The goal of the Chico Human Service Transportation Project was to develop a coordinated human service transportation plan whereby vehicles owned by various human service organization would be made available to all organizations in the Chico Urban Are...
Meuter, Ralph F.; And Others
California State University (CSU), Chico, has used its relatively isolated location to develop an extensive educational system known as "Instructional Television for Students" (ITFS). Currently, the university is launching plans for new partnerships utilizing satellite technology for the delivery of educational programs. Over the years,…
Comer, E.; Slingerland, R. L.; Wilf, P.
Diverse, well-preserved macroflora are observed within Cretaceous and Paleocene sediments of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. These macroflora are the most well preserved early Paleocene flora from Gondwana and add new insight into the diversity and environments of that epoch. Two major sites of fossil preservation, Palacio de los Loros and Parque Provincial Ormachea, sit near the top of the Late Danian (65.5-61.7 Ma) Salamanca Formation. Understanding the depositional history of the Salamanca is important in characterizing paleoenvironments in which these flora lived and relating these Patagonian macroflora to concurrent Paleocene flora within the Gondwanan supercontinent. During a two week field season, twenty stratigraphic sections were measured along the outcrop belt at Palacio de los Loros and Ormachea Park as well as two minor sites; Las Flores, and Rancho Grande. Photo mosaics, laser ranger data, and stratigraphic columns were merged with elevated geologic maps and imported into Fledermaus to generate a 3-D visualization of facies relationships. Rock samples were also collected and will be thin sectioned and analyzed for petrography and grain size. The Salamanca Fm. consists of 7 facies, listed here in stratigraphically ascending order: 1)Transgressive sands, 2)Wispy-bedded claystone, 3)Banco Verde, 4)White Cross bedded sandstone, 5)Accretion set siltstone, 6)Transitional silty claystone and 7)Banco Negro. Based on these facies, the Salamanca Fm. is interpreted as a marine-shelf to brackish, tide-dominated, estuarine deposit. The base of the Salamanca Fm. rests on an unconformity representing a marine flooding surface and lower sections of the Salamanca, facies 1 and 2, contain abundant glauconite and fossils indicative of a marine shelf environment. These facies give way upwards to bi-directional trough cross bedded sandstones interspersed with flaser bedded sandy siltstones (facies 3 and 4) indicating a less marine estuary with strong flow regimes
This article aims to develop the concept of ethnolinguistic vitality by adopting a qualitative approach to vitality rather than the statistical approach traditionally used. Ten small-size focus group style interviews were held with members of the Welsh-Argentinean community in the Chubut Province in the south of Argentina in order to explore…
Naganos, Shintaro; Ueno, Kohei; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru
Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is a major cause of symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), an impairment in cell proliferation during prenatal development that results in global growth defects and mental retardation. In Drosophila, chico encodes the only insulin receptor substrate. Similar to other animal models of IUGR, chico mutants have defects in global growth and associative learning. However, the physiological and molecular bases of learning defects caused by chico mutations, and by symmetrical IUGR, are not clear. In this study, we found that chico mutations impair memory-associated synaptic plasticity in the mushroom bodies (MBs), neural centers for olfactory learning. Mutations in chico reduce expression of the rutabaga-type adenylyl cyclase (rut), leading to decreased cAMP synthesis in the MBs. Expressing a rut (+) transgene in the MBs restores memory-associated plasticity and olfactory associative learning in chico mutants, without affecting growth. Thus chico mutations disrupt olfactory learning, at least in part, by reducing cAMP signaling in the MBs. Our results suggest that some cognitive defects associated with reduced IIS may occur, independently of developmental defects, from acute reductions in cAMP signaling.
EPA is proposing to approve a revision of the California SIP the State's request to redesignate the Chico nonattainment area to attainment for the 2006 24-hour fine particulate matter (PM2.5) national ambient air quality standard.
Suárez, Manuel; Márquez, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Rita; Navarrete, César; Fanning, Mark
Four new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages older than 93 Ma from samples of the two uppermost formations accumulated in two different depocenters (Golfo de San Jorge and Cañadón Asfalto basins) of the Chubut Group in central Argentinean Patagonia, establish a pre-late Cenomanian-? early Turonian age for the group. It also confirms a coeval and comparable evolution of the two depocenters, where distal pyroclastic material was deposited together with fluvial and lacustrine facies.
Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.; ...
CHICO 2 (Compact Heavy Ion COunter), is a large solid-angle, charged-particle detector array developed to provide both θ and Φ angle resolutions matching those of GRETINA (Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking In-beam Nuclear Array). CHICO 2 was successfully tested at the Argonne National Laboratory where it was fielded as an auxiliary detector with GRETINA for γ-ray spectroscopic studies of nuclei using a 252Cf spontaneous fission source, stable beams, and radioactive beams from CARIBU. In field tests of the 72,76Ge beams on a 0.5 mg/cm 2208Pb target at the sub-barrier energy, CHICO 2 provided charged-particle angle resolutions (FWHM) of 1.55° in θ andmore » 2.47° in Φ. This achieves the design goal for both coordinates assuming a beam-spot size (>3 mm) and the target thickness (>0.5 mg/cm 2). The combined angular resolution of GRETINA/CHICO 2 resulted in a Doppler-shift corrected energy resolution of 0.60% for 1 MeV coincident de-excitation γ-rays. This is nearly a factor of two improvements in resolution and sensitivity compared to Gammasphere/CHICO. Kinematically-coincident detection of scattered ions by CHICO 2 still maintains the mass resolution (ΔM/M) of ~5% that enhanced isolation of scattered weak beams of interest from scattered contaminant beams.« less
Parolin, María Laura; Real, Luciano E; Martinazzo, Liza B; Basso, Néstor G
Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 22 autosomal STR loci and DYS391 locus included in the PowerPlex(®) Fusion System kit were estimated in a sample of 770 unrelated individuals from Chubut Province, southern Patagonia. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed after Bonferroni's correction. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were >0.999999 and 0.999984, respectively. Comparisons with other worldwide populations were performed. The MDS obtained show a close biological relation between Chubut and Chile. The estimated interethnic admixture supports a high Native American contribution (46%) in the population sample of Chubut. These results enlarge the Argentine databases of autosomal STR and would provide a valuable contribution for identification tests and population genetic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dickson, K.; Acevedo, M.; Waller, T.
A demonstration study was conducted in May 1994 on Bayou Chico to assess the utility of various assessment and measurement endpoints in determining the condition of bayous and estuaries. Bayou Chico has water quality problems attributed to its low flushing rate and urban/industrial land use in its watershed. The sampling scheme assessed the within-sampling station and spatial variability of measurement endpoints. Fourteen sampling stations in Bayou Chico and 3 stations in Pensacola Bay were selected based on an intensified EMAP sampling grid. Time and space coordinated sampling was conducted for: sediment contaminants and properties, sediment toxicity, water quality, benthic infauna,more » zooplankton and phytoplankton populations. Fish and crabs were also collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers and organic chemical residues. Primary productivity was measured via the light bottle dark bottle oxygen method and via diurnal oxygen measurements made with continuous recording data sondes. Stream sites were evaluated for water and sediment quality, water and sediment toxicity, benthic invertebrates and fish. Watershed analyses included assessment of land use/landcover (via SPOT and TM images), soils, pollution sources (point and non-point) and hydrography. These data were coordinated via an Arc/Info GIS system for display and spatial analysis. 1994 survey data were used to parameterize environmental fate models such as SWMM (Storm Water Management Model), DYNHYD5 (WASP5 hydrodynamics model) and WASP5 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) to make predictions about the dynamics and fate of chemical contaminants in Bayou Chico. This paper will present an overview, and report on the results in regards to within-site and spatial variability in Bayou Chico. Conclusions on the efficacy of the assessment and measurement endpoints in evaluating the condition (health) of Bayou Chico will be presented.« less
Meuter, Ralph F.; Wright, Leslie J.
California State University (CSU) at Chico has been an innovative leader in distance education for many years. In 1969 CSU began offering external degree programs, delivered by faculty who commuted to community college locations around rural northern California. In the early 1970s a study on the needs of higher education in the area resulted in…
HOWSDEN, ARLEY L.; AND OTHERS
A SUMMER SCHOOL AND CHILD CARE CENTER WAS OPERATED BY CHICO STATE COLLEGE AT A FARM LABOR CAMP IN GRIDLEY, CALIFORNIA. THE SUMMER SCHOOL WAS TAUGHT BY COLLEGE STUDENTS AND OFFERED CLASSES AT ALL LEVELS. THESE CLASSES, WITH AN AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE OF 68.15, SOUGHT A POSITIVE SELF-IMAGE AMOUNG THE MIGRANT CHILDREN BY RELATING TO THEM ON AN…
Pastor, Catalina; Lo Russo, Virginia; Villares, Gabriela
Two new Parasavaljevia species are described, one from Puerto Madryn, and one from El Límite beach, San Jorge Gulf, Chubut Province, Argentina. The two species are characterised by a combination of characters. Parasavaljevia uncinoa n. sp. is characterised by having a long rectangular cirrus, positioned at the level of the inner labial setae, rectangular mandibles with prominent lateral hooks bearing denticles in three lines of nine each, and six cephalic setae of the same length, inserted at the anterior end of a small head capsule. Parasavaljevia limitense n. sp. is characterized by having a cirrus posterior positioned, between the labial and cephalic setae, rectangular-arched mandibles bearing denticles in five lines of ten each in a gradient of sizes; a small buccal cavity, small cephalic capsule and abundant cervical setae (4+10). An emendation of the genus diagnosis and a new key are given and discussed.
Navarro, Edgardo L.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Belousova, Elena; Guler, M. Verónica; Gehrels, George
The Chubut Group constitutes the most widespread sedimentary unit in NE Patagonia, characterized by variable-energy fluvial deposits. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from two sections of the Chubut Group constraint the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks in the northeast of the Somuncurá - Cañadón Asfalto Basin. In the Cañadón Williams area, at San Jorge section, 20 km NW of Telsen locality, dating of 56 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse sandstone indicated a maximum depositional age of 109 ± 1 Ma (n = 4). These sandstones were interpreted to represent shallow channels, associated with a lacustrine system. In the Telsen locality, a laser ablation analysis of 115 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse-grained sandstone, from fluvial channel facies, yielded a maximum depositional age of ca. 106 ± 1 Ma (n = 8). Both ages are consistent with volcanic events of the Barremian to Albian age in the central Patagonian Andes Region. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the San Jorge sample suggest an igneous origin, which is further supported by Th/U values above 0.5 in most of the grains. The distribution of the statistical modes of the main age populations of detrital zircons for the two samples [182, 185 and 189 Ma for Telsen sample (T2S) and 181 ± 1 Ma for San Jorge sample (SJS)] matches the age of the volcanic Marifil Formation. The rocks of the Marifil Formation of these ages are exposed NE to SE of the study area. The abundance of zircons of similar Jurassic ages (n = 52 for SJS and n = 105 for T2S) and the external morphology of the zircons in the sample SJS, implies a close proximity of the source area. Suggestion that the Marifil Formation was the main provenance source is also supported by northeast-southeasterly paleocurrents measured at the San Jorge and Telsen sections.
Ahiligwo, Jonelle; Bergamini, Clara; Berglund, Kallan; Bhardwaj, Mohit; Chelson, Spud; Costa, Amanda; Epis, Ashley; Grant, Azure; Osteen, Courtney; Reiner, Skyla; Rose, Adam; Schmidt, Emily; Sears, Forest; Sullivan-Hames, Maddie; Johnson, Jolyon
In the spring of 2011, Chico Senior High School students participated in an astronomy seminar at the Gateway Science Museum, University of California, Chico. The observers used a Celestron NexStar 6 SE telescope and a Celestron MicroGuide eyepiece to determine the separation and position angle of the visual double star STF 1657. Observations were made in approximately one hour on the evening of May 1, 2011. The observers determined that the separation of STF 1657 was 22.1" and the position angle was 273.4&°. Seminar members then used the spectral type, parallax, and proper motion vectors of the two stars to determine if they are a line-of-sight optical pair or physically bound by gravity. Due to large errors in the parallax and the proper motion vector for the secondary star, the results were inconclusive. Through this experience, the students learned the skills needed to observe, analyze, and report on double stars.
Bai, Hua; Post, Stephanie; Kang, Ping; Tatar, Marc
Mutations of the insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway extend Drosophila lifespan. Based on genetic epistasis analyses, this longevity assurance is attributed to downstream effects of the FOXO transcription factor. However, as reported FOXO accounts for only a portion of the observed longevity benefit, suggesting there are additional outputs of IIS to mediate aging. One candidate is target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Reduced TORC1 activity is reported to slow aging, whereas reduced IIS is reported to repress TORC1 activity. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP) is repressed by TORC1, and activated 4E-BP is reported to increase Drosophila lifespan. Here we use genetic epistasis analyses to test whether longevity assurance mutants of chico, the Drosophila insulin receptor substrate homolog, require Drosophila d4eBP to slow aging. In chico heterozygotes, which are robustly long-lived, d4eBP is required but not sufficient to slow aging. Remarkably, d4eBP is not required or sufficient for chico homozygotes to extend longevity. Likewise, chico heterozygote females partially require d4eBP to preserve age-dependent locomotion, and both chico genotypes require d4eBP to improve stress-resistance. Reproduction and most measures of growth affected by either chico genotype are always independent of d4eBP. In females, chico heterozygotes paradoxically produce more rather than less phosphorylated 4E-BP (p4E-BP). Altered IRS function within the IIS pathway of Drosophila appears to have partial, conditional capacity to regulate aging through an unconventional interaction with 4E-BP.
Brown, T.M.; Ratcliffe, B.C.
The distinctive trace fossil Chubutolithes gaimanensis n. ichnosp. occurs in Casamayoran (early Eocene) and Colhuehaupian (late Oligocene) alluvial rocks of the Sarmiento Formation in eastern Chubut Province, Argentina. Though known for nearly 70 years, its origin has remained obscure. Examination of new specimens and comparisons with modern analogs demonstrate that specimens of Chubutolithes represent the fossil nests of a mud-dauber (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Virtually identical nests are constructed today by mud-daubers in areas as disparate as southern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, and Nebraska, confirming that quite similar trace fossils can be produced by several different taxa in a higher taxonomic clade. No satisfactory ethological term exists for trace fossils that, like Chubutolithes, were constructed by organisms above, rather than within, a substrate or medium. The new term aedificichnia is proposed. Chubutolithes occurs in alluvial paleosols and is associated with a large terrestrial ichnofauna. These trace fossils include the nests of scarab beetles, compound nests of social insects, and burrows of earthworms. -Authors
Alvarez, Laura; William, Aillin; Castro, Isabel; Valenzuela, Fernanda; Estevao Belchior, Silvia
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is transmitted among sheep in Argentine Patagonia causing pseudotuberculosis. The bacterium penetrates the skin or mucous membrane wounds, infecting the superficial lymph nodes and viscera. When surface abscesses are cut during shearing, they drain their purulent contents and contaminate tools and the soil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival capacity of C. pseudotuberculosis over time, in soils from the extra-Andean Patagonia region. Five types of superficial soils were collected from different areas in Chubut province (extra-Andean Patagonia), having distinctive physicochemical properties including organic matter content (very high to nonexistent), pH (neutral to strongly alkaline), electrical conductivity (saline to non-saline) and texture (sandy, clayey, silty loam). Different aliquots of each type of soil were inoculated with C. pseudotuberculosis PAT10 strain isolated from a Patagonian sheep, and were stored at room temperature. The number of surviving bacteria was determined at various times. Sixty percent (60%) of the inoculated C. pseudotuberculosis population survived for 80 to 210 days in soils with moderate to high organic matter content respectively. Silty soils favored bacterial survival, whereas the variables pH and salinity had no effect on survival. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hobbs, S. E.; Truong, S.
Levels of Escherichia coli and abiotic nutrients often increase in response to storm events due to urban runoff. The urban setting, aging septic systems, and ample pet waste (predominant sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination) that surround Bayou Chico, provide abundant possibilities for contamination. E. coli is a gram-negative, rod shaped bacteria commonly found in the intestines of animals; while some strains are harmless, others produce dangerous toxins that can cause side effects and sometimes death. Along with E. coli, inorganic nutrient concentrations (orthophosphate, nitrate/nitrite, and ammonium) are key indicators of water quality. Dissolved nutrients promote the growth of primary producers and excessive amounts lead to algal blooms, often reducing biodiversity. Four sites were sampled weekly in June and July 2017; during which, June had the highest rainfall in comparison to the past three years; these four sites represented three different sub-watersheds of the Bayou Chico Watershed, with differing land-use at each site. Historical nutrient and bacterial data from the Bream Fishermen Association was also compared and examined to determine long term trends and obtain a more in-depth understanding of the dynamics of water quality in th urban setting. E. coli levels were universally high (ranging from 98 to 12,997 MPN/100mL) for all sites and did not show observable correlations to rainfall; possibly influenced by the systemic and anomalous heavy precipitation during most of the summer study period. Nitrate was detected at levels between 2.5 and 154.0 µM, while ammonium levels ranged from 0 to 16.1 µM. Three of four stations showed extremely elevated dissolved inorganic nitrogen and ammonium while one station showed low levels of these nutrients. Correlations between these nutrient loads and rainfall, support the hypothesis that runoff into tributary creeks contributes significant inorganic nutrient loads to the Bayou Chico urban estuary.
An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over ten (10) areas over northern California and southwestern Oregon. These include the 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles of Roseburg, Medford, Weed, Alturas, Redding, Susanville, Ukiah, and Chico along with the 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ areas of the Coos Bay quadrangle and the Crescent City/Eureka areas combined. This report discusses the results obtained over the Chico, California, map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of three. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twelve miles apart. A total of 16,880.5more » line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 3026.4 line miles are in the quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.« less
Isla, Federico; Espinosa, Marcela; Rubio, Belén; Escandell, Alejandra; Gerpe, Marcela; Miglioranza, Karina; Rey, Daniel; Vilas, Federico
The Chubut River flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean, and is interrupted by a single dam built at the middle valley. The lower valley is dominated by the aggradation of an alluvial plain induced by a complex of spits that enclosed the inlet in the last 5000 years. The river has reduced its flow because the blocking of the upper basin by terminal moraines during the Upper Pleistocene. At least the last two marine transgressions have flooded this estuary, and contributed to the aggradation during regressions. The area is of particular interest in regard to irrigation channels practiced since the XIX century. Today, the mean monthly flow is less than 10 m3/s although peaks of 95 m3/s have been recorded in Gaiman in July 2001. The dynamics of the estuary is dominated by waves (wave-dominated estuary) as tidal effects attenuate in less than 5 km. Three vibracores were collected within this floodplain: (a) at Gaiman, an area without any effect of the sea (35 km from the coast); (b) at Trelew, at the former avulsion plain of the river (18 km from the coast); and (c) at Playa Magagna, a saltmarsh located 0.4 km from the beach. At the Gaiman core (1.54 m long) fresh-water epiphytic diatoms dominate (Epithemia sorex, Cocconeis placentula, Ulnaria ulna) suggesting the aggradation of an alluvial plain. The Trelew core (2.19 m long) was collected from a deltaic plain. It was composed by fine sand with organic matter at the base that evolved into silty layers to the top. Several unconformities and laminae with heavy minerals were detected by their geochemical composition analysed by micro X-ray fluorescence (Itrax XRF core scanner). Fine-sand laminated layers were perfectly detected by their high content in S and Cl. On the other hand, mud layers presented lower content in Mg and Al with increments in Ca and V. The core from the marsh area (1.67 m long) was analysed in terms of the diatom evolution in order to detect Holocene sea-level and salinity effects. The sand flats
Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Ruiz, Alvaro
The Norte Chico region on the coast of Peru north of Lima consists of four adjacent river valleys--Huaura, Supe, Pativilca and Fortaleza--in which archaeologists have been aware of a number of apparently early sites for more than 40 years (refs 1- 3). To clarify the early chronology in this region, we undertook fieldwork in 2002 and 2003 to determine the dates of occupation of sites in the Fortaleza and Pativilca valleys. Here we present 95 new radiocarbon dates from a sample of 13 of more than 20 large, early sites. These sites share certain basic characteristics, including large-scale monumental architecture, extensive residential architecture and a lack of ceramics. The 95 new dates confirm the emergence and development of a major cultural complex in this region during the Late Archaic period between 3000 and 1800 calibrated calendar years bc. The results help to redefine a broader understanding of the respective roles of agricultural and fishing economies in the beginnings of civilization in South America.
Teasdale, R.; McCarthy, K.; Phillips, C.; Silliman, K.; Fosen, C.; Thomas, M.
CSU, Chico is a comprehensive university with high expectations for both teaching (4 courses per semester) and scholarly work. In an attempt to introduce faculty to their new positions, a two-day New Faculty Orientation has been offered for the last two decades. In AY 2014-15, in an attempt to improve the first year experience for new faculty, the Office of Faculty Affairs established and assessed a New Faculty Mentoring program. Eight college-based mentors were selected based on recommendations by College Deans who suggested successful teachers and scholars who could provide the social and leadership skills to effectively guide others. Based on a needs-assessment survey new faculty completed during orientation, mentors met with their new faculty cohort at least monthly to discuss campus resources, host workshops and provide other support in areas of time management, work-life balance, teaching pedagogies, discipline-specific internal and external funding resources, student support resources, and the preparation of Review/Retention documents. Mentors were paid a small stipend for their work and met twice each semester to discuss readings on mentoring best practices, their mentoring activities with new faculty and to compare the needs of their mentees. Survey results from 28 of 37 new faculty respondents indicate they valued Review/Retention workshops, mentor reviews of teaching and the opportunity to visit mentor classrooms for examples of good teaching practices. Social events helped establish cohorts, although some mentees indicated that some cohorts were too large. An unforeseen outcome was recognition that mid-year hires need to also be included in new faculty cohort groups. Moving forward, mentors will continue to work with their original mentees for a 2nd year. A new group of mentors will be identified for faculty starting in fall 2015 who will work with smaller first-year faculty cohorts and will coordinate with the first generation mentors for peer support.
Bisessar, S.; Palmer, K.T.; Kuja, A.L.
Ambient rain in southern Ontario has a volume-weighted average pH of approximately 4.2. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. 'Chico III') seedlings were exposed to simulated acidic rain in specially designed chambers. The inoculum of Pseudomonas tomato (Okabe) Alstatt, causal agent of bacterial speck, was sprayed on plants before or after exposure to acidic rain of pH 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5, as well as on plants not exposed to the simulated acidic rain. Speck symptoms (small, dark, brown spots with yellow halos) were found on all inoculated plants. Exposure of plants to simulted acidic rain inhibited speck development, but the inhibitionmore » was greater on plants exposed to acidic rain after inoculation. Spot necrosis, a typical response to acid rain, occurred on up to 15 to 20% of the leaf area on all tomato plants treated with acidic rain at pH 2.5. Plants alos showed a decrease in growth (height and fresh and dry weights) with an increase in rain acidity. Leaves injured by simulated acidic rain and examined histopathologically displayed cellular malformations including hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Pseudomonas tomato failed to grow on acidified King B medium or Difco nutrient broth adjusted to pH 3.5 or lower.« less
Barcelona, H.; Mena, M.; Sanchez-Bettucci, L.
The Valle Chico Complex, at southeast Uruguay, is related Paraná-Etendeka Province. The study involved basaltic lavas, quarz-syenites, and rhyolitic and trachytic dikes. Samples were taken from 18 sites and the AMS of 250 specimens was analyzed. The AMS is modeled by a second order tensor K and it graphical representation is a symmetric ellipsoid. The axes relations determine parameters which describe different properties like shape, lineation, and foliation, degree of anisotropy and bulk magnetic susceptibility. Under this perspective, one lava, dike, or igneous body can be considered a mosaic of magnetic susceptibility domains (MSD). The DSM is an area with specific degree of homogeneity in the distribution of parameters values and cinematic conditions. An average tensor would weigh only one MSD, but if the site is a mosaic, subsets of specimens with similar parameters can be created. Hypothesis tests can be used to establish parameter similarities. It would be suitable considered as a MSD the subsets with statistically significant differences in at least one of its means parameters, and therefore, be treated independently. Once defined the MSDs the tensor analysis continues. The basalt-andesitic lavas present MSD with an NNW magnetic foliation, dipping 10. The K1 are sub-horizontal, oriented E-W and reprsent the magmatic flow direction. The quartz-syenites show a variable magnetic fabric or prolate ellipsoids mayor axes dispose parallel to the flow direction (10 to the SSE). Deformed syenites show N300/11 magnetic foliation, consistent with the trend of fractures. The K1 is subvertical. The MSD defined in rhyolitic dikes have magnetic foliations consistent with the structural trend. The trachytic dikes show an important indetermination in the magnetic response. However, a 62/N90 magnetic lineation was defined. The MSDs obtained are consistent with the geological structures and contribute to the knowledge of the tectonic, magmatic and kinematic events.
Gallego, Oscar F.; Cabaleri, Nora G.; Armella, Claudia; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Ballent, Sara C.; Martínez, Sergio; Monferran, Mateo D.; Silva Nieto, Diego G.; Páez, Manuel A.
A new Late Jurassic assemblage of “conchostracans”, ostracods, bivalves and caddisfly cases from the locality “Estancia La Sin Rumbo”, Chubut Province (Patagonia, Argentina) is recorded. The fossils occur in the upper part of an outcropping 45 m thick volcaniclastic lacustrine sequence of yellowish tuffs and tuffites of the Puesto Almada Member, which is the upper member of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation with U/Pb age of 161 ± 3 Ma. The sequence represents one sedimentary cycle composed of a (lower) hemicycle of expansion and a (higher) hemicycle of contraction of the water body. The invertebrates lived in small freshwater bodies during the periods of expansion of the lake. The occurrence of a great number of small spinicaudatans, associated with mud-cracks, is evidence of dry climatic conditions and suggests several local mortality events. The spinicaudatan record of the fushunograptid-orthestheriid (component of the Eosestheriopsis dianzhongensis fauna) and the presence of Congestheriella rauhuti Gallego and Shen, suggest a Late Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian) age. Caddisfly cases are recorded for the first time in the Cañadón Asfalto Basin.
Plavan, A Acuña; Gurdek, R; Muñoz, N; Gutierrez, J M; Spósito, M; Correa, P; Caride, A
The large estuaries can present long narrow branches called subestuaries or tidal creeks. These types of subsystems are distributed along the Uruguayan coast of the Río de la Plata estuary and are very important as nursery and refuge areas for fish. For the first time, the seasonal composition and abundance of the fish community of the Solís Chico subestuary was studied by using beach and gill nets. Fourteen species, mainly euryhaline (86%) presented a significant representation of juvenile stages. The fish community was dominated by Odontesthes argentinensis, Platanichthys platana, Mugil liza, Brevoortia aurea, Micropogonias furnieri and Paralichthys orbignyanus, similar to adjacent subestuaries. While Micropogonias furnieri and B. aurea were the most abundant species, some other species were rarely caught. A seasonal variation of the fish assemblage abundance was detected, with higher values in autumn showing a positive correlation with temperature. Species that complete their life cycle in the Río de la Plata estuary, some of which are relevant to fisheries (64% of the analyzed species) were captured in the Solís Chico subestuary. The importance of this environment as a transitional system for some estuarine fish species is advised.
Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Huamán Mesía, Luis; Goldstein, David; Reinhard, Karl; Rodríguez, Cindy Vergel
For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000–1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C. PMID:23440194
The workshops will occur between May 2002 and January 2003, (though timing is flexible depending on funding). Between workshops The Nature Conservancy will respond to information requests and generate the technical materials necessary to inform the sessions. The goals of the Ch...
As an instructional framework, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) can guide science teachers to purposefully apply evidence-based instructional practices to increase engagement and learning of students with disabilities (Israel, Ribuffo, and Smith 2014; Marino et al. 2014; Ok et al. 2016). This article describes how to use the Universal Design…
Hauser, N.; Cabaleri, N. G.; Gallego, O. F.; Monferran, M. D.; Silva Nieto, D.; Armella, C.; Matteini, M.; Aparicio González, P. A.; Pimentel, M. M.; Volkheimer, W.; Reimold, W. U.
The Cañadón Asfalto basin, central Chubut, Argentina, comprises a volcano-sedimentary sequence related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean during Mesozoic times. The Lonco Trapial, Cañadón Asfalto and Cañadón Calcáreo formations are the main units related to the evolution of this basin. The Las Chacritas and Puesto Almada members are distinguished in the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. LA-HR-ICP-MS U-Pb and Lu-Hf data on zircon were obtained on these units. The Lonco Trapial Formation gave a weighted average age of 172.3 ± 1.8 Ma. A pyroclastic level from the Las Chacritas Member gave a weighted average age of 168.2 ± 2.2 Ma. Two U-Pb concordant ages of 160.3 ± 1.7 Ma on a laminated tuffite and 158.3 ± 1.3 Ma on a pyroclastic level were obtained for the Puesto Almada Member. Two maximum depositional ages constrain the sedimentary provenance areas for the basin: 1) A sample from the Sierra de la Manea range, where a controversial unit related either to the Cañadón Asfalto or to the Cañadón Calcáreo formation occurs, gave an age of 176.6 ± 1.0 Ma. Two younger zircon crystals indicate that this unit may be related to the Cañadón Calcáreo Formation. 2) A sandstone with cross-stratification from the Puesto Almada Member gave a maximum depositional age of 173.6 ± 6.4 Ma. In terms of U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes, two magmatic events are identified in central Patagonia: the Mamil Choique magmatic event characterized by negative εHf values around -5.0 and representing recycling during Permian times of Mesoproterozoic crust (TDM of ∼1.5 Ga), and the Cañadón Asfalto magmatic event with negative (-8.2) to positive (+4) εHf values and Meso- to Neoproterozoic TDM between 1.5 and 0.8 Ga. The younger event is characterized by three main cycles: C1 related to the Lonco Trapial magmatism, C2 to the Las Chacritas volcanism, and C3 to the Puesto Almada volcanism. These cycles are related with Marifil, Chon Aike and El Quemado formations volcanics events of
The CHICO (Children's Cough) Trial protocol: a feasibility randomised controlled trial investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a complex intervention to improve the management of children presenting to primary care with acute respiratory tract infection.
Turnbull, Sophie L; Redmond, Niamh M; Lucas, Patricia; Cabral, Christie; Ingram, Jenny; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Hay, Alastair D; Peters, Tim J; Horwood, Jeremy; Little, Paul; Francis, Nick; Blair, Peter S
While most respiratory tract infections (RTIs) will resolve without treatment, many children will receive antibiotics and some will develop severe symptoms requiring hospitalisation. There have been calls for evidence to reduce uncertainty regarding the identification of children who will and will not benefit from antibiotics. The aim of this feasibility trial is to test recruitment and the acceptance of a complex behavioural intervention designed to reduce antibiotic prescribing, and to inform how best to conduct a larger trial. The CHICO (Children's Cough) trial is a single-centre feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing a web-based, within-consultation, behavioural intervention with usual care for children presenting to general practitioner practices with RTI and acute cough. The trial aims to recruit at least 300 children between October 2014 and April 2015, in a single area in South West England. Following informed consent, demographic information will be recorded, and symptoms and signs measured. Parents/carers of recruited children will be followed up on a weekly basis to establish symptom duration, resource use and cost of the illness to the parent until the child's cough has resolved or up to 8 weeks, whichever occurs earlier. A review of medical notes, including clinical history, primary care reconsultations and hospitalisations will be undertaken 2 months after recruitment. The trial feasibility will be assessed by: determining acceptability of the intervention to clinicians and parent/carers; quantifying differential recruitment and follow-up; determining intervention fidelity; the success in gathering the data necessary to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis; and collecting data about antibiotic prescribing rates to inform the sample size needed for a fully powered RCT. The study was approved by the North West-Haydock Research Ethics Committee, UK (reference number: 14/NW/1034). The findings from this feasibility trial will
Jillings, C. J.; Wells, D.; Chan, K. C.; Hill, J.; Falkowski, B.; Sepikas, J.
We report results of a series of detailed Monte-Carlo calculations to determine the density and arrival-time distribution of charged particles in extensive air showers. We have parameterized both distributions as a function of distance from the shower axis, energy of the primary cosmic-ray proton, and incident zenith angle. Muons and electrons are parameterized separately. These parameterizations can be easily used in maximum-likelihood reconstruction of air showers. Calculations were performed for primary energies between 10^18 and 10^21eV and zenith angles out to approximately 50^o. The calculations are appropriate for the California High School Cosmic Ray Observatory: a 400 km^2 array of scintillation detectors in Los Angeles county. The average elevation of the array is approximately 250 meters above sea level. Currently 64 of 90 sites are operational. The array will be completed this year. We thank the NSF, the CURE program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the SURF program at Caltech, and the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Water and sediment quality in three urban bayous or tidal estuaries located near Pensacola, Florida, were determined at 23 sampling stations over a three year period during which hurricane and dredging activity occurred. Our primary objective was to determine the environmental co...
Rodríguez, C.; Aragón, E.; Castro, A.; Pedreira, R.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Díaz-Alvarado, J.; D´Eramo, F.; Pinotti, L.; Aguilera, Y.; Cavarozzi, C.; Demartis, M.; Hernando, I. R.; Fuentes, T.
The publisher regrets that an error occurred which led to the premature publication of this paper. This error bears no reflection on the article or its authors. The publisher apologizes to the authors and the readers for this unfortunate error in Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 78C (2017) 30 - 60, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2017.06.002. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal
Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier
An accurate estimation of species and population geographic ranges is essential for species-focused studies and conservation and management plans. Knowledge of the geographic distributions of reptiles from Patagonian Argentina is in general limited and dispersed over manuscripts from a wide variety of topics. We completed an extensive review of reptile species of central Patagonia (Argentina) based on information from a wide variety of sources. We compiled and checked geographic distribution records from published literature and museum records, including extensive new data from the LJAMM-CNP (CENPAT-CONICET) herpetological collection. Our results show that there are 52 taxa recorded for this region and the highest species richness was seen in the families Liolaemidae and Dipsadidae with 31 and 10 species, respectively. The Patagónica was the phytogeographic province most diverse in species and Phymaturus was the genus of conservation concern most strongly associated with it. We present a detailed species list with geographical information, richness species, diversity analyses with comparisons across phytogeographical provinces, conservation status, taxonomic comments and distribution maps for all of these taxa.
Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier
Abstract An accurate estimation of species and population geographic ranges is essential for species-focused studies and conservation and management plans. Knowledge of the geographic distributions of reptiles from Patagonian Argentina is in general limited and dispersed over manuscripts from a wide variety of topics. We completed an extensive review of reptile species of central Patagonia (Argentina) based on information from a wide variety of sources. We compiled and checked geographic distribution records from published literature and museum records, including extensive new data from the LJAMM-CNP (CENPAT-CONICET) herpetological collection. Our results show that there are 52 taxa recorded for this region and the highest species richness was seen in the families Liolaemidae and Dipsadidae with 31 and 10 species, respectively. The Patagónica was the phytogeographic province most diverse in species and Phymaturus was the genus of conservation concern most strongly associated with it. We present a detailed species list with geographical information, richness species, diversity analyses with comparisons across phytogeographical provinces, conservation status, taxonomic comments and distribution maps for all of these taxa. PMID:25931966
Cooke, Ron C.; And Others
The intent of this instructional manual, which is aimed at exploring the literature of a discipline and presented in a self-paced, course segment format applicable to any course content, is to enable college students to conduct computer-based interactive searches through multiple databases. The manual is divided into 10 chapters: (1) Introduction,…
Spizella passerina ) White-crowned sparrow Common-Nationwide X X X X X X X (Zonotrichia leucophrys) Fox sparrow Common-Nationwide X X X X... throated swift Common- X X X X (Aeronautes saxatalis) Southwest U.S. Black -chinned hummingbird Occas ional-Southwest X X X X (Archilochus...fishery consisting of black bass, crappie, white catfish, channel catfish, bluegill, and other nongame species. 2.26. Archeological and Historical
1). Technical Challenge: Burning fossil fuels for energy has begun to affect the planet’s climate and society must begin the transition to renewable forms of energy. While renewable energy has been an “off-the-shelf” technology, few companies have explored th...
Nutrient pollution in stormwater runoff from urbanized areas contributes to water quality degradation in streams and receiving waterbodies. Agriculture, population growth, and industrial activities are significant sources of nitrogen inputs for surface waters. Increased nitrogen ...
Perez, Mario Rios
Thomas Woody, a reputable and well-published historian of education during the early twentieth century, made a thrashing call to historians in the field nearly sixty years ago in his article titled "Fields That Are White," where he depicted the history of education as a barren landscape awaiting the arrival of scholars who would alter…
The California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) recognizes the importance of educational centers as a cost-effective means for meeting increased student demand. Educational centers are an economical way of serving a region's educational needs because they often involve collaboration and shared facility use with high schools, university…
Velázquez, María S; Cabello, Marta N; Elíades, Lorena A; Russo, María L; Allegrucci, Natalia; Schalamuk, Santiago
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase the uptake of soluble phosphates, while phosphorus solubilizing fungi (S) promote solubilization of insoluble phosphates complexes, favoring plant nutrition. Another alternative to maintaining crop productivity is to combine minerals and rocks that provide nutrients and other desirable properties. The aim of this work was to combine AMF and S with pyroclastic materials (ashes and pumices) from Puyehue volcano and phosphate rocks (PR) from Rio Chico Group (Chubut) - to formulate a substrate for the production of potted Lactuca sativa. A mixture of Terrafertil®:ashes was used as substrate. Penicillium thomii was the solubilizing fungus and Rhizophagus intraradices spores (AMF) was the P mobilizer (AEGIS® Irriga). The treatments were: 1) Substrate; 2) Substrate+AMF; 3) Substrate+S; 4) Substrate+AMF+S; 5) Substrate: PR; 6) Substrate: PR+AMF; 7) Substrate: PR+S and 8) Substrate: PR+AMF+S. Three replicates were performed per treatment. All parameters evaluated (total and assimilable P content in substrate, P in plant tissue and plant dry biomass) were significantly higher in plants grown in substrate containing PR and inoculas with S and AMF. This work confirms that the combination of S/AMF with Puyehue volcanic ashes, PR from the Río Chico Group and a commercial substrate promote the growth of L. sativa, thus increasing the added value of national geomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Biogeochemical models predict microbial mediated pathways but generally do not account for microorganisms. This study was undertaken to better understand relationships among microbial communities and N, S, Fe and C cycling in three lakes. Jackson Lakes formed from abandoned sand...
...); and 75 FR 27944 (May 19, 2010) (Coso Junction, California area). Thus EPA has established that, under... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not... based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); Is not a...
Schriner, Samuel E.; Kuramada, Steven; Lopez, Terry E.; Truong, Stephanie; Pham, Andrew; Jafari, Mahtab
Cinnamon is a spice commonly used worldwide to flavor desserts, fruits, cereals, breads, and meats. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to its consumption, including the recent suggestion that it may decrease blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Insulin signaling is an integral pathway regulating the lifespan of laboratory organisms, such as worms, flies, and mice. We posited that if cinnamon truly improved the clinical signs of diabetes in people that it would also act on insulin signaling in laboratory organisms and increase lifespan. We found that cinnamon did extend lifespan in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. However, it had no effect on the expression levels of the 3 aging-related Drosophila insulin-like peptides nor did it alter sugar, fat, or soluble protein levels, as would be predicted. In addition, cinnamon exhibited no protective effects in males against oxidative challenges. However, in females it did confer a protective effect against paraquat, but sensitized them to iron. Cinnamon provided no protective effect against desiccation and starvation in females, but sensitized males to both. Interestingly, cinnamon protected both sexes against cold, sensitized both to heat, and elevated HSP70 expression levels. We also found that cinnamon required the insulin receptor substrate to extend lifespan in males, but not females. We conclude that cinnamon does not extend lifespan by improving stress tolerance in general, though it does act, at least in part, through insulin signaling. PMID:25456850
... also concluded \\9\\ from its Technical System Audit of the CARB PQAO (conducted during the summer of... ''Technical System Audit of the California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board: 2007,'' with... an ``anonymous access'' system, and EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you...
A multiple Robertsonian fission chromosomal race of the Liolaemus monticola complex in Chile is described and is shown to be the most derived and the most complex among the Liolaemus examined thus far. The 29 karyotyped lizards analysed from the locality of Mina Hierro Viejo, Petorca, Provincia de Valparaiso, Chile, exhibited a diploid chromosomal number ranging from 42 to 44, and several polymorphisms. The polymorphisms included: a pair 1 fission; a pair 2 fission plus a pericentric inversion in one of the fission products, which moved the NOR and satellite from the tip of the long arm of the metacentric 2 to the short arm of the fission product; a fission in pair 3; a polymorphism for an enlarged chromosome pair 6; and a polymorphism for a pericentric inversion in pair 7. This population is fixed for a fission of chromosome pair 4. A total of 76% of the lizards analysed were polymorphic for one or more pairs of chromosomes. We have compared these data with other Liolaemus monticola chromosomal races and calculated the Hardy-Weinberg ratios for the polymorphic chromosome pairs in this Multiple-Fission race. Karyotypic differences between the Northern (2n = 38-40) and the Multiple-Fission (2n = 42-44) races were attributed mainly to Robertsonian fissions, an enlarged chromosome and pericentric inversions involving the macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair.
The purpose of this work is to examine Wikipedia's role as a tool for instruction in website evaluation. Wikipedia's purpose, structural elements and potential failings as an authoritative information source are examined. Also presented are rationales for using Wikipedia as an instructional tool, namely the overwhelming popularity of Wikipedia.…
Schriner, Samuel E; Kuramada, Steven; Lopez, Terry E; Truong, Stephanie; Pham, Andrew; Jafari, Mahtab
Cinnamon is a spice commonly used worldwide to flavor desserts, fruits, cereals, breads, and meats. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to its consumption, including the recent suggestion that it may decrease blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Insulin signaling is an integral pathway regulating the lifespan of laboratory organisms, such as worms, flies, and mice. We posited that if cinnamon truly improved the clinical signs of diabetes in people that it would also act on insulin signaling in laboratory organisms and increase lifespan. We found that cinnamon did extend lifespan in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. However, it had no effect on the expression levels of the 3 aging-related Drosophila insulin-like peptides nor did it alter sugar, fat, or soluble protein levels, as would be predicted. In addition, cinnamon exhibited no protective effects in males against oxidative challenges. However, in females it did confer a protective effect against paraquat, but sensitized them to iron. Cinnamon provided no protective effect against desiccation and starvation in females, but sensitized males to both. Interestingly, cinnamon protected both sexes against cold, sensitized both to heat, and elevated HSP70 expression levels. We also found that cinnamon required the insulin receptor substrate to extend lifespan in males, but not females. We conclude that cinnamon does not extend lifespan by improving stress tolerance in general, though it does act, at least in part, through insulin signaling. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Light, Daniel; Pierson, Elizabeth
One-to-one computing programs and laptop programs have been a popular approach to education reform in developing countries over the last decade. A motivation behind so many one-to-one laptop programs is the desire to overcome with one powerful resource the historical lack of educational tools and resources available in developing countries.…
Rodríguez, C.; Aragón, E.; Castro, A.; Pedreira, R.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Díaz-Alvarado, J.; D´Eramo, F.; Pinotti, L.; Aguilera, Y.; Cavarozzi, C.; Demartis, M.; Hernando, I. R.; Fuentes, T.
The publisher regrets that an error occurred which led to the premature publication of this paper. This error bears no reflection on the article or its authors. The publisher apologizes to the authors and the readers for this unfortunate error in Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 78C (2017) 38-60, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2017.06.002.
Romero, J. Christian; Heerman, Charles E.
California State University, Chico (CSU, Chico) has had a teacher center program underway for two years. By coupling the concept of centers with the traditional California requirement of a fifth year of professional training for preservice teachers CSU, Chico has designed, within a 70-mile radius of the campus, 14 teacher training centers, each…
Singelis, Theodore M.
This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a "teaching" university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The…
DuFon, Margaret A.; Christian, Jennifer
This chapter recounts the development of faculty and student groups whose purposes are to promote mindfulness and contemplative pedagogy on the California State University-Chico campus through work both on the campus and in the greater Chico community. The "Mindful Campus" a student organization formed in 2011, merged with the…
Rocca, M. C. L.
The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta
Navone, Graciela Teresa; Zonta, María Lorena; Cociancic, Paola; Garraza, Mariela; Gamboa, María Inés; Giambelluca, Luis Alberto; Dahinten, Silvia; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith
Determine the distribution of intestinal parasitosis in children in nine provinces representative of Argentina's mosaic of contrasting environments. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of preschool children (5 years old or under) and school-age children (6-14 years) in the provinces of Buenos Aires (sample taken between 2005 and 2013), Chubut (2010-2013), Corrientes (2012), Entre Ríos (2010-2012), Formosa (2014), La Pampa (2006), Mendoza (2008-2011), Misiones (2005-2008 and 2013), and Salta (2012-2013). Serial samples, fecal samples, and anal swabs were processed using concentration techniques. The results were analyzed by sex, age interval, and province. Frequency of parasitosis (monoparasitosis and multiple parasitoses), wealth of species, and Sørensen similarity coefficient were calculated. Misiones presented the highest frequency of parasitized children and Chubut the lowest (82.0% vs 38.4%; p < 0.01). The number of species was greatest in Misiones and Buenos Aires and lowest in Chubut and La Pampa. Men were parasitized more than women only in Buenos Aires. The highest frequencies were found in preschool children in Buenos Aires and schoolchildren in Mendoza and Misiones (p < 0.05). Monoparasitosis was most frequent in Chubut (67.9%) and multiple parasitosis in Formosa (69.2%). The most frequent species in the majority of provinces were Blastocystis sp. and Enterobius vermicularis. Misiones presented the highest frequency of soil-transmitted helminthes (23.3%) and Mendoza the lowest (0.6%); none were found in Chubut, La Pampa, or Salta. Buenos Aires, Formosa, and Misiones presented a similar species composition, as did Chubut and La Pampa. The frequency of parasitosis in Argentina corresponds to the country's complex mosaic of climatic and socioeconomic variability and shows a declining trend from north to south and from east to west.
Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W
Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias.
María Cecilia Ciampoli Halaman
Communities located in the wildland-urban interface undergo a process of transformation until they can guard against fires occurring in the area. This study analyzed this process for the EstaciÃ³n neighborhood in the city of Esquel, Chubut Province, Argentina. The analysis was performed by comparing the level of danger diagnosed for each neighborhood home in 2004 with...
Banegas, Dario Luis
In this reflective piece I discuss the process of developing a new unifying initial English language teacher education curriculum in the province of Chubut (Argentina). Trainers and trainees from different institutions were called to work on it with the aim of democratising curriculum development and enhancing involvement among agents. In the…
Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M
The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina.
Maize is a remarkably diverse species, adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and farming practices. The latitudinal range of maize is immense, ranging from 54°N in Alberta, Canada, to 45°S in the province of Chubut, Argentina. In terms of altitude, maize is cultivated from sea level to 4000...
Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B. M.; Garrison, D. H.; Wiesmann, H.; Herzog, G. F.; Albrecht, A. A.; Vogt, S.; Klein, J.
We have measured significant concentrations of Cl-36, Ca-41, Ar-36 from decay of Cl-36, and Sm-150 produced from the capture of thermalized neutrons in the large Chico L6 chondrite. Activities of Cl-36 and Ca-41, corrected for a high-energy spallogenic component and a terrestrial age of approximately 50 ka, give average neutron-capture production rates of 208 atoms/min/g-Cl and 1525 atoms/min/kg-Ca, which correspond to thermal neutron (n) fluxes of 6.2 n/sq cm/s and 4.3 n/sq cm/s, respectively. If sustained for the approximately 65 Ma single-stage, cosmic ray exposure age of Chico, these values correspond to thermal neutron fluences of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 16) and 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm for Cl-36 and Ca-41, respectively. Stepwise temperature extraction of Ar in Chico impact melt shows Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios as large as approximately 9. The correlation of high Ar-36/Ar-38 with high Cl/Ca phases in neutron-irradiated Chico indicates that the excess Ar-36 above that expected from spallation is due to decay of neutron-produced Cl-36. Excess Ar-36 in Chico requires a thermal neutron fluence of 0.9-1.7 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Decreases in Sm-149/Sm-152 due to neutron-capture by Sm-149 correlate with increases in Sm-150/Sm-152 for three samples of Chico, and one of the Torino H-chondrite. The 0.08% decrease in Sm-149 shown by Chico corresponds to a neutron fluence of 1.23 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. This fluence derived from Sm considers capture of epithermal neutrons and effects of chemical composition on the neutron energy distribution. Excess Ar-36 identified in the Arapahoe, Bruderheim, and Torino chondrites and the Shallowater aubrite suggest exposure to neutron fluences of approximately 0.2-0.2 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Depletion of Sm-149 in Torino and the LEW86010 angrite suggest neutron fluences of 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm and 0.25 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm, respectively. Neutron fluences of approximately 10(exp 16) n/sq cm in Chico are almost as large as those previously
Egler, Silvia G; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Villas-Bôas, Roberto C; Beinhoff, Christian
This study examines the total Hg contamination in soil and sediments, and the correlation between the total Hg concentration in soil and vegetables in two small scale gold mining areas, São Chico and Creporizinho, in the State of Para, Brazilian Amazon. Total Hg values for soil samples for both study areas are higher than region background values (ca. 0.15 mg/kg). At São Chico, mean values in soils samples are higher than at Creporizinho, but without significant differences at alpha<0.05 level. São Chico's aboveground produce samples possess significantly higher values for total Hg levels than samples from Creporizinho. Creporizinho's soil-root produce regression model were significant, and the slope negative. Creporizinho's soil-aboveground and root wild plants regression models were also significant, and the slopes positives. Although, aboveground:root ratios were >1 in all of São Chico's produce samples, soil-plant parts regression were not significant, and Hg uptake probably occurs through stomata by atmospheric mercury deposition. Wild plants aboveground:root ratios were <1 at both study areas, and soil-plant parts regressions were significant in samples of Creporizinho, suggesting that they function as an excluder. The average total contents of Hg in edible parts of produces were close to FAO/WHO/JECFA PTWI values in São Chico area, and much lower in Creporizinho. However, Hg inorganic small gastrointestinal absorption reduces its adverse health effects.
Nelson, C.; Becker, S.
Pipe threads in conduit seal-offs can be made air tight by use of a two- part thiokol-epoxy sealant such as Sika.'' This material bonds to metal but does not harden; thus, threaded parts can be separated. Gas seals in conduit sealoffs can be made by use of Chico, Type A'' sealant. This material is hard and can withstand high pressure differentials. However, there is a detectable leakage through Chico, Type A.'' Sika'' can be used to make a suitable gas- tight seal. However, this material is flexible and will not support long cable lengths. A dual pour method is suggestedmore » of first casting Chico'' around the connectors to obtain strength in the seal and then using either Sika'' or Micro-Preg'' to produce a tight seal. Leakage through the cable, between strands of conductor, can be reduced by either soldering the ends or dipping the ends in conductive epoxy paint. (auth)« less
The combined effect of the "Serrano" decision and Proposition 13 left California school districts with aging, overcrowded facilities. Chico schools won a $18.5 million general obligation bond election for facilities construction. With $11 billion needed for new school construction, California will need to tap local sources. A sidebar…
Swiencicki, Jill; Fosen, Chris; Burton, Sofie; Gonder, Justin; Wolf, Thia
What lasting impact could a required general education writing course have on students' well-being? The authors examined this question in the context of the California State University- Chico Town Hall Meeting, a campus event sponsored jointly by the Academic Writing Program and the First-Year Experience Program from 2006 to 2009. In the Town…
Tony Waters, a sociologist at California State University, Chico, has raised an interesting issue about the intellectual conflict some of his students experienced when they arrived on campus and enrolled in American history classes. He reported students were perplexed to find there were two kinds of American history--the version they learned in…
Allen, Mahalley D.; Parker, Sally A.; DeLorenzo, Teodora C.
The Community Legal Information Center (CLIC) of California State University, Chico, provides a unique civic engagement program designed to serve the legal service needs of Northern California. Founded in 1969, CLIC is now a 12-program, on-campus law clinic staffed by up to 125 undergraduate students each semester and is the most extensive…
Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007
This article provides snapshots of recent events and programs at colleges and universities in the state of California: (1) A graduate student in kinesiology at California State University, Chico, is talking the talk and walking the walk to promote physical fitness; (2) First-generation Latino students enrolled in nutrition science and health…
Urbanowicz, Charles F.
The Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS) closed circuit delivery system, which became operational on the California State University (CSU), Chico campus in 1975, has offered 61 courses (up to 13 per semester) with up to 27 transmission hours per week to campus students and people at six surrounding Regional Learning Centers (RLC). CSU,…
18. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION, FRANCIS TURBINE, WITH RHEOSTATS AND CONTROL PANEL IN BACKGROUND Historic photograph no. SC8730, 1913, curated in the Jon Kitchen Collection, Special Collections, Meriam Library, California State University, Chico, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA
Farrer, Claire R.
Describes an honors introductory cultural anthropology course taught at California State University, Chico. Discusses the course design, how course information is made relevant and reinforced, and how students have partial responsibility for the course design. Discusses the use of science fiction books to make material relevant to students. (JS)
Smith, Maribeth D.
In the age of fake news, teachers in every subject area should redouble their efforts to help students distinguish between credible and deceptive sources of information. The author calls attention to a few key resources, including the CRAAP guidelines developed at California State University, Chico, and promoted by the American Library Association.
Clark, Daniel D.; Edwards, Daniel J.
This article describes a simple exercise using a free, easy-to-use, established online program. The exercise helps to reinforce protein purification concepts and introduces undergraduates to pH as a parameter that affects anion-exchange chromatography. The exercise was tested with biochemistry majors at California State University-Chico. Given the…
Students in alternative education programs often experience differential access to faculty, advisors, university support systems, and the supportive culture established by being on campus. This study is a descriptive-exploratory program evaluation of the distributed learning social work mentoring program at California State University, Chico. The…
ORD and R9 collaborators will be presenting at the “This Way to Sustainability Conference XII” hosted by California State University-Chico, which formed an EPIC called the “Initiative for Resilient Cities” stemming directly from EPA’s efforts. This p...
Cookingham, Robert M.
Utilizing the experience of the library of California State University (CSU), Chico in servicing off-campus students who receive instruction via a two-way audio and one-way video communication network called the Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS), this paper examines the role that extended campus library services can play in the process…
Digneo, Ellen Hartnett, Ed.; Shaya, Tila, Ed.
Information related to the implementation of the Miami Linguistic Reading Program for Spanish-speaking and American Indian children in 6 New Mexico school systems is presented. School systems utilizing and reporting on the program are: (1) the West Las Vegas School System; (2) Anton Chico Elementary School in Santa Rosa; (3) Pojoaque Valley…
Allen, Charles W.
Based on a workshop presented by Charles Wales, a guided design project was developed for a junior mechanical design class at California State University-Chico. This course involves lectures on the design process and an extension of the basic mechanics of materials concepts, particularly as related to design and prevention of failure. The…
Campbell, Douglas G.
In this article, the author takes a stand against the unthinking evocation of so-called white privilege he found on campus and among his students at California State University, Chico, and argues for the reinstatement of true diversity--intellectual diversity. He says people in the academia should be clear in the classroom, on committees, in…
Mary Elizabeth Meyer
A series of brush deflectors were installed along an eroding, undercut streambank on Lindo Channel in Chico, California. Pieces of brush were wired to sets of metal fenceposts driven into the bank perpendicular to stream flow and at strategic points upstream. Dormant cuttings of riparian plants were added for revegetation and long-term bank protection. To date (two...
Meuter, Ralph F.; And Others
This paper describes the Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS) program, a closed-circuit educational television system in which classes originating on the California State University, Chico (CSUC) campus are simultaneously broadcast live to various ITFS sites within Northeastern California. Following an introduction, the first section…
Background: The three Jackson Lakes within the Bayou Chico Watershed in NW FL, USA were formed at different times from abandoned sand pits. The lakes experienced inundation with marine water during Hurricane Ivan 2004 and, despite their proximity and similar physical structures, ...
Mora, Pat; Berg, Charles Ramirez
This bilingual (English and Spanish) illustrated children's book relates the story of Carlos, a young boy who lives with his aunt Nina and dog Chico in the small Mexican town of San Bernardo. Nina and Carlos are poor, but their house is full of love. Carlos is excited because he is getting ready to attend the first night of "las…
Li, Caroline R; Guo, Dongyu; Pick, Leslie
The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) regulates a diverse array of biological processes including growth, axon guidance, and sugar homeostasis. Growth regulation by DInR is mediated by Chico, the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1-4. In contrast, DInR regulation of photoreceptor axon guidance in the developing visual system is mediated by the SH2-SH3 domain adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock). In vitro studies by others identified five NPXY motifs, one in the juxtamembrane region and four in the signaling C-terminal tail (C-tail), important for interaction with Chico. Here we used yeast two-hybrid assays to identify regions in the DInR C-tail that interact with Dock. These Dock binding sites were in separate portions of the C-tail from the previously identified Chico binding sites. To test whether these sites are required for growth or axon guidance in whole animals, a panel of DInR proteins, in which the putative Chico and Dock interaction sites had been mutated individually or in combination, were tested for their ability to rescue viability, growth and axon guidance defects of dinr mutant flies. Sites required for viability were identified. Unexpectedly, mutation of both putative Dock binding sites, either individually or in combination, did not lead to defects in photoreceptor axon guidance. Thus, either sites also required for viability are necessary for DInR function in axon guidance and/or there is redundancy built into the DInR/Dock interaction such that Dock is able to interact with multiple regions of DInR. We also found that simultaneous mutation of all five NPXY motifs implicated in Chico interaction drastically decreased growth in both male and female adult flies. These animals resembled chico mutants, supporting the notion that DInR interacts directly with Chico in vivo to control body size. Mutation of these five NPXY motifs did not affect photoreceptor axon guidance, segregating the roles of DInR in the
Li, Caroline R.; Guo, Dongyu; Pick, Leslie
The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) regulates a diverse array of biological processes including growth, axon guidance, and sugar homeostasis. Growth regulation by DInR is mediated by Chico, the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1–4. In contrast, DInR regulation of photoreceptor axon guidance in the developing visual system is mediated by the SH2-SH3 domain adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock). In vitro studies by others identified five NPXY motifs, one in the juxtamembrane region and four in the signaling C-terminal tail (C-tail), important for interaction with Chico. Here we used yeast two-hybrid assays to identify regions in the DInR C-tail that interact with Dock. These Dock binding sites were in separate portions of the C-tail from the previously identified Chico binding sites. To test whether these sites are required for growth or axon guidance in whole animals, a panel of DInR proteins, in which the putative Chico and Dock interaction sites had been mutated individually or in combination, were tested for their ability to rescue viability, growth and axon guidance defects of dinr mutant flies. Sites required for viability were identified. Unexpectedly, mutation of both putative Dock binding sites, either individually or in combination, did not lead to defects in photoreceptor axon guidance. Thus, either sites also required for viability are necessary for DInR function in axon guidance and/or there is redundancy built into the DInR/Dock interaction such that Dock is able to interact with multiple regions of DInR. We also found that simultaneous mutation of all five NPXY motifs implicated in Chico interaction drastically decreased growth in both male and female adult flies. These animals resembled chico mutants, supporting the notion that DInR interacts directly with Chico in vivo to control body size. Mutation of these five NPXY motifs did not affect photoreceptor axon guidance, segregating the roles of DInR in the
NASA Associate Administrator Science John Grunsfeld, Ph.D, displays a fragment of the Pallasite meteorite from Chubut, Argentina found in 1951 and given to him by his daughter on Father's Day during the Asteroid Initiative Industry and Partner Day at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, June 18, 2013 in Washington. During the event NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver and other senior NASA officials discussed the progress being made on NASA's mission to capture, redirect, and explore an asteroid. NASA also announced an Asteroid Grand Challenge focused on finding all asteroid threats to human populations and knowing what to do about them. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)
Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth
Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found
Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. A preliminary analysis of the HCMM imagery of the project area indicated that locally some differentiation of lithologic units within the Northern Coast Range may be possible. Of significance, however, was a thermally cool linear area that appeared on the 30 May 1978 Nite-IR. This linear feature seemed to coincide with the Bear Mt. Fault and with the axis of the Chico Monocline along the eastern margin of the Sacramento Valley.
Nutrient pollution in stormwater runoff from urbanized areas contributes to water quality degradation in streams and receiving waterbodies. Agriculture, population growth, and industrial activities are significant sources of nitrogen inputs for surface waters. Increased nitrogen loading stimulates eutrophication through algal blooms, which leads to an overall decrease in drinking water and aquatic habitat quality. Bayou Chico, a highly urbanized watershed in the Pensacola Bay system in northwest Florida, is a nutrient-impaired waterbody under management to reduce bacteria and nutrient loadings, in accordance with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s (FDEP) Basin Management Action Plan. Best management practices and green infrastructure (GI) throughout Bayou Chico help reduce nitrogen inputs by retaining and filtering water. GI can function as a nitrogen sink by sorption or infiltration into soils, sequestration into plant material, and denitrification through microbial processes. However, a better understanding of the efficiency of these systems is needed to better inform management practices on future nitrogen reduction. This project will address two issues relating to the presence of nitrogen in the Bayou Chico watershed: 1) the identification of specific nitrogen sources within urbanized areas, and 2) the potential rates of nitrogen removal and sequestration from GI and nitrogen transport throughout the bayou. To accomplish these goals, nitr
Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel
Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.
Song, Jianbo; Wu, Lingling; Chen, Zun; Kohanski, Ronald A; Pick, Leslie
Insulin receptors are abundant in the central nervous system, but their roles remain elusive. Here we show that the insulin receptor functions in axon guidance. The Drosophila insulin receptor (DInR) is required for photoreceptor-cell (R-cell) axons to find their way from the retina to the brain during development of the visual system. DInR functions as a guidance receptor for the adapter protein Dock/Nck. This function is independent of Chico, the Drosophila insulin receptor substrate (IRS) homolog.
Sikula, A; Costa, A D
Ethical values of 171 college students at California State University, Chico, were measured, using a subset of the Rokeach (1968, 1971) Value Survey. Nonparametric statistical analysis, four value measures, and four different consistent tests of significance and probability showed, surprisingly, that the younger students were more ethical than the older students. College students under 21 scored significantly higher ethically on three out of the four measures. Younger college students valued equality, freedom, and honesty more than their older classmates did. Surprisingly also, the younger students were significantly more concerned with being helpful and intellectual and were less involved in pursuing an exciting life and in social recognition than were the older students.
Bologno, Romina; Díaz, Yanina M; Giraudo, María C; Fernández, Rosa; Menéndez, Viviana; Brizuela, Juan C; Gallardo, Adriana A; Alvarez, Laura A; Estevao Belchior, Silvia G
The aim of this work was to study the vaginal microenvironment in sex workers from Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut. For that purpose, BAVACO procedures were applied. A total of 229 female sex workers attended public health centers. Vaginal secretions were analyzed by Gram and Giemsa stains. The following results were obtained: normal microbiota 35.37 %, intermediate microbiota 15.72 %, bacterial vaginosis 23.14 %, microbial non-specific vaginitis, Donders'"aerobic vaginitis" 10.48 %, yeast vulvovaginitis 8.30 %, and trichomoniasis 6.99 %. The intermediate microbiota was characterized by a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and the presence of diphtheroid bacilli cell types. The population studied shared increased values of vaginal dysfunctions. These results are considered risk factors for obstetric and gynecologic diseases.
Cimino, J.; Casey, D.; Wall, S. D.; Brandani, A.; Rabassa, J.
Multiple incidence angle SIR-B data of the Cordon la Grasa region of the Chubut Province of Argentina are used to discriminate various forest types by their relative brightness versus incidence angle signatures. The region consists of several species of Nothofagas which change in canopy structure with elevation, slope, and exposure. In general, the factors that appear to impact the radar response most are canopy structure, density, and ground cover (presence or absence of dead trunks and branches in particular). The results of this work indicate that (1) different forest species, and structures of a single species, may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to incidence angle when analyzing the comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.
Bagnato, E; Frixione, M; Digiani, M C; Cremonte, F
Procyrnea choique n. sp. is described from the lesser rhea, Rhea pennata d´Orbigny (Aves: Rheidae), from the Protected Natural Area Península Valdés, Chubut province, Argentina. The new species resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. excisiformis, P. dollfusi, P. haliasturi, P. anterovulvata, P. graculae, P. brevicaudata, P. uncinipenis, P. javaensis, P. ameerae, P. ornata, P. aegotheles, P. spiralis, P. ruschii and P. aptera, mainly in the absence of lateral alae; but differs from its congeners by having a left spicule without barbs, the position of the vulva which is post-equatorial, the absence of lateral ridges, absent median precloacal papilla, asymmetrical caudal alae, males more than 6 mm long, left spicule 1 mm long and spicule ratio 1:3. Our results extend the taxonomy of Procyrnea Chabaud, 1958 and comprise the first report of a habronematid from R. pennata. A key to species of Procyrnea is presented.
Beldomenico, P M; Uhart, M; Bono, M F; Marull, C; Baldi, R; Peralta, J L
In the winter of 2000, a greater than 80% reduction in the guanaco population located in Cabo Dos Bahi;as Wildlife Reserve, Chubut, Argentina, was evident due to massive mortality attributed to starvation. Twelve guanacos were necropsied and samples were analyzed at the Parasitology Laboratory of Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Fecal analysis revealed developmental stages of Nematodirus sp., Marshallagia sp., Trichuris sp. and Eimeria spp. Histopathological analysis showed the presence of Sarcocystis sp. in muscle and fascia cysts. Other parasites recovered included Dictyocaulus filaria, Trichuris tenuis and Moniezia expansa. Of these, D. filaria and M. expansa possibly reflect interactions with domestic sheep. This is the first time that T. tenuis has been reported in guanacos.
Unmack, Peter J; Barriga, Juan P; Battini, Miguel A; Habit, Evelyn M; Johnson, Jerald B
Southern South America provides a set of unusual geographic features that make it particularly interesting for studying phylogeography. The Andes Mountains run along a north-to-south axis and act as a barrier to gene flow for much of the biota of this region, with southern portions experiencing extensive historical glaciation. Geological data reveal a series of drainage reversals, shifting from Pacific Ocean outlets to Atlantic Ocean outlets because of glacier formation that dammed and reversed rivers. Once glaciers melted around 13 000 years ago, drainages returned to the Pacific Ocean. This geologic history predicts that aquatic organisms in Pacific rivers should have their closest relationships to their counterparts in Atlantic rivers immediately to their east. We tested this prediction in the trichomycterid catfish Hatcheria macraei from 38 locations using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that most populations found in Pacific rivers were closely related to fish found in the adjacent Atlantic draining Río Chubut. Surprisingly, one documented drainage reversal (from Río Deseado into Río Baker) did not result in movement of H. macraei. Overall, we found the lowest levels of genetic structure between most Pacific rivers that are adjacent to the Atlantic draining Río Chubut. We also found low levels of population structuring among three of four contemporary river basins that drain to the Atlantic Ocean. Our findings suggest that drainage basin boundaries have historically not played an important long-term role in structuring between nine of 11 drainages, an unusual finding in freshwater biogeography. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Rivaldería, Noemí; Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Dipierri, José E; Martín, Luis M
The fingerprints of the Buenos Aires and Chubut provinces in Argentina have been studied, with the aim of knowing and quantifying the variability of these features, which are used in the identification process. The data studied for this research was obtained from 330 individuals, of both sexes, from two Argentinian population samples (170 individuals from Buenos Aires and 160 from Chubut), which amounts to a total of 3300 fingerprints. The different types of minutiae were located, identified, and visually quantified in four areas on the fingerprint. Two perpendicular axes were drawn whose intersection was located in the center of fingerprint. In addition, a circle was defined on these quadrants whose radius cut fifteen ridges. This method divides the fingerprints into four quadrants with two sectors apiece. The results obtained for both populations were compared statistically with those published previously for an Argentinian population sample, which had been collected using the same methodology. Therefore, Argentina becomes the country with the most information in this matter. For both populations, the highest frequencies were of ridge endings, followed by bifurcations and convergences. In this study of minutiae, statistically significant differences were found between the area of the fingerprint (inside and outside the circle), males and females, and types of main pattern for both samples. However, although the results show common patterns in the distribution of minutiae, there are also significant differences between populations. This reveals a significant ancestral and frequency effect of the minutiae, which would indicate that the minutiae are more genetically dependent than has been suspected so far. Furthermore, the non-equiprobability found for the frequency of the types of minutiae indicates that the weight provided by these characteristics is not the same when applied in identification processes, whether used quantitatively (numerical standard) or
Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Loureiro, Nuno; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Mota, Jorge
Introducción y objetivos: examinar la asociación del apoyo de los padres y de los amigos con diferentes intensidades de actividad física durante el tiempo libre de adolescentes españoles de ambos sexos.Métodos: un total 352 adolescentes españoles (51.70% chicos; 12-16 años) cumplimentaron el International Physical Activity Questionnarie for Adolescents y un cuestionario validado sobre apoyo social. Se realizaron análisis de regresión linear ajustados por edad.Resultados: el apoyo social de padres y amigos influyó positivamente sobre los niveles de actividad física vigorosa que los adolescentes españoles realizan durante su tiempo libre (β=.226 y β=.285 en chicos y β=.167 y β=.181 en chicas, para el apoyo de padres y amigos respectivamente) y sobre los de intensidad moderada en el caso de las chicas (β=.195 y β=.200, respectivamente).Conclusiones: el apoyo de padres y amigos contribuye a los niveles de actividad física moderada o vigorosa en adolescentes españoles.
Scielzo, N. D.; Wu, C.
(I)In this project, the Beta-decay Paul Trap, an open-geometry RFQ ion trap that can be instrumented with sophisticated radiation detection arrays, is used for precision β-decay studies. Measurements of β-decay angular correlations, which are sensitive to exotic particles and other phenomena beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics that may occur at the TeV-energy scale, are being performed by taking advantage of the favorable properties of the mirror 8Li and 8B β ± decays and the benefits afforded by using trapped ions. By detecting the β and two α particles emitted in these decays, the complete kinematics can bemore » reconstructed. This allows a simultaneous measurement of the β-n, β-n-α, and β-α correlations and a determination of the neutrino energy and momentum event by event. In addition, the 8B neutrino spectrum, of great interest in solar neutrino oscillation studies, can be determined in a new way. Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy is also being performed on neutron-rich isotopes by studying the β-decay recoil ions that emerge from the trap with high efficiency, good energy resolution, and practically no backgrounds. This novel technique is being used to study isotopes of mass-number A~130 in the vicinity of the N=82 neutron magic number to help understand the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) that creates many of the heavy isotopes observed in the cosmos. (II)A year-long CHICO2 campaign at ANL/ATLAS together with GRETINA included a total of 10 experiments, seven with the radioactive beams from CARIBU and three with stable beams, with 82 researchers involved from 27 institutions worldwide. CHICO2 performed flawlessly during this long campaign with achieved position resolution matching to that of GRETINA, which greatly enhances the sensitivity in the study of nuclear γ-ray spectroscopy. This can be demonstrated in our results on 144Ba and 146Ba where the octupole deformation is evident from the
S73-34295A (June 1973) --- A vertical view of a portion of northern California reproduced from data taken from the Skylab Multispectral Scanner, experiment S192, in the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This view is the most westerly one-third of Frame No. 001, Roll No. 518, S192, Skylab 2. Frame No. 001 extends from the Pacific coast at the Eureka area southeasterly 175 nautical miles to the Feather River drainage basin. Included in this view are Sacramento River Valley, Oroville Reservoir, Oroville and Chico. This non-photographic image is a color composite of channels 2 (visible), 7 and 12 (infrared) from the Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP) S192 scanner. The scanner techniques assist with spectral signature identification and mapping of ground truth targets in agriculture, forestry, geology, hydrology and oceanography. Photo credit: NASA
Miranda, J.; Calva-Vasquez, G.; Solis, C.
Particle induced X-ray emission (PIeXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) elemental analyses of tree rings and soils from forests around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) were performed. The aim was to estimate the impact of pollution on the forests. Cores from Pinus montezumae and Abies religiosa trees, in four forests around the MCMA (Desierto de los Leones, Iztapopocatepetl, Villa del Carbon and Zoquiapan) and a reference site (El Chico). Differences were observed in samples from the different forests, showing higher values in the areas closest to the MCMA. A correlation of several elements with ring width was found using clustermore » analysis. Additionally, soil analyses from different depths in the forests were carried out, trying to relate the elemental concentrations measured in the tree rings with cation mobility. In this case, samples taken in 1993 and 1999 were analyzed, showing elemental mobility to the various depths.« less
Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Janssens, R. F.; Wu, C. Y.
The quadrupole collectivity of low-lying states and the anomalous behavior of the0 + 2 and 2 + 3 levels in 72Ge are investigated via projectile multi-step Coulomb excitation with GRETINA and CHICO-2. A total of forty six E2 and M1 matrix elements connecting fourteen low-lying levels were determined using the least-squares search code, GOSIA. Evidence for triaxiality and shape coexistence, based on the model-independent shape invariants deduced from the Kumar–Cline sum rule, is presented. Moreover, these are interpreted using a simple two-state mixing model as well as multi-state mixing calculations carried out within the framework of the triaxial rotor model.more » Our results represent a significant milestone towards the understanding of the unusual structure of this nucleus.« less
Thermoelectric (TE) devices heat, cool, and generate electricity when a temperature differential is provided between the two module faces. In cooperation with NASA, Chico, California-based United States Thermoelectric Consortium Inc. (USTC) built a gas emissions analyzer (GEA) for combustion research. The GEA precipitated hydrocarbon particles, preventing contamination that would hinder precise rocket fuel analysis. The USTC research and design team uses patent-pending dimple, pin-fin, microchannel and microjet structures to develop and design heat dissipation devices on the mini-scale level, which not only guarantee high performance of products, but also scale device size from 1 centimeter to 10 centimeters. USTC continues to integrate the benefits of TE devices in its current line of thermal management solutions and has found the accessibility of NASA technical research to be a valuable, sustainable resource that has continued to positively influence its product design and manufacturing
Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Balensiefer, Deisi Cristiane; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; de Sousa, Glaucia Pereira; da Cunha, Fábio Adonis Gouveia Carneiro; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira
The Antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of North and Northeastern Brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. Aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. Over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released by the CMA/ICMBio and four of them were rescued again due to debris ingestion. Two of these manatees died and the other two were taken back into captivity for a new rehabilitation process. The four mammals had confirmed diagnosis of plastic debris ingestion. These findings demonstrate that the environment where the manatees live after being released had a significant amount of garbage which may hinder the success of the species conservation in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Espinosa, Mara I.; Gouin, Nicolas; Squeo, Francisco A.; López, David
Connectivity between populations plays a key role in the long-term persistence of species in fragmented habitats. This is of particular concern for biodiversity preservation in drylands, since water limited landscapes are typically characterized by little suitable habitat cover, high habitat fragmentation, harsh matrices, and are being rapidly degraded at a global scale. In this study, we modelled landscape connectivity between 11 guanaco Lama guanicoe populations in Chile’s arid Norte Chico, a region that supports the last remnant coastal populations of this emblematic herbivore indigenous to South America. We produced a habitat suitability model to derive a regional surface resistance map, and used circuit theory to map functional connectivity, investigate the relative isolation between populations, and identify those that contribute most to the patch connectivity network. Predicted suitable habitat for L. guanicoe represented about 25% of the study region (i.e., 29,173 km2) and was heterogeneously distributed along a continuous stretch along the Andes, and discontinuous patches along the coast. As a result, we found that high connectivity current flows in the mid and high Andes formed a wide, continuous connectivity corridor, enabling connectivity between all high Andean populations. Coastal populations, in contrast, were more isolated. These groups demonstrate no inter-population connectivity between themselves, only with higher altitude populations, and for two of them, animal movement was linked to the effectiveness of wildlife crossings along the Pan-American highway. Our results indicate that functional connectivity is an issue of concern for L. guanicoe in Chile’s Norte Chico, implying that future conservation and management plans should emphasize strategies aimed at conserving functional connectivity between coastal and Andean populations, as well as the protection of habitat patches likely to act as stepping stones within the connectivity network
Girelli, T. J.; Chemale, F., Jr.; Lavina, E.; Laux, J. H.; Bongiolo, E.; Lana, C.
The Rio de la Plata is one key area for the reconstruction of the Paleoproterozoic Supercontinent in Western Gondwana. We present U-Pb-Hf isotopes, chemistry on minerals and whole-rock geochemistry from para and orthogneisses of the Santa Maria Chico Granulite Complex, one of the Rio de la Plata fragments partially affected by the Brasiliano Orogeny. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes allowed the characterization of two main events: an oceanic juvenile crustal accretion (i) 2430 - 2290 Ma (ɛHf(t) -3.17 to +7.00); a continental arc (ii) 2240 - 2120 Ma (ɛHf(t)= -4 to +2.4). We recognized two main high-grade metamorphic events in the region linked to an arc volcanic setting (830 - 870 °C - 6.7 - 7.2 kbar, 2.3 Ga) and later to continent-continent collision (770 - 790 °C and 8.7 - 9.1 kbar, 2.1 - 2.0 Ga). The development of orogenic sedimentary basins (fore-arc and intra-arc) occurred during the last cycle with the maximum depositional age of 2.12 Ga and were metamorphosed during 2.06 Ga main granulitic event. The granulitic rocks were cut by 1.8 Ga alkaline granitic dikes related to crustal extension recognized in the different segments of the craton and widespread in the adjacent paleoplates at the time. The present data point to that Paleoproterozoic granulitic rocks of the Santa Maria Chico Granulite Complex and adjacent Nico Pérez and Rivera terranes, formed in a multi-stage volcanic arc to continental collision environment along 370 Ma (2430 to 2060 Ma). These terranes were amalgamated during the Paleoproterozoic to the core of the Rio de la Plata Craton as part of Columbia Supercontinent and later partially reworked during the amalgamation of Western Gondwana in the Neoproterozoic.
Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Candia-Zulbarán, Rebeca I; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Huchin-Mian, Juan P; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique
In Bahía de la Ascensión, Mexico, 'casitas' (large artificial shelters) are extensively used to harvest Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus. After the discovery of a pathogenic virus, Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1), in these lobsters, laboratory experiments revealed that PaV1 could be transmitted by contact and through water, and that lobsters avoided shelters harboring diseased conspecifics. To examine these issues in the context of casitas, which typically harbor multiple lobsters of all sizes, we examined the distribution and aggregation patterns of lobsters in the absence/presence of diseased conspecifics (i.e. visibly infected with PaV1) in 531 casitas distributed over 3 bay zones, 1 poorly vegetated ('Vigía Chico', average depth: 1.5 m) and 2 more extensively vegetated ('Punta Allen': 2.5 m; 'Los Cayos': 2.4 m). All zones had relatively high indices of predation risk. Using several statistical approaches, we found that distribution parameters of lobsters were generally not affected by the presence of diseased conspecifics in casitas. Interestingly, however, in the shallower and less vegetated zone (Vigía Chico), individual casitas harbored more lobsters and lobsters were actually more crowded in casitas containing diseased conspecifics, yet disease prevalence was the lowest in lobsters of all sizes. These results suggest that (1) investment in disease avoidance by lobsters is partially modulated by local habitat features, (2) contact transmission rates of PaV1 may be lower in nature than in the laboratory, and (3) water-borne transmission rates may be lower in shallow, poorly vegetated habitats more exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation, which can damage viral particles.
Espinosa, Mara I; Gouin, Nicolas; Squeo, Francisco A; López, David; Bertin, Angéline
Connectivity between populations plays a key role in the long-term persistence of species in fragmented habitats. This is of particular concern for biodiversity preservation in drylands, since water limited landscapes are typically characterized by little suitable habitat cover, high habitat fragmentation, harsh matrices, and are being rapidly degraded at a global scale. In this study, we modelled landscape connectivity between 11 guanaco Lama guanicoe populations in Chile's arid Norte Chico, a region that supports the last remnant coastal populations of this emblematic herbivore indigenous to South America. We produced a habitat suitability model to derive a regional surface resistance map, and used circuit theory to map functional connectivity, investigate the relative isolation between populations, and identify those that contribute most to the patch connectivity network. Predicted suitable habitat for L. guanicoe represented about 25% of the study region (i.e., 29,173 km 2 ) and was heterogeneously distributed along a continuous stretch along the Andes, and discontinuous patches along the coast. As a result, we found that high connectivity current flows in the mid and high Andes formed a wide, continuous connectivity corridor, enabling connectivity between all high Andean populations. Coastal populations, in contrast, were more isolated. These groups demonstrate no inter-population connectivity between themselves, only with higher altitude populations, and for two of them, animal movement was linked to the effectiveness of wildlife crossings along the Pan-American highway. Our results indicate that functional connectivity is an issue of concern for L. guanicoe in Chile's Norte Chico, implying that future conservation and management plans should emphasize strategies aimed at conserving functional connectivity between coastal and Andean populations, as well as the protection of habitat patches likely to act as stepping stones within the connectivity network.
Langenheim, V. E.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Springhorn, S.
The Lovejoy Basalt is a distinctive Miocene (~16 Ma) unit that erupted from Thompson Peak in the northeast Sierra Nevada, flowed southwest across the Sierra Nevada into the Sacramento Valley. It crops out in a few places in Sacramento Valley: (1) near Chico and Oroville on the east side of the valley, (2) Orland Buttes on the west side, and (3) Putnam Peak, some 250 km southwest of Thompson Peak. The basalt is also encountered in drill holes, but its extent is not entirely known. The Lovejoy Basalt is strongly magnetic and, in general, reversely magnetized, making it an excellent target for aeromagnetic mapping. Recently acquired aeromagnetic data (flight line spacing 800 m at an altitude of 240 m) indicate a characteristic, sinuous, short-wavelength magnetic pattern associated with outcrops and known subcrops of Lovejoy Basalt. Filtering of these data to enhance negative, short-wavelength anomalies defines two large bands of negative anomalies that trend southwest of Chico and Oroville and appear to coalesce about 25 km north of Sutter Buttes. Another band of negative anomalies extends north of the junction roughly along the Sacramento River 40 km to Deer Creek. The anomalies become more subdued to the north, suggesting that the Lovejoy thins to the north. Aeromagnetic data also indicate a large subcrop of Lovejoy Basalt that extends 25 km north-northeast from exposures at Orland Buttes. Driller logs from gas and water wells confirm our mapping of Lovejoy within these areas. The sinuous magnetic lows are not continuous south of Sutter Buttes, but form isolated patches that are aligned in a north-south direction south of the concealed Colusa Dome to Putnam Peak and an east-west, 20-km-long band about 15 km south of Sutter Buttes. Other reversed anomalies in the Sacramento Valley coincide with volcanic necks in the Sutter Buttes and Colusa Dome; these produce semicircular anomalies that are distinct from those caused by the Lovejoy Basalt.
Polop, Francisco J; Provensal, María C; Pini, Noemí; Levis, Silvana C; Priotto, José W; Enría, Delia; Calderón, Gladys E; Costa, Federico; Polop, Jaime J
Andes virus (AND) is a hantavirus hosted by the sigmodontine rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus in southern Argentina, where it is responsible for most cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Our study provides data about the spatial variation in abundance of the rodent host of AND hantavirus. We report results of a longitudinal study performed in a locality of the Andean region of Chubut Province. From November 2003 (spring) to July 2006 (winter), O. longicaudatus was the most common species captured (63%) and it showed significant differences in abundance among habitats and seasons. Most antibody-positive rodents were O. longicaudatus (9.2%), followed by A. longipilis (3.6%) and A. olivaceus (1.5%). The highest number of antibody-positive animals was observed for males that belonged to the heaviest mass classes. Antibody-positive O. longicaudatus were more abundant in brush habitats. We found low richness of rodents and abundance of O. longicaudatus in areas affected by anthropogenic activity. The infection seems to be regionally persistent, but the risk to humans in a landscape would be localized. To develop accurate models for predicting HPS outbreaks, further research is needed to characterize rodent movement patterns across the landscape.
Isla, Federico Ignacio
Northern Patagonia is characterised by tectonic depressions below present sea level. Some of them are today flooded by the sea; others remain emerged although they are at altitudes of - 50 m (Bajo del Gualicho), - 35 m (Salinas Grandes) and - 7 m (Salina La Piedra). San Matías Gulf also was such an emerged depression below contemporary mean sea level during the Late Pleistocene. It flooded between 11,500 and 11,000 years ago, when the sea level surpassed the sill of the gulf (today 50 m below mean sea level) during postglacial sea-level rise. In those days, shrublands extended on the slopes of the tectonic depression. In-situ pieces of woods dredged from the bottom of the gulf at depths of 70 m gave a conventional age of 11,310 ± 150 years BP. We used the wood, together with dated shells from the continental shelf, and shells and organic matter dated from the San Blas, Negro and Chubut coastal plains to construct a sea-level curve. Sea level rise surpassed the present level somewhat before 6000 years BP, reaching a maximum stand of + 6 m. It has since gently diminished towards present sea level.
Cimino, Jobea; Casey, Daren; Wall, Stephen; Brandani, Aldo; Domik, Gitta; Leberl, Franz
The Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to fly aboard a shuttle, was launched on October 5, 1984. One of the primary goals of the SIR-B experiment was to use multiple incidence angle radar images to distinguish different terrain types through the use of their characteristic backscatter curves. This goal was accomplished in several locations including the Chubut Province of southern Argentina. Four descending image acquisitions were collected providing a multiple incidence angle image set. The data were first used to assess stereo-radargrammetric techniques. A digital elevation model was produced using the optimum pair of multiple incidence angle images. This model was then used to determine the local incidence angle of each picture element to generate curves of relative brightness vs. incidence angle. Secondary image products were also generated using the multi-angle data. The results of this work indicate that: (1) various forest species and various structures of a single species may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery, and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to a variable incidence angle when analyzing and comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.
Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R.; Zamuner, Alba B.; Rubén Cúneo, N.; Matheos, Sergio D.; Singer, Bradley S.
Few South American macrofloras of Paleocene age are known, and this limits our knowledge of diversity and composition between the end-Cretaceous event and the Eocene appearance of high floral diversity. We report new, unbiased collections of 2516 compression specimens from the Paleocene Salamanca Formation (ca. 61.7 Ma) from two localities in the Palacio de los Loros exposures in southern Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. Our samples reveal considerably greater richness than was previously known from the Paleocene of Patagonia, including 36 species of angiosperm leaves as well as angiosperm fruits, flowers, and seeds; ferns; and conifer leaves, cones, and seeds. The floras, which are from siltstone and sandstone channel-fills deposited on low-relief floodplain landscapes in a humid, warm temperate climate, are climatically and paleoenvironmentally comparable to many quantitatively collected Paleocene floras from the Western Interior of North America. Adjusted for sample size, there are >50% more species at each Palacio de los Loros quarry than in any comparable U.S. Paleocene sample. These results indicate more vibrant terrestrial ecosystems in Patagonian than in North American floodplain environments ˜4 m.y. after the end-Cretaceous extinction, and they push back the time line 10 m.y. for the evolution of high floral diversity in South America. The cause of the dis parity is unknown but could involve reduced impact effects because of greater distance from the Chicxulub site, higher latest Cretaceous diversity, or faster recovery or immigration rates.
Holwerda, Femke M; Pol, Diego; Rauhut, Oliver W M
The early Middle Jurassic is regarded as the period when sauropods diversified and became major components of the terrestrial ecosystems. Not many sites yield sauropod material of this time; however, both cranial and postcranial material of eusauropods have been found in the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (latest Early Jurassic-early Middle Jurassic) in Central Patagonia (Argentina), which may help to shed light on the early evolution of eusauropods. These eusauropod remains include teeth associated with cranial and mandibular material as well as isolated teeth found at different localities. In this study, an assemblage of sauropod teeth from the Cañadón Asfalto Formation found in four different localities in the area of Cerro Condor (Chubut, Argentina) is used as a mean of assessing sauropod species diversity at these sites. By using dental enamel wrinkling, primarily based on the shape and orientation of grooves and crests of this wrinkling, we define and describe three different morphotypes. With the exception of one taxon, for which no cranial material is currently known, these morphotypes match the local eusauropod diversity as assessed based on postcranial material. Morphotype I is tentatively assigned to Patagosaurus, whereas morphotypes II and III correspond to new taxa, which are also distinguished by associated postcranial material. This study thus shows that enamel wrinkling can be used as a tool in assessing sauropod diversity.
Navarrete, César; Gianni, Guido; Echaurren, Andrés; Kingler, Federico Lince; Folguera, Andrés
From Lower Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous, several intraplate compression events affected discrete sectors of Central Patagonia, under a general context of crustal extension associated with Gondwana breakup. This was demonstrated by means of 2D and 3D seismic and borehole data, which show partial inversion of Lower and Middle Jurassic extensional structures of the Chubut and Cañadón Asfalto basins, during the earliest stages of breakup. A comparison with surrounding areas in Patagonia, where similar Jurassic intraplate compression was described, allowed the discrimination of three discrete pulses of subtle compression (C1: ∼188-185 Ma; C2: ∼170-163; C3: ∼157-136? Ma). Interestingly, episodic intraplate compressional events are closely followed by high flux magmatic events linked to the westward expansion of the Karoo-Ferrar thermal anomaly, which impacted on the lithosphere of southwest Gondwana in Lower Jurassic. In addition, we determined the approximate direction of the main compressive strain (σ1) compatible with other Jurassic intraplate belts of South America. These observations led us to propose a linkage between a thermo mechanically weakened continental crust due to LIPs activity, changes in plate motions and ridge-push forces generated by the opening of the Weddell Sea, in order to explain intraplate shortening, interrupted while Karoo LIPs magmatic invigoration took place.
Holwerda, Femke M.; Pol, Diego; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.
The early Middle Jurassic is regarded as the period when sauropods diversified and became major components of the terrestrial ecosystems. Not many sites yield sauropod material of this time; however, both cranial and postcranial material of eusauropods have been found in the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (latest Early Jurassic–early Middle Jurassic) in Central Patagonia (Argentina), which may help to shed light on the early evolution of eusauropods. These eusauropod remains include teeth associated with cranial and mandibular material as well as isolated teeth found at different localities. In this study, an assemblage of sauropod teeth from the Cañadón Asfalto Formation found in four different localities in the area of Cerro Condor (Chubut, Argentina) is used as a mean of assessing sauropod species diversity at these sites. By using dental enamel wrinkling, primarily based on the shape and orientation of grooves and crests of this wrinkling, we define and describe three different morphotypes. With the exception of one taxon, for which no cranial material is currently known, these morphotypes match the local eusauropod diversity as assessed based on postcranial material. Morphotype I is tentatively assigned to Patagosaurus, whereas morphotypes II and III correspond to new taxa, which are also distinguished by associated postcranial material. This study thus shows that enamel wrinkling can be used as a tool in assessing sauropod diversity. PMID:25692466
Dahinten, S L; Castro, L E; Zavatti, J R; Forte, L M; Oyhenart, E E
Nutritional transition has been described in various countries, each showing inherent characteristics. Furthermore, different patterns also appear within the same country. To compare the nutritional status of schoolchildren, of both sexes, living in two Argentine cities with different urban and environment characteristics, from the perspective of nutritional transition. The sample comprised 5355 children (6-13 years) living in Puerto Madryn (Chubut) and General Alvear (Mendoza), Argentina. Weight and height were transformed into Z-scores according to NHANES I- II; underweight, stunting and wasting defined by - 2 SD and overweight and obesity calculated according the cut-off proposed by IOTF. Prevalences of nutritional status were estimated. Comparison of the two cities revealed significant χ² values for the indicators of nutritional status analysed. Puerto Madryn had higher prevalences of overweight and obesity. General Alvear exhibited higher stunting and underweight values. The cities studied are in different stages of nutritional transition. Puerto Madryn is undergoing growing industrialization and urbanization and thus exhibits characteristics typical of an 'obesogenic' environment. General Alvear, a less complex urban centre, where some cultural patterns related to an agrarian way of life appear to have been retained, is situated at a less advanced stage.
Scasso, Roberto A.; Cuitiño, José I.
This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the 9th International Conference on Tidal Sedimentology held on 17-19 November 2015 in Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The guest editors are the conference organizers Roberto A. Scasso and José I. Cuitiño. Gerardo M. Perillo was the head of the Scientific Committee. The conferences on tidal sedimentology have been traditionally held every 4 years. However, only 3 years separated the last conference held in Caen (France, 2012) from this conference. Increasing numbers of contributions and the growing interest in tidal sedimentation have been the reasons for shortening the inter-conference period. The 2015 conference served as a discussion forum focusing on advances in modern and ancient tidal sedimentation at different locations worldwide. The papers presented in this Special Issue provide a selective view of the latest research results, the main topics dealing with tidal hydrodynamics and sediment transport, tidal coastal morphodynamics, modern and ancient tidal sedimentation, geotechnical processes in tidal environments, and tidal basins, facies and reservoirs.
Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.
Collisions probably occurred frequently in the early history of the asteroid belt. Their effects, which should be recorded in meteorites, must have included heating and melting along with shock alteration of mineral textures. Some non-chondritic meteorite types e.g., eucrites and IIE and IAB irons - do indeed give evidence of extensive impact heating more than 3.4 Gyr ago. The ordinary chondrites, in contrast, show little evidence of early impact heating. The Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of ordinary chondrites that experienced intense shock are for the most part relatively young, many less than 1.5 Gyr. The numerous L-chondrites with Ar- Ar ages clustering near 0.5 Gy are a well-known example. One of them, the 105-kg Chico Lchondrite, shows the effects of unusually intense heating. It is approximately 60% impact melt and likely formed as a dyke beneath a large crater when the L-chondrite parent body underwent a very large impact approximately 0.5 Gyr ago. In rare instances, older shock dates are indicated for ordinary chondrites. Dixon et al show early impact resetting of Ar-Ar ages of a few LL-chondrites including MIL 99301 at 4.23 0.03 Gyr, but in none of these stones did shock lead to extensive melting. As of 2003, searches for chondritic melts attributable to early shock had turned up only the Shaw L-chondrite, which has an Ar-Ar age of approximately 4.42 Gyr. PAT91501 is an 8.55-kg L-chondrite containing vesicles and metal-troilite nodules. It is a unique, near-total impact melt, unshocked, depleted in siderophile and chalcophile elements, and contains only approximately 10% relic chondritic material. The authors conclude that PAT91501 crystallized rapidly and from a much more homogeneous melt than did Shaw. They suggest that PAT resembles Chico and likely formed as an impact melt vein within an impact crater. To define the history of PAT, we have determined its Ar-39-Ar-40 age and measured several radioactive and stable nuclides produced during its space exposure to
Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Theofilos, T.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Virgil, G.; Sumino, H.; Notsu, K.
The active shield-volcano Sierra Negra is part of the Galapagos hotspot. Sierra Negra is the largest shield volcano of Isabela Island, hosting a 10 km diameter caldera. Ten historic eruptions have occurred and some involved a frequently visited east caldera rim fissure zone called Volcan Chico. The last volcanic event occurred in October 2005 and lasted for about a week, covering approximately twenty percent of the eastern caldera floor. Sierra Negra volcano has experienced some significant changes in the chemical composition of its volcanic gas discharges after the 2005 eruption. This volcanic event produced an important SO2 degassing that depleted the magmatic content of this gas. Not significant changes in the MORB and plume-type helium contribution were observed after the 2005 eruption, with a 65.5 % of MORB and 35.5 % of plume contribution. In 2006 a visible and diffuse gas emission study was performed at the summit of Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos, to evaluate degassing rate from this volcanic system. Diffuse degassing at Sierra Negra was mainly confined in three different DDS: Volcan Chico, the southern inner margin of the caldera, and Mina Azufral. These areas showed also visible degassing, which indicates highly fractured areas where volcano-hydrothermal fluids migrate towards surface. A total fumarole/plume SO2 emission of 11 ± 2 td-1 was calculated by mini-DOAS ground-based measurements at Mina Azufral fumarolic area. Molar ratios of major volcanic gas components were also measured in-situ at Mina Azufral with a portable multisensor. The results showed H2S/SO2, CO2/SO2 and H2O/SO2 molar ratios of 0.41, 52.2 and 867.9, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratio we have estimated other volatiles emission rates. The results showed that H2O, CO2 and H2S emission rates from Sierra Negra are 562, 394, and 2.4 t d-1, respectively. The estimated total output of diffuse CO2 emission from the summit of
Marcoval, M Alejandra; Villafañe, Virginia E; Helbling, E Walter
Experiments (6-8 days) were conducted during late summer, late fall and late winter, 2003 with waters collected off Bahía Nueva, Chubut, Argentina (42.7 degrees S, 65 degrees W) to determine the combined effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) and nutrient addition on phytoplankton communities. Samples were put in UVR-transparent containers and incubated under two radiation treatments: (a) Samples exposed to full solar radiation (PAB treatment, 280-400 nm) and (b) Samples exposed only to PAR (PAR treatment, 400-700 nm). At the beginning of the experiments, nutrients (i.e., NaPO(4)H(2) and NaNO(3)) were added to one set of samples from each radiation treatment (N cultures) whereas in the other set, nutrients remained at the concentration of the seawater. Chlorophyll a, biomass, UV-absorbing compounds and taxonomic composition were recorded throughout the experiments. N cultures always had significantly higher growth rates (P<0.05) than that in non-enriched cultures. At the beginning of experiments, phytoplankton communities were generally dominated by monads and flagellates but by the end, diatoms comprised the bulk of biomass, with only one to four taxa dominating, suggesting a selection towards more tolerant/less sensitive species. Over the experimental time frame, the observed taxonomic changes were mostly due to nutrient availability, and to a lesser extent to solar UVR exposure. Overall, the results indicate that environmental conditions (i.e., light history, nutrient concentration) together with the physiological status of the cells play a very important role at the time to assess the combined effect of nutrient addition and solar radiation on coastal phytoplankton assemblages from Patagonia.
Jud, Nathan A; Gandolfo, Maria A; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter
Abstract Background and Aims Early Palaeocene (Danian) plant fossils from Patagonia provide information on the recovery from the end-Cretaceous extinction and Cenozoic floristic change in South America. Actinomorphic flowers with eight to ten perianth parts are described and evaluated in a phylogenetic framework. The goal of this study is to determine the identity of these fossil flowers and to discuss their evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographical significance Methods More than 100 fossilized flowers were collected from three localities in the Danian Salamanca and Peñas Coloradas Formations in southern Chubut. They were prepared, photographed and compared with similar extant and fossil flowers using published literature and herbarium specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using morphological and molecular data. Key results The fossil flowers share some but not all the synapomorphies that characterize the Schizomerieae, a tribe within Cunoniaceae. These features include the shallow floral cup, variable number of perianth parts arranged in two whorls, laciniate petals, anthers with a connective extension, and a superior ovary with free styles. The number of perianth parts is doubled and the in situ pollen is tricolporate, with a surface more like that of other Cunoniaceae outside Schizomerieae, such as Davidsonia or Weinmannia. Conclusions An extinct genus of crown-group Cunoniaceae is recognized and placed along the stem lineage leading to Schizomerieae. Extant relatives are typical of tropical to southern-temperate rainforests, and these fossils likely indicate a similarly warm and wet temperate palaeoclimate. The oldest reliable occurrences of the family are fossil pollen and wood from the Upper Cretaceous of the Antarctica and Argentina, whereas in Australia the family first occurs in upper Palaeocene deposits. This discovery demonstrates that the family survived the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary event in Patagonia and that diversification
Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime
We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995-2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature -1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.
Gandolfo, María A; Hermsen, Elizabeth J
Radially symmetrical, five-winged fossil fruits from the highly diverse early Eocene Laguna del Hunco flora of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina, are named, described and illustrated. The main goals are to assess the affinities of the fossils and to place them in an evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographic context. Specimens of fossil fruits were collected from the Tufolitas Laguna del Hunco. They were prepared, photographed and compared with similar extant and fossil fruits using published literature. Their structure was also evaluated by comparing them with that of modern Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) fruits through examination of herbarium specimens. The Laguna del Hunco fossil fruits share the diagnostic features that characterize modern and fossil Ceratopetalum (symmetry, number of fruit wings, presence of a conspicuous floral nectary and overall venation pattern). The pattern of the minor wing (sepal) veins observed in the Patagonian fossil fruits is different from that of modern and previously described fossil Ceratopetalum fruits; therefore, a new fossil species is recognized. An apomorphy (absence of petals) suggests that the fossils belong within crown-group Ceratopetalum . The Patagonian fossil fruits are the oldest known record for Ceratopetalum . Because the affinities, provenance and age of the fossils are so well established, this new Ceratopetalum fossil species is an excellent candidate for use as a calibration point in divergence dating studies of the family Cunoniaceae. It represents the only record of Ceratopetalum outside Australasia, and further corroborates the biogeographic connection between the Laguna del Hunco flora and ancient and modern floras of the Australasian region. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.
Gandolfo, Maria A.; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter
Southern-Hemisphere terrestrial communities from the early Paleocene are poorly known, but recent work on Danian plant fossils from the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina are providing critical data on earliest Paleocene floras. The fossils described here come from a site in the Salamanca Formation dating to ca. 1 million years or less after the end-Cretaceous extinction event; they are the first fossil flowers reported from the Danian of South America, and possible the entire Southern Hemisphere. They are compressions and impressions in flat-laminated light gray shale, and they belong to the family Rhamnaceae (buckthorns). Flowers of Notiantha grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are pentamerous, with distinctly keeled calyx lobes projecting from the hypanthium, clawed and cucullate emarginate petals, antepetalous stamens, and a pentagonal floral disk that fills the hypanthium. Their phylogenetic position was evaluated using a molecular scaffold approach combined with morphological data. Results indicate that the flowers are most like those of extant ziziphoid Rhamnaceae. The associated leaves, assigned to Suessenia grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are simple and ovate, with serrate margins and three acrodromous basal veins. They conform to the distinctive leaves of some extant Rhamnaceae in the ziziphoid and ampelozizyphoid clades. These fossils provide the first unequivocal megafossil evidence of Rhamnaceae in the Southern Hemisphere, demonstrating that Rhamnaceae expanded beyond the tropics by the earliest Paleocene. Given previous reports of rhamnaceous pollen in the late Paleogene and Neogene of Antarctica and southern Australia, this new occurrence increases the possibility of high-latitude dispersal of this family between South America and Australia via Antarctica during the Cenozoic. PMID:28489895
Jud, Nathan A; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Gandolfo, Maria A
The fossil record is critical for testing biogeographic hypotheses. Menispermaceae (moonseeds) are a widespread family with a rich fossil record and alternative hypotheses related to their origin and diversification. The family is well-represented in Cenozoic deposits of the northern hemisphere, but the record in the southern hemisphere is sparse. Filling in the southern record of moonseeds will improve our ability to evaluate alternative biogeographic hypotheses. Fossils were collected from the Salamanca (early Paleocene, Danian) and the Huitrera (early Eocene, Ypresian) formations in Chubut Province, Argentina. We photographed them using light microscopy, epifluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy and compared the fossils with similar extant and fossil Menispermaceae using herbarium specimens and published literature. We describe fossil leaves and endocarps attributed to Menispermaceae from Argentinean Patagonia. The leaves are identified to the family, and the endocarps are further identified to the tribe Cissampelideae. The Salamancan endocarp is assigned to the extant genus Stephania. These fossils significantly expand the known range of Menispermaceae in South America, and they include the oldest (ca. 64 Ma) unequivocal evidence of the family worldwide. Our findings highlight the importance of West Gondwana in the evolution of Menispermaceae during the Paleogene. Currently, the fossil record does not discern between a Laurasian or Gondwanan origin; however, it does demonstrate that Menispermaceae grew well outside the tropics by the early Paleocene. The endocarps' affinity with Cissampelideae suggests that diversification of the family was well underway by the earliest Paleocene. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Botany is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Botanical Society of America.
de León, Rodrigo Ponce; Vera, Bárbara Berón; Volonterio, Odile
The genus Temnocephala is endemic to the Neotropical region. Temnocephala mexicana and Temnocephala chilensis are the only 2 temnocephalans whose known distribution ranges extend to the south beyond Parallel 40°S. No Temnocephala species has ever been recorded from the extensive area between Parallel 43°S and the southern end of the South American continent, which makes the study of the southern limit of the distribution of the genus a topic of great interest. The southernmost report corresponds to T. chilensis from the Telsen River, Chubut Province, Argentina. In March 2000, several temnocephalans were found on the freshwater anomuran crustacean Aegla neuquensis from the same locality; the specimens were identified as belonging to a new species, which is described here. This species is characterized by possessing an unusually thin-walled, narrow zone that has the appearance of a deep groove connecting the introvert to the shaft of the penial stylet; an introvert with 36 longitudinal rows of spines, each bearing 6-8 spines that are progressively smaller towards the distal end; a distal end of the introvert with a very thin, sclerotized wall without spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a pair of paranephrocytes at the level of the pharynx and a second pair at the level of the anterior portion of the anterior testes, and eggs with very long stalks. On the basis of their overall morphology, host preference, and geographical distribution, T. chilensis and the new species are closely related, so a diagnostic key for the southern species of Temnocephala is also included. The type locality of the new species is in the southern limit of the known distribution area of T. chilensis, so after this work there are 2 known species marking the southern limit of the distribution of the genus.
Zangari, Amanda Marie; Buie, Marc W.; Stern, S. Alan; Terrell, Dirk; Porter, Simon Bernard; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Soto, Alejandro; Tamblyn, Peter; Benecchi, Susan; Parker, Alex; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Young, Eliot F.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; New Horizons MU69 Occultation Observing Team
On 2017 July 17, (486958) 2014 MU69 passed in front of a star as seen from the area north of Comodoro Rivadavia, in Chubut Province, Argentina. Despite challenging wind conditions, twenty two portable telescopes recorded data of the g'= 12.60 mag star in a 45-minute block centered on the predicted midtime of roughly 03:50 UT. Each telescope was spaced approximately 4 km apart in a “picket fence” pattern to target an object as small as 10 km. The picket fence spanned roughly 100 km. Five telescopes observed a solid body occultation.Occultation data provide a unique one-dimensional probe of the 2014 MU69 system that is impossible to achieve from direct imaging. These data will allow for fits of the size and shape of 2014 MU69, and from its derived size, the albedo . The occultation data will also aid in navigation of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft toward its January 1, 2019 encounter with 2014 MU69.We will detail the July 17 occultation campaign and present analyses of the light curves from each portable station, including occultation timing and constraints on dust and and other objects in the system derived from the occultation baseline data.This work would not have been possible without the financial support of the New Horizons mission and NASA, astrometric support of the Gaia mission and HST, and logistical support from Argentina, CONAE and specifically Comodoro Rivadavia as well as assistance from the US Embassy in Buenos Aires.
Porter, Simon Bernard; Buie, Marc W.; Spencer, John R.; Folkner, William; Parker, Alex; Zangari, Amanda Marie; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Benecchi, Susan; Stern, S. Alan; Terrell, Dirk; Soto, Alejandro; Tamblyn, Peter; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Young, Eliot F.; New Horizons MU69 Occultation Team
In November 2015, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft burned its thrusters to intercept the cold classical Kuiper Belt Object (486958) 2014 MU69. Then, on July 17, 2017, five small telescopes in Chubut Province, Argentina recorded a solid body occultation of MU69. Both these events required an orbital solution of unprecedented accuracy, as will the January 1, 2019 flyby of MU69 by New Horizons. This was especially difficult because there were no precoveries of MU69 prior to July 2014, it is in an extremely crowded field near the galactic core, and it is faint enough to only be reliably detected by Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). To accomplish this, we performed an extremely detailed analysis of 237 WFC3 images, down to the subpixel distortion level, in order to produce individual probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the position of MU69 in each WFC3 image. We registered each WFC3 image against a pre-release version of the Gaia DR2 catalog, which produced even smaller residuals than the now-released DR1. We then combined these WFC3+Gaia PDFs with a high-precision few-body numerical integrator and a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) sampler to produce a state vector PDF for MU69 at defined epoch. Propagating those state vectors from the epoch produces an instantaneous positional cloud for MU69 at any given time. This positional cloud was then directly translated into a shadow path uncertainty cloud in order to plan the MU69 occultation campaign. We will describe this process of fully propagating errors from WFC3 images to telescope sites on the ground, and also describe refinements for future guiding of New Horizons to its encounter with MU69. We thank NASA, Hubble, Gaia, CONAE, the city of Comodoro Rivadavia, and the government of Argentina for their assistance and support of the MU69 occultation campaign.
Nicola, Marcela V; Sede, Silvana M; Pozner, Raúl; Johnson, Leigh A
The Patagonian steppe is an immense, cold, arid region, yet phylogeographically understudied. Nassauvia subgen. Strongyloma is a characteristic element of the steppe, exhibiting a continuum of morphological variation. This taxon provides a relevant phylogeographical model not only to understand how past environmental changes shaped the genetic structure of its populations, but also to explore phylogeographical scenarios at the large geographical scale of the Patagonian steppe. Here, we (1) assess demographic processes and historical events that shaped current geographic patterns of haplotypic diversity; (2) analyze hypotheses of isolation in refugia, fragmentation of populations, and/or colonization of available areas during Pleistocene glaciations; and (3) model extant and palaeoclimatic distributions to support inferred phylogeographical patterns. Chloroplast intergenic spacers, rpl32–trnL and trnQ–5′rps16, were sequenced for 372 individuals from 63 populations. Nested clade analysis, analyses of molecular variance, and neutrality tests were performed to assess genetic structure and range expansion. The present potential distribution was modelled and projected onto a last glacial maximum (LGM) model. Of 41 haplotypes observed, ten were shared among populations associated with different morphological variants. Populations with highest haplotype diversity and private haplotypes were found in central-western and south-eastern Patagonia, consistent with long-term persistence in refugia during Pleistocene. Palaeomodelling suggested a shift toward the palaeoseashore during LGM; new available areas over the exposed Atlantic submarine platform were colonized during glaciations with postglacial retraction of populations. A scenario of fragmentation and posterior range expansion may explain the observed patterns in the center of the steppe, which is supported by palaeomodelling. Northern Patagonian populations were isolated from southern populations by the Chubut and
Hermsen, Elizabeth J
Abstract Background and Aims Radially symmetrical, five-winged fossil fruits from the highly diverse early Eocene Laguna del Hunco flora of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina, are named, described and illustrated. The main goals are to assess the affinities of the fossils and to place them in an evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographic context. Methods Specimens of fossil fruits were collected from the Tufolitas Laguna del Hunco. They were prepared, photographed and compared with similar extant and fossil fruits using published literature. Their structure was also evaluated by comparing them with that of modern Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) fruits through examination of herbarium specimens. Key Results The Laguna del Hunco fossil fruits share the diagnostic features that characterize modern and fossil Ceratopetalum (symmetry, number of fruit wings, presence of a conspicuous floral nectary and overall venation pattern). The pattern of the minor wing (sepal) veins observed in the Patagonian fossil fruits is different from that of modern and previously described fossil Ceratopetalum fruits; therefore, a new fossil species is recognized. An apomorphy (absence of petals) suggests that the fossils belong within crown-group Ceratopetalum. Conclusions The Patagonian fossil fruits are the oldest known record for Ceratopetalum. Because the affinities, provenance and age of the fossils are so well established, this new Ceratopetalum fossil species is an excellent candidate for use as a calibration point in divergence dating studies of the family Cunoniaceae. It represents the only record of Ceratopetalum outside Australasia, and further corroborates the biogeographic connection between the Laguna del Hunco flora and ancient and modern floras of the Australasian region. PMID:28110267
Jolivet, L. A.; Maset, E. R.
Argentina will require new sites for the location of radioactive waste final disposal systems. It is currently mandatory to have social and political consensus to obtain the corresponding agreements. The experience obtained with the cancellation of the project ''Feasibility Study and Engineering Project--Repository for High Level Radioactive Waste'', reinforces even more the necessity to count with the acceptance of the public to carry out projects of this kind. The first phase of the former was developed in the 80's: geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed in a compact granitic rock located in Sierra del Medio, Chubut province. This projectmore » had to be called off in the early 90's due to strong social rejection. This decision was closely related to the poor attention given to social communication issues. The governmental decision-makers in charge underwent a lot of pressure from social groups claiming for the cancellation of the project due to the lack of information and the fear it triggered. Thus, the lesson learnt: ''social communication activities must be carefully undertaken in order to achieve the appropriate management of the radioactive waste produced in our country.'' The same as in other countries, the specific National Law demands the formulation of a Strategic Plan which will not only include the research into radioactive waste, but the design of a Social Communication Programme as well. The latter will be in charge of informing the population clearly and objectively about the latest scientific and technological advances in the issue. A tentative perception-attitude pattern of the Argentine society about the overall nuclear issue is outlined in this paper. It is meant to contribute to the understanding of the public's adverse reaction to this kind of project. A communication programme is also presented. Its objective is to install the waste management topic in the public's opinion with a positive real outlook.« less
Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime
We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. PMID:24424500
Zamaloa, María C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; González, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R.
The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the
Bottoni, S.; Zhu, S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Tsunoda, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Cline, D.; Wu, C. Y.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bucher, B.; Buckner, M. Q.; Campbell, C. M.; Chiara, C. J.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; David, H. M.; Fallon, P.; Gade, A.; Greene, J. P.; Harker, J.; Hayes, A. B.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kay, B. P.; Korichi, A.; Lauritsen, T.; Sethi, J.; Seweryniak, D.; Walters, W. B.; Weisshaar, D.; Wiens, A.
The structure of 71Zn was investigated by one-neutron transfer and heavy-ion induced complex (deep-inelastic) reactions using the GRETINA-CHICO2 and the Gammasphere setups, respectively. The observed inversion between the 9/2+ and 1/2- states is explained in terms of the role of neutron pairing correlations. Non-collective sequences of levels were delineated above the 9/2+ isomeric state. These are interpreted as being associated with a modest oblate deformation in the framework of Monte-Carlo shell-model calculations carried out with the A3DA-m Hamiltonian in the pfg9/2d5/2 valence space. Similarities with the structure of 40,28,68Ni were observed and the shape-coexistence mechanism in the N = 40 region of neutron-rich nuclei is discussed in terms of the so-called Type-II shell evolution, with an emphasis on proton-neutron correlations between valence nucleons, especially those involving the shape-driving g9/2 neutron orbital.
Quindós Poncela, L; Fernández Navarro, P; Sainz Fernández, C; Gómez Arozamena, J; Bordonoba Perez, M
There is a fairly general consensus among health physicists and radiation professionals that exposure to radon progeny is the largest and most variable contribution to the population's exposure to natural sources of radiation. However, this exposure is the subject of continuing debate concerning the validity of risk assessment and recommendations on how to act in radon-prone areas. The purpose of this contribution is to situate the radon issue in Spain in two very different settings. The first is a uranium mining industry located in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca), which is under strict control of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). We have measured radon concentrations in different workplaces in this mine over a five-year period. The second setting comprises four tourist caves, three of which are located in the province of Cantabria and the fourth on the Canary Island of Lanzarote. These caves are not subject to any administrative control of radiation exposure. Measured air 222Rn concentrations were used to estimate annual effective doses due to radon inhalation in the two settings, and dose values were found to be from 2 to 10 times lower in the uranium mine than in the tourist caves. These results were analysed in the context of the new European Basic Safety Standards Directive (EU-BSS, 1996).
Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Huertas, María José; Betancort, Juan F.; Isern, Arnau; Sanz, Elena; Meco, Joaquín
The Famara massif, in the north of Lanzarote Island, constitutes the remains of a former island inhabited by the oldest known vertebrate fauna of the Canary archipelago off the coast of Africa. In this study, new ages are offered for the underlying and overlying basaltic lava flows of two paleontological sites. The island's three major palaeontological sites, which contain remains of this ancient fauna (Valle Grande, Valle Chico and Fuente de Gusa), are intercorrelated according to their lithologies, sedimentology, palaeontological content and geochronology. The new K/Ar age interval for the fossiliferous sedimentary deposits ranges between 4.3 ± 0.7 and 3.78 ± 0.71 Ma, within the Early Pliocene, and shows that the first known terrestrial animals in Lanzarote were present on the island for about 500 ka. The principal component of the deposits is a bioclastic calcarenite of aeolian origin (sand sheet deposits), which is present in all three sites and constitutes 65% of the beds. The remaining 35% is of fluvial-aeolian origin (mainly stream deposits). All the beds contain the same fossils (insect egg pods, land snails, avian eggshells and tortoise eggshells). The local palaeogeography and the formation of the deposits were conditioned by a flat plain, larger than 16 km2, over which aeolian sands moved freely with a prevailing NNE-WSW wind direction. In agreement with previous investigations, the palaeoclimate in this interval (ca. 4.3 to 3.8 Ma) must have been mainly dry with some rainy episodes.
An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over ten (10) areas over northern California and southwestern Oregon. These include the 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles of Roseburg, Medford, Weed, Alturas, Redding, Susanville, Ukiah, and Chico along with the 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ areas of the Coos Bay quadrangle and the Crescent City/Eureka areas combined. This report discusses the results obtained over the Susanville, California, map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately eighteen (18) miles apart. Amore » total of 16,880.5 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1642.8 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.« less
Vogt, A.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.; Blazhev, A.; Siciliano, M.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wheldon, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Bowry, M.; Bracco, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Chapman, R.; Cline, D.; Corradi, L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Cromaz, M.; de Angelis, G.; Eberth, J.; Fallon, P.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Freeman, S. J.; Gadea, A.; Geibel, K.; Gelletly, W.; Gengelbach, A.; Giaz, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Hayes, A. B.; Hess, H.; Hua, H.; John, P. R.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Korten, W.; Lee, I. Y.; Leoni, S.; Liang, X.; Lunardi, S.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatović, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Napoli, D.; Pearson, C. J.; Pellegri, L.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pollarolo, G.; Pullia, A.; Radeck, F.; Recchia, F.; Regan, P. H.; Şahin, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Sletten, G.; Smith, J. F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Steinbach, T.; Stezowski, O.; Szilner, S.; Szpak, B.; Teng, R.; Ur, C.; Vandone, V.; Ward, D.; Warner, D. D.; Wiens, A.; Wu, C. Y.
Detailed spectroscopic information on the N ˜82 nuclei is necessary to benchmark shell-model calculations in the region. The nuclear structure above long-lived isomers in 134Xe is investigated after multinucleon transfer (MNT) and actinide fission. Xenon-134 was populated as (i) a transfer product in 238U+ 136Xe and 208Pb+ 136Xe MNT reactions and (ii) as a fission product in the 238U+ 136Xe reaction employing the high-resolution Advanced Gamma Tracking Array (AGATA). Trajectory reconstruction has been applied for the complete identification of beamlike transfer products with the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The 198Pt 136Xe MNT reaction was studied with the γ -ray spectrometer GAMMASPHERE in combination with the gas detector array Compact Heavy Ion Counter (CHICO). Several high-spin states in 134Xe on top of the two long-lived isomers are discovered based on γ γ -coincidence relationships and information on the γ -ray angular distributions as well as excitation energies from the total kinetic energy loss and fission fragments. The revised level scheme of 134Xe is extended up to an excitation energy of 5.832 MeV with tentative spin-parity assignments up to 16+. Previous assignments of states above the 7- isomer are revised. Latest shell-model calculations employing two different effective interactions reproduce the experimental findings and support the new spin and parity assignments.
Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Heye, Sam
Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealedmore » an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.« less
Contreras, Maria Angelica; Eastwood, Gillian; Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod; Savit, Chelsea; Uribe, Sandra; Kramer, Laura D; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Fish, Durland; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J
The Rhabdoviridae is a diverse family of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, many of which infect vertebrate hosts and are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods. Others appear to be arthropod specific, circulating only within arthropod populations. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of three novel viruses from mosquitoes collected from the Americas. Coot Bay virus was isolated from Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes collected in the Everglades National Park, Florida; Rio Chico virus was isolated from Anopheles triannulatus mosquitoes collected in Panama; and Balsa virus was isolated from two pools of Culex erraticus mosquitoes collected in Colombia. Sequence analysis indicated that the viruses share a similar genome organization to Arboretum virus and Puerto Almendras virus that had previously been isolated from mosquitoes collected in Peru. Each genome features the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes as well as a gene encoding a class 1A viroporin-like protein (U1) located between the G and L genes (3'-N-P-M-G-U1-L-5'). Phylogenetic analysis of complete L protein sequences indicated that all five viruses cluster in a unique clade that is relatively deeply rooted in the ancestry of animal rhabdoviruses. The failure of all viruses in this clade to grow in newborn mice or vertebrate cells in culture suggests that they may be poorly adapted to replication in vertebrates. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Contreras, Maria Angelica; Eastwood, Gillian; Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod; Savit, Chelsea; Uribe, Sandra; Kramer, Laura D.; Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G.; Fish, Durland; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J.
The Rhabdoviridae is a diverse family of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, many of which infect vertebrate hosts and are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods. Others appear to be arthropod specific, circulating only within arthropod populations. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of three novel viruses from mosquitoes collected from the Americas. Coot Bay virus was isolated from Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes collected in the Everglades National Park, Florida; Rio Chico virus was isolated from Anopheles triannulatus mosquitoes collected in Panama; and Balsa virus was isolated from two pools of Culex erraticus mosquitoes collected in Colombia. Sequence analysis indicated that the viruses share a similar genome organization to Arboretum virus and Puerto Almendras virus that had previously been isolated from mosquitoes collected in Peru. Each genome features the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes as well as a gene encoding a class 1A viroporin-like protein (U1) located between the G and L genes (3′-N-P-M-G-U1-L-5′). Phylogenetic analysis of complete L protein sequences indicated that all five viruses cluster in a unique clade that is relatively deeply rooted in the ancestry of animal rhabdoviruses. The failure of all viruses in this clade to grow in newborn mice or vertebrate cells in culture suggests that they may be poorly adapted to replication in vertebrates. PMID:27799634
Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Takato, Naruhisa; Miyashita, Akihiko; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Soyano, Takao
Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo is now planning to build a 6.5-m optical-infrared telescope in Atacama, Chile. This project is called "Univ. Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO)", and the site evaluation is now under way. As a part of this evaluation process, we started an investigation to compare the astronomical seeing at Atacama with that at Mauna Kea. Here, we report preliminary results of seeing measurements at several sites in Atacama, carried out on October 2003. In order to separate the temporal and site-to-site variation of the seeing, we used two sets of Differential Image Motion Monitors (DIMMs), each of which has two pairs of 7.4 cm sub-apertures with 20.5 cm separation. Three sites were investigated; the point near the TAO weather station (4,950m), the summit of Cello Chico (5,150m) and the point at 5,430m altitude on Cello Toco. Simultaneous measurements were carried out for three half nights out of four half nights measurements. Although the amount of our data is very limited, the results suggest following: 1) Seeing becomes better and more stable as time passing to midnight (eg. From 0."7 to 0."4 at V-band). 2) Higher altitude sites show better seeing than lower altitude sites.
Hua, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Teng, R.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Vetter, K.
High-spin states in neutron-rich nuclei 103,105Mo,103Nb have been studied using the 238U(α,f) fusion-fission reaction. The deexcitation γ rays were detected by Gammasphere in coincidence with the detection of both fission fragments by the Rochester 4π heavy-ion detector array, CHICO. The measured fission kinematics were used to deduce the masses and velocity vectors for both fission fragments. This allowed Doppler-shift corrections to be applied to the observed γ rays on an event-by-event basis and the origin of γ rays from either fission fragment to be established. With such advantages, the yrast sequences for these nuclei have been extended to the band crossing region. This band crossing is ascribed to the alignment of a pair of h11/2 neutrons, which is supported by the observed blocking effect for the νh11/2 band in 105Mo while there is no evidence for blocking in the alignment measured for either the νd5/2 band in 103Mo or the πg9/2 band in 103Nb. The observed upbend, rather than the sharp backbend seen in the Ru-Pd region, indicates a strong interaction between the ground-state and the aligned h11/2 bands.
Wu, C. Y.; Hua, H.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Teng, R.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Görgen, A.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Vetter, K.
Neutron-rich nuclei around A˜100 were populated as fission fragments produced by the 238U(α,f) fusion-fission reaction. The deexcitation γ rays were detected by Gammasphere in coincidence with the detection of both fission fragments by the Rochester 4π heavy-ion detector array, CHICO. This technique allows Doppler-shift corrections to be applied for the observed γ rays on an event-by-event basis thus establishing the origin of γ rays from either fission fragment. In addition, it allows observation of γ-ray transitions from states with short lifetimes and offers the opportunity to study nuclear species beyond the reach of the spontaneous fission process. With these advantages, one can extend the spectroscopic study to higher spins than those derived using the thick-target technique, and to more neutron-rich nuclei than those derived from spontaneous fissions. Among the new and interesting phenomena identified in this rapid shape-changing region, the most distinct result is the evidence for a prolate-to-oblate shape transition occurring at 116Pd, which may have important implications to our understanding of the shell structure for neutron-rich nuclei.
Warden, R.; Toz, T. K.; Everett, M.; DeSmet, T.; Billingsley, A.; Hagin, J.
In the summer of 2012 students and professors from the Concrete Industry Management (CIM ) program at California State University Chico, along with their partners at National Park Service, invited Texas A&M students and professors to join forces and perform a condition assessment of the Recreation Yard at Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. The Recreation Yard is a heavily visited area by tourists who are drawn to the island because of its history as a maximum security prison in the 20th c. Because of its history, first as a military fort in the 19thc., later as a military prison, and finally as a federal prison, many difficult historical and preservation related questions exist. This team was formed to begin research on the historical and preservation questions with respect to the Recreation Yard. This paper and presentation will focus on the integration of documentation technologies employed to aid the research necessary for answering preservation and historical questions regarding the recreations yard. Since that yard was constructed on top of the historic 19th c masonry fort it was requested that we also seek the location of tunnels below the Recreation Yard and their relationship with the walls. Teams were formed to perform Non-destructive testing of concrete walls to determine the size and location of rebar, Ground Penetrating Radar for determining the location of the masonry tunnels and photogrammetry and laser scanning to provide both overall and detailed dimensional information of the current state of material decay.
Vogt, A.; Siciliano, M.; Birkenbach, B.; ...
In this study, the transitional nuclei 132Xe and 133Xe are investigated after multinucleon-transfer (MNT) and fusion-evaporation reactions. Both nuclei are populated (i) in 136Xe + 208Pb MNT reactions employing the high-resolution Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) coupled to the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA, (ii) in the 136Xe + 198Pt MNT reaction employing the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer in combination with the gas-detector array CHICO, and (iii) as an evaporation residue after a 130Te (α,xn) 134-xnXe fusion-evaporation reaction employing the HORUS γ -ray array at the University of Cologne. The high-spin level schemes are considerably extended above the J π = (7 -) andmore » (10 +) isomers in 132Xe and above the 11/2 - isomer in 133Xe. The results are compared to the high-spin systematics of the Z = 54 as well as the N = 78 and N = 79 chains. Furthermore, evidence is found for a long-lived (T 1/2 » 1 μs) isomer in 133Xe which closes a gap along the N = 79 isotones. Finally, shell-model calculations employing the SN100PN and PQM130 effective interactions reproduce the experimental findings and provide guidance to the interpretation of the observed high-spin features.« less
Caldu-Primo, Jose L.; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Wegier, Ana; Piñero, Daniel
In Mexico's territory, the center of origin and domestication of maize (Zea mays), there is a large phenotypic diversity of this crop. This diversity has been classified into “landraces.” Previous studies have reported that genomic variation in Mexican maize is better explained by environmental factors, particularly those related with altitude, than by landrace. Still, landraces are extensively used by agronomists, who recognize them as stable and discriminatory categories for the classification of samples. In order to investigate the genomic foundation of maize landraces, we analyzed genomic data (35,909 SNPs from Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip) obtained from 50 samples representing five maize landraces (Comiteco, Conejo, Tehua, Zapalote Grande, and Zapalote Chico), and searched for markers suitable for landrace assignment. Landrace clusters could not be identified taking all the genomic information, but they become manifest taking only a subset of SNPs with high FST among landraces. Discriminant analysis of principal components was conducted to classify samples using SNP data. Two classification analyses were done, first classifying samples by landrace and then by altitude category. Through this classification method, we identified 20 landrace-informative SNPs and 14 altitude-informative SNPs, with only 6 SNPs in common for both analyses. These results show that Mexican maize phenotypic diversity can be classified in landraces using a small number of genomic markers, given the fact that landrace genomic diversity is influenced by environmental factors as well as artificial selection due to bio-cultural practices. PMID:28458682
Senthilkumar, R P; Bhuvaneshwari, V; Ranjithkumar, R; Sathiyavimal, S; Malayaman, V; Chandarshekar, B
The hybrid chitosan cerium oxide nanoparticles were prepared for the first time by green chemistry approach using plant leaf extract. The intense peak observed around 292nm in the UV-vis spectrum indicate the formation of cerium oxide nanoparticles. The XRD pattern revealed that the hybrid chitosan-cerium oxide nanoparticles have a polycrystalline structure with cubic fluorite phase. The FTIR spectrum of prepared samples showed the formation of Ce-O bonds and chitosan main chains COC and CO. The FESEM image of hybrid chitosan cerium oxide nanoparticles revealed that the particles are spherical in shape with grains size varying from 23.12nm to 89.91nm. EDAX analysis confirmed the presence of Ce, O, C and N elements in the prepared sample. TEM images showed that the prepared hybrid chitosan-cerium oxide nanoparticles are predominantly uniform in size and most of the particles are spherical in shape with less agglomeration and the particles size varies from 3.61nm to 24.40nm. The prepared chitosan cerium oxide nanoparticles of 50μL concentration showed good antibacterial properties against test pathogens, which was confirmed by the FESEM analysis. The prepared small particle size facilitate that these hybrid ChiCO 2 NPs could effectively be used in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bucher, B.; Zhu, S.; ANL, LLNL, LBNL, INL, UAM, Rochester, Maryland Collaboration
Recent Coulomb excitation studies on 144,146Ba using the GRETINA-CHICO2 detection system with post-accelerated CARIBU beams have confirmed the existence of enhanced E3 transitions in these isotopes which are centered in a region that has long been predicted to exhibit stable octupole-deformed shapes. Furthermore, the widely-varying E1 strength observed between these isotopes is well-accounted for by models having octupole-deformed potentials, and the variation has been linked to increased occupancies of specific single-particle orbitals in the reflection-asymmetric potential. This talk will summarize the most recent experimental and theoretical results. In addition, data on octupole-related properties in the surrounding isotopes will be discussed in an attempt to better understand the origin and evolution of octupole collectivity in this mass region. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL, GRETINA), DOE DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), DE-AC07-05ID14517 (INL), and MINECO (Spain).
Janssens, Robert V. F.; Ayangeakaa, Akaa Daniel; ANL Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration; LLBL Collaboration; Maryland Collaboration
Observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) would both demonstrate the Majorana nature of the neutrino and provide experimental access to its absolute mass scale. Over the last decade, wavefunction contributions for leading (0 νββ) candidates have been probed in a campaign of experiments utilizing transfer reactions to determine nucleon occupancies in a consistent way. While these studies have provided a great deal of information for comparison with theory, especially on contributions to the nuclear wavefunctions from competing orbitals, they lack sensitivity to the collective degrees of freedom which have been shown to be relevant in describing these nuclei. In this talk, we present results of a high-precision Coulomb excitation measurement of 76Ge, performed at Argonne National Laboratory using GRETINA and CHICO2. The results are compared with state-of-the-art shell model calculations and recently obtained (n , n ` γ) data, with emphasis on demonstrating the importance of nuclear deformation in determining the nuclear decay matrix elements. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, and Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40834 and DE-FG02-08ER41556.
Ayangeakaa, Akaa Daniel; Janssens, Robert V. F.; ANL Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration; LBNL Collaboration; U of Maryland Collaboration; Rochester Collaboration
An exploration of the structure of Ge isotopes is important for understanding the microscopic origin of collectivity, the nature of deformation and modifications of shell structure in nuclei of the N 40 mass region. The present study focuses on the electromagnetic properties of low-lying states in 72,76Ge obtained via sub-barrier multiple Coulomb excitation with GRETINA and CHICO2. In the case of 72Ge, the extracted matrix elements agree with a shape coexistence interpretation between the 01+ and 02+ states, but require significant mixing between the 0+ wavefunctions as well as triaxiality in order to reproduce the data. Similarly, the invariant sum-rule analysis of the 76Ge data indicates that both the ground state and gamma bands are characterized by the same deformation parameters, with triaxiality (γ 30°) being important for a complete description. A summary of these results and data highlighting the nature of gamma deformation in 76Ge - whether rigid or soft - will be presented. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, and Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40834 and DE-FG02-08ER41556.
Troutman, D.E.; Godsy, E.M.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Ehrlich, G.G.
Creosote and pentachlorophenol wastewaters discharged to unlined surface impoundments have resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of an industrial site near Pensacola, Florida. Total phenol concentrations of 36,000 microgm/liter have been detected 40 ft below land surface in a test hole 100 ft south of an overflow impoundment but less than 10 microgm/liter 90 ft below land surface. Samples collected in test holes 1,350 ft downgradient from the surface impoundments and 100 ft north of Pensacola Bay, above and immediately below a clay lens, indicate that phenol contaminated groundwater may not be discharging directly into Pensacola Bay. Phenol concentrations exceeding 20 microgm/liter were detected in samples from a drainage ditch discharging directly into Bayou Chico. Microbiological data collected near the test site suggest that an anaerobic methanogenic ecosystem contributes to a reduction in phenol concentrations in groundwater. A laboratory study using bacteria isolated from the study site indicates that phenol, 2-methylphenol, and 3-methylphenol are significantly degraded and that methanogenesis reduces total phenol concentrations in laboratory digestors by 45%. Pentachlorophenol may inhibit methanogenesis at concentrations exceeding 0.45 milligm/liter. (USGS)
Kharaka, Yousif; Mariner, Robert; Ambats, Gil; Evans, William; White, Lloyd; Bullen, Thomas; Kennedy, B. Mack
This study was initiated to investigate the impacts of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) on the hydrothermal features of Yellowstone National Park. To determine possible hydrogeochemical connections, we used the diagnostic stable and radioactive isotopes of several elements, and the chemical and gas compositions of thermal and cold waters from the Norris-Mammoth Corridor and areas north of the Park. The investigations were particularly comprehensive in the Mammoth Hot Springs area, Corwin Springs KGRA, and Chico Hot Springs. The geochemical tools used are still subject to uncertainties of 1 - 5%. Preliminary interpretation of the data, especially the ??D and ??18O values of water, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, ??11B values, composition and isotopes of noble gases and several conservative chemical species would indicate that the waters from Mammoth Hot Springs and La Duke Spring area have evolved chemically and isotopically by reactions with different rock types, and are probably not directly connected. These data indicate that a component (<20%) of water in Bear Creek Springs may be derived from the Mammoth system.
An appraisal of ground-water conditions in the Redding Basin was made by the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Department of Water Resources during 1979 and 1980. The basin covers about 510 square miles in the northern part of the Central Valley of California. Ground water in the basin is obtained principally from wells tapping continental deposits of Tertiary and/or Quaternary age. These deposits are arranged in a synclinal structure that trends and plunges southward. Recharge to the basin is from subsurface inflow; infiltration of precipitation and excess irrigation water; and percolation of certain reaches of streams and creeks. Ground-water movement is generally from the periphery of the basin towards the Sacramento River. Hydrographs for the period 1956 to 1970 show only a slight water-level decline and virtually no change between 1970 and 1979. The total estimated pumpage for 1976 was 82,000 acre-feet. Estimated usable storage capacity for the basin is about 5.5 million acre-feet. Chemical quality of ground water is rated good to excellent. Water type is a magnesium-calcium bicarbonate in character. The underlying Chico Formation contains saline marine water which is of poor quality. (USGS)
Rosas-Rosas, Octavio C; Valdez, Raul
The northernmost known breeding population of jaguars occurs in the municipality of Nácori Chico, Sonora, Mexico about 270 km from the United States-Mexico border and may be the source from which jaguars sighted in the United States dispersed. Since 1999 at least 11 jaguars (Panthera onca) had been illegally killed in the area due to predator control programs. We initiated a jaguar landowner-based conservation plan in 2004. The eight participating landowners agreed to suspend predator control programs targeting jaguars and pumas (Puma concolor) only if cattle losses were compensated. A private outfitter, with the consent of landowners, initiated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunts in 2004 and agreed to pay the group of participating landowners US$1500 for every deer hunt permit sold. The funds paid to the landowners from deer hunts were sufficient to convince landowners to suspend all predator-control efforts of jaguars and pumas. The involvement of landowners in the jaguar conservation program in northeastern Sonora is a successful, private, wildlife-conservation initiative that provides an example for jaguar conservation efforts in northern Mexico.
Brice, James Coble
Rates and processes of lateral erosion were studied for the middle Sacramento River between Chico Landing and Colusa, Calif. , a river distance of about 50 miles which is bordered by valuable agricultural land. The study is based on comparison of maps made during 1867-1949 and on aerial photographs made during 1924-74. Meander loops migrate by downstream translation in a direction nearly perpendicular to the loop axis. Loops are cut off by straight or diagonal chutes across the meander neck. The sinuosity of the river has gradually decreased from a value of 1.56 in 1896 to 1.35 in 1974. The morphology and curvature of meander loops cut off before white settlers came to the area indicate that the river was more stable, as well as more sinuous , then than now; subsequent morphologic changes are attributed mainly to the clearing of riparian vegetation and the effects of levees in reducing the area of overflow. The bank-erosion is 1.82 acres per year per stream mile or about 15 feet per year per stream foot for the period 1896-1974. (Woodard-USGS)
Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A
Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.
Farsi, Darius Arthur; Harris, Cory S; Reid, Lana; Bennett, Steffany A L; Haddad, Pierre S; Martineau, Louis C; Arnason, John Thor
Non-enzymatic glycation and the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with various disease states, including complications of diabetes and aging. Secondary metabolites from several plant species are known to inhibit non-enzymatic glycation and the formation of AGEs, including flavonoids found in the style (silk) of Zea mays (maize). Thirteen modern maize inbreds and one land race were tested for in vitro inhibition of non-enzymatic glycation of bovine serum albumin. Many of the tested extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, in particular the newest inbreds, which were bred for resistance to gibberella ear rot (Fusarium graminearum) and common smut (Ustilago maydis). The most active maize genotype (CO441), displaying an IC50 of 9.5 microg/mL, was more effective than aminoguanidine, a known inhibitor of glycation. Zapalote chico, a land race with high maysin content, showed only moderate inhibitory activity compared with the modern maize genotypes. Antiglycation activity was highly correlated with the total phenolic content of silk extracts and mildly correlated with resistance to certain fungal infections. The results identify modern resistant and high phenolic maize inbreds as promising candidates for the development of natural AGE inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications and the degenerative effects of aging. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Murata, K.J.; Larson, R.R.
Siliceous Monterey Shale and related shales of the Temblor Range, Calif., are subdivided into three depth-controlled zones characterized by different forms of silica. These are, in descending stratigraphic order: (1) Biogenic opal zone, with remains of diatoms and other siliceous organisms, (2) diagenetic cristobalite zone, and (3) diagenetic quartz zone. Using the top of the youngest marine unit, the overlying Etchegoin Formation, as datum, the transition from biogenic opal to disordered cristobalite occurs within the Monterey Shale of Chico Martinez Creek at -730 m, and the ordered cristobalite-to-microquartz transition at about -2,030 m. Temperatures that prevailed at these transition depths while the sedimentary pile lay at the bottom of the sea are estimated at about 50° and 110°C, respectively. Diagenetic cristobalite manifests, downward through a 1,300-m interval of section, a progressive decrease in its d(101) spacing because of a gradual ordering of its internal structure through adjustments in the solid state. Diagenetic microquartz forms only from well-ordered cristobalite that provides the most appropriate concentration of dissolved silica for precipitation of microquartz. Scanning electron micrographs of the silica mineral in pores of rocks made up of disordered cristobalite show aggregates of well-formed bladed crystals, like those described from deep-sea cherts. The pore silica minerals in rocks made up of ordered cristobalite occur as dendritic growths of poorly formed stubby crystals, and the change in crystal habit could be an external expression of the internal ordering process.
An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over ten (10) areas over northern California and southwestern Oregon. These include the 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles of Roseburg, Medford, Weed, Alturas, Redding, Susanville, Ukiah, and Chico along with the 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ areas of the Coos Bay quadrangle and the Crescent City/Eureka areas combined. This report discusses the results obtained over the Medford, Oregon, map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of three miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twelve miles apart. A total ofmore » 16,880.5 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 2925 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.« less
Walters, Johanna; Goh, Kean S; Li, Linying; Feng, Hsiao; Hernandez, Jorge; White, Jane
Carbaryl insecticide was applied by ground spray to plants in urban areas to control a serious insect pest the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), newly introduced in California. To assure there are no adverse impacts to human health and the environment from the carbaryl applications, carbaryl was monitored in tank mixtures, air, surface water, foliage and backyard fruits and vegetables. Results from the five urban areas - Porterville, Fresno, Rancho Cordova, Brentwood and Chico - showed there were no significant human exposures or impacts on the environment. Spray tank concentrations ranged from 0.1-0.32%. Carbaryl concentrations in air ranged from none detected to 1.12 microg m(-3), well below the interim health screening level in air of 51.7 microg m(-3). There were three detections of carbaryl in surface water near application sites: 0.125 ppb (parts per billion) from a water treatment basin; 6.94 ppb from a gold fish pond; and 1737 ppb in a rain runoff sample collected from a drain adjacent to a sprayed site. The foliar dislodgeable residues ranged from 1.54-7.12 microg cm(-2), comparable to levels reported for safe reentry of 2.4 to 5.6 microg cm(-2) for citrus. Carbaryl concentrations in fruits and vegetables ranged from no detectable amounts to 7.56 ppm, which were below the U.S. EPA tolerance, allowable residue of 10 ppm.
Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M.; Mestre, Luiz A. M.; Andrade, Rafael B.; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A.
Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035
The early implementation stages of the current generation of large scale gamma-ray spectrometers, EUROGAM Phase 1 closely followed by Gammasphere Early Implementation, came online in the early 1990's. Last August the tenth anniversary of the full Gammasphere Array was celebrated. Large arrays of Compton suppressed Ge detectors, such as Gammasphere, Eurogam/Euroball/Jurosphere operated in both stand alone mode and, more recently, when coupled to highly selective and sensitive channel selection devices, such as the Fragment Mass Analyzer or RITU, or auxiliary detectors, such as Microball and Chico, have led to an unprecedented increase in our knowledge of the properties of the atomic nucleus when stressed by the application of high angular momentum, large proton or neutron imbalance, high temperatures etc. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is now routinely carried out at the limits of nuclear existence, either in terms of mass or in nuclei on, or beyond, the drip-lines. This talk will touch upon some of the classic results obtained with such arrays, will review the current state of the art in gamma-ray spectroscopy and consider some potentials for the future of the field with new arrays such as GRETA in the US and AGATA in Europe. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy under grant numbers DE-FG52-06NA26206 and DE-FG02-05ER41379.
Gemini and Apollo photographs provide illustrations of known structural features of the peninsula and some structures not recognized previously. An apparent transform relationship between strike-slip and normal faulting is illustrated by the overlapping vertical photographs of northern Baja California. The active Agua Blanca right-lateral strike-slip fault trends east-southeastward to end at the north end of the Valle San Felipe and Valle Chico. The uplands of the high Sierra San Pedro Martir are a low-relief surface deformed by young faults, monoclines, and warps, which mostly produce west-facing steps and slopes; the topography is basically structural. The Sierra Cucapas of northeasternmost Baja California and the Colorado River delta of northwesternmost Sonora are broken by northwest-trending strike-slip faults. A strike-slip fault is inferred to trend northward obliquely from near Cabo San Lucas to La Paz, thence offshore until it comes ashore again as the Bahia Concepcion strike-slip fault.
Fogelman, Ronald P.
The study area is about 1,300 square miles in the eastern Sacramento Valley, Calif., extending from the latitude of Roseville on the south to thelatitude of Chico on the north. Considering the increased agricultural development of the area, this report documents the chemical character of the ground water prior to water-level declines that could result from extensive pumping for irrigation or to changes caused by extensive use of imported surface water. Chemical analyses of samples from 222 wells show that most of the area is underlain by ground water of a quality suitable for most agricultural and domestic purposes. Ninety-five percent of the water sampled has dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 700 milligrams per liter. The general water type for the area is a calcium and magnesium bicarbonate water and there are negligible amounts of toxic trace elements. The potential for water-quality problems exists in the area south of Yuba City along the west bank of the Feather River. There, concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids are higher than in other parts of the area, and they could limit future agricultural activities if chloride- and sulfate-sensitive crops are grown. (Woodard-USGS)
Vogt, A.; Siciliano, M.; Birkenbach, B.
In this study, the transitional nuclei 132Xe and 133Xe are investigated after multinucleon-transfer (MNT) and fusion-evaporation reactions. Both nuclei are populated (i) in 136Xe + 208Pb MNT reactions employing the high-resolution Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) coupled to the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA, (ii) in the 136Xe + 198Pt MNT reaction employing the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer in combination with the gas-detector array CHICO, and (iii) as an evaporation residue after a 130Te (α,xn) 134-xnXe fusion-evaporation reaction employing the HORUS γ -ray array at the University of Cologne. The high-spin level schemes are considerably extended above the J π = (7 -) andmore » (10 +) isomers in 132Xe and above the 11/2 - isomer in 133Xe. The results are compared to the high-spin systematics of the Z = 54 as well as the N = 78 and N = 79 chains. Furthermore, evidence is found for a long-lived (T 1/2 » 1 μs) isomer in 133Xe which closes a gap along the N = 79 isotones. Finally, shell-model calculations employing the SN100PN and PQM130 effective interactions reproduce the experimental findings and provide guidance to the interpretation of the observed high-spin features.« less
Vogt, A.; Siciliano, M.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.; Hadyńska-Klek, K.; Wheldon, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Teruya, E.; Yoshinaga, N.; Arnswald, K.; Bazzacco, D.; Blazhev, A.; Bracco, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Chapman, R.; Cline, D.; Corradi, L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Cromaz, M.; de Angelis, G.; Eberth, J.; Fallon, P.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Fransen, C.; Freeman, S. J.; Fu, B.; Gadea, A.; Gelletly, W.; Giaz, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Hayes, A. B.; Hess, H.; Hetzenegger, R.; Hirsch, R.; Hua, H.; John, P. R.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Karayonchev, V.; Kaya, L.; Korten, W.; Lee, I. Y.; Leoni, S.; Liang, X.; Lunardi, S.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatović, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Napoli, D.; Pearson, C. J.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pollarolo, G.; Pullia, A.; Queiser, M.; Recchia, F.; Regan, P. H.; Régis, J.-M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Şahin, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Sletten, G.; Smith, J. F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stezowski, O.; Szilner, S.; Szpak, B.; Teng, R.; Ur, C.; Warner, D. D.; Wolf, K.; Wu, C. Y.; Zell, K. O.
The transitional nuclei 132Xe and 133Xe are investigated after multinucleon-transfer (MNT) and fusion-evaporation reactions. Both nuclei are populated (i) in 136Xe+208Pb MNT reactions employing the high-resolution Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) coupled to the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA, (ii) in the 136Xe+198Pt MNT reaction employing the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer in combination with the gas-detector array CHICO, and (iii) as an evaporation residue after a 130Te(α ,x n )134 -x nXe fusion-evaporation reaction employing the HORUS γ -ray array at the University of Cologne. The high-spin level schemes are considerably extended above the Jπ=(7-) and (10+) isomers in 132Xe and above the 11 /2- isomer in 133Xe. The results are compared to the high-spin systematics of the Z =54 as well as the N =78 and N =79 chains. Furthermore, evidence is found for a long-lived (T1 /2≫1 μ s ) isomer in 133Xe which closes a gap along the N =79 isotones. Shell-model calculations employing the SN100PN and PQM130 effective interactions reproduce the experimental findings and provide guidance to the interpretation of the observed high-spin features.
Lia, Verónica V; Confalonieri, Viviana A; Ratto, Norma; Hernández, Julián A. Cámara; Alzogaray, Ana M. Miante; Poggio, Lidia; Brown, Terence A
Archaeological maize specimens from Andean sites of southern South America, dating from 400 to 1400 years before present, were tested for the presence of ancient DNA and three microsatellite loci were typed in the specimens that gave positive results. Genotypes were also obtained for 146 individuals corresponding to modern landraces currently cultivated in the same areas and for 21 plants from Argentinian lowland races. Sequence analysis of cloned ancient DNA products revealed a high incidence of substitutions appearing in only one clone, with transitions prevalent. In the archaeological specimens, there was no evidence of polymorphism at any one of the three microsatellite loci: each exhibited a single allelic variant, identical to the most frequent allele found in contemporary populations belonging to races Amarillo Chico, Amarillo Grande, Blanco and Altiplano. Affiliation between ancient specimens and a set of races from the Andean complex was further supported by assignment tests. The striking genetic uniformity displayed by the ancient specimens and their close relationship with the Andean complex suggest that the latter gene pool has predominated in the western regions of southern South America for at least the past 1400 years. The results support hypotheses suggesting that maize cultivation initially spread into South America via a highland route, rather than through the lowlands. PMID:17476775
Bottoni, Simone; Zhu, S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; ...
Here, the structure of 71Zn was investigated by one-neutron transfer and heavy-ion induced complex (deep-inelastic) reactions using the GRETINA-CHICO2 and the Gammasphere setups, respectively. The observed inversion between the 9/2 + and 1/2 – states is explained in terms of the role of neutron pairing correlations. Non-collective sequences of levels were delineated above the 9/2 + isomeric state. These are interpreted as being associated with a modest oblate deformation in the framework of Monte-Carlo shell-model calculations carried out with the A3DA-m Hamiltonian in the pfg 9/2d 5/2 valence space. Similarities with the structure of 68 28Ni 40 were observed andmore » the shape-coexistence mechanism in the N = 40 region of neutron-rich nuclei is discussed in terms of the so-called Type-II shell evolution, with an emphasis on proton–neutron correlations between valence nucleons, especially those involving the shape-driving g 9/2 neutron orbital.« less
Bauer, Johannes; Antosh, Michael; Chang, Chengyi; Schorl, Christoph; Kolli, Santharam; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L.
A major challenge in translating the positive effects of dietary restriction (DR) for the improvement of human health is the development of therapeutic mimics. One approach to finding DR mimics is based upon identification of the proximal effectors of DR life span extension. Whole genome profiling of DR in Drosophila shows a large number of changes in gene expression, making it difficult to establish which changes are involved in life span determination as opposed to other unrelated physiological changes. We used comparative whole genome expression profiling to discover genes whose change in expression is shared between DR and two molecular genetic life span extending interventions related to DR, increased dSir2 and decreased Dmp53 activity. We find twenty-one genes shared among the three related life span extending interventions. One of these genes, takeout, thought to be involved in circadian rhythms, feeding behavior and juvenile hormone binding is also increased in four other life span extending conditions: Rpd3, Indy, chico and methuselah. We demonstrate takeout is involved in longevity determination by specifically increasing adult takeout expression and extending life span. These studies demonstrate the power of comparative whole genome transcriptional profiling for identifying specific downstream elements of the DR life span extending pathway. PMID:20519778
Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wagner-Eimer, Martin; Wemmer, Klaus; Schulz, Bernhard; Frei, Robert; Siegesmund, Siegfried
The Isla Cristalina de Rivera crystalline complex in northeastern Uruguay underwent a multistage magmatic and metamorphic evolution. Based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon, Th-U-Pb monazite (CHIME-EPMA method) and K-Ar age data from key units several events can be recognized: (1) multistage magmatism at 2,171-2,114 Ma, recorded on zircon of the granulitic orthogneisses and their 2,093-2,077 Ma overgrowths; (2) a distinct amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~1,980 Ma, recorded by monazite; (3) greenschist facies reworking and shearing at ca. 606 Ma (monazite and K-Ar on muscovite) along the Rivera Shear Zone, and finally (4) intrusion of the post-tectonic Sobresaliente and Las Flores granites at around 585 Ma. Lithological similarities, geographic proximity and coeval magmatic and metamorphic events indicate a similar tectonometamorphic evolution for the Isla Cristalina de Rivera, the Valentines Block in Uruguay and the Santa María Chico Granulitic Complex in southern Brazil, since at least 2.1 Ga.
Magnitude and extent of sediment toxicity in four bays of the Florida Panhandle: Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo
Long, E.R.; Sloane, G.M.; Carr, R.S.
The toxicity of sediments in Pensacola, Choctawhatcheee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola Bays was determined as part of bioeffects assessments performed by NOAA`s National Status and Trends Program. The objectives of the survey were to determine: (1) the spatial patterns in toxicity throughout each bay, (2) the spatial extent of toxicity throughout and among the bays, (3) the severity of degree of toxicity, and (4) the relationships between chemical contamination and toxicity. The survey was conducted over two years: Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay were sampled in 1993; and Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay and Bayou Chico (a sub-basin of Pensacolamore » Bay) were sampled during 1994. Surficial sediment samples were collected from 123 randomly-chosen locations throughout the five areas. Multiple toxicity tests were conducted on all samples, and chemical analyses were performed on 102 of the 123 samples. Toxicological tests were conducted to determine survival, reproductive success, morphological development, metabolic activity, and genotoxicity; all bays showed toxicity in at least some of the samples.« less
Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge
Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.
Paredes, José Matildo; Plazibat, Silvana; Crovetto, Carolina; Stein, Julián; Cayo, Eric; Schiuma, Ariel
normal faults (mean Az = 98°) formed during the "third rifting phase", which occurs coeval with the deposition of the Upper Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation. The fault characteristics indicate a counterclockwise rotation of the stress field during the deposition of the Chubut Group of the Golfo San Jorge basin, likely associated to the rotation of Southern South America during the fragmentation of the Gondwana paleocontinent. Understanding the evolution of fault-controlled topography in continental basins allow to infer location and orientation of coeval fluvial systems, providing a more reliable scenario for location of producing oil wells.
Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.
The Las Chacritas Member is the lower part of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Jurassic). The unit is a completely continental limestone succession with volcanic contributions that were deposited during the development of the Cañadón Asfalto Rift Basin (Chubut province, Patagonia, Argentina). A detailed sedimentological analysis was performed in the Fossati depocenter to determine the paleoenvironments that developed in the context of this rift. The Las Chacritas Member represents a carbonate paleolake system with ramp-shaped margins associated with wetlands that were eventually affected by subaerial exposure and pedogenesis. This process is represented by three main subenvironments: a) a lacustrine setting sensu stricto (lacustrine limestone facies association), represented by Mudstones/Wackestones containing porifera spicules (F1), Intraclastic packstones (F6) and Tabular stromatolites (F10) in which deposition and diagenesis were entirely subaqueous; b) a palustrine setting (palustrine limestone facies association) containing Microbial Mudstones (F2), Intraclastic sandy packstone with ostracode remains (F3), Oncolitic packstone (F5), Brecciated limestone (F7) and Nodular-Mottled limestone (F8) representing shallow marginal areas affected by groundwater fluctuations and minor subaerial exposure; and c) a pedogenic paleoenvironment (pedogenic limestone facies association) including Intraclastic limestone (F4) and Packstones containing Microcodium (F9) facies displaying the major features of subaerial exposure, pedogenic diagenesis and the development of paleosols. The fluvial-palustrine-lacustrine succession shows a general shallow upward trend in which contraction-expansion cycles are represented (delimited by exposure and surface erosion). The variations in the successive formations reflect the responses to fluctuations in a combination of two major controls, the tectonic and local climatic variables. The predominance of the palustrine facies associations was
Martínez, Rubén D F; Lamanna, Matthew C; Novas, Fernando E; Ridgely, Ryan C; Casal, Gabriel A; Martínez, Javier E; Vita, Javier R; Witmer, Lawrence M
We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of cranium; (2) complex maxilla-lacrimal articulation, in which the lacrimal clasps the ascending ramus of the maxilla; (3) medial edge of caudal sector of maxillary ascending ramus bordering bony nasal aperture with low but distinct ridge; (4) 'tongue-like' ventral process of quadratojugal that overlaps quadrate caudally; (5) separate foramina for all three branches of the trigeminal nerve; (6) absence of median venous canal connecting infundibular region to ventral part of brainstem; (7) subvertical premaxillary, procumbent maxillary, and recumbent dentary teeth; (8) cervical vertebrae with 'strut-like' centroprezygapophyseal laminae; (9) extremely elongate and slender ossified tendon positioned ventrolateral to cervical vertebrae and ribs. The cranial endocast of Sarmientosaurus preserves some of the most complete information obtained to date regarding the brain and sensory systems of sauropods. Phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as a basal member of Lithostrotia, as the most plesiomorphic titanosaurian to be preserved with a complete skull. Sarmientosaurus provides a wealth of new cranial evidence that reaffirms the close relationship of titanosaurs to Brachiosauridae. Moreover, the presence of the relatively derived lithostrotian Tapuiasaurus in Aptian deposits indicates that the new Patagonian genus represents a 'ghost lineage' with a comparatively plesiomorphic craniodental form, the evolutionary history of which
Martínez, Rubén D. F.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Novas, Fernando E.; Ridgely, Ryan C.; Casal, Gabriel A.; Martínez, Javier E.; Vita, Javier R.; Witmer, Lawrence M.
We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian—Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of cranium; (2) complex maxilla—lacrimal articulation, in which the lacrimal clasps the ascending ramus of the maxilla; (3) medial edge of caudal sector of maxillary ascending ramus bordering bony nasal aperture with low but distinct ridge; (4) ‘tongue-like’ ventral process of quadratojugal that overlaps quadrate caudally; (5) separate foramina for all three branches of the trigeminal nerve; (6) absence of median venous canal connecting infundibular region to ventral part of brainstem; (7) subvertical premaxillary, procumbent maxillary, and recumbent dentary teeth; (8) cervical vertebrae with ‘strut-like’ centroprezygapophyseal laminae; (9) extremely elongate and slender ossified tendon positioned ventrolateral to cervical vertebrae and ribs. The cranial endocast of Sarmientosaurus preserves some of the most complete information obtained to date regarding the brain and sensory systems of sauropods. Phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as a basal member of Lithostrotia, as the most plesiomorphic titanosaurian to be preserved with a complete skull. Sarmientosaurus provides a wealth of new cranial evidence that reaffirms the close relationship of titanosaurs to Brachiosauridae. Moreover, the presence of the relatively derived lithostrotian Tapuiasaurus in Aptian deposits indicates that the new Patagonian genus represents a ‘ghost lineage’ with a comparatively plesiomorphic craniodental form, the evolutionary
Paredes, José Matildo; Aguiar, Mariana; Ansa, Andrés; Giordano, Sergio; Ledesma, Mario; Tejada, Silvia
We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyze the structural style, fault kinematics and growth fault mechanisms of non-colinear normal fault systems in the South Flank of the Golfo San Jorge basin, central Patagonia. Pre-existing structural fabrics in the basement of the South Flank show NW-SE and NE-SW oriented faults. They control the location and geometry of wedge-shaped half grabens from the "main synrift phase" infilled with Middle Jurassic volcanic-volcaniclastic rocks and lacustrine units of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The NE-striking, basement-involved normal faults resulted in the rapid establishment of fault lenght, followed by gradual increasing in displacement, and minor reactivation during subsequent extensional phases; NW-striking normal faults are characterized by fault segments that propagated laterally during the "main rifting phase", being subsequently reactivated during succesive extensional phases. The Aptian-Campanian Chubut Group is a continental succession up to 4 km thick associated to the "second rifting stage", characterized by propagation and linkage of W-E to WNW-ESE fault segments that increase their lenght and displacement in several extensional phases, recognized by detailed measurement of current throw distribution of selected seismic horizons along fault surfaces. Strain is distributed in an array of sub-parallel normal faults oriented normal to the extension direction. A Late Cretaceous-Paleogene (pre-late Eocene) extensional event is characterized by high-angle, NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW grabens coeval with intraplate alkali basaltic volcanism, evidencing clockwise rotation of the stress field following a ∼W-E extension direction. We demonstrate differences in growth fault mechanisms of non-colinear fault populations, and highlight the importance of follow a systematic approach to the analysis of fault geometry and throw distribution in a fault network, in order to understand temporal-spatial variations
Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioVilla, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Correa-Rodríguez, María; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar el nivel nutricional en una población de niños y adolescentes colombianos y determinar la posible relación entre el nivel nutricional y el estado nutricional según el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la circunferencia de cintura (CC).Material y métodos: estudio transversal en 6.383 niños y adolescentes de entre 9 y 17,9 años de edad, de Bogotá, Colombia. Se aplicó de manera autodiligenciada el cuestionario Krece Plus validado en el estudio enKid como indicador del nivel nutricional con las categorías alto (test ≥ 9), medio (test 6-8) y bajo (test ≤ 5). Se tomaron medidas de peso, talla, CC, y se calculó el IMC como marcadores del estado nutricional.Resultados: de la población general, el 57,9% eran chicas (promedio de edad 12,7 ± 2,3 años). En todas las categorías del IMC, más del 50% de chicos y chicas siguen una dieta de muy baja calidad, que empeora progresivamente con el avance en edad. En ambos sexos, se observaron tendencias entre un nivel nutricional muy bajo con el desarrollo de sobrepeso. Asimismo, la obesidad abdominal por CC se relacionó con una puntuación baja en el Krece Plus en ambos sexos.Conclusiones: en escolares de Bogotá, una dieta de muy baja calidad se relacionó con alteraciones del estado nutricional (IMC y CC), especialmente entre chicas y adolescentes. Estos resultados deben alentar el desarrollo de intervenciones orientadas a mejorar los hábitos nutricionales entre los escolares colombianos.
Reid, Lawrence A
This article addresses the linguistic evidence from which details about Philippine "negritos" can be inferred. This evidence comes from the naming practices of both negrito and non-negrito peoples, from which it can be inferred that many negrito groups have maintained a unique identity distinct from other groups since the dispersal of Malayo-Polynesian languages. Other names, such as Dupaningan and Dumagat, reference locations, from which it is assumed the negritos left after contact with Malayo-Polynesian people. Evidence also comes from the relative positions of negrito groups vis-à-vis other groups within the subfamily with which their current language can be grouped. Many of these languages can be shown to be first order branches, suggesting early separation from the people whose languages they first acquired. The geospatial distribution of the northern languages of the Philippines closely matches the proposed dispersal routes of early Malayo-Polynesian peoples into the Cagayan River Valley and up the Chico and Magat tributaries from which negrito groups were displaced. One lexical item that is discussed is the word for the traditionally widespread practice of head-hunting, the term for which is reconstructible to Proto-Austronesian with reflexes throughout the Philippines and countries to the south. The practice was probably associated with agriculture and not only may have contributed to the early rapid spread south of Malayo-Polynesian languages through the Philippines and ultimately into the Pacific but also was later a major factor in the long periods of isolation of negrito peoples, during which the languages they had first acquired became very different from that of their former neighbors. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.
Aird, H. M.
A research project into the local petrology was integrated into the Spring 2016 Petrology and Optical Mineralogy course at California State University, Chico. This is a required majors course, typically taken during spring of the junior year, with an enrollment of 10-20 students. Since the labs for this course have a strong focus on petrography, a research project was introduced to give students experience in using a multi-faceted approach to investigate a problem. In many cases, this is their first taste of research. During the first week of the Spring 2016 class, students were introduced to the research question: In the broader context of Californian tectonic history, are the Bucks Lake and Grizzly plutons of the northern Sierra Nevada petrogenetically related? With faculty guidance over the course of the semester, students carried out fieldwork and sampling, lithologic description, selection of the best samples for further analysis, thin section production, petrographic description, and analysis and interpretation of published geochemical data. Research activities were strategically scheduled within the course framework such that students were academically prepared to carry out each task. Each student was responsible for generating all the data for one sample, and data were then collated as a class, so students wrote their individual final reports using all the data collected by the class. Careful scaffolding of writing assignments throughout the semester guided students through the preparation of an academic-style scientific report, while allowing for repeated feedback on their writing style and content. In mid-May, the class presented a group poster at the College of Natural Sciences annual poster symposium, and were awarded `Best Student Class Project' by the judges. Anecdotal student feedback indicated they highly valued the research experience and some were inspired to pursue individual undergraduate research projects under faculty supervision.
Marshall, L. G.; Sempere, T.; Butler, R. F.
Land mammal faunas of Paleocene age in the southern Andean basin of Bolivia and NW Argentina are calibrated by regional sequence stratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. The local fauna from Tiupampa in Bolivia is ~59.0 Ma, and is thus early Late Paleocene in age. Taxa from the lower part of the Lumbrera Formation in NW Argentina (long regarded as Early Eocene) are between ~58.0-55.5 Ma, and thus Late Paleocene in age. A reassessment of the ages of local faunas from the Río Chico Formation in the San Jorge basin, Patagonia, southern Argentina, shows that the local fauna from the Banco Negro Inferior is ~60.0 Ma, making this the most ancient Cenozoic mammal fauna in South America. Critical reevaluation of the Itaboraí fauna and associated geology in SE Brazil favors the interpretation that it accumulated during a sea-level lowstand between ~58.2-56.5 Ma. All known South American Paleocene land mammal faunas are thus between 60.0 and 55.5 Ma (i.e. Late Paleocene) and are here assigned to the Riochican Land Mammal Age, with four subages (from oldest to youngest: Peligrian, Tiupampian, Itaboraian, Riochican s.s.). Based on the fact that notable taxonomic reorganization of Riochican faunas begins ~58.2 Ma, an Early (Peligrian, Tiupampian; 60.0-58.2 Ma) and Late (Itaboraian, Riochican s.s.; ~58.2-55.5 Ma) subdivision for this land mammal age is formally recognized. An interchange event for continental taxa between North and South America is identified between 58.2 and 56.5 Ma, which correlates with a sea-level lowstand and was probably enhanced by a major tectonic event beginning ~59.5 Ma that uplifted the Andean margin.
Xu, F.; Cadol, D.; Newton, B. T.; Phillips, F. M.
It is crucial to understand the rate and distribution of groundwater recharge in New Mexico because it not only largely defines a limit for water availability in this semi-arid state, but also is the least understood aspect of the state's water budget. With the goal of estimating groundwater recharge statewide, we are developing the Evapotranspiration and Recharge Model (ETRM), which uses existing spatial datasets to model the daily soil water balance over the state at a resolution of 250 m cell. The input datasets includes PRISM precipitation data, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), NRCS soils data, state geology data and reference ET estimates produced by Gridded Atmospheric Data downscalinG and Evapotranspiration Tools (GADGET). The current estimated recharge presents diffuse recharge only, not focused recharge as in channels or playas. Direct recharge measurements are challenging and rare, therefore we estimate diffuse recharge using a water balance approach. The ETRM simulated runoff amount was compared with USGS gauged discharge in four selected ephemeral channels: Mogollon Creek, Zuni River, the Rio Puerco above Bernardo, and the Rio Puerco above Arroyo Chico. Result showed that focused recharge is important, and basin characteristics can be linked with watershed hydrological response. As the sparse instruments in NM provide limited help in improving estimation of focused recharge by linking basin characteristics, the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, which is one of the most densely gauged and monitored semiarid rangeland watershed for hydrology research purpose, is now being modeled with ETRM. Higher spatial resolution of field data is expected to enable detailed comparison of model recharge results with measured transmission losses in ephemeral channels. The final ETRM product will establish an algorithm to estimate the groundwater recharge as a water budget component of the entire state of New Mexico. Reference ET estimated by GADGET
Benedix, G. K.; Ketcham, R. A.; Wilson, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.
The L chondrite Patuxent Range (PAT) 41 91501 is an 8.5-kg unshocked, homogeneous, igneous-textured impact melt that cooled slowly compared to other meteoritic impact melts in a crater floor melt sheet or sub-crater dike. We conducted mineralogical and tomographic studies of previously unstudied mm- to cm-sized metal-sulfide-vesicle assemblages and chronologic studies of the silicate host. Metal-sulfide clasts constitute about 1 vol.%, comprise zoned taenite, troilite and pentlandite, and exhibit a consistent orientation between metal and sulfide and of metal-sulfide contacts. Vesicles make up approximately 2 vol.% and exhibit a similar orientation of long axes. Ar-39-Ar-40 measurements date the time of impact at 4.461 +/- 0.008 Gyr B.P. Cosmogenic noble gases and Be-10 and Al-2l activities suggest a pre-atmospheric radius of 40-60 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 25-29 Myr, similar to ages of a cluster of L chondrites. PAT 91501 dates the oldest known impact on the L chondrite parent body. The dominant vesicle-forming gas was S2 (approximately 15-20 ppm), which formed in equilibrium with impact-melted sulfides. The meteorite formed in an impact melt dike beneath a crater, as did other impact melted L chondrites, such as Chico. Cooling and solidification occurred over approximately 2 hours. During this time, approximately 90% of metal and sulfide segregated from the local melt. Remaining metal and sulfide grains oriented themselves in the local gravitational field, a feature nearly unique among meteorites. Many of these metal sulfide grains adhered to vesicles to form aggregates that may have been close to neutrally buoyant. These aggregates would have been carried upward with the residual melt, inhibiting further buoyancy-driven segregation. Although similar processes operated individually in other chondritic impact melts, their interaction produced the unique assemblage observed in PAT 91501.
The next generation will confront an increased number of global issues that interface the complexities of socioeconomic perspectives, environmental stability, poverty and development. Recently California State University Chico undertook a general education reform, providing a unique opportunity to craft a general education pathway to prepare students for these challenges by focusing a curriculum on sustainability. The Sustainability Pathway emphasizes a system thinking approach to help students understand and be able to address a set of problems involving the biosphere processes, human institutions and the economic vitality. The curriculum intentionally integrates courses from across the disciplines of natural sciences, social sciences, agriculture, engineering, economics, arts and humanities into a central focused theme of sustainability. The diverse backgrounds and academic focus of the participating faculty has necessitate the development of a common language and a cohesion within the curriculum. To address these needs a faculty learning community (FLC) was established to build on a common set of case studies. Three regional environmental water related issues were selected that had demonstrable socioeconomic, equity/ethical dimensions and environmental consequences. These case studies are Klamath River basin in northern California, the Bay-Delta project in the central part of the state and the Sultan Sea in southern California. Members of the FLC has contributed a perspective from their academic discipline which includes proposed reading lists, web based resources and PowerPoint presentations which are housed in common web- based resource repository. The pedagogical rational is to create linkages and cohesion among the courses in the curriculum by iteratively examining these case studies as basis for development of a multidisciplinary perspective as students progress through their general education.
In vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of mitochondria-targeted peptide in Drosophila melanogaster with trauma-induced thoracic injury.
Constantinou, Caterina; Apidianakis, Yiorgos; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Righi, Valeria; Mindrinos, Michael N; Khan, Nadeem; Swartz, Harold M; Szeto, Hazel H; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rahme, Laurence G; Tzika, A Aria
Trauma is the most common cause of mortality among individuals aged between 1 and 44 years and the third leading cause of mortality overall in the US. In this study, we examined the effects of trauma on the expression of genes in Drosophila melanogaster, a useful model for investigating genetics and physiology. After trauma was induced by a non-lethal needle puncture of the thorax, we observed the differential expression of genes encoding for mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, as well as those encoding for apoptosis-related and insulin signaling-related proteins, thus indicating muscle functional dysregulation. These results prompted us to examine the link between insulin signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction using in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with complementary electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Trauma significantly increased insulin resistance biomarkers, and the NMR spectral profile of the aged flies with trauma-induced thoracic injury resembled that of insulin-resistant chico mutant flies. In addition, the mitochondrial redox status, as measured by EPR, was significantly altered following trauma, indicating mitochondrial uncoupling. A mitochondria-targeted compound, Szeto-Schiller (SS)-31 that promotes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis normalized the NMR spectral profile, as well as the mitochondrial redox status of the flies with trauma-induced thoracic injury, as assessed by EPR. Based on these findings, we propose a molecular mechanism responsible for trauma-related mortality and also propose that trauma sequelae in aging are linked to insulin signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings further suggest that SS-31 attenuates trauma-associated pathological changes.
Tandel, U. S.; Chowdhury, P.; Tandel, S. K.; Sheppard, S.; Cline, D.; Wu, C. Y.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.
In light even-N Hf isotopes (N = 96-106), the first i13/2 neutron alignment occurs at hφ< 0.3 MeV. In contrast, no alignment was observed up to ˜ 0.4 MeV in ^180,182Hf (N = 108,110) . Theoretical calculations predict that oblate collective rotation becomes yrast at high spins in ^180Hf [2, 3]. In the present work, the yrast band of ^180Hf has been extended to high spins, via inelastic excitation, using a 1300 MeV ^180Hf beam incident on a thin ^232Th target. The γ rays were detected by Gammasphere, with event by event Doppler correction and Q-value selectivity provided by CHICO. The data reveal onset of the first nucleon alignment in ^180Hf at hφ ˜ 0.43 MeV, which is significantly higher than predictions (˜ 0.35 MeV). Interestingly, the γ-vibrational band is crossed by a band with apparent high moment-of-inertia at ˜ 0.25 MeV. This structure, which becomes near yrast at the highest observed spins will be discussed in the context of nucleon alignment and shape competition at high spin in ^180Hf.  E. Ngijoi-Yogo, Ph.D. thesis, U.Mass. Lowell (2004)  R.R. Hilton and H.J. Mang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1979 (1979).  F.R. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. C62, 014301 (2000).
Yañez, L M; Alfaro, J A; Bovi Mitre, G
The accumulation of arsenic (As) in vegetables poses a risk of contamination to humans via the food chain. Two chard (var. cicla and var. d'ampuis) crops were grown for 60 days in greenhouses on Aridisol soil, and irrigated with water from Pastos Chicos, Jujuy (Argentina). The soil and water used in the trial presented 49 and 1.44 mg/L As concentration levels, respectively. Total dry biomass (TDB) and total As were determined in soils, roots and leaves. The latter was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation, and bioconcentration and translocation factors were determined. TDB in var. cicla showed statistically significant differences when the plant was cultivated in control soil and watered with the toxicant (2.04 g), as compared with the treatment without exposure (2.8 g). TDB in var. d'ampuis presented statistically significant differences with respect to that of the control when the plants were grown in soils with As and watered with the toxicant (3.3 g). This variety increased its biomass in the presence of As. In the two Swiss chard varieties evaluated, the largest As accumulation in root and leaves was found when they were cultivated in contaminated soil and watered with distilled water. The presence of the toxicant in the leaves exceeded the limits established by Código Alimentario Argentino, i.e. 0.30 mg/kg. Total target hazard quotient (THQ) values for As were higher than 1, suggesting that consumers would run significant risks when consuming these chard varieties. Furthermore, it was determined that the carcinogenic risk (CR) posed by this type of exposure to As exceeded the acceptable risk level of 1 × 10 -6 . Based on this evidence, we may conclude that consuming chard cultivated on the evaluated site brings about considerable risks to local residents' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Leif, R. N.; McNab, W. W.; Carle, S. F.; Moore, K. B.
Population growth in California has pushed the boundaries of suburban communities into formerly agricultural areas. As a result there is considerable uncertainty as to whether nitrate contamination in groundwater wells results from current sources or is a legacy of agriculture. Fertilizer application for historical agriculture is frequently assumed to be a major source, but septic system leachate, other animal waste, and residential fertilizer application may also contribute. Potential remediation strategies may include improved fertilizer management and/or conversion from septic tanks to sewer systems, but the sources of nitrate and pathways to groundwater must first be identified in order to develop a plan of action. We combine the detection of trace organic compounds that are specific to domestic waste with isotopic compositions of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate in order to determine nitrate sources. Under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of an electron donor such as organic carbon, microbially mediated denitrification may transform nitrate to harmless nitrogen gas, and fractionate the isotopologues of any residual nitrate. The occurrence of saturated zone denitrification is detected by measuring excess dissolved nitrogen gas with a field-portable membrane inlet mass spectrometer system. Groundwater age dating using the 3H/3He method provides a means of tracking the history of nitrate inputs to groundwater, including changes in nitrate flux after implementation of a remediation program. Groundwater that pre-dates agricultural or suburban activity is used to define natural background levels of nitrate. Study areas in California include Chico, Livermore, and Gilroy. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.
Rubin, Alan E.
The identification of the mechanism(s) responsible for heating asteroids is among the major problems in planetary science. Because of difficulties with models of electromagnetic induction and the decay of short-lived radionuclides, it is worthwhile to evaluate the evidence for collisional heating. New evidence for localized impact heating comes from the high proportion of relict type-6 material among impact-melt-bearing ordinary chondrites (OC). This relict material was probably metamorphosed by residual heat within large craters. Olivine aggregates composed of faceted crystals with 120 deg triple junctions occur within the melted regions of the Chico and Rose City OC melt rocks; the olivine aggregates formed from shocked, mosaicized olivine grains that underwent contact metamorphism. Large-scale collisional heating is supoorted by the correlation in OC between petrologic type and shock stage; no other heating mechanism can readily account for this correlation. The occurrence of impact-melt-rock clasts in OC that have been metamorphosed along with their whole rocks indicates that some impact events preceded or accompanied thermal metamorphism. Such impacts events, occurring during or shortly after accretion, are probably responsible for substantially melting approximately 0.5% of OC. These events must have heated a larger percentage of OC to subsolidus temperatures sufficient to have caused significant metamorphism. If collisional heating is viable, then OC parent asteroids must have been large; large OC asteroids in the main belt may include those of the S(IV) spectral subtype. Collisional heating is inconsistent with layered ('onion-shell') structures in OC asteroids (wherein the degree of metamorphism increases with depth), but the evidence for such structures is weak. It seems likely that collisional heating played an important role in metamorphosing chondritic asteroids.
Gauthier, Adrienne J.; Huber, D.; Gay, P. L.; New Media Task Group IYA2009
From January 2009 to January 2010, the virtual celebration of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 has come full circle side-by-side with the real world celebrations. Throughout the year, the 'Astronomy 2009' island promoted the IYA2009 within the virtual world of Second Life(R) with the goal to engage and inspire the general public in astronomy. This island is situated in the group area called SciLands, a science and technology focused mini-continent of over 60 islands. We are host to immersive exhibits for the real life projects: From Earth to the Universe, The World at Night, Dark Skies Awareness, Let There Be Night, IAAA The Artists' Universe, 365 Days of Astronomy podcast, Spitzer's MIPSGAL/GLIMPSE walkable image, and Adler Planetarium's Far Out Fridays lecture series. Spitzer Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Hubble Heritage project provided over 300 free textures in a gift pack to visitors. Other exhibits include a replica of the Lord Rosse Leviathan telescope, an astrophotography grotto featuring Adam Block, David Malin, and John Gleason's work, a functional planetarium donated by Rob Knop, and live star party events from Chico Observatory. We'll review the exhibits and live events presented throughout the past year and speak towards the plans for the future. Formative evaluation strategies and first impressions of the summative evaluation of the first year of the project will be presented. Special thanks to our sponsors: Interstellar Studios/400 Years of the Telescope, Department of Astronomy University of Arizona, Spitzer Space Telescope, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Helio Huet.
Boylan, Michael; Achall, Rajesh; Shirras, Alan; Broughton, Susan J.
The Insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS) pathway plays an evolutionarily conserved role in ageing. In model organisms reduced IIS extends lifespan and ameliorates some forms of functional senescence. However, little is known about IIS in nervous system ageing and behavioural senescence. To investigate this role in Drosophila melanogaster, we measured the effect of reduced IIS on senescence of two locomotor behaviours, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. Two long-lived fly models with systemic IIS reductions (daGAL4/UAS-InRDN (ubiquitous expression of a dominant negative insulin receptor) and d2GAL/UAS-rpr (ablation of insulin-like peptide producing cells)) showed an amelioration of negative geotaxis senescence similar to that previously reported for the long-lived IIS mutant chico. In contrast, exploratory walking in daGAL4/UAS-InRDN and d2GAL/UAS-rpr flies declined with age similarly to controls. To determine the contribution of IIS in the nervous system to these altered senescence patterns and lifespan, the InRDN was targeted to neurons (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN), which resulted in extension of lifespan in females, normal negative geotaxis senescence in males and females, and detrimental effects on age-specific exploratory walking behaviour in males and females. These data indicate that the Drosophila insulin receptor independently modulates lifespan and age-specific function of different types of locomotor behaviour. The data suggest that ameliorated negative geotaxis senescence of long-lived flies with systemic IIS reductions is due to ageing related effects of reduced IIS outside the nervous system. The lifespan extension and coincident detrimental or neutral effects on locomotor function with a neuron specific reduction (elavGAL4/UAS-InRDN) indicates that reduced IIS is not beneficial to the neural circuitry underlying the behaviours despite increasing lifespan. PMID:26020640
Ratnakumar, P; Vadez, V; Nigam, S N; Krishnamurthy, L
Transpiration efficiency (TE) is an important trait for drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The variation in TE was assessed gravimetrically using a long time interval in nine peanut genotypes (Chico, ICGS 44, ICGV 00350, ICGV 86015, ICGV 86031, ICGV 91114, JL 24, TAG 24 and TMV 2) grown in lysimeters under well-watered or drought conditions. Transpiration was measured by regularly weighing the lysimeters, in which the soil surface was mulched with a 2-cm layer of polythene beads. TE in the nine genotypes used varied from 1.4 to 2.9 g kg(-1) under well-watered and 1.7 to 2.9 g kg(-1) under drought conditions, showing consistent variation in TE among genotypes. A higher TE was found in ICGV 86031 in both well-watered and drought conditions and lower TE was found in TAG-24 under both water regimes. Although total water extraction differed little across genotypes, the pattern of water extraction from the soil profile varied among genotypes. High water extraction within 24 days following stress imposition was negatively related to pod yield (r(2) = 0.36), and negatively related to water extraction during a subsequent period of 32 days (r(2) = 0.73). By contrast, the latter, i.e. water extraction during a period corresponding to grain filling (24 to 56 days after flowering) was positively related to pod yield (r(2) = 0.36). TE was positively correlated with pod weight (r(2) = 0.30) under drought condition. Our data show that under an intermittent drought regime, TE and water extraction from the soil profile during a period corresponding to pod filling were the most important components.
Souvignet, M.; Heinrich, J.
Downscaling of global climate outputs is necessary to transfer projections of potential climate change scenarios to local levels. This is of special interest to dry mountainous areas, which are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to risks of reduced freshwater availability. These areas play a key role for hydrology since they usually receive the highest local precipitation rates stored in form of snow and glaciers. In the central-northern Chile (Norte Chico, 26-33ºS), where agriculture still serves as a backbone of the economy as well as ensures the well being of people, the knowledge of water resources availability is essential. The region is characterised by a semiarid climate with a mean annual precipitation inferior to 100mm. Moreover, the local climate is also highly influenced by the ENSO phenomenon, which accounts for the strong inter-annual variability in precipitation patterns. Although historical and spatially extensive precipitation data in the headwaters of the basins in this region are not readily available, records at coastal stations show worrisome trends. For instance, the average precipitation in La Serena, the most important city located in the Coquimbo Region, has decreased dramatically in the past 100 years. The 30-year monthly average has decreased from 170 mm in the early 20th century to values less than 80 mm nowadays. Climate Change is expected to strengthen this pattern in the region, and therefore strongly influence local hydrological patterns. The objectives of this study are i) to develop climate change scenarios (2046-2099) for the Norte Chico using multi-model predictions in terms of temperatures and precipitations, and ii) to compare the efficiency of two downscaling techniques in arid mountainous regions. In addition, this study aims at iii) providing decision makers with sound analysis of potential impact of Climate Change on streamflow in the region. For the present study, future local climate scenarios were developed
Teasdale, R.; Monet, J.
Effective teaching requires in-depth content knowledge and pedagogical understanding of the subject. Most graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are well prepared in content, they often lack pedagogical knowledge needed to teach undergraduate students. There are no consistent, nationwide standards for preparing GTAs in the delivery of high quality instruction in the Geosciences. Without formal training on strategies to engage students in active learning, GTA's often implement a traditional approach to teaching science modeled on their own learning experiences. In the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences at CSU Chico, every semester approximately 700 undergraduate students enroll in GE courses with required lab sections taught by GTAs. Classroom observations completed by faculty members often reveal that GTAs have a good understanding of the content, but remain entrenched in traditional approaches to teaching science. Classroom observers commonly report on the lack of undergraduate student engagement, or the instructor's inability to ask skillful questions. We view this not as a shortcoming of the GTA, but as a weakness of their preparation. This study examines the outcomes of GTA's learning in a science teaching methods course offered in Spring 2008. This one unit pilot-course was designed to introduce reformed teaching practices to GTAs. In addition to addressing the mechanics of teaching, the course focused on six areas of instruction that were identified by faculty and GTAs as important areas for improvement. Faculty instructors completed classroom visits then met with GTAs to debrief and determine numerical rankings in the areas of reform teaching practices. Rankings helped GTAs select three of the six areas of instruction as goals for the rest of the semester. In the 14th week of class, GTAs ranked themselves again. In most cases, rankings assigned early in the course by GTAs and faculty instructors were within 0.5 points (on a 4 point scale) of
Andrade, Belisario; Garcia, Juan L.; Lüthgens, Christopher; Fiebig, Markus
To present day, the climatic and geographic expression of glacials and interglacials in the semiarid coast of central Chile remains unclear. The lack of well dated paleoclimatic records has up to now precluded firm conclusions whether maximum glacials evident in the Andes mountain range probably coincide with wetter (e.g., pluvials) or drier conditions at the coast. The natural region locally known as "Norte Chico" represents a transitional semiarid area between the extreme Atacama Desert to the North and the wetter, Mediterranean-like type of climate, to the South. In this semiarid region of Chile several generations of eolian sand dunes, some of them separated by paleosoils, have been preserved. In addition to the occurrence of paleosoils, thick debris flow deposits in some places overly ancient dune bodies, likely indicating significant environmental changes during the formation of these archives. However, the exact timing of these processes within the mid to late Pleistocene and Holocene is still unclear. A key aspect is that some of the ancient dunes are recently hanging above rocky coastlines, where no supply of sand exists today, likely implying their formation during a lower than present, probably glacio-eustatically induced sea level. The location of the research area in a key mid-latitude region of the eastern Pacific in combination with the preserved landform record offers a chance to reconstruct climatic shifts during the Quaternary by studying the variability of morphogenetic conditions throughout time, in order to promote knowledge about possible forcing factors driving climatic variability. Within this pilot study, samples for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating were taken from three different stratigraphic sections that denote a complex environmental variability as indicated by paleosoils and debris flow units intercalated in ancient sand dunes. First dating results inferred from OSL measurements using a post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) protocol for
Endara, P; Vaca, M; Chico, M E; Erazo, S; Oviedo, G; Quinzo, I; Rodriguez, A; Lovato, R; Moncayo, A-L; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J
Background The low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural tropics has been attributed to the protective effects of chronic helminth infections. There is concern that treatment-based control programmes for these parasites may lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Objective We measured the impact of 15–17 years of anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity and allergic symptoms in school-age children. Methods The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity, exercise-induced bronchospasm and allergic symptoms was compared between school-age children living in communities that had received community-based treatments with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis control) for a period of 15–17 years with those living in geographically adjacent communities that had received no ivermectin. Results The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity was double in children living in treated communities compared with those in untreated communities (16.7% vs. 8.7%, adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.50–2.94, P<0.0001), and the effect was mediated partly by a reduced prevalence of Trichuris trichiura among treated children. Ivermectin treatments were associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms (adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05–4.78, P=0.04) but not symptoms of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. The effect on eczema symptoms was not associated with reductions in geohelminth infections. Conclusion Long-term periodic treatments with ivermectin were associated with an increased prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity. There was some evidence that treatment was associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms but not those of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. Cite this as: P. Endara, M. Vaca, M. E. Chico, S. Erazo, G. Oviedo, I. Quinzo, A. Rodriguez R. Lovato, A.-L. Moncayo, M. L. Barreto, L. C. Rodrigues and P. J. Cooper, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1669–1677. PMID
Mayhew, L. E.; Childers, S. E.; Geist, D.
The extreme physiochemical conditions, insularity, and wide range in ages of fumaroles of the Galapagos Islands provide an excellent opportunity to explore for novel microorganisms and to study life in extreme environments. This is the first study that measures microbial diversity of Galapagos fumaroles. Forty-seven samples were collected from six distinct fumarole fields on Sierra Negra and Alcedo volcanoes. Vulcan Chico, on Sierra Negra, was activated during the last eruption in 1979. Two of the other fumarole fields on Sierra Negra are associated with a long-lived fault system on the caldera floor and are therefore likely to be significantly older. The fault-associated fumaroles have widespread alteration haloes (up to 100 m in diameter) and thick deposits of native sulfur. The most vigorous of the fumarole fields on Alcedo activated in late 1993 to early 1994. The second fumarole field on Alcedo is associated with a recently extinct geyser and the third is located on a rhyolite vent. A diversity of colors was observed in the substrates at all of the fumarole fields and some may be the result of microbial activity. Collection sites were chosen on the basis of temperature and the variations in the substrate in order to obtain samples from a variety of environments. Temperatures at sample sites range from 25.0 to 178.5° C, and pH from 0 to 6. The material collected varies between sites and includes crystalline sulfur deposits, clay, sandy and rocky soils, and microbial mats. Substrate material is characterized by powder x-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy and gases collected from five of the fumarole fields are being analyzed to test for chemical controls on the microbial populations. Genomic DNA is being extracted from all of the samples. Primers for Bacteria and Archaea are used for PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. To date, 22 of 37 processed samples have amplifiable DNA. Microbial diversity of samples possessing amplifiable DNA is
Pierce, Kenneth L.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy
This field guide focuses on the glacial geology and paleoecology beginning in the Paradise Valley and progressing southward into northern Yellowstone National Park. During the last (Pinedale) glaciation, the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier flowed out of Yellowstone Park and down the Yellowstone River Valley into the Paradise Valley. The field trip will traverse the following Pinedale glacial sequence: (1) deposition of the Eightmile terminal moraines and outwash 16.5 ± 1.4 10Be ka in the Paradise Valley; (2) glacial recession of ~8 km and deposition of the Chico moraines and outwash 16.1 ± 1.7 10Be ka; (3) glacial recession of 45 km to near the northern Yellowstone boundary and moraine deposition during the Deckard Flats readjustment 14.2 ± 1.2 10Be ka; and (4) glacial recession of ~37 km and deposition of the Junction Butte moraines 15.2 ± 1.3 10Be ka (this age is a little too old based on the stratigraphic sequence). Yellowstone's northern range of sagebrush-grasslands and bison, elk, wolf, and bear inhabitants is founded on glacial moraines, sub-glacial till, and outwash deposited during the last glaciation. Floods released from glacially dammed lakes and a landslide-dammed lake punctuate this record. The glacial geologic reconstruction was evaluated by calculation of basal shear stress, and yielded the following values for flow pattern in plan view: strongly converging—1.21 ± 0.12 bars (n = 15); nearly uniform—1.04 ± 0.16 bars (n = 11); and strongly diverging—0.84 ± 0.14 bars (n = 16). Reconstructed mass balance yielded accumulation and ablation each of ~3 km3/yr, with glacial movement near the equilibrium line altitude dominated by basal sliding. Pollen and charcoal records from three lakes in northern Yellowstone provide information on the postglacial vegetation and fire history. Following glacial retreat, sparsely vegetated landscapes were colonized first by spruce parkland and then by closed subalpine forests. Regional fire activity
In 1980 Santa Rosa Dam began impounding water on the Pecos River about 7 miles north of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, to provide flood control, sediment control, and storage for irrigation. Santa Rosa Lake has caused changes in the groundwater flow system, which may cause changes in the streamflow of the Pecos River that cannot be detected at the present streamflow gaging stations. Data collected at these stations are used to measure the amount of water available for downstream users. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model for a 950 sq mi area between Anton Chico and Puerto de Luna was used to simulate the effects of Santa Rosa Lake on groundwater flow to a gaining reach of the Pecos River for lake levels of 4,675, 4,715, 4,725, 4,750, 4,776, and 4,797 feet above sea level and durations of impoundment of 30, 90, 182, and 365 days for all levels except 4 ,797 feet. These simulations indicated that streamflow in the Pecos River could increase by as much as 2 cu ft/sec between the dam and Puerto de Luna if the lake level were maintained at 4 ,797 feet for 90 days or 4,776 feet for 1 year. About 90% of this increased streamflow would occur < 0.5 mi downstream from the dam, some of which would be measured at the streamflow gaging station located 0.2 mile downstream from the dam. Simulations also indicated that the lake will affect groundwater flow such that inflow to the study area may be decreased by as much as 1.9 cu ft/sec. This water may leave the Pecos River drainage basin or be diverted back to the Pecos River downstream from the gaging station near Puerto de Luna. In either case, this quantity represents a net loss of water upstream from Puerto de Luna. Most simulations indicated that the decrease in groundwater flow into the study area would be of about the same quantity as the simulated increase in streamflow downstream from the dam. Therefore, the net effect of the lake on the flow of the Pecos River in the study area appears to be negligible. Model simulations
Benedix, G. K.; Ketcham, R. A.; Wilson, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.
The L chondrite Patuxent Range (PAT) 91501 is an 8.5-kg unshocked, homogeneous, igneous-textured impact melt that cooled slowly compared to other meteoritic impact melts in a crater floor melt sheet or sub-crater dike [Mittlefehldt D. W. and Lindstrom M. M. (2001) Petrology and geochemistry of Patuxent Range 91501 and Lewis Cliff 88663. Meteoritics Planet. Sci. 36, 439-457]. We conducted mineralogical and tomographic studies of previously unstudied mm- to cm-sized metal-sulfide-vesicle assemblages and chronologic studies of the silicate host. Metal-sulfide clasts constitute about 1 vol.%, comprise zoned taenite, troilite, and pentlandite, and exhibit a consistent orientation between metal and sulfide and of metal-sulfide contacts. Vesicles make up ˜2 vol.% and exhibit a similar orientation of long axes. 39Ar- 40Ar measurements probably date the time of impact at 4.461 ± 0.008 Gyr B.P. Cosmogenic noble gases and 10Be and 26Al activities suggest a pre-atmospheric radius of 40-60 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 25-29 Myr, similar to ages of a cluster of L chondrites. PAT 91501 dates the oldest known impact on the L chondrite parent body. The dominant vesicle-forming gas was S 2 (˜15-20 ppm), which formed in equilibrium with impact-melted sulfides. The meteorite formed in an impact melt dike beneath a crater, as did other impact melted L chondrites, such as Chico. Cooling and solidification occurred over ˜2 h. During this time, ˜90% of metal and sulfide segregated from the local melt. Remaining metal and sulfide grains oriented themselves in the local gravitational field, a feature nearly unique among meteorites. Many of these metal-sulfide grains adhered to vesicles to form aggregates that may have been close to neutrally buoyant. These aggregates would have been carried upward with the residual melt, inhibiting further buoyancy-driven segregation. Although similar processes operated individually in other chondritic impact melts, their interaction produced
Cordeira, J. M.; Ralph, F. M.; Neiman, P. J.; Hughes, M.
The Upper Sacramento River area is vital to California's water supply, and is susceptible to major floods. Recent studies indicate that orographic precipitation in this complex terrain involves both inland penetrating atmospheric rivers (ARs) and the Sierra barrier jet (SBJ). The southerly SBJ induces orographic precipitation along south-facing slopes in the Shasta region, whereas landfalling ARs ascend up and over the statically stable SBJ and induce orographic precipitation along west-facing upper slopes in the Northern Sierra Nevada. This paper explores the hypothesis that extreme daily precipitation here is controlled by the presence of both a landfalling AR and a SBJ. Three 10-year-long (2000-2011) observational datasets are used. ARs are identified from the Neiman et al. (2008) AR catalog that uses an SSM/I satellite-based AR-detection method from Ralph et al. (2004), whereas SBJ conditions are determined from Chico, CA wind profiler data using the method from Neiman et al. (2010). Extreme daily precipitation is identified from the average of 8 rain gauges spanning the region known as the "Northern Sierra 8-Station Index." The "index" is used by water managers to assess water supply. Extreme events are defined as the 50 largest daily precipitation totals in the index for the 10-year period (the top ~1.37%). These dates in the 8-station index are compared with the catalogs of landfalling ARs and SBJs. In summary, 46 of 50 (92%) extreme daily precipitation events are associated with landfalling ARs on either the day before or the day of precipitation, whereas 45 of 50 (90%) extreme daily precipitation events are associated with SBJ conditions. 38 of 50 (76%) extreme daily precipitation events are associated with both a landfalling AR and an SBJ. The 10 days with the largest daily precipitation in the index were all associated with both a landfalling AR and an SBJ. Thus, extreme daily precipitation in Northern California is strongly controlled by the presence of
Wilson, T. M.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.; Cronin, S. J.; Johnston, D. M.
, agricultural recovery. The continuing ash storms motivated the partial evacuation of small rural towns such as Chile Chico (Chile) and Los Antiguos (Argentina) in September-December 1991, after the primary tephra fall in August 1991. Greatly increased municipal cleanup efforts had to be sustained beyond the initial tephra fall to cope with the ongoing impacts of ash storms. Throughout the 1990s, ash storms contributed to continued population migration out of the affected area, leaving hundreds of farms abandoned on the Argentine steppe. The major lesson from our study is the importance of stabilisation of ash deposits as soon as possible after the initial eruption, particularly in windy, arid climates. Suggested mitigation measures include deep cultivation of the ash into the soil and erecting windbreaks.
root systems of trees. A fossil nest of a nasutitermitine termite in the lower sequence of the formation indicates the presence of tropical forest. Climatic conditions may have been drier during deposition of the barchanoid paleodunes in early late Pinturas time, or the dunes might reflect drier source areas or have simply encroached on areas of highland forest. Fossil mammals are abundant in Pinturas sediments, and attritional concentrations of them were recognized in the upper parts of paleosols and on the floors of erosional scours. Radiometric dates indicate that the fossil mammals (including platyrrhine primates) occurring in the lower and middle parts of the formation may range in age from about 16-6 to younger than 13-3 Ma (million years ago) (Santacrucian and, almost certainly, Friasian land-mammal ages). This age range is somewhat younger than previous estimates, and suggests that the Pinturas faunas correlate broadly with those from the type Santa Cruz Formation, with the presumed position of the type Friasian, and with the base of the marine Gaiman Formation in the lower valley of the Rio Chubut.
Umazano, A. Martín; Krause, J. Marcelo; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Perez, Mariano; Visconti, Graciela; Melchor, Ricardo N.
The Cretaceous Puesto La Paloma (PLPM) and Cerro Castaño (CCM) members (Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut Group) are pyroclastic-rich, alluvial successions deposited in the Somuncurá-Cañadón Asfalto Basin during sag and endorheic conditions. The PLPM comprises sheet-like tuffaceous sandstone strata, whereas the overlying CCM includes sheet-to ribbon-channel sandstone bodies intercalated within tuffaceous and fine-grained sediments. In this context, the goals of this contribution were: i) to make a detailed documentation of the contrasting sedimentary palaeonvironments; and ii) to infer the allocyclic controls that governed the sedimentation of both units. The study area is located in the western sector of the basin, where six localities, which were studied. Six facies associations were defined including ash-falls, sheet-floods, shallow lakes, aeolian, fluvial channel-belts, and reworked debris-flows. We defined four stratigraphic intervals for the studied sections, denominated 1 to 4 in chronological order of deposition, which increase their thicknesses toward the Puesto Mesa-Cerro León site. The interval 1 (18-42 m thick) corresponds to the PLPM and includes numerous pedogenized sheet-flood deposits, carbonate-rich lacustrine, aeolian sandy facies, and ash-fall beds. The interval 1 is interpreted as an ephemeral and unconfined alluvial system that interacted with aeolian dunes and dry interdune zones. The interval 2 (20-47 m thick) represents the lower part of the CCM. It shows an alternation of fluvial channel-belt deposits and vegetated floodplain facies with sediments originated from sheet-floods, lakes, and few ash-falls and debris-flows. The mean palaeoflow was toward E-SE, except in the northernmost locality where the drainage was towards SW. Proportion of channel-belt bodies ranges from 10 to 36%, reaching higher values in the northern part of the study area, where they are also thicker. The interval 2 represents a permanent, meandering or locally low
Leech, Mary L.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Mooney, Walter D.
how NSF can best support the evolving need for interdisciplinary investigations. This workshop also has clear societal relevance. Recent earthquakes have brought international attention to active tectonics and earthquake hazards in the HKT region. Prominent examples include the Mw 7.8 Kokoxili (Qinghai, China) earthquake of 2001, the Mw 7.6 Kashmir (Pakistan) earthquake of 2005, the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (Sichuan, China) earthquake of 2008, and this year the Mw 6.9 Yushu (Qinghai, China) earthquake. Geological and geophysical field work conducted both before these earthquakes, as well as in response to them, has helped to define the active faults and regional tectonics in the HKT region. The research presented at this workshop provides the framework necessary for improved seismic hazard assessments in this region. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF's Continental Dynamics Program and its Office of International Science and Engineering, through award EAR-0965796. We thank San Francisco State University's Sheldon Axler, Dean of the College of Science and Engineering, and Toby Garfield, Director of the Romberg Tiburon Center, for use of their conference facilities; and the Department of Geosciences, particularly Deb Shulman and Miriam Knof, for administrative support. The California Academy of Sciences generously hosted a reception for visiting delegates, and Brad Ritts (Chevron Exploration Technology Company), Todd Greene (California State University, Chico) and John Shervais (Utah State University) together co-led the pre-conference field trip. Technical editing of this volume was led by Roxanne Renedo (U.S. Geological Survey) with assistance from Margaret Milia (Stanford University). We are grateful to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program and the USGS Menlo Park (California) Publishing Service Center for making this online report possible.
Guérin, Frédéric; Leon, Juan
Tropical hydroelectric reservoirs are considered as very significant source of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), especially when flooding dense forest. We report emissions from the Rio Grande II Reservoir located at 2000 m.a.s.l. in the Colombian Andes. The dam was built at the confluence of the Rio Grande and Rio Chico in 1990. The reservoir has a surface of 12 km2, a maximum depth of 40m and a residence time of 2.5 month. Water quality (temperature, oxygen, pH, conductivity), nitrate, ammonium, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC), CO2 and CH4 were monitored bi-monthly during 1.5 year at 9 stations in the reservoir. Diffusive fluxes of CO2 and CH4 and CH4 ebullition were measured at 5 stations. The Rio grande II Reservoir is weakly stratified thermally with surface temperature ranging from 20 to 24°C and a constant bottom temperature of 18°C. The reservoir water column is well oxygenated at the surface and usually anoxic below 10m depth. At the stations close to the tributaries water inputs, the water column is well mixed and oxygenated from the surface to the bottom. As reported for other reservoirs located in "clear water" watersheds, the concentrations of nutrients are low (NO3-<0.1ppm, NH4+<0.2ppm), the concentrations of DOC are high (2-8 mg L-1) and POC concentrations are low (< 3 mg L-1). Surface CH4 concentrations at the central stations of the reservoirs are 0.5 μmol L-1 (0.07-2.14 μmol L-1) and 3 times higher at the stations close to the tributaries inputs (up to 7 μmol L-1). In the hypolimnion, CH4 concentration is <100 μmol L-1 in the wet season and can reach up to 400 μmol L-1 in the dry season. The spatial and temporal variability are lower for CO2. Surface CO2 concentration was on average 72 μmol L-1 (up to 300) and hypolimnic concentration ranged between 250 and 1000 μmol L-1. The CO2 diffusive flux is 517±331 mmol m-2 d-1 with little seasonal and spatial variations. At the center of the reservoir, the median
Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Díaz, Ingrit E C; Frana, Sergio Alexandre; Bernardi, Maria Martha
Anani , ( Symphonia globulifera , Clusiaceae), known as chewstick, is a traditional plant occurring in Africa and in Central and South Americas that is used against parasites and microorganisms. Although its use is popular in some of these countries, there is a lack of information related to its influence over behavioral phenotype (BP). The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of the administration of the extract obtained from the aerial organs of Anani (EB1257) to male Balb-c mice over BP. Open cage observation, open field, and elevated-plus maze apparatuses were used. Evaluations were done 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after intraperitoneal administration of Anani extract. Impairment of general behavior activity, response to touch, tail squeeze, defecation, locomotion and rearing frequency were observed although no signs of hemorrhage or macroscopical alterations of internal organs. Anani is harmful, but not toxic if used in the appropriate doses, yet to be determined to male mice. Impairment of locomotion and defecation was observed, indicating some degree of influence over locomotion, but no alterations in anxiety levels were assessed. Three compounds were previously found in the plant-lupeol (1), β-amyrin (2) and 3-β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene (3), and one is being described for the first time to occur in the species: oleanolic acid (4). The present work contributes in the support of the rational use of Anani , an important Latin American and African alternative medicine, presenting findings that are being reported for the first time. Symphonia globulifera impairs locomotion and defecatin in behavior analysesNo alterations in anxiety was observedOleanolic acid occurs in the species. Abbreviations used: BP: Behavioral phenotype; OF: Open field, EPM: Elevated-plus maze, MMA/ICMBio/SISBIO: Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade/Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade, IBAMA
Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.
Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32Ë 52' S; 68Ë 51' W) and Chubut (45Ë 51' S; 67Ë 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and
Richmond, Orien Manu Wright
The secretive California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus ) has a disjunct and poorly understood distribution. After a new population was discovered in Yuba County in 1994, we conducted call playback surveys from 1994--2006 in the Sierra foothills and Sacramento Valley region to determine the distribution and residency of Black Rails, estimate densities, and obtain estimates of site occupancy and detection probability. We found Black Rails at 164 small, widely scattered marshes distributed along the lower western slopes of the Sierra Nevada foothills, from just northeast of Chico (Butte County) to Rocklin (Placer County). Marshes were surrounded by a matrix of unsuitable habitat, creating a patchy or metapopulation structure. We observed Black Rails nesting and present evidence that they are year-round residents. Assuming perfect detectability we estimated a lower-bound mean Black Rail density of 1.78 rails ha-1, and assuming a detection probability of 0.5 we estimated a mean density of 3.55 rails ha-1. We test if the presence of the larger Virginia Rail (Laterallus limicola) affects probabilities of detection or occupancy of the smaller California Black Rail in small freshwater marshes that range in size from 0.013-13.99 ha. We hypothesized that Black Rail occupancy should be lower in small marshes when Virginia Rails are present than when they are absent, because resources are presumably more limited and interference competition should increase. We found that Black Rail detection probability was unaffected by the detection of Virginia Rails, while, surprisingly, Black and Virginia Rail occupancy were positively associated even in small marshes. The average probability of Black Rail occupancy was higher when Virginia Rails were present (0.74 +/- 0.053) than when they were absent (0.36 +/- 0.069), and for both species occupancy increased with marsh size. We assessed the impact of winter (November-May) cattle grazing on occupancy of California Black
Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Tsao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Wen
mayor inadaptación, sobre todo interiorizada. La muestra consistió de 603 adolescentes taiwaneses (226 chicos y 377 chicas) entre 15 y 19 años de edad (media edad = 16.95; DT = 0.78). Los análisis de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales confirmaron las hipótesis. Sin embargo, los tres efectos directos de los conflictos en la internalización de los problemas, agresión y comportamiento anormal seguían siendo significativos. Además, se identificó un efecto mayor del rol paternal en comparación con el rol maternal en la relación entre conflicto y la creencia filial reciproca atenuada y entre la amenaza percibida y la internalización de los problemas. Se discuten las implicaciones para la comprensión del proceso mediador responsable de todos los efectos indirectos, incluso los subsidiarios, y el mayor impacto del conflicto con los padres que con las madres. Igualmente, se discuten las limitaciones del estudio y las consideraciones para la investigación futura.