the pustules were negative, and a crural cutaneous biopsy revealed Kogoj's spongiform pustules. Based on the clinicopathological findings, the most likely diagnosis was impetigo herpetiformis, which causes cutaneous symptoms closely resembling pustular psoriasis in pregnant females without a history of psoriasis. To rule out ritodrine-induced pustular eruptions, the ritodrine infusion was stopped and treatment with an MgSO(4) preparation was started at 33 weeks' 3 days' gestation; however, the uterine contractions could not be suppressed. Because of the patient's highly edematous, severely painful feet, a cesarean section was performed the same day. Within several days of delivery, the eruptions began to resolve, and no recurrence was observed after treatment with oral prednisolone was stopped 31 days after delivery. On the basis of a positive patch test for ritodrine, we diagnosed pustular drug eruptions caused by ritodrine hydrochloride. Although ritodrine-induced pathognomonic cutaneous eruptions are rare, we would like to emphasize that ritodrine can cause drug-induced pustular eruptions distinctly resembling life-threatening impetigo herpetiformis.

  14. Gene transfer into older chicken embryos by ex ovo electroporation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiankai; Yan, Xin; Lin, Juntang; Rolfs, Arndt

    2012-07-27

    The chicken embryo provides an excellent model system for studying gene function and regulation during embryonic development. In ovo electroporation is a powerful method to over-express exogenous genes or down-regulate endogenous genes in vivo in chicken embryos(1). Different structures such as DNA plasmids encoding genes(2-4), small interfering RNA (siRNA) plasmids(5), small synthetic RNA oligos(6), and morpholino antisense oligonucleotides(7) can be easily transfected into chicken embryos by electroporation. However, the application of in ovo electroporation is limited to embryos at early incubation stages (younger than stage HH20--according to Hamburg and Hamilton)(8) and there are some disadvantages for its application in embryos at later stages (older than stage HH22--approximately 3.5 days of development). For example, the vitelline membrane at later stages is usually stuck to the shall membrane and opening a window in the shell causes rupture of the vessels, resulting in death of the embryos; older embryos are covered by vitelline and allantoic vessels, where it is difficult to access and manipulate the embryos; older embryos move vigorously and is difficult to control the orientation through a relatively small window in the shell. In this protocol we demonstrate an ex ovo electroporation method for gene transfer into chicken embryos at late stages (older than stage HH22). For ex ovo electroporation, embryos are cultured in Petri dishes(9) and the vitelline and allantoic vessels are widely spread. Under these conditions, the older chicken embryos are easily accessed and manipulated. Therefore, this method overcomes the disadvantages of in ovo electroporation applied to the older chicken embryos. Using this method, plasmids can be easily transfected into different parts of the older chicken embryos(10-12).

  15. Progress from chicken genetics to the chicken genome.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P B; Dodgson, J B; Andersson, L

    2006-12-01

    The chicken has a proud history, both in genetic research and as a source of food. Here we attempt to provide an overview of past contributions of the chicken in both arenas and to link those contributions to the near future from a genetic perspective. Companion articles will discuss current poultry genetics research in greater detail. The chicken was the first animal species in which Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated. A century later, the chicken was the first among farm animals to have its genome sequenced. Between these firsts, the chicken remained a key organism used in genetic research. Breeding programs, based on sound genetic principles, facilitated the global emergence of the chicken meat and egg industries. Concomitantly, the chicken served as a model whose experimental populations and mutant stocks were used in basic and applied studies with broad application to other species, including humans. In this paper, we review some of these contributions, trace the path from the origin of molecular genetics to the sequence of the chicken genome, and discuss the merits of the chicken as a model organism for furthering our understanding of biology.

  16. Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumour- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Gül, Ayhan; Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Çelik, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex-Cord Tumours (UTROSCTs) are an extremely rare type of uterine body tumours arising from the endometrial stroma. Epidemiology, aetiology, pathogenesis, management and natural history of UTROSCTs are still a question of debate, as there is little available data in the literature. Although rare, the possibility of UTROSCTs should be kept in mind, when a patient presents with abnormal bleeding and an enlarged uterus. UTROSCTs appear dirty white/cream-coloured, gelatinous, well-circumscribed mass with smooth surface on macroscopic examination. We present a rare case of endometrial stromal tumour with sex-cord-like differentiation which was successfully treated by hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, diagnosis and management of these tumours are reviewed here. PMID:28208949

  17. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder resembling honeycomb in a child.

    PubMed

    Akçam, Mustafa; Buyukyavuz, Ilker; Ciriş, Metin; Eriş, Naim

    2008-09-01

    Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is believed to be an uncommon pathologic condition of the gallbladder in childhood. Only three pediatric cases have been described in the literature up to now. Honeycomb gallbladder has been described in two adult patients; no patients have been reported in childhood until now. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder which resembled honeycomb, in a 9-year-old girl presented with recurrent abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound, and confirmed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and finally cholecystectomy. In conclusion, ultrasound scanning performed more generally in children presenting with recurrent abdominal pain might lead to accurate diagnosis of adenomyomotosis of the gallbladder during childhood.

  18. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    PubMed

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  19. Imperfect Batesian mimicry and the conspicuousness costs of mimetic resemblance.

    PubMed

    Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2010-07-01

    We apply signal detection methodology to make predictions about the evolution of Batesian mimicry. Our approach is novel in three ways. First, we applied a deterministic evolutionary modeling system that allows a large number of alternative mimetic morphs to coexist and compete. Second, we considered that there may be natural boundaries to phenotypic expression. Finally, we allowed increasing conspicuousness to impose an increasing detection cost on mimics. In some instances, the model predicts widespread variation in mimetic forms at evolutionary stability. In other situations, rather than a polymorphism the model predicts dimorphisms in which some prey were maximally cryptic and had minimal resemblance to the model, whereas many others were more conspicuous than the model. The biological implications of these results, particularly for our understanding of imperfect mimicry, are discussed.

  20. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man.

  1. A neural network dynamics that resembles protein evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrán, Edgardo A.; Ferrara, Pascual

    1992-06-01

    We use neutral networks to classify proteins according to their sequence similarities. A network composed by 7 × 7 neurons, was trained with the Kohonen unsupervised learning algorithm using, as inputs, matrix patterns derived from the bipeptide composition of cytochrome c proteins belonging to 76 different species. As a result of the training, the network self-organized the activation of its neurons into topologically ordered maps, wherein phylogenetically related sequences were positioned close to each other. The evolution of the topological map during learning, in a representative computational experiment, roughly resembles the way in which one species evolves into several others. For instance, sequences corresponding to vertebrates, initially grouped together into one neuron, were placed in a contiguous zone of the final neural map, with sequences of fishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds and mammals associated to different neurons. Some apparent wrong classifications are due to the fact that some proteins have a greater degree of sequence identity than the one expected by phylogenetics. In the final neural map, each synaptic vector may be considered as the pattern corresponding to the ancestor of all the proteins that are attached to that neuron. Although it may be also tempting to link real time with learning epochs and to use this relationship to calibrate the molecular evolutionary clock, this is not correct because the evolutionary time schedule obtained with the neural network depends highly on the discrete way in which the winner neighborhood is decreased during learning.

  2. [Crohn's disease with the onset resembling systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Nishinarita, S; Son, K; Tomita, Y; Yoshihiro; Matsukawa; Kitamura, N; Horie, T; Baba, M; Hiranuma, M

    1999-06-01

    We described a 37-year-old man with Crohn's disease (CD) resembling systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at his disease onset. He was admitted to the municiple Akiru Hospital in October 1986 by fever, aphtous oral ulcerations, sore throat and polyarthralgia. Hematologic examination showed leukocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, positive tests for antinuclear antibody, anti-DNA antibody and LE cell phenomenon. He has had episodes of convulsion and conciousness loss of unknown etiology when he was 17 years old. The diagnosis of SLE was made, and oral medication of prednisolone was started. Several weeks later, most of symptoms and autoantibodies disappeared, although the oral aphtous ulcerations and leukocytopenia remained. In May 1987, he admitted to the other hospital because of bloody vomiting. Endoscopic examination showed the esophagial ulceration, and histology of biopsied-specimen was nonspecific esophagitis. The combination of prednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide or methotrexate was employed thereafter. However, the leukocytopenia, oral aphtous ulceration and esophagial ulceration continued in spite of these treatments. All the immunosuppressive treatment was stopped at March 1992. In October 1995, he admitted to our hospital because of body weight loss and continuous diarrhea with occasional bloody stool. Barium enema and endoscopic examination of the colon revealed the findings compatible with CD. The patient responded favorably to methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral sulphasalazine. This case indicated that cases with inflammatory bowel diseases like CD could show similar clinical signs and symptoms to SLE, and in some cases of CD might satisfied the classification of criteria for SLE.

  3. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  4. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  5. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  6. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  7. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  8. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  9. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  10. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  11. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias. A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone. The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia. As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  12. Gait analysis in a mouse model resembling Leigh disease.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Ria; Russel, Frans G; Smeitink, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Leigh disease (LD) is one of the clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial OXPHOS disorders and also known as sub-acute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. The disease has an incidence of 1 in 77,000 live births. Symptoms typically begin early in life and prognosis for LD patients is poor. Currently, no clinically effective treatments are available. Suitable animal and cellular models are necessary for the understanding of the neuropathology and the development of successful new therapeutic strategies. In this study we used the Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4(-/-)) mouse, a model of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Ndusf4(-/-) mice exhibit progressive neurodegeneration, which closely resemble the human LD phenotype. When dissecting behavioral abnormalities in animal models it is of great importance to apply translational tools that are clinically relevant. To distinguish gait abnormalities in patients, simple walking tests can be assessed, but in animals this is not easy. This study is the first to demonstrate automated CatWalk gait analysis in the Ndufs4(-/-) mouse model. Marked differences were noted between Ndufs4(-/-) and control mice in dynamic, static, coordination and support parameters. Variation of walking speed was significantly increased in Ndufs4(-/-) mice, suggesting hampered and uncoordinated gait. Furthermore, decreased regularity index, increased base of support and changes in support were noted in the Ndufs4(-/-) mice. Here, we report the ability of the CatWalk system to sensitively assess gait abnormalities in Ndufs4(-/-) mice. This objective gait analysis can be of great value for intervention and drug efficacy studies in animal models for mitochondrial disease.

  13. Familial resemblance for body composition measures: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Daw, E W; Gagnon, J; Bouchard, C; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C

    1997-11-01

    A sex-specific familial correlation model was used to assess the heritable contributions to several measures of body composition in 86 sedentary white families participating in the HERITAGE Family Study. For this study, sedentary families were recruited, tested for a battery of measures, endurance exercise trained for 20 weeks, and remeasured. This sample is unique in that activity level was controlled for in these families at baseline measurement. In this report, three body composition variables measured at baseline were analyzed, two indexing adiposity (total subcutaneous fat based on eight skinfold measurements [SF8] and percent body fat measured by underwater weighing techniques [%BF]) and one assessing fat free mass ([FFM] derived from underwater weighing). The maximal heritabilities for SF8 (34%) and %BF (62%) were consistent with those reported in previous studies. There were no sex nor generation differences in the familial correlations, and the spouse correlation was significant, consistent with the hypothesis that the familial aggregation reflects genetic and familial environmental factors. However, the results for FFM were very different. The most parsimonious pattern of familial resemblance was consistent with mitochondrial inheritance (i.e., mother-offspring and sibling correlations were equal and were larger than those for spouse and father-offspring pairs). Under the mitochondrial hypothesis, 39% of the variance was accounted for by familial/genetic effects. However, under a nonmitochondrial hypothesis, which could not be ruled out, 65% of the FFM phenotypic variance was accounted for by familial/genetic factors. This high heritability level, as compared with results from previous studies, is consistent with the hypothesis that activity may constitute an important environmental determinant of FFM. These alternative hypotheses for FFM warrant further investigation using complex multilocus-multitrait segregation models, which allow for major genetic

  14. Late results.

    PubMed

    Daly, B D

    1999-08-01

    Pneumonectomy is performed for a number of benign and malignant conditions. It is most commonly performed for lung cancer. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant protocols have increased the number of these operations being performed and the long-term results are improving. Pneumonectomy may also be performed for metastases to lung and for mesothelioma with encouraging results. Some bronchial adenomas require pneumonectomy. Treatment of resistant mycobacteria or the complications of tuberculosis frequently require pneumonectomy. Late bronchopleural fistulae, esophagopleural fistulae, and empyema may occur.

  15. Meurigite, a new fibrous iron phosphate resembling kidwellite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birch, W.D.; Pring, A.; Self, P.G.; Gibbs, R.B.; Keck, E.; Jensen, M.C.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    Meurigite is a new hydrated potassium iron phosphate related to kidwellite and with structural similarities to other late-stage fibrous ferric phosphate species. It has been found at four localities so far - the Santa Rita mine, New Mexico, U.S.A.; the Hagendorf-Sud pegmatite in Bavaria, Germany; granite pegmatite veins at Wycheproof, Victoria. Australia; and at the Gold Quarry Mine, Nevada, U.S.A. The Santa Rita mine is the designated type locality. Meurigite occurs as tabular, elongated crystals forming spherical and hemispherical clusters and drusy coatings. The colour ranges from creamy white to pale yellow and yellowish brown. At the type locality, the hemispheres may reach 2 mm across, but the maximum diameter reached in the other occurrences is usually less than 0.5 mm. A wide variety of secondary phosphate minerals accompanies meurigite at each locality, with dufrenite, cyrilovite. beraunite, rockbridgeite and leucophosphite amongst the most common. Vanadates and uranates occur with meurigite at the Gold Quarry mine. Electron microprobe analysis and separate determination of H2O and CO2 on meurigite from the type locality gave a composition for which several empirical formulae could be calculated. The preferred formula, obtained on the basis of 35 oxygen atoms, is (K0.85Na0.03)??0.88(Fe7.013+Al0.16Cu0.02)??7.19 (PO4)5.11(CO3)0.20(OH) 6.7??7-7.25H2O, which simplifies to KFe73+(PO4)5(OH) 7??8H2O. Qualitative analyses only were obtained for meurigite from the other localities, due to the softness and openness of the aggregates. Because of the fibrous nature of meurigite, it was not possible to determine the crystal structure, hence the exact stoichiometry remains uncertain. The lustre of meurigite varies from vitreous to waxy for the Santa Rita mine mineral, to silky for the more open sprays and internal surfaces elsewhere. The streak is very pale yellow to cream and the estimated Mohs hardness is about 3. Cleavage is perfect on {001] and fragments from the

  16. A novel 29-kDa chicken heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Einat, M F; Haberfeld, A; Shamay, A; Horev, G; Hurwitz, S; Yahav, S

    1996-12-01

    The family of small heat shock proteins is the more variable among the highly conserved superfamily of heat shock proteins (HSP). Using a metabolic labeling procedure with tissue explants, we have detected in chickens a new member of the small HSP family with an apparent molecular weight of 29-kDa. This protein was induced in broiler chickens' heart muscle and lungs following an in vivo heat stress. The 29-kDa band appears after 3 h of heat stress, much later than the induction of HSP 90, HSP 70, and HSP 27. The late onset of induction suggests that HSP 29 plays a more specific role of a "second stage defense protein".

  17. Detection of torque teno virus (TTV) in domestic village chickens in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bouzari, Majid; Shaykh Baygloo, Nima

    2013-01-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV) is prevalent worldwide and has been extensively studied in human and some wild and domestic animals. As the studies on TTV in chickens was rare and there was no information about the infection of domestic village chickens with TTV and also structural resemblance of this virus to chicken anemia virus, the frequency of the infection in domestic village chickens in different villages in Isfahan (Iran) was investigated. Sera were collected from 50 chickens. Viral DNA was extracted and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the previously described T801 and T935 primers that were used for amplification of a highly conserved non-coding region (UTR) of the viral genome in a single round of PCR and Set B primers of conserved region in a nested PCR reaction. Using T801 and T835 primers TTV or viruses of TTV family were detected in 16 out of 50 sera tested (32%). Fourteen out of the same 50 sera (28%) were positive for TTV using Set B primers. Totally 20 sera were positive using both primers (40%). Ten sera were detected with both sets of primers, six sera with T801 and T935 primers and only four sera were positive using Set B primers for TTV. Different patterns of the detection of the virus with the two different sets of primers suggests the possibility of the presence of different genotypes of TTV in domestic village chickens and the possibility of the transmission of the virus from human to village chickens and vice versa. This necessitates further investigations.

  18. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  19. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  20. Emotional Family Resemblances? Darwin's Contributions to a Theory of Emotions and Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Petra

    A family resemblance model of emotions is proposed which uses Darwin's discussion of emotions and Eleanor Rosch's and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein's work on family resemblances. In Darwin's discussion of emotions, certain core features are thought to be widely shared by the members of the respective families of emotions, and more marginal…

  1. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  2. Conspicuousness, color resemblance, and toxicity in geographically diverging mimicry: The pan-Amazonian frog Allobates femoralis.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Ramos, Óscar; González, Mabel Cristina; Rodríguez, Camilo; Medina, Iliana; Simões, Pedro Ivo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel

    2017-01-09

    Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species and the syntopic toxic species, we tested whether unpalatability was correlated with between-species color resemblance and whether resemblance was highest for the most conspicuous components of coloration pattern. Heterospecific resemblance in colorful patches was highest between species at the same locality, but unrelated to concomitant variation in toxicity. Surprisingly, resemblance was lower for the conspicuous femoral patches compared to the inconspicuous dorsum. By building visual models, we further tested whether resemblance was affected by the visual system of model predators. As predicted, mimic-model resemblance was higher under the visual system of simulated predators compared to no visual system at all. Our results indicate that femoral patches are aposematic signals and support a role of mimicry in driving phenotypic divergence or mimetic radiation between localities.

  3. The late-M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessell, M. S.

    1991-02-01

    Far-red spectra and VRIJHK photometry have been obtained for a sample of late-M dwarfs selected on the basis of large reduced red magnitudes from the LHS Catalog. Half of the stars in the three faintest 1 mag bins are late-M stars, the other red stars are metallic-hydride subdwarfs. Relations between various colors for the late-M dwarfs are investigated. Of all the colors I - K most reliably correlates with spectral type. FeH bands near 9900 A are clearly seen in the spectra of all dwarf stars later than M5. Two stars cooler than VB10, and similar in temperature to LHS2924 have been identified; both have H-alpha in emission and appear variable in magnitude and R - I color; one is a flare star. The other stars are of earlier spectral type and resemble W359 and VB8. The observed MI, I - K main sequence is in good agreement with the IG theoretical main sequence of Stringfellow, and the faintest stars could be about 0.09 solar mass red dwarfs or lower mass brown dwarfs.

  4. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  5. Heterogeneity of genetic loci in chickens: analysis of endogenous viral and nonviral genes by cleavage of DNA with restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S H; Payvar, F; Spector, D; Schimke, R T; Robinson, H L; Payne, G S; Bishop, J M; Varmus, H E

    1979-10-01

    Restriction endonucleases can be used to define the structure and position of genetic loci for which specific molecular hybridization reagents are available. We have used this approach to compare 18 chicken embryos with respect to several cellular genes; endogenous viral DNA related to the replicative genes of avian sarcoma virus (ASV) or to RAV-O, an endogenous virus of chickens; and sequences related to the transforming (src) gene of ASV. Each cellular gene eas remarkably homogeneous within our test population. We found little or no variation in globin and ovomucoid genes; ovalbumin and transferrin (with one exception) showed variation which is probably allelic in nature. The endogenous viral DNA which has homology with RAV-O was found at several different positions in host DNA and its structure resembled that of proviruses acquired by experimental infection, with sequences from both ends of viral RNA repeated near both ends of viral DNA. Within the population of 18 chickens, one endogenous provirus was always present, whereas the several other proviruses were each found in only a few members of this group. However, screening of additional chickens identified individuals lacking the provirus common to the initial 18 animals surveyed; in at least one embryo no RAV-O-related DNA was detected. These findings suggest that the endogenous RAV-O-related sequences have entered the germ line by relatively recent infection and are still segregating in several contemporary chicken flocks. The sequences in the chicken genome which have homology with the src gene of ASV are invariant from bird to bird and in this sense resemble a cellular gene rather than a viral sequence.

  6. Gallinacin-3, an Inducible Epithelial β-Defensin in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengquan; Nguyen, Tung; Liu, Lide; Sacco, Randy E.; Brogden, Kim A.; Lehrer, Robert I.

    2001-01-01

    Gallinacin-3 and gallopavin-1 (GPV-1) are newly characterized, epithelial β-defensins of the chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), respectively. In normal chickens, the expression of gallinacin-3 was especially prominent in the tongue, bursa of Fabricius, and trachea. It also occurred in other organs, including the skin, esophagus, air sacs, large intestine, and kidney. Tracheal expression of gallinacin-3 increased significantly after experimental infection of chickens with Haemophilus paragallinarum, whereas its expression in the tongue, esophagus, and bursa of Fabricius was unaffected. The precursor of gallinacin-3 contained a long C-terminal extension not present in the prepropeptide. By comparing the cDNA sequences of gallinacin-3 and GPV-1, we concluded that a 2-nucleotide insertion into the gallinacin-3 gene had induced a frameshift that read through the original stop codon and allowed the chicken propeptide to lengthen. The striking structural resemblance of the precursors of β-defensins to those of crotamines (highly toxic peptides found in rattlesnake venom) supports their homology, even though defensins are specialized to kill microorganisms and crotamines are specialized to kill much larger prey. PMID:11254635

  7. RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

    The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

  8. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  9. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  10. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  11. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  12. RESEMBLANCES BETWEEN THE ELECTROMOTOR VARIATIONS OF RHYTHMICALLY REACTING LIVING AND NON-LIVING SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Lillie, R S

    1929-09-20

    1. The electromotor variations of pure iron wires, arranged to react rhythmically with nitric acid, are recorded and described. 2. Resemblances between these variations and those of rhythmically reacting living tissues (especially the heart) are pointed out and discussed.

  13. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  14. Who Resembles Whom? Mimetic and Coincidental Look-Alikes among Tropical Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, D. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Studies of mimicry among tropical reef-fishes usually give little or no consideration to alternative explanations for behavioral associations between unrelated, look-alike species that benefit the supposed mimic. I propose and assess such an alternative explanation. With mimicry the mimic resembles its model, evolved to do so in response to selection by the mimicry target, and gains evolved benefits from that resemblance. In the alternative, the social-trap hypothesis, a coincidental resemblance of the model to the “mimic” inadvertently attracts the latter to it, and reinforcement of this social trapping by learned benefits leads to the “mimic” regularly associating with the model. I examine three well known cases of supposed aggressive mimicry among reef-fishes in relation to nine predictions from these hypotheses, and assess which hypothesis offers a better explanation for each. One case, involving precise and complex morphological and behavioral resemblance, is strongly consistent with mimicry, one is inconclusive, and one is more consistent with a social-trap based on coincidental, imprecise resemblance. Few cases of supposed interspecific mimicry among tropical reef fishes have been examined in depth, and many such associations may involve social traps arising from generalized, coincidental resemblance. Mimicry may be much less common among these fishes than is generally thought. PMID:23372795

  15. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload.

  16. East African origins for Madagascan chickens as indicated by mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Michael B.; Thomson, Vicki A.; Wadley, Jessica J.; Piper, Philip J.; Sulandari, Sri; Dharmayanthi, Anik Budhi; Kraitsek, Spiridoula; Gongora, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50–500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar). In contrast to the linguistic and human genetic evidence indicating dual African and Southeast Asian ancestry of the Malagasy people, we find that chickens in Madagascar only share a common ancestor with East Africa, which together are genetically closer to South Asian chickens than to those in Southeast Asia. This suggests that the earliest expansion of Austronesian-speaking people across the Indian Ocean did not successfully introduce chickens to Madagascar. Our results further demonstrate the complexity of the translocation history of introduced domesticates in Madagascar.

  17. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  18. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  19. Chicken pox after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, Josh; Kalil, Andre C; Meza, Jane L; Hurst, Glenn E; Freifeld, Alison

    2005-12-01

    Previous case series have reported serious complications of chicken pox (CP) after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT), mainly due to visceral dissemination. The goal of our study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CP after PLT. A case-control study of all CP infections in pediatric transplant recipients followed at our center from September 1993 to April 2004 was performed. Data were collected before and after infection and at the same time points in age-, gender-, and transplant year-matched controls. Potential risk factors prior to CP and adverse outcomes after infection were compared between cases and controls. Twenty (6.2%) developed CP at a median of 1.8 yr (0.6-4.8) after PLT. All CP infections were cutaneous, with no evidence of organ involvement. Twelve were hospitalized: 9 only to receive intravenous acyclovir and 3 stayed > or =2 weeks for other complications. Risk factors were not statistically different among cases and controls. Of the outcomes analyzed, cases were significantly more likely to develop non-CP infections within one year of CP than controls (Hazard Ratio = 12.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.1-51.7; P < 0.001). These infections were often bacterial and occurred long after CP infection. In conclusion, CP is uncommon after PLT and has a low likelihood of organ dissemination. No risk factors were identified. Some cases required prolonged hospitalizations. Close monitoring for the development of late bacterial infections is warranted.

  20. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica) relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Horacio A; Ortega, Hugo H; Ramos, Jorge G; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2003-01-01

    Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis). Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling. Additionally, we observed

  1. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  2. A chicken leptin-specific radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Dridi, S; Williams, J; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, M; Raver, N; Decuypere, E; Djiane, J; Gertler, A; Taouis, M

    2000-04-01

    Recombinant chicken leptin was used to produce an antiserum in order to develop a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chicken leptin in plasma and serum. We have used either murine or chicken leptin as tracer and competition curves were performed using recombinant chicken leptin. Variations in leptin plasma levels in different chicken strains and various nutritional states were correlated with the physiological status. Leptin plasma concentrations were regulated by the nutritional state with higher levels in the fed state as compared to the fasted state (3.36 +/- 0. 13 versus 2.78 +/- 0.11 ng/ml) and being dependent upon the age. Higher leptin levels were found in 22 week-old as compared to 15 week-old layer chickens (2.709 +/- 0.172 versus 1.478 +/- 0.102 ng/ml). We have also shown that the multispecies leptin RIA kit (LINCO Inc.) underestimated leptinemia compared to the chicken leptin- specific RIA reported here. In conclusion the RIA developed in the present study is specific to the chicken and thus may be considered as powerful tool for investigating the physiological significance of leptin in chickens.

  3. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance

    PubMed Central

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C.; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  4. From similitude to success: The effects of facial resemblance on perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; He, Xin; Liu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Scant empirical research has focused on how impressions of teams are formed based on members' collective appearance, even though team photos are omnipresent in visual communications and teamwork is a common theme to elicit positive responses. Across 4 studies, we show that a subtle increase in the facial resemblance among team members enhances observers' evaluations of team effectiveness. This resemblance effect is mediated by perceived cooperative intent among team players. Furthermore, we demonstrate a reversal of the resemblance effect through the moderating role of information valence and extend the finding from team perception to behavioral intention. These results hold across different manipulations, contexts, stimuli, and sample characteristics. Collectively, this research presents the first empirical evidence that inferences based on facial morphology persist well beyond evaluations of individuals to influence the way a team, as a whole, is perceived.

  5. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  6. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  7. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  8. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  9. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

  10. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  11. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  12. Effects of age on intestinal phosphate transport and biochemical values of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. Methods A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. Results The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks). NaPi-IIb gene expression in the small intestine in the early growth stage was higher than that in the later growth stage. Expression of calbindin and the vitamin D receptor protein in the intestinal mucosa increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum. Serum AKP activity first increased and subsequently decreased after peaking at 1 week of age, but there was no significant difference after 3 weeks of age. Conclusion These results show that compared with the early growth stage, the weight-gain rate of broiler chickens in the late growth stage gradually decreased with gradual tibia maturation, along with weaker positive transport of phosphorus in the intestine and reinforced re-absorption of phosphorus in the kidney, which might be the reason that phosphorus requirement in the late growth stage was decreased. PMID:27703131

  13. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  14. Schwannoma of the biliary tract resembling cholangiocarcinoma: A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Sanz, I; Muñoz de Nova, JL; Valdés de Anca, A; Martín Pérez, ME

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign tumours derived from Schwann cells and are extremely rare in the biliary tract. We present the case of a 62-year-old patient with a common bile duct schwannoma that resembled a cholangiocarcinoma. We also review all 17 previously published cases of schwannoma of the biliary tract and discuss the challenges of preoperative diagnosis. PMID:27269434

  15. LINGAM AS A SACRED OBJECT AND THE HEAD-DRESS OF SUFI RESEMBLING IT

    PubMed Central

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1990-01-01

    This study scans into past of ancient man and discusses meticulously how the reproductive organ Lingam became sacred object to Hindus and why a sufi wore a phallus shaped head-dress resembling to it. In this manner the author demystifies here the procreation, the law of nature. PMID:22557692

  16. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  17. Ascites syndrome in SPF Light Sussex chickens.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L

    1991-11-01

    An ascites syndrome was induced in 17 to 28 per cent of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Light Sussex (LSX) chickens given a low protein (16 per cent crude protein) high calcium (3.5 per cent calcium) layer crumble feed on two separate occasions 6 months apart. Affected chickens had increased right ventricular weight as a proportion of either total heart weight or live-weight at 3 weeks of age, compared with non-affected LSX chickens on the same feed, thus indicating right ventricular hypertrophy. The incidence of ascites was not increased by infection with avian nephritis virus, nor by limited cold-stress during brooding. It was not produced in LSX chickens given other feeds, nor in SPF Rhode Island Red chickens.

  18. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    PubMed

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-08-21

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  19. Diversity and origin of South African chickens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Chimonyo, M; Groeneveld, E; Weigend, S; Dzama, K

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and structure of South African conserved and field chicken populations and to investigate the maternal lineages of these chicken populations. Four South African conserved chicken populations (n = 89), namely, Venda (VD_C), Ovambo, Naked Neck, and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, and 2 field populations, the Venda and Ovambo (OV_F), from which the Ovambo and the Venda conservation flocks were assumed to have been sampled, were genotyped for 460 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. Haplotypes of these chickens were aligned to 7 Japanese and 9 Chinese and Eurasian chicken mtDNA D-loop sequences taken from GenBank and reflecting populations from presumed centers of domestication. Sequence analysis revealed 48 polymorphic sites that defined 13 haplotypes in the South African chicken populations. All 6 South African conserved and field chicken populations observed were found to be polymorphic, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 3 for VD_C to 8 for OV_F. The lowest haplotype diversity, 0.54 ± 0.08, was observed in VD_C chickens, whereas the highest value, 0.88 ± 0.05, was observed in OV_F chickens. Genetic diversity between the 4 South African conserved and 2 field chicken populations constituted 12.34% of the total genetic variation, whereas within-population diversity constituted 87.66% of the total variation. The median network analysis of the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes observed in the South African conserved and field populations and the reference set resulted in 5 main clades. All 6 South African chickens were equally represented in the major clade, E, which is presumed to be of Indian subcontinent maternal origin and may have its roots in Southeast Asia. The results showed multiple maternal lineages of South African chickens. Conservation flocks and field chicken populations shared the major haplotypes A, D and E

  20. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W; Laven, Joop S E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M

    2009-05-01

    During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  1. Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter in raw retail chickens and imported chicken portions.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter isolates from raw retail chickens (n = 434) sampled between 1998 and 2000 were tested for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Among 208 campylobacters tested, more than 90% of isolates were susceptible to 4 out of 9 antibiotics (nalidixic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin). Most campylobacters were resistant to 3 antibiotics and multiple resistance was found in 4%. Ciprofloxacin resistance was 11%. Campylobacter contamination (28%) in imported chickens (n = 150) was almost half that found in local whole chickens (50%), but the resistance of imported isolates (n = 42) was similar to that of local campylobacters. Resistance in isolates from imported chicken breasts was generally more common, but to only 4 antibiotics. Resistance patterns of chicken isolates were compared to human clinical isolates (n = 494), and a greater similarity was found between the clinical and local isolates than with imported campylobacters. Lower chloramphenicol resistance was found in clinical Campylobacter isolates than in those from chicken sources. PMID:14959786

  2. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  3. A Family Resemblance Approach to the Nature of Science for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irzik, Gürol; Nola, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Although there is universal consensus both in the science education literature and in the science standards documents to the effect that students should learn not only the content of science but also its nature, there is little agreement about what that nature is. This led many science educators to adopt what is sometimes called "the consensus view" about the nature of science (NOS), whose goal is to teach students only those characteristics of science on which there is wide consensus. This is an attractive view, but it has some shortcomings and weaknesses. In this article we present and defend an alternative approach based on the notion of family resemblance. We argue that the family resemblance approach is superior to the consensus view in several ways, which we discuss in some detail.

  4. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax

    PubMed Central

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  5. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  6. Identification of Anthrax Toxin Genes in a Bacillus cereus Associated With An Illness Resembling Inhalation Anthrax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Identification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax Alex R. Hoffmaster*†, Jacques... Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax, an acute fatal disease among mammals. It was thought to differ from Bacillus cereus , an...correlation of phenotypic characteristics and their genetic basis. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis are members of a closelyrelated phylogenetic

  7. Familial resemblance for VO2max in the sedentary state: the HERITAGE family study.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, C; Daw, E W; Rice, T; Pérusse, L; Gagnon, J; Province, M A; Leon, A S; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H

    1998-02-01

    This study investigates the familial resemblance of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) based on data from 86 nuclear families of Caucasian descent participating in the HERITAGE Family Study. In the current study, VO2max was measured twice on a cycle ergometer in 429 sedentary individuals (170 parents and 259 of their offspring), aged between 16 and 65 yr. The VO2max was adjusted by regression procedures for the effects of 1) age and sex; 2) age, sex, and body mass; and 3) age, sex, body mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass, as determined by underwater weighing. Evidence for significant familial resemblance was observed for each of the three VO2max phenotypes. Spouse, sibling, and parent-offspring correlations were significant, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the familial resemblance for VO2max. Maximal heritability estimates were at least 50%, a value inflated to an undetermined degree by nongenetic factors. The hypothesis of maternal inheritance, with the father's contribution being environmental, was also found to fit the data with estimates of maternal heritability, potentially associated in part with mitochondrial inheritance, reaching about 30%. These results suggest that genetic and nongenetic factors as well as maternal influences contribute to the familial aggregation of VO2max in sedentary individuals.

  8. Cellular content of ubiquitin and formation of ubiquitin conjugates during chicken spermatogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Agell, N; Mezquita, C

    1988-01-01

    Ubiquitin was purified from chicken testis and its content, biosynthesis and formation of conjugates was determined in germinal cells at successive stages of spermatogenesis. Free ubiquitin increased markedly during spermatogenesis, reaching its maximum level in early spermatids. High levels of ubiquitin were still present in late spermatids but were not detectable in mature spermatozoa. Biosynthesis of ubiquitin occurred in vitro in a fraction containing meiotic and pre-meiotic cells, and during spermiogenesis, in early and late spermatids. The cellular content of free ubiquitin increased after ATP depletion, especially in early spermatids. Lysates of chicken testis cells, particularly those obtained from spermatids, were able to form nuclear (24 and 27 kDa) and extranuclear (55-90 kDa) ubiquitin conjugates in vitro. The presence of increasing levels of ubiquitin and ubiquitin conjugates in chicken spermatids may suggest a possible involvement of this protein in the marked changes of protein turnover, chromatin structure and cell-cell interactions that spermatids undergo during spermiogenesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 7. PMID:2839150

  9. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  10. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  11. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  12. Study of prenatal and postnatal development of spleen of Gallus Domesticus (deshi chicken).

    PubMed

    Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Rahman, M; Mannan, S; Ahmed, S; Ara, Z G; Sultana, Z R; Chowdhury, A I

    2009-07-01

    Spleen is one of the secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs along with cecal tonsils in birds. The growth of the spleen of Gallus Domesticus (deshi chicken) from prenatal embryonic day fifteen (ED15) to postnatal day ninety (D90) were studied. In macroscopic study it was found that the shape of the spleen was rounded with slightly flattened from side to side at its middle part at prenatal period (ED15, ED18) and becomes rounded at postnatal stages of the deshi chicken (D90). Regarding position it lies close to the right side of the junction between proventriculus and gizzard and was similar in prenatal and postnatal stages. The result of the present study revealed that the mean diameter and weight of the spleen in deshi chicken gradually increases with increase of age, which were 2.00+/-0.136mm and 0.007+/-0.00gm respectively at ED15 stage and it reaches upto 10.40+/-0.331mm and .303+/-0.004gm respectively at day 90 (D90). It was observed that the differences of diameter & weight of the spleen between different ages were statistically significant (p<0.01). Histologically the spleen was surrounded by thin capsule in prenatal life, which gradually becomes thicker in postnatal life. The splenic pulps were not differentiated into white and red pulp on 15th day of embryonic life (ED15) but they were gradually differentiated into white and red pulp in the late prenatal (ED18) and postnatal period. The growth and development of spleen at each stage of the study period were found to be significantly high. Present study indicates that chicken splenic cell population, structure and function were similar to human spleen histologically. It was also found that the chicken embryo allows easy experimental access to all the stages of the splenic development, so the present study will be helpful for experimentation on lymphoid organs and to understand pathophysiology of immunological diseases of human.

  13. Winter habitat use and survival of lesser prairie-chickens in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pirius, Nicholas E.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Wallace, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range since the late 1800s and is currently proposed for Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Populations and the distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas, USA, are thought to be at or near all-time lows. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We measured home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the non-breeding seasons (1 Sep-28 Feb) of 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in the West Texas panhandle region. Home range size did not differ among years or between females (503 ha) andmales (489 ha). Over 97% of locations of both male and female prairie-chickens were within 3.2 km of the lek of capture, and 99.9% were within 3.2 km of an available water source (i.e., livestock water tank). Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges; grassland-dominated areas with co-occurring sand shinnery oak were used more than available, but sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-dominated areas with grassland and sand sagebrush-dominated areas with bare ground were both used less than available. Survival rates during the first 2 non-breeding seasons (>80%) were among the highest reported for the species. However, survival during the third non-breeding season was only 57%, resulting in a 3-year average of 72%. It does not appear that non-breeding season mortality is a strong limiting factor in lesser prairie-chicken persistence in the study area.

  14. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  15. Multibubble Sonoluminescence Spectra of Water which Resemble Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, Y. T.; Gordeychuk, T. V.

    2000-06-01

    Multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) spectra of water from cavitation clouds were collected in the presence of different noble gases and at different acoustic intensities. Results show that at high acoustic intensity and with xenon as a dissolved gas the emission of the OH* radical becomes indiscernible from the continuum. These spectra resemble single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectra. It is concluded that the source of emission in MBSL and SBSL can be the same, the difference in spectra is due to the higher temperature inside the bubble during SBSL.

  16. Multibubble sonoluminescence spectra of water which resemble single-bubble sonoluminescence

    PubMed

    Didenko; Gordeychuk

    2000-06-12

    Multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) spectra of water from cavitation clouds were collected in the presence of different noble gases and at different acoustic intensities. Results show that at high acoustic intensity and with xenon as a dissolved gas the emission of the OH* radical becomes indiscernible from the continuum. These spectra resemble single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectra. It is concluded that the source of emission in MBSL and SBSL can be the same, the difference in spectra is due to the higher temperature inside the bubble during SBSL.

  17. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  18. Dermatitis and lymphadenitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in a four-year-old dog.

    PubMed

    Neuber, A E; van den Broek, A H M; Brownstein, D; Thoday, K L; Hill, P B

    2004-05-01

    A four-year-old, entire male toy poodle was presented with a two-and-a-half-week history of ocular discharge progressing to periorbital alopecia, depigmentation, alopecia and ulceration around the muzzle. There was also a haemorrhagic discharge from the ears, pyrexia, lethargy and generalised lymphadenopathy. The clinical, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of dermatitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in an adult dog. Glucocorticoid therapy led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs and the dog has remained in remission for two years after cessation of treatment.

  19. Purple, stiff lesions resembling varicose veins on lower limb: certainly consider Kaposi sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Gokhan; Cicek, Ali Fuat; Oz, Bilgehan Savas

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) typically presents multiple cutaneous lesions of the lower extremities. Lesions can rarely mimic varicose veins without venous insufficiency, vascular or stasis ulcers. As the initial diagnosis of KS is generally determined clinically, a high index of suspicion and palpation of lesions are necessary for all patients with atypical presentations of varicose-like lesions of lower extremities. Tissue biopsy with histological analysis is essential for all uncertain lesions. This is a case of KS occurring in a 79-year-old man who presented with indurated vascular plaques resembling varicose veins on the right foot. PMID:28096842

  20. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human beta-amyloid protein precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, D R; Martin-Morris, L; Luo, L Q; White, K

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human beta-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development. Images PMID:2494667

  1. Right atrial aneurysm with downward displacement of the anterior leaflet that resembled Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Sanae; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Kimura, Masaomi; Okumura, Ken; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2016-06-08

    A 13-year-old boy presented with right atrial aneurysm and downward displacement of the anterior leaflet in the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, without tricuspid valve regurgitation. Paroxysmal atrial flutter was caused by an abnormal electrical re-entry circuit, which could not be treated using catheter radiofrequency ablation. Therefore, the patient underwent surgical ablation and resection of the enlarged right atrial wall. The anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve was plastered and displaced downward into the right ventricle, which resembled Ebstein's anomaly. Pathological evaluation revealed a thin wall that contained fibrous tissue with lipomatous degeneration and few muscular elements. No postoperative arrhythmia was observed.

  2. Spectral transformation of the unusual variable star MWC560 to resemble a nova

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Sonneborn, George

    1991-01-01

    A dramatic change has occurred in the ultraviolet spectrum of the emission-line star MWC560, so that it now closely resembles the spectrum of a nova shortly after outburst. This event may signal a major mass-ejection episode such as presumably occurred in past centuries in the symbiotic star R Aquarii to produce the well-known bipolar nebula, and it may herald the emergence of a standard symbiotic-star emission-line spectrum in MWC560, corresponding to a change in evolutionary state.

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  4. Ecology and conservation of Lesser Prairie-Chickens in sand shinnery oak prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisham, Blake A.; Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Behney, Adam C.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Lucia, Duane R.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) prairies are unique ecosystems endemic to sandy soils of eastern New Mexico, northwestern Texas, and western Oklahoma; the historic and current distribution of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) overlaps these prairie systems. Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations in sand shinnery oak prairies of the Southern Great Plains have declined substantially since the late 1980s, most likely due to conversion of nesting and brood-rearing habitat to row-crop agriculture and extended periods of drought. In addition to threats universal throughout the species distribution, this population is susceptible to a changing climate in an area that is already representative of an extreme environment for ground-nesting birds. Recent studies of Lesser Prairie-Chicken ecology in sand shinnery oak prairies have expanded our knowledge on the ecology and management of the species, but a thorough review of the historic and current literature is lacking. In addition, current management guidelines exist for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in mixed grass and sand sagebrush prairies, but there are no comprehensive management guidelines for the species in sand shinnery oak prairies. This information is paramount given unique aspects of the vegetation community, relative ecosystem drivers, and environmental variation in sand shinnery oak prairie and the species’ current status as a proposed threatened species under the United States Endangered Species Act. Herein, we provide a thorough synthesis of literature pertaining to the life history, habitat requirements, habitat management, and population management for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in sand shinnery oak prairie, provide management guidelines and recommendations for the species in this ecoregion, and highlight current and future research needs. Within our objectives, we place emphasis on two recently completed long-term investigations into Lesser Prairie-Chicken ecology in sand shinnery oak prairie

  5. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  6. The chicken alimentary tract and factors that influence feed passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken alimentary track differs in several ways from most other domestic food production animals. Chickens are considered monogastric omnivores although their stomach consists of two adjacent segments; the chemical proventriculus followed by the mechanical ventriculus (gizzard). The names used ...

  7. 1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CHICKEN HOUSE. SOUTH AND WEST FACADES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Chicken House, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  8. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  9. Erosive rhinitis resembling granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in an Anatolian shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Marlies; Basson, Sandra

    2015-04-21

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) is one of the idiopathicimmune-mediated small-vessel vasculitides described in humans which are characterised by the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. It most commonly involves capillaries, venules and arterioles of the ear, nose and throat, lungs and glomeruli. A case of destructive haemopurulent rhinitis associated with relapsing periods of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness as well as generalised pulmonary infiltrates in a young Anatolian shepherd dog is presented that closely resembles granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) as reported in humans. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) were detected in the dog's serum. Signs resolved promptly and completely once immunosuppressive doses of prednisone were administered, and have not recurred. This is the first report onthe use of pANCA to investigate rhinitis in dogs. It is also, to the authors' knowledge, the first description of a relapsing haemopurulent lytic rhinitis in this species. The concurrent manifestations of erosive haemopurulent rhinitis, ground-glass opacities on pulmonary computed tomography, pyrexia and listlessness resemble GPA as described in humans.

  10. Sclerosing cholangitis in baboons (Papio spp) resembling primary sclerosing cholangitis of humans.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Gamboa, A M; Bearss, J J; Hubbard, G B; Porter, B F; Owston, M A; Dick, E J

    2012-05-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease that has been extensively documented in the human literature. Although it shares many features in common with chronic lymphocytic cholangitis in cats, primary sclerosing cholangitis has never been reported in a nonhuman primate. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is characterized by the presence of intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic inflammation and concentric fibrosis of bile ducts, eventually leading to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The pathogenesis and cause remain unknown, but the disease likely involves a multifactorial mechanism with genetic- and immune-mediated components. The authors report 2 cases that histologically resemble the condition in humans; they consist of 2 adult male baboons with a clinical history of chronic elevated liver enzymes. In both cases, the liver was histologically characterized by thick bands of fibrosis and mild lymphoplasmacytic periportal cholangiohepatitis with concentric periductal fibrosis, resulting in atrophy and loss of bile ducts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positivity of hepatocytes to cytokeratin 7. Masson stain demonstrated marked biliary fibrosis. This is the first report that resembles sclerosing cholangitis in a nonhuman primate, and it suggests that the baboon may provide a useful animal model for this condition in humans.

  11. Cyproheptadine resembles clozapine in vivo following both acute and chronic administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew J; Cooper, Gillian D; Cole, Jon C; Sumnall, Harry R

    2007-03-01

    Cyproheptadine is a cheap, widely available anti-allergy drug with a broad receptor binding profile which resembles that of clozapine. In rats discriminating clozapine from vehicle cyproheptadine mimicked clozapine very closely. Acutely it induced full generalization in the absence of response suppression, as observed with clozapine. Chronic administration of clozapine and cyproheptadine induced tolerance and cross-tolerance respectively to the clozapine stimulus. This was characterized by circa 3.5-fold parallel shifts to the right in the clozapine generalization curves. Such tolerance and cross-tolerance was spontaneously reversible, suggesting that it was pharmacodynamic, and that clozapine and cyproheptadine induce similar neuroadaptations when administered chronically. Administration of chlordiazepoxide at a very high dose induced no cross-tolerance to the clozapine stimulus showing the pharmacological specificity of tolerance. The clozapine stimulus is a compound cue involving actions at various receptors, and various clozapine-like antipsychotic (APD) drugs generalize fully to it. These data demonstrate that in vivo cyproheptadine resembles clozapine both acutely and chronically. Our findings, in conjunction with other actions of cyproheptadine -- induction of weight gain, alleviation of clozapine withdrawal, anxiolytic actions, alleviation of 'typical' APD-induced motoric side effects, and some preliminary clinical findings -- suggest that further study of cyproheptadine in conjunction with a 'typical' APD for the possible treatment of schizophrenia is merited at both pre-clinical and clinical levels.

  12. Familial resemblance of borderline personality disorder features: genetic or cultural transmission?

    PubMed

    Distel, Marijn A; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Willemsen, Gonneke; Derom, Catherine A; Trull, Timothy J; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a severe personality disorder for which genetic research has been limited to family studies and classical twin studies. These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features. However, effects of non-additive (dominance) genetic factors, non-random mating and cultural transmission have generally not been explored. In the present study an extended twin-family design was applied to self-report data of twins (N = 5,017) and their siblings (N = 1,266), parents (N = 3,064) and spouses (N = 939) from 4,015 families, to estimate the effects of additive and non-additive genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission and non-random mating on individual differences in borderline personality features. Results showed that resemblance among biological relatives could completely be attributed to genetic effects. Variation in borderline personality features was explained by additive genetic (21%; 95% CI 17-26%) and dominant genetic (24%; 95% CI 17-31%) factors. Environmental influences (55%; 95% CI 51-60%) explained the remaining variance. Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance). There was no effect of cultural transmission from parents to offspring.

  13. Low-salt restructured fish products from Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with texture resembling turkey breast.

    PubMed

    Martelo-Vidal, M J; Mesas, J M; Vázquez, M

    2012-06-01

    Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is a pelagic and migratory species that is usually caught with other fish as bycatch. The aim of this work was to obtain low-salt restructured fish products from Atlantic mackerel resembling turkey breast using transglutaminase (0.2 U/g) as binder. NaCl concentration (0-20 g/kg), temperature (25-40 °C) and time of incubation (30-90 min) were assayed. The texture parameters (Warner-Bratzler force and Warner-Bratzler work) and expressible water were compared to those of turkey breast. Mathematical models were obtained to determine the effect of these variables on the texture of Atlantic mackerel restructured products. Optimal conditions to obtain a similar texture than turkey breast were found. The overall optimization point out that the treatment at 31.8 °C for 63.35 min using a NaCl concentration of 8.45 g/kg allowed to obtain restructured products from Atlantic mackerel with texture and expressible water similar to those of turkey breast. Color parameters (L*, a* and b*) of the product were also similar to those of turkey breast. The results showed the feasibility of producing low-salt restructured products from Atlantic mackerel resembling turkey breast using transglutaminase.

  14. The Chicken Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hawkridge, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    The chicken is a unique experimental model for studying the spontaneous onset and progression of ovarian cancer (OVC). The prevalence of OVC in chickens can range from 10–35% depending on age, genetic strain, reproductive history, and diet. Furthermore, the chicken presents epidemiological, morphological, and molecular traits that are similar to human OVC making it a relevant experimental model for translation research. Similarities to humans include associated increased risk of OVC with the number of ovulations, common histopathological sub-types including high-grade serous, and molecular-level markers or pathways such as CA-125 expression and p53 mutation frequency. Collectively, the similarities between chicken and human OVC combined with a tightly controlled genetic background and predictable onset window provides an outstanding experimental model for studying the early events and progression of spontaneous OVC tumors under controlled environmental conditions. This review will cover the existing literature on OVC in the chicken and highlight potential opportunities for further exploitation (e.g, biomarkers, prevention, treatment, and genomics). PMID:25130871

  15. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  16. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  17. SN2009ip at Very Late Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigley, Andrew Christopher; Graham, Melissa Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The 2012 eruption of SN 2009ip resembled a Type IIn supernovae, dominated by emission from interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material, but the question remains: was the 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip truly the terminal explosion of a massive star? We present time series photometric and spectroscopic data for the transient SN2009ip from 260 to 1026 days after the peak of its 2012 outburst. These data were collected at the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network and Keck Observatory. We will show that SN 2009ip continues to decline linearly in brightness at very late epochs, analyze the evolution in flux and asymmetry of the Balmer emission lines, and investigate the geometry of the circumstellar material from the progenitor star system and the true nature of SN 2009ip.

  18. Zooidogamy in the Late Permian genus Glossopteris.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2004-08-01

    We describe details of anatomically preserved fossil glossopterid ovules from the Late Permian of Queensland, Australia, that contain several pollen tubes at various stages of releasing flagellated sperm. Each sperm is approximately 12.7 microm long and 13.9 microm wide, with a conspicuous spiral structure comprised of a series of dots that resemble the position of basal bodies of flagella aligned along the multilayered structure (MLS). This configuration is similar to the helically arranged flagella in the sperm of cycads, Ginkgo, and many pteridophytes. However, the motile gametes of Glossopteris are considerably smaller than those of Ginkgo and cycads, and more similar in size, number of basal bodies, and number of gyres in their helix to pteridophyte forms. Glossopteris thus shares the intermediate stage of motile male gamete formation and apparently that of haustorial pollen tubes with cycads and Ginkgo.

  19. The heat-pipe resembling action of boiling bubbles in endovenous laser ablation.

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Cees W M; van den Bos, Renate R; van Ruijven, Peter W M; Nijsten, Tamar; Neumann, H A Martino; van Gemert, Martin J C

    2010-11-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) produces boiling bubbles emerging from pores within the hot fiber tip and traveling over a distal length of about 20 mm before condensing. This evaporation-condensation mechanism makes the vein act like a heat pipe, where very efficient heat transport maintains a constant temperature, the saturation temperature of 100 degrees C, over the volume where these non-condensing bubbles exist. During EVLA the above-mentioned observations indicate that a venous cylindrical volume with a length of about 20 mm is kept at 100 degrees C. Pullback velocities of a few mm/s then cause at least the upper part of the treated vein wall to remain close to 100 degrees C for a time sufficient to cause irreversible injury. In conclusion, we propose that the mechanism of action of boiling bubbles during EVLA is an efficient heat-pipe resembling way of heating of the vein wall.

  20. Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction?

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Marks, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting.

  1. Discovery of crystalline inclusions in Bacillus licheniformis that resemble parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Roehrl, Michael H; Wang, Julia Y

    2007-09-01

    Crystalline inclusions were discovered in stationary and sporulating cells of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a. As detected by electron microscopy, dying or sporulating bacterial cells contain a single crystal of strikingly large size. The crystals in sporulating cells are located next to nascent spores and can be several times larger than the spores. Morphologically, most crystals are rhomboid with uniformly spaced grids. These newly discovered crystalline inclusions of B. licheniformis closely resemble parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis that are formed by insecticidal toxin proteins and used widely as biopesticides. The taxonomic identity of this strain was verified by its 16S rRNA gene sequence and its fatty acid profile. The finding of crystal proteins in B. licheniformis may lead to the discovery of new protein toxins and may expand our pool of biopesticides.

  2. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Kavaklieva, S.; Yordanova, I.; Bruckner-Tuderman, L.; Has, C.

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741–1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult. PMID:24019772

  3. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

    2014-07-01

    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator.

  4. Frontal lobe epilepsy with atypical seizure semiology resembling shuddering attacks or wet dog shake seizures.

    PubMed

    Jahodova, Alena; Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Kudr, Martin; Kyncl, Martin; Zamecnik, Josef; Tichy, Michal

    2012-03-01

    We report a girl with a drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia, who exhibited uncommon seizures. The seizures consisted of shoulder or whole body shuddering after a short psychic aura and face grimacing. Consciousness was fully preserved. The seizures resembled "wet dog shake" seizures described in rat models of epilepsy or shuddering attacks in infants. EEG findings were inconclusive, however, MRI showed a clear dysplastic lesion in the right frontal mesial and polar structures. The patient underwent an extended lesionectomy guided by neuronavigation and intraoperative electrocorticography. Focal cortical dysplasia type Ib was histologically confirmed and the patient has been seizure-free for the three years following resection. [Published with video sequences].

  5. Progressive hereditary hearing impairment caused by a MYO6 mutation resembles presbyacusis.

    PubMed

    Oonk, A M M; Leijendeckers, J M; Lammers, E M; Weegerink, N J D; Oostrik, J; Beynon, A J; Huygen, P L M; Kunst, H P M; Kremer, H; Snik, A F M; Pennings, R J E

    2013-05-01

    Since deafness is the most common sensorineural disorder in humans, better understanding of the underlying causes is necessary to improve counseling and rehabilitation. A Dutch family with autosomal dominantly inherited sensorineural hearing loss was clinically and genetically assessed. The MYO6 gene was selected to be sequenced because of similarities with other, previously described DFNA22 phenotypes and a pathogenic c.3610C > T (p.R1204W) mutation was found to co-segregate with the disease. This missense mutation results in a flat configured audiogram with a mild hearing loss, which becomes severe to profound and gently to steeply downsloping later in life. The age-related typical audiograms (ARTA) constructed for this family resemble presbyacusis. Speech audiometry and results of loudness scaling support the hypothesis that the phenotype of this specific MYO6 mutation mimics presbyacusis.

  6. Silica deposits on Mars with features resembling hot spring biosignatures at El Tatio in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, Steven W.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2016-11-01

    The Mars rover Spirit encountered outcrops and regolith composed of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2.nH2O) in an ancient volcanic hydrothermal setting in Gusev crater. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Here we report remarkably similar features within active hot spring/geyser discharge channels at El Tatio in northern Chile, where halite-encrusted silica yields infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, we show that the nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures.

  7. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  8. Extraocular muscle dysinnervation disorder resembling Duane retraction syndrome in a 9-month-old French Bulldog.

    PubMed

    Mari, Lorenzo; Blacklock, Benjamin T; Stavinohova, Renata; De Risio, Luisa

    2016-06-18

    A 9-month-old French Bulldog was presented with a chronic history of lateral strabismus and intermittent third eyelid protrusion in the left eye. The neuro-ophthalmological examination revealed mild ptosis of the left upper eyelid, mild lateral strabismus, and external ophthalmoparesis of the left eye. Retraction and ventral deviation of the left eye globe with protrusion of the third eyelid and elevation of the upper eyelid were elicited on attempted voluntary adduction of the left eye. Hematology, serum biochemistry, serology for infectious diseases, magnetic resonance of the head, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not reveal significant abnormalities. Forced duction test did not show signs of mechanical restriction in ocular motility. A suspected congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder resembling Duane retraction syndrome in humans was diagnosed based on the typical clinical signs and exclusion of structural abnormalities. The clinical signs remained stable for 9 months until the time of writing this report.

  9. Functional expression of chicken calmodulin in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Y; Anraku, Y

    1989-01-31

    The coding region of a chicken calmodulin cDNA was fused to a galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter, and an expression system was constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of calmodulin was demonstrated by purifying the heterologously expressed protein and analyzing its biochemical properties. When the expression plasmid was introduced into a calmodulin gene (cmd1)-disrupted strain of yeast, the cells grew in galactose medium, showing that chicken calmodulin could complement the lesion of yeast calmodulin functionally. Repression of chicken calmodulin in the (cmd1)-disrupted strain caused cell cycle arrest with a G2/M nucleus, as observed previously with a conditional-lethal mutant of yeast calmodulin. These results suggest that the essential function of calmodulin for cell proliferation is conserved in cells ranging from yeast to vertebrate cells.

  10. Iron absorption by small intestine of chickens.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, M P; Martí, M T; Mitjavila, M T; Planas, J

    1993-01-01

    Iron (Fe) absorption by three segments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) of the small intestine of chickens was studied by a perfusion technique in vivo in closed circuit using 59Fe Cl3 and was related to the histological characteristics of each segment. The serosal transfers of Fe for the duodenum and jejunum were the same (14%/cm), but significantly different (p < 0.05) from those of the ileum (9%/cm), which may be explained by the morphological and histological properties of the gut of chickens. However, the presence of Fe in blood and in liver was significantly lower after perfusion of the jejunum and ileum than after perfusion of the duodenum. It is concluded that chickens show an early adaptation of small intestine to Fe absorption in response to the considerable loss of Fe suffered during the laying process.

  11. A myopathy associated with protozoan schizonts in chickens in commercial farms in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Opitz, H M; Jakob, H J; Wiensenhuetter, E; Devi, V V

    1982-01-01

    A myopathy associated with elongated intramuscular protozoan schizonts of uncertain classification was observed in chickens in commercial farms. Of 152 affected fowls originating from 21 flocks in 12 farms, 149 were 24 weeks of age or older and 136 were broiler breeder birds. Both sexes were affected. The disease was only observed during the months of October, November and December, 1976 and 1977. The monthly mortality rate in affected adult flocks rose by 0.5% to 4% and the egg production declined by 5% to 15% during this period. Most affected birds were in good body condition or overweight. Gross lesions were usually present in all skeletal muscles and the cardiac muscle. They resembled nutritional myopathy, sarcosporidiosis, leucocytozoonosis or haemorrhagic syndrome. Microscopically visible elongated schizonts were demonstrated in skeletal muscles and the cardiac muscle in 49 of 55 birds examined histologically. The possible aetiology with respect to known parasites of muscles in fowls is discussed.

  12. Contact pair dynamics during folding of two small proteins: Chicken villin head piece and the Alzheimer protein β-amyloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Bagchi, Biman

    2004-01-01

    The folding of an extended protein to its unique native state requires establishment of specific, predetermined, often distant, contacts between amino acid residue pairs. The dynamics of contact pair formation between various hydrophobic residues during folding of two different small proteins, the chicken villin head piece (HP-36) and the Alzheimer protein β-amyloid (βA-40), are investigated by Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. These two proteins represent two very different classes—HP-36 being globular while βA-40 is nonglobular, stringlike. Hydropathy scale and nonlocal helix propensity of amino acids are used to model the complex interaction potential among the various amino acid residues. The minimalistic model we use here employs a connected backbone chain of atoms of equal size while an amino acid is attached to each backbone atom as an additional atom of differing sizes and interaction parameters, determined by the characteristics of each amino acid. Even for such simple models, we find that the low-energy structures obtained by BD simulations of both the model proteins mimic the native state of the real protein rather well, with a best root-mean-square deviation of 4.5 Å for HP-36. For βA-40 (where a single well-defined structure is not available), the simulated structures resemble the reported ensemble rather well, with the well-known β-bend correctly reproduced. We introduce and calculate a contact pair distance time correlation function, CPij(t), to quantify the dynamical evolution of the pair contact formation between the amino acid residue pairs i and j. The contact pair time correlation function exhibits multistage dynamics, including a two stage fast collapse, followed by a slow (microsecond long) late stage dynamics for several specific pairs. The slow late stage dynamics is in accordance with the findings of Sali et al. [A. Sali, E. Shakhnovich, and M. Karplus, Nature 369, 248 (1994)]. Analysis of the individual trajectories shows that

  13. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  14. Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

    1992-01-01

    The large, aggregating chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of cartilage, aggrecan, has served as a generic model of proteoglycan structure. Molecular cloning of aggrecans has further defined their amino acid sequences and domain structures. In this study, we have obtained the complete coding sequence of chicken sternal cartilage aggrecan by a combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. The composite sequence is 6117 bp in length, encoding 1951 amino acids. Comparison of chicken aggrecan protein primary structure with rat, human and bovine aggrecans has disclosed both similarities and differences. The domains which are most highly conserved at 70-80% identity are the N-terminal domains G1 and G2 and the C-terminal domain G3. The chondroitin sulphate domain of chicken aggrecan is smaller than that of rat and human aggrecans and has very distinctive repeat sequences. It has two separate sections, one comprising 12 consecutive Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 20 amino acids each, adjacent to the other which has 23 discontinuous Ser-Gly-Glu repeats of 10 amino acids each; this latter region, N-terminal to the former one, appears to be unique to chicken aggrecan. The two regions contain a total of 94 potential chondroitin sulphate attachment sites. Genomic comparison shows that, although chicken exons 11-14 are identical in size to the rat and human exons, chicken exon 10 is the smallest of the three species. This is also reflected in the size of its chondroitin sulphate coding region and in the total number of Ser-Gly pairs. The putative keratan sulphate domain shows 31-45% identity with the other species and lacks the repetitive sequences seen in the others. In summary, while the linear arrangement of specific domains of chicken aggrecan is identical to that in the aggrecans of other species, and while there is considerable identity of three separate domains, chicken aggrecan demonstrates unique features, notably in its chondroitin sulphate domain and its keratan sulphate

  15. The Effect of Perceived Parent–Child Facial Resemblance on Parents’ Trait Anxiety: The Moderating Effect of Parents’ Gender

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Quanlei; Zhang, Qiuying; Chen, Jianwen; Jin, Shenghua; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Cai, Weiting

    2016-01-01

    Father–child facial resemblance is an important cue for men to evaluate paternity. Previous studies found that fathers’ perceptions of low facial resemblance with offspring lead to low confidence of paternity. Fathers’ uncertainty of paternity could cause psychological stress and anxiety, which, after a long time, may further turn into trait anxiety. Conversely, females can ensure a biological connection with offspring because of internal fertilization. The purpose of this study was thus to examine the role of parents’ gender in the effect of parents’ perceived facial resemblance with child on their trait anxiety. In this study, 151 parents (father or mother) from one-child families reported their facial resemblance with child and their trait anxiety. Results showed that (i) males tended to perceive higher facial similarity with child than did females and (ii) males’ perceived facial resemblance with child significantly predicted trait anxiety, whereas females’ perceived facial resemblance did not. These findings suggested that the uncertainty of paternity contributed to the trait anxiety of fathers, but not mothers. PMID:27199876

  16. Initial contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to acquire data on contamination of chicken parts with Salmonella at retail and to acquire data on cross-contamination of cooked chicken with Salmonella from raw chicken during meal preparation. Whole raw chickens (n = 31) were obtained from local retail stores and cut into two wings, two breasts without skin or bones, two thighs, and two drumsticks. Data for cross-contamination were obtained by cutting up a sterile, cooked chicken breast with the same board and knife used to cut up the raw chicken. The board, knife, and latex gloves used by the food handler were not rinsed or washed before cutting up the sterile, cooked chicken breast, thus providing a worst-case scenario for cross-contamination. Standard curves for the concentration of Salmonella bacteria in 400 ml of buffered peptone water after 6 h of incubation of chicken parts as a function of the initial log number of Salmonella bacteria inoculated onto chicken parts were developed and used to enumerate Salmonella bacteria. Standard curves were not affected by the type of chicken part but did differ (P < 0.05) among the five isolates of Salmonella examined. Consequently, Salmonella bacteria were enumerated on naturally contaminated chicken parts using a standard curve developed with the serotype of Salmonella that was isolated from the original sample. The prevalence of contamination was 3 % (4 of 132), whereas the incidence of cross-contamination was 1.8 % (1 of 57). The positive chicken parts were a thigh from chicken 4, which contained 3 CFU of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky, and both wings, one thigh, and one cooked breast portion from chicken 15, which all contained 1 CFU of serotype 8,20:-:z(6). These results indicated that the poultry industry is providing consumers in the studied area with chicken that has a low prevalence and low number of Salmonella bacteria at retail and that has a low incidence and low level of cross-contamination of cooked chicken with

  17. Embryonic development and inviability phenotype of chicken-Japanese quail F1 hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid incompatibility, including inviability and sterility, is important in speciation; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown in vertebrates. Crosses between male chickens and female Japanese quails using artificial insemination can generate intergeneric hybrids; however, the hatching rate is low, and hatched hybrids are only sterile males. Hybrid development is arrested frequently during the early embryonic stages, and the sex ratio of living embryos is male-biased. However, the development and sex ratio of hybrid embryos have not been comprehensively analyzed. In the present study, we observed delayed embryonic development of chicken-quail hybrids during the early stage, compared with that of chickens and quails. The survival rate of hybrids decreased markedly during the blastoderm-to-pre-circulation stage and then decreased gradually through the subsequent stages. Hybrid females were observed at more than 10 d of incubation; however, the sex ratio of hybrids became male-biased from 10 d of incubation. Severely malformed embryos were observed frequently in hybrids. These results suggest that developmental arrest occurs at various stages in hybrid embryos, including a sexually non-biased arrest during the early stage and a female-biased arrest during the late stage. We discuss the genetic basis for hybrid inviability and its sex bias. PMID:27199007

  18. Comparative pathologic features and development of Sphaeridiotrema globulus (Trematoda) infections in the mute swan and domestic chicken and chicken chorioallantois.

    PubMed

    Huffman, J E; Fried, B; Roscoe, D E; Cali, A

    1984-02-01

    The natural infection of Sphaeridiotrema globulus in the mute swan and the experimental infection in the chicken resulted in an ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis. Swans and chickens died from the resultant blood loss. Culturing of the parasite on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chicken egg resulted in hemorrhage and a cellular response of the chorioallantois to the trematode. Experimental infections in the domestic chicken and chicken embryo can be of use for the study of ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis produced by the trematode, pathologic features, identification of the metacercaria to the adult, and developmental aspects of the parasite.

  19. Establishing the validity of domestication genes using DNA from ancient chickens.

    PubMed

    Girdland Flink, Linus; Allen, Richard; Barnett, Ross; Malmström, Helena; Peters, Joris; Eriksson, Jonas; Andersson, Leif; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2014-04-29

    Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding of the importance of these genes during the initial stages of the domestication process traditionally rests on the assumption that robust inferences about the past can be made on the basis of modern genetic datasets. A growing body of evidence from ancient DNA studies, however, has revealed that ancient and even historic populations often bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. Here, we test the temporal context of selection on specific genetic loci known to differentiate modern domestic chickens from their extant wild ancestors. We extracted DNA from 80 ancient chickens excavated from 12 European archaeological sites, dated from ∼ 280 B.C. to the 18th century A.D. We targeted three unlinked genetic loci: the mitochondrial control region, a gene associated with yellow skin color (β-carotene dioxygenase 2), and a putative domestication gene thought to be linked to photoperiod and reproduction (thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, TSHR). Our results reveal significant variability in both nuclear genes, suggesting that the commonality of yellow skin in Western breeds and the near fixation of TSHR in all modern chickens took place only in the past 500 y. In addition, mitochondrial variation has increased as a result of recent admixture with exotic breeds. We conclude by emphasizing the perils of inferring the past from modern genetic data alone.

  20. Establishing the validity of domestication genes using DNA from ancient chickens

    PubMed Central

    Girdland Flink, Linus; Allen, Richard; Barnett, Ross; Malmström, Helena; Peters, Joris; Eriksson, Jonas; Andersson, Leif; Dobney, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding of the importance of these genes during the initial stages of the domestication process traditionally rests on the assumption that robust inferences about the past can be made on the basis of modern genetic datasets. A growing body of evidence from ancient DNA studies, however, has revealed that ancient and even historic populations often bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. Here, we test the temporal context of selection on specific genetic loci known to differentiate modern domestic chickens from their extant wild ancestors. We extracted DNA from 80 ancient chickens excavated from 12 European archaeological sites, dated from ∼280 B.C. to the 18th century A.D. We targeted three unlinked genetic loci: the mitochondrial control region, a gene associated with yellow skin color (β-carotene dioxygenase 2), and a putative domestication gene thought to be linked to photoperiod and reproduction (thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, TSHR). Our results reveal significant variability in both nuclear genes, suggesting that the commonality of yellow skin in Western breeds and the near fixation of TSHR in all modern chickens took place only in the past 500 y. In addition, mitochondrial variation has increased as a result of recent admixture with exotic breeds. We conclude by emphasizing the perils of inferring the past from modern genetic data alone. PMID:24753608

  1. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  2. Chicken IL-17F: Identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-Infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), belonging to the IL-17 family, is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was first identified from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of chickens. The chIL-17F share...

  3. Evaluation of factors influencing the development of late Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression: virus pathotype and host sex.

    PubMed

    Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Guy, James S; Fletcher, Oscar J; Cimino, Thomas; Gimeno, Isabel M

    2017-02-02

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is complex and can be divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS associated with cytolytic infection in the lymphoid organs in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MDV (MAbs) and late-MDV-IS that appears later in the pathogenesis and occurs even in chickens bearing MAbs. We have recently developed a model to reproduce late-MDV-IS under laboratory conditions. This model evaluates late-MDV-IS indirectly by assessing the effect of MDV infection on the efficacy of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines against challenge with infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In the present study we have used this model to investigate the role of two factors (MDV pathotype and host sex) on the development of late-MDV-IS. Five MDV strains representing three different pathotypes: virulent (617A, GA), very virulent (Md5) and very virulent plus (648A, 686) were evaluated. Only very virulent plus (vv+) strains were able to induce late-MDV-IS. An immunosuppressive rank (IS-rank) was established based on the ability of MDV to reduce efficacy of CEO vaccine (values go from 0 to 100, being 100 the highest immunosuppressive ability). The IS-rank of the evaluated MDV strains ranged from 5.97 (GA) to 20.8 (617A) in the vMDV strains, 5.97 to 16.24 in the vvMDV strain Md5, and 39.08 to 68.2 in the vv+ strain 648A and 686. In this study both male and female chickens were equally susceptible to MDV-IS induced by vv+MDV 686. Our findings suggest that late-MDV-IS is a unique feature of vv+ strains.

  4. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  5. Comparison of the actions of porcine secretin and extracts of chicken duodenum on pancreatic exocrine secretion in the cat and turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Dockray, G J

    1975-01-01

    1. Extracts were prepared of chicken duodenum and their actions on pancreatic secretion in urethane anasthetized turkeys and in conscious cats were compared with those of pure natural porcine secretin. 2. The chicken extracts and porcine secretin stimulated dose-dependent increases in the rate of flow, but not the rate of protein secretion, from the pancreas in cats and turkeys. 3. Porcine cholecystokinin stimulated both the rate of flow and the rate of protein secretion from the pancrease in turkeys. 4. The doses of chicken extract required to evoke half maximal rates of flow of pancreatic juice were similar in the turkey (0-55 mg/kg) and in the cat (0-72 mg/kg). The highest concentration of bicarbonate recorded in the turkey responses was 30 m-equiv/l. compared with 112 m-equiv/l. in the cat. 5. The dose of porcine secretin required for half maximal rate of flow in the bird (5-9 mug/kg) was 180 times higher than in the mammal (0-33 mug/kg). In the cat the duration of responses to porcine secretin was significantly greater than to the chicken extract. 6. It is concluded that in birds there is a factor with biological properties similar but not identical to those of porcine secretin, and that this factor may regulate pancreatic secretion by a mechanism resembling the secretin mechanism in mammals. PMID:1133774

  6. Three geese resembling Gray-Bellied Brant/Lawrence's Brant from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; Mitra, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Three oddly plumaged brant, intermediate in several respects between 'Atlantic' or 'Pale-bellied Brant' (hrota) and ?Black Brant? (nigricans) were photographed and described on western Long Island, New York during 2002 (two in March, the third in October). Their plumage corresponded to that of the little-studied, and apparently genetically distinctive small population known among goose biologists as 'Gray-bellied Brant,' which breeds only on a few islands in the western Canadian High Arctic, stages in migration in the inner Aleutians, and winters in a small portion of the Greater Puget Sound area. But Gray-bellied Brant also wander, having recently been found in winter as far from Puget Sound as Baja California in the west, and Iceland and the British Isles to the east?these strays presumably having migrated southwest with Pacific-wintering nigricans and southeast with Atlantic-wintering hrota, respectively. Despite their tendency to associate with locally wintering hrota and nigricans, mixed pairs or hybrid young involving these vagrants have never been demonstrated in North America?nor have mixed pairs or hybrid young between hrota and nigricans, despite widespread belief to the contrary. Complicating the picture is that the type specimen of nigricans, a distinctive New Jersey specimen collected in 1846, also differs from 'true' Pacific Coast Black Brant in several respects, in a manner qualitatively similar to the LI birds described herein. The appearance of the type, often referred to informally as 'Lawrence?s Brant,' differs from typical Black Brant to such an extent that Delacour and Zimmer (1952) rejected application of nigricans to Pacific Black Brant, to which the name orientalis would have to be applied instead. Recent examination of museum specimens of breeding- and winter-area Gray-bellies confirms that Lawrence?s Brant closely resembles some of them?as do these three Long Island birds. Whatever the ultimate statuses of Gray-bellied and Lawrence's Brant

  7. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  8. Effects of Hatching Time on Behavior and Weight Development of Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Løtvedt, Pia; Jensen, Per

    2014-01-01

    The length of the embryonic period varies both among and within species and can affect the individual phenotype in many ways, both physiologically and behaviorally. In chickens, the hatch window may last 24–48 hours (up to 10% of the incubation time), and studies have shown that incubation length may affect post-hatch growth and physiology. However, little is known about effects on behavior. We therefore investigated how behavior variation correlates with hatching time in the early life of chickens. We also measured egg weight and egg weight loss in relation to hatching time, as well as post-hatch growth. For females, there was a negative correlation between hatch time and body weight from day 4 and throughout the experiment. For males, such a correlation was only observed when testing all hatched males up until day 10. The birds were exposed to a number of behavioral tests, and a principal components analysis was performed on the variables, resulting in four components. For the largest component, termed “Passivity”, a tendency of a difference was found between early and middle male hatchers. Furthermore, a significant difference between early and middle male hatchers was found in the second component, termed “Response to novelty”. In a spatial learning test, late hatchers tended to learn slower. The behavior of females was not significantly affected by hatching time in any of these tests. This study is among the first to demonstrate a link between time of hatching and early behavior in a precocial species like the chicken, and may help shedding light on the evolutionary trade-offs between incubation length and post-hatch traits. The results may also be relevant from a perspective of stress coping and therefore also for animal welfare and productivity in the chicken industry. The mechanisms linking hatching time with post-hatch phenotype remain to be investigated. PMID:25058654

  9. Characterization of glucagon-expressing neurons in the chicken retina

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andy J.; Skorupa, Dana; Schonberg, David L.; Walton, Nathaniel A.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently identified large glucagon-expressing neurons that densely ramify neurites in the peripheral edge of the retina and regulate the proliferation of progenitors in the circumferential marginal zone (CMZ) of the postnatal chicken eye (Fischer et al., 2005). However, nothing is known about the transmitters and proteins that are expressed by the glucagon-expressing neurons in the avian retina. We used antibodies to cell-distinguishing markers to better characterize the different types of glucagon-expressing neurons. We found that the large glucagon-expressing neurons were immunoreactive for substance P, neurofilament, Pax6, AP2α, HuD, calretinin, trkB and trkC. Colocalization of glucagon and substance P in the large glucagon-expressing neurons indicates that these cells are the “bullwhip cells” that have been briefly described by Ehrlich, Keyser and Karten (1987). Similar to the bullwhip cells, the conventional glucagon-expressing amacrine cells were immunoreactive for calretinin, HuD, Pax6, and AP2α. Unlike bullwhip cells, the conventional glucagon-expressing amacrine cells were immunoreactive for GABA. While glucagon-immunoreactive amacrine cells were negative for substance P in central regions of the retina, a subset of this type of amacrine cell was immunoreactive for substance P in far peripheral regions of the retina. An additional type of glucagon/substance P-expressing neuron, resembling the bullwhip cells, was found in far peripheral and dorsal regions of the retina. Based on morphology, distribution within the retina, and histological markers, we conclude that there may be 4 different types of glucagon-expressing neurons in the avian retina. PMID:16572462

  10. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 degrees °C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from ...

  11. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 'C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from both the Pectoralis major an...

  12. Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

  13. The Storage Life of Precooked Frozen Chicken

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Idtntlly by block number; CHICKEN HEATING OVENS ROASTERS DEEP FAT FRYING DEEP FAT FRYER STORAGE COOKING DEVICES COLOR CONVECTION ( HEAT...sponge-nut bars* and coffee . The items followed by an asterisk were rated by the luncheon panel members using a 9-point hedonic scale (like

  14. Habitat management considerations for prairie chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, L.M.

    1974-01-01

    Lack of nesting and brood rearing habitat appears to be the universal limiting factor for prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) throughout their range. Grasslands are essential to prairie chickens, but vary widely in quality and thus in their ability to support prairie chickens. High-quality habitat is grassland providing residual vegetation averaging about 20 inches in height in spring and sufficiently dense to completely conceal a nesting prairie chicken. Annually grazed, annually hayed, or long-term (10 years or more) idled habitats are undesirable. The most successful method for maintaining high-quality nest-brood habitat is prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals; such habitat may be established by seeding grass or grass-legume mixtures. Seeded habitat may be maintained by prescribed burning at 3- to 5-year intervals. Management units should contain at least 2 square miles of high-quality habitat within an area not to exceed 8 square miles. High-quality habitat blocks should be at least 160 acres with a minimum width of one-half mile. Based on available evidence, funding to provide winter food or cover is not recommended.

  15. The Chicken Gene Nomenclature Committee report.

    PubMed

    Burt, David W; Carrë, Wilfrid; Fell, Mark; Law, Andy S; Antin, Parker B; Maglott, Donna R; Weber, Janet A; Schmidt, Carl J; Burgess, Shane C; McCarthy, Fiona M

    2009-07-14

    Comparative genomics is an essential component of the post-genomic era. The chicken genome is the first avian genome to be sequenced and it will serve as a model for other avian species. Moreover, due to its unique evolutionary niche, the chicken genome can be used to understand evolution of functional elements and gene regulation in mammalian species. However comparative biology both within avian species and within amniotes is hampered due to the difficulty of recognising functional orthologs. This problem is compounded as different databases and sequence repositories proliferate and the names they assign to functional elements proliferate along with them. Currently, genes can be published under more than one name and one name sometimes refers to unrelated genes. Standardized gene nomenclature is necessary to facilitate communication between scientists and genomic resources. Moreover, it is important that this nomenclature be based on existing nomenclature efforts where possible to truly facilitate studies between different species. We report here the formation of the Chicken Gene Nomenclature Committee (CGNC), an international and centralized effort to provide standardized nomenclature for chicken genes. The CGNC works in conjunction with public resources such as NCBI and Ensembl and in consultation with existing nomenclature committees for human and mouse. The CGNC will develop standardized nomenclature in consultation with the research community and relies on the support of the research community to ensure that the nomenclature facilitates comparative and genomic studies.

  16. Thermal stress on chickens in transit.

    PubMed

    Webster, A J; Tuddenham, A; Saville, C A; Scott, G B

    1993-05-01

    1. An artificial chicken, 'Gloria', was constructed to simulate heat exchanges of poultry during transport. Tests of the instrument in a wind tunnel showed it to have insulation properties similar to that of a live bird. 2. Gloria accompanied chickens in two types of transport modules, A (enclosed) and B (open). The average temperature difference between inside and outside the loaded vehicles when stationary and in motion were 14.0 and 7.6 for Type A and 8.8 and 6.0 for Type B. Average air movement while vehicles were in motion was 0.5 m/s for Type A and 3.3 m/s for Type B. 3. Measurements of sensible heat loss from Gloria at different temperatures and wind speeds were compared with published estimates of thermoneutral heat production and thermal insulation for well and poorly feathered chickens to estimate the range of thermal stresses likely to be experienced by chickens in transit. 4. The results showed that the combination of circumstances necessary to ensure thermal comfort for birds both at rest and in motion is very rare (e.g. only between 7 and 8 degrees C for well feathered birds in enclosed vehicles). It is, however, possible to ensure thermal comfort over a wide range of ambient air temperatures by appropriate control of air movement within the vehicle whether at rest or in motion.

  17. Mycoplasma gallisepticum invades chicken erythrocytes during infection.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Gunther; Plaickner, Astrid; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, László; Rosengarten, Renate; Szostak, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated using in vitro assays that the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is able to invade nonphagocytic cells. It was also shown that this mycoplasma can survive and multiply intracellularly for at least 48 h and that this cell invasion capacity contributes to the systemic spread of M. gallisepticum from the respiratory tract to the inner organs. Using the gentamicin invasion assay and a differential immunofluorescence technique combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, we were able to demonstrate in in vitro experiments that M. gallisepticum is also capable of invading sheep and chicken erythrocytes. The frequencies of invasion of three well-defined M. gallisepticum strains were examined over a period of 24 h, and a significant increase in invasiveness occurred after 8 h of infection. In addition, blood samples derived from chickens experimentally infected via the aerosol route with the virulent strain M. gallisepticum R(low) were analyzed. Surprisingly, M. gallisepticum R(low) was detected in the bloodstream of infected chickens by nested PCR, as well as by differential immunofluorescence and interference contrast microscopy that showed that mycoplasmas were not only on the surface but also inside chicken erythrocytes. This finding provides novel insight into the pathomechanism of M. gallisepticum and may have implications for the development of preventive strategies.

  18. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  19. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  20. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyomin, Alexander G.; Koshel, Elena I.; Kiselev, Artem M.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Galkina, Svetlana A.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5’ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3’ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity. PMID:27299357

  1. Divergent Selection for Ascites Incidence in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken lines that were either resistant or susceptible to ascites syndrome were developed by using a hypobaric chamber to induce the disease. Birds were reared in a hypobaric chamber that simulated high altitude by operating under a partial vacuum, which thereby lowered the partial pressure of oxyg...

  2. Winter ecology and habitat use of lesser prairie-chickens in west Texas, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, Clint W.; Pirius, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range by more than 90 percent since the late 1800s. The lesser prairie-chicken has been listed as a candidate species for protection under the Endangered Species Act and is undergoing review for actual listing. Populations and distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas are thought to be at or near all time lows. These factors have led to substantially increased concern for conservation of the species. It is apparent that sound management and conservation strategies for lesser prairie-chickens are necessary to ensure the long-term persistence of the species. To develop those strategies, basic ecological information is required. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We examined home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the winters of 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in west Texas. We captured and radio-tagged 53 adult lesser prairie-chickens. We obtained sufficient locations to estimate winter home-range size for 23 individuals. Home-range size did not differ between years or by sex. Although female prairie-chickens had slightly larger home ranges (503.5 ± 34.9 ha) compared to males (489.1 ± 34.9 ha), the differences were not significant (t2 = 0.05, P = 0.96). During the nonbreeding season, we found that 97.2 percent of locations of male and female prairie-chickens alike were within 3.2 kilometers (km) of the lek of capture. Most locations (96.8%) were within 1.7 km of a known lek and almost all locations (99.9%) were within 3.2 km of an available water source. Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges, grassland dominated areas with sand shinnery oak were used more than available, and sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) areas dominated with grassland as well as sand sagebrush areas

  3. Why does schizophrenia develop at late adolescence?

    PubMed

    Harrop, C; Trower, P

    2001-03-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most researched, yet still one of the least understood, of the mental disorders. One key area that remains comparatively neglected is the fact that schizophrenia typically develops at late adolescence. In common with people with psychotic disorders, around 25% of normal teenagers also report finding adolescence very distressing, and a substantial empirical literature shows that certain characteristics typical of adolescence such as conflicted family relationships, grandiosity, egocentrism, and magical ideation bear a distinct resemblance to phenomena seen in psychotic disorders. Indeed, such phenomena, as might be judged prodromal or symptomatic in first-onset schizophrenia, have been shown to be remarkably common in normal adolescents, generally in about 50% of samples. Furthermore, prodromal-like signs in normal adolescents appear to be functionally linked to psychological development. For most adolescents, such phenomena pass with successful psychological development. It is proposed that psychosis in late adolescence is a consequence of severe disruption in this normally difficult psychological maturational process in vulnerable individuals, and explanations are offered as to why and how this comes about. It is suggested that problems either in reaching psychological maturity with regard to parents or in bonding to peers or both, may lead to crucial self-construction difficulties, and that psychosis emerges out of such "blocked adolescence." This approach proposes therapeutic interventions that enable professional services to side with both parents and clients simultaneously, and is normalizing and stigma-free.

  4. The heat-pipe resembling action of boiling bubbles in endovenous laser ablation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Renate R.; van Ruijven, Peter W. M.; Nijsten, Tamar; Neumann, H. A. Martino; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) produces boiling bubbles emerging from pores within the hot fiber tip and traveling over a distal length of about 20 mm before condensing. This evaporation-condensation mechanism makes the vein act like a heat pipe, where very efficient heat transport maintains a constant temperature, the saturation temperature of 100°C, over the volume where these non-condensing bubbles exist. During EVLA the above-mentioned observations indicate that a venous cylindrical volume with a length of about 20 mm is kept at 100°C. Pullback velocities of a few mm/s then cause at least the upper part of the treated vein wall to remain close to 100°C for a time sufficient to cause irreversible injury. In conclusion, we propose that the mechanism of action of boiling bubbles during EVLA is an efficient heat-pipe resembling way of heating of the vein wall. PMID:20644976

  5. Functional connectivity changes resemble patterns of pTDP-43 pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schulthess, Ines; Gorges, Martin; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lulé, Dorothée; Del Tredici, Kelly; Ludolph, Albert C.; Kassubek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ‘Resting-state’ fMRI allows investigation of alterations in functional brain organization that are associated with an underlying pathological process. We determine whether abnormal connectivity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a priori-defined intrinsic functional connectivity networks, according to a neuropathological staging scheme and its DTI-based tract correlates, permits recognition of a sequential involvement of functional networks. ‘Resting-state’ fMRI data from 135 ALS patients and 56 matched healthy controls were investigated for the motor network (corresponding to neuropathological stage 1), brainstem (stage 2), ventral attention (stage 3), default mode/hippocampal network (stage 4), and primary visual network (as the control network) in a cross-sectional analysis and longitudinally in a subgroup of 27 patients after 6 months. Group comparison from cross-sectional and longitudinal data revealed significantly increased functional connectivity (p < 0.05, corrected) in all four investigated networks (but not in the control network), presenting as a network expansion that was correlated with physical disability. Increased connectivity of functional networks, as investigated in a hypothesis-driven approach, is characterized by network expansions and resembled the pattern of pTDP-43 pathology in ALS. However, our data did not allow for the recognition of a sequential involvement of functional connectivity networks at the individual level. PMID:27929102

  6. Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.

    PubMed

    Rufián-Henares, José Angel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2004-08-25

    The extent of the Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine and color formation in infant and enteral formula-resembling model systems prepared by mixing calcium caseinate, laboratory-obtained or commercial whey protein with lactose or dextrinomaltose (ingredients similar to those used in infant and enteral formula manufacture) and heating the mixture at 100, 120, or 140 degrees C for 0-30 min. The furosine determination was performed by HPLC and the color determination by measuring colorimetric parameters L, a, and b in a reflection photometer. The first steps of the Maillard reaction could be followed by furosine determination when initial ingredients had low thermal damage. Hence, furosine may be an indicator of low thermal damage in ingredients with <100 mg/100 g of protein. At the concentrations used in these model systems, similar to those in infant and enteral formulas, furosine values (indirect measure of lysine losses) were higher in lactose than in dextrinomaltose systems, in which only glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose among all of the sugars present showed reactivity with casein. Finally, the advanced steps could be followed by color determination when the initial ingredients had high thermal damage or the model systems were heated at high temperature or for a long time. Among the parameters assayed, b was the most sensitive.

  7. Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to sunlight resembles the phenom of persistence.

    PubMed

    Forte Giacobone, Ana F; Oppezzo, Oscar J

    2015-01-01

    During exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stationary phase cells to natural solar radiation, a reduction in the rate of loss of bacterial viability was observed when survival fractions were lower than 1/10,000. This reduction was independent of the growth medium used and of the initial bacterial concentration, and was also observed when irradiation was performed with artificial UVA radiation (365nm, 47Wm(-2)). These results indicate the presence of a small bacterial subpopulation with increased tolerance to radiation. Such a tolerance is non-heritable, since survival curves comparable to those of the parental strain were obtained from survivors to long-term exposure to radiation. The radiation response described here resembles the phenomenon called persistence, which consists of the presence of a small subpopulation of slow-growing cells which are able to survive antibiotic treatment within a susceptible bacterial population. The condition of persister cells is acquired via a reversible switch and involves active defense systems towards oxidative stress. Persistence is probably responsible for biphasic responses of bacteria to several stress conditions, one of which may be exposure to sunlight. The models currently used to analyze the lethal action of sunlight overestimate the effect of high-dose irradiation. These models could be improved by including the potential formation of persister cells.

  8. Mutations in human lymphocytes commonly involve gene duplication and resemble those seen in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.R.; Grist, S.A.; Janatipour, M.; Morley, A.A.

    1988-05-01

    Mutations in human lymphocytes are commonly due to gene deletion. To investigate the mechanism of deletion for autosomal genes, the authors immunoselected lymphocytes mutated at the HLA-A locus and clones them for molecular analysis. Of 36 mutant clones that showed deletion of the selected HLA-A allele, 8 had resulted from a simple gene deletion, whereas 28 had resulted from a more complex mutational event involving reduplication of the nonselected HLA-A allele as indicated by hybridization intensity on Southern blots. In 3 of the 28 clones, retention of heterozygosity at the HLA-B locus indicated that the reduplication was due to recombination between the two chromosomes 6; but in the remaining 25 clones, distinction could not be made between recombination and chromosome reduplication. The results indicate that mutations in normal somatic cells frequently result in hemizygosity or homozygosity at gene loci and, thereby, resemble the mutations thought to be important in the etiology of various forms of cancer.

  9. Granular cell ameloblastoma: case report of a particular ameloblastoma histologically resembling oncocytoma.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yuki; Fujita, Shuichi; Kawasaki, Goro; Hirota, Yoshinosuke; Rokutanda, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kentaro; Yanamoto, Souichi; Ikeda, Tohru; Umeda, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is classified as a histological subtype of solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. Usual granular cell ameloblastoma is histologically characterized by granular changes of stellate-like cells located in the inner portion of the epithelial follicles. Here we report a case of another type of granular cell ameloblastoma, showing predominant anastomosing double-stranded trabeculae of granular cells. This type of granular cell ameloblastoma is extremely rare, and the World Health Organization classification does not contain the entity. We tentatively termed it 'anastomosing granular cell ameloblastoma' in this report. The present case suggests the importance of differential diagnosis because the histology of 'anastomosing granular cell ameloblastoma' resembles that of salivary gland oncocytoma rather than that of usual granular cell ameloblastoma. The trabeculae observed in our case continued to the peripheral cells of a small amount of epithelial sheets of plexiform ameloblastoma, and the tumor cells were positive for CK19, which is regarded as an immunohistochemical marker of odontogenic epithelium. Similar to usual granular cell ameloblastoma, the tumor cells had CD68-positive granules. For precise diagnosis of this condition, immunohistochemistry using CK19 and CD68, as well as detailed histological observation, are recommended.

  10. The scurfy mouse mutant has previously unrecognized hematological abnormalities and resembles Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, M F; Peters, J; Glenister, P H; Ball, S; Wright, E

    1990-01-01

    The X chromosome-linked scurfy (sf) mutant of the mouse is recognized by the scaliness of the skin from which the name is derived and results in death of affected males at about 3-4 weeks of age. Consideration of known man-mouse homologies of the X chromosome prompted hematological studies, which have shown that the blood is highly abnormal. The platelet and erythrocyte counts are both reduced and become progressively lower relative to normal as the disease progresses. There is gastrointestinal bleeding, and most animals appear to die of severe anemia. By contrast, the leukocyte count is consistently raised. Some animals showed signs of infection but it is not yet clear whether there is immunodeficiency. Other features include the scaly skin and apparently reduced lateral growth of the skin, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea in some animals. The mutant resembles Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in man, which is characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema, diarrhea, and immunodeficiency. The loci of the human and mouse genes lie in homologous segments of the X chromosome, although apparently in somewhat different positions relative to other gene loci. Scurfy differs from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in that scurfy males are consistently hypogonadal. Images PMID:2320565

  11. Epidermal Nbn deletion causes premature hair loss and a phenotype resembling psoriasiform dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Philipp; Remus, Martina; Delacher, Michael; Grigaravicius, Paulius; Reuss, David E.; Frappart, Lucien; von Deimling, Andreas; Feuerer, Markus; Abdollahi, Amir; Frappart, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome is a disease caused by NBN mutations. Here, we report a novel function of Nbn in skin homeostasis. We found that Nbn deficiency in hair follicle (HF) progenitors promoted increased DNA damage signaling, stimulating p16Ink4a up-regulation, Trp53 stabilization and cytokines secretion leading to HF-growth arrest and hair loss. At later stages, the basal keratinocytes layer exhibited also enhanced DNA damage response but in contrast to the one in HF progenitor was not associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, but rather increased proliferation, lack of differentiation and immune response resembling psoriasiform dermatitis. Simultaneous Nbn and Trp53 inactivation significantly exacerbated this phenotype, due to the lack of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion by Trp53. Altogether, we demonstrated novel functions of Nbn in HF maintenance and prevention of skin inflammation and we provide a mechanistic explanation that links cell intrinsic DNA maintenance with large scale morphological tissue alterations. PMID:27050272

  12. Human endomembrane H sup + pump strongly resembles the ATP-synthetase of Archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Suedhof, T.C.; Stone, D.K.; Johnston, P.A.; Xie, Xiaosong ); Fried, V.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Preparations of mammalian H{sup +} pumps that acidify intracellular vesicles contain eight or nine polypeptides, ranging in size from 116 to 17 kDa. Biochemical analysis indicates that the 70- and 58-kDa polypeptides are subunits critical for ATP hydrolysis. The amino acid sequences of the major catalytic subunits (58 and 70 kDa) of the endomembrane H{sup +} pump are unknown from animal cells. The authors report here the complete sequence of the 58-kDa subunit derived from a human kidney cDNA clone and partial sequences of the 70- and 58-kDa subunits purified from clathrin-coated vesicles of bovine brain. The amino acid sequences of both proteins strongly resemble the sequences of the corresponding subunits of the vacuolar H{sup +} pumps of Archaebacteria, plants, and fungi. The archaebacterial enzyme is believed to use a H{sup +} gradient to synthesize ATP. Thus, a common ancestral protein has given rise to a H{sup +} pump that synthesizes ATP in one organism and hydrolyzes it in another and is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans. The same pump appears to mediate the acidification of intracellular organelles, including coated vesicles, lysosomes, and secretory granules, as well as extracellular fluids such as urine.

  13. Transformation of Face Transplants: Volumetric and Morphologic Graft Changes Resemble Aging After Facial Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Kueckelhaus, M; Turk, M; Kumamaru, K K; Wo, L; Bueno, E M; Lian, C G; Alhefzi, M; Aycart, M A; Fischer, S; De Girolami, U; Murphy, G F; Rybicki, F J; Pomahac, B

    2016-03-01

    Facial allotransplantation restores normal anatomy to severely disfigured faces. Although >30 such operations performed worldwide have yielded promising short-term results, data on long-term outcomes remain scarce. Three full-face transplant recipients were followed for 40 months. Severe changes in volume and composition of the facial allografts were noted. Data from computed tomography performed 6, 18 and 36 months after transplantation were processed to separate allograft from recipient tissues and further into bone, fat and nonfat soft tissues. Skin and muscle biopsies underwent diagnostic evaluation. All three facial allografts sustained significant volume loss (mean 19.55%) between 6 and 36 months after transplant. Bone and nonfat soft tissue volumes decreased significantly over time (17.22% between months 6 and 18 and 25.56% between months 6 and 36, respectively), whereas fat did not. Histological evaluations showed atrophy of muscle fibers. Volumetric and morphometric changes in facial allografts have not been reported previously. The transformation of facial allografts in this study resembled aging through volume loss but differed substantially from regular aging. These findings have implications for risk-benefit assessment, donor selection and measures counteracting muscle and bone atrophy. Superior long-term outcomes of facial allotransplantation will be crucial to advance toward future clinical routine.

  14. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    PubMed

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  15. Loss of epidermal Evi/Wls results in a phenotype resembling psoriasiform dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Iris; Gross, Julia; Baumann, Daniel; Korn, Claudia; Kerr, Grainne; Grigoryan, Tamara; Mauch, Cornelia; Birchmeier, Walter; Boutros, Michael

    2013-08-26

    Cells of the epidermis renew constantly from germinal layer stem cells. Although epithelial cell differentiation has been studied in great detail and the role of Wnt signaling in this process is well described, the contribution of epidermal Wnt secretion in epithelial cell homeostasis remains poorly understood. To analyze the role of Wnt proteins in this process, we created a conditional knockout allele of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi/Gpr177/Wntless and studied mice that lacked Evi expression in the epidermis. We found that K14-Cre, Evi-LOF mice lost their hair during the first hair cycle, showing a reddish skin with impaired skin barrier function. Expression profiling of mutant and wild-type skin revealed up-regulation of inflammation-associated genes. Furthermore, we found that Evi expression in psoriatic skin biopsies is down-regulated, suggesting that Evi-deficient mice developed skin lesions that resemble human psoriasis. Immune cell infiltration was detected in Evi-LOF skin. Interestingly, an age-dependent depletion of dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) and an infiltration of γδ(low) T cells in Evi mutant epidermis was observed. Collectively, the described inflammatory skin phenotype in Evi-deficient mice revealed an essential role of Wnt secretion in maintaining normal skin homeostasis by enabling a balanced epidermal-dermal cross talk, which affects immune cell recruitment and DETC survival.

  16. Frosted Branch Angiitis Secondary to Familial Mediterranean Fever Resembling Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ozdal, Pınar Çakar; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral frosted branch angiitis (FBA) resembling central retinal vein occlusion associated with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). Case Report. A 32-year-old woman presented with progressive, painless vision loss in her left eye lasting for 2 days. She was clinically diagnosed with FMF 2 months ago. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in her right eye and there was light perception in the left. Ophthalmologic examination revealed severe retinal vasculitis showing clinical features of FBA in the left eye. 64 mg/day oral methylprednisolone was started. A significant improvement in retinal vasculitis was observed in two weeks. However, BCVA did not increase significantly due to subhyaloid premacular hemorrhage. Argon laser posterior hyaloidotomy was performed. One week after hyaloidotomy, visual acuity improved to 20/20 and intravitreal hemorrhage disappeared. Four months after the first attack, FBA recurred. Oral methylprednisolone dosage was increased to 64 mg/day and combined with azathioprine 150 mg. At the end of 12-month follow-up, the BCVA was 20/25 and development of epiretinal membrane was observed in the left eye. Conclusions. Frosted branch angiitis may occur with gene abnormalities as an underlying condition. Our case showed that FMF might be a causative disease. PMID:28044118

  17. Multisystemic Eosinophilia Resembling Hypereosinophilic Syndrome in a Colony-Bred Owl Monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Rosenberg, Helene F; Elkins, William R; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    In animals, multisystemic eosinophilic disease is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in various organs. This disorder resembles the human disease known as hypereosinophilic syndrome, a condition defined by prolonged peripheral eosinophilia in the absence of recognizable etiology and associated with end-organ damage. In this report we describe a research-naïve, colony-born, juvenile female owl monkey (Aotus vociferans) who presented clinically with severe respiratory distress and histologically with multiple end-organ infiltration with phenotypically mature eosinophils, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. No tumors or infectious agents were noted either macroscopically or microscopically. Cultures from lung samples revealed no bacteria or fungi. Histologic examination of lung, heart, thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, and colon revealed no migrating nematode larvae, other parasites, or foreign material that might trigger eosinophilia, nor was there any evidence of or history consistent with an allergic etiology. Given that we ruled out most exogenous and endogenous triggers of eosinophilia, the signs, symptoms, and pathologic findings support the diagnosis of multisystemic eosinophilic disease. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of presumptive hypereosinophilic syndrome in a nonhuman primate. PMID:19476722

  18. Ad-hoc KEEN-type Waves and their Occasional Resemblance to KdV Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyshetskiy, Yuriy; Afeyan, Bedros

    2005-10-01

    Nonlinear kinetic waves of the KEEN type [1] but constructed with two BGK recipes are tested with 1D Vlasov-Poisson simulation (1DVPS). One is that of Allis [2] as modified by Johnston (unpublished), the other is that of Eliasson and Shukla [3]. Strong kinetic waves survive well, but not weaker ones. The potential wave trains resemble those from the Korteweg-deVries equation. This proves to be natural when charge density variation with electrostatic potential is like a quadratic polynomial. For expositions on the physics of ponderomotively driven KEEN waves, consult presentations by Afeyan and Savchenko, this conference. (Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG03-NA00059.) [1] B. Afeyan et al., ``Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) Waves and their interactions driven by the ponderomotive force of crossing laser beams'', Proc. IFSA (Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2003, Monterey, CA), 213, B. Hammel, D. Meyerhofer, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn and H. Azechi, editors, American Nuclear Society, 2004. [2] W.P. Allis, paper 3 (pp.21-42), in ``In Honor of Philip M. Morse'', ed. H. Feshbach and K. Ingard, MIT Press (1969). [3] B. Eliasson and P.K. Shukla, Phys. Rev. E 71, 046402 (2005)

  19. Primary uterine cervix melanoma resembling malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Sara; Bajetta, Emilio; Buzzoni, Roberto; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Platania, Marco; Del Vecchio, Michele; Ditto, Antonino

    2008-10-01

    A rare variant of malignant melanoma (MM) of the uterine cervix that mimics a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is described. A 43-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital complaining of genital discharge and vaginal bleeding. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-ovariectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed, and the diagnosis was MPNST, FIGO IIB. Pathological examination showed a diffuse proliferation of amelanotic spindle cells and large, highly atypical, frequently multinucleated, bizarre, and S100-, HMB-45-, vimentin-positive cells. The patient remained disease-free for 43 months, when an abdominal computed tomographic scan showed local polypoid vaginal lesions, with histological features of typical MM. A pathological review was obtained in our institution by a gynecological pathologist, who defined the primary neoplasm in the cervix as an MM, with a pattern of growth histologically simulating an MPNST, metastatic to the vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first report in literature of MM of the uterine cervix resembling MPNST. Despite its rarity, this variant of MM should be considered when a diagnosis of cervix MPNST is made. The histological and immunohistochemical features of these different entities should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  20. Manothermosonication of foods and food-resembling systems: effect on nutrient content and nonenzymatic browning.

    PubMed

    Vercet, A; Burgos, J; López-Buesa, P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manothermosonication (MTS), an emergent technology for food preservation, on thiamin, riboflavin, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid was evaluated in milk and orange juice. The effect of both heat treatment and MTS on several compounds produced in nonenzymatic browning in model systems was also studied. MTS does not affect significantly the nutrient content studied. However, it changes the behavior of nonenzymatic browning. No formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde (HMF) was detected in fruit juice model systems after heat and MTS treatments at the experimental conditions used. In a milk-resembling system, free HMF formation by MTS is higher compared to that by heat treatment. As the MTS temperature increases, free HMF production by both treatments equaled on another. For bound HMF the production rate is lower by MTS than by heat treatment under the experimental conditions used. Formation kinetics of brown pigments and that of fluorescent compounds are different for both treatments. Fluorescence and brown pigment production are faster in MTS.

  1. Silica deposits on Mars with features resembling hot spring biosignatures at El Tatio in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Steven W; Farmer, Jack D

    2016-11-17

    The Mars rover Spirit encountered outcrops and regolith composed of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2·nH2O) in an ancient volcanic hydrothermal setting in Gusev crater. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Here we report remarkably similar features within active hot spring/geyser discharge channels at El Tatio in northern Chile, where halite-encrusted silica yields infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, we show that the nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures.

  2. Evidence of environmental suppression of familial resemblance: height among US Civil War brothers.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, D S; Rathouz, P J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines, with historical data, whether within family correlations in height varied across environments and whether variability in height was greater in worse environments. To investigate these hypotheses, brothers were identified who were mustered into the Union Army of the US Civil War, using linked records from the 1850 and 1860 censuses and military and medical records. Heights were available for 3898 men aged 18 and older, of whom 595 were further identified as belonging to 288 family sets of two, three or four brothers. Generalized estimating equations were used to concurrently model the mean height, the variance and the correlation between brothers as a function of county population. Heights decreased as county population size increased (p<0.001). The correlation between brothers' heights decreased significantly (p = 0.032) with increasing county population, and the variance increased (p = 0.026). The correlation ranged approximately from 0.63 in the least populous to 0.24 in the most populous counties. The degree of familial resemblance was lower in environments where mean height was lower, and the variability in height was greater, suggesting that the environmental contribution to the variability in height is of greater relative importance in populations reared, on average, in worse environments.

  3. Digital redesign of uncertain interval systems based on time-response resemblance via particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chen-Chien; Lin, Geng-Yu

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based approach is proposed to derive an optimal digital controller for redesigned digital systems having an interval plant based on time-response resemblance of the closed-loop systems. Because of difficulties in obtaining time-response envelopes for interval systems, the design problem is formulated as an optimization problem of a cost function in terms of aggregated deviation between the step responses corresponding to extremal energies of the redesigned digital system and those of their continuous counterpart. A proposed evolutionary framework incorporating three PSOs is subsequently presented to minimize the cost function to derive an optimal set of parameters for the digital controller, so that step response sequences corresponding to the extremal sequence energy of the redesigned digital system suitably approximate those of their continuous counterpart under the perturbation of the uncertain plant parameters. Computer simulations have shown that redesigned digital systems incorporating the PSO-derived digital controllers have better system performance than those using conventional open-loop discretization methods.

  4. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates. [Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-05-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates.

  5. Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, A; Jeremic, K; Kadija, S; Mitrovic, M; Filimonovic, D; Jankovic-Raznatovic, S; Tavcar, J

    2013-01-01

    A uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) shows a poly phenotypic immunophenotype with coexpression of epithelial, myoid, and sex cord markers, as well as hormone receptors. The authors present a case of a 59-year-old multiparous woman admitted to the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinical Centre of Serbia in January 2010 due to prolonged vaginal bleeding and abdominal discomfort. The vaginal ultrasound showed an enlarged uterus size of 100 x 74 x 81 mm, with extended cavity with an unhomogenic content and myomas sized 54 x 69 mm located in fundus with secondary changes. She underwent abdominal hysterectomy with adnexectomy. Microscopic examination revealed submucosal uterine tumor with variabile histological organization that had anastomotic trabeculae with solid cellular grupations. Rare mitotic figures (2/10 HPF) were found. Additional imunohistochemistry showed immunophenotype: the sex cord areas were positive for vimentin(++), aSMA(++), AE1/AE3(+), PR(+), and ER(+). The poly phenotypic immunophenotype can be useful in differential diagnosis from other neoplasms but also suggests an origin of UTROSCT from uncommitted stem cell enabling for multidirectional differentiation.

  6. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  7. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  8. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zebin; Nie, Changsheng; Jia, Yaxiong; Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome.

  9. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  10. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  11. Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought”: Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class

    PubMed Central

    Hazel, Susan J.; O’Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Our attitudes to animals are linked to our beliefs about their cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and capacity to experience emotional states. In this study, undergraduate students were surveyed on their attitudes to chickens pre- and post- a practical class in which they learnt to clicker train chickens. Students were more likely to agree that chickens are intelligent and easy to teach tricks to, and that chickens feel emotions such as boredom, frustration and happiness, following the practical class. Similar workshops may be an effective method to improve animal training skills, and promote more positive attitudes to specific animal species. Abstract A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals. PMID

  12. Zika Virus Induced Mortality and Microcephaly in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Forrest T; Tesla, Blanka; Simchick, Gregory; Zhao, Qun; Hodge, Thomas; Brindley, Melinda A; Stice, Steven L

    2016-11-15

    The explosive spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) through South and Central America has been linked to an increase in congenital birth defects, specifically microcephaly. Representative rodent models for investigating infections include direct central nervous system (CNS) injections late in pregnancy and transplacental transmission in immunodeficient mice. Microcephaly in humans may be the result of infection occurring early in pregnancy, therefore recapitulating that the human course of ZIKV infection should include normal embryo exposed to ZIKV during the first trimester. In ovo development of the chicken embryo closely mirrors human fetal neurodevelopment and, as a comparative model, could provide key insights into both temporal and pathophysiological effects of ZIKV. Chick embryos were directly infected early and throughout incubation with ZIKV isolated from a Mexican mosquito in January 2016. High doses of virus caused embryonic lethality. In a subset of lower dosed embryos, replicating ZIKV was present in various organs, including the CNS, throughout development. Surviving ZIKV-infected embryos presented a microcephaly-like phenotype. Chick embryos were longitudinally monitored by magnetic resonance imaging that documented CNS structural malformations, including enlarged ventricles (30% increase) and stunted cortical growth (decreased telencephalon by 18%, brain stem by 32%, and total brain volume by 18%), on both embryonic day 15 (E15) and E20 of development. ZIKV-induced microcephaly was observed with inoculations of as few as 2-20 viral particles. The chick embryo model presented ZIKV embryonic lethal effects and progressive CNS damage similar to microcephaly.

  13. Simultaneous compression and encryption of closely resembling images: application to video sequences and polarimetric images.

    PubMed

    Aldossari, M; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

    2014-09-22

    This study presents and validates an optimized method of simultaneous compression and encryption designed to process images with close spectra. This approach is well adapted to the compression and encryption of images of a time-varying scene but also to static polarimetric images. We use the recently developed spectral fusion method [Opt. Lett.35, 1914-1916 (2010)] to deal with the close resemblance of the images. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. We use a root-mean-square (RMS) optimization criterion to treat compression. Image encryption is realized at different security levels. Firstly, we add a specific encryption level which is related to the different areas of the spectral plane, and then, we make use of several random phase keys. An in-depth analysis at the spectral fusion methodology is done in order to find a good trade-off between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images. Our new proposal spectral shift allows us to minimize the image overlap. We further analyze the influence of the spectral shift on the reconstructed image quality and compression rate. The performance of the multiple-image optical compression and encryption method is verified by analyzing several video sequences and polarimetric images.

  14. Increasing extracellular potassium results in subthalamic neuron activity resembling that seen in a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ulf; Zhou, Fu-Wen; Henning, Jeannette; Battefeld, Arne; Wree, Andreas; Köhling, Rüdiger; Haas, Stefan Jean-Pierre; Benecke, Reiner; Rolfs, Arndt; Gimsa, Ulrike

    2008-06-01

    Abnormal neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although altered extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) and sensitivity to [K+]o modulates neuronal activity, little is known about the potassium balance in the healthy and diseased STN. In vivo measurements of [K+]o using ion-selective electrodes demonstrated a twofold increase in the decay time constant of lesion-induced [K+]o transients in the STN of adult Wistar rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) median forebrain bundle lesion, employed as a model of PD, compared with nonlesioned rats. Various [K+]o concentrations (1.5-12.5 mM) were applied to in vitro slice preparations of three experimental groups of STN slices from nonlesioned control rats, ipsilateral hemispheres, and contralateral hemispheres of lesioned rats. The majority of STN neurons of nonlesioned rats and in slices contralateral to the lesion fired spontaneously, predominantly in a regular pattern, whereas those in slices ipsilateral to the lesion fired more irregularly or even in bursts. Experimentally increased [K+]o led to an increase in the number of spontaneously firing neurons and action potential firing rates in all groups. This was accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of post spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and the amplitude and duration of the posttrain AHP. Lesion effects in ipsilateral neurons at physiological [K+]o resembled the effects of elevated [K+]o in nonlesioned rats. Our data suggest that changed potassium sensitivity due to conductivity alterations and delayed clearance may be critical for shaping STN activity in parkinsonian states.

  15. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  16. The presumed ginkgophyte Umaltolepis has seed-bearing structures resembling those of Peltaspermales and Umkomasiales

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Fabiany; Shi, Gongle; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Takahashi, Masamichi; Bugdaeva, Eugenia V.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Crane, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    The origins of the five groups of living seed plants, including the single relictual species Ginkgo biloba, are poorly understood, in large part because of very imperfect knowledge of extinct seed plant diversity. Here we describe well-preserved material from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia of the previously enigmatic Mesozoic seed plant reproductive structure Umaltolepis, which has been presumed to be a ginkgophyte. Abundant new material shows that Umaltolepis is a seed-bearing cupule that was borne on a stalk at the tip of a short shoot. Each cupule is umbrella-like with a central column that bears a thick, resinous, four-lobed outer covering, which opens from below. Four, pendulous, winged seeds are attached to the upper part of the column and are enclosed by the cupule. Evidence from morphology, anatomy, and field association suggests that the short shoots bore simple, elongate Pseudotorellia leaves that have similar venation and resin ducts to leaves of living Ginkgo. Umaltolepis seed-bearing structures are very different from those of Ginkgo but very similar to fossils described previously as Vladimaria. Umaltolepis and Vladimaria do not closely resemble the seed-bearing structures of any living or extinct plant, but are comparable in some respects to those of certain Peltaspermales and Umkomasiales (corystosperms). Vegetative similarities of the Umaltolepis plant to Ginkgo, and reproductive similarities to extinct peltasperms and corystosperms, support previous ideas that Ginkgo may be the last survivor of a once highly diverse group of extinct plants, several of which exhibited various degrees of ovule enclosure. PMID:28265050

  17. Analgesic and toxic effects of ABT-594 resemble epibatidine and nicotine in rats.

    PubMed

    Boyce, S; Webb, J K; Shepheard, S L; Russell, M G; Hill, R G; Rupniak, N M

    2000-04-01

    The present study directly compared the antinociceptive and toxic effects of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist ABT-594 ((R)-5-(2-azetidinylmethoxy)-2-chloropyridine) with (-)-nicotine and (+)-epibatidine. Like (-)-nicotine (0.8 and 1.6 mg/kg s.c.) and (+)-epibatidine (0.005 and 0.01 mg/kg s.c.), ABT-594 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg s.c.) increased response latencies in the hot-plate test in rats, indicating that it has antinociceptive activity. In contrast to (-)-nicotine and (+)-epibatidine, ABT-594 did not cause rotarod impairment at antinociceptive doses but did cause hypothermia and life-threatening adverse effects including seizures. ABT-594 (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg i.v.) also produced a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure resembling that observed with (-)-nicotine (0.03, 0.1 and 0. 03 mg/kg i.v.) and (+)-epibatidine (0.001 and 0.003 mg/kg i.v.). Both the antinociceptive and toxic effects (convulsions and hypertension) were abolished by pretreatment with the brain penetrant neuronal nAChR antagonist mecamylamine (1 mg/kg s.c.; i.v. for cardiovascular studies), demonstrating that these actions of ABT-594 were mediated via activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors. Continuous infusion of ABT-594 (0.2 mg/kg per day s.c.) to rats for 7 days followed by challenge with mecamylamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) induced a nicotine-like abstinence syndrome suggesting that ABT-594 has nicotine-like dependence liability. These findings indicate that the acute safety profile of ABT-594 is not significantly improved over other nicotinic analgesics.

  18. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-Qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias.A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone.The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia.As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess.

  19. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Joan A; Smith, Emma J; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J

    2009-09-18

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping factor B of S. aureus, a surface protein that is in part responsible for colonisation of the human nares. Ligand-affinity blotting with cell-wall extracts demonstrated that S. pseudintermedius 326 expressed a cell-wall anchored fibronectin binding protein which recognised the N-terminal 29kDa fragment. The ability to bind fibronectin is an important attribute of pathogenic S. aureus and is associated with the ability of S. aureus to colonise skin of human atopic dermatitis patients. S. pseudintermedius genomic DNA was probed with labelled DNA amplified from the serine-aspartate repeat encoding region of clfA of S. aureus. This probe hybridised to a single SpeI fragment of S. pseudintermedius DNA. In the cell-wall extract of S. pseudintermedius 326, a 180kDa protein was discovered which bound to fibrinogen by ligand-affinity blotting and reacted in a Western blot with antibodies raised against the serine-aspartate repeat region of ClfA and the B-repeats of SdrD of S. aureus. It is proposed that this is an Sdr protein with B-repeats that has an A domain that binds to fibrinogen. Whether it is the same protein that binds cytokeratin 10 is not clear.

  20. Response of mice to continuous 5-day passive hyperthermia resembles human heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Houtan; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Shah, Nirav G; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2011-05-01

    Chronic repeated exposure to hyperthermia in humans results in heat acclimation (HA), an adaptive process that is attained in humans by repeated exposure to hyperthermia and is characterized by improved heat elimination and increased exercise capacity, and acquired thermal tolerance (ATT), a cellular response characterized by increased baseline heat shock protein (HSP) expression and blunting of the acute increase in HSP expression stimulated by re-exposure to thermal stress. Epidemiologic studies in military personnel operating in hot environments and elite athletes suggest that repeated exposure to hyperthermia may also exert long-term health effects. Animal models demonstrate that coincident exposure to mild hyperthermia or prior exposure to severe hyperthermia can profoundly affect the course of experimental infection and injury, but these models do not represent HA. In this study, we demonstrate that CD-1 mice continuously exposed to mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature ~37°C causing ~2°C increase in core temperature) for 5 days and then exposed to a thermal stress (42°C ambient temperature for 40 min) exhibited some of the salient features of human HA, including (1) slower warming during thermal stress and more rapid cooling during recovery and (2) increased activity during thermal stress, as well as some of the features of ATT, including (1) increased baseline expression of HSP72 and HSP90 in lung, heart, spleen, liver, and brain; and (2) blunted incremental increase in HSP72 expression following acute thermal stress. This study suggests that continuous 5-day exposure of CD-1 mice to mild hyperthermia induces a state that resembles the physiologic and cellular responses of human HA. This model may be useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of HA and its consequences on host responsiveness to subsequent stresses.

  1. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  2. Slow cooker vs. oven preparation of meat loaves and chicken.

    PubMed

    Peters, C R; Sinwell, D D; Van Duyne, F O

    1983-10-01

    Meat loaves and chickens prepared by recommended methods for a slow electric cooker were not in the hazardous temperature zone long enough to allow appreciable growth of bacteria that might cause food-borne illness. Total plate counts were reduced to a greater extent than they were when meat loaves and chickens were prepared by conventional methods in a gas oven. Presumptive coliforms, C. perfringens, and coagulase positive staphylococci were not detected after either method of cooking. Other parameters of quality indicated that conventional methods of baking meat loaves and roasting chickens were superior to preparation in a slow electric cooker. Drip losses were significantly greater, as were total cooking losses (except for total losses for chickens in Experiment 2), when a slow electric cooker was used. All mean palatability scores except for interior color in meat loaves and tenderness in chickens were significantly higher after preparation in an oven. Significantly more thiamin was retained in oven-cooked meat loaves and chickens.

  3. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations.

  4. Expression of myogenic factors in denervated chicken breast muscle: isolation of the chicken Myf5 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, O; Fujisawa-Sehara, A; Nabeshima, Y; Periasamy, M

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we have isolated and characterized the chicken Myf5 gene, and cDNA clones encoding chicken MyoD1 and myogenin. The chicken Myf5 and MRF4 genes are tandemly located on a single genomic DNA fragment, and the chicken Myf5 gene is organized into at least three exons. Using genomic and cDNA probes, we further analyzed the mRNA levels of four myogenic factors during chicken breast muscle development. This analysis revealed that myogenin expression is restricted to in ovo stages in breast muscle, and is not detectable in neonatal and adult stages. On the other hand, Myf5 expression is detectable until day 7 post-hatching, and is not found in adult muscle, whereas high levels of MyoD1 and MRF4 are detectable at all stages. To further understand the roles of innervation on muscle maturation, we analyzed the expression of the four myogenic factors in denervated adult breast muscle. We found that MyoD1, myogenin, and MRF4 are induced at high levels in denervated muscle, whereas no change occurs in the level of Myf5. These studies suggest that innervation controls the relative abundance and type of myogenic factors that are expressed in adult muscle, and that when nerve control is removed, the muscle reverts to a neonatal phenotype, with the enhanced expression of three myogenic factors (MyoD1, myogenin, and MRF4). Images PMID:8389445

  5. Thinking chickens: a review of cognition, emotion, and behavior in the domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Marino, Lori

    2017-03-01

    Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in these areas with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. My overall conclusion is that chickens are just as cognitively, emotionally and socially complex as most other birds and mammals in many areas, and that there is a need for further noninvasive comparative behavioral research with chickens as well as a re-framing of current views about their intelligence.

  6. J-chain-positive cells in immunodeficient chickens.

    PubMed

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1993-01-01

    Before and after hatching, J-chain-positive cells (JPC) were observed by immunoelectron microscopy in lymphoid tissues from chickens that had been chemically bursectomized (Bx) in ovo. These JPC were detected in spleens both of normal and Bx birds. Subcellular localization of J chains showed more variations in normal than Bx chickens. From these findings, JPC could be divided into JPC subpopulations in chickens.

  7. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, V; Adami, A; Castrovilli, C

    1998-09-01

    1. A newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain as probiotic was assayed as the only dietary additive for chickens. 2. Chickens receiving no additive at all or only virginiamycin were used for comparison. 3. Two trials each carried out on 75 chickens showed that, in terms of efficacy in growth and food conversion ratio, the B. coagulans biomass as a probiotic had a growth-promoting, prophylactic effect comparable to that of virginiamycin.

  8. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  9. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. )

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  10. Production of transgenic chickens using an avian retroviral vector

    SciTech Connect

    Kopchick, J.; Mills, E.; Rosenblum C.; Taylor, J.; Kelder, B.; Smith, J.; Chen, H.

    1987-05-01

    The authors efforts to insert genes into the chicken germ line are dependent upon the ability of exogenous avian retroviruses to infect chicken germ cells. They have used a transformation defective Schmidt Ruppin A strain of Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV-SRA) in their initial experiments. The general protocol involved generating RSV-SRA viremic female chickens (Go), which shed exogenous virus via the oviduct. As the fertilized egg passes through the oviduct, embryonic cells are exposed to the virus. If the germ cell precursors are infected by the virus, offspring (G1) should be generated which are capable of passing the viral DNA to the next generation (G2). Fifteen viremic G1 males were selected for breeding and progeny testing. Since male chickens do not congenitally pass retroviruses through semen, production of viremic G2 offspring indicates germ line DNA transmission. This is confirmed by DNA analysis of the experimental chickens. Using a specific probe for exogenous retrovirus, they have detected the presence of RSV-SRA DNA in viremic chickens. Southern DNA analysis revealed junction fragments for RSV-SRA DNA in viremic G2 chickens, but not in non-viremic siblings. Furthermore, DNA isolated from various tissues of a viremic G2 chicken showed an identical DNA junction fragment pattern, indicating all tissues were derived from the same embryonic cell which contained integrated provirus. To date they have generated 50 transgenic chickens.

  11. [Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].

    PubMed

    Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

    2010-06-01

    Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics.

  12. Infection-interactions in Ethiopian village chickens.

    PubMed

    Bettridge, J M; Lynch, S E; Brena, M C; Melese, K; Dessie, T; Terfa, Z G; Desta, T T; Rushton, S; Hanotte, O; Kaiser, P; Wigley, P; Christley, R M

    2014-11-15

    Chickens raised under village production systems are exposed to a wide variety of pathogens, and current or previous infections may affect their susceptibility to further infections with another parasite, and/or can alter the manifestation of each infection. It is possible that co-infections may be as important as environmental risk factors. However, in cross-sectional studies, where the timing of infection is unknown, apparent associations between infections may be observed due to parasites sharing common risk factors. This study measured antibody titres to 3 viral (Newcastle disease, Marek's disease and infectious bursal disease) and 2 bacterial (Pasteurella multocida and Salmonella) diseases, and the infection prevalence of 3 families of endo- and ecto-parasites (Ascaridida, Eimeria and lice) in 1056 village chickens from two geographically distinct populations in Ethiopia. Samples were collected during 4 cross-sectional surveys, each approximately 6 months apart. Constrained ordination, a technique for analysis of ecological community data, was used to explore this complex dataset and enabled potential relationships to be uncovered and tested despite the different measurements used for the different parasites. It was found that only a small proportion of variation in the data could be explained by the risk factors measured. Very few birds (9/1280) were found to be seropositive to Newcastle disease. Positive relationships were identified between Pasteurella and Salmonella titres; and between Marek's disease and parasitic infections, and these two groups of diseases were correlated with females and males, respectively. This may suggest differences in the way that the immune systems of male and female chickens interact with these parasites. In conclusion, we find that a number of infectious pathogens and their interactions are likely to impact village chicken health and production. Control of these infections is likely to be of importance in future development

  13. Bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A; Huang, Bixing; Fegan, Narelle; Stuttard, Ed

    2008-03-01

    The bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets manufactured at a chicken processing facility in Queensland, Australia, was determined. Chicken nuggets are manufactured by grinding poultry, adding premixes to incorporate spices, forming the meat to the desired size and shape, applying a batter and breading, freezing, and packaging. A total of 300 frozen batches were analyzed for aerobic plate count, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella over a period of 4 years. The mean of the aerobic plate count was 5.4 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 5.7, 5.9, and 6.5 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of bacteria detected was 6.6 log CFU/g. E. coli prevalence was 47%, and of the positive samples, the mean was 1.9 log CFU/g; counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 2.3, 2.4, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of E. coli was 2.9 log CFU/g. The Salmonella prevalence was 8.7%, and 57.7% of these isolates were typed as Salmonella subspecies II 4,12,[27]:b:[e,n,x] (Sofia), a low-virulence serotype well adapted to Australian poultry flocks. There was a significant relationship (P < 0.05) between season and both aerobic plate counts and E. coli counts, and no correlation between E. coli counts and Salmonella prevalence. This study provides valuable data on the bacteriological quality of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

  14. Infection-interactions in Ethiopian village chickens

    PubMed Central

    Bettridge, J.M.; Lynch, S.E.; Brena, M.C.; Melese, K.; Dessie, T.; Terfa, Z.G.; Desta, T.T.; Rushton, S.; Hanotte, O.; Kaiser, P.; Wigley, P.; Christley, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chickens raised under village production systems are exposed to a wide variety of pathogens, and current or previous infections may affect their susceptibility to further infections with another parasite, and/or can alter the manifestation of each infection. It is possible that co-infections may be as important as environmental risk factors. However, in cross-sectional studies, where the timing of infection is unknown, apparent associations between infections may be observed due to parasites sharing common risk factors. This study measured antibody titres to 3 viral (Newcastle disease, Marek's disease and infectious bursal disease) and 2 bacterial (Pasteurella multocida and Salmonella) diseases, and the infection prevalence of 3 families of endo- and ecto-parasites (Ascaridida, Eimeria and lice) in 1056 village chickens from two geographically distinct populations in Ethiopia. Samples were collected during 4 cross-sectional surveys, each approximately 6 months apart. Constrained ordination, a technique for analysis of ecological community data, was used to explore this complex dataset and enabled potential relationships to be uncovered and tested despite the different measurements used for the different parasites. It was found that only a small proportion of variation in the data could be explained by the risk factors measured. Very few birds (9/1280) were found to be seropositive to Newcastle disease. Positive relationships were identified between Pasteurella and Salmonella titres; and between Marek's disease and parasitic infections, and these two groups of diseases were correlated with females and males, respectively. This may suggest differences in the way that the immune systems of male and female chickens interact with these parasites. In conclusion, we find that a number of infectious pathogens and their interactions are likely to impact village chicken health and production. Control of these infections is likely to be of importance in future development

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from organic chicken, conventional chicken, and turkey meat: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J M; Guarddon, M; Mondragon, A; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2007-04-01

    The mean counts of Enterococcus spp. were determined for 30 samples each of organic chicken meat, conventional chicken meat, and turkey meat, and differences for Enterococcus contamination in meat were determined. Two enterococci strains from each sample were isolated to obtain a total of 180 strains, and resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, and vancomycin was determined by a disk diffusion method. Average counts obtained showed that Enterococcus mean counts from organic chicken meat (3.18 log CFU/g) were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional chicken meat (2.06 log CFU/g) or conventional turkey meat (1.23 log CFU/g). However, the resistance data obtained showed that isolates from organic chicken meat were less resistant than enterococci isolates from conventional chicken meat to ampicillin (P = 0.0067), chloramphenicol (P = 0.0154), doxycycline (P = 0.0277), ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0024), erythromycin (P = 0.0028), and vancomycin (P = 0.0241). In addition, isolates from organic chicken were less resistant than conventional turkey meat isolates to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001) and erythromycin (P = 0.0137). Multidrug-resistant isolates were found in every group tested, but rates of multidrug-resistant strains were significantly higher in conventional chicken and turkey than those obtained from organic chicken meat. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species isolated from organic chicken (36.67%), whereas Enterococcus durans was the most common species isolated from conventional chicken (58.33%) and turkey (56.67%). The rates obtained for antimicrobial resistance suggest that although organic chicken meat may have higher numbers of Enterococcus, these bacteria present a lower level of antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  17. Chicken muscle aldose reductase: purification, properties and relationship to other chicken aldo/keto reductases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D G; Davidson, W S

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide range of aromatic and hydroxy-aliphatic aldehydes was purified from chicken breast muscle. This enzyme shares many properties with mammalian aldose reductases including molecular weight, relative substrate specificity, Michaelis constants, an inhibitor specificity. Therefore, it seems appropriate to call this enzyme an aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). Chicken muscle aldose reductase appears to be kinetically identical to an aldose reductase that has been purified from chicken kidney (Hara et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 207-214) and to hen muscle L-glycol dehydrogenase (Bernado et al., Biochim. biophys. Acta 659, 189-198). The association of this aldose reductase with muscular dystrophy in the chick is discussed.

  18. Resemblance of dinner meals consumption among mother and preschool-aged child dyads from families with limited incomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents’ eating habits are associated with food and nutrient intake of their children; yet, the associations have not always been very strong. The objective of this study was to expand the current literature to include an examination of resemblance in intakes of foods, within the context of a meal, ...

  19. Mimicry on the edge: why do mimics vary in resemblance to their model in different parts of their geographical range?

    PubMed

    Harper, George R; Pfennig, David W

    2007-08-22

    Batesian mimics-benign species that predators avoid because they resemble a dangerous species-often vary geographically in resemblance to their model. Such geographical variation in mimic-model resemblance may reflect geographical variation in model abundance. Natural selection should favour even poor mimics where their model is common, but only good mimics where their model is rare. We tested these predictions in a snake-mimicry complex where the geographical range of the mimic extends beyond that of its model. Mimics on the edge of their model's range (where the model was rare) resembled the model more closely than did mimics in the centre of their model's range (where the model was common). When free-ranging natural predators on the edge of the model's range were given a choice of attacking replicas of good or poor mimics, they avoided only good mimics. By contrast, those in the centre of the model's range attacked good and poor mimics equally frequently. Generally, although poor mimics may persist in areas where their model is common, only the best mimics should occur in areas where their model is rare. Thus, counter-intuitively, the best mimics may occur on the edge of their model's range.

  20. The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

  1. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  2. Toxicoinfectious botulism in commercial caponized chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trampel, D.W.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing clotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.

  3. Transmission OF Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Daise Aparecida; Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Felipe, Gutembergue da Silva; da Silva, Paulo Lourenço; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Filgueiras, Ana Luzia Lauria; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples. PMID:24031861

  4. Toxicoinfectious botulism in commercial caponized chickens.

    PubMed

    Trampel, Darrell W; Smith, Susan R; Rocke, Tonie E

    2005-06-01

    During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing dotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C. botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C. botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C. botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.

  5. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    PubMed

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  6. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer.

  7. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  8. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57/sup 0/C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines.

  9. Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Soumoff, C.; Skinner, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D/sub 3/. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D/sub 4/ through postmolt stage A/sub 2/, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low.

  10. Spontaneous locomotor activity in late-stage chicken embryos is modified by stretch of leg muscles

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Nina S.; Ryu, Young U.; Yeseta, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Chicks initiate bilateral alternating steps several days before hatching and adaptively walk within hours of hatching, but emergence of precocious walking skills is not well understood. One of our aims was to determine whether interactions between environment and movement experience prior to hatching are instrumental in establishing precocious motor skills. However, physiological evidence of proprioceptor development in the chick has yet to be established; thus, one goal of this study was to determine when in embryogenesis proprioception circuits can code changes in muscle length. A second goal was to determine whether proprioception circuits can modulate leg muscle activity during repetitive limb movements for stepping (RLMs). We hypothesized that proprioception circuits code changes in muscle length and/or tension, and modulate locomotor circuits producing RLMs in anticipation of adaptive locomotion at hatching. To this end, leg muscle activity and kinematics were recorded in embryos during normal posture and after fitting one ankle with a restraint that supported the limb in an atypical posture. We tested the hypotheses by comparing leg muscle activity during spontaneous RLMs in control posture and ankle extension restraint. The results indicated that proprioceptors detect changes in muscle length and/or muscle tension 3 days before hatching. Ankle extension restraint produced autogenic excitation of the ankle flexor and reciprocal inhibition of the ankle extensor. Restraint also modified knee extensor activity during RLMs 1 day before hatching. We consider the strengths and limitations of these results and propose that proprioception contributes to precocious locomotor development during the final 3 days before hatching. PMID:24265423

  11. Amino acid sequence and comparative antigenicity of chicken metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Fullmer, C S; Garvey, J S

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of metallothionein (MT) from chicken liver is reported. The primary structure was determined by automated sequence analysis of peptides produced by limited acid hydrolysis and by trypsin digestion. The comparative antigenicity of chicken MT was determined by radioimmunoassay using rabbit anti-rat MT polyclonal antibody. Chicken MT consists of 63 amino acids as compared to 61 found in MTs from mammals. One insertion (and two substitutions) occurs in the amino-terminal region, a region considered invariant among mammalian MTs. Eighteen of the 20 cysteines in chicken MT were aligned with cysteines from other mammalian sequences. Two cysteines near the carboxyl terminus are shifted by one residue due to the insertion of proline in that region. Overall, the chicken protein showed approximately equal to 68% sequence identity in a comparison with various mammalian MTs. The affinity of the polyclonal antibody for chicken MT was decreased by 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to that of a mammalian MT (rat MT isoforms). This reduced affinity is attributed to major substitutions in chicken MT in the regions of the principal determinants of mammalian MTs. Theoretical analysis of the primary structure predicted the secondary structure to consist of reverse turns and random coils with no stable beta or helix conformations. There is no evidence that chicken MT differs functionally from mammalian MTs. PMID:2448773

  12. Lipoprotein metabolism differs between Marek's disease susceptible and resistant chickens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, P; Yu, Y; Luo, J; Tian, F; Zhang, H; Chang, S; Ramachandran, R; Zhang, L; Song, J

    2012-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus and has an important impact on the poultry industry worldwide. There have been reports showing different physiological characteristics between MD susceptible and resistant chickens. However, little is known about whether there are differences in lipid metabolism between MD susceptible and resistant lines of chickens. In this study, we examined the BW and the weight of tissues (abdominal fat, breast muscle with bone, leg muscle with bone, liver, and heart), the lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations and distributions, and the plasma and tissue levels of adiponectin and its receptors in the highly resistant and susceptible lines during chicken growth. Our data showed that the increase in total cholesterol during growth was mainly due to the elevation of cholesterol in the low-density/very low-density lipoprotein fraction in MD susceptible chickens, whereas the increase of total cholesterol was mainly attributable to the increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in MD resistant chickens. Meanwhile, the MD resistant line appeared to have increased plasma adiponectin levels compared with MD susceptible chickens during growth. Taken together, our data suggested that lipoprotein-cholesterol and adiponectin metabolism are different between MD susceptible and resistant chickens.

  13. CULTURING RABIES (HYDROPHOBIA) VIRUSES IN A DEVELOPING CHICKEN EMBRYO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report states that 19 successive passages of the rabies virus strain 83 through the brain of a chicken embryo and 6 passages through the yolk...sac are feasible. In the process of cultivation of the rabies virus in the organism of chicken embryo there was a variation-fixation of it; shortening

  14. CULTIVATION OF CHICKEN POX VIRUS IN DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYOS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The virus of chicken pox adapts readily and multiplies in the chorio- allantoic membranes of a chick embryo. A virus which has undergone several...passages on chorioallantoic membrane causes macroscopic changes in it. The chicken pox virus possesses a hemagglutinating capacity.

  15. Integrated genomic approaches to enhance genetic resistance in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken has led the way amongst agricultural animal species in infectious disease control and, in particular, selection for genetic resistance. The generation of the chicken genome sequence and the availability of other empowering tools and resources greatly enhance the ability to select for enh...

  16. Short-term effects of triiodothyronine on hypothyroid chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These experiments determined relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and gene expression in chickens fed methimazole. Male, broiler chickens were fed diets containing 18% crude protein and either 0 or 1 g methimazole per kg of diet. At 28 days, these two groups were further subdivide...

  17. Effects of Chicken-excrement Amendments on Meloidogyne arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, M.; Noe, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of chicken litter on Meloidogyne arenaria in tomato plants cv. Rutgers were determined in the greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into a sandy soil amended with five rates of chicken litter and inoculated with 2,000 M. arenaria eggs. After 10 days, total numbers of nematodes in the roots decreased with increasing rates of chicken litter. After 46 days, egg numbers also decreased with increasing litter rates. In another experiment, soil was amended with two litter types, N-P-K fertilizer, and the two primary constituents of chicken litter (manure and pine-shaving bedding). After 10 days, numbers of nematodes in roots were smaller in chicken-excrement treatments as compared to nonexcrement treatments. At 46 days, there were fewer nematode eggs in chicken-excrement treatments compared to nonexcrement treatments. Egg numbers also were smaller for fertilizer and pine-shaving amendments as compared to nonamended controls. Chicken litter and manure amendments suppressed plant growth by 10 days after inoculation but enhanced root weights at 46 days after inoculation. Amendment of soil with chicken litter suppressed M. arenaria and may provide practical control of root-knot nematodes as part of an integrated management system. PMID:19279745

  18. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe.

  19. Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-09-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  20. Machine vision system for online inspection of freshly slaughtered chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A machine vision system was developed and evaluated for the automation of online inspection to differentiate freshly slaughtered wholesome chickens from systemically diseased chickens. The system consisted of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device camera used with an imaging spectrograph and ...

  1. Immune responses in cecal tonsils of MDV-infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. Clinical signs of MD include dep...

  2. Lipoprotein metabolism differs between Marek's disease susceptible and resistant chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus and has an important impact on the poultry industry worldwide.There have been reports showing different physiological characteristics between MD susceptible and resistant chickens. However, little is known about whe...

  3. Apo-azurin folds via an intermediate that resembles the molten-globule

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Anders; Leckner, Johan; Karlsson, B. Göran

    2004-01-01

    The folding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa apo-azurin was investigated with the intent of identifying putative intermediates. Two apo-mutants were constructed by replacing the main metal-binding ligand C112 with a serine (C112S) and an alanine (C112A). The guanidinium-induced unfolding free energies (ΔGU−NH2O) of the C112S and C112A mutants were measured to 36.8 ± 1 kJ mole−1 and 26.1 ± 1 kJ mole−1, respectively, and the m-value of the transition to 23.5 ± 0.7 kJ mole−1 M−1. The difference in folding free energy (ΔΔGU−NH2O) is largely attributed to the intramolecular hydrogen bonding properties of the serine Oγ in the C112S mutant, which is lacking in the C112A structure. Furthermore, only the unfolding rates differ between the two mutants, thus pointing to the energy of the native state as the source of the observed Δ ΔGU−NH2O. This also indicates that the formation of the hydrogen bonds present in C112S but absent in C112A is a late event in the folding of the apo-protein, thus suggesting that formation of the metal-binding site occurs after the rate-limiting formation of the transition state. In both mutants we also noted a burst-phase intermediate. Because this intermediate was capable of binding 1-anilinonaphtalene-8-sulfonate (ANS), as were an acid-induced species at pH 2.6, we ascribe it molten globule-like status. However, despite the presence of an intermediate, the folding of apo-azurin C112S is well approximated by a two-state kinetic mechanism. PMID:15388858

  4. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines.

  5. Body weight and metabolic level in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Keller, J

    1977-01-01

    Body weight and metabolic level in growing chickens. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1977, 28 (6): 575-583. In the investigations carried out on 128 White Rock chicken the metabolic level was determined under standard conditions in chickens characterising by different growth rate resulted from different feeding levels. It was shown that the feeding level of growing chicken has an essential influence on the character of the regression between the metabolic level and body weight. It was also found that this regression is not necessarily ot the character of Kleiber's function H = aWb. The differences in the metabolic level between the chickens maintained on different feeding levels did not disappear even after 4 days of starvation. In the light of the obtained results and recent investigations by other authors the usefulness of the so-called metabolic unit of the body size based on W0.75 in context to growing animals within one species has bee criticized.

  6. Improvement of cold resistance and performance of broilers by acute cold exposure during late embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Ruzal, M; Giloh, M; Druyan, S; Piestun, Y; Yahav, S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fine-tune previous acute cold exposure treatments of broiler embryos during late embryogenesis to improve lifelong cold resistance and performance. Six hundred Cobb hatching eggs were incubated under standard conditions and then exposed to 3 treatments: control; cold treatment in which embryos were exposed to 15°C for 30 min on d 18 and 19 of incubation (30 × 2); and cold treatment similar to 30 × 2 but with 60-min exposures (60 × 2). Egg shell temperature (T(egg)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored pre- and posttreatment. Upon hatching, hatchability, body weight, and body temperature were recorded. From 14 to 35 d of age, three quarters of the chickens in each treatment were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the remaining birds were raised under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The T(egg) and HR decreased significantly in response to increased exposure time on d 18 of incubation. On d 19 of incubation, before the second cold exposure, the 30 × 2 group showed greater T(egg) and HR than the controls, and during the second exposure they maintained these parameters better than the 60 × 2 embryos. No treatment effect on hatchability was observed. At 35 d of age ascites incidence among 30 × 2 chickens under AIC was significantly less than that among the controls (P < 0.01), and body weight of these chickens under either SBC or AIC was significantly higher than that of the controls. Under SBC relative breast muscle weight was significantly higher in 60 × 2 chickens, whereas the relative heart weight was higher in both cold-treated groups than in the controls. It can be concluded that repeated short acute cold exposures during late embryogenesis significantly reduced ascites incidence and improved growth rate under either SBC or AIC. These results may be related to a prenatal epigenetic adaptation of the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems to low ambient temperature.

  7. Embryonic Origin of the Islet1 and Pax6 Neurons of the Chicken Central Extended Amygdala Using Cell Migration Assays and Relation to Different Neuropeptide-Containing Cells.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Alba; Abellán, Antonio; Medina, Loreta

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study, we tentatively identified different subdivisions of the central extended amygdala (EAce) in chicken based on the expression of region-specific transcription factors (including Pax6 and Islet1) and several phenotypic markers during embryonic development. Such a proposal was partially based on the suggestion that, similarly to the subdivisions of the EAce of mammals, the Pax6 and Islet1 neurons of the comparable chicken subdivisions derive from the dorsal (Std) or ventral striatal embryonic domains (Stv), respectively. To investigate whether this is true, in the present study, we carried out cell migration assays from chicken Std or Stv combined with immunofluorescence for Pax6 or Islet1. Our results showed that the cells of the proposed chicken EAce truly originate in either Std (expressing Pax6) or Stv (expressing Islet1). This includes lateral subdivisions previously compared to the intercalated amygdalar cells and the central amygdala of mammals, also rich in Std-derived Pax6 cells and/or Stv-derived Islet1 cells. In the medial region of the chicken EAce, the dorsal part of the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) contains numerous cells expressing Nkx2.1 (mostly derived from the pallidal domain), but our migration assays showed that it also contains neuron subpopulations from the Stv (expressing Islet1) and Std (expressing Pax6), resembling the mouse BSTL. These findings, together with those previously published in different species of mammals, birds and reptiles, support the homology of the chicken EAce to that of other vertebrates, and reinforce the existence of several cell subcorridors inside the EAce. In addition, together with previously published data on neuropeptidergic cells, these results led us to propose the existence of at least seventeen neuron subtypes in the EAce in rodents and/or some birds (chicken and pigeon). The functional significance and the evolutionary origin of each subtype needs to be analyzed

  8. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group immunized with the 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p < 0.05; 55%) protection estimated on the basis of clinical signs (40%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (45%), histopathological lesions in the liver (2.7 ± 0.72), and mortality (35%). Birds in the unvaccinated control group showed high morbidity (84%), mortality (70%), gross (85%), and histopathological lesions (3.79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  9. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  10. Expression of cytokine genes in Marek's disease virus-infected chickens and chicken embryo fibroblast cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Z; Schat, K A

    2000-01-01

    The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis and immunity of Marek's disease (MD), a herpesvirus-induced T-cell lymphoma in chickens, is poorly understood. Two different experiments were used to examine the potential role of particular cytokines in the pathogenesis and immune responses of MD. First, chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or recombinant chicken interferon-γ (rChIFN-γ) and used to develop techniques for examining transcription of IFN-α, IFN-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). Addition of LPS and/or rChIFN-γ resulted in the up-regulation of mRNA for iNOS, IL-1β and IL-6, while IFN-γ was up-regulated by LPS alone. IL-2 was down-regulated by the treatments. Second, to determine the effects of Marek's disease herpesvirus (MDV) infection on cytokine transcription in vivo, chickens were infected with MDV at 21 days of age and examined at 7 days post-infection (p.i.) (exp. 1) or were infected with MDV at 1 day of age and examined from 3 to 15 days p.i. (exp. 2). In MDV-infected chickens, IFN-γ transcription was up-regulated as early as 3 days p.i. until the termination of the experiment at 15 days p.i., while iNOS and IL-1β were up-regulated between 6 and 15 days p.i. Infection of 1-day-old chicks increased levels of mRNA for IFN-γ and iNOS between 16- and 64-fold at 9 days p.i. These results suggest that IFN-γ and iNOS may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MD. PMID:10809961

  11. Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    " (syenite, granite) for Mars [5]. Actually the martian missions successively discovered andesite, dacite, low-Fe highlands. Now "Spirit" has found on a small outlier of highlands -Columbia Hills -a batch of thinly layered gently dipping light rocks that surely are not impact melts as at very short distance there is a sharp transition from light Fe-poor to ultrabasic rocks (on opposite slopes of this small hill) [6]. This layered sequence of more or less altered and weathered rocks resembles differentiated sequences of Lovozero and other alkaline and UB-alkaline massifs of Kola Peninsula (though fresh and much richer in alkalis). Here we compare compositions of alkaline basic rocks of Columbia Hills (dyke or sill [4]) with that of basic volcanics and a later dyke at Lovozero. 5 analyses in wt.%: 1-Backstay (tra1 chybasalt) & 2-Irvine (basalt) of CH, 3-augiteporphyrite, 4-essexite-porphyrite, 5- alkali- lamprophyre dyke of Lovozero. SiO2 -49.9, 47.7, 45.78, 48.09, 41.57; TiO2 - 0.93, 1.07, 7.80, 2.35, 2.92; Al2 O3 -13.2; 10.8, 8.08; 13.74; 11.77; Fe2 O3 -3.40, 7.79 (4.99), 5.90, 6.00, 4.53; FeO -10.6, 12.5 (15.0), 8.65, 7.60, 8.28; MnO -0.25, 0.37, 0.12, 0.17, 0.28; MgO -8.36, 10.8, 7.61, 7.19, 10.59; CaO -6.09, 6.12, 10.73, 8.77, 11.24; Na2 O -4.02, 2.72, 2.80, 2.84, 3.63; K2 O -1.02, 0.69, 1.97, 2.09, 1.38. Compositional similarities between basites occurring in alkaline conditions on both planets can be found. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 1, # 3, 700; [2] Gellert R. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v. 111, #E2, EO2505; [3] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v.111, #E2, EO2511; [4] McSween H.Y. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, submitted ; [5] Kochemasov G. G. (1995) Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W. Jr. (Eds). Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt.1.LPI, Houston, 1995, 63 pp.; [6

  12. Generational Status, Neighborhood Context, and Mother-Child Resemblance in Dietary Quality in Mexican-origin Families

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Children of immigrants in the United States often grow up in very different nutrition environments than their parents. As a result, parent-child concordance in diet may be particularly weak in immigrant families. Yet, little is known about parent-child dietary resemblance in immigrant families and how local contexts shape it. This study uses data from the 1999/2000–2009/2010 Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine mother-child resemblance in dietary quality in Mexican-origin families in the United States. We investigate how immigrant generational status and neighborhood context shape the association between mothers’ and children’s dietary quality. We find that mother-child resemblance in dietary quality is weaker for first-generation children relative to third-generation children. However, residence in an immigrant enclave strengthens the mother-child association in dietary quality for first-generation children. Findings offer a unique within-family perspective of immigrant health. Results suggest that the healthy eating advantage of Mexican immigrant mothers may not be sustained across family generations and that Mexican immigrant mothers may face unique challenges in promoting healthy eating among their children. PMID:26773704

  13. Generational status, neighborhood context, and mother-child resemblance in dietary quality in Mexican-origin families.

    PubMed

    Dondero, Molly; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Children of immigrants in the United States often grow up in very different nutrition environments than their parents. As a result, parent-child concordance in diet may be particularly weak in immigrant families. Yet, little is known about parent-child dietary resemblance in immigrant families and how local contexts shape it. This study uses data from the 1999/2000-2009/2010 Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine mother-child resemblance in dietary quality in Mexican-origin families in the United States. We investigate how immigrant generational status and neighborhood context shape the association between mothers' and children's dietary quality. We find that mother-child resemblance in dietary quality is weaker for first-generation children relative to third-generation children. However, residence in an immigrant enclave strengthens the mother-child association in dietary quality for first-generation children. Findings offer a unique within-family perspective of immigrant health. Results suggest that the healthy eating advantage of Mexican immigrant mothers may not be sustained across family generations and that Mexican immigrant mothers may face unique challenges in promoting healthy eating among their children.

  14. Characterization of chicken epidermal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Igyártó, Botond-Zoltán; Lackó, Erzsébet; Oláh, Imre; Magyar, Attila

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for 15 years that the chicken epidermis contains ATPase+ and major histocompatibility complex class II-positive (MHCII+) dendritic cells. These cells were designated as Langerhans cells but neither their detailed phenotype nor their function was further investigated. In the present paper we demonstrate a complete overlapping of ATPase, CD45 and vimentin staining in all dendritic cells of the chicken epidermis. The CD45+ ATPase+ vimentin+ dendritic cells could be divided into three subpopulations: an MHCII+ CD3– KUL01+ and 68.1+ (monocyte-macrophage subpopulation markers) subpopulation, an MHCII– CD3– KUL01– and 68.1– subpopulation and an MHCII– CD3+ KUL01– and 68.1– subpopulation. The first population could be designated as chicken Langerhans cells. The last population represents CD4– CD8– T-cell receptor-αβ– and -γδ– natural killer cells with cytoplasmic CD3 positivity. The epidermal dendritic cells have a low proliferation rate as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that dendritic cells could be mobilized from the epidermis. Hapten treatment of epidermis resulted in the decrease of the frequency of epidermal dendritic cells and hapten-loaded dendritic cells appeared in the dermis or in in vitro culture of isolated epidermis. Hapten-positive cells were also found in the so-called dermal lymphoid nodules. We suggest that these dermal nodules are responsible for some regional immunological functions similar to the mammalian lymph nodes. PMID:16889640

  15. Circadian rhythms of chicken brain temperatures.

    PubMed

    Aschoff, C; Aschoff, J; von Saint Paul, U

    1973-04-01

    1. Brain temperature was recorded continuously for up to 18 days in unanaesthetized adult male chickens. With the use of a guide box of plexiglas screwed into a trephine of the calvarium, several thermocouples could be inserted at various depths into the brain at the same time.2. While brain temperatures were being recorded, each chicken was placed in a small circular arena and kept either in a light-dark cycle (LD 12:12 hr) or in conditions of constant dim illumination (LL) within a soundproof chamber.3. Under LD-conditions, the range of oscillation (the difference between maximum and minimum within one period) in brain temperature at any one site was about 1.5 degrees C. During the 12 hr of light the temperature often reached a plateau for several hours. During darkness, a minimum of temperature was usually reached shortly after light-off. Brain temperature started to rise several hours before light-on.4. All eleven chickens tested under LL-conditions showed free running circadian rhythms of brain temperature, with mean periods varying between 22.75 and 25.00 hr (overall mean: 23.69 hr). The range of oscillation in LL-conditions was smaller than in LD-conditions, but was seldom less than 1.0 degrees C.5. In LD as well as in LL, continuous fluctuations of temperature with a much higher frequency were superimposed on the circadian cycle. The fluctuations occurred synchronously at all sites of the brain and were of the same order of magnitude (frequency and range) during wakefulness as during sleep.

  16. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne; Held, Suzanne; Jones, Charlotte; Troisi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary For a domestic chick, the mother hen is an important role model; chicks learn a great deal from their mother about what to peck, when to rest and how to behave when there is a threat. However, in large farms, natural brooding is not commercially viable and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially. Chicks reared without a mother in this way are more fearful and more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. We discuss the important features of maternal care in chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation, and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to simulate natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice. Abstract In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural

  17. EPIDEMIC TREMOR, AN ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AFFECTING YOUNG CHICKENS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E. Elizabeth

    1934-01-01

    A new disease having a characteristic and well defined symptom complex is described as occurring in young chickens in four New England states. Tremor, principally of the head and neck, and progressive ataxia are the characteristic symptoms, either or both of which may be present in a single bird. Age at onset in field epidemics ranges from 3 days to 6 weeks, with a majority of cases reported at 3 weeks. Morbidity in commercial flocks ranges from 5 to 50 per cent; mortality in affected hatches may be 50 per cent. The disease may or may not recur in successive hatches, and in the same flock in successive years. Although birds may survive an attack of the disease, nervous symptoms persist in a majority of cases. There is no evidence that nutritional factors are involved. Normal chickens have not contracted the disease by contact with affected birds. The disease has been reproduced in normal chickens by intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from affected birds. Twenty brain-to-brain passages have been made up to the present time. The incubation period in laboratory passages ranges from 6 to 44 days with symptoms appearing usually between 21 and 28 days. The proportion of inoculated birds developing symptoms has increased with successive passages. The infective agent in the brain has survived in 50 per cent glycerine for 69 days. No organism has been cultivated. The disease has been reproduced after inoculation with bacteriologically sterile filtrates obtained with Seitz and Berkefeld N filters. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of the infective agent in the chicken embryo have been inconclusive. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by birds which had survived the disease were not infected, nor were they immune to inoculation at 6 weeks of age. The characteristic lesion of the disease consists of microscopic focal collections of glia cells, perivascular infiltration, degeneration of Purkinje's cells, and degeneration of nerve cells. Foci of infiltration are

  18. From FRA to RFN: How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to problems of their own disciplines. For example, Irzik and Nola adapted Wittgenstein's generic definition of the family resemblance idea to NOS, while Erduran and Dagher reconceptualized Irzik and Nola's FRA-to-NOS by synthesizing educational applications by drawing on perspectives from science education research. In this article, we use the terminology of "Reconceptualized FRA-to-NOS (RFN)" to refer to Erduran and Dagher's FRA version which offers an educational account inclusive of knowledge about pedagogical, instructional, curricular and assessment issues in science education. Our motivation for making this distinction is rooted in the need to clarify the various accounts of the family resemblance idea.The key components of the RFN include the aims and values of science, methods and methodological rules, scientific practices, scientific knowledge as well as the social-institutional dimensions of science including the social ethos, certification, and power relations. We investigate the potential of RFN in facilitating curriculum analysis and in determining the gaps related to NOS in the curriculum. We analyze two Turkish science curricula published 7 years apart and illustrate how RFN can contribute not only to the analysis of science curriculum itself but also to trends in science curriculum development. Furthermore, we present an analysis of documents from USA and Ireland and contrast them to the Turkish curricula thereby illustrating some trends in the coverage of RFN categories. The results indicate that while both Turkish curricula contain statements that identify science as a cognitive-epistemic system, they

  19. Never too late.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.

  20. Pattern of Pax7 expression during myogenesis in the posthatch chicken establishes a model for satellite cell differentiation and renewal.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Orna; Piestun, Yogev; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Rosser, Benjamin W C; Rinkevich, Yuval; Reshef, Ram; Rozenboim, Israel; Wleklinski-Lee, Monika; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2004-11-01

    The paired-box transcription factor Pax7 plays a critical role in the specification of satellite cells in mouse skeletal muscle. In the present study, the position and number of Pax7-expressing cells found in muscles of growing and adult chickens confirm the presence of this protein in avian satellite cells. The expression pattern of Pax7 protein, along with the muscle regulatory proteins MyoD and myogenin, was additionally elucidated in myogenic cultures and in whole muscle from posthatch chickens. In cultures progressing from proliferation to differentiation, the expression of Pax7 in MyoD+ cells declined as the cells began expressing myogenin, suggesting Pax7 as an early marker for proliferating myoblasts. At all time points, some Pax7+ cells were negative for MyoD, resembling the reserve cell phenotype. Clonal analysis of muscle cell preparations demonstrated that single progenitors can give rise to both differentiating and reserve cells. In muscle tissues, Pax7 protein expression was the strongest by 1 day posthatch, declining on days 3 and 6 to a similar level. In contrast, myogenin expression peaked on day 3 and then dramatically declined. This finding was accompanied by a robust growth in fiber diameter between day 3 and 6. The distinctions in Pax7 and myogenin expression patterns, both in culture and in vivo, indicate that while some of the myoblasts differentiate and fuse into myofibers during early stages of posthatch growth, others retain their reserve cell capacity.

  1. Characterization of Clade 7.2 H5 Avian Influenza Viruses That Continue To Circulate in Chickens in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liling; Zeng, Xianying; Chen, Pucheng; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Gu, Chunyang; Kong, Huihui; Suzuki, Yasuo; Jiang, Yongping; Tian, Guobin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H5N1 avian influenza viruses emerged in Southeast Asia in the late 20th century and have evolved into multiple phylogenetic clades based on their hemagglutinin (HA)-encoding genes. The clade 7.2 viruses were first detected in chickens in northern China in 2006, and vaccines specifically targeted to the clade were developed and have been used in poultry in China since 2006. During routine surveillance and disease diagnosis, we isolated seven H5 viruses between 2011 and 2014 that bear the clade 7.2 HA genes. Here, we performed extensive studies to understand how the clade 7.2 H5 viruses have evolved in chickens in China. Full genome sequence analysis revealed that the seven viruses formed two subtypes (four H5N1 viruses and three H5N2 viruses) and four genotypes by deriving genes from other influenza viruses. All of the viruses had antigenically drifted from the clade 7.2 viruses that were isolated in 2006. Pathogenicity studies of four viruses, one from each genotype, revealed that all of the viruses are highly pathogenic in chickens, but none of them could replicate in ducks. The four viruses exclusively bound to avian-type receptors and replicated only in the turbinates and/or lungs of mice; none of them were lethal to mice at a dosage of 106 50% egg infective doses (EID50). Our study indicates that although the clade 7.2 viruses have not been eradicated from poultry through vaccination, they have not become more dangerous to other animals (e.g., ducks and mice) and humans. IMPORTANCE Animal influenza viruses can acquire the ability to infect and kill humans. The H5N1 viruses have been a concern in recent decades because of their clear pandemic potential. We sorted H5N1 influenza viruses into different phylogenetic clades based on their HA genes. The clade 7.2 viruses were detected in chickens in several provinces of northern China in 2006. Vaccines for these viruses were subsequently developed and have been used ever since to control infection of

  2. Early events in xenograft development from the human embryonic stem cell line HS181--resemblance with an initial multiple epiblast formation.

    PubMed

    Gertow, Karin; Cedervall, Jessica; Jamil, Seema; Ali, Rouknuddin; Imreh, Marta P; Gulyas, Miklos; Sandstedt, Bengt; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Xenografting is widely used for assessing in vivo pluripotency of human stem cell populations. Here, we report on early to late events in the development of mature experimental teratoma from a well-characterized human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line, HS181. The results show an embryonic process, increasingly chaotic. Active proliferation of the stem cell derived cellular progeny was detected already at day 5, and characterized by the appearance of multiple sites of engraftment, with structures of single or pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding small cavities. The striking histological resemblance to developing embryonic ectoderm, and the formation of epiblast-like structures was supported by the expression of the markers OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4 and KLF4, but a lack of REX1. The early neural marker NESTIN was uniformly expressed, while markers linked to gastrulation, such as BMP-4, NODAL or BRACHYURY were not detected. Thus, observations on day 5 indicated differentiation comparable to the most early transient cell populations in human post implantation development. Confirming and expanding on previous findings from HS181 xenografts, these early events were followed by an increasingly chaotic development, incorporated in the formation of a benign teratoma with complex embryonic components. In the mature HS181 teratomas not all types of organs/tissues were detected, indicating a restricted differentiation, and a lack of adequate spatial developmental cues during the further teratoma formation. Uniquely, a kinetic alignment of rare complex structures was made to human embryos at diagnosed gestation stages, showing minor kinetic deviations between HS181 teratoma and the human counterpart.

  3. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  4. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  5. Hyperspectral Imaging of fecal contamination on chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    ProVision Technologies, a NASA research partnership center at Sternis Space Center in Mississippi, has developed a new hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that is much smaller than the original large units used aboard remote sensing aircraft and satellites. The new apparatus is about the size of a breadbox. Health-related applications of HSI include scanning chickens during processing to help prevent contaminated food from getting to the table. ProVision is working with Sanderson Farms of Mississippi and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ProVision has a record in its spectral library of the unique spectral signature of fecal contamination, so chickens can be scanned and those with a positive reading can be separated. HSI sensors can also determine the quantity of surface contamination. Research in this application is quite advanced, and ProVision is working on a licensing agreement for the technology. The potential for future use of this equipment in food processing and food safety is enormous.

  6. Galloxanthin, a carotenoid from the chicken retina.

    PubMed

    WALD, G

    1948-05-20

    A new carotenoid has been isolated from the chicken retina for which the name galloxanthin is proposed. This substance has the properties of a hydroxy carotenoid or xanthophyll. It has not yet been crystallized. On a chromatogram of calcium carbonate it is adsorbed just below astaxanthin and above lutein. The absorption spectrum of galloxanthin lies in a region where natural carotenoids have not ordinarily been found. Its main, central absorption band falls at about 400 mmicro. The position of its spectrum suggests a conjugated system of eight double bonds. This relatively short polyene structure must be reconciled with very strong adsorption affinities. With antimony trichloride, galloxanthin yields a deep blue product, possessing a main absorption band at 785 to 795 mmicro, and a secondary maximum at about 710 mmicro which may not be due to galloxanthin itself. Galloxanthin appears to be one of the carotenoid filter pigments associated with cone vision in the chicken. It may act as an auxiliary to the other filter pigments in differentiating colors; or its primary function may be to exclude violet and near ultraviolet radiations for which the eye has a large chromatic aberration.

  7. Keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycan from chicken egg white.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Sun, Xiaojun; He, Wenqin; Cai, Chao; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Zhangguo

    2016-07-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) was isolated from chicken egg white in amounts corresponding to ∼0.06 wt% (dry weight). This KS had a weight-average molecular weight of ∼36-41 kDa with a polydispersity of ∼1.3. The primary repeating unit present in chicken egg white KS was →4) β-N-acetyl-6-O-sulfo-d-glucosamine (1 → 3) β-d-galactose (1→ with some 6-O-sulfo galactose residues present. This KS was somewhat resistant to depolymerization using keratanase 1 but could be depolymerized efficiently through the use of reactive oxygen species generated using copper (II) and hydrogen peroxide. Of particular interest was the presence of substantial amounts of 2,8- and 2,9-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid residues in the form of oligosialic acid terminating the non-reducing ends of the KS chains. Most of the KS appears to be N-linked to a protein core as evidenced by its sensitivity to PNGase F.

  8. Chicken wing training model for endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To present and validate a chicken wing model for endoscopic endonasal microsurgical skill development. Setting A surgical environment was constructed using a Styrofoam box and measurements from radiological studies. Endoscopic visualization and instrumentation were utilized in a manner to mimic operative setting. Design Five participants were instructed to complete four sequential tasks: (1) opening the skin, (2) exposing the main artery in its neurovascular sheath, (3) opening the neurovascular sheath, and (4) separating the nerve from the artery. Time to completion of each task was recorded. Participants Three junior attendings, one senior resident, and one medical student were recruited internally. Main Outcome Measures Time to perform the surgical tasks measured in seconds. Results The average time of the first training session was 48.8 minutes; by the 10th training session, the average time was 22.4 minutes. The range of improvement was 25.7 minutes to 72.4 minutes. All five participants exhibited statistically significant decrease in time after 10 trials. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that an improvement of 50% was achieved by an average of five attempts at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The ex vivo chicken wing model is an inexpensive and relatively realistic model to train endoscopic dissection using microsurgical techniques.

  9. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics.

  10. The effect of progressive hypoxia on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of the chicken

    PubMed Central

    Butler, P. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. During the initial stages of progressive hypoxia the intact, unanaesthetized chicken shows increases in heart rate and respiratory frequency with no change in arterial blood pressure and oxygen consumption. During the later stages, heart rate, diastolic and mean blood pressure and oxygen consumption fall, while respiratory frequency increases further. 2. Following bilateral cervical vagotomy and adrenergic β-receptor blockage there is no tachycardia, but the late bradycardia and fall in blood pressure do occur during progressive hypoxia. Respiratory frequency remains at a low level after vagotomy. 3. It is suggested that the initial tachycardia is dependent on both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, and that the former helps maintain arterial pressure during the early stages of hypoxia. Bradycardia and hypotension seem to be due to anoxia itself, and the vagus is essential for the increase in respiratory frequency. PMID:6050107

  11. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  12. Late, Late-Onset Group B Streptococcus Cellulitis With Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, Yukako; Katsumori, Hiroshi; Koike, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of serious neonatal and early infantile infection. As the infection often presents with nonspecific symptoms, and is associated with underlying bacteremia, prompt investigation and treatment is required. We report a case of late, late-onset GBS infection with bacteremia in a 94-day-old boy experiencing cellulitis of the left hand. Although late-onset disease or late, late-onset disease has been reported to be common among infants with underlying conditions such as premature birth, immunocompromised status, trauma, or among those using medical devices, no such underlying medical condition predisposed this infant to invasive GBS infection. Recent reports including the present case underscore the risk of GBS infection among previously healthy infants beyond the neonatal period. Thus, clinicians should especially be aware of unusual presentations of GBS invasive disease with bacteremia.

  13. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  14. Pathogenesis of chicken-passaged Newcastle disease viruses isolated from chickens and wild and exotic birds.

    PubMed

    Kommers, Glaucia D; King, Daniel J; Seal, Bruce S; Brown, Corrie C

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens (Ckn-LBM and Ckn-Australia) and wild (Anhinga) and exotic (YN parrot, pheasant, and dove) birds was examined after the isolates had been passaged four times in domestic chickens. Groups of 10 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with each one of the isolates. The infected birds were observed for clinical disease and were euthanatized and sampled at selected times from 12 hr to 14 days postinoculation or at death. Tissues were examined by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect viral nucleoprotein (IHC/NP), and by in situ hybridization to detect viral mRNA and were double labeled for apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling ([TUNEL] or IHC/caspase-3) and viral nucleoprorein (IHC/NP). Birds infected with the three low virulence viruses (Ckn-LBM, YN parrot, and Ckn-Australia) did not develop clinical disease. Microscopic lesions were observed only at the inoculation site and in organs of the respiratory system. The detection of viral nucleoprotein (N) was restricted to the inoculation site. The pheasant and dove isolates were highly virulent for chickens with marked tropism for lymphoid tissues, confirmed by the presence of large numbers of cells positive for viral N protein and viral mRNA. Viral N protein was detected early in the cytoplasm of cells in the center of the splenic ellipsoids. The apoptosis assays (TUNEL and IHC/caspase-3) showed increased apoptosis in the splenic ellipsoids as well. Apparently, apoptosis is an important mechanism in lymphoid depletion during NDV infection.

  15. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    PubMed

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens.

  16. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  17. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments

    PubMed Central

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of 40Ar/39Ar “plateau” ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial 40Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of 40Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely. PMID:27621460

  18. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark

    2016-09-27

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  19. T. GONDII IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM GHANA, INDONESIA, ITALY, POLAND, AND VIETNAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam was determin...

  20. Cold atmospheric gas plasma disinfection of chicken meat and chicken skin contaminated with Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Estefanía; Shama, Gilbert; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario; Kong, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    Gas plasmas generated at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperatures offer a possible decontamination method for poultry products. The efficacy of cold atmospheric gas plasmas for decontaminating chicken skin and muscle inoculated with Listeria innocua was examined. Optimization of operating conditions for maximal bacterial inactivation was first achieved using membrane filters on which L. innocua had been deposited. Higher values of AC voltage, excitation frequency and the presence of oxygen in the carrier gas resulted in the greatest inactivation efficiency, and this was confirmed with further studies on chicken muscle and skin. Under optimal conditions, a 10 s treatment gave > 3 log reductions of L. innocua on membrane filters, an 8 min treatment gave 1 log reduction on skin, and a 4 min treatment gave > 3 log reductions on muscle. These results show that the efficacy of gas plasma treatment is greatly affected by surface topography. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of chicken muscle and skin revealed surface features wherein bacteria could effectively be protected from the chemical species generated within the gas plasma. The developments in gas plasma technology necessary for its commercial application to foods are discussed.

  1. Managing the chronically late patient.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Every practice has patients who are chronically late. This wrecks havoc with your schedule and makes you less productive. Patients can be trained to respect your time and arrive in the office on time. This article discusses several approaches to managing the chronically late patient.

  2. Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

    2014-02-01

    The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale.

  3. Innate Immune Responses in ALV-J Infected Chicks and Chickens with Hemangioma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Xie, Tingting; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Since the precise mechanism of the innate immune response induced by ALV-J is unknown, we investigated the antiviral innate immune responses induced by ALV-J in chicks and chickens that had developed tumors. Spleen levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1β, and interferon-β (IFN-β) were not significantly different between the infected chick groups and the control groups from 1 day post hatch to 7 days post hatch. However, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-β protein levels in the three clinical samples with hemangiomas were dramatically increased compared to the healthy samples. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased sharply in two of three clinical samples. We also found a more than 20-fold up-regulation of ISG12-1 mRNA at 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) and a twofold up-regulation of ZC3HAV1 mRNA at 4 d.p.i. However, there were no statistical differences in ISG12-1 and ZC3HAV1 mRNA expression levels in the tumorigenesis phase. ALV-J infection induced a significant increase of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) at 1 d.p.i. and dramatically increased the mRNA levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the tumorigenesis phase. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) were decreased in chickens with tumors. These results suggest that ALV-J was primarily recognized by chicken TLR7 and MDA5 at early and late in vivo infection stages, respectively. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 did not induce any significant antiviral innate immune response in 1 week old chicks. However, interferon-stimulated genes were not induced normally during the late phase of ALV-J infection due to a reduction of IRF1 and STAT1 expression. PMID:27252695

  4. Innate Immune Responses in ALV-J Infected Chicks and Chickens with Hemangioma In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Xie, Tingting; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Since the precise mechanism of the innate immune response induced by ALV-J is unknown, we investigated the antiviral innate immune responses induced by ALV-J in chicks and chickens that had developed tumors. Spleen levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1β, and interferon-β (IFN-β) were not significantly different between the infected chick groups and the control groups from 1 day post hatch to 7 days post hatch. However, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-β protein levels in the three clinical samples with hemangiomas were dramatically increased compared to the healthy samples. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased sharply in two of three clinical samples. We also found a more than 20-fold up-regulation of ISG12-1 mRNA at 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) and a twofold up-regulation of ZC3HAV1 mRNA at 4 d.p.i. However, there were no statistical differences in ISG12-1 and ZC3HAV1 mRNA expression levels in the tumorigenesis phase. ALV-J infection induced a significant increase of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) at 1 d.p.i. and dramatically increased the mRNA levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the tumorigenesis phase. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) were decreased in chickens with tumors. These results suggest that ALV-J was primarily recognized by chicken TLR7 and MDA5 at early and late in vivo infection stages, respectively. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 did not induce any significant antiviral innate immune response in 1 week old chicks. However, interferon-stimulated genes were not induced normally during the late phase of ALV-J infection due to a reduction of IRF1 and STAT1 expression.

  5. Vaccination with virus-like particles containing H5 antigens from three H5N1 clades protects chickens from H5N1 and H5N8 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Hidajat, Rachmat; Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter

    2016-03-18

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI strains. Influenza VLPs contain viral hemagglutinin (HA), which can be expressed in cell culture within highly immunogenic VLPs that morphologically and antigenically resemble influenza virions, except VLPs are non-infectious. Here we describe a recombinant VLP containing HA proteins derived from three distinct clades of H5N1 viruses as an experimental, broadly protective H5 avian influenza vaccine. A baculovirus vector was configured to co-express the H5 genes from recent H5N1 HPAI isolates A/chicken/Germany/2014 (clade 2.3.4.4), A/chicken/West Java/Subang/29/2007 (clade 2.1.3) and A/chicken/Egypt/121/2012 (clade 2.2.1). Co-expression of these genes in Sf9 cells along with influenza neuraminidase (NA) and retrovirus gag genes resulted in production of triple-clade H555 VLPs that exhibited hemagglutination activity and morphologically resembled influenza virions. Vaccination of chickens with these VLPs resulted in induction of serum antibody responses and efficient protection against experimental challenges with three different viruses including the recent U.S. H5N8 HPAI isolate. We conclude that these novel triple-clade VLPs represent a feasible strategy for simultaneously evoking protective antibodies against multiple variants of H5 influenza virus.

  6. Influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales.

  7. Anxiety disorders in late life.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. PMID:10587775

  8. Environmental perspective facing south showing chicken house, tractor shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental perspective facing south showing chicken house, tractor shed, and homestead - Norris Farm, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  9. 5. Relationship of chicken house, privy, claim house, and residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Relationship of chicken house, privy, claim house, and residence to each other and immediate surroundings, looking northeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  10. 10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  11. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  12. RNA sequencing analysis of the developing chicken retina

    PubMed Central

    Langouet-Astrie, Christophe J.; Meinsen, Annamarie L.; Grunwald, Emily R.; Turner, Stephen D.; Enke, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis using massively parallel next generation sequencing technology provides the capability to understand global changes in gene expression throughout a range of tissue samples. Development of the vertebrate retina requires complex temporal orchestration of transcriptional activation and repression. The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus) is a classic model system for studying developmental biology and retinogenesis. Existing retinal transcriptome projects have been critical to the vision research community for studying aspects of murine and human retinogenesis, however, there are currently no publicly available data sets describing the developing chicken retinal transcriptome. Here we used Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to characterize the mRNA transcriptome of the developing chicken retina in an effort to identify genes critical for retinal development in this important model organism. These data will be valuable to the vision research community for characterizing global changes in gene expression between ocular tissues and critical developmental time points during retinogenesis in the chicken retina. PMID:27996968

  13. View northwest, overview of building group: chicken house (HABS No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, overview of building group: chicken house (HABS No. WV-267-D), wash house (267-C), Albert Thacker House (267-A), coal house (267-B) (left to right in photograph) - 3249 Cyrus Road (House), Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

  14. Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus in Nonpelleted Chicken Feed.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Breedlove, C

    2016-12-01

    Corn stored outside could become contaminated with avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild bird droppings. AIV-contaminated ingredients could pass into the poultry flocks in nonpelleted chicken feed. The efficacy of two disinfectants at inactivating AIV in chicken feed was evaluated. Both Termin-8 (a blend of formaldehyde, propionic acid, terpenes, and surfactant) and Finio (a blend of approved phytochemicals and carboxylic acids) effectively inactivated AIV in chicken feed. Because stability of infectious AIV in chicken feed is limited, we evaluated addition of protein (skim milk powder) to the virus suspension. Protein prolonged the stability of AIV in untreated feed to 24 hr at 24 C. However, both feed disinfectants were able to inactivate the virus in feed even when protected by skim milk powder.

  15. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    Moiseyeva, Irina G; Romanov, Michael N; Nikiforov, Andrey A; Sevastyanova, Antonina A; Semyenova, Serafima K

    2003-01-01

    Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world. PMID:12927074

  16. Andy Chambers Homestead, Chicken Coop, Saddle Shop, and Granary, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Andy Chambers Homestead, Chicken Coop, Saddle Shop, and Granary, looking northeast - Andy Chambers Homestead, 0.4 mile south of Antelope Flats Road on the east side of Mormon Row Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  17. Overall view, Chicken Coop and Windmill, looking northwest Thomas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view, Chicken Coop and Windmill, looking northwest - Thomas Perry Homestead, East side of Mormon Row Road, approximately .6 miles south of Antelope Flats Road, bounded on the north by Ditch Creek, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Daweishan Mini chicken.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-Li; Ding, Su-Ping; Ye, Shao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Guang; He, Bao-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Daweishan Mini chicken is a valuable chicken breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken using PCR amplification, sequencing and assembling has been obtained for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,785 bp, with the base composition of 30.26% A, 23.73% T, 32.51% C, 13.51% G. It contained 37 genes (2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The protein start codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken provides an important data set for further investigation on the phylogenetic relationships within Gallus gallus.

  19. Purification and characterization of chicken follicle-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, K A; Proudman, J A; Bahr, J M

    1992-05-01

    1. Highly purified chicken follicle-stimulating hormone (cFSH) was isolated from chicken pituitaries by differential extraction, sequential chromatography on HPLC cation and anion exchange columns, and gel filtration chromatography. 2. Purified cFSH (USDA-cFSH-K-1) had a potency of 77.44 units/mg in a chicken testes radioreceptor assay, and was biologically active in stimulating the secretion of progesterone by chicken granulosa cells. 3. Purified cFSH contained negligible luteinizing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone activity. 4. The apparent molecular weight of cFSH was 38,000 Da and a single band on isoelectric focusing had a pI of 4.65.

  20. Use of free water by nesting lesser prairie-chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Plumb, Reid T.

    2016-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is a grassland grouse of semiarid regions. Use of free water has been hypothesized as necessary for egg formation during drought. We assessed the use of hydrogen isotopes (deuterium, δ2H) to determine if female lesser prairie-chickens use and incorporate free water during egg formation by testing the relationship between isotope ratios in available free water and eggshells. We collected eggshells from 124 nests and 282 free water samples from three sites in Kansas in 2013 and 2014. Eggshells had δ2H values similar to free water in the year of severe drought but were dissimilar the year with lessened drought severity. With an established link between lesser prairie-chicken eggshells and free water during severe drought, we have identified a mechanism behind observations of lesser prairie-chicken water use. We have demonstrated that hydrogen isotopes can be used to test research questions related to use of free water.

  1. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Observation Activities with Chicken Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Provides sample observation activities to accompany the nursery tale of Chicken Little. Includes five activities that involve the skills of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and categorizing to engage students in hands-on science. (DDR)

  2. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir.

  3. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Marcet, Paula L; Lehmann, T

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 61 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from provinces of Santiago del Estero and Entre Rios, Argentina was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and were found in 25 chickens; titers were 1:5 in 6 chickens, 1:10 in 1 chicken, 1:20 in 2 chickens, 1:40 in 1 chicken, 1:80 in 2 chickens, 1:60 in 4 chickens, 1:120 in 2 chickens, 1:640 in 3 chickens, and 1: 1,280 or higher in 4 chickens. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 22 seropositive (MAT 1:10 or higher) chickens were bioassayed individually in mice. Tissue from 39 chickens with titers of 1:5 or less were pooled and fed to 3 T. gondii-free cats. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts, but none was found. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 17 of 22 chickens with MAT titers of 1:10 or higher. Genotyping of these 17 isolates using polymorphisms at the SAG2 locus indicated that 4 were Type I, 3 were Type II, and 10 were Type III. Toxoplasma gondii isolates (2 Type I and I Type III) from 3 chickens were virulent for mice and 1 Type I was not mouse virulent. Prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in chickens varied among regions, being 3 times greater in the humid Pampeana region (61.2%) than in the semiarid plain of Santiago del Estero (20%).

  4. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  5. Late-life attachment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  6. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Stinckens, A.; Vereijken, A.; Ons, E.; Konings, P.; Van As, P.; Cuppens, H.; Moreau, Y.; Sakai, R.; Aerts, J.; Goddeeris, B.; Buys, N.; Vanmechelen, K.; Cassiman, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a “Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome”. However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words: PMID:26977265

  7. Avian hepatitis E virus in chickens, Taiwan, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ingrid W-Y; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2014-01-01

    A previously unidentified strain of avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is now endemic among chickens in Taiwan. Analysis showed that the virus is 81.5%-86.5% similar to other aHEVs. In Taiwan, aHEV infection has been reported in chickens without aHEV exposure, suggesting transmission from asymptomatic cases or repeated introduction through an unknown common source(s).

  8. [Chicken pox recurrence revealing a renal adenocarcinoma in an adult].

    PubMed

    Thieulent, N; Grezard, P; Wolf, F; Barrut, D; Perrot, H

    2000-09-01

    A new episode of chicken pox in adults who had a well documented infection previously is usually observed in immunocompromised individuals. The principal immunodeficiency factors are hematology diseases, acquired immunodeficiency disease and old age. We report here the case of a young woman who after a contaminating contact presented a recurrence of typical chicken pox. Morphological investigations evidenced a right kidney tumor which pathology revealed to be a renal adenocarcinoma. We discuss this pathological association and review cases reported in the literature.

  9. Ontogeny of the interferon system in chickens.

    PubMed

    Karpala, Adam J; Bagnaud-Baule, Audrey; Goossens, Kate E; Lowenthal, John W; Bean, Andrew G D

    2012-06-01

    Newborn vertebrates may be susceptible to infection because the immature status of their immune system results in an inability to make an effective immune response. Consequently, newly hatched chicks appear to be more susceptible to infections than mature chickens. In particular, poultry susceptibility to virus infection may be related to poor expression of innate immune elements involved in antiviral responses. Therefore, in this study we assessed the relative development of the interferon (IFN) system: a protective system against virus infection. We investigated the age-related expression of the elements involved in the IFN response including IFN gene expression, their associated receptors and the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) involved in the regulation of IFNs. We observed that the IFN system is somewhat inadequately expressed in embryos and develops over time, just prior to and after hatching, and therefore chicks may be more susceptible to virus than mature birds because of an immature IFN network.

  10. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    PubMed Central

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Antibiotherapy did not relieve the patient’s symptoms and signs. A 3-cm linear foreign body was observed in X-ray and computed tomography scans. The symptoms of the patient were relieved after excision of the foreign body. Conclusion Although it is a rare situation, migration of a foreign body ingested through the aerodigestive tract to the neck should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with neck masses. PMID:27994927

  11. Ultrastructural immunochemistry of J chains in chickens.

    PubMed

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1990-01-01

    Using ultrastructural immunochemistry, we have determined subcellular localization of J chain molecules in chicken splenic cells. The majority of J chain positive cells (JPC) were lymphoblast-like cells. The data show that J chains predominantly are localized in cytoplasm with a considerable amount distributed on the cell surface. In the cytoplasm, J chains were diffusely expressed. Furthermore, these J chain molecules were clearly seen as cluster type. In addition to the J chain localization of subcellular organelles as described above, J chains were partly found on perinuclear spaces. As J chains are key protein in B cell differentiation into immunoglobulin (Ig) producing cells, these findings might help for studying regulation of B cell differentiation in addition to revealing the molecular assembly of polymeric Ig.

  12. Myosin synthesis in embryonic chicken fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The rate of constitutive myosin synthesis was measured in cultures of replicating embryonic chicken skin fibroblasts by pulse labeling with [3H]leucine. These cells synthesized the 200,000-dalton heavy chain of myosin (MHC) at a rate of 3.2 x 10(3) molecules/cell/min. Additionally, an independent estimate of the MHC synthesis rate needed to maintain a constant level of constitutive MHC/cell was calculated from total protein content, percentage MHC, fibroblast doubling time, and MHC half- life. This calculated rate of approximately 2.9 x 10(3) molecules/cell/min was in close agreement with the measured rate. By comparison, the synthesis rate of myofibrillar MHC in fully activated muscle cell cultures was approximately 2.9 x 10(4) molecules/nucleus/min. PMID:479285

  13. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  14. Reprogramming A375 cells to induced-resembled neuronal cells by structured overexpression of specific transcription genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hengzhu; Wei, Min; Jiang, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaodong; She, Lei; Yan, Zhengcun; Dong, Lun; Pang, Lujun; Wang, Xingdong

    2016-01-01

    Induced-resembled neuronal cells (irNCs) are generated by reprogramming human melanoma cells through the introduction of key transcription factors, providing novel concepts in the treatment of malignant tumor cells and making it possible to supply neural cells for laboratory use. In the present study, irNCs were derived from A375 cells by inducing the 'forced' overexpression of specific genes, including achaete-scute homolog 1 (Ascl1), neuronal differentiation factor 1 (Neurod1), myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1), brain protein 2 (Brn2, also termed POU3F2) and human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (h-BDNF). irNCs induced from A375 cells express multiple neuronal markers and fire action potentials, exhibiting properties similar to those of motor neurons. The reprogramming procedure comprised reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining; furthermore, electrophysiological profiling demonstrated the characteristics of the induced-resembled neurons. The present study obtained a novel type of human irNC from human melanoma, which secreted BDNF continuously, providing a model for neuron-like cells. Thus, irNCs offer promise in investigating various neural diseases by using neural-like cells derived directly from the patient of interest. PMID:27510459

  15. Purified omega-conotoxin GVIA receptor of rat brain resembles a dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel

    SciTech Connect

    McEnery, M.W.; Snowman, A.M.; Sharp, A.H.; Snyder, S.H. ); Adams, M.E. )

    1991-12-15

    The {omega}-conotoxin GVIA (CTX) receptor has been purified 1,900-fold to apparent homogeneity by monitoring both reversible binding of {sup 125}I-labeled CTX ({sup 125}I-CTX) and photoincorporation of N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate-{sup 125}I-CTX (HSA-{sup 125}I-CTX). Photoincorporation of HSA-{sup 125}I-CTX into a 230-kDa protein exhibits a pharmacologic and chromatographic profile indicating that the 230-kDa protein is the CTX-binding subunit of the receptor. The pharmacologic specificity of {sup 125}I-CTX binding to the purified CTX receptor closely resembles that of the native membrane-bound form with respect to sensitivity towards CTX and other peptide toxin antagonists. The purified CTX receptor comprises the 230-kDa protein ({alpha}{sub 1}) and four additional proteins with apparent molecular masses of 140 ({alpha}{sub 2}), 110, 70 ({beta}{sub 2}), and 60({beta}{sub 1}) kDa. This subunit structure closely resembles that of the 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel.

  16. Efficacy of electrical stimulation of retinal ganglion cells with temporal patterns resembling light-evoked spike trains.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond C S; Garrett, David J; Grayden, David B; Ibbotson, Michael R; Cloherty, Shaun L

    2014-01-01

    People with degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa lose most of their photoreceptors but retain a significant proportion (~30%) of their retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Microelectronic retinal prostheses aim to bypass the lost photoreceptors and restore vision by directly stimulating the surviving RGCs. Here we investigate the extent to which electrical stimulation of RGCs can evoke neural spike trains with statistics resembling those of normal visually-evoked responses. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from individual cat RGCs in vitro. We first recorded the responses of each cell to short sequences of visual stimulation. These responses were converted to trains of electrical stimulation that we then presented to the same cell via an epiretinal stimulating electrode. We then quantified the efficacy of the electrical stimuli and the latency of the evoked spikes. In all cases, spikes were evoked with sub-millisecond latency (0.55 ms, median, ON cells, n = 8; 0.75 ms, median, OFF cells, n = 6) and efficacy ranged from 0.4-1.0 (0.79, median, ON cells; 0.97, median, OFF cells). These data demonstrate that meaningful spike trains, resembling normal responses of RGCs to visual stimulation, can be reliably evoked by epiretinal prostheses.

  17. Chicken albumin exhibits natural resistance to glycation.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Jessica; Borges, Chad R; Braun, Eldon J; Sweazea, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    Glycation of proteins and subsequent production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to compare the glycation of avian and human serum albumin to elucidate the mechanisms by which protein glycation in birds is prevented in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. Solutions of purified chicken and human serum albumin (CSA and HSA) were prepared with four different glucose concentrations (0, 5.56, 11.1, and 22.2mM) and incubated at three temperatures (37.0, 39.8, and 41.4°C) for seven days. The solutions were sampled on Days 0, 3, and 7 and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the presence of glycated albumin. Four-way repeated measures ANOVA (p=0.032) indicate that all independent variables (albumin type, glucose concentration, temperature and time) interacted to affect the degree of glycation. With increasing glucose concentration, the glycation of both HSA and CSA increased with time at all temperatures. In addition, HSA was glycated to a greater extent than CSA at the two higher glucose concentrations for all temperature conditions. Glycation was elevated with increasing temperatures for HSA but not CSA. The results suggest an inherent difference between human and chicken albumin that contributes to the observed differences in glycation. Further research is needed to characterize this inherent difference in an effort to elucidate mechanisms by which avian plasma protein is glycated to a lesser degree than that of mammals (humans).

  18. Pharmacokinetic analysis of cefquinome in healthy chickens.

    PubMed

    Xie, W; Zhang, X; Wang, T; Du, S

    2013-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CEQ) in chickens was determined after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of 2 mg/kg body weight. Plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography assay with an ultraviolet detector at 265 nm wavelength. 2. Plasma concentration-time data after IV administration were best fitted by a two-compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters following IV injection were distribution half-life 0·43 ± 0·19 h, elimination half-life 1·29 ± 0·10 h, total body clearance 0·35 ± 0·04 l/kg/h, area under curve 5·33 ± 0·55 µg/h/ml and volume of distribution at steady state 0·49 ± 0·05 l/kg. 3. Plasma concentration-time data after IM administration were best described by a two-compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters after IM administration were absorption half-life 0·07 ± 0·02 h, distribution half-life 0·58 ± 0·27 h, elimination half-life 1·35 ± 0·20 h, peak concentration 3·04 ± 0·71 µg/ml and bioavailability 95·81 ± 5·81%. 4. Cefquinome kinetics in chicken and data from other species were summarised and analysed to provide a comprehensive understanding of CEQ pharmacokinetics.

  19. Morphological and physiological characteristics of Gemmiger formicilis isolated from chicken ceca.

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J P; Muirhead, P A; Goodman, J R

    1976-01-01

    Morphological and physiological studies were made on chicken cecal isolates of the strictly anaerobic bacterial species Gemmiger formicilis. Structural features (phase-contrast and electron microscopy) of these microorganisms indicate they (i) are highly pleomorphic, (ii) possess a trilaminar cell wall like gram-negative bacteria, (iii) exhibit an unusual growth process characterized by polar swelling (resembling budding bacteria), and (iv) grow into elongated cells when exposed to a subinhibitory concentration of penicillin. The morphological data presented suggest that this species has a rod-shaped structure. These bacteria ferment a variety of sugars to produce formic, butyric, and lactic acids. There appear to be two groups of Gemmiger, one producing primarily lactate and the other producing formate as major fermentation metabolites. Growth of six strains in a basal medium, consisting of Trypticase, minerals, carbohydrate, Na2CO3 buffer, and cysteine as reducing agent, was stimulated by rumen fluid and yeast extract. Volatile fatty acids partially replaced the requirement for rumen fluid with some strains. Single deletions of vitamins (from a defined vitamin mixture) indicated that pantothenate, riboflavin, and thiamine were highly stimulatory to growth of the organism in a medium containing rumen fluid and Trypticase as source of vitamins. Other vitamin requirements were not studied. Images PMID:984834

  20. Characteristics of microbial aerosols released from chicken and swine feces.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Lin, Tzu-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Chien, Yu-Ching

    2011-08-01

    Bioaerosols generated during livestock and poultry production are significant occupational hazards. This study investigates the characteristics of bioaerosols released from animal feces. Fresh feces from pigs and chickens were obtained and tested in a controlled-environment facility. Airborne viable (culturable) bacteria and fungi were sampled hourly for 48 hr. The predominant species were identified via polymerase chain reaction analysis. The number of bacterial colonies released from chicken feces increased gradually, peaked at approximately 20 hr, and remained relatively constant to test end; however, the bacterial colonies released from swine feces did not increase significantly. The chicken feces released significantly (P < 0.05) more bacterial aerosols than swine feces over 40 hr, by approximately 1 order of magnitude. However, the difference in total fungal aerosols released from the two feces types was relatively small (30-40%) and insignificant (P > 0.05). Aerosols sized between approximately 0.65 and 1.1 microm were predominant for bacteria, whereas aerosols sized between approximately 2.1 and 3.3 microm prevailed for fungi. Genera Stenotrophomonas were the predominant bacterial aerosols, whereas Cladosporium and Acremonium accounted for the greatest amounts of fungi from chicken and swine feces, respectively. More than 1000 culturable bacterial colonies can be released from 1 g of chicken feces per hour, and approximately 80% of these bioaerosols are respirable. Most bacterial aerosols released from swine and chicken feces were opportunistic human pathogens; thus, the significance of their presence warrants further investigations.

  1. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×104 N/m2, of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×104 N/m2, and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×104 N/m2, respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  2. Local Innate Responses to TLR Ligands in the Chicken Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Barjesteh, Neda; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    The chicken upper respiratory tract is the portal of entry for respiratory pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). The presence of microorganisms is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors (such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)) of the innate immune defenses. Innate responses are essential for subsequent induction of potent adaptive immune responses, but little information is available about innate antiviral responses of the chicken trachea. We hypothesized that TLR ligands induce innate antiviral responses in the chicken trachea. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) were used to investigate localized innate responses to TLR ligands. Expression of candidate genes, which play a role in antiviral responses, was quantified. To confirm the antiviral responses of stimulated TOC, chicken macrophages were treated with supernatants from stimulated TOC, prior to infection with AIV. The results demonstrated that TLR ligands induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes in the chicken trachea. In conclusion, TLR ligands induce functional antiviral responses in the chicken trachea, which may act against some pathogens, such as AIV. PMID:27455308

  3. Association of chicken growth hormone polymorphisms with egg production.

    PubMed

    Su, Y J; Shu, J T; Zhang, M; Zhang, X Y; Shan, Y J; Li, G H; Yin, J M; Song, W T; Li, H F; Zhao, G P

    2014-07-04

    Growth hormone (GH) has diverse functions in animals, together with other hormones from the somatotropic axis. Here, chicken GH (cGH) was investigated in recessive white chickens and Qingyuan partridge chickens as a candidate gene affecting egg production traits. Chicken egg production traits were studied in association with 4 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (T185G, G662A, T3094C, and C3199T). Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. T185G was significantly associated with the egg production traits of body weight at first egg (BW), egg weight at first egg (EW), and the total egg production of 300-day old birds (EN 300). T3094C was also significantly associated with certain egg production traits; however, it affected the 2 breeds differently. Haplotypes of the 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were also significantly associated with egg production traits of chicken age at first egg laying, BW, EW, and EN 300. H1H6 was the most advantageous diplotype for egg production. We putatively concluded that polymorphisms in the cGH gene and its haplotypes could be used as potential molecular markers for egg production traits to enhance the breeding programs of indigenous chickens.

  4. Probiotics Stimulate Production of Natural Antibodies in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Hamid R.; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L.; Hayes, M. Anthony; Zhou, Huaijun; Sanei, Babak; Chambers, James R.; Sharif, Shayan

    2006-01-01

    Commensal bacteria in the intestine play an important role in the development of immune response. These bacteria interact with cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Among cells of the GALT, B-1 cells are of note. These cells are involved in the production of natural antibodies. In the present study, we determined whether manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotics, which we had previously shown to enhance specific systemic antibody response, could affect the development of natural antibodies in the intestines and sera of chickens. Our findings demonstrate that when 1-day-old chicks were treated with probiotics, serum and intestinal antibodies reactive to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in addition to intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) reactive to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were increased in unimmunized chickens. Moreover, IgG antibodies reactive to TT were increased in the intestines of probiotic-treated chickens compared to those of untreated controls. In serum, IgG and IgM reactive to TT and alpha-toxin were increased in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens compared to levels in untreated controls. However, no significant difference in serum levels of IgM or IgG response to BSA was observed. These results are suggestive of the induction of natural antibodies in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens. Elucidating the role of these antibodies in maintenance of the chicken immune system homeostasis and immune response to pathogens requires further investigation. PMID:16960107

  5. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  6. Use of infrared imaging for investigation of chicken embryo development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, Ryan A.; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Girón Palomares, José Benjamín D.

    2011-05-01

    The focus of this study is two-fold: first, to investigate the feasibility of thermal imaging for characterizing the development of chicken embryos; and second, to compare the effects of photo periods of 11 hours of light followed by 11 hours of darkness (11-11) versus 24 hours of darkness (24 dark) during the incubation cycle on embryo development. Previous reported work has used invasive methods, such as ultrasound, tomography, and MRI to study chicken embryos with some success. However, very little work has been reported on use of thermography, which is a non-invasive method. Results suggest that use of a cooling-heating-cooling cycle can reveal the anatomy of chicken embryos. A statistical comparison of image data from the two photo periods found no difference in the average cooling rates. However, the 11-11 group of eggs did hatch earlier overall than 24-dark group. Of the hatched eggs, all the chickens from the 24-dark group appeared to be in normal physical condition. However, two of the chickens from the 11-11 group appeared to have leg weakness shortly after hatching. Of these, one fully recovered the next day and the second remains the same after two days of observation. In addition, the second chicken took about 48 hours to fully emerge from its shell.

  7. Biologic characterization of chicken-derived H6N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Mark W; Suarez, David L; Hilt, Deborah; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Woolcock, Peter; Cardona, Carol

    2010-03-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza H6N2 viruses were biologically characterized by infecting chickens and ducks in order to compare adaptation of these viruses in these species. We examined the clinical signs, virus shedding, and immune response to infection in 4-wk-old white leghorn chickens and in 2-wk-old Pekin ducks. Five H6N2 viruses isolated between 2000 and 2004 from chickens in California, and one H6N2 virus isolated from chickens in New York in 1998, were given intrachoanally at a dose of 1 x 10(6) 50% embryo infectious dose per bird. Oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 4, and 7 days postinoculation (PI) and tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for presence of virus. Serum was collected at 7, 14, and 21 days PI and examined for avian influenza virus antibodies by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing. Virus shedding for all of the viruses was detected in the oral-pharyngeal swabs from chickens at 2 and 4 days PI, but only three of the five viruses were detected at 7 days PI. Only two viruses were detected in the cloacal swabs from the chickens. Virus shedding for four of the five viruses was detected in the oral-pharyngeal cavity of the ducks, and fecal shedding was detected for three of the viruses (including the virus not shed by the oral-pharyngeal route) in ducks at 4 and 7 days PI. All other fecal swabs from the ducks were negative. Fewer ducks shed virus compared to chickens. Both the chickens and the ducks developed antibodies, as evidenced by HI and ELISA titers. The data indicate that the H6N2 viruses can infect both chickens and ducks, but based on the number of birds shedding virus and on histopathology, the viruses appear to be more adapted to chickens. Virus shedding, which could go unnoticed in the absence of clinical signs in commercial chickens, can lead to transmission of the virus among poultry. However, the viruses isolated in 2004 did

  8. Late onset cerebellar cortical degeneration in a koala.

    PubMed

    Kuwamura, M; Murai, F; Nishioka, S; Aoki, M; Ohashi, F; Yamate, J; Kotani, T; Summers, B A

    2009-08-01

    A 10-year-old male koala started to fall from the tree while sleeping. Subsequently, the koala often fell down while walking and showed a gait abnormality, abnormal nystagmus and hypersalivation. At 12 years of age, the koala became ataxic and seemed blind. At 13 years of age, the koala exhibited signs of dysstasia and was euthanased. Necropsy revealed marked symmetrical atrophy of the cerebellum. Histopathologically, a severe loss of Purkinje and granule cells was evident in the cerebellum, while the molecular layer was more cellular than normal with cells resembling small neurons, which were positively stained with parvalbumin immunohistochemistry. Reactive Bergmann glial cells (astrocytes) were present adjacent to the depleted Purkinje cell zone. The very late onset and slow progression of the cerebellar cortical degeneration in this case is particularly interesting and appears to be the first report in the koala.

  9. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

    PubMed

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  10. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  11. Volatiles produced by microorganisms isolated from refrigerated chicken at spoilage.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L R; Silverman, G J; Angelini, P; Merritt, C; Esselen, W B

    1976-01-01

    Volatile components present at spoilage of refrigerated chicken breasts were identified using high-vacuum-low-temperature distillation techniques followed by analysis with combined temperature-programmed gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A comparison was made of the compounds detected from both irradiated and non-irradiated muscle stored at 2 and 10 degrees C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Isolates were randomly selected from the spoiled poultry, identified, and evaluated for their ability to produce volatile spoilage noted when grown on radiation-sterilized chicken. Several isolates that produced off-odors on sterile chicken breasts were examined. Twenty-two compounds were associated with spoilage. Some of the compounds found on both irradiated and unirradiated samples were considered to play only a minor role in the spoilage aroma or were present in low concentrations, since the aroma of spoiled irradiated chicken lacked the harsh odor notes typical of spoiled unirradiated chicken. Fifteen of the 22 compounds were considered to be unique to unirradiated, aerobically spoiled samples. Nine of these compounds, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, heptadiene, methanol, and ethanol, were found on chicken spoiled at both 2 and 10 degrees C. xylene, benzaldehyde, and 2,3-dithiahexane were detected only in samples stored at 2 degrees C and methyl thiolacetate, 2-butanone, and ethyl propionate were associated with 10 degrees C spoilage. Fifty-eight isolates randomly selected from fresh, radiation-pasteurized, and unirradiated spoiled poultry were classified taxonomically, and 10 of them, which produced spoilage odors on sterilized chicken breasts, were selected for subsequent analysis of their volatiles. Isolates identified as Pseudomonas putrefaciens and Pseudomonas species that were members of groups I and II of Shewan's classification, as well as Flavobacterium and oxidative

  12. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  13. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing ... JavaScript. One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their 3rd trimester. At times, it ...

  14. Familial Resemblance for Loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Derom, Catherine A.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cacioppo, John T.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Social isolation and loneliness in humans have been associated with physical and psychological morbidity, as well as mortality. This study aimed to assess the etiology of individual differences in feelings of loneliness. The genetic architecture of loneliness was explored in an extended twin-family design including 8,683 twins, siblings and parents from 3,911 families. In addition, 917 spouses of twins participated. The presence of assortative mating, genetic non-additivity, vertical cultural transmission, genotype–environment (GE) correlation and interaction was modeled. GE interaction was considered for several demographic characteristics. Results showed non-random mating for loneliness. We confirmed that loneliness is moderately heritable, with a significant contribution of non-additive genetic variation. There were no effects of vertical cultural transmission. With respect to demographic characteristics, results indicated that marriage, having offspring, more years of education, and a higher number of siblings are associated with lower levels of loneliness. Interestingly, these effects tended to be stronger for men than women. There was little evidence of changes in genetic architecture as a function of these characteristics. We conclude that the genetic architecture of loneliness points to non-additive genetic influences, suggesting it may be a trait that was not neutral to selection in our evolutionary past. Sociodemographic factors that influence the prevalence of loneliness do not affect its genetic architecture. PMID:20145989

  15. Isolation of gram-positive rods that resemble but are clearly distinct from Actinomyces pyogenes from mixed wound infections.

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, J; Lucchini, G M; Lüthy-Hottenstein, J; Brun, F; Altwegg, M

    1993-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, gram-positive rods resembling Actinomyces pyogenes were found with increasing frequency in mixed cultures from various infectious processes, most of them from patients with otitis, empyema, pilonidal cysts, perianal abscesses, and decubitus ulcers. Ribotyping and hybridization showed that these gram-positive rods could be divided into five groups not related to known Actinomyces species. Biochemical markers for reliable differentiation into these groups, however, could not be found. Therefore, naming new species is not warranted unless parameters are discovered that allow identification without DNA hybridization. These gram-positive rods have been isolated only in mixed cultures with anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus "milleri," enterococci, and gram-negative rods. Their exact role in these possibly synergistic infections needs further investigation. Images PMID:8501213

  16. A unique case of a cutaneous lesion resembling mammary analog secretory carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Albus, Jennifer; Batanian, Jacqueline; Wenig, Bruce M; Vidal, Claudia I

    2015-04-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare type of salivary gland tumor named for its morphological and genetic similarity to secretory carcinoma of the breast. These tumors are most often found in the parotid gland but have been described in several other mucosal locations of the head and neck. In this case report, a cutaneous lesion most closely resembling MASC was found in a neck mass of a 64-year-old male patient without evidence of a primary salivary gland or oral tumor. The lesion was excised, and the patient remains disease free to date. This case depicts a rare tumor in the skin most closely mimicking MASC and brings additional awareness to dermatopathologists of this tumor.

  17. Human Glioma–Initiating Cells Show a Distinct Immature Phenotype Resembling but Not Identical to NG2 Glia

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Kim, Ella; Bielanska, Joanna; Giese, Alf; Mortensen, Lena Sünke; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.; Stadelmann, Christine; Brück, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Glioma-initiating cells (GICs) represent a potential important therapeutic target because they are likely to account for the frequent recurrence of malignant gliomas; however, their identity remains unsolved. Here, we characterized the cellular lineage fingerprint of GICs through a combination of electrophysiology, lineage marker expression, and differentiation assays of 5 human patient-derived primary GIC lines. Most GICs coexpressed nestin, NG2 proteoglycan, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Glioma-initiating cells could be partially differentiated into astrocytic but not oligodendroglial or neural lineages. We also demonstrate that GICs have a characteristic electrophysiologic profile distinct from that of well-characterized tumor bulk cells. Together, our results suggest that GICs represent a unique type of cells reminiscent of an immature phenotype that closely resembles but is not identical to NG2 glia with respect to marker expression and functional membrane properties. PMID:23481707

  18. A skeletal disorder in a dog resembling the Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel's Deformity in humans.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, G; Trotta, M; Caldin, M

    2015-03-01

    A five-year-old intact male golden retriever dog was evaluated for cervical pain and right hemiparesis. Clinical and computed tomography features suggested a caudal cervical instability and myelopathy due to a cervicoscapular malformation resembling the human Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity, a rare complex congenital disorder. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of MEOX1, PAX1 and FGFR3 genes were performed in this dog to investigate a possible underlying genetic predisposition, but no mutations were detected in the coding regions of the three target genes evaluated. Other genes can be involved in this condition in dogs and require further investigation. This report describes a cervical vertebral fusion and complex scapular anomaly in a dog. The presence of an omovertebral bone should be considered in the setting of signs characteristic of myelopathy in dogs with or without obvious skeletal deformity.

  19. Causes of mortality and temporal patterns in breeding season survival of lesser prairie-chickens in shinnery oak prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.

    2015-01-01

    Baseline survival and mortality data for lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) are lacking for shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) prairies. An understanding of the causes and timing of mortalities and breeding season survival in this ecoregion is important because shinnery oak prairies have hotter and drier environmental conditions, as well as different predator communities compared with the northern distribution of the species. The need for this information has become more pressing given the recent listing of the species as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We investigated causes of mortality and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the 6-month breeding season (1 Mar–31 Aug) of 2008–2011 on the Texas Southern High Plains, USA. We recorded 42 deaths of radiotagged individuals, and our results indicated female mortalities were proportionate among avian and mammalian predation and other causes of mortality but survival was constant throughout the 6-month breeding season. Male mortalities were constant across avian and mammalian predation and other causes, but more mortalities occurred in June compared with other months. Male survival also varied by month, and survival probabilities were lower in June–August. We found predation on leks was rare, mortalities from fence collisions were rare, female survival did not decrease during incubation or brood-rearing, and survival was influenced by drought. Our study corroborated recent studies that suggested lesser prairie-chickens are living at the edge of their physiological tolerances to environmental conditions in shinnery oak prairies. As such, lesser prairie-chickens in our study experienced different patterns of mortality and survival that we attributed to hot, dry conditions during the breeding season. Specifically, and converse to other studies on lesser prairie-chicken survival and mortality, drought positively influenced female survival because females did not incubate eggs

  20. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  1. Molecular characteristics of circulating tumor cells resemble the liver metastasis more closely than the primary tumor in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Onstenk, Wendy; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Mostert, Bianca; Lalmahomed, Zarina; Bolt-de Vries, Joan B.; van Galen, Anne; Smid, Marcel; Kraan, Jaco; Van, Mai; de Weerd, Vanja; Ramírez-Moreno, Raquel; Biermann, Katharina; Verhoef, Cornelis; Grünhagen, Dirk J.; IJzermans, Jan N.M.; Gratama, Jan W.; Martens, John W.M.; Foekens, John A.; Sleijfer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background CTCs are a promising alternative for metastatic tissue biopsies for use in precision medicine approaches. We investigated to what extent the molecular characteristics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) resemble the liver metastasis and/or the primary tumor from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Results The CTC profiles were concordant with the liver metastasis in 17/23 patients (74%) and with the primary tumor in 13 patients (57%). The CTCs better resembled the liver metastasis in 13 patients (57%), and the primary tumor in five patients (22%). The strength of the correlations was not associated with clinical parameters. Nine genes (CDH1, CDH17, CDX1, CEACAM5, FABP1, FCGBP, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, and MAPT) displayed significant differential expressions, all of which were downregulated, in CTCs compared to the tissues in the 23 patients. Patients and Methods Patients were retrospectively selected from a prospective study. Using the CellSearch System, CTCs were enumerated and isolated just prior to liver metastasectomy. A panel of 25 CTC-specific genes was measured by RT-qPCR in matching CTCs, primary tumors, and liver metastases. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated and considered as continuous variables with r=1 representing absolute concordance and r= -1 representing absolute discordance. A cut-off of r>0.1 was applied in order to consider profiles to be concordant. Conclusions In the majority of the patients, CTCs reflected the molecular characteristics of metastatic cells better than the primary tumors. Genes involved in cell adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were downregulated in the CTCs. Our results support the use of CTC characterization as a liquid biopsy for precision medicine. PMID:27340863

  2. Nicotine Delivery to Rats via Lung Alveolar Region-Targeted Aerosol Technology Produces Blood Pharmacokinetics Resembling Human Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine is a heavily used addictive drug acquired through smoking tobacco. Nicotine in cigarette smoke is deposited and absorbed in the lungs, which results in a rapidly peaked slowly declining arterial concentration. This pattern plays an important role in initiation of nicotine addiction. Methods: A method and device were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology. The dose of delivery can be controlled by the nicotine aerosol concentration and duration of exposure. Results: Our data showed that, in the breathing zone of the nose-only exposure chamber, the aerosol droplet size distribution was within the respirable diameter range. Rats were exposed to nicotine aerosol for 2min. The arterial blood nicotine concentration reached 43.2±15.7ng/ml (mean ± SD) within 1–4min and declined over the next 20min, closely resembling the magnitude and early pharmacokinetics of a human smoking a cigarette. The acute inhalation toxicity of nicotine: LC50 = 2.3mg/L was determined; it was affected by pH, suggesting that acidification decreases nicotine absorption and/or bioavailability. Conclusions: A noninvasive method and toolkit were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents that enable rapid delivery of a controllable amount of nicotine into the systemic circulation and brain-inducing dose-dependent pharmacological effects, even a lethal dose. Aerosol inhalation can produce nicotine kinetics in both arterial and venous blood resembling human smoking. This method can be applied to studies of the effects of chronic intermittent nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, toxicology, tobacco-related diseases, teratogenicity, and for discovery of pharmacological therapeutics. PMID:23239844

  3. Anti-Lipid IgG Antibodies Are Produced via Germinal Centers in a Murine Model Resembling Human Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Reséndiz-Mora, Albany; Donis-Maturano, Luis; Wong-Baeza, Isabel; Zárate-Neira, Luz; Yam-Puc, Juan Carlos; Calderón-Amador, Juana; Medina, Yolanda; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Anti-lipid IgG antibodies are produced in some mycobacterial infections and in certain autoimmune diseases [such as anti-phospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)]. However, few studies have addressed the B cell responses underlying the production of these immunoglobulins. Anti-lipid IgG antibodies are consistently found in a murine model resembling human lupus induced by chlorpromazine-stabilized non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements (NPA). NPA are transitory lipid associations found in the membranes of most cells; when NPA are stabilized they can become immunogenic and induce specific IgG antibodies, which appear to be involved in the development of the mouse model of lupus. Of note, anti-NPA antibodies are also detected in patients with SLE and leprosy. We used this model of lupus to investigate in vivo the cellular mechanisms that lead to the production of anti-lipid, class-switched IgG antibodies. In this murine lupus model, we found plasma cells (Gr1−, CD19−, CD138+) producing NPA-specific IgGs in the draining lymph nodes, the spleen, and the bone marrow. We also found a significant number of germinal center B cells (IgD−, CD19+, PNA+) specific for NPA in the draining lymph nodes and the spleen, and we identified in situ the presence of NPA in these germinal centers. By contrast, very few NPA-specific, extrafollicular reaction B cells (B220+, Blimp1+) were found. Moreover, when assessing the anti-NPA IgG antibodies produced during the experimental protocol, we found that the affinity of these antibodies progressively increased over time. Altogether, our data indicate that, in this murine model resembling human lupus, B cells produce anti-NPA IgG antibodies mainly via germinal centers. PMID:27746783

  4. Annotation and genetic diversity of the chicken collagenous lectins.

    PubMed

    Hamzić, Edin; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2015-06-01

    Collectins and ficolins are multimeric proteins present in various tissues and are actively involved in innate immune responses. In chickens, six different collagenous lectins have been characterized so far: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), surfactant protein A (SP-A), collectin 10 (COLEC10), collectin 11 (COLEC11), collectin 12 (COLEC12), lung lectin (LL) and one ficolin (FCN). However, the structural and functional features of the chicken collectins and ficolin are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to make an overview of the genetic structure and function of chicken collectins and the ficolin, (ii) to investigate the variation in the chicken collectins and the ficolin gene in different chicken populations, and (iii) to assess the presence of MBL gene variants in different chicken populations. We performed comparative genomic analysis using publically available data. The obtained results showed that collectins and ficolins have conserved protein sequences and gene structure across all vertebrate groups and this is especially notable for COLEC10, COLEC11 and COLEC12. For the purpose of studying the genetic variation, 179 animals from 14 populations were genotyped using 31 SNPs covering five genomic regions. The obtained results revealed low level of heterozygosity in the collagenous lectins except for the COLEC12 gene and the LL-SPA-MBL region compared to heterozygosity at neutral microsatellite markers. In addition, the MBL gene variants were assessed in different chicken populations based on the polymorphisms in the promoter region. We observed 10 previously identified MBL variants with A2/A8 and A4 as the most frequent alleles.

  5. Transcriptomic profile of leg muscle during early growth in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Genxi; Li, Tingting; Ling, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xiangqian; Wang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth. In total, 978 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 2; false discovery rate < 0.05) were detected by pairwise comparison. Functional analysis showed that the DEGs are mainly involved in the processes of cell growth, muscle development, and cellular activities (such as junction, migration, assembly, differentiation, and proliferation). Many of the DEGs are well known to be related to chicken growth, such as MYOD1, GH, IGF2BP2, IGFBP3, SMYD1, CEBPB, FGF2, and IGFBP5. KEGG pathway analysis identified that the DEGs were significantly enriched in five pathways (P < 0.1) related to growth and development: extracellular matrix–receptor interaction, focal adhesion, tight junction, insulin signaling pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. A total of 42 DEGs assigned to these pathways are potential candidate genes inducing the difference in growth among the three developmental stages, such as MYH10, FGF2, FGF16, FN1, CFL2, MAPK9, IRS1, PHKA1, PHKB, and PHKG1. Thus, our study identified a series of genes and several pathways that may participate in the regulation of early growth in chicken. These results should serve as an important resource revealing the molecular basis of chicken growth and development. PMID:28291821

  6. Transmission of Salmonella between broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed

    Heres, L; Urlings, H A P; Wagenaar, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2004-01-01

    In the light of food safety and the control of Salmonella at chicken farms, fermented liquid feed (FLF) was studied. This moistened feed reduced the susceptibility of chickens for Salmonella. To assess the effect of the fermented feed on the transmission of Salmonella between chickens, a transmission experiment was performed. Salmonella shedding was followed within groups of two susceptible chickens together with two previously inoculated chickens. The between-chicken transmission was quantified by calculating a reproduction ratio (R0) and a transmission rate parameter (beta). R0 and beta in the FLF-treated groups were reduced, but a typical infectious chicken fed with FLF, could on average still infect more than one new infectious case. FLF can therefore reduce the transmission of Salmonella in chicken flocks, but it will not prevent the occurrence of major outbreaks.

  7. Transmission of Salmonella between broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed Central

    Heres, L.; Urlings, H. A. P.; Wagenaar, J. A.; de Jong, M. C. M.

    2004-01-01

    In the light of food safety and the control of Salmonella at chicken farms, fermented liquid feed (FLF) was studied. This moistened feed reduced the susceptibility of chickens for Salmonella. To assess the effect of the fermented feed on the transmission of Salmonella between chickens, a transmission experiment was performed. Salmonella shedding was followed within groups of two susceptible chickens together with two previously inoculated chickens. The between-chicken transmission was quantified by calculating a reproduction ratio (R0) and a transmission rate parameter (beta). R0 and beta in the FLF-treated groups were reduced, but a typical infectious chicken fed with FLF, could on average still infect more than one new infectious case. FLF can therefore reduce the transmission of Salmonella in chicken flocks, but it will not prevent the occurrence of major outbreaks. PMID:14979596

  8. 1. VIEW OF CHICKEN COOP (FEATURE C7), FACING NORTHWEST. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CHICKEN COOP (FEATURE C-7), FACING NORTHWEST. GARAGE (FEATURE C-8) IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Bell Family Residence, Chicken Coop & Garage, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  9. Controversies in chicken-pox immunization.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Swati Y

    2003-06-01

    Chicken-pox is one more newer vaccine in our armamentarium against infectious diseases. Due to its extremely contagious nature, varicella is experienced by almost every child or young adult in the world. Each year from 1990 to 1994, prior to availability of varicella vaccine, about 4 million cases of varicella occurred in the United States. Of these cases approximately 10,000 required hospitalization and 100 died. Although varicella is not commonly perceived as an important public health problem, the socioeconomic consequences in industrialized countries of a disease that affects practically every child and causes the carrier absence from work should not be underestimated. The varicella vaccines available in the market are safe and effective. A recent cost-benefit analysis in USA showed that routine chicken-pox vaccination is likely to save five times the investment. Even when only direct costs were considered, benefits almost balanced the costs. At present similar studies from developing countries are not available. The public health impact of varicella and zoster may be increasing in regions with high endemic rates of HIV infection. Varicella vaccine may be used either at an individual level to protect susceptible adolescents and adults, or at a population level, to cover all children as part of a national immunization programme. Vaccination of adolescents and adults will protect at-risk individuals, but will not have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease on a population basis. On the other hand, extensive use as a routine vaccine in children will have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease. If sustained high coverage can be achieved, the disease may virtually disappear. If only partial coverage can be obtained, the epidemiology may shift, leading to an increase in the number of cases in older children and adults. Hence, routine childhood varicella immunization programmes should emphasize high, sustained coverage. At present

  10. Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X

    2013-05-01

    Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens.

  11. Heat shock protein response in phosphorus-deficient heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Edens, F W; Hill, C H; Wang, S

    1992-12-01

    1. During acute in vivo heat stress, a normal heat shock protein (HSP) response was not inducible in chickens deficient in inorganic phosphorus (P(i)-deficient). 2. Small quantities of HSP 70 and HSP 90 were induced, but little or no HSP 23 was induced in P(i)-deficient chickens compared to P(i)-adequate chickens. 3. Increased susceptibility of P(i)-deficient chickens to acute heat stress was attributed to their inability to produce an adequate HSP response.

  12. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability.

  13. Late Afternoon at Taruntius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    : 462 x 400 pix - 66k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1250 x 1082 pix - 656k] Caption : PR Photo 19b/02 is a computer-processed version of PR Photo 19a/02 , in which the lunar surface is now viewed directly "from above". Located at 46° East lunar longitude, 6° North lunar latitude, this area is viewed from the VLT at an inclined angle and the craters therefore all appear as ellipses in the NACO image. However, taking into account the direction of the line-of-sight at the time of the observation [2], this view can be "rectified" by simple image processing. The corresponding "view from above" is shown in PR Photo 19b/02 ; most of the craters in the field now appear quite round. Many different types of lunar surface formations are visible in the VLT photo. In addition to the numerous impact craters of all sizes, there are also hills and ridges of a great variety of shapes, as well as a prominent "valley" (a "Rima", or fissure) that stretches nearly 50 km through the photo in East-West direction. It has been identified on earlier photos and as it is situated inside that crater, it was given the name "Rimae Taruntius" in 1985. It is very well resolved in this photo and resembles "Rima Hadley" that was visited by the Apollo 15 astronauts in 1971, but is much smaller. The mean width is about 600 metres (12 pixels). The bottom is in the shadows and the depth is therefore unknown. It is overlapped by several smaller craters that must have been caused by impacts after this depression was formed. Measuring the length of the shadows, it is possible to infer the height of some of the formations. For instance, the shadows of the two peaks at the lower centre of the photo are about 4 km long, indicating that these formations are about 500 metres tall. The surroundings ESO PR Photo 19c/02 ESO PR Photo 19c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 482 x 400 pix - 77k] [Normal - JPEG: 964 x 800 pix - 440k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 2408 x 1998 pix - 1.6M] Caption : Where is the NACO field at the Taruntius crater located on the

  14. Review of the initial validation and characterization of a 3K chicken SNP array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The year 2004 was a historic one for biologists and especially the chicken research community as the first draft of the chicken genome was published (International Chicken Genome Sequencing Consortium, 2004). The 6.6X coverage of a UCD001 female Red Jungle Fowl (RJF) genome was the first complete d...

  15. TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FORM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 152 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from 22 municipalities in 7 northeastern states (Perna...

  16. Genomic regions associated with necrotic enteritis resistance in Fayoumi and White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used two breeds of chicken to identify genomic regions corresponding to necrotic enteritis (NE) resistance. We scanned the genomes of a resistant and susceptible line of Fayoumi and White Leghorn chicken using a chicken 60K Illumina SNP panel. A total of 235 loci with divergently ...

  17. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  18. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  19. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  20. Parallel Selection Revealed by Population Sequencing in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Qanbari, Saber; Seidel, Michael; Strom, Tim-Mathias; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Preisinger, Ruedi; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven selection during domestication and subsequent breed formation has likely left detectable signatures within the genome of modern chicken. The elucidation of these signatures of selection is of interest from the perspective of evolutionary biology, and for identifying genes relevant to domestication and improvement that ultimately may help to further genetically improve this economically important animal. We used whole genome sequence data from 50 hens of commercial white (WL) and brown (BL) egg-laying chicken along with pool sequences of three meat-type chicken to perform a systematic screening of past selection in modern chicken. Evidence of positive selection was investigated in two steps. First, we explored evidence of parallel fixation in regions with overlapping elevated allele frequencies in replicated populations of layers and broilers, suggestive of selection during domestication or preimprovement ages. We confirmed parallel fixation in BCDO2 and TSHR genes and found four candidates including AGTR2, a gene heavily involved in “Ascites” in commercial birds. Next, we explored differentiated loci between layers and broilers suggestive of selection during improvement in chicken. This analysis revealed evidence of parallel differentiation in genes relevant to appearance and production traits exemplified with the candidate gene OPG, implicated in Osteoporosis, a disorder related to overconsumption of calcium in egg-laying hens. Our results illustrate the potential for population genetic techniques to identify genomic regions relevant to the phenotypes of importance to breeders. PMID:26568375

  1. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  2. Procedures to enhance withdrawal of xenobiotics from chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Lehning, E.; Pullen, D.; Bursian, S.; Leavitt, R.

    1985-01-01

    Egg- and meat-type chickens were fed diets containing 1 or 10 ppm of fireMaster (FF-1), a commercial mixture of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), predominantly 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl (6BB-4) and 2,3,4,5,2',4',5'-heptabromobiphenyl (7BB-8). These congeners account for approximately 65 and 14%, respectively, of the total mix. In three experiments, colestipol hydrochloride, a bile acid-binding resin, and mineral oil, alone or in combination with restricted feeding, were examined as procedures to enhance the removal of the PBBs. The combination of 50% dietary restriction plus a 10% dietary concentration of colestipol or mineral oil reduced body burdens of PBBs about 70% within 21 d for chickens previously fed 10 ppm PBBs. The use of feed restriction, colestipol, or mineral oil produced only borderline effects for hastening withdrawal. Chickens not treated showed only a 3% loss of PBBs during the withdrawal period. Colestipol at 2.5% in the diet in combination with feed restriction was not consistently effective in removing body burdens of PBB from chickens previously fed 1 or 10 ppm PBBs, indicating a dose-response effect. Chickens previously fed 1 ppm eliminated up to 40% of the PBBs in 21 d without any treatment, as compared to the 3% loss occurring after feeding with 10-ppm concentrations.

  3. Persistent effect of broody hens on behaviour of chickens.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Maruyama, Yuji; Fujino, Saori; Kamimura, Eriko; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    We reported previously that behavioral development of chicks was promoted remarkably by the presence of a broody hen. Here we report that these effects at an early age persist after maturity. A total of 60 female chicks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: six pens with five chicks (brooded group) each were reared by a broody hen and six pens with five chicks (non-brooded group) each were provided with an infrared heating lamp. We evaluated the persistent effects of broody hens by measures of behavior, physical condition and production at 9, 16, 35 and 55 weeks of age. The numbers of threatening, aggressive pecking, fighting and severe feather pecking behaviors were higher in non-brooded than in brooded chickens (all P < 0.05). Egg production was lower in brooded than in non-brooded chickens (P < 0.05), while the number of brooding chickens was higher in the brooded than in the non-brooded group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of broody hens at an early stage of chicks' lives has a persistent effect on behavior. Although brooded chickens showed more brooding and lower egg production than non-brooded chickens, feather pecking and aggressive interaction were decreased in brooded hens.

  4. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  5. Carbon Fibers from Chicken Feather Keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Melissa E.; Wool, Richard

    2006-03-01

    As the availability of synthetic and fossil-fuel based resources is becoming limited, bio-based materials offer an environmentally friendly alternative. Chicken feathers remain a huge agricultural waste. The feathers are comprised of approximately 97% keratin, but are currently used only to enrich animal feed. However, this usage is becoming a problem with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, commonly called ``Mad Cow Disease.'' The hollow, microcrystalline, oriented keratin feather fibers offer a novel, low cost approach to producing carbon fibers through controlled pyrolysis. Carbonized feather fibers (CFF) were prepared by first heating to 225 ^oC (below the melting point)in N2 for 26 hours to crosslink and stabilize the fiber structure; then carbonization occurred by increasing the temperature to 450 ^oC for two more hours. The resulting CFF were hollow, stiff and strong and had an affine 80% weight loss, which is near the theoretical value for the C-content of keratin. Initial studies showed that a composite with the CFF and an epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) gave an improved fiber modulus ECFF of order 13.5--66.1 GPa. With continued research, the goals are to increase the stiffness of the feathers to 100 GPa, while increasing the strength in the range of 5-10 GPa.

  6. [Binding to chicken liver lactatedehydrogenase (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lluís, C; Bozal, J

    1976-06-01

    Some information about the lactate dehydrogenase NAD binding site has been obtained by working with coenzymes analogs of incomplete molecules. 5'AMP, 5'-ADP, ATP, 5'-c-AMP and 3'(2)-AMP inhibit chicken liver LDH activity competitively with NADH. 5"-AMP and 5'-ADP show a stronger inhibition power than ATP, suggesting that the presence of one or two phosphate groups at the 5' position of adenosine, is essential for the binding of the coenzyme analogs at the enzyme binding site. Ribose and ribose-5'-P do not appear to inhibit the LDH activity, proving that purine base lacking mononucleotides do not bind to the enzyme. 5"-ADPG inhibits LDH activity in the exactly as 5'-ADP, showing that ribose moiety may be replaced by glucose, without considerable effects on the coenzyme analog binding. 2'-desoxidenosin-5'-phosphate proves to be a poorer inhibitor of the LDH activity than 5'-AMP, indicating that an interaction between the--OH groups and the amino-acids of the LDH active center takes place. Nicotinamide does not produce any inhibition effect, while NMN and CMP induce a much weaker inhibition than the adenine analogues, thus indicating a lesser binding capacity to the enzyme. Therefore, the LDH binding site seems to show some definite specificity towards the adenina groups of the coenzyme.

  7. Kinetic mechanism of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Bruguera, P; Lopez-Cabrera, A; Canela, E I

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic behaviour of chicken-liver xanthine dehydrogenase (xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.2.1.37) has been studied. Steady-state results, obtained from a wide range of concentrations of substrates and products, were fitted by rational functions of degree 1:1, 1:2, 2:2 and 3:3 with respect to substrates, and 0:1, 1:1, 0:2 and 1:2 with regard to products, using a non-linear regression program which guarantees the fit. The goodness of fit was improved using a computer program that combines model discrimination, parameter refinement and sequential experimental design. The AIC and F tests were also used for model discrimination. For comparative purposes, the xanthine/oxygen oxidoreductase reaction was also studied. From the functions which give the maximum improvement, the complete rate equation was deduced. The significance of the terms was stated by the above methods. It was concluded that xanthine dehydrogenase requires a minimum mechanism of degree 1:1 for xanthine, 2:2 for NAD+, 1:1 for uric acid and 1:2 for NADH in the xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase reaction. These are the minimum degrees required but a rate equation of higher degree is not excluded. PMID:3422556

  8. Making chicken pox prevention a priority.

    PubMed

    Domachowske, Joseph B

    2004-01-01

    School nurses are the IDEAL professionals to catch those kids without a history of chicken pox (varicella illness) who have not been immunized, thereby falling into the susceptible range. We handle charts daily. We have both illness history (if it was provided) and immunization dates. We can call parents. We can talk to kids. Wouldn't it be easy if we could do that and then call (or email) the primary care provider? But there is no longer an "easy" way to communicate health information. Doing things the easy way could be perceived by some as "tattling" and by others as "reporting without permission." Instead, the school nurse must take the time-consuming (and better long range) path of education ... of the student, and the parent. And the priority can slip down below other school nurse requirements such as getting kids their required immunizations, first aid and illness care, individualized health care plans for students with medical problems, parent and teacher phone calls, and endless conversations. It takes a village to raise a child though, and the school nurse is a village resident. The following information is vital to the knowledge base of today's school nurse. Please read it, store it and consider it when planning and intervening with your students in the day-to-day interaction that promotes optimal health and wellness.

  9. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E S; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-07-09

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time.

  10. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

  11. Muscle-Type Nicotinic Receptor Modulation by 2,6-Dimethylaniline, a Molecule Resembling the Hydrophobic Moiety of Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Alberola-Die, Armando; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; González-Ros, José M.; Ivorra, Isabel; Morales, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    To identify the molecular determinants responsible for lidocaine blockade of muscle-type nAChRs, we have studied the effects on this receptor of 2,6-dimethylaniline (DMA), which resembles lidocaine’s hydrophobic moiety. Torpedo marmorata nAChRs were microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes and currents elicited by ACh (IACh), either alone or co-applied with DMA, were recorded. DMA reversibly blocked IACh and, similarly to lidocaine, exerted a closed-channel blockade, as evidenced by the enhancement of IACh blockade when DMA was pre-applied before its co-application with ACh, and hastened IACh decay. However, there were marked differences among its mechanisms of nAChR inhibition and those mediated by either the entire lidocaine molecule or diethylamine (DEA), a small amine resembling lidocaine’s hydrophilic moiety. Thereby, the IC50 for DMA, estimated from the dose-inhibition curve, was in the millimolar range, which is one order of magnitude higher than that for either DEA or lidocaine. Besides, nAChR blockade by DMA was voltage-independent in contrast to the increase of IACh inhibition at negative potentials caused by the more polar lidocaine or DEA molecules. Accordingly, virtual docking assays of DMA on nAChRs showed that this molecule binds predominantly at intersubunit crevices of the transmembrane-spanning domain, but also at the extracellular domain. Furthermore, DMA interacted with residues inside the channel pore, although only in the open-channel conformation. Interestingly, co-application of ACh with DEA and DMA, at their IC50s, had additive inhibitory effects on IACh and the extent of blockade was similar to that predicted by the allotopic model of interaction, suggesting that DEA and DMA bind to nAChRs at different loci. These results indicate that DMA mainly mimics the low potency and non-competitive actions of lidocaine on nAChRs, as opposed to the high potency and voltage-dependent block by lidocaine, which is emulated by the hydrophilic DEA

  12. Induction and characterization of metallothionein in chicken epiphyseal growth plate cartilage chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sauer, G R; Nie, D; Wu, L N; Wuthier, R E

    1998-01-01

    Following exposure to cadmium or zinc, chickens were sacrificed and the liver, kidney, and bone epiphyseal growth plates harvested. When cytosolic extracts of the growth plate cartilage were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography, a protein with high metal-binding capacity and low ultraviolet (UV) absorbance eluted in the same position as liver metallothionein (MT) and a MT standard. Cd or Zn treatment resulted in a 25-fold or 5-fold induction in growth plate MT, respectively. In liver the greatest level of MT induction was seen with short-term Cd exposures. In contrast, MT levels in the growth plate increased as the duration of Cd exposure increased. Induction of MT in growth plate chondrocyte cell cultures was observed for media Cd concentrations of > or = 0.1 microM and Zn concentrations of > or = 100 microM. Basal and inducible levels of MT declined through the culture period and were lowest in the terminally differentiated mineralized late stages of the culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also lowest in the late-stage cultures, while total cellular protein increased throughout the culture period. Treatment of chondrocytes with Zn prior to Cd exposure resulted in a protective induction of MT. Pre-treatment of chondrocytes with dexamethasone resulted in suppressed synthesis of MT upon Cd exposure and greater Cd toxicity. Both Cd and Zn resulted in significantly increased levels of MT mRNA in chondrocyte cell cultures. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in an approximate 2- to 3-fold increase in MT mRNA. This is contrary to the finding that MT protein levels were decreased by dexamethasone. The findings suggest that an increased rate of MT degradation in dexamethasone-treated and late-stage chondrocyte cultures may be associated with the terminally differentiated phenotype.

  13. A prestin motor in chicken auditory hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Beurg, Maryline; Tan, Xiaodong; Fettiplace, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Active force generation by outer hair cells (OHCs) underlies amplification and frequency tuning in the mammalian cochlea but whether such a process exists in non-mammals is unclear. Here we demonstrate that hair cells of the chicken auditory papilla possess an electromechanical force generator in addition to active hair bundle motion due to mechanotransducer channel gating. The properties of the force generator, its voltage-dependence and susceptibility to salicylate, as well as an associated chloride-sensitive non-linear capacitance, suggest involvement of the chicken homolog of prestin, the OHC motor protein. The presence of chicken prestin in the hair cell lateral membrane was confirmed by immunolabeling studies. The hair bundle and prestin motors together create sufficient force to produce fast lateral displacements of the tectorial membrane. Our results imply that the first use of prestin as a motor protein occurred early in amniote evolution and was not a mammalian invention as is usually supposed. PMID:23746629

  14. Reaction of chickens to graduated length of exposure to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nvota, J.; Grom, A.; Faberova, A.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions of 60 day old chickens Arbor Acres 60 X Vantress to immobilization stress lasting 1/2, 1, 2, 4 hours and to application of ACTH, manifested by activity changes in the systems hypophysis-adrenal gland and hypophysis-thyroid gland were studied. The highest activity increase in the two neuro-endocrine systems of the chickens was found to occur after 1/2 hour exposure to stress. With prolonged stress the responses weakened and after 4 hours most of the values gradually regressed to their initial level. The responses of both systems were synchronized. Reactions of the chickens differed from those of laboratory rats in which an increased activity of the hypophysis-adrenal gland system coincided with attenuation of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system.

  15. Feralisation targets different genomic loci to domestication in the chicken

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, M.; Gering, E.; Willis, P.; Lopez, S.; Van Dorp, L.; Hellenthal, G.; Henriksen, R.; Friberg, U.; Wright, D.

    2016-01-01

    Feralisation occurs when a domestic population recolonizes the wild, escaping its previous restricted environment, and has been considered as the reverse of domestication. We have previously shown that Kauai Island's feral chickens are a highly variable and admixed population. Here we map selective sweeps in feral Kauai chickens using whole-genome sequencing. The detected sweeps were mostly unique to feralisation and distinct to those selected for during domestication. To ascribe potential phenotypic functions to these genes we utilize a laboratory-controlled equivalent to the Kauai population—an advanced intercross between Red Junglefowl and domestic layer birds that has been used previously for both QTL and expression QTL studies. Certain sweep genes exhibit significant correlations with comb mass, maternal brooding behaviour and fecundity. Our analyses indicate that adaptations to feral and domestic environments involve different genomic regions and feral chickens show some evidence of adaptation at genes associated with sexual selection and reproduction. PMID:27686863

  16. Complicated grief in late life

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is a syndrome that affects 10% to 20% of grievers regardless of age, although proportionally more will face the death of loved ones in late life, CG is characterized by preoccupying and disabling symptoms that can persist for decades such as an inability to accept the death, intense yearning or avoidance, frequent reveries, deep sadness, crying, somatic distress, social withdrawal, and suicidal ideation. This syndrome is distinct from major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, but CG maybe comorbid with each. This communication will focus on the impact of CG in late life (over age 60) and will include a case vignette for illustrating complicated grief therapy. PMID:22754292

  17. Late-Notice HIE Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Provide a response to MOWG action item 1410-01: Analyze close approaches which have required mission team action on short notice. Determine why the approaches were identified later in the process than most other events. Method: Performed an analysis to determine whether there is any correlation between late notice event identification and space weather, sparse tracking, or high drag objects, which would allow preventive action to be taken Examined specific late notice events identified by missions as problematic to try to identify root cause and attempt to relate them to the correlation analysis.

  18. Late Silurian plutons in Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1996-08-01

    U-Pb measurements of zircons from two composite plutons in the Maya Mountains of the Yucatan Block (Belize) give Late Silurian ages. Zircons from one of the five compositional phases of the Mountain Pine Ridge pluton yield an age of 418±3.6 Ma. A second compositional phase gives a minimum age of 404 Ma, and zircons from a third phase, although plagued with high common Pb, yield ages consistent with the other two. Zircons from one compositional phase of the Hummingbird-Mullins River pluton indicate an age of about 410-420 Ma. These data demonstrate that two of the three Maya Mountains plutons residing among the strata of the Late Pennsylvanian through Permian Santa Rosa Group are older than that sedimentation. Although the third pluton was not dated, both the similarity of sedimentary facies patterns adjacent to it to those adjacent to one of the plutons dated as Late Silurian and a published single Rb-Sr age of 428 ± 41 Ma suggest this third pluton also was emergent during Santa Rosa deposition. Thus the new U/Pb dates and other data suggest that all three Maya Mountains plutons pre-date Late Carboniferous sedimentation and that none intrude the Santa Rosa Group. Although very uniform ages of about 230 Ma amongst all plutons, derived from abundant earlier dating by the K-Ar system, led to the conclusion that intrusion mostly had occurred in the Late Triassic, the U-Pb ages (obtained from the same sites as the K-Ar dates) demonstrate that the K-Ar ages do not derive from a Late Triassic intrusive episode. The K-Ar dates probably are a signature of the rifting associated with Pangean breakup and formation of the Gulf of Mexico. In a reconstructed Pangea, the position of the Maya Mountains Late Silurian plutons suggests that the Late Silurian Acadian-Caledonian orogen of eastern North America extended through the region of the future Gulf of Mexico. Finally, the U-Pb ages of the Maya Mountains plutons are the same as those of a group of shocked zircons found in the

  19. Comparison of nicarbazin absorption in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Yoder, C A; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S

    2005-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), a coccidiostat commonly used in the poultry industry, causes reduced hatchability and egg quality in layer hens at a concentration of 125 ppm (8.4 mg/kg) in the feed. Although this effect is undesirable in the poultry industry, NCZ could provide a useful wildlife contraception tool for waterfowl, particularly urban geese. We tested the absorption of NCZ in chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) gavaged with 8.4 mg of NCZ/kg per bird each day for 8 d. Plasma levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) differed significantly among species. Peak plasma DNC levels were 2.87 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, 2.39 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, and 1.53 +/- 0.15 microg/ mL in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese respectively. It took 6 d to obtain peak DNC levels in chickens as opposed to 8 d in mallards and Canada geese. The half life of DNC in plasma was 1.43 d in chickens, 0.72 d in mallards, and 1.26 d in Canada geese. Mallards eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 4 d post-treatment, whereas Canada geese eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Chickens had only eliminated 99% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Mallard plasma DNC levels were highly correlated with Canada goose plasma DNC levels. This research showed mallards are an ideal model species for the Canada goose for future reproductive studies on NCZ in a laboratory setting. However, levels higher than 8.4 mg/kg must be fed to waterfowl in order to obtain a plasma level comparable to chickens.

  20. Response of intestinal microbiota to antibiotic growth promoters in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Hunkapiller, Andree A; Layton, Alice C; Chang, Yun-Juan; Robbins, Kelly R

    2013-04-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average daily weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than five decades. However, use of AGPs is associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens of animal origin, posing a significant threat to food safety and public health. Thus, development of novel alternatives to AGPs is important to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. To achieve this goal, the mode of action of AGPs should be elucidated. In this study, the response of the chicken gut microbiota to AGPs was examined using two culture-independent approaches: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing. PLFA analysis showed that AGP tylosin treatment changed composition of the microbiota in various intestinal sites; however, total viable bacterial biomass in intestine was not affected by tylosin treatment. PLFA analysis also revealed an abundant viable fungal population in chicken microbiota. Eight 16S rDNA libraries (96 clones per library) were constructed using ileal samples from chickens that received either antibiotic-free or medicated feed. The 16S rDNA clone analysis of the growth-relevant samples showed the AGP treatment influenced the diversity of ileum microbiota in the chickens primarily in the Firmicutes division. In particular, Lactobacillus spp. populations in the ileum of AGP-treated chickens were significantly lower than those from chickens receiving antibiotic-free feed. Together, this study revealed novel features of the intestinal microbiota in response to AGP treatment and suggested approach to develop potential alternatives to AGPs for mitigation of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens.

  1. Mycological examinations on the fungal flora of the chicken comb.

    PubMed

    Gründer, S; Mayser, P; Redmann, T; Kaleta, E F

    2005-03-01

    A total of 500 combs of adult chickens from two different locations in Germany (Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein) were clinically and mycologically examined. The chickens came from three battery cages (n = 79), one voliere system (n=32), six flocks maintained on deep litter (n = 69) and 12 flocks kept on free outdoor range (n=320). Twenty-two of the 500 chicken combs (4.4%) were found to have clinical signs: only non-specific lesions neither typical of mycosis nor of avian pox such as desquamation with crust formation, yellow to brown or black dyschromic changes, alopecia in the surrounding area and moist inflammation. Only seven of the 22 clinically altered combs showed a positive mycological result; the non-pathogenic and geophilic Trichophyton terrestre in one case and non-pathogenic yeast in six cases. The following fungi were seen in the different housing systems: 13 dermatophytes (2.6% of 500 samples): 12 x T. terrestre, 1 x Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 11 isolates of Chrysosporium georgiae (2.2% of 500 samples) and 149 isolates of yeasts (29.8%): Malassezia sympodialis: n = 52, Kloeckera apiculata: n = 33, Trichosporon capitatum (syn. Geotrichum capitatum): n = 23, Trichosporon cutaneum/Trichosporon mucoides: n = 12, Trichosporon inkin (syn. Sarcinosporon inkin): n = 8 and Candida spp.: n = 21, including pathogenic or possibly pathogenic species: Candida albicans: n = 3, Candida famata: n = 4, Candida guilliermondii: n = 3, Candida lipolytica: n = 3, Candida dattila: n = 2 and one isolate each of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida aaseri, Candida catenulata sive brumpti, Candida fructus and Candida kefyr sive pseudotropicalis. There is no stringent correlation between the clinical symptoms diagnosed on the chicken combs and the species of yeasts isolated. The causative agent of favus in chickens, Trichophyton gallinae, and the saprophytic yeast in pigeons, Cr. neoformans were not isolated. The most frequently isolated yeasts M. sympodialis and

  2. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs associates with dog leukocyte antigen class II and resembles acute variant forms of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Greer, K A; Wong, A K; Liu, H; Famula, T R; Pedersen, N C; Ruhe, A; Wallace, M; Neff, M W

    2010-08-01

    Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) is a disorder of Pug Dogs that appears to have an immune etiology and high heritability based on population studies. The present study was undertaken to identify a genetic basis for the disease. A genome-wide association scan with single tandem repeat (STR) markers showed a single strong association near the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) complex on CFA12. Fine resolution mapping with 27 STR markers on CFA12 further narrowed association to the region containing DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and, -DQB1 genes. Sequencing confirmed that affected dogs were more likely to be homozygous for specific alleles at each locus and that these alleles were linked, forming a single high risk haplotype. The strong DLA class II association of NME in Pug Dogs resembles that of human multiple sclerosis (MS). Like MS, NME appears to have an autoimmune basis, involves genetic and nongenetic factors, has a relatively low incidence, is more frequent in females than males, and is associated with a vascularly orientated nonsuppurative inflammation. However, NME of Pug Dogs is more aggressive in disease course than classical human MS, appears to be relatively earlier in onset, and involves necrosis rather than demyelination as the central pathobiologic feature. Thus, Pug Dog encephalitis (PDE) shares clinical features with the less common acute variant forms of MS. Accordingly, NME of Pug Dogs may represent a naturally occurring canine model of certain idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the human central nervous system.

  3. ATM deficiency promotes development of murine B-cell lymphomas that resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hathcock, Karen S.; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Camps, Jordi; Shin, Dong-Mi; Triner, Daniel; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Maul, Robert W.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Staudt, Louis M.; Morse, Herbert C.; Ried, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in maintaining genomic integrity. In mice, ATM deficiency is exclusively associated with T-cell lymphoma development, whereas B-cell tumors predominate in human ataxia-telangiectasia patients. We demonstrate in this study that when T cells are removed as targets for lymphomagenesis and as mediators of immune surveillance, ATM-deficient mice exclusively develop early-onset immunoglobulin M+ B-cell lymphomas that do not transplant to immunocompetent mice and that histologically and genetically resemble the activated B cell–like (ABC) subset of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). These B-cell lymphomas show considerable chromosomal instability and a recurrent genomic amplification of a 4.48-Mb region on chromosome 18 that contains Malt1 and is orthologous to a region similarly amplified in human ABC DLBCL. Of importance, amplification of Malt1 in these lymphomas correlates with their dependence on nuclear factor (NF)-κB, MALT1, and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling for survival, paralleling human ABC DLBCL. Further, like some human ABC DLBCLs, these mouse B-cell lymphomas also exhibit constitutive BCR-dependent NF-κB activation. This study reveals that ATM protects against development of B-cell lymphomas that model human ABC DLBCL and identifies a potential role for T cells in preventing the emergence of these tumors. PMID:26400962

  4. On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a 'theory of mind'.

    PubMed

    Penn, Derek C; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2007-04-29

    After decades of effort by some of our brightest human and non-human minds, there is still little consensus on whether or not non-human animals understand anything about the unobservable mental states of other animals or even what it would mean for a non-verbal animal to understand the concept of a 'mental state'. In the present paper, we confront four related and contentious questions head-on: (i) What exactly would it mean for a non-verbal organism to have an 'understanding' or a 'representation' of another animal's mental state? (ii) What should (and should not) count as compelling empirical evidence that a non-verbal cognitive agent has a system for understanding or forming representations about mental states in a functionally adaptive manner? (iii) Why have the kind of experimental protocols that are currently in vogue failed to produce compelling evidence that non-human animals possess anything even remotely resembling a theory of mind? (iv) What kind of experiments could, at least in principle, provide compelling evidence for such a system in a non-verbal organism?

  5. Sensory afferent segregation in three-eared frogs resemble the dominance columns observed in three-eyed frogs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Karen L.; Houston, Douglas W.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The formation of proper sensory afferent connections during development is essential for brain function. Activity-based competition is believed to drive ocular dominance columns (ODC) in mammals and in experimentally-generated three-eyed frogs. ODC formation is thus a compromise of activity differences between two eyes and similar molecular cues. To gauge the generality of graphical map formation in the brain, we investigated the inner ear projection, known for its well-defined and early segregation of afferents from vestibular and auditory endorgans. In analogy to three eyed-frogs, we generated three-eared frogs to assess to what extent vestibular afferents from two adjacent ears could segregate. Donor ears were transplanted either in the native orientation or rotated by 90 degrees. These manipulations should result in either similar or different induced activity between both ears, respectively. Three-eared frogs with normal orientation showed normal swimming whereas those with a rotated third ear showed aberrant behaviors. Projection studies revealed that only afferents from the rotated ears segregated from those from the native ear within the vestibular nucleus, resembling the ocular dominance columns formed in three-eyed frogs. Vestibular segregation suggests that mechanisms comparable to those operating in the ODC formation of the visual system may act on vestibular projection refinements. PMID:25661240

  6. Responses of GLP1-secreting L-cells to cytotoxicity resemble pancreatic β-cells but not α-cells.

    PubMed

    Vasu, Srividya; Moffett, R Charlotte; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about responses of intestinal L-cells to chemical or cytokine-mediated attack and how these compare with pancreatic β- or α-cells. Administration of streptozotocin to mice induced severe diabetes, islet lymphocytic infiltration, increased α-cell proliferation and decreased numbers of β- and L-cells. In vitro, streptozotocin and cytokines reduced cell viability with higher lethal dose 50 values for α-TC1 cells. mRNA expression of Glut2 was lower and Cat was greater in GLUTag and α-TC1 cells compared with MIN6 cells. Cytotoxins affected the transcription of genes involved in secretion in GLUTag and MIN6 cells. They are also involved in upregulation of antioxidant defence enzymes, transcription of NfκB and Nos2, and production of nitrite in all cell types. Cytotoxin-induced DNA damage and apoptosis were apparent in all cells, but α-TC1 cells were less severely affected. Thus, responses of GLP1-secreting L-cells to cytotoxicity resemble β-cells, whereas α-cells are resistant due to differences in the expression of genes involved in cytotoxicity or antioxidant defence.

  7. Cells transformed by murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) release compounds with transforming and transformed phenotype suppressing activity resembling growth factors.

    PubMed

    Šupolíková, M; Staňová, A Vojs; Kúdelová, M; Marák, J; Zelník, V; Golais, F

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the medium of three cell lines transformed with murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) in vitro and in vivo, 68/HDF, 68/NIH3T3, and S11E, for the presence of compounds resembling growth factors of some herpesviruses which have displayed transforming and transformed phenotype suppressing activity in normal and tumor cells. When any of spent medium was added to cell culture we observed the onset of transformed phenotype in baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) cells and transformed phenotype suppressing activity in tumor human epithelial cells (HeLa). In media tested, we have identified the presence of putative growth factor related to MHV-68 (MHGF-68). Its bivalent properties have been blocked entirely by antisera against MHV-68 and two monoclonal antibodies against glycoprotein B (gB) of MHV-68 suggesting viral origin of MHGF-68. The results of initial efforts to separate MHGF-68 on FPLC Sephadex G15 column in the absence of salts revealed the loss of its transforming activity but transformed phenotype suppressing activity retained. On the other hand, the use of methanol-water mobile phase on RP-HPLC C18 column allowed separation of MHGF-68 to two compounds. Both separated fractions, had only the transforming activity to normal cells. Further experiments exploring the nature and the structure of hitherto unknown MHGF-68 are now in the progress to characterize its molecular and biological properties.

  8. Resembling a "natural formation pattern" of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins by varying the experimental conditions of hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Tirler, Werner; Basso, Albino

    2013-11-01

    Until several years ago dioxins were considered as just an unwanted by product of anthropogenic activities and stigmatized as the symbol of man-made environmental pollution. Natural processes, such as forest fires, can emit dioxins, but compared to industrial processes, usually very low quantities are emitted. However after a case of food contamination occurred in the United States of America in 1996 caused by kaolinitic clay a discussion on the provenience started. Besides the relatively high concentration also an unusual PCDD/F distribution pattern was found in these ball clay samples. This specific pattern related to none of the known anthropogenic sources for these contaminants and, in relation to a supposed natural formation, later it was named "natural formation pattern". Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can transform biomass within hours into a brown coal-like product which resembles naturally occurring coal formation. HTC can also transform an already present PCDD/F contamination in a way to obtain a "natural formation pattern" characterized by an unusual high ratio between 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and the absence of almost all chlorinated dibenzofurans. By varying the experimental conditions of the HTC process applied to sewage sludge samples contaminated with PCDD/Fs from anthropogenic sources, beside the "natural formation pattern" at a temperatures of 255 °C, a remarkable increase of the toxicity based on WHO-TEQ was observed.

  9. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A Young, Dusty, Nearby, Isolated Brown Dwarf Resembling a Giant Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Núñez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5γ dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the ~10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 μm, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  10. Distribution, burrowing, and growth rates of the clam Tridacna crocea on interior reef flats : Formation of structures resembling micro atolls.

    PubMed

    Hamner, W M; Jones, M S

    1976-09-01

    Larvae of the burrowing clam Tridacna crocea (Tridacnidae) settle preferentially on top of detached coral heads lying on the surface of the interior reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef province. This species burrows as it grows, eroding the central top surfaces of coral boulders, producing structures that superficially resemble micro-atolls. Storm surges roll these coral heads onto the now flattened surface, killing the live population of clams, and exposing the fresh underside for unimpeded larval settlement. As these clams grow and burrow into the substratum, the coral head becomes progressively flattened and finally breaks apart. Field observations and growthring data documented growth rate; growth rates plus burrow volumes were converted to annual sediment production. At average population densities approximately 140 gm/m(2)/yr of coral are eroded. Concomitant with erosion is a calcium carbonate increase in the shell of these clams amounting to 60gm/m(2)/yr. Assuming a stable population structure, with annual mortality equal to annual estimated growth, total sediment production is 200 gm/m(2)/yr. Clams are usually aggregated at higher densities, however, with numbers regularly exceeding 100 clams/m(2). Consequently maximum sediment production rate locally is often 4,500 gm/m(2)/yr.

  11. Calpain 1 inhibitor BDA-410 ameliorates α-klotho-deficiency phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Nabeshima, Yoko; Washida, Miwa; Tamura, Masaru; Maeno, Akiteru; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Imura, Akihiro; Razzaque, M. Shawkat; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Taking good care of elderly is a major challenge of our society, and thus identification of potential drug targets to reduce age-associated disease burden is desirable. α-klotho-/- (α-kl) is a short-lived mouse model that displays multiple phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes. Such ageing phenotype of α-kl-/- mice is associated with activation of a proteolytic enzyme, Calpain-1. We hypothesized that uncontrolled activation of calpain-1 might be causing age-related phenotypes in α-kl-deficient mice. We found that daily administration of BDA-410, a calpain-1 inhibitor, strikingly ameliorated multiple aging-related phenotypes. Treated mice showed recovery of reproductive ability, increased body weight, reduced organ atrophy, and suppression of ectopic calcifications, bone mineral density reduction, pulmonary emphysema and senile atrophy of skin. We also observed ectopic expression of FGF23 in calcified arteries of α-kl-/- mice, which might account for the clinically observed association of increased FGF23 level with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. These findings allow us to propose that modulation of calpain-1 activity is a potential therapeutic option for delaying age-associated organ pathology, particularly caused by the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis. PMID:25080854

  12. Solution structures of the linear leaderless bacteriocins enterocin 7A and 7B resemble carnocyclin A, a circular antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; McKay, Ryan T; van Belkum, Marco J; McMullen, Lynn M; Vederas, John C

    2013-06-11

    Leaderless bacteriocins are a class of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are produced by certain Gram-positive bacteria without an N-terminal leader section. These bacteriocins are of great interest due to their potent inhibition of many Gram-positive organisms, including food-borne pathogens such as Listeria and Clostridium spp. We now report the NMR solution structures of enterocins 7A and 7B, leaderless bacteriocins recently isolated from Enterococcus faecalis 710C. These are the first three-dimensional structures to be reported for bacteriocins of this class. Unlike most other linear Gram-positive bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B are highly structured in aqueous conditions. Both peptides are primarily α-helical, adopting a similar overall fold. The structures can be divided into three separate α-helical regions: the N- and C-termini are both α-helical, separated by a central kinked α-helix. The overall structures bear an unexpected resemblance to carnocyclin A, a 60-residue peptide that is cyclized via an amide bond between the C- and N-termini and has a saposin fold. Because of synergism observed for other two-peptide leaderless bacteriocins, it was of interest to probe possible binding interactions between enterocins 7A and 7B. However, despite synergistic activity observed between these peptides, no significant binding interaction was observed based on NMR and isothermal calorimetry.

  13. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A YOUNG, DUSTY, NEARBY, ISOLATED BROWN DWARF RESEMBLING A GIANT EXOPLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Nunez, Alejandro; Mamajek, Eric E. E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org

    2013-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5{gamma} dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the {approx}10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 {mu}m, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  14. Structural changes upon peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of peroxiredoxin 2; nitrated Prx2 resembles its disulfide-oxidized form.

    PubMed

    Randall, Lía; Manta, Bruno; Nelson, Kimberly J; Santos, Javier; Poole, Leslie B; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-15

    Peroxiredoxins are cys-based peroxidases that function in peroxide detoxification and H2O2-induced signaling. Human Prx2 is a typical 2-Cys Prx arranged as pentamers of head-to-tail homodimers. During the catalytic mechanism, the active-site cysteine (CP) cycles between reduced, sulfenic and disulfide state involving conformational as well as oligomeric changes. Several post-translational modifications were shown to affect Prx activity, in particular CP overoxidation which leads to inactivation. We have recently reported that nitration of Prx2, a post-translational modification on non-catalytic tyrosines, unexpectedly increases its peroxidase activity and resistance to overoxidation. To elucidate the cross-talk between this post-translational modification and the enzyme catalysis, we investigated the structural changes of Prx2 after nitration. Analytical ultracentrifugation, UV absorption, circular dichroism, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence were used to connect catalytically relevant redox changes with tyrosine nitration. Our results show that the reduced nitrated Prx2 structurally resembles the disulfide-oxidized native form of the enzyme favoring a locally unfolded conformation that facilitates disulfide formation. These results provide structural basis for the kinetic analysis previously reported, the observed increase in activity and the resistance to overoxidation of the peroxynitrite-treated enzyme.

  15. MicroRNA-10b pleiotropically regulates invasion, angiogenicity and apoptosis of tumor cells resembling mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Teo, S; Lam, D H; Jeyaseelan, K; Wang, S

    2012-10-04

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a heterogeneous disease despite its seemingly uniform pathology. Deconvolution of The Cancer Genome Atlas's GBM gene expression data has unveiled the existence of distinct gene expression signature underlying discrete GBM subtypes. Recent conflicting findings proposed that microRNA (miRNA)-10b exclusively regulates glioma growth or invasion but not both. We showed that silencing of miRNA-10b by baculoviral decoy vectors in a glioma cell line resembling the mesenchymal subtype of GBM reduces its growth, invasion and angiogenesis while promoting apoptosis in vitro. In an orthotopic human glioma mouse model, inhibition of miRNA-10b diminishes the invasiveness, angiogenicity and growth of the mesenchymal subtype-like glioma cells in the brain and significantly prolonged survival of glioma-bearing mice. We demonstrated that the pleiotropic nature of miRNA-10b was due to its suppression of multiple tumor suppressors, including TP53, FOXO3, CYLD, PAX6, PTCH1, HOXD10 and NOTCH1. In particular, siRNA-mediated knockdown experiments identified TP53, PAX6, NOTCH1 and HOXD10 as invasion regulatory genes in our mesenchymal subtype-like glioma cells. By interrogating the REMBRANDT, we noted that dysregulation of many direct targets of miRNA-10b was associated with significantly poorer patient survival. Thus, our study uncovers a novel role for miRNA-10b in regulating angiogenesis and suggests that miRNA-10b may be a pleiotropic regulator of gliomagenesis.

  16. A form of cell death with some features resembling apoptosis in the amitochondrial unicellular organism Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Chose, Olivier; Noël, Christophe; Gerbod, Delphine; Brenner, Catherine; Viscogliosi, Eric; Roseto, Alberto

    2002-05-15

    One of hallmarks of apoptosis is the degradation and concomitant compaction of chromatin. It is assumed that caspases and caspase-independent pathways are rate limiting for the development of nuclear apoptosis. The caspase-independent pathway involves apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and leads to DNA fragmentation and peripheral chromatin condensation. Both pathways are the result of activation of death signals that the mitochondrion receives, integrates, and responds to with the release of various molecules (e.g., cytochrome c and AIF). In fact, both pathways have in common the final point of the DNA fragmentation and the mitochondrial origin of molecules that initiate the apoptotic events. Here, we examine the question of whether apoptosis or apoptotic-like processes exist in a unicellular organism that lacks mitochondria. We herein show that a form of cell death with some features resembling apoptosis is indeed present in Trichomonas vaginalis. Characterization of morphological aspects implicated in this event together with the preliminary biochemical data provided may lead to new insight about the evolutionary relationships between the different forms of programmed cell death identified so far.

  17. PLTP secreted by HepG2 cells resembles the high-activity PLTP form in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Sarah; Jauhiainen, Matti; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Tenhunen, Jukka; Ehnholm, Christian

    2003-09-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an important regulator of plasma HDL levels and HDL particle distribution. PLTP is present in plasma in two forms, one with high and the other with low phospholipid transfer activity. We have used the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, as a model to study PLTP secreted from hepatic cells. PLTP activity was secreted by the cells into serum-free culture medium as a function of time. However, modification of a previously established ELISA assay to include a denaturing sample pretreatment with the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate was required for the detection of the secreted PLTP protein. The HepG2 PLTP could be enriched by Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and eluted in size-exclusion chromatography at a position corresponding to the size of 160 kDa. PLTP coeluted with apolipoprotein E (apoE) but not with apoB-100 or apoA-I. A portion of PLTP was retained by an anti-apoE immunoaffinity column together with apoE, suggesting an interaction between these two proteins. Furthermore, antibodies against apoE but not those against apoB-100 or apoA-I were capable of inhibiting PLTP activity. These results show that the HepG2-derived PLTP resembles in several aspects the high-activity form of PLTP found in human plasma.

  18. Pattern of Brachyury gene expression in starfish embryos resembles that of hemichordate embryos but not of sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Shoguchi, E; Satoh, N; Maruyama, Y K

    1999-04-01

    Echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates are deuterostomes and share a number of developmental features. The Brachyury gene is responsible for formation of the notochord, the most defining feature of chordates, and thus may be a key to understanding the origin and evolution of the chordates. Previous studies have shown that the ascidian Brachyury (As-T and Ci-Bra) is expressed in the notochord and that a sea urchin Brachyury (HpTa) is expressed in the secondary mesenchyme founder cells. A recent study by [Tagawa et al. (1998)], however, revealed that a hemichordate Brachyury (PfBra) is expressed in a novel pattern in an archenteron invagination region and a stomodaeum invagination region in the gastrula. The present study demonstrated that the expression pattern of Brachyury (ApBra) of starfish embryos resembles that of PfBra in hemichordate embryos but not of HpTa in sea urchin embryos. Namely, ApBra is expressed in an archenteron invagination region and a stomodaeum invagination region.

  19. Downregulation of chicken interleukin-17 receptor A during Eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Suk; Chang, Hong H; Yang, Seung-Hak; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2014-09-01

    Both interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are proinflammatory cytokines that have an important role in intestinal homeostasis via receptor signaling. These cytokines have been characterized in chickens, but very little is known about their receptors and their functional activity. We provide here the first description of the sequence analysis, bioactivity, and comparative expression analysis of chicken IL-17RA (chIL-17RA) in chickens infected with Salmonella and Eimeria, two major infectious agents of gastrointestinal diseases of poultry of economic importance. A full-length chIL-17RA cDNA with a 2,568-bp coding region was identified from chicken thymus cDNA. chIL-17RA shares ca. 46% identity with mammalian homologues and 29.2 to 31.5% identity with its piscine counterparts. chIL-17RA transcript expression was relatively high in the thymus and in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The chIL-17RA-specific small interfering RNA inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β mRNA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (but not in DF-1 cells) stimulated with chIL-17A or chIL-17F. Interaction between chIL-17RA and chIL-17A was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Downregulation of chIL-17RA occurred in concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-activated splenic lymphocytes but not in poly(I·C)-activated splenic lymphocytes. In Salmonella- and Eimeria-infected chickens, the expression levels of the chIL-17RA transcript were downregulated in intestinal tissues from chickens infected with two Eimeria species, E. tenella or E. maxima, that preferentially infect the cecum and jejunum, respectively. However, chIL-17RA expression was generally unchanged in Salmonella infection. These results suggest that chIL-17RA has an important role in mucosal immunity to intestinal intracellular parasite infections such as Eimeria infection.

  20. Purification of xanthine dehydrogenase and sulfite oxidase from chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, K; Brody, M S; Hille, R

    1996-05-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase and sulfite oxidase from chicken liver are oxomolybdenum enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid and sulfite to sulfate, respectively. Independent purification protocols have been previously described for both enzymes. Here we describe a procedure by which xanthine dehydrogenase and sulfite oxidase are purified simultaneously from the same batch of fresh chicken liver. Also, unlike the protocols described earlier, this procedure avoids the use of acetone extraction as well as a heat step, thus minimizing damage to the molybdenum centers of the enzymes.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  2. Late onset angioma serpiginosum of the breast with co-existing cherry angioma

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Samipa; Salphale, Pankaj; Singh, Vandita

    2014-01-01

    Angioma serpiginosum is a cutaneous vascular nevoid disorder that presents as red, nonblanchable and grouped macules distributed in a serpiginous pattern and resembles purpura. It usually begins in childhood and commonly affects the lower limbs and the buttocks. Late onset of the lesions is unusual. We report a 46-year-old female who presented with progressively extending lesions on her breast since preceding four years. She also had a cherry angioma overlying the lesions, an observation hitherto not reported so far. PMID:25165654

  3. Insight into the growth dynamics and systematic affinities of the Late Cretaceous Gargantuavis from bone microstructure.

    PubMed

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Buffetaut, Eric; Canoville, Aurore; Angst, Delphine

    2014-05-01

    Enigmatic avialan remains of Gargantuavis philoinos from the Ibero-Armorican island of the Late Cretaceous European archipelago (Southern France) led to a debate concerning its taxonomic affinities. Here, we show that the bone microstructure of Gargantuavis resembles that of Apteryx, the extinct emeids and Megalapteryx from New Zealand, and indicates that like these slow-growing terrestrial birds, it took several years to attain skeletal maturity. Our findings suggest that the protracted cyclical growth in these ornithurines may have been in response to insular evolution.

  4. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  5. Using ancient DNA to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens across the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Vicki A; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Austin, Jeremy J; Hunt, Terry L; Burney, David A; Denham, Tim; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Wood, Jamie R; Gongora, Jaime; Girdland Flink, Linus; Linderholm, Anna; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2014-04-01

    The human colonization of Remote Oceania remains one of the great feats of exploration in history, proceeding east from Asia across the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. Human commensal and domesticated species were widely transported as part of this diaspora, possibly as far as South America. We sequenced mitochondrial control region DNA from 122 modern and 22 ancient chicken specimens from Polynesia and Island Southeast Asia and used these together with Bayesian modeling methods to examine the human dispersal of chickens across this area. We show that specific techniques are essential to remove contaminating modern DNA from experiments, which appear to have impacted previous studies of Pacific chickens. In contrast to previous reports, we find that all ancient specimens and a high proportion of the modern chickens possess a group of unique, closely related haplotypes found only in the Pacific. This group of haplotypes appears to represent the authentic founding mitochondrial DNA chicken lineages transported across the Pacific, and allows the early dispersal of chickens across Micronesia and Polynesia to be modeled. Importantly, chickens carrying this genetic signature persist on several Pacific islands at high frequencies, suggesting that the original Polynesian chicken lineages may still survive. No early South American chicken samples have been detected with the diagnostic Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, arguing against reports that chickens provide evidence of Polynesian contact with pre-European South America. Two modern specimens from the Philippines carry haplotypes similar to the ancient Pacific samples, providing clues about a potential homeland for the Polynesian chicken.

  6. Using ancient DNA to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens across the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Vicki A.; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Austin, Jeremy J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Burney, David A.; Denham, Tim; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Wood, Jamie R.; Gongora, Jaime; Girdland Flink, Linus; Linderholm, Anna; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The human colonization of Remote Oceania remains one of the great feats of exploration in history, proceeding east from Asia across the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. Human commensal and domesticated species were widely transported as part of this diaspora, possibly as far as South America. We sequenced mitochondrial control region DNA from 122 modern and 22 ancient chicken specimens from Polynesia and Island Southeast Asia and used these together with Bayesian modeling methods to examine the human dispersal of chickens across this area. We show that specific techniques are essential to remove contaminating modern DNA from experiments, which appear to have impacted previous studies of Pacific chickens. In contrast to previous reports, we find that all ancient specimens and a high proportion of the modern chickens possess a group of unique, closely related haplotypes found only in the Pacific. This group of haplotypes appears to represent the authentic founding mitochondrial DNA chicken lineages transported across the Pacific, and allows the early dispersal of chickens across Micronesia and Polynesia to be modeled. Importantly, chickens carrying this genetic signature persist on several Pacific islands at high frequencies, suggesting that the original Polynesian chicken lineages may still survive. No early South American chicken samples have been detected with the diagnostic Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, arguing against reports that chickens provide evidence of Polynesian contact with pre-European South America. Two modern specimens from the Philippines carry haplotypes similar to the ancient Pacific samples, providing clues about a potential homeland for the Polynesian chicken. PMID:24639505

  7. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  8. Diagnosis and sequence analysis of avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolated from Chinese Partridge Shank chickens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuan; Zhao, Peng; Li, Weihua; Chang, Shuang; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Ju, Sidi; Sun, Peng; Meng, Fanfeng; Liu, Juan; Cui, Zhizhong

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection in Chinese Partridge Shank chickens was confirmed by necropsy, histopathological examinations, antibody tests, viral isolation, immunofluorescence assays, and sequence analysis. Myelocytoma, myeloma, and fibrosarcoma were simultaneously found in Partridge Shank flock with ALV-J infection. Sequence analysis of the env genes of ALV-J demonstrated that both gp85 and gp37 were highly homologous among the three strains from local chickens of those among ALV-J strains isolated from white meat-type chickens. The phylogenetic trees indicated that the three strains isolated in this study were closely related to reference strains isolated in so-called Chinese yellow chickens and some strains isolated from white meat-type chickens, both from the USA and China. The observed ALV-J infection was the first report on Partridge Shank chickens, and myelocytoma, myeloma, and fibrosarcoma were found at the same time in this batch of local chickens.

  9. Comparative pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens of two strains of avian hepatitis E virus recovered from a chicken with Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome and from a clinically healthy chicken.

    PubMed

    Billam, P; LeRoith, T; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Meng, X J

    2009-11-18

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is the primary causative agent of Hepatitis-Splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in chickens. Recently, a genetically unique strain of avian HEV, designated avian HEV-VA, was recovered from healthy chickens in Virginia. The objective of this study was to experimentally compare the pathogenicity of the prototype strain recovered from a chicken with HS syndrome and the avian HEV-VA strain in specific-pathogen-free chickens. An infectious stock of the avian HEV-VA strain was first generated and its infectivity titer determined in chickens. For the comparative pathogenesis study, 54 chickens of 6-week-old were assigned to 3 groups of 18 chickens each. The group 1 chickens were each intravenously inoculated with 5x10(2.5) 50% chicken infectious dose of the prototype strain. The group 2 received the same dose of the avian HEV-VA strain, and the group 3 served as negative controls. Six chickens from each group were necropsied at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-inoculation (wpi). Most chickens in both inoculated groups seroconverted by 3wpi, and the mean anti-avian HEV antibody titers were higher for the prototype strain group than the avian HEV-VA strain group. There was no significant difference in the patterns of viremia and fecal virus shedding. Blood analyte profiles did not differ between treatment groups except for serum creatine phosphokinase levels which were higher for prototype avian HEV group than avian HEV-VA group. The hepatic lesion score was higher for the prototype strain group than the other two groups. The results indicated that the avian HEV-VA strain is only slightly attenuated compared to the prototype strain, suggesting that the full spectrum of HS syndrome is likely associated with other co-factors.

  10. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken meat and chicken skin by combined or sequential application of lytic bacteriophage with chemical antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2015-08-17

    The effectiveness of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella in vitro and on chicken breast fillets was examined in combination with lauric arginate (LAE) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). In another experiment, a sequential spray application of this bacteriophage (phage) solution on Salmonella inoculated chicken skin after a 20s dip in chemical antimicrobials (LAE, CPC, peracetic acid, or chlorine) was also examined in reducing Salmonella counts on chicken skin. The application of phage in combination with CPC or LAE reduced S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis up to 5 log units in vitro at 4 °C. On chicken breast fillets, phage in combination with CPC or LAE resulted in significant (p<0.05) reductions of Salmonella ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g as compared to control up to 7 days of refrigerated storage. When phage was applied sequentially with chemical antimicrobials, all the treatments resulted in significant reductions of Salmonella. The application of chlorine (30 ppm) and PAA (400 ppm) followed by phage spray (10(9)PFU/ml) resulted in highest Salmonella reductions of 1.6-1.7 and 2.2-2.5l og CFU/cm(2), respectively. In conclusion, the surface applications of phage in combination with LAE or CPC significantly reduced Salmonella counts on chicken breast fillets. However, higher reductions in Salmonella counts were achieved on chicken skin by the sequential application of chemical antimicrobials followed by phage spray. The sequential application of chlorine, PAA, and phage can provide additional hurdles to reduce Salmonella on fresh poultry carcasses or cut up parts.

  11. Genetic identification of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) from healthy chicken flocks and characterization of the capsid gene of 14 avian HEV isolates from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in different geographical regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z F; Larsen, C T; Dunlop, A; Huang, F F; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X-J

    2004-03-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), a novel virus identified from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome, is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. Recently, it was found that avian HEV antibody is also prevalent in healthy chickens. A prospective study was done on a known seropositive but healthy chicken farm to identify avian HEV isolates from healthy chickens. Fourteen chickens were randomly selected, tagged and monitored under natural conditions for 19 weeks. All 14 chickens were seronegative at the beginning of the study at 12 weeks of age. By 21 weeks of age, all 14 chickens had seroconverted to avian HEV antibody. None of the chickens had any sign of HS syndrome. Partial helicase gene and capsid gene sequences of avian HEV isolates recovered from a healthy chicken were determined and found to share 75-97 % nucleotide sequence identity with the corresponding regions of avian HEV isolates from chickens with HS syndrome. Thus far, only one strain of avian HEV from a chicken with HS syndrome has been genetically characterized for its capsid gene, therefore the capsid gene region of an additional 14 isolates from chickens with HS syndrome were also characterized. The capsid genes of avian HEV isolates from chickens with HS syndrome were found to be heterogeneic, sharing 76-100 % nucleotide sequence identity with each other. This study indicates that avian HEV is enzootic in chicken flocks and spreads subclinically among chickens in the United States and that the virus is heterogeneic.

  12. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  13. Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Bélteky, Johan; Sundman, Ann-Sofie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here. PMID:27105229

  14. Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Henriksen, Rie; Bélteky, Johan; Sundman, Ann-Sofie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here.

  15. A long non-coding RNA promotes full activation of adult gene expression in the chicken α-globin domain.

    PubMed

    Arriaga-Canon, Cristian; Fonseca-Guzmán, Yael; Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Arzate-Mejía, Rodrigo; Guerrero, Georgina; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were recently shown to regulate chromatin remodelling activities. Their function in regulating gene expression switching during specific developmental stages is poorly understood. Here we describe a nuclear, non-coding transcript responsive for the stage-specific activation of the chicken adult α(D) globin gene. This non-coding transcript, named α-globin transcript long non-coding RNA (lncRNA-αGT) is transcriptionally upregulated in late stages of chicken development, when active chromatin marks the adult α(D) gene promoter. Accordingly, the lncRNA-αGT promoter drives erythroid-specific transcription. Furthermore, loss of function experiments showed that lncRNA-αGT is required for full activation of the α(D) adult gene and maintenance of transcriptionally active chromatin. These findings uncovered lncRNA-αGT as an important part of the switching from embryonic to adult α-globin gene expression, and suggest a function of lncRNA-αGT in contributing to the maintenance of adult α-globin gene expression by promoting an active chromatin structure.

  16. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  17. Syndecan 3: a member of the syndecan family of membrane-intercalated proteoglycans that is expressed in high amounts at the onset of chicken limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gould, S E; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1992-04-15

    A partial cDNA that encodes a newly discovered member of the syndecan family of integral membrane proteoglycans, which we have termed syndecan 3, has been isolated from an embryonic chicken limb bud cDNA library. Syndecan 3 is distinct from but structurally related to syndecan and fibroglycan, two previously characterized members of this family of membrane-intercalated proteoglycans. Syndecan 3 contains a cytoplasmic domain potentially associated with the cytoskeleton that is 85% identical in amino acid sequence to the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan. Syndecan 3 also possesses a hydrophobic transmembrane domain and an extracellular domain containing several clustered potential glycosaminoglycan attachment sites. Like syndecan, the ectodomain of syndecan 3 has a single dibasic protease-susceptible site adjacent to the transmembrane domain, which might be involved in shedding the ectodomain from the cell surface. A striking feature of syndecan 3 is an extensive (182 amino acid) threonine, serine, and proline (T+S+P)-rich domain that closely resembles T+S+P-rich regions in several mucin-like proteins in which O-linked oligosaccharides are bound to the threonine and serine residues. Syndecan 3 is expressed in high amounts during a critical phase of chicken limb chondrogenesis in which limb mesenchymal cells condense, round up, and interact with one another before depositing a cartilage matrix. The multiple functional domains of syndecan 3 provide potential sites for mediating the adhesive cell-matrix interactions and cytoskeletal reorganization involved in this critical condensation process.

  18. Immunoadjuvant activities of a recombinant chicken IL-12 in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus recombinant HN protein.

    PubMed

    Su, Bor Sheu; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Hung, Li Hsiang; Huang, Ji Ping; Shien, Jui Hung; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-08-05

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/HN) expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN gene and rFPV/HN/chIL-12 co-expressing chicken IL-12 (chIL-12) and HN (rHN/chIL-12) genes have been characterized. rHN/chIL-12 or rchIL-12, expressed by our previous construct rFPV/chIL-12, co-administered with rHN was assessed for adjuvant activities of chIL-12. Chickens were vaccinated with various amounts of rHN/chIL-12 mixed with mineral oil (MO), intramuscularly. Levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody production depended on the concentration of the injected rHN or rHN/chIL-12. The lower HI antibody titers were obtained in chicken groups rHN/chIL-12/7-rHN/chIL-12/9, receiving 60ng rHN/8ng chIL-12 with MO, 30ng rHN/4ng chIL-12 with MO or 15ng rHN/2ng chIL-12 with MO, respectively, compared to those in chicken groups rHN/7-rHN/9, receiving rHN with MO alone. However, chickens in group rHN/chIL-12/7 or rHN/chIL-12/8 and rHN with MO alone showed the same effective protection. Chicken group rHN/chIL-12/9 was even more protective than that in group rHN/9. When rchIL-12 was co-injected with 15ng rHN plus MO, chickens produced low levels of HI antibody titers; while higher levels of IFN-γ production and an effective protection rate (83%) were obtained. On the other hand, low levels of IFN-γ production and low protection response (50%) were obtained in chickens injected with rHN with MO alone. Taken together, when the concentration of rHN decreased to certain levels, rchIL-12 reduced HI antibody production. The increase in the induction of IFN-γ production might suggest the enhancement of the cell-mediated immunity which conferred the protection from the NDV challenge.

  19. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined.

  20. Leptin activates chicken growth hormone promoter without chicken STAT3 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murase, Daisuke; Namekawa, Shoko; Ohkubo, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that not only regulates food intake and energy homeostasis but also induces growth hormone (GH) mRNA expression and release, thereby controlling growth and metabolism in mammals. The molecular mechanism of leptin-induced regulation of GH gene transcription is unclear. The current study investigated the effects of leptin on the chicken GH (cGH) promoter and the molecular mechanism underlying leptin-induced cGH gene expression in vitro. Leptin activated the cGH promoter in the presence of chPit-1α in CHO cells stably expressing the chicken leptin receptor. Promoter activation did not require STAT-binding elements in the cGH promoter or STAT3 activity. However, JAK2 activation was required for leptin-dependent activity. JAK2-dependent pathways include p42/44 MAPK and PI3K, and inhibition of these pathways partially blocked leptin-induced cGH gene transcription. Although CK2 directly activates JAK2, a CK2 inhibitor blocked leptin-dependent activation of the cGH gene without affecting JAK2 phosphorylation. The CK2 inhibitor suppressed Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Additional data implicate Src family kinases in leptin-dependent cGH gene activation. These results suggest that leptin activates the cGH gene in the presence of chPit-1α via several leptin-activated kinases. Although further study is required, we suggest that the leptin-induced JAK2/p42/44 MAPK and JAK2/PI3K cascades are activated by Src-meditated CK2, leading to CBP phosphorylation and interaction with chPit-1α, resulting in transactivation of the cGH promoter.

  1. Pharmacokinetic studies of the recombinant chicken interferon-α in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Jun; YU, Hai-Yang; ZHANG, Jun-Ling; WANG, Xing-Man; LI, Jin-Pei; HU, Tao; HU, Yong; WANG, Ming-Li; SHEN, Yong-Zhou; XU, Jing-Dong; HAN, Guo-Xiang; CHEN, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 106 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the Tmax was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent. PMID:27890904

  2. Functional Characterization of a Gene in Sedum alfredii Hance Resembling Rubber Elongation Factor Endowed with Functions Associated with Cadmium Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingying; Qiu, Wenming; He, Xuelian; Zheng, Liu; Song, Xixi; Han, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Jing; Qiao, Guirong; Sang, Jian; Liu, Mingqing; Zhuo, Renying

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a major toxic heavy-metal pollutant considering their bioaccumulation potential and persistence in the environment. The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator inhabiting in a region of China with soils rich in Pb/Zn. Investigations into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of Cd tolerance are of substantial interest. Here, library screening for genes related to cadmium tolerance identified a gene resembling the rubber elongation factor gene designated as SaREFl. The heterologous expression of SaREFl rescued the growth of a transformed Cd-sensitive strain (ycf1). Furthermore, SaREFl-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more tolerant to cadmium stress compared with wild type by measuring parameters of root length, fresh weight and physiological indexes. When under four different heavy metal treatments, we found that SaREFl responded most strongly to Cd and the root was the plant organ most sensitive to this heavy metal. Yeast two-hybrid screening of SaREFl as a bait led to the identification of five possible interacting targets in Sedum alfredii Hance. Among them, a gene annotated as prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) domain protein was detected with a high frequency. Moreover, subcellular localization of SaREF1-GFP fusion protein revealed some patchy spots in cytosol suggesting potential association with organelles for its cellular functions. Our findings would further enrich the connotation of REF-like genes and provide theoretical assistance for the application in breeding heavy metal-tolerant plants. PMID:27446189

  3. Specificity of lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres for colorectal tumors in a mouse model which more resembles the clinical disease

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Tokio; Sakuma, Shinji; Shimosato, Moe; Higashino, Haruki; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji; Hiwatari, Ken-ichiro; Kumagai, Hironori; Morimoto, Naoki; Koike, Seiji; Tobita, Etsuo; Hoffman, Robert M.; Gore, John C.; Pham, Wellington

    2014-01-01

    We are investigating an imaging agent that enables real-time and accurate diagnosis of early colorectal cancer at the intestinal mucosa by colonoscopy. The imaging agent is peanut agglutinin-immobilized polystyrene nanospheres with surface poly(N-vinylacetamide) chains encapsulating coumarin 6. Intracolonically-administered lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres detect tumor-derived changes through molecular recognition of lectin for the terminal sugar of cancer-specific antigens on the mucosal surface. The focus of this study was to evaluate imaging abilities of the nanospheres in animal models that reflect clinical environments. We previously developed an orthotopic mouse model with human colorectal tumors growing on the mucosa of the descending colon to more resemble the clinical disease. The entire colon of the mice in the exposed abdomen was monitored in real-time with an in vivo imaging apparatus. Fluorescence from the nanospheres was observed along the entire descending colon after intracolonical administration of them from the anus. When the luminal side of the colon was washed with PBS, most of the nanospheres drained away. However, fluorescence persisted in areas where the cancer cells were implanted. Histological evaluation demonstrated that tumors were present in the mucosal epithelia where the nanospheres fluoresced. In contrast, no fluorescence was observed when control mice without tumors were tested. The lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres were tumor specific and bound to tumors even after vigorously washing. The nanospheres non-specifically bound to normal mucosa were easily removed through mild washing. Results indicate that the nanospheres accompanied by colonoscopy will be a clinically-valuable diagnostic tool for the early stage primary colon carcinoma. PMID:24976331

  4. Local Analogs for High-redshift Galaxies: Resembling the Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    We present a sample of local analogs for high-redshift galaxies selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in these local analogs resemble those in high-redshift galaxies. These galaxies are selected based on their positions in the [O iii]/Hβ versus [N ii]/Hα nebular emission-line diagnostic diagram. We show that these local analogs share similar physical properties with high-redshift galaxies, including high specific star formation rates (sSFRs), flat UV continuums, and compact galaxy sizes. In particular, the ionization parameters and electron densities in these analogs are comparable to those in z ≃ 2-3 galaxies, but higher than those in normal SDSS galaxies by ≃0.6 dex and ≃0.9 dex, respectively. The mass-metallicity relation (MZR) in these local analogs shows -0.2 dex offset from that in SDSS star-forming galaxies at the low-mass end, which is consistent with the MZR of the z˜ 2{--}3 galaxies. We compare the local analogs in this study with those in other studies, including Lyman break analogs (LBA) and green pea (GP) galaxies. The analogs in this study share a similar star formation surface density with LBAs, but the ionization parameters and electron density in our analogs are higher than those in LBAs by factors of 1.5 and 3, respectively. The analogs in this study have comparable ionization parameters and electron densities to the GP galaxies, but our method can select galaxies in a wider redshift range. We find the high sSFR and SFR surface density can increase the electron density and ionization parameters, but still cannot fully explain the difference in ISM condition between nearby galaxies and the local analogs/high-redshift galaxies.

  5. White feces syndrome of shrimp arises from transformation, sloughing and aggregation of hepatopancreatic microvilli into vermiform bodies superficially resembling gregarines.

    PubMed

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens

  6. White Feces Syndrome of Shrimp Arises from Transformation, Sloughing and Aggregation of Hepatopancreatic Microvilli into Vermiform Bodies Superficially Resembling Gregarines

    PubMed Central

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens

  7. Disruption of the estrogen receptor β gene in mice causes myeloproliferative disease resembling chronic myeloid leukemia with lymphoid blast crisis

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Gil-Jin; Wang, Ling; Andersson, Sandra; Nagy, Noémi; Kis, Loránd Levente; Zhang, Qinghong; Mäkelä, Sari; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2003-01-01

    Proliferation of pluripotent, bone marrow stem cells, which develop to lymphoid and myeloid progenitors, is negatively regulated by estrogen. Although in estrogen deficiency and in estrogen receptor knockout mice there is significant alteration in bone marrow hematopoiesis, the effects of aging on estrogen receptor deficiencies in mice have not been investigated yet. In this study we show that by 1.5 years of age, estrogen receptor β knockout (ERβ–/–) mice develop pronounced splenomegaly that is much more severe in females than in males. Further characterization of these mice revealed myelogenous hyperplasia in bone marrow, an increase in the number of granulocytes and B lymphocytes in blood, lymphadenopathy, and infiltration of leukocytes in the liver and lung. Analysis by flow cytometry of the bone marrow cells revealed that the percentage and total number of Gr-1hi/Mac-1hi-positive granulocytes were increased by 15–30% and 100%, respectively. The numbers of B cells in the bone marrow and spleen were significantly higher in ERβ–/– mice than in WT littermates. Some of the ERβ–/– mice also had a severe lymphoproliferative phenotype. Thus the absence of ERβ results in a myeloproliferative disease resembling human chronic myeloid leukemia with lymphoid blast crisis. Our results indicate a previously unknown role for ERβ in regulating the differentiation of pluripotent hematopoietic progenitor cells and suggest that the ERβ–/– mouse is a potential model for myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. Furthermore, we suggest that ERβ agonists might have clinical value in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:12740446

  8. Young Children's Reasoning About Physical & Behavioural Family Resemblance: Is There a Place for a Precursor Model of Inheritance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Alexaki, Aspa; Papadopoulou, Chrysa; Kalpakiori, Marieleni

    2013-04-01

    This paper aims at exploring (a) whether preschoolers recognize that offspring share physical traits with their parents due to birth and behavioural ones due to nurture, and (b) whether they seem ready to explain shared physical traits with a `pre-biological' causal model that includes the contribution of both parents and a rudimentary notion of genes. This exploration is supposed to provide evidence for our next step, which is the development of an early years' learning environment about inheritance. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 90 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of four public kindergartens in Patras, we attempted to trace their reasoning about (a) whether and why offspring share physical and behavioural traits with parents and (b) which mechanism could better explain the shared physical traits. The probes were a modified six-case version of Solomon et al. (Child Dev 67:151-171, 1996) `adoption task, as well as a three-case task based on Springer's (Child Dev 66:547-558, 1995) `mechanism task' and on Solomon and Johnson's (Br J Dev Psychol 18(1):81-96, 2000) idea of genes as a `conceptual placeholder'. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interviews showed overlapping reasoning about the origin of physical and behavioural family resemblance. Nevertheless, we did trace the `birth-driven' argument for the attribution of the offspring's physical traits to the biological parents, as well as a preference for the `pre-biological' model that introduces a rudimentary idea of genes in order to explain shared physical traits between parents and offspring. The findings of the study and the educational implications are thoroughly discussed.

  9. Craniofacial Features Resembling Frontonasal Dysplasia with a Tubulonodular Interhemispheric Lipoma in the Adult 3H1 tuft Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Keith S. K.; Cooper, Tiffiny Baring; Drumhiller, Wallace C.; Somponpun, Jack; Yang, Shiming; Ernst, Thomas; Chang, Linda; Lozanoff, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial lipomas are rare, but 45% of them occur along the midline cisterns between the hemispheres and are often associated with corpus callosum hypoplasia and craniofacial defects. They are difficult to detect, as they are generally asymptomatic and visible by MRI or by postmortem examination. The exact cause of these interhemispheric lipomas is not known, but they arise from a developmental defect resulting in the maldifferentiation of mesenchymal cells into mesodermal derivatives that are not normally present. We have identified a new mouse mutant called tuft, exhibiting a forebrain, intracranial lipoma with midline craniofacial defects resembling frontonasal dysplasia (FND) that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. The tuft trait appears to be transmitted in recessive fashion, but approximately 80% less frequent than the expected Mendelian 25%, due to either incomplete penetrance or prenatal lethality. MRI and histological analysis revealed that the intracranial lipoma occurred between the hemispheres and often protruded through the sagittal suture. We also observed a lesion at the lamina terminalis that may indicate improper closure of the anterior neuropore. We have mapped the tuft trait to within an 18 cM region on mouse chromosome 10 by microsatellite linkage analysis and identified several candidate genes involved with craniofacial development and cellular differentiation of adipose tissue. tuft is the only known mouse model for midline craniofacial defects with an intracranial lipoma. Identifying the gene(s) and mutation(s) causing this early developmental defect will help us understand the pathogenesis of FND and related craniofacial disorders. PMID:22246904

  10. Nerve growth factor withdrawal-induced cell death in neuronal PC12 cells resembles that in sympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in neuronal cells the developmental phenomenon of programmed cell death is an active process, requiring synthesis of both RNA and protein. This presumably reflects a requirement for novel gene products to effect cell death. It is shown here that the death of nerve growth factor-deprived neuronal PC12 cells occurs at the same rate as that of rat sympathetic neurons and, like rat sympathetic neurons, involves new transcription and translation. In nerve growth factor-deprived neuronal PC12 cells, a decline in metabolic activity, assessed by uptake of [3H]2-deoxyglucose, precedes the decline in cell number, assessed by counts of trypan blue-excluding cells. Both declines are prevented by actinomycin D and anisomycin. In contrast, the death of nonneuronal (chromaffin-like) PC12 cells is not inhibited by transcription or translation inhibitors and thus does not require new protein synthesis. DNA fragmentation by internucleosomal cleavage does not appear to be a consistent or significant aspect of cell death in sympathetic neurons, neuronal PC12 cells, or nonneuronal PC12 cells, notwithstanding that the putative nuclease inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid protects sympathetic neurons, as well as neuronal and nonneuronal PC12 cells, from death induced by trophic factor removal. Both phenotypic classes of PC12 cells respond to aurintricarboxylic acid with similar dose-response characteristics. Our results indicate that programmed cell death in neuronal PC12 cells, but not in nonneuronal PC12 cells, resembles programmed cell death in sympathetic neurons in significant mechanistic aspects: time course, role of new protein synthesis, and lack of a significant degree of DNA fragmentation. PMID:1469055

  11. Correlation of aflatoxin contamination with zinc content of chicken feed

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, F.T.; Hagler, W.M. Jr.; Hamilton, P.B.

    1984-03-01

    Feed samples from chicken houses in five commercial chicken operations were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and aflatoxin content. Mean aflatoxin content of these samples was 14 ppb (14 ng/g) as opposed to 1.2 ppb in samples taken when the feed was made. Aflatoxin content of the feed samples correlated significantly with Zn content but not with Mn, Fe, or Cu, all of which correlated significantly with Zn. Zn content of unamended feed (<20 ppm (20 ..mu..g/g) is normally supplemented with a mineral premix containing Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu to meet the nutrient requirements of chickens (40 ppm of Zn). The mean zinc concentration of the feed samples (117 ppm) was about threefold greater than the nutrient requirement and ranged from 58 to 162 ppm in individual samples. These field survey results parallel earlier reports of augmented production of aflatoxin in monocultures of aflatoxigenic fungi in corn and other ingredients supplemented with Zn. These results suggest that stricter control of Zn levels during manufacture could reduce aflatoxing contamination of feed consumed by chickens.

  12. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature.

  13. Molecular markers for the assessment of chicken biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three main aspects of chicken biodiversity are dealt within this report: (a) cluster analysis based on autosomal microsatellites, (b) microsatellites on the sex chromosomes, and (c) SNP-based biodiversity. (a) Cluster analysis of autosomal microsatellites: We used 29 microsatellites to genotype 2000...

  14. View northeast, overview of Albert Thacker building group: chicken house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, overview of Albert Thacker building group: chicken house (HABS No. WV-267-D), wash house (267-C), privy (HABS No. WV-268-B), and house (267-A) (left to right in photograph) - 3249 Cyrus Road (House), Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

  15. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  16. Meat Juice Serology for Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Bacci, Cristina; Kramer, Laura

    2016-01-18

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 free-range chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4%) were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls), while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  17. Insights into vertebrate evolution from the chicken genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Rebecca F

    2005-01-01

    The chicken has recently joined the ever-growing list of fully sequenced animal genomes. Its unique features include expanded gene families involved in egg and feather production as well as more surprising large families, such as those for olfactory receptors. Comparisons with other vertebrate genomes move us closer to defining a set of essential vertebrate genes. PMID:15693954

  18. A quantitative risk assessment model for Salmonella and whole chickens.

    PubMed

    Oscar, Thomas P

    2004-06-01

    Existing data and predictive models were used to define the input settings of a previously developed but modified quantitative risk assessment model (QRAM) for Salmonella and whole chickens. The QRAM was constructed in an Excel spreadsheet and was simulated using @Risk. The retail-to-table pathway was modeled as a series of unit operations and associated pathogen events that included initial contamination at retail, growth during consumer transport, thermal inactivation during cooking, cross-contamination during serving, and dose response after consumption. Published data as well as predictive models for growth and thermal inactivation of Salmonella were used to establish input settings. Noncontaminated chickens were simulated so that the QRAM could predict changes in the incidence of Salmonella contamination. The incidence of Salmonella contamination changed from 30% at retail to 0.16% after cooking to 4% at consumption. Salmonella growth on chickens during consumer transport was the only pathogen event that did not impact the risk of salmonellosis. For the scenario simulated, the QRAM predicted 0.44 cases of salmonellosis per 100,000 consumers, which was consistent with recent epidemiological data that indicate a rate of 0.66-0.88 cases of salmonellosis per 100,000 consumers of chicken. Although the QRAM was in agreement with the epidemiological data, surrogate data and models were used, assumptions were made, and potentially important unit operations and pathogen events were not included because of data gaps and thus, further refinement of the QRAM is needed.

  19. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  20. Pain in Chickens and Effects of Beak Trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming may cause pain (acute, chronic or both) in trimmed chickens due to tissue damage and nerve injury. The complexity and plasticity of the nervous system and the animal’s inability to communicate verbally make pain difficult to measure directly. However, pain in animals can be recognized...

  1. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  2. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  3. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships of chicken and turkey parvoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...

  4. Relative potency of tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives on tonic immobility in chickens.

    PubMed

    Maser, J D; Gallup, G G; Thorn, W R; Edson, P H

    1975-01-01

    Chickens were given varying dosages of delta 3-, delta 8-, and delta 9-THC and tested for duration of tonic immobility (TI). Although all derivatives had a profound facilitation effect, delta 9-THC was the most potent. These results are unusual in that TI is a well documented fear-potentiated reaction and THC generally has tranquilization-like effects.

  5. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

  6. Serum Ovotransferrin as a Biomarker of Inflammatory Diseases in Chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious and metabolic disorders are common in poultry which cause stress, poor performance, and mortality that results in considerable economic loss. Identifying the nature of stress in chickens will assist the development of appropriate measures to improve health and welfare. Acute phase protein...

  7. Colonization factors of Campylobacter jejuni in the chicken gut

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter contaminated broiler chicken meat is an important source of foodborne gastroenteritis and poses a serious health burden in industrialized countries. Broiler chickens are commonly regarded as a natural host for this zoonotic pathogen and infected birds carry a very high C. jejuni load in their gastrointestinal tract, especially the ceca. This eventually results in contaminated carcasses during processing. Current intervention methods fail to reduce the colonization of broiler chicks by C. jejuni due to an incomplete understanding on the interaction between C. jejuni and its avian host. Clearly, C. jejuni developed several survival and colonization mechanisms which are responsible for its highly adapted nature to the chicken host. But how these mechanisms interact with one another, leading to persistent, high-level cecal colonization remains largely obscure. A plethora of mutagenesis studies in the past few years resulted in the identification of several of the genes and proteins of C. jejuni involved in different aspects of the cellular response of this bacterium in the chicken gut. In this review, a thorough, up-to-date overview will be given of the survival mechanisms and colonization factors of C. jejuni identified to date. These factors may contribute to our understanding on how C. jejuni survival and colonization in chicks is mediated, as well as provide potential targets for effective subunit vaccine development. PMID:21714866

  8. Public Opinion Polls, Chicken Soup and Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phung

    2005-01-01

    Cooking and tasting chicken soup in three different pots of very different size serves to demonstrate that it is the absolute sample size that matters the most in determining the accuracy of the findings of the poll, not the relative sample size, i.e. the size of the sample in relation to its population.

  9. Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric properties of chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of chicken breast meat were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at temperatures ranging from -20 degree C to +25 degree C. At a given temperature, the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant reveals two relaxations while those of th...

  10. Transcriptome-wide investigation of genomic imprinting in chicken.

    PubMed

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Servin, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Dehais, Patrice; Cristobal, Magali San; Marsaud, Nathalie; Vignoles, Florence; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Beaumont, Catherine; Zerjal, Tatiana; Vignal, Alain; Morisson, Mireille; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique

    2014-04-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism by which alleles of some specific genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin manner. It has been observed in mammals and marsupials, but not in birds. Until now, only a few genes orthologous to mammalian imprinted ones have been analyzed in chicken and did not demonstrate any evidence of imprinting in this species. However, several published observations such as imprinted-like QTL in poultry or reciprocal effects keep the question open. Our main objective was thus to screen the entire chicken genome for parental-allele-specific differential expression on whole embryonic transcriptomes, using high-throughput sequencing. To identify the parental origin of each observed haplotype, two chicken experimental populations were used, as inbred and as genetically distant as possible. Two families were produced from two reciprocal crosses. Transcripts from 20 embryos were sequenced using NGS technology, producing ∼200 Gb of sequences. This allowed the detection of 79 potentially imprinted SNPs, through an analysis method that we validated by detecting imprinting from mouse data already published. However, out of 23 candidates tested by pyrosequencing, none could be confirmed. These results come together, without a priori, with previous statements and phylogenetic considerations assessing the absence of genomic imprinting in chicken.

  11. Transcriptome-wide investigation of genomic imprinting in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Servin, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Dehais, Patrice; Cristobal, Magali San; Marsaud, Nathalie; Vignoles, Florence; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Beaumont, Catherine; Zerjal, Tatiana; Vignal, Alain; Morisson, Mireille; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism by which alleles of some specific genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin manner. It has been observed in mammals and marsupials, but not in birds. Until now, only a few genes orthologous to mammalian imprinted ones have been analyzed in chicken and did not demonstrate any evidence of imprinting in this species. However, several published observations such as imprinted-like QTL in poultry or reciprocal effects keep the question open. Our main objective was thus to screen the entire chicken genome for parental-allele-specific differential expression on whole embryonic transcriptomes, using high-throughput sequencing. To identify the parental origin of each observed haplotype, two chicken experimental populations were used, as inbred and as genetically distant as possible. Two families were produced from two reciprocal crosses. Transcripts from 20 embryos were sequenced using NGS technology, producing ∼200 Gb of sequences. This allowed the detection of 79 potentially imprinted SNPs, through an analysis method that we validated by detecting imprinting from mouse data already published. However, out of 23 candidates tested by pyrosequencing, none could be confirmed. These results come together, without a priori, with previous statements and phylogenetic considerations assessing the absence of genomic imprinting in chicken. PMID:24452801

  12. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-01

    The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  13. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  15. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of chickens to hydric stress.

    PubMed

    Chikumba, N; Swatson, H; Chimonyo, M

    2013-09-01

    Dehydration can be extremely damaging to the performance and welfare of indigenous chickens. The effect of water restriction on haematological and biochemical parameters was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens. A total of 54 8-week-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641 ± 10 g/bird were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments with three replications, each having six birds. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of 3.3 m2 per strain were used. Feed was provided ad libitum. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total leucocyte count (WBC), and biochemical parameters (uric acid (UA)), creatinine (CREAT), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), triglyceride (TGA), total cholesterol (TC), high- (HDLC) and low- (LDLC) density lipoprotein cholesterol and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined from blood collected after 60 days of water restriction. PCV was higher (P < 0.05) in NNK than OVB chickens offered water ad libitum, but similar in birds offered 70% and 40% of ad libitum. There were no differences in RBC and MCV values between strains, but MCV was higher in birds on 40% than 70% of ad libitum water intake, irrespective of strain. Naked neck chickens had higher (P < 0.05) WBC values than OVB at 40% restriction level, but lower WBC than OVB at 70% water restriction level. UA, CREAT, TGA, TC, LDLC, TP and GLOB increased (P < 0.05) with each increment in water restriction, but the increase in CREAT and TC was more pronounced in OVB than NNK chickens. The opposite was observed for UA. ALT activity indicated that liver function was not affected by water restriction. It was concluded that the two strains can withstand up to 40% of ad libitum water restriction, but NNK tolerated water

  16. AMPK and mTOR: sensors and regulators of immunometabolic changes during Salmonella infection in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Kogut, Michael H; Genovese, Kenneth J; He, Haiqi; Arsenault, Ryan J

    2016-02-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early pro-inflammatory response in chickens, but the response is short-lived, asymptomatic of clinical disease, results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and can transmit infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that facilitate this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are unknown. We have begun to concentrate on the convergence of metabolism and immune function as playing a major role in regulating the host responsiveness to infection. It is now recognized that the immune system monitors the metabolic state of tissues and responds by modulating metabolic function. The aim in this review is to summarize the literature that has defined a series of genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the regulatory host immune-metabolic signaling pathways in the local cecal microenvironment during the first 4 d following infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune-metabolism peptide arrays and quantitative real-time-PCR of cecal tissue during the early (4 to 48 h) and late stages (4 to 17 d) of a Salmonella infection in young broiler chickens, the local immunometabolic microenvironment has been ascertained. Distinct immune and metabolic pathways are altered between 2 to 4 d post-infection that dramatically changed the local immunometabolic environment. Thus, the tissue immunometabolic phenotype of the cecum plays a major role in the ability of the bacterium to establish a persistent cecal colonization. In general, our findings show that AMPK and mTOR are key players linking specific extracellular milieu and intracellular metabolism. Phenotypically, the early response (4 to 48 h) to Salmonella infection is pro-inflammatory, fueled by glycolysis and mTOR-mediated protein synthesis, whereas by the later phase (4 to 5 d), the local environment has undergone an immune-metabolic reprogramming to

  17. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in transgenic chicken promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium in the intestine and improves postnatal growth of chicken.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Wu, Hongping; Wang, Kejun; Cao, Zhichen; Yu, Kun; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2016-12-01

    Lysozyme is one kind of antimicrobial proteins and often used as feed additive which can defend against pathogenic bacteria and enhance immune function of animals. In this study, we have injected the lentiviral vector expressing recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) gene into the blastoderm of chicken embryo to investigate the effect of recombinant human lysozyme on postnatal intestinal microbiota distribution and growth performance of chicken. Successfully, we generated 194 transgenic chickens identified by Southern blot with a positive transgenic rate of 24%. The average concentration of rhLZ was 29.90 ± 6.50 μg/mL in the egg white. Lysozyme in egg white of transgenic chickens had a significantly higher antibacterial activity than those of non-transgenic chickens by lysoplate assay (P < 0.05). The feces of transgenic and non-transgenic chickens were collected and five types of bacteria (Lactobacillus, Salmonella, Bifidobacterium, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) were isolated and cultured to detect the impact of rhLZ on gut microbiota. Among the five bacteria, the number of Bifidobacterium in the intestine of those transgenic was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Moreover, the growth traits of the transgenic and non-transgenic chickens were analyzed. It was found that the 6-week shank length, 6-week weight and 18-week weight of transgenic chickens were significantly increased than that of non-transgenic chickens. The results demonstrated that rhLZ-transgenic chicken could promote the growth of Bifidobacterium in the intestine and improve the postnatal growth of chicken.

  18. A Late Devonian Fertile Organ with Seed Plant Affinities from China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Guo, Yun; Xue, Jinzhuang; Meng, Meicen

    2015-01-01

    Seed plants underwent first major evolutionary radiation in the Late Devonian (Famennian), as evidenced by the numerous ovules described to date. However, the early pollen organs are underrepresented, so that their structure and evolution remain poorly known. Here we report a new taxon of pollen organ Placotheca minuta from the Late Devonian. The synangium consists of many basally and more or less laterally fused microsporangia borne on the margin of a pad. The prepollen is spherical and trilete. The appearance of Famennian synangia especially in Placotheca does not support the current understanding that the earliest pollen organs closely resembled the fructifications of the ancestral progymnosperms. Placotheca indicates earlier diversification of pollen organs than previously expected and is highly derived among the early pollen organs with trilete prepollen. It is suggested that, immediately after the origination of seed plants, pollen organs had evolved at a rapid rate, whereas their prepollen remained primitively spore-like. PMID:26022973

  19. Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Militino Dias, Flavia; Nayak, Baibaswata; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2010-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) are divided into nine serotypes. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two divergent strains of APMV-3, Netherlands and Wisconsin, in (i) 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, (ii) 1-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks and turkeys, and (iii) 2-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was 112 h for APMV-3 strain Netherlands and > 168 h for strain Wisconsin. The intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks for strain Netherlands was 0.39 and for strain Wisconsin was zero. Thus, both strains are lentogenic. Both the strains replicated well in brain tissue when inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old SPF chicks, but without causing death. Mild respiratory disease signs were observed in 1-day-old chickens and turkeys when inoculated through oculonasal route with either strain. There were no overt signs of illness in 2-weeks-old chickens and turkeys by either strain, although all the birds seroconverted after infection. The viruses were isolated predominantly from brain, lungs, spleens, trachea, pancreas and kidney. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of large amount of viral antigens in both epithelial and sub-epithelial lining of respiratory and alimentary tracts. Our result suggests systemic spread of APMV-3 even though the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin proteases cleavage site. Furthermore, there was little or no disease despite systemic viral spread and abundant viral replication in all the tissues tested.

  20. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens.

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of Chicken Vessels as Microvascular Anastomosis Training Model

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bo Young; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lee, Kyeong-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonliving chickens are commonly used as a microvascular anastomosis training model. However, previous studies have investigated only a few types of vessel, and no study has compared the characteristics of the various vessels. The present study evaluated the anatomic characteristics of various chicken vessels as a training model. Methods Eight vessels—the brachial artery, basilic vein, radial artery, ulnar artery, ischiatic artery and vein, cranial tibial artery, and common dorsal metatarsal artery—were evaluated in 26 fresh chickens and 30 chicken feet for external diameter (ED) and thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media. The dissection time from skin incision to application of vessel clamps was also measured. Results The EDs of the vessels varied. The ischiatic vein had the largest ED of 2.69±0.33 mm, followed by the basilic vein (1.88±0.36 mm), ischiatic artery (1.68±0.24 mm), common dorsal metatarsal artery (1.23±0.23 mm), cranial tibial artery (1.18±0.19 mm), brachial artery (1.08±0.15 mm), ulnar artery (0.82±0.13 mm), and radial artery (0.56±0.12 mm), and the order of size was consistent across all subjects. Thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media were also diverse, ranging from 74.09±19.91 µm to 158.66±40.25 µm (adventitia) and from 31.2±7.13 µm to 154.15±46.48 µm (media), respectively. Mean dissection time was <3 minutes for all vessels. Conclusions Our results suggest that nonliving chickens can provide various vessels with different anatomic characteristics, which can allow trainees the choice of an appropriate microvascular anastomosis training model depending on their purpose and skillfulness. PMID:28194342

  2. Extraction of a monospecific Coombs-reagent from chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Calzado, Esteban; Cruz Mario, Eduardo; Samón Chávez, Tomás; Vázquez Luna, Ernesto; Corona Ochoa, Zelma; Schade, Rüdiger

    2003-01-01

    During the last ten years the extraction of specific antibodies (ab) from the yolk of eggs of immunised chickens is more and more accepted as an useful alternative to the immunisation of mammals. The subject of this work is the immunisation of chickens with human IgG and the extraction of specific anti human IgG ab from egg yolk in order to obtain monospecific Coombs reagent. 12 Leghorn hens (25 weeks old) were immunised with intact human IgG (INTACGLOBIN). The chickens were immunised with 100 microg IgG/animal once per week for a period of seven weeks. The highest titre was observed after the 5th immunisation, the following immunisations achieved no further titre increase. The IgY purification was performed according to the method of Akita and Nakai (1993). The resulting IgY preparation was tested for the presence of hetero-agglutinine by means of direct agglutination using human erythrocytes of all blood groups. Thereafter 58 blood donors were tested by means of direct or indirect Coombs-test using a reference reagent (DAKO) and a Coombs reagent isolated from chicken eggs (IgY antibodies). No differences have been found between the results obtained using both Coombs reagents. Presented results show that there is a possibility to produce Coombs-reagent in chickens. Advantages of this method are: 1) non invasive antibody sampling by egg collection instead of bleeding the animal (refinement of antibody production); 2) decreasing amount of animals necessary to produce high amounts of reagent; 3) IgY-preparation contains no hetero-agglutinine in contrast to serum ab from mammals, therefore additional step in reagent production e.g. the absorption of hetero-agglutinins is not necessary.

  3. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  4. Molecular detection of novel picornaviruses in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Tibor; Fey, Brittney; Hargitt, Edwin; Parcells, Mark; Ladman, Brian; Murgia, Maria; Saif, Yehia

    2012-04-01

    Fecal specimens, including swabs and litter extracts, collected from chickens, domestic ducks, turkeys, and Canadian geese were tested using degenerate primers targeting regions encoding for conserved amino acid motifs (YGDD and DY(T/S)(R/K/G)WDST) in calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Similar motifs are also present in other RNA viruses. Two fecal specimens and 18 litter extracts collected from chickens and turkeys yielded RT-PCR products. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all amplicons represented picornaviruses that clustered into two major groups. Four chicken and one turkey samples yielded 250 bp amplicons with 84-91% nucleotide identity to the recently described turkey hepatitis viruses, while 280 and 283 bp amplicons obtained from 11 chicken and 4 turkey samples represented novel picornaviruses with the closest nucleotide identity to kobuviruses (54-61%) and turdiviruses (47-54%). Analysis of 2.2-3.2 kb extended genome sequences including the partial P2 (2C) and complete P3 (3A, 3B (VPg), 3C(pro), and 3D(pol)) regions of selected strains indicated that viruses yielding the 280/283 bp amplicons represent a putative new genus of Picornaviridae. The 3'-non-translated region (NTR) of the turkey hepatitis-like viruses described in this study was significantly longer (641-654 nt) than that of any of the other piconaviruses and included a putative short open reading frame (ORF). In summary, we report the molecular detection of novel picornaviruses that appear to be endemic in both chickens and turkeys.

  5. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  6. Monomelic amyotrophy with late progression.

    PubMed

    Rowin, J; Meriggioli, M N; Cochran, E J

    2001-04-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy is a sporadic juvenile-onset disease that presents with gradual onset of weakness and atrophy in the hand muscles unilaterally. Generally, this disease is considered a 'benign' and non-progressive motor neuron disease, which stabilizes within five years of onset. We discuss a case that illustrates that monomelic amyotrophy may rarely exhibit late clinical progression to the lower extremities after a prolonged period of disease stability.

  7. Genomic Analysis of the Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in a Specific Pathogen-Free Chicken Population in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Zhao, Yingjie; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403) was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV.

  8. Genomic Analysis of the Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in a Specific Pathogen-Free Chicken Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Zhao, Yingjie; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403) was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV. PMID:27298822

  9. Australian and Pacific contributions to the genetic diversity of Norfolk Island feral chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Norfolk Island has a population of feral chickens which could be the result of domestic stock introduced onto the island by British settlers in 1788. However, there is ongoing debate about their origins because multiple human arrivals to the island may have brought chickens with them. Here we investigate the genetic origins of these feral chickens by sequencing their mitochondrial control region. We infer their phylogenetic relationships using a large dataset of novel sequences from Australian mainland domestic chickens and published sequences from around the world. Results Eleven control region haplotypes were found among the Norfolk Island feral and Australian mainland domestic chickens. Six of the Norfolk Island haplotypes fall within haplogroup E, but given the worldwide distribution of this haplogroup, the putative European origin of these chickens requires further investigation. One haplotype common among Norfolk Island and Australian samples belonged to a subgroup of haplogroup D, which appears to be restricted to chickens from Indonesia, Vanuatu and Guam. Conclusions Our data show that at least two mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (D and E) have contributed to the genetic make-up of Norfolk Island feral chickens. In addition, we have provided insights into the discrete geographical distribution and diversity of the chicken haplogroup D. In view of the worldwide interest in the characterisation of poultry resources, further assessment of chicken populations of Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific region is warranted. PMID:24063717

  10. Texture and microstructure properties of frozen chicken breasts pretreated with salt and phosphate solutions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, K S

    2002-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of 10% NaCl, trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), and tetrapotassium pyrophosphate (TKPP) treatments on textural and microstructural properties of chicken breasts during 10 mo of frozen storage at -20 C. Fresh chicken breasts were treated for 10 min with 10% NaCl and various phosphate solutions, including TSP, STPP, and TKPP, and stored in a -20 C freezer for 10 mo. Frozen chicken breasts were completely thawed at 4 C and oven-baked at 177 C for 20 min. Shear force, drip loss, and cooking loss were measured. In addition, ice crystal formation and structure changes of frozen chicken breasts during storage were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Treating chicken breasts with 10% TSP and STPP solution significantly reduced drip and cooking losses as well as minimized ice crystal formation and freeze-induced shrinkage of myofibrils. No significant texture toughening was observed in frozen chicken breasts regardless of treatments. These results suggest that the perceived quality losses of frozen chicken breast were not associated with texture toughening. The water-binding ability of chicken meat was the most important factor in maintaining the quality of chicken breast during extended frozen storage, which can be accomplished by treating chicken breasts with 10% TSP and STPP solutions before frozen storage.

  11. Frequency of inadequate chicken cross-contamination prevention and cooking practices in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Green Brown, Laura; Khargonekar, Shivangi; Bushnell, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The purpose was to examine restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and kitchen managers' food safety knowledge concerning chicken. EHS-Net members interviewed managers about chicken preparation practices in 448 restaurants. The study revealed that many restaurants were not following U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code guidance concerning cross-contamination prevention and proper cooking and that managers lacked basic food safety knowledge about chicken. Forty percent of managers said that they never, rarely, or only sometimes designated certain cutting boards for raw meat (including chicken). One-third of managers said that they did not wash and rinse surfaces before sanitizing them. Over half of managers said that thermometers were not used to determine the final cook temperature of chicken. Only 43% of managers knew the temperature to which raw chicken needed to be cooked for it to be safe to eat. These findings indicate that restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and manager food safety knowledge need improvement. Findings from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts to improve chicken preparation and cooking practices and knowledge concerning safe chicken preparation.

  12. Comparison and analysis of Wuding and avian chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, H Q; Jiang, Z Q; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Xu, Z Q; Liu, L X; Gu, D H; Rong, H; Huang, Y; Chen, X B; Jois, M; Te Pas, M F W; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-10-05

    Chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells are located between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of mature muscle fibers. Avian broilers have been genetically selected based on their high growth velocity and large muscle mass. The Wuding chicken is a famous local chicken in Yunnan Province that undergoes non-selection breeding and is slow growing. In this study, we aimed to explore differences in the proliferation and differentiation properties of satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. Using immunofluorescence, hematoxylin-eosin staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we analyzed the in vitro characteristics of proliferating and differentiating satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. The growth curve of satellite cells was S-shaped, and cells from Wuding chickens entered the logarithmic phase and plateau phase 1 day later than those from Avian chicken. The results also showed that the two skeletal muscle satellite cell lines were positive for Pax7, MyoD and IGF-1. The expression of Pax7 followed a downward trend, whereas that of MyoD and IGF-1 first increased and subsequently decreased in cells isolated from the two chickens. These data indicated that the skeletal muscle satellite cells of Avian chicken grow and differentiate faster than did those of Wuding chickens. We suggest that the methods of breeding selection applied to these breeds regulate the characteristics of skeletal muscle satellite cells to influence muscle growth.

  13. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Meydan, Hasan; Jang, Cafer Pish; Yıldız, Mehmet Ali; Weigend, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze) and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire) native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E) were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1) was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222) across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens. PMID:27189637

  14. Genomic Analyses Reveal Potential Independent Adaptation to High Altitude in Tibetan Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Li, Yan; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhong, Li; Wang, Zong-Ji; Li, Qi-Ye; Tu, Xiao-Long; Dong, Yang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Lu; Yang, Min-Min; Wu, Shi-Fang; Miao, Yong-Wang; Liu, Jian-Ping; Irwin, David M; Wang, Wen; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Much like other indigenous domesticated animals, Tibetan chickens living at high altitudes (2,200-4,100 m) show specific physiological adaptations to the extreme environmental conditions of the Tibetan Plateau, but the genetic bases of these adaptations are not well characterized. Here, we assembled a de novo genome of a Tibetan chicken and resequenced whole genomes of 32 additional chickens, including Tibetan chickens, village chickens, game fowl, and Red Junglefowl, and found that the Tibetan chickens could broadly be placed into two groups. Further analyses revealed that several candidate genes in the calcium-signaling pathway are possibly involved in adaptation to the hypoxia experienced by these chickens, as these genes appear to have experienced directional selection in the two Tibetan chicken populations, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism underlying high altitude adaptation in Tibetan chickens. The candidate selected genes identified in this study, and their variants, may be useful targets for clarifying our understanding of the domestication of chickens in Tibet, and might be useful in current breeding efforts to develop improved breeds for the highlands.

  15. Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (p<0.05). The whiteness value of mackerel sausage added with 7% chicken breast meat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (p<0.05). In texture analysis, the hardness and adhesiveness of the mackerel sausage added with 5% of chicken breast meat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat.

  16. Three isozymes of peptidylarginine deiminase in the chicken: molecular cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akira; Handa, Kenji; Honda, Tomonori; Abe, Naoki; Kojima, Toshio; Takahara, Hidenari

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD; EC 3.5.3.15) is a post-translational modification enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline (deimination) in a calcium ion dependent manner. Although PADI genes are widely conserved among vertebrates, their function in the chicken is poorly understood. Here, we cloned and sequenced three chicken PADI cDNAs and analyzed the expression of their proteins in various tissues. Immunoblotting analysis showed that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 were present in cells of several central neuron system tissues including the retina; the chicken PAD2 protein was not detected in any tissue. We expressed recombinant chicken PADs in insect cells and characterized their enzymatic properties. The chicken PAD1 and PAD3 recombinant proteins required calcium ions as an essential cofactor for their catalytic activity. The two recombinant proteins showed similar substrate specificities toward synthetic arginine derivatives. By contrast to them, chicken PAD2 did not show any activity. We found that one of the conserved active centers in mammalian PADs had been altered in chicken PAD2; we prepared a reverse mutant but we did not detect an activity. We conclude that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 might play specific roles in the nervous system, but that chicken PAD2 might not be functional under normal physiological conditions.

  17. Housing system influences abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, H D; Li, D Y; Zhang, L; Yang, M Y; Zhao, X L; Wang, Y; Liu, Y P; Zhu, Q

    2014-06-01

    Paired box (Pax) proteins 3 and 7 are associated with activation of muscle satellite cells and play a major role in hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system on abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles. At 42 d, 1,200 chickens with similar BW were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range group. The mRNA abundance was measured in pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d 56, 70, and 84, and the protein expression was quantified at d 84. Increases in mRNA abundance of PAX3 and PAX7 with age were less pronounced in caged system chickens than in pen and free-range chickens from d 56 to 84, and free-range chickens showed a more pronounced increase in gene expression with age compared with penned chickens. At d 84, quantities of PAX3 and PAX7 mRNA and protein were highest in both pectoralis major and thigh muscle of chickens raised in the free-range group, lowest in penned chickens, and intermediate in caged chickens (P < 0.05). These data indicate that housing system may influence muscle fiber muscle accretion by coordinating the expression of Pax3 and Pax7 in adult chicken skeletal muscles.

  18. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    PubMed

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:  An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth.

  19. In-depth LC-MS/MS analysis of the chicken ovarian cancer proteome reveals conserved and novel differentially regulated proteins in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno, Angelito I.; Shao, Huanjie; Jing, Kai; Ma, Yibao; Petitte, James N.; Idowu, Michael O.; Muddiman, David C.; Fang, Xianjun

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the world due to the combined lack of early-stage diagnostics and effective therapeutic strategies. The development and application of advanced proteomics technology and new experimental models has created unique opportunities for translational studies. In this study, we investigated the ovarian cancer proteome of the chicken, an emerging experimental model of OVC that develops ovarian tumors spontaneously. Matched plasma, ovary, and oviduct tissue biospecimens derived from healthy, early-stage OVC, and late-stage OVC birds were quantitatively characterized by label-free proteomics. Over 2600 proteins were identified in this study, 348 of which were differentially expressed by more than twofold (p≤0.05) in early- and late-stage ovarian tumor tissue specimens relative to healthy ovarian tissues. Several of the 348 proteins are known to be differentially regulated in human cancers including B2M, CLDN3, EPCAM, PIGR, S100A6, S100A9, S100A11, and TPD52. Of particular interest was ovostatin 2 (OVOS2), a novel 165-kDa protease inhibitor found to be strongly upregulated in chicken ovarian tumors (p=0.0005) and matched plasma (p=0.003). Indeed, RT-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that OVOS2 mRNA and protein were also upregulated in multiple human OVC cell lines compared to normal ovarian epithelia (NOE) cells and immunohistochemical staining confirmed overexpression of OVOS2 in primary human ovarian cancers relative to non-cancerous tissues. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence for involvement of OVOS2 in the pathogenesis of both chicken and human ovarian cancer. PMID:26159569

  20. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect