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Sample records for child developmental test

  1. OS082. CHIPS-Child: Testing the developmental origins hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Magee, L A; Synnes, A

    2012-07-01

    CHIPS-Child is a natural test of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis (DOHaD) [1,2]. Reduced fetal growth rate is associated with adult cardiovascular risk markers (e.g., obesity) and disease [3,4]. Evidence worldwide indicates that this relationship is independent of birth weight. The leading theory describes 'developmental programming'in utero leading to permanent alteration of the fetal genome. While those changes are adaptive in utero, they may be maladaptive postnatally. To directly test, for the first time in humans, whether differential blood pressure (BP) control in pregnancy has developmental programming effects, independent of birth weight. We predict that, like famine or protein malnutrition, 'tight' (vs. 'less tight') control of maternal BP will be associated with fetal under-nutrition and effects will be consistent with developmental programming. CHIPS-Child is a parallel, ancillary study to the CHIPS randomized controlled trial (RCT). CHIPS is designed to determine whether 'less tight' control [target diastolic BP (dBP) 100mmHg] or 'tight' control [target dBP 85mmHg] of non-proteinuric hypertension in pregnancy is better for the baby without increasing maternal risk. CHIPS-Child will examine offspring of CHIPS participants non-invasively at 12m corrected post-gestational age (±2m) for anthropometry, hair cortisol, buccal swabs for epigenetic testing and a maternal questionnaire about infant feeding practices and background. Annual contact will be maintained in years 2-5 and will include annual parental measurement of the child's height, weight and waist circumference. CHIPS will recruit 1028 women. We estimate that 80% of CHIPS centres will participate in CHIPS-Child, approximately 97% of babies will survive, and 90% of children will be followed to 12m resulting in a sample size of 626. Power will be >80% to detect a between-group difference of ⩾0.25 in 'change in z-score for weight' between birth and 12m (2-sided alpha=0

  2. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  3. Developmental screenings in rural settings: a comparison of the child development review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Brachlow, A; Jordan, A E; Tervo, R

    2001-01-01

    Screening results for the Child Development Review (CDR) and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test (Denver II) were compared in two locations: the Cheyenne River Reservation in South Dakota and Sioux Falls, S.D. Seventy-three white, Native American and other minority children, half originating from the reservation and half from Sioux Falls, were randomly assigned to take one developmental screening test. A chi-square analysis indicated a significant difference in results across tests. Specifically, more CDR than Denver II subjects passed the screening and more Denver II than CDR subjects failed the screening. This pattern held for subjects living on, but not off, the reservation. Thus, for Native American, white and other minority children living on the Cheyenne River Reservation, the CDR may be undersensitive and/or the Denver II oversensitive to suspect presentations. Medical practitioners are advised to use these instruments with caution in rural settings.

  4. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  5. Evaluation of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test for Use in States' Child Outcomes Measurement Systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) for use in states' child outcomes accountability systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Complete Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), assessment data were obtained for 142 children, ages 2 to 62 months, who…

  6. Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

    This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

  7. Child Abuse: Its Relationship to Birthweight, Apgar Score, and Developmental Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of child abuse to birthweight, five-minute Apgar score, and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development was studied in 75 low socioeconomic infants (ages 2-30 months). Journal availability: see EC 111 042. (Author)

  8. Developmental Levels of the Child's Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska

    Noting that examining the storytelling skills of children between 4 and 8 years of age can provide insights into the child's overall language development, this study explored the development of children's storytelling, using story coherence and story cohesion to evaluate the developmental level of the child's storytelling. Participating in the…

  9. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  10. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  11. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  12. Developmental Consequences of Child Abuse. Selected Papers Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boots, John

    This exploration of the dynamics and developmental consequences of child abuse begins with a definition of child abuse and a discussion of child sexual abuse. After a description of the incidence of child abuse, the consequences of abuse--including health and emotional problems, and neuro-developmental disabilities--are discussed. Further…

  13. Parents' Reactions after the Birth of a Developmentally Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waisbren, Susan E.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty families with a developmentally disabled child less than 1.5 years old were compared to 30 families with a nonhandicapped child. Half of the families lived in California, and half in Denmark. Parents with a very young developmentally disabled child saw themselves more negatively after the baby's birth and expressed more negative feelings…

  14. Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) survey and degree of malnutrition among children born to HIV infected mothers under the Prevention of Mother to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) Program.

    PubMed

    Hokjindee, Usa; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Lim, Apiradee; Pruphetkaew, Nannapat

    2010-12-01

    To examine morbidity experience, pattern of nutrition status and development of the children born to HIV infected mothers under the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) Program compared to the national standard. In 2008, births given by mothers under PMTCT in five selected hospitals of Health Region 4 of Thailand between 2002 and 2006 were identified from the registered data and the medical records, were reviewed. Their homes were visited to collect the data. Among 138 mothers and 143 children studied, nobody died. Forty-four were healthy 91 experienced mild episode of various infections and allergy within the past three months, one was admitted for pneumonia, two were HIV-positive, 53 were negative and the other 88 had no final blood tested In the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST), all parameters were minimal, less than 5%. Overall, the suspected delay development is around 15.4%. For nutritional status assessment by height for age (HFA), weight for age (WFA) and weight for height (WFH) reported a quarter (23.1%) was stunting whereas 12.6% were thin and 5.6% were wasting, respectively. Among the study PMTCT children, serious morbidity was rare. Nutritional deficiency was more common than delayed development.

  15. Child Health, Developmental Plasticity, and Epigenetic Programming

    PubMed Central

    Feil, R.; Constancia, M.; Fraga, M.; Junien, C.; Carel, J.-C.; Boileau, P.; Le Bouc, Y.; Deal, C. L.; Lillycrop, K.; Scharfmann, R.; Sheppard, A.; Skinner, M.; Szyf, M.; Waterland, R. A.; Waxman, D. J.; Whitelaw, E.; Ong, K.; Albertsson-Wikland, K.

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developmental origins of health and disease and life-history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from preconception to early childhood and involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life-history phase transitions. These epigenetic responses influence development, cell- and tissue-specific gene expression, and sexual dimorphism, and, in exceptional cases, could be transmitted transgenerationally. Translational epigenetic research in child health is a reiterative process that ranges from research in the basic sciences, preclinical research, and pediatric clinical research. Identifying the epigenetic consequences of fetal programming creates potential applications in clinical practice: the development of epigenetic biomarkers for early diagnosis of disease, the ability to identify susceptible individuals at risk for adult diseases, and the development of novel preventive and curative measures that are based on diet and/or novel epigenetic drugs. PMID:20971919

  16. Examining affinities of the Taung child by developmental simulation.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Kieran P; Frost, Stephen R; Strait, David S

    2006-09-01

    As a well-preserved juvenile and the type specimen of Australopithecus africanus, the Taung child figures prominently in taxonomic, ontogenetic, and phylogenetic analyses of fossil hominins. Despite general agreement about allocation of Sterkfontein and Makapansgat fossils to this species, limited morphological comparisons have been possible between these adult specimens and the juvenile Taung. Here, we used developmental simulation to estimate the adult form of the Taung child, and directly compare its morphology to that of other fossil hominins. Specimens were represented by 50 three-dimensional landmarks superimposed by generalized Procrustes analysis. The simulation process applied developmental trajectories from extant hominine species to the Taung fossil in order to generate its adult form. Despite differences found in the developmental patterns of these modern species, simulations tested on extant juveniles-transforming them into "adults" using trajectories from other species-revealed that these differences have negligible impact on adult morphology. This indicates that morphology already present by occlusion of the first permanent molar is the primary determinant of adult form, thereby supporting use of extant trajectories to estimate the morphology of an extinct species. The simulated Taung adult was then compared to other adult fossils. As these comparisons required assumptions about the pattern and magnitude of developmental change, additional analyses were performed to evaluate these two parameters separately. Results of all analyses overwhelmingly rejected the possibility that the Taung child was a juvenile robust australopith, but were consistent with the hypothesis that the Taung and Sterkfontein fossils are conspecific. Between Sts 5 and Sts 71, the latter is more likely to resemble the adult form of the Taung child.

  17. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  18. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  19. Child maltreatment syndrome: demographics and developmental issues of inpatient cases

    PubMed Central

    Ngiam, Xin Ying; Kang, Ying Qi; Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Kiing, Jennifer; Law, Evelyn Chung Ning

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, developmental and behavioural profile of children hospitalised for alleged child maltreatment syndrome (CMS). METHODS This study was a retrospective review of the consecutive inpatient records of children (0–16 years) admitted to the National University Hospital, Singapore, for alleged CMS over a three-year period. Descriptive data on the demographic characteristics, alleged maltreatment, medical and developmental histories, and family background of these children were collected and analysed. Chi-square statistics were used to test whether family factors were associated with the type of maltreatment and the presence of developmental disorders. RESULTS A total of 89 children, who accounted for 90 admission cases, were studied. Physical abuse (70.0%) was the most common, followed by neglect (11.1%) and sexual abuse (7.8%). Child protection services had already been involved in 29.2% of the cases prior to the child’s admission. Children who were victims of abuse were more likely to come from homes with a prior history of domestic violence (p = 0.028). Financial difficulty was found to be a risk factor for neglect (p = 0.005). Among the 89 children, 15.7% were found to have developmental disorders and 10.1% had mental health diagnoses. Children who had developmental disorders were more likely to have a parent with a mental health disorder (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION A sizeable proportion of the children admitted for alleged CMS had developmental or behavioural disorders. Clinicians have a role in ensuring that these children have appropriate follow-up plans. Children from high-risk families should be screened for maltreatment. PMID:26668405

  20. Early child development and developmental delay in indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Matthew M; Gahagan, Sheila

    2009-12-01

    Developmental delay is common and often responds to early intervention. As with other health outcomes, the prevalence of developmental delay may be socially determined. Children in many Indigenous communities experience increased risk for developmental delay. This article highlights special conditions in Indigenous communities related to child development. It addresses the challenges of screening and evaluation for developmental delay in the context of Indigenous cultures, and in settings where resources are often inadequate. It is clear that careful research on child development in Indigenous settings is urgently needed. Intervention strategies tied to cultural traditions could enhance interest, acceptability, and ultimately developmental outcomes in children at risk.

  1. Teacher-child relationships as a developmental issue.

    PubMed

    Schuengel, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships may be a developmental issue in its own right, instead of an aspect of wider developmental issues such as attachment or adaptation to school. This paper discusses research findings on teacher-child relationships to argue that teacher-child relationships are important for carrying forward the experiences represented in the attachment behavioral system, although it is not clear whether teacher-child relationships themselves add to the attachment behavioral system or to the sociability behavioral system. The research demonstrates that attachment theory offers a useful template for understanding the role of teacher-child relationships in development. Listing teacher-child relationships among main developmental issues for today's children puts the spotlight on avenues for improving teacher-child relationships.

  2. Developmental Assessment of Infants and Toddlers in Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Betty S.

    The Mental Development Scales: Birth to Three Years are instruments designed to assess developmental levels of young children within a setting familiar to the child. They (1) provide a greater understanding of child behavior and development, (2) serve as a basis for planning an individualized curriculum for each child, and (3) furnish the means…

  3. Developmental Assessment of Infants and Toddlers in Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Betty S.

    The Mental Development Scales: Birth to Three Years are instruments designed to assess developmental levels of young children within a setting familiar to the child. They (1) provide a greater understanding of child behavior and development, (2) serve as a basis for planning an individualized curriculum for each child, and (3) furnish the means…

  4. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  5. Psychological child maltreatment. A developmental view.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, J

    1993-06-01

    This article explores the concept of psychological child maltreatment. It begins with a definition of psychological maltreatment in terms of care-giver behavior that thwarts the meeting of the needs of children. It focuses on five forms of psychological maltreatment that are of concern to the practitioner: rejecting (sending messages of rejection to the child), ignoring (being psychologically unavailable to the child), terrorizing (using intense fear as a weapon against the child), isolating (cutting the child off from normal social relationships), and corrupting (missocializing the child into self-destructive and antisocial patterns of behavior).

  6. Developmental toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Preventative and therapeutic vaccines are increasingly used during pregnancy and present special considerations for developmental toxicity testing. The various components of the vaccine formulation (i.e., protein or polysaccharide antigen, adjuvants, and excipients) need to be assessed for direct effects on the developing conceptus. In addition, possible adverse influences of the induced antibodies on fetal and/or postnatal development need to be evaluated. A guidance document on the preclinical testing of preventative and therapeutic vaccines for developmental toxicity was issued by the FDA in 2006. Preclinical studies are designed to assess possible influences of vaccines on pre- and postnatal development. The choice of model animal for these experiments is influenced by species differences in the timing and extent of the transfer of the induced maternal antibodies to the fetus. The cross-placental transport of maternal immunoglobulins generally only occurs in late gestation and tends to be greater in humans and monkeys than in non-primate species. For many vaccines, the rabbit shows a greater rate of prenatal transfer of the induced antibodies than rodents. For biotechnology-derived vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species, nonhuman primates may be the only appropriate models. It may be advisable to test new adjuvants using the ICH study designs for conventional pharmaceuticals in addition to the developmental toxicity study with the final vaccine formulation.

  7. Developmental Factors Related to Deviant Sexual Preferences in Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, Patrick; Beauregard, Eric; Proulx, Jean; Nicole, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between developmental factors and deviant sexual preferences in child molesters. In total, 146 adult males having committed a sexual offence against a child were included in the study. Three types of factors were investigated: negative experiences during childhood, behavior problems during…

  8. Gesell's Developmental Testing: What Purpose Does It Serve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Modlin, Preston D.

    1987-01-01

    Examined usefulness of the Gesell Preschool Test (GPT), a developmental readiness test used by teachers and school psychologists to determine a child's readiness to begin formal instruction. Results revealed that, after accounting for effects of math and reading achievement, GPT failed to contribute to the discrimination of 30 retained and 58…

  9. A Multimedia Child Developmental Screening Checklist: Design and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chen, Li-Ying; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying disability early in life confers long-term benefits for children. The Taipei City Child Development Screening tool, second version (Taipei II) provides checklists for 13 child age groups from 4 months to 6 years. However, the usability of a text-based screening tool largely depends on the literacy level and logical reasoning ability of the caregivers, as well as language barriers caused by increasing numbers of immigrants. Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) design and develop a Web-based multimedia version of the current Taipei II developmental screening tool, and (2) investigate the measurement equivalence of this multimedia version to the original paper-based version. Methods To develop the multimedia version of Taipei II, a team of experts created illustrations, translations, and dubbing of the original checklists. The developmental screening test was administered to a total of 390 primary caregivers of children aged between 4 months and 6 years. Results Psychometric testing revealed excellent agreement between the paper and multimedia versions of Taipei II. Good to excellent reliabilities were demonstrated for all age groups for both the cross-mode similarity (mode intraclass correlation range 0.85-0.96) and the test-retest reliability (r=.93). Regarding the usability, the mean score was 4.80 (SD 0.03), indicating that users were satisfied with their multimedia website experience. Conclusions The multimedia tool produced essentially equivalent results to the paper-based tool. In addition, it had numerous advantages, such as it can facilitate active participation and promote early screening of target populations. ClinicalTrial Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02359591; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02359591 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6l21mmdNn) PMID:27777218

  10. From Parent-Child Mutuality to Security to Socialization Outcomes: Developmental Cascade toward Positive Adaptation in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age 8. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident. PMID:26258443

  11. From parent-child mutuality to security to socialization outcomes: developmental cascade toward positive adaptation in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age eight. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS. The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident.

  12. A developmental model of maternal and child contributions to disruptive conduct: the first six years.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A; Aksan, Nazan; Boldt, Lea J

    2008-11-01

    The parent-child relationship is considered important for children's future conscience, and conscience is seen as protecting them from disruptive behavior problems, but specific mechanisms of this developmental process are rarely studied. This multi-trait multi-method study examined, in a longitudinal design, paths linking early maternal responsiveness to the child with the child's future conscience and disruptive behavior in 102 mother-child dyads. We tested a conceptual model where maternal responsiveness to the child, observed at 7 and 15 months, engenders a responsive stance in the child, observed at 25 and 38 months; that stance, in turn, becomes enduring and generalized, promoting multiple aspects of the child's conscience, observed at 52 months. In turn, conscience serves as a protective factor from disruptive behavior problems, rated by mothers and fathers at 67 months. The postulated paths were examined using sequential regressions and mediation effects were tested using bootstrapping analyses. Child responsive stance at 25-38 months fully mediated the link between maternal responsiveness in infancy and conscience at 52 months, and conscience fully mediated the link between child responsive stance and future disruptive behavior at 67 months. Examination of developmental links among early maternal behavior, the child's responsive stance toward the mother, conscience, and disruptive behavior is a promising step toward elucidating mechanisms of children's adaptive and maladaptive trajectories.

  13. Understanding child sexual behavior problems: a developmental psychopathology framework.

    PubMed

    Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran

    2009-11-01

    Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.

  14. Developmental experiences of child sexual abusers and rapists.

    PubMed

    Simons, Dominique A; Wurtele, Sandy K; Durham, Robert L

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender classification was obtained from official records and verified through polygraph examinations. Compared to rapists, child sexual abusers reported more frequent experiences of child sexual abuse (73%), early exposure to pornography (65% before age 10), an earlier onset of masturbation (60% before age 11), and sexual activities with animals (38%). In contrast to child sexual abusers, rapists reported more frequent experiences of physical abuse (68%), parental violence (78%), emotional abuse (70%), and cruelty to animals (68%). Both child sexual abusers and rapists (>93%) reported frequent exposure to violent media during their childhood. Most offenders (94%) described having insecure parental attachment bonds; 76% of rapists reported avoidant parental attachments and 62% of child sexual abusers reported anxious parental attachments. Findings from this study support the role of specific developmental experiences as etiological factors in differential sexual offending. Child sexual abusers' developmental histories were characterized by heightened sexuality; whereas rapists' childhood histories were more indicative of violence. These findings have implications for the treatment of sexual abusers and the prevention of sexual abuse. This study's findings suggest that sexual offenders have been socialized to satisfy human needs of intimacy and sexuality through maladaptive means, which implies that a risk management approach may not be sufficient treatment. Although risk models teach offenders skills to avoid high-risk situations, they fail to address the maladaptive strategies that they may have developed for satisfying needs. Instead, the focus

  15. Child health developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developm...

  16. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    PubMed

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  17. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  18. Developmental Physical Management of the Multi-Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Beverly; Brown, Glenna

    The manual was designed to provide an overview of the Developmental Physical Management program used at the University of Alabama in classes for infants and children with multiple disabilities. The multidisabled child may be affected by one or more of the following problems: slow development, lack of normal integration of basic reflexes, abnormal…

  19. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  20. Developmental Physical Management of the Multi-Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Beverly; Brown, Glenna

    The manual was designed to provide an overview of the Developmental Physical Management program used at the University of Alabama in classes for infants and children with multiple disabilities. The multidisabled child may be affected by one or more of the following problems: slow development, lack of normal integration of basic reflexes, abnormal…

  1. Child Protection Services and Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLiberte, Traci; Piescher, Kristine; Mickelson, Nicole; Lee, Mi Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Information about parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in the child protection system (CPS) continues to evolve. This study examined characteristics, experiences and representation of parents with IDD across three CPS decision points, as compared to parents with other disabilities and parents without…

  2. Developmental Outcome in a Tracheostomized Child: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports developmental outcomes of a child who experienced a tracheostomy and had prolonged hospitalization and psychomotor therapy in an intensive care unit. Found a pattern of delay in speech and language production with no hearing loss, no cognitive impairment, an average level of fine motor disorders, no behavioral disorders, and normal…

  3. Child, parent, and parent-child emotion narratives: implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, David

    2006-01-01

    Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.

  4. Analysis of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, James N.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to validate the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST), the scores were compared with selected demographic, health history, and physical examination variables of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' preschool children in Colorado. (NQ)

  5. Working with Your Child: Suggestions for Families of the Developmentally Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Intended for parents of developmentally disabled children, the booklet (in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese versions) contains information for the parent to share with the child and offers suggestions for activities. Section 1 on physical health and nutrition shows how the proper foods and good eating habits help a healthy body resist illness.…

  6. Parent-child relationships of boys in different offending trajectories. A developmental perspective

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7–19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending trajectories. Developmental changes in child reports of parent-child joint activities and relationship quality were examined using Latent Growth Curves. Results Five offending trajectories were found: non-offenders, moderate childhood offenders, adolescent-limited offenders, serious childhood offenders, and serious persistent offenders. Non-offenders reported high and stable levels of relationship quality between age 10 and 16. Adolescent-limited offenders reported a similarly high relationship quality as non-offenders at ages 7 and 10, but a lower and decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Compared with non-offenders, serious persistent offenders reported poorer parent-child relationship quality at all ages, and a decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Serious persistent offenders and adolescent-limited offenders reported similar levels and changes in parent-child relationship quality in adolescence. Although serious persistent offenders reported fewer joint activities at age 10 and 13 than non-offenders, a similar linear decrease in joint activities in early to middle adolescence was found for boys in each trajectory. Conclusion Developmental changes in parent-child relationship quality differ for different types of offenders. This finding has scientific and practical implications. PMID:22816682

  7. The Use of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in Infant Welfare Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a single Denver Developmental Screening Test performance on 823 infants attending maternal and child health centers were compared with developmental information recorded by public health nurses during routine well baby care of these same infants. Journal Avaliability: J.B. Lippincott Co; E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  8. The Use of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in Infant Welfare Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a single Denver Developmental Screening Test performance on 823 infants attending maternal and child health centers were compared with developmental information recorded by public health nurses during routine well baby care of these same infants. Journal Avaliability: J.B. Lippincott Co; E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  9. Language, transference, and the developmental context in child analysis.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Lissa

    2002-01-01

    The meaning of silence and its effect on the transferential relationship in child analysis are examined through the analysis of a ten-year-old boy. Silence is treated as a multiply determined symptom whose origins can be found in the early parent-child relationship but whose meaning is reworked and intertwined with wishes, both libidinal and aggressive in nature, that are aroused during later developmental phases. Silence is conceptualized as a powerful linguistic communication, for once sound is united with meaning, there can be no blank silence. Although silence also serves to defend against the expression of forbidden wishes, it cannot be treated purely as resistance; it is a defining boundary of the arena in which the patient has to be engaged in order for the analysis to proceed. The question of whether the patient needs to speak for the work of interpretation to be mutative is also addressed.

  10. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  11. Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Preschool Children with and without Developmental Delay: Risk, Parenting, and Child Demandingess.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mallory A; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Crnic, Keith A; Baker, Bruce L; Blacher, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Although past literature has established relations between early child risk factors, negative parenting, and problematic child behavior, the nature of these interrelations and pathways of influence over time remains largely unknown, especially in children with developmental delays or disabilities. In the current study data were drawn from the longitudinal Collaborative Family Study and included a sample of 260 families with preschool children with and without developmental delays. Child-related risk was assessed at child age 36 months, maternal intrusiveness and negative affect at 48 months, and child demandingness at 60 months. Results indicated significant relations between early risk, negative parenting, and subsequent child demandingness. Sickliness as an infant was the most salient predictive risk factor of later child demandingness. Developmental delay was the most significant predictor of subsequent negative parenting. Results are discussed as being more indicative of additive rather than mediational processes given that early child risk and negative maternal parenting both contributed uniquely to the subsequent development of child demandingness.

  13. Education of a child neurologist: developmental neuroscience relevant to child neurology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael V

    2011-06-01

    Developmental neuroscience is increasingly relevant to clinical child neurology, and study of advances in neurobiology, neurochemistry and neurogenetics should be part of the curriculum of residency training. The profile of synaptic development is especially relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, Fragile X syndrome, and early epileptic encephalopathies. This knowledge is increasingly being translated into therapies for previously untreatable disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Communication about child development during well-child visits: impact of parents' evaluation of developmental status screener with or without an informational video.

    PubMed

    Sices, Laura; Drotar, Dennis; Keilman, Ashley; Kirchner, H Lester; Roberts, David; Stancin, Terry

    2008-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends periodic administration of standardized developmental screening instruments during well-child visits to facilitate timely identification of developmental delay. However, little is known about how parents and physicians communicate about child development or how screening impacts communication. Our goal was to examine whether parent-physician communication about child development is affected by (1) administration of a developmental screen or (2) video presentation on child development before well-child visits. Six primary care pediatricians in a practice serving predominantly Medicaid-insured children participated. Fifteen parents of children 9 to 31 months of age per pediatrician were assigned to 1 of 3 previsit conditions (n = 89): (1) usual care; (2) parent completed the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status screen; or (3) parent viewed 5-minute "activation" video before completing the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status. Visits were audiorecorded and coded by blinded raters using a classification system that assesses communication content. Outcomes included visit length, physicians' questions, information giving, reassurance or counseling about development, and parents' concerns and requests for developmentally related services. Mean visit duration was similar for the 3 groups (22.5 minutes). Physicians made more information-giving and counseling statements about development and raised more developmental concerns in group 3 (video plus the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status) than in group 1 (usual care) visits. A trend toward increased use of such communication was also seen in group 2 (Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status only). Parents were more likely to raise a developmental concern in group 3 than in group 1. No parent requested early intervention, therapy, or other related services. Use of a validated screening test did not increase average visit duration, an important

  15. Meeting Report: Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing chemicals and exposures that may cause developmental neurotoxicity in humans; (b) develop the policies for incorporating DNT alternatives into regulatory decision making; and (c) identify opportunities for reducing, refining, or replacing the use of animals in DNT. The first TestSmart DNT workshop was an open registration meeting held 13–15 March 2006 in Reston, Virginia. The primary objective was to bring together stakeholders (test developers, test users, regulators, and advocates for children’s health, animal welfare, and environmental health) and individuals representing diverse disciplines (developmental neurobiology, toxicology, policy, and regulatory science) from around the world to share information and concerns relating to the science and policy of DNT. Individual presentations are available at the CAAT TestSmart website. This report provides a synthesis of workgroup discussions and recommendations for future directions and priorities, which include initiating a systematic evaluation of alternative models and technologies, developing a framework for the creation of an open database to catalog DNT data, and devising a strategy for harmonizing the validation process across international jurisdictional borders. PMID:17520065

  16. Meeting report: alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-05-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing chemicals and exposures that may cause developmental neurotoxicity in humans; (b) develop the policies for incorporating DNT alternatives into regulatory decision making; and (c) identify opportunities for reducing, refining, or replacing the use of animals in DNT. The first TestSmart DNT workshop was an open registration meeting held 13-15 March 2006 in Reston, Virginia. The primary objective was to bring together stakeholders (test developers, test users, regulators, and advocates for children's health, animal welfare, and environmental health) and individuals representing diverse disciplines (developmental neurobiology, toxicology, policy, and regulatory science) from around the world to share information and concerns relating to the science and policy of DNT. Individual presentations are available at the CAAT TestSmart website. This report provides a synthesis of workgroup discussions and recommendations for future directions and priorities, which include initiating a systematic evaluation of alternative models and technologies, developing a framework for the creation of an open database to catalog DNT data, and devising a strategy for harmonizing the validation process across international jurisdictional borders.

  17. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FKBP5

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FKBP5 CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n=179 maltreated; n=147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7–9 and adolescence: ages 15–18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with 1–2 copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward SUD in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  18. Judicial Reliance on Parental IQ in Appellate-Level Child Welfare Cases Involving Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callow, Ella; Tahir, Munazza; Feldman, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are over-represented in child welfare cases. Although IQ "per se" is an invalid indicator of parenting abilities, this study examined the prevalence of judicial consideration of parental IQ test evidence in US appellate cases. Methods: The present authors…

  19. From specialist to generalist: Developmental transformations in the genetic structure of early child abilities.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Amanda K; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-07-01

    The heritability of abilities increases substantially over development, and much of heritable variation in abilities is shared with other abilities. No study, however, has formally tested the extent to which developmental increases in heritability occur on shared versus unique variation in child abilities. A transactional perspective predicts that the relative proportion of shared to total genetic variance will increase with age, whereas an endogenous perspective predicts that such proportion will be invariant with age. We tested these competing predictions using data from a sample of 292 twins providing a total of 578 cross-sectional and longitudinal observations between ages 0 and 6 years on measures of Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem-Solving, and Personal-Social abilities. Consistent with predictions of the transactional perspective, developmental increases in heritability were localized to variance shared across abilities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Child health and parental stress in school-age children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard I; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Shevell, Michael I

    2008-01-01

    Chronic disorders are known to have a wide-ranging impact on overall health and family dynamics. The objective of this study was to assess child health and well-being and parental stress in a cohort of school-age children diagnosed before school entry with either global developmental delay or developmental language impairment. In total, 65 children with preschool developmental delay were assessed at school age (mean +/- SD age: 7.3 +/- 0.7 years) with the Child Health Questionnaire and Parenting Stress Index, with a mean interval between assessment of 3.9 years. Almost all children who completed testing (60/62) continued to show developmental impairments across domains. On the Child Health Questionnaire, children showed the greatest impairment on the mental health scale (median z score: -0.9). The median Child Health Questionnaire psychosocial health score (40.7) was almost 1 SD below established normative values ( P < .001). More than 40% of parents had a Parenting Stress Index above the 85th percentile (clinically significant parenting stress). Using multiple linear regression analysis, high levels of parenting stress were best predicted by a child's Child Health Questionnaire psychosocial health score (r2 = 0.49, P < .001). Thus, 4 years after a preschool-age diagnosis of developmental delay, poor psychosocial health was a common comorbidity. Almost half the parents showed clinically significant levels of parenting stress. There is a need to both recognize and provide ongoing social and emotional support for young children diagnosed with developmental disability and their families.

  1. Developmental and reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The majority of new preventative and therapeutic vaccines are now assessed for developmental toxicity according to guidelines issued by the FDA in 2006. Despite the absence of confirmed effects in humans, vaccines are frequently suspected of having adverse side-effects on the development of children. Such suspicions are perhaps unavoidable considering the extremely widespread use of vaccines. The preclinical developmental toxicology studies are designed to assess possible influences of each component of the vaccine formulation-and the induced antibodies-on the development of the conceptus, neonate and suckling organism. Immune modulation by a vaccine or an adjuvant could, for instance, affect the outcome of pregnancy by interfering with the natural shift in immune balance of the mother during gestation. Maternal immunoglobulins are transferred from the mother to the offspring in order to confer passive immunity during early life. This maternal antibody transport is prenatal in humans and monkeys, but tends to be delayed until after birth in other species. Therefore, a suitable model species needs to be chosen for preclinical studies in order to ensure exposure of the foetus to the induced maternal antibodies following vaccination. Rabbits are the best laboratory model for prenatal immunoglobulin transfer, but rodents are more practical for the necessary postnatal investigations. Non-human primates are the only appropriate models for the testing of vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species. It is advisable to test new adjuvants separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guidelines. Preclinical paediatric investigations are not currently required for vaccines, even though most vaccines are given to children. Other areas of regulatory concern include developmental immunotoxicity and effects on the preimplantation embryo. Because of the limitations of the available animal models for developmental toxicity testing, pharmacovigilance is essential. Copyright © 2011

  2. The effects of early positive parenting and developmental delay status on child emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Norona, A N; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Emotion regulation has been identified as a robust predictor of adaptive functioning across a variety of domains (Aldao et al. ). Furthermore, research examining early predictors of competence and deficits in ER suggests that factors internal to the individual (e.g. neuroregulatory reactivity, behavioural traits and cognitive ability) and external to the individual (e.g. caregiving styles and explicit ER training) contribute to the development of ER (Calkins ). Many studies have focused on internal sources or external sources; however, few have studied them simultaneously within one model, especially in studies examining children with developmental delays (DD). Here, we addressed this specific research gap and examined the contributions of one internal factor and one external factor on emotion dysregulation outcomes in middle childhood. Specifically, our current study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine prospective, predictive relationships between DD status, positive parenting at age 4 years and child emotion dysregulation at age 7 years. Participants were 151 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with and without DD. A positive parenting factor was composed of sensitivity and scaffolding scores from mother-child interactions at home and in the research centre at child age 4 years. A child dysregulation factor was composed of a dysregulation code from mother-child interactions and a parent-report measure of ER and lability/negativity at age 7 years. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that positive parenting would mediate the relationship between DD and child dysregulation. Mothers of children with DD exhibited fewer sensitive and scaffolding behaviours compared with mothers of typically developing children, and children with DD were more dysregulated on all measures of ER. SEM revealed that both DD status and early positive parenting predicted emotion dysregulation in middle childhood. Furthermore

  3. Toxicogenomic approaches in developmental toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Joshua F; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of toxicogenomic applications provides new tools to characterize, classify, and potentially predict teratogens. However, due to the vast number of experimental and statistical procedural steps, toxicogenomic studies are challenging. Here, we guide researchers through the basic framework of conducting toxicogenomic investigations in the field of developmental toxicology, providing examples of biological and technical factors that may influence response and interpretation. Furthermore, we review current, diverse applications of toxicogenomic-based approaches in teratology testing, including exposure-response characterization (dose and duration), chemical classification studies, and cross-model comparisons study designs. This review is intended to guide scientists through the challenging and complex structure of conducting toxicogenomic analyses, while considering the many applications of using toxicogenomics in study designs and the future of these types of "omics" approaches in developmental toxicology.

  4. Developmental neurotoxicity test guidelines: problems and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated associations between early life exposure to industrial chemicals and the occurrence of disease states, including cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, in children. The developing brain in the fetal and infantile periods is extremely vulnerable to chemicals because the blood-brain barrier is not completely formed during these periods. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) test guideline, TG426, updated in 2007, comprises in vivo behavioral observational tests and other tests intended to assess DNT induced by exposure to industrial chemicals. These chemicals may enter the market without having been subjected to DNT testing, as DNT test data is not mandated by law at the time of chemical registration. In addition, proprietary rights have led to problems concerning the non-disclosure of industrial chemical toxicity test data, including DNT test data. To overcome the disadvantages of high-cost and low time efficiency of in vivo DNT tests, in vitro or in silico tests are the proposed alternatives, but it is unlikely that the results of such tests would reflect changes in higher brain functions. Accordingly, the current DNT test guidelines need to be revised to avoid overlooking or neglecting the occurrence of DNT induced by exposure to low doses of chemicals. This review also proposes the introduction of novel in vivo DNT testing methods in light of a cost-performance analysis.

  5. Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bignami, G

    1996-04-01

    The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity.

  6. Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Bignami, G

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity. PMID:9182035

  7. [Pediatric nurses: cognition of young child development and attitudes and behaviors toward developmental care].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Chi; Sun, Shih-Heng; Li, Ruo-Hua; Chang, Fy-Uan; Cheng, Jui-Fen; Chen, Li-Li

    2011-06-01

    The effectiveness of early detection and intervention is emphasized in child development. The knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses related to child development is a factor critical to identifying and helping disabled children. The purpose of this study was to explore general pediatric nurse knowledge of young child development and attitudes and behavior toward child developmental care. Researchers collected data for this descriptive study using a structured questionnaire and recruited a sample of 112 pediatric nurses from hospitals in Central Taiwan. Data was analyzed by Mean, Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and Logistic regression. The study revealed pediatric nurses have a good level of knowledge related to children development. Although most participants held positive attitudes toward early intervention and child developmental care, their related behaviors were inadequately reported. Predictive factors of child developmental care behavior in nurses included attending related courses and number of children that has. Child development-related programs are an important factor affecting nurse child developmental care behavior. The authors recommend establishing developmental care programs and encouraging nurse participation. Early intervention concepts and models should be introduced in nursing and continued education programs.

  8. Validity of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Supplemental Developmental Test of Visual Perception.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Rodger, Sylvia

    2008-06-01

    Visual perceptual skills of school-age children are often assessed using the Supplemental Developmental Test of Visual Perception of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. The study purpose was to consider the construct validity of this test by evaluating its scalability (interval level measurement), unidimensionality, differential item functioning, and hierarchical ordering of its items. Visual perceptual performance scores from a sample of 356 typically developing children (171 boys and 185 girls ages 5 to 11 years) were used to complete a Rasch analysis of the test. Seven items were discarded for poor fit, while none of the items exhibited differential item functioning by sex. The construct validity, scalability, hierarchical ordering, and lack of differential item functioning requirements were met by the final test version. Since 7 test items did not fit the Rasch analysis specifications, the clinical value of the test is questionable and limited.

  9. The Design and Validation of a Child Developmental e-Screening System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Huang, Po-Hsin; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chen, Li-Ying; Tseng, Kevin C

    2017-04-01

    An effective screening test could significantly impact identification of developmental delays at an early age. However, many studies have shown that delay screenings still use text-based screening survey questionnaires. Unfortunately, the traditional text-based screening method tends to be fairly passive. In addition, the advantages of using an interactive system and animation have been shown to lead to positive effects on learning in medical research. Therefore, a multimedia screening system is necessary. This study constructs a system architecture to develop an e-screening system for child developmental delays. To validate the system after development, this study conducted an experiment and employed a questionnaire to survey users. Five experts and 120 subjects participated in the experiment. After the experiment, the results of the system evaluation revealed excellent agreement between the text-based and multimedia version of Taipei II. A total of 118 (98%) participants preferred the multimedia version or had no preference, and only 2 (2%) preferred the paper version. Regular text-based screening sometimes excludes those with low literacy and those whose native language is different from the text. In addition, text-based screening tools lose users' attention easily. The current study successfully developed a multimedia text-based screening system. Feedback from the participants showed that the e-screening system was well accepted and more easily accessible than the original. In this study, a child developmental delays e-screening system was developed. After the experiment, the subjects indicated that the developmental delay e-screening system increased their comprehension and kept them interested in the screening.

  10. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  11. Child Care Providers' Competence and Confidence in Referring Children at Risk for Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Diane; Bingham, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the benefits of early intervention for children, the majority of children with developmental delays are not identified prior to the age of 5 years. Child care providers could aid in recognition of children at risk for developmental delays; however, there is little research on this topic. This article reports on a qualitative research study…

  12. Team Congruence in Developmental Diagnosis and Intervention: Comparing Clinical Judgment and Child Performance Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnato, Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    The issue of congruence and consistency among multiple team estimates of child functioning was addressed. Multihandicapped children were assessed by an interdisciplinary developmental diagnostic team using several developmental/behavioral scales. Assessments revealed evidence of team congruence in diagnosis. Data analysis indicated consistency…

  13. Child Care Providers' Competence and Confidence in Referring Children at Risk for Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Diane; Bingham, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the benefits of early intervention for children, the majority of children with developmental delays are not identified prior to the age of 5 years. Child care providers could aid in recognition of children at risk for developmental delays; however, there is little research on this topic. This article reports on a qualitative research study…

  14. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  15. Multilevel developmental approaches to understanding the effects of child maltreatment: Recent advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    POLLAK, SETH D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in the field of child maltreatment has begun to shed new light on the emergence of health problems in children by emphasizing the responsiveness of developmental processes to children’s environmental and biological contexts. Here, I highlight recent trends in the field with an emphasis on the effects of early life stress across multiple levels of developmental domains. PMID:26535932

  16. Teaching Language Organization to a Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecan-Aker, Joan S.; Gill, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This investigation determined the effects of a treatment programme, "The Expression Connection" (1991), on the language organization of a firstgrade male child with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). The methodology consisted of teaching the child story grammar components and the associated syntax requisite of their use. Treatment was…

  17. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  18. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  19. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  20. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  1. Collateral Effects from Teaching Attention, Imitation and Toy Interaction Behaviors to a Developmentally Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Keith D.; Medland, Jocelyn L.

    1986-01-01

    A three-year-old child with developmental handicaps was taught attention, imitation, and toy manipulation behaviors. Observation on 10 targeted behaviors showed that from the time the intervention program commenced, the child increased her attention to persons and objects and markedly decreased her level of self-stimulation and self-injury. (GC)

  2. Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity: A ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exposure to environmental contaminants is well documented to adversely impact the development of the nervous system. However, the time, animal and resource intensive EPA and OECD testing guideline methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) are not a viable solution to characterizing potential chemical hazards for the thousands of untested chemicals currently in commerce. Thus, research efforts over the past decade have endeavored to develop cost-effective alternative DNT testing methods. These efforts have begun to generate data that can inform regulatory decisions. Yet there are major challenges to both the acceptance and use of this data. Major scientific challenges for DNT include development of new methods and models that are “fit for purpose”, development of a decision-use framework, and regulatory acceptance of the methods. It is critical to understand that use of data from these methods will be driven mainly by the regulatory problems being addressed. Some problems may be addressed with limited datasets, while others may require data for large numbers of chemicals, or require the development and use of new biological and computational models. For example mechanistic information derived from in vitro DNT assays can be used to inform weight of evidence (WoE) or integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA) approaches for chemical-specific assessments. Alternatively, in vitro data can be used to prioritize (for further testing) the thousands

  3. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  4. Concurrent Validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Mary; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study compared the results of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) Screening Test with the Denver Developmental Screening Test-Revised and with the full-scale BDI for 30 handicapped and 35 nonhandicapped children, all aged six months to six years. Major differences were found between the tests and populations identified for follow-up.…

  5. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  6. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  7. Evidence report: Genetic and metabolic testing on children with global developmental delay: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society.

    PubMed

    Michelson, D J; Shevell, M I; Sherr, E H; Moeschler, J B; Gropman, A L; Ashwal, S

    2011-10-25

    To systematically review the evidence concerning the diagnostic yield of genetic and metabolic evaluation of children with global developmental delay or intellectual disability (GDD/ID). Relevant literature was reviewed, abstracted, and classified according to the 4-tiered American Academy of Neurology classification of evidence scheme. In patients with GDD/ID, microarray testing is diagnostic on average in 7.8% (Class III), G-banded karyotyping is abnormal in at least 4% (Class II and III), and subtelomeric fluorescence in situ hybridization is positive in 3.5% (Class I, II, and III). Testing for X-linked ID genes has a yield of up to 42% in males with an appropriate family history (Class III). FMR1 testing shows full expansion in at least 2% of patients with mild to moderate GDD/ID (Class II and III), and MeCP2 testing is diagnostic in 1.5% of females with moderate to severe GDD/ID (Class III). Tests for metabolic disorders have a yield of up to 5%, and tests for congenital disorders of glycosylation and cerebral creatine disorders have yields of up to 2.8% (Class III). Several genetic and metabolic screening tests have been shown to have a better than 1% diagnostic yield in selected populations of children with GDD/ID. These values should be among the many factors considered in planning the laboratory evaluation of such children.

  8. Developmental screening in context: adaptation and standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II) for Sri Lankan children.

    PubMed

    Wijedasa, D

    2012-11-01

    Developmental problems in children can be alleviated to a great extent with early detection and intervention through periodic screening for developmental delays during pre-school ages. Currently, there is no established system for developmental screening of children in Sri Lanka. Although some developmental norms, which are similar to those of Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II), have been introduced into the Sri Lankan Child Health Developmental Record (CHDR), those norms have not been standardized to the Sri Lankan child population. The aim of this research was to establish Sri Lankan norms for DDST-II and to test the universal and regional applicability of developmental screening tests by comparing the Sri Lankan norms with the norms of DDST-II and DDST-Singapore norms, the geographically nearest standardization of DDST-II. The norms were also compared with the milestones already available in the CHDR. DDST-II was adapted and standardized on a sample of 4251 Sri Lankan children aged 0-80 months. Thirteen public health nursing sisters were trained to collect the data as part of their routine work. The 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile ages of acquiring each developmental milestone were then calculated using logistic regression. The Denver Developmental Screening Test for Sri Lankan Children (DDST-SL) was created. Most of the established DDST-SL norms were different to the comparable norms in DDST-II, DDST-Singapore and the CHDR. In view of the results of the study, it is imperative that developmental screening tests are used in context and are adapted and standardized to the populations in question before utilization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Play and the older child: developmental and clinical opportunities.

    PubMed

    Meersand, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the meaning and function of pretend play in older children. First, a review of the widely accepted developmental sequences, growth-promoting potential, and analytic uses of play for younger children is provided. Then the possible role for play in later childhood is explored through the presentation of Sarah, a twelve-year-old girl in analysis, whose play appeared to provide both clinical and developmental benefits. The suggestion is made to soften the existing developmental line for play in order to allow for its role with preadolescent children.

  10. [The Battelle developmental inventory screening test for early detection of developmental disorders in cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Moraleda-Barreno, E; Romero-López, M; Cayetano-Menéndez, M J

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral palsy is usually associated with motor, cognitive, and language deficits, and with other disorders that cause disability in daily living skills, personal independence, social interaction and academic activities. Early detection of these deficits in the clinical setting is essential to anticipate and provide the child with the necessary support for adapting to the environment in all possible areas. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate that these deficits can be detected at an early age and comprehensively through the use of a brief development scale. We studied 100 children between 4 and 70 months old, half of them with cerebral palsy and the other half without any disorder. All subjects were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory screening test. We compared the developmental quotients in both groups and between the subjects with different motor impairments, using a simple prospective ex post facto design. The test detected statistically significant differences between the clinical group and the control group at all age levels. Statistically significant differences were also found between tetraplegia and other motor disorders. There were no differences by gender. The deficit in development associated with cerebral palsy can be quantified at early ages through the use of a brief development scale, thus we propose that the systematic implementation of protocols with this screening tool would be helpful for treatment and early intervention. This would also help in anticipating and establishing the means for the multidisciplinary actions required, and could provide guidance to other health professionals, to provide adequate school, social, and family support,. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The Serial Use of Child Neurocognitive Tests: Development versus Practice Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter D.; Townes, Brenda D.; Rosenbaum, Gail; Martins, Isabel P.; Luis, Henrique; Bernardo, Mario; Martin, Michael D.; DeRouen, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    When serial neurocognitive assessments are performed, 2 main factors are of importance: test-retest reliability and practice effects. With children, however, there is a third, developmental factor, which occurs as a result of maturation. Child tests recognize this factor through the provision of age-corrected scaled scores. Thus, a ready-made…

  12. The Serial Use of Child Neurocognitive Tests: Development versus Practice Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter D.; Townes, Brenda D.; Rosenbaum, Gail; Martins, Isabel P.; Luis, Henrique; Bernardo, Mario; Martin, Michael D.; DeRouen, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    When serial neurocognitive assessments are performed, 2 main factors are of importance: test-retest reliability and practice effects. With children, however, there is a third, developmental factor, which occurs as a result of maturation. Child tests recognize this factor through the provision of age-corrected scaled scores. Thus, a ready-made…

  13. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C. Anthoney; Cunningham, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to life-threatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair. PMID:23251718

  14. Developmental needs and individualized family service plans among infants and toddlers in the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, Cecilia E; Cross, Theodore P; Ringeisen, Heather

    2008-08-01

    This study examines levels of developmental need in young children investigated by child protective services, estimates early intervention service use, and examines need and service use variations during the 5-6 years after investigation on the basis of maltreatment substantiation status. Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, the first nationally representative study of children investigated for maltreatment. The sample comprised 1,845 children aged 0 to 36 months at baseline. Logistic regression with covariate adjustment was used to examine the relationship between having an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP; a proxy and marker of early intervention services through Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act) and substantiation status. A high prevalence of developmental problems was found among children with substantiated cases and children with unsubstantiated cases. Few children with developmental needs had an IFSP. Substantiation status and level of child welfare system involvement were significantly associated with having an IFSP.

  15. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early- to Middle-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. PMID:25521556

  16. Child maltreatment and children's developmental trajectories in early to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Berger, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes.

  17. Taiwanese fathers' experiences of having their child diagnosed with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ping; St John, Winsome; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Jung

    2011-12-01

    Receiving a diagnosis of a developmental disability in a child can be a crisis event for parents. Gender differences in parental roles are worth considering when exploring the impact of having a child with a disability. However, most studies on this topic have focused on the mother's experience, and little is known about what the father goes through as the parent of a child diagnosed with a disability. Even less is known regarding this experience in the context of the Chinese culture. The goal of this study was to explore fathers' experiences of having a child diagnosed with a developmental disability in a Chinese cultural context. This study used a hermeneutic phenomenological approach informed by the philosophical world views of Heidegger. The 16 fathers who participated in the study were purposively sampled from a teaching hospital in central Taiwan. Data were collected using in-depth and semistructured interviews and were analyzed using hermeneutic analysis. Data analysis revealed four shared meanings: losing hope, feelings of failure, being frustrated with family conflicts, and searching for positive coping strategies. Fathers feel shock and despair as well as personally devalued when learning that their child has been diagnosed with a developmental disability. Chinese cultural beliefs and values can elicit different experiences for fathers while helping them make sense of their experiences and accept their child in meaningful ways. Nurses can actively engage fathers as well as mothers to understand their feelings and thoughts about their child's disability to provide appropriate emotional and informational support. Providing support or referral is necessary particularly when fathers encounter issues with the child's grandparents. Nurses can assist fathers to find a way to make sense of having a child with a disability within their cultural frame of reference by adapting cultural beliefs and values to their situation and to make meaning of their child's life.

  18. Mother-Child Interaction and Resilience in Children with Early Developmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Although prenatal and genetic factors make strong contributions to the emergence of intellectual disability (ID), children's early environment may have the potential to alter developmental trajectories and to foster resilience in children with early risk. The present study examined mother-child interaction and the promotion of competence in 50 children with early developmental delays. Three related but distinct aspects of mother-child interaction were considered: maternal technical scaffolding, maternal positive-sensitivity, and mother-child dyadic pleasure. Children were classified as exhibiting undifferentiated delays at age three based upon performance on developmental assessments and the absence of known genetic syndromes. Mother-child interaction was assessed at age four through observational ratings of structured laboratory tasks and through naturalistic home observations. ID was identified at age five using the dual criteria of clinically significant delays in cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. Maternal technical scaffolding and dyadic pleasure each uniquely predicted reduced likelihood of later ID, beyond the contributions of children's early developmental level and behavioral functioning. Follow-up analyses suggested that mother-child interaction was primarily important to resilience in the area of adaptive behavior, with scaffolding and dyadic pleasure differentially associated with particular sub-domains. Implications for theories of intellectual disability and for family-based early intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:22662771

  19. Mother-child interaction and resilience in children with early developmental risk.

    PubMed

    Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Jason K

    2012-06-01

    Although prenatal and genetic factors make strong contributions to the emergence of intellectual disability (ID), children's early environment may have the potential to alter developmental trajectories and to foster resilience in children with early risk. The present study examined mother-child interaction and the promotion of competence in 50 children with early developmental delays. Three related but distinct aspects of mother-child interaction were considered: maternal technical scaffolding, maternal positive sensitivity, and mother-child dyadic pleasure. Children were classified as exhibiting undifferentiated delays at age 3, based upon performance on developmental assessments and the absence of known genetic syndromes. Mother-child interaction was assessed at age 4 through observational ratings of structured laboratory tasks, and through naturalistic home observations. ID was identified at age 5 using the dual criteria of clinically significant delays in cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. Maternal technical scaffolding and dyadic pleasure each uniquely predicted reduced likelihood of later ID, beyond the contributions of children's early developmental level and behavioral functioning. Follow-up analyses suggested that mother-child interaction was primarily important to resilience in the area of adaptive behavior, with scaffolding and dyadic pleasure differentially associated with particular subdomains. Implications for theories of intellectual disability and for family-based early intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of chemicals in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimura, T.

    1985-11-01

    With the definition of teratogenicity expanded in terms of the developmental stages when an agent acts and the types of developmental anomalies induced, the concept of developmental toxicity has been established. The examination of functional developmental disorders including behavior has become one of the most important items for the evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals, especially pharmaceutical drugs. The guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of drugs in Japan stress the need for examination of growth and development including behavior and fertility on the postweaning offspring. The outline of the Japanese guidelines is presented and it is emphasized that studies should be done as research and include self evaluation of the scientific truth of the experiment and extrapolation to humans. In addition, the activities of the Behavioral Teratology Meeting, a satellite meeting to the Japanese Teratology Society, are introduced and enquete surveys of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and collaborative studies for the standardization of learning tests in Japan are briefly presented.

  1. Concurrent validity of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition, Thai-version (ASQ-3 Thai) with the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) in developmental screening of 18, 24, and 30 months old children at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health.

    PubMed

    Srinithiwat, Benjaporn; Ularntinon, Sirirat

    2014-06-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition, Thai-version (ASQ-3 Thai) with the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) and agreement between them in developmental status screening in toddlers. Children at the ages of 18, 24, and 30 months were enrolled. Each age group included 15 normal and 15 suspected cases. Participants were developmentally assessed by the DDST-II performed by a developmental pediatrician (BS). Parents of the enrolled children simultaneously completed their toddler's age-specific version of the ASQ-3 Thai questionnaire. Concurrent validity of the ASQ-3 Thai with DDST-II was determined by descriptive statistics using the cross tabulation technique. Kappa analysis was used to calculate agreement between the ASQ-3 Thai and DDST-II. A fair to moderate agreement (Kappa agreement = 0.338-0.606) was found between the ASQ-3 Thai and the DDST-II. Sensitivity of the ASQ-3 Thai with DDST-II at the age of 18, 24, and 30 months were 66.7%, 88.2%, and 54.5%, respectively. Specificity of the tool when compared to the DDST-II were 78.6%, 71.4% and 90.9%, respectively. This was a preliminary study of the ASQ-3 Thai version for developmental screening in clinical setting. Due to a fair to moderate agreement but low sensitivity between the ASQ-3 Thai and DDST-II, other validated tools should accompany the clinical usage of the tool. Further investigations are needed to support its usage, particularly the validation of the tool with other standardized developmental diagnostic tools.

  2. Supernumerary chromosome marker (1) in a developmentally delayed child

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphear, N.; Oppenheimer, S.; Lamb, A.

    1995-07-03

    A 15-month-old boy with mild developmental delay and several minor anomalies was found to be mosaic 46,XY/47,XY,+mar(1). The marker r(1) was a small de novo ring identified by FISH with a painting type DNA probe. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Developmental Changes in the Early Child Lexicon in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Meiling; Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua; Xing, Ailing; Jiang, Ying; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of…

  4. Developmental Changes in the Early Child Lexicon in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Meiling; Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua; Xing, Ailing; Jiang, Ying; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of…

  5. The Developmental Dialectical Approach to Child Abuse & Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakizegi, B.

    A developmental dialectical approach to understanding and working with lower and middle class damaged parents--those identified as abusive and neglectful--has specific features and implications. The approach suggests that (1) the personality characteristics and interpersonal relations of parents are inseparable from their social conditions; (2)…

  6. Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M.; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3–8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges. PMID:26792974

  7. Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3-8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges.

  8. Adolescent maltreatment in the child welfare system and developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; Motley, Darnell; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Landsverk, John

    2015-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, we tested whether adolescent maltreatment and out-of-home placement as a response to maltreatment altered developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system. Participants included adolescents aged 13 to 17 (M = 15.5, SD = 1.49) at baseline (n = 714), followed over 18 months. Computer-assisted interviews were used to collect self-reported sexual practices and experiences of physical and psychological abuse at both time points. Latent transition analyses were used to identify three patterns of sexual risk behaviors: abstainers, safe sex with multiple partners, and unsafe sex with multiple partners. Most adolescents transitioned to safer sexual behavior patterns over time. Adolescents exhibiting the riskiest sexual practices at baseline were most likely to report subsequent abuse and less likely to be placed into out-of-home care. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of sexual risk among child welfare-involved adolescents and inform practices to promote positive transitions within the system.

  9. Genetic testing of the short child.

    PubMed

    Johnston Rohrbasser, L B

    2011-01-01

    Increased understanding of the pathogenetics of short stature and readily available genetic testing have changed the face of diagnostic endocrinology. It remains essential, however, that each short child undergoes detailed clinical, auxological and traditional endocrine assessment to determine which gene (or genes) to study. Diagnostic algorithms and clinical scoring systems are reviewed and the implications of genetic testing for determination of therapy type are discussed. At present, results from genetic testing do not reliably indicate which growth-promoting therapy would be most effective. However, pharmacogenetic testing may play a future role in the individualisation of therapy.

  10. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... development professional on how to use the findings to address identified needs. (3) Grantee and delegate...

  11. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... development professional on how to use the findings to address identified needs. (3) Grantee and delegate...

  12. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... development professional on how to use the findings to address identified needs. (3) Grantee and delegate...

  13. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... development professional on how to use the findings to address identified needs. (3) Grantee and delegate...

  14. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... development professional on how to use the findings to address identified needs. (3) Grantee and delegate...

  15. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: A Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great progress has been made over the past 40 years in understanding the hazards of exposure to a small number of developmental neurotoxicants. Lead, PCBs, and methylmercury are all good examples of science-based approaches to characterizing the hazard to the developing nervous s...

  16. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: A Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great progress has been made over the past 40 years in understanding the hazards of exposure to a small number of developmental neurotoxicants. Lead, PCBs, and methylmercury are all good examples of science-based approaches to characterizing the hazard to the developing nervous s...

  17. Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology: Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante, Ed.; Toth, Sheree L., Ed.

    This book is devoted to the problems of family violence, child abuse, and child maltreatment, including the legal, social, psychological, and community issues. Articles contained in this volume are as follows: (1) "Child Maltreatment Research and Social Policy: The Neglected Nexus" (D. Cicchetti and S. Toth); (2) "Defining Child…

  18. Parent-Child Interaction and Developmental Disabilities: Theory, Research, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfo, Kofi, Ed.

    Examined are the interactions of parents and their children with developmental disabilities, focusing on the following aspects: social, emotional, language, communication, clinical, educational, and methodological. A partial listing of contents follows: "Determinants of Parent and Child Interactive Behavior" (Carl Dunst and Carol…

  19. A Developmental Model of Maternal and Child Contributions to Disruptive Conduct: The First Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Aksan, Nazan; Boldt, Lea J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The parent-child relationship is considered important for children's future conscience, and conscience is seen as protecting them from disruptive behavior problems, but specific mechanisms of this developmental process are rarely studied. Methods: This multi-trait multi-method study examined, in a longitudinal design, paths linking…

  20. Developmental Screening Referrals: Child and Family Factors that Predict Referral Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Danielle J.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the predictive impact of developmental screening results and the effects of child and family characteristics on completion of referrals given for evaluation. Logistical and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of 10 independent variables on the predictor variable. The number of…

  1. The Emotionally Disturbed Child in the Classroom; A Developmental Strategy for Educating Children with Maladaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewett, Frank M.

    The emotionally disturbed child is presented as a learning problem whose difficulties can be helped by the teacher and school. The description of educational goals, methodology, and assessment includes the psychodynamic-interpersonal, sensory-neurological, and behavior modification strategies; a developmental sequence of educational goals;…

  2. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  3. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  4. Assessment of Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Wheelchair Movement in a Child with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Kahng, SungWoo; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Sveinsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sadler, Christine

    2003-01-01

    An adolescent with developmental disabilities who used a wheelchair was anecdotally observed to display little aggressive behavior when being pushed, but higher rates when movement was terminated. A functional analysis confirmed the elevated aggression and the child was taught to request movement through appropriate means. Aggression decreased…

  5. Parental Factors Correlated with Developmental Outcome in the Migrant Head Start Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Smith, M. Shelton

    1994-01-01

    Examined parental factors correlated with developmental outcomes among 60 Mexican American migrant farmworker children. Found that maternal parenting style accounted for a significant amount of the variance in child behavior problems reported by the mothers, whereas maternal social support helped to explain the variance in peer acceptance reported…

  6. Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Developmental Research and the Child Advocacy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Developmental researchers face a perilous path as they set out to perform research with child advocacy potential. We offer our observations regarding how researchers can navigate the path between science (the "rock") and advocacy (the "soft place"), based on our recent experience as directors of the MacArthur Juvenile Adjudicative Competence…

  7. Parent-Child Interaction and Developmental Disabilities: Theory, Research, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfo, Kofi, Ed.

    Examined are the interactions of parents and their children with developmental disabilities, focusing on the following aspects: social, emotional, language, communication, clinical, educational, and methodological. A partial listing of contents follows: "Determinants of Parent and Child Interactive Behavior" (Carl Dunst and Carol…

  8. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  9. Identification and Assessment of Children with Developmental Disabilities in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick; Tappan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of a Child Protective Services (CPS) screening and investigation process to identify children with developmental disabilities. The study used an emergent design, ethnographic interviews, purposive sampling, inductive data analysis, and grounded theory building. Ethnographic interviews were…

  10. Assessment of Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Wheelchair Movement in a Child with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Kahng, SungWoo; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Sveinsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sadler, Christine

    2003-01-01

    An adolescent with developmental disabilities who used a wheelchair was anecdotally observed to display little aggressive behavior when being pushed, but higher rates when movement was terminated. A functional analysis confirmed the elevated aggression and the child was taught to request movement through appropriate means. Aggression decreased…

  11. Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Developmental Research and the Child Advocacy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Developmental researchers face a perilous path as they set out to perform research with child advocacy potential. We offer our observations regarding how researchers can navigate the path between science (the "rock") and advocacy (the "soft place"), based on our recent experience as directors of the MacArthur Juvenile Adjudicative Competence…

  12. Parental Factors Correlated with Developmental Outcome in the Migrant Head Start Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Smith, M. Shelton

    1994-01-01

    Examined parental factors correlated with developmental outcomes among 60 Mexican American migrant farmworker children. Found that maternal parenting style accounted for a significant amount of the variance in child behavior problems reported by the mothers, whereas maternal social support helped to explain the variance in peer acceptance reported…

  13. Contributions of Incidental Teaching, Developmental Quotient, and Peer Interactions to Child Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Amy M.; McWilliam, R. A.; Sims, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis reported in this article was to determine to what extent child and classroom characteristics were associated with the amount of time children with disabilities spent displaying each of 5 categories of engagement. Predictors consisted of children's receipt of incidental teaching, developmental quotient, and quality of…

  14. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  15. Conversational Asymmetry and the Child's Perspective in Developmental and Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbers, Ed

    2004-01-01

    Developmental research and educational practice involve conversations between children and adults. The conversational aspects of these situations have rarely been occasions for reflection. Discrepancies between the child's expectations and the adult's intentions can lead to misunderstanding, for example, at school or during a research interview.…

  16. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  17. Mental health and developmental outcomes for children born after ART: a comparative prospective study on child gender and treatment type.

    PubMed

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Tiitinen, Aila; Lindblom, Jallu; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Flykt, Marjo; Vänskä, Mervi; Poikkeus, Piia; Tulppala, Maija

    2016-01-01

    Do children born after assisted reproductive techniques (ART; IVF/ICSI) display more mental health issues or social and cognitive developmental problems at 7-8 years than naturally conceived (NC) controls, and does child gender play a role? ART children do not differ with regard to mental health or social and cognitive developmental problems when compared with controls, but some gender-specific differences do exist. Systematic reviews have not found any evidence of delays in neurocognitive or sensorimotor development in ART children. However findings on the effect of the type of ART treatment (IVF versus ICSI) on the offspring's physical and mental development have not been uniform. Knowledge of the role of child gender in ART research is scarce. This prospective follow-up study compares mental health and social and cognitive developmental problems between 7-8-year-old ART and NC children, controlling for the father's age, length of the parents' partnership, mother's parity, child's gestational age, and the need of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Further, within the ART group, we analysed whether the treatment type (IVF versus ICSI) and the child's gender are associated with the mental health and developmental outcomes. In this study, 255 singleton ART children (IVF and ICSI) were compared with 278 NC children on parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and social (social skills and peer relations) and cognitive development (executive functioning, perception, memory, and language). Within the ART group, 164 IVF and 76 ICSI children were compared on the same outcomes. Statistics included analyses of covariates (ANCOVA) with group main effects, group and gender interaction effects, and Bonferroni post hoc tests. ART and NC children did not differ generally in terms of their internalizing and externalizing symptoms or in the number of social and cognitive developmental problems (Group main effects, P > 0.05), but gender-specific group differences

  18. Uses and Abuses of Developmental Screening and School Readiness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the uses and abuses of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Tests and similar tests. First, discusses developmental screening and readiness tests, then focuses on the Gesell tests, specifically addressing their validity and questioning their current uses. Discusses implications of using readiness tests for assigning children to…

  19. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  20. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  1. TESTING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: CURRENT APPROACHES AND FUTURE NEEDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many adverse effects on the nervous system following exposure to environmental chemicals during development. In a number of cases (e.g., lead, methyl mercury) the developing nervous system is a highly susceptible. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) guidelines...

  2. TESTING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: CURRENT APPROACHES AND FUTURE NEEDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many adverse effects on the nervous system following exposure to environmental chemicals during development. In a number of cases (e.g., lead, methyl mercury) the developing nervous system is a highly susceptible. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) guidelines...

  3. The influence of Chinese one-child family status on developmental coordination disorder status.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jing; Jin, Hua; Gu, Guixiong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Lijun; Wu, Zhuochun

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a population-based study on Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in mainland China to explore the influence of one-child status in Chinese families on DCD. A total of 4001 children selected from 160 classes in 15 public nursery schools. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children assessed motor function. The prevalence of DCD in Chinese one-child families (8.7%) was higher than that in multi-child families (5.9%). Chinese one-child family status (compared with younger children in multi-child families) were negatively related with total score (-1.793), Manual dexterity (-0.228), Aiming and catching (-1.145), Balance (-0.433) of MABC-2 and DCD (OR=2.294) when adjusted for the children's and family's characteristics, and perinatal factors (each p<0.05). As one of the studies in this Chinese context, it provides a platform for future intervention programs in one-child families in preventing children's developmental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of pre- and post-operative symptoms of patients with mild trigonocephaly using several developmental and psychological tests.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, Takeyoshi; Tominaga, Daisuke; Shimoji, Kazuaki; Miyajima, Masaichi; Tasato, Kumiko

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, we collected the cases where patients underwent decompressive cranioplasty for the treatment of mild metopic suture synostosis (mild trigonocephaly) with developmental delays. To evaluate the effectiveness of this surgery, we administered several developmental and psychological examinations to children with this condition who underwent decompressive cranioplasty. Thirty-four children (32 boys and 2 girls) who had developmental disorders with mild trigonocephaly underwent four different tests at three different time points (pre-operation, 3 and 6 months after surgery) including the: (a) Kyoto form developmental test (2001) to calculate the developmental quotient (DQ), (b) National Rehabilitation Center Sign-Significance Test (NRC S-S test) to evaluate the patients' language use and acquisition, (c) Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS) to identify autistic tendencies, and (d) Japanese Child Behavior Checklist (J-CBCL) to evaluate behavioral problems. The scores were initially analyzed using analyses of variance. When significant results were observed, Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests were applied for further statistical evaluation. Significant DQ improvements were observed, as assessed by the Kyoto form developmental test. Additionally, significant improvement in the expression of words (measured with the NRC S-S test), the scores on PARS, and some behavioral factors (measured with the J-CBCL) were observed. The results in this cohort suggest that decompressive cranioplasty may play an important role in supporting the improvement of developmental delays in these patients.

  5. Testing inferences in developmental evolution: the forensic evidence principle.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Hans C E; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-09-01

    Developmental evolution (DE) examines the influence of developmental mechanisms on biological evolution. Here we consider the question: "what is the evidence that allows us to decide whether a certain developmental scenario for an evolutionary change is in fact "correct" or at least falsifiable?" We argue that the comparative method linked with what we call the "forensic evidence principle" (FEP) is sufficient to conduct rigorous tests of DE scenarios. The FEP states that different genetically mediated developmental causes of an evolutionary transformation will leave different signatures in the development of the derived character. Although similar inference rules have been used in practically every empirical science, we expand this approach here in two ways: (1) we justify the validity of this principle with reference to a well-known result from mathematical physics, known as the symmetry principle, and (2) propose a specific form of the FEP for DE: given two or more developmental explanations for a certain evolutionary event, say an evolutionary novelty, then the evidence discriminating between these hypotheses will be found in the most proximal internal drivers of the derived character. Hence, a detailed description of the ancestral and derived states, and their most proximal developmental drivers are necessary to discriminate between various evolutionary developmental hypotheses. We discuss how this stepwise order of testing is necessary, establishes a formal test, and how skipping this order of examination may violate a more accurate examination of DE. We illustrate the approach with an example from avian digit evolution.

  6. Musical stimulation in the developmentally delayed child: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jones, N L; Molnar, E T; Knasel, A L

    1987-08-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated.

  7. Musical Stimulation in the Developmentally Delayed Child: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nanelle Lavina; Molnar, Eva T.; Knasel, Anne L.

    1987-01-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:2468780

  8. [Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories.

  9. Putting theory to the test: modeling a multidimensional, developmentally-based approach to preschool disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Carter, Alice S; Burns, James L; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received scant attention. In this study, we tested a developmentally based, four-dimensional model of disruptive behavior theorized to represent the defining features of disruptive behavior at preschool age: Temper Loss, Noncompliance, Aggression, and Low Concern for Others. Model testing was conducted in two independent samples of preschoolers: Clinically Enriched Sample (n = 336) and Epidemiologic Sample (n = 532). The tau-equivalent confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the fit of the Developmental Model relative to three leading competing models (DSM opositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) Model, "Callous" Model, and an "Irritable/Headstrong/Hurtful" Model). Reliability of the four dimensions was also tested. Validity of the dimensions was tested by predicting multi-informant, multi-method ratings of disruptive behavior and impairment, and incremental utility relative to DSM symptoms. In both samples, the Developmental Model demonstrated a superior fit compared with the competing models within the full sample, and across key demographic subgroups. Validity was also demonstrated, including incremental utility relative to DSM-IV disruptive behavior symptoms. Critical next steps for achieving scientific consensus about the optimal dimensional model of disruptive behavior and its clinical application are discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Current and future needs for developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Makris, Susan L; Kim, James H; Ellis, Amy; Faber, Willem; Harrouk, Wafa; Lewis, Joseph M; Paule, Merle G; Seed, Jennifer; Tassinari, Melissa; Tyl, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    A review is presented of the use of developmental toxicity testing in the United States and international regulatory assessment of human health risks associated with exposures to pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), chemicals (agricultural, industrial, and environmental), food additives, cosmetics, and consumer products. Developmental toxicology data are used for prioritization and screening of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, for evaluating and labeling of pharmaceuticals, and for characterizing hazards and risk of exposures to industrial and environmental chemicals. The in vivo study designs utilized in hazard characterization and dose-response assessment for developmental outcomes have not changed substantially over the past 30 years and have served the process well. Now there are opportunities to incorporate new technologies and approaches to testing into the existing assessment paradigm, or to apply innovative approaches to various aspects of risk assessment. Developmental toxicology testing can be enhanced by the refinement or replacement of traditional in vivo protocols, including through the use of in vitro assays, studies conducted in alternative nonmammalian species, the application of new technologies, and the use of in silico models. Potential benefits to the current regulatory process include the ability to screen large numbers of chemicals quickly, with the commitment of fewer resources than traditional toxicology studies, and to refine the risk assessment process through an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and their relevance to potential human risk. As the testing paradigm evolves, the ability to use developmental toxicology data to meet diverse critical regulatory needs must be retained.

  11. Program Helps Design Tests Of Developmental Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Computer program called "A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs" (TRL) provides automatic software tool and formal language used to implement category-partition method and produce specification of test cases in testing phase of development of software. Category-partition method useful in defining input, outputs, and purpose of test-design phase of development and combines benefits of choosing normal cases having error-exposing properties. Traceability maintained quite easily by creating test design for each objective in test plan. Effort to transform test cases into procedures simplified by use of automatic software tool to create cases based on test design. Method enables rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration and facilitates review of test designs by peer groups. Written in C language.

  12. Emanuel Miller lecture developmental risks (still) associated with early child care.

    PubMed

    Belsky, J

    2001-10-01

    In the mid to late 1980s a major controversy erupted when Belsky's (1986, 1988. 1990) analysis of research produced the conclusion that early and extensive nonmaternal care carried risks in terms of increasing the probability of insecure infant-parent attachment relationships and promoting aggression and noncompliance during the toddler, preschool, and early primary school years. Widespread critiques of Belsky's analysis called attention to problems associated with the Strange Situation procedure for measuring attachment security in the case of day-care reared children and to the failure of much of the cited research to take into consideration child-care quality and control for background factors likely to make children with varying child-care experiences developmentally different in the first place. In this lecture, research concerning the developmental effects of child care and maternal employment initiated in the first year of life that has emerged since the controversy broke is reviewed. Evidence indicating that early, extensive, and continuous nonmaternal care is associated with less harmonious parent-child relations and elevated levels of aggression and noncompliance suggests that concerns raised about early and extensive child care 15 years ago remain valid and that alternative explanations of Belsky's originally controversial conclusion do not account for seemingly adverse effects of routine nonmaternal care that continue to be reported in the literature.

  13. Testing developmental pathways to antisocial personality problems.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of antisocial personality problems (APP) in young adulthood from disruptive behaviors and internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. Parent ratings of 507 children's (aged 6-8 years) symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety, were linked to self-ratings of adolescents' (aged 14-16 years) symptoms of depression, substance use, conduct problems, and somatic problems, to predict self-ratings of APP in young adulthood (age 20-22 years). The findings suggested a hierarchical development of antisocial behavior problems. Despite being positively associated with conduct problems in adolescence, neither internalizing problems nor substance use added to the prediction of APP in young adulthood from conduct problems in adolescence. The developmental pathways to APP in young adulthood did not differ by gender.

  14. The Usefulness of the Denver Developmental Screening Test to Predict Kindergarten Problems in a General Community Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadman, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) was administered to 2569 children prior to starting kindergarten. At the end of the school year, teachers rated each child. Results suggest that because of its low sensitivity and modest predictive value, the DDST is relatively inefficient for a school entry screening program in a general population.…

  15. Borderline personality features in childhood: the role of subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Kathryn F; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, had higher scores on each individual subscale, and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all four subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores, and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed.

  16. Borderline Personality Features in Childhood: The Role of Subtype, Developmental Timing and Chronicity of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Kathryn F.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Crick, Nicki

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, higher scores on each individual subscale and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all 4 subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed. PMID:25047300

  17. Judicial Reliance on Parental IQ in Appellate-Level Child Welfare Cases Involving Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Callow, Ella; Tahir, Munazza; Feldman, Maurice

    2017-05-01

    Parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are over-represented in child welfare cases. Although IQ per se is an invalid indicator of parenting abilities, this study examined the prevalence of judicial consideration of parental IQ test evidence in US appellate cases. The present authors conducted Boolean searches of Westlaw Corporation's case database since 1999. The present authors used a six-question checklist to survey the 42 most recent American appellate cases involving termination of parental rights (TPR) decisions that included evidence of parental intellectual and developmental disabilities based on IQ. In 86% of cases, parental low IQ was presented as a barrier to parenting competence. Higher courts uphold TPR decision in 81% of cases involving parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Parental IQ scores are routinely relied upon to judge parenting capacity in custody cases where parents have intellectual and developmental disabilities. The present authors recommend more comprehensive assessments examining a broader range of contextual variable that may impact on parenting abilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Need to merge child and adult psychiatry into comprehensive developmental psychiatry--consideration from the perspective of forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    The need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a continuum was discussed based on forensic issues in criminal cases involving developmental disorder. Recently, a number of offenders (both juvenile and adult) are being diagnosed with developmental disorder every year, when the system of sending severe juvenile cases from juvenile court to the prosecution as well as the new juror system makes the role of psychiatric examination more important than ever. Because of the unique symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conventional forensic psychiatry does not seem applicable to cases of ASD when making a fair judgement on criminal liability. This indicates that there is a need for not only basic knowledge on child psychiatry for all psychiatrists, but also knowledge on the developmental link between child and adult psychiatry. Therefore, there is a need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a comprehensive field of developmental psychiatry.

  19. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children.

  20. Major paternal depression and child consultation for developmental and behavioural problems.

    PubMed

    Davé, Shreya; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob; Nazareth, Irwin

    2009-03-01

    It is well established that maternal depression is associated with enhanced child consultation for developmental and behaviour problems, but there is a dearth of research on paternal depression and child outcome. To assess the association of major paternal depressed mood and child consultation for developmental and behaviour problems. Cross-sectional study. General practices in London and Hertfordshire, UK. Fathers of children aged 4-6 years were recruited via 13 general practices. A sample of 248 biological father and mother dyads completed measures on depressive syndrome (Patient Health Questionnaire), child consultations with health professionals for developmental and behaviour problems, fathering, couple relationship quality, alcohol misuse, other psychiatric impairment, and sociodemographic factors. Eight out of 248 fathers (3%) had a major depressive syndrome. Sixty-five out of 247 (26%) fathers reported they were responsible for taking their child to see the doctor at least half the time compared with mothers. Children of fathers with a major depressive syndrome were almost nine times more likely to have consulted a health professional for speech and language problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 8.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.99 to 37.67, P = 0.004) and seven times more likely to have consulted for externalising behaviour problems (adjusted OR = 6.98, 95% CI = 1.00 to 48.76, P = 0.05). Children of fathers with major depression were more likely to consult for speech and language problems and externalising behaviour problems. A longitudinal study is recommended to identify causal mechanisms.

  1. Major paternal depression and child consultation for developmental and behavioural problems

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Shreya; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob; Nazareth, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    Background It is well established that maternal depression is associated with enhanced child consultation for developmental and behaviour problems, but there is a dearth of research on paternal depression and child outcome. Aim To assess the association of major paternal depressed mood and child consultation for developmental and behaviour problems. Design of study Cross-sectional study. Setting General practices in London and Hertfordshire, UK. Method Fathers of children aged 4–6 years were recruited via 13 general practices. A sample of 248 biological father and mother dyads completed measures on depressive syndrome (Patient Health Questionnaire), child consultations with health professionals for developmental and behaviour problems, fathering, couple relationship quality, alcohol misuse, other psychiatric impairment, and sociodemographic factors. Results Eight out of 248 fathers (3%) had a major depressive syndrome. Sixty-five out of 247 (26%) fathers reported they were responsible for taking their child to see the doctor at least half the time compared with mothers. Children of fathers with a major depressive syndrome were almost nine times more likely to have consulted a health professional for speech and language problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 8.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.99 to 37.67, P = 0.004) and seven times more likely to have consulted for externalising behaviour problems (adjusted OR = 6.98, 95% CI = 1.00 to 48.76, P = 0.05). Conclusion Children of fathers with major depression were more likely to consult for speech and language problems and externalising behaviour problems. A longitudinal study is recommended to identify causal mechanisms. PMID:19275834

  2. Development of the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Larissa de Souza; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Hübner, Lilian Cristine; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2016-01-01

    The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT) and reports evidence of its content validity. 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version. The instrument was developed in seven stages: 1) translation, 2) back-translation, 3) comparison of translated versions, 4) preparation of new stimuli, 5) data collection with healthy children to analyze comprehension of the stimuli and analyses by the authors against the psycholinguistic criteria adopted, 6) analyses conducted by judges who are specialists in neuropsychology or linguistics, and 7) the pilot study. Twenty-four of the 72 sentences constructed were selected on the basis of 70-100% agreement between judges evaluating what they assessed and level of comprehensibility. The pilot study revealed better performance by older children, providing evidence of the instrument's sensitivity to developmental factors. Future studies employing this version of CHT with clinical pediatric populations who have frontal lesions and dysfunctions and in related areas are needed to test functional and differential diagnoses of preserved or impaired executive functions.

  3. A Pilot Study of Visual-Motor Developmental Inter-Test Reliability: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Gary L.; Binder, Dorothy M.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the intertest reliability of the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BGT), 64 six to nine year olds were administered both tests.

  4. A Pilot Study of Visual-Motor Developmental Inter-Test Reliability: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Gary L.; Binder, Dorothy M.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the intertest reliability of the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BGT), 64 six to nine year olds were administered both tests.

  5. Setting the Stage: Early Child and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Later Loneliness in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Angela; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Kersh, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities often report having few friends. Researchers have tended to focus on social skill deficits, neglecting other potent predictors of children's feelings of loneliness. In a sample of 82 children with developmental disabilities, we examined characteristics of the child at age 3 (i.e., the conclusion of early…

  6. The Experiences and Perspectives of Japanese Substitute Caregivers and Maltreated Children: A Cultural-Developmental Approach to Child Welfare Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamba, Sachiko

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the experiences and perspectives of child welfare workers and maltreated children living in Japanese state care. Japanese adults emphasize supporting children's emotional well-being and empowerment through developmentally and ecologically focused socialization strategies. One developmental goal articulated by caregivers of…

  7. Disorders of childhood growth and development: screening and evaluation of the child who misses developmental milestones.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The family physician is one of the few individuals from whom families receive feedback about their children's development; this makes early identification of potential delays an important responsibility. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends formal developmental screening for all children at the 9-, 18-, and 24- and/or 30-month well-child visits as well as developmental surveillance at every office visit through age 5 years. A formal screening measure is recommended, taking into account administration time and cost, characteristics of the patient population (eg, availability of screening tool in numerous languages), and psychometrics (eg, reliability, sensitivity, specificity). In the case of abnormal screening results, family physicians must determine the need for further medical evaluation (eg, by a developmental pediatric subspecialist or a pediatric neurology, genetics, or physiatry subspecialist) and/or further developmental evaluation (eg, by a physical therapy [PT], occupational therapy [OT], speech/language pathology, psychology, or audiology subspecialist). Knowledge of early intervention and early childhood programs is necessary for directing parents to evaluation and treatment sources. In treating patients with developmental delays, family physicians must possess knowledge regarding traditional modalities (eg, speech/language therapy, OT, PT) as well as newer treatments with less research support (eg, gluten-free/casein-free diet, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, neurodevelopmental treatment) that families may consider. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)

  10. A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)

  11. Developmental Aspects of Test-Wiseness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crehan, Kevin D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of test wiseness (TW) investigated: (1) the relationship between TW and grade level; (2) the relationship between TW and sex; and (3) the stability of TW. Results indicated that TW was somewhat stable over the intervals observed. No sex effects and no sex by year interactions were found. (Author/GD C)

  12. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  13. Maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns: Associations with socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Valsamma; Walter, Amelia; Guan, Jane; Descallar, Joseph; Axelsson, Emma; Einfeld, Stewart; Eastwood, John; Murphy, Elisabeth; Beasley, Deborah; Silove, Natalie; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Woolfenden, Sue; Williams, Katrina; Jalaludin, Bin; The 'Watch Me Grow' Study Group

    2017-10-01

    To examine socio-demographic factors associated with maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns in a longitudinal birth cohort study. An understanding of these factors is critical to improving uptake of services to maximise early identification and intervention for developmental concerns. A birth cohort was recruited from the post-natal wards of two teaching hospitals and through community nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia, between November 2011 and April 2013. Of the 4047 mothers approached, 2025 consented to participate (response rate = 50%). Socio-demographic and service use information was collected after the child's birth and when the child was 18 months of age. Sources of help were divided into three categories (formal health services, other formal services and informal supports) and compound variables were created by summing the number of different sources identified by mothers. Significantly more sources of help were intended to be used and/or actually accessed by mothers born in Australia, whose primary language was English, with higher levels of education and annual household income, and among mothers of first-born children. Developmental concerns are known to increase with increased psychosocial adversity. Our findings of reduced intent to access and use of services by socio-economically disadvantaged families and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds suggests that an inverse care effect is in operation whereby those children with the greatest health needs may have the least access to services. Possible explanations for this, and recommendations for improving service accessibility for these populations through targeted and culturally appropriate services, are discussed. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

  15. Test Review: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" (6th edition). The "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" is a newly updated measure of visual-motor abilities for individuals aged 2 to 100 years that principally represents a normative update from the fifth edition.…

  16. Test Review: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" (6th edition). The "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" is a newly updated measure of visual-motor abilities for individuals aged 2 to 100 years that principally represents a normative update from the fifth edition.…

  17. Zebrafish as a systems toxicology model for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Sasagawa, Shota; Umemoto, Noriko; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The developing brain is extremely sensitive to many chemicals. Exposure to neurotoxicants during development has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Although rodents have been widely used for developmental neurotoxicity testing, experiments using large numbers of rodents are time-consuming, expensive, and raise ethical concerns. Using alternative non-mammalian animal models may relieve some of these pressures by allowing testing of large numbers of subjects while reducing expenses and minimizing the use of mammalian subjects. In this review, we discuss some of the advantages of using zebrafish in developmental neurotoxicity testing, focusing on central nervous system development, neurobehavior, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics in this species. We also describe some important examples of developmental neurotoxicity testing using zebrafish combined with gene expression profiling, neuroimaging, or neurobehavioral assessment. Zebrafish may be a systems toxicology model that has the potential to reveal the pathways of developmental neurotoxicity and to provide a sound basis for human risk assessments. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  18. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: VARIABILITY IN MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...

  19. Denver Developmental Screening Test: Cultural Variations in Southeast Asian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Virginia; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Tests (DDST) was administered to 25 Southeast Asian children (one to five years old) and scores of 150 other DDSTs performed on Southeast Asian children were reviewed. Findings suggested that scores may reflect differences in social and cultural experiences between these children and the standardization sample.…

  20. Viking Mars lander 1975 dynamic test model/orbiter developmental test model forced vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J.; Brownlee, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking Mars Lander 1975 dynamic test model and orbiter developmental test model were subjected to forced vibration sine tests. Flight acceptance (FA) and type approval (TA) test levels were applied to the spacecraft structure in a longitudinal test configuration using a 133,440-N (30,000-lb) force shaker. Testing in the two lateral axes (X, Y) was performed at lower levels using four 667-N (150-lb) force shakers. Forced vibration qualification (TA) test levels were successfully imposed on the spacecraft at frequencies down to 10 Hz. Measured responses showed the same character as analytical predictions, and correlation was reasonably good. Because of control system test tolerances, orbiter primary structure generally did not reach the design load limits attained in earlier static testing. A post-test examination of critical orbiter structure disclosed no apparent damage to the structure as a result of the test environment.

  1. Creative solutions for complex developmental testing

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was requested to establish the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Development and Demonstration Center. The Center is housed in a hangar at the Albuquerque International Airport and owns its own aged transport airplane. The Center`s work encompasses research and development in enhanced structural inspection. The goals of the Center are to: promote NDI technology development and maturation; help transfer new nondevelopment item technology to the hangar floor; validate NDI techniques; assess reliability or probability of detection of NDI processes. An important part of this project will be to make sure that the cost of implementation and operation of any technique is seriously considered and that techniques are usable in the field. Among the initial techniques to be evaluated are: enhanced visual, magneto-optic eddy current; coherent optics; ultrasonics; thermographics; eddy current scanners; experimental modal analysis. This project is a perfect example of how Development Testing draws on its own resources and teams up with others, as necessary, to get the job done. In this case, New Mexico State University and a private company, Science Applications International Corporation, are assisting.

  2. Can I have a second child? Dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Mochizuki, Mieko; Omiya, Tomoko

    2010-10-26

    Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD. The participants for this study were restricted to mothers living within the greater Tokyo metropolitan area who had given birth to a first child with PDD within the past 18 years. The ten participants were encouraged to describe their experiences of second-child related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD on the basis of semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed by using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which is concerned with understanding what the participant thinks or believes about the topic under discussion. We identified two superordinate themes. The first was balancing hopes and fears, in which hope was the potential joy to be gained by the birth of a new child without PDD and fears were characterized as uncertainty of PDD and perception of recurrence risk, burden on later-born children, and negative effects on a child with PDD.The second superordinate theme was assessing the manageability of the situation, which was affected by factors as diverse as severity of PDD, relationship between mother and father, and social support and acceptance for PDD. Our 10 participants suffered from extreme psychological conflict, and lack of social support and acceptance for PDD created numerous practical difficulties in having second children. Our participants faced various difficulties when considering second pregnancies after the birth of children with PDD in the Japanese society. As lack of social support and acceptance for

  3. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  4. Factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban districts in Japan. Multiple regression analysis of data collected from 275 respondents revealed that a decrease in family empowerment level correlated with a higher number of siblings reared together, a shorter period since the diagnosis was made, and lower awareness of social support and self-efficacy in caregivers. Medications, possession of an intellectual disability certificate, infrequent hospital visits of the child, disuse of local services by caregivers, and young caregivers also correlated with a lower level of empowerment in the Japanese family. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Child development and the PITS: simple questions, complex answers, and developmental theory. Person in the Street.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, F D

    2000-01-01

    The enormous popular interest in the field of child development makes it incumbent upon developmental scientists to convey with care the complexity of development lest oversimplified popular accounts gain credibility. Recent attempted models of development do include the range of variables and complexities that need to be accommodated in accounting for development. A model is presented here that incorporates many of the elements of recent models but elaborates on the role of experience in relation to the constitutional, cultural, economic, and social factors that contribute to advantages and disadvantages in children's development. The importance of accommodating data from prior theoretical perspectives and the importance of the contributions from neuroimaging studies are discussed as they are critical for successful theory building in the field of child development.

  6. Parent-child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: parallel developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Chelsea M; Shaw, Daniel S; Crossan, Jennifer L; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-02-01

    Parent-child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother-child and father figure (FF)-child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother-child and FF-child conflict and children's adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother-FF-child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother-child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children's adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF-child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother-child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent-child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention.

  7. Parent–Child Conflict and Early Childhood Adjustment in Two-Parent Low-Income Families: Parallel Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Crossan, Jennifer L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother–child and father figure (FF)–child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother–child and FF–child conflict and children’s adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother–FF–child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother–child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children’s adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF–child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother–child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent–child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention. PMID:24610382

  8. Analysis of the synthetic house-tree-person drawing test for developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Chikako; Okada, Ayumi; Akagi, Tomoko; Shigeyasu, Yoshie; Shimauchi, Aya; Hosogi, Mizuho; Munemori, Eriko; Ocho, Keiko; Morishima, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    Some patients cannot draw three subjects on the same page during the synthetic house-tree-person drawing test (S-HTP). We call this phenomenon "no synthetic sign". The aim of this study was to clarify the pathological meaning of no synthetic sign and investigate its use for the early detection of developmental disorders at a pediatric primary care center. We administered the S-HTP to 283 people who consulted the child psychosomatic medical clinic of Okayama University Hospital in 2007-2012. We diagnosed developmental disability based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and compared findings between the different diagnostic groups. A total of 241 patients completed the S-HTP (S-HTP group) and 22 patients were not able to complete the S-HTP, but did complete the HTP (an original version of the S-HTP) or tree test (HTP group). Significantly more people in the HTP group had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with the S-HTP group. Full-scale intelligence quotient was significantly lower in the HTP group compared with the S-HTP group. There were two types of patients with no synthetic sign. The first involved patients with a suspected mental age younger than 5 years 11 months. The second type consisted of patients with ASD. Although drawing ability reflects multiple domains, it may help in early identification of children with developmental problems and facilitate earlier initiation of interventions. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Sports participation of children with or without developmental delay: prediction from child and family factors.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Willa A; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation is beneficial to health and socioemotional adjustment in youth across development. While there is some evidence indicating lower sports participation for children with developmental delays (DD) as compared with their typically developing (TD) peers, little is known as to the predictors of this differential participation. Given the increased risk of physical and mental health difficulties for children with DD, understanding more about this disparity is important. We examined sports participation in elementary school-aged children with or without DD and examined child and family predictors of three indices of sports participation: number of sports and highest relational sport at ages 6 and 8, and consistent sports from 6 to 8. Children with TD were significantly higher on all three indicators. Mother and child factors related significantly to sports participation indices. The number of sports related positively to mother education and positive perceptions and negatively to mother employment. Relational sports were higher in boys, children with higher social skills, and lower behavior problems. In regression analyses at child age 8 that included these other variables, delay status (DD or TD) did not have a significant effect. Perspectives on varying influences on sports participation and implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and the Bender-Gestalt test.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J

    1977-12-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration (Beery) and the Bender-Gestalt test (Bender) were administered to 44 second-grade children. Developmental age scores (Koppitz scoring) and age equivalents (Beery) were compared. The correlation of .43 between Bender (Koppitz scoring) and Beery scores was moderate but statistically significant. A t test for dependent groups indicated a significant difference between the means on the Bender and Beery tests. These results confirm that neither test should be utilized as the sole indicator of visual-motor perception.

  11. Predicting mental health among mothers of school-aged children with developmental disabilities: the relative contribution of child, maternal and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2012-01-01

    Many mothers of children with developmental disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress, and compromised mental health. Research is crucial to better understand and assist mothers with compromised mental health, and ultimately better service families raising and supporting a child with a disability. Data were collected using cross sectional mail-out survey with follow up phone call. Instruments included the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) and instruments that measured maternal, child and environmental factors. Descriptive statistics examined characteristics of participants. Correlation, t-tests, and multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with mothers' mental health. Mothers (N=152) cared for a school-aged child (aged 5-18 years) with high care needs and developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorder (n=94); cerebral palsy (n=29); attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=19). Factors associated with maternal mental health included the child's psychosocial health (r=.36) and challenging behaviour (r=-.33); maternal empowerment (r=.40); maternal participation in health promoting activities (r=.43); and the child's unmet service needs (r=-.29). The strongest predictors of maternal mental health in this cross sectional study were maternal participation in healthy activity and empowerment, the child's emotional functioning and unmet service needs. This study identified maternal factors as the most important influence on self reported mental health among this sample of mothers. Findings suggest that service changes that provide mothers with information about their own health and need for health enhancing activities, as well as education that empowers mothers to manage and master their child's disability and needs, may contribute to maternal mental health and well being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Child developmental outcomes in preschool children following antidepressant exposure in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Galbally, Megan; Lewis, Andrew J; Buist, Anne

    2015-07-01

    To examine child developmental outcomes in preschool-aged children exposed to antidepressant medication in pregnancy and compare their outcomes to children not exposed. A prospective case-controlled study of 20 children exposed to antidepressants in pregnancy and 21 unexposed controls was available from the Victorian Psychotropic Registry. Child development outcomes at 4 years of age were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, third edition; the Movement Assessment Battery for Children; Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Preschool; and the Child Behavior Checklist (1.5-5 years). Maternal depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II in pregnancy and at four time points across infancy and early childhood. Children exposed to antidepressants in pregnancy had no statistically significant differences compared to unexposed children on any of the measures of child development undertaken. There was a trend to slightly lower scores in motor development with a small effect size for two scales of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children: balance - Cohen's d=0.36; aiming and catching - Cohen's d=0.34. The finding of no effect on cognition and behaviour are consistent with other previous studies conducted with younger children. Likewise, the trend towards lower motor development is similar to earlier findings from this study and a number of other similar studies. Given this trend there is a need for future research that focuses on this area of development in older children using robust measures of motor development. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. Child Maltreatment: Testing the Social Isolation Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the construct of social isolation in child maltreatment and reports on a study comparing 300 maltreating and nonmaltreating low-income mothers. Considerable variation was found between the two groups' structural network properties, perception of support, and types of resources received. However, maltreating mothers were not…

  14. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  15. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  16. Parent-Child Relationships of Boys in Different Offending Trajectories: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods: Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7-19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending…

  17. Parent-Child Relationships of Boys in Different Offending Trajectories: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods: Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7-19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending…

  18. Developmental eye movement test: what is it really measuring?

    PubMed

    Ayton, Lauren N; Abel, Larry A; Fricke, Timothy R; McBrien, Neville A

    2009-06-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool. However, while the DEM test ratio has been reported to correlate with horizontal saccadic eye movements, there have been no published comparative studies of the DEM test and objective eye movement measures. The aim of this study was to compare DEM test performance with explicit quantification of saccadic eye movements, reading performance, symptomatology and visual processing speed, to assess the validity of the DEM test in clinical practice. One hundred fifty-eight children aged 8 to 11 years completed the DEM test and a battery of eye movement tasks, recorded by a Microguide 1000 infrared eye tracker. All subjects completed a symptomatology survey. Reading performance and visual processing data was collected for 77 and 75 children, respectively. One hundred twenty-nine of the 158 subjects (81.65%) passed the DEM test. There was no significant correlation between any component of DEM test performance and quantitative eye movement parameters (gain, latency, asymptotic peak velocity, and number of corrective saccades) or symptomatology. There were significant correlations between DEM test outcome and reading performance, and with visual processing speed. DEM test performance does not correlate with saccadic eye movement skills or symptomatology. However, it is related to reading performance and visual processing speed. This study suggests that although DEM test times may not correlate directly with eye movement parameters, they do correlate with aspects of reading performance and thus may serve a diagnostic role in clinical practice.

  19. Incidental finding of an orbital foreign body in a child with microcephaly and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Maria J; Thomas, Megan R; Shekarchian, Mina; Patel, Vikesh

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy underwent investigations for microcephaly and global developmental delay. An MRI scan identified an ill-defined enhancing lesion in the left superolateral orbit. On subsequent questioning his parents reported that he had been admitted to a neighbouring hospital 2 months earlier with left-sided preseptal cellulitis following a fall onto a plastic toy. Following the episode of cellulitis he developed intermittent mild erythema and oedema of the left upper eyelid for which his parents had not sought further medical attention. The child was admitted for an anterior orbitotomy via a skin-crease approach that identified a large foam plastic foreign body. He made a good recovery from his surgery although he has had intermittent upper eyelid oedema attributed to a persistent granulomatous foreign body reaction. No underlying cause for his microcephaly and delayed development has yet been identified. PMID:24554678

  20. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  1. Linking Maternal Efficacy Beliefs, Developmental Goals, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural Single-Parent African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.; Gibson, Nicole Morgan

    1999-01-01

    Traced links among family financial resource adequacy, maternal beliefs and behavior, developmental goals, and child outcomes in rural, single-parent African American families of 6- to 9-year-olds. Found that financial adequacy was linked with childrearing efficacy. Efficacy beliefs were linked with parenting practices indirectly through…

  2. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

  3. Brief Report: Effects of Pressure Vest Usage on Engagement and Problem Behaviors of a Young Child with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E.; Good, Leslie; Wolery, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a pressure vest for a young boy with developmental delays. An A-B-A withdrawal design was used to examine the relation between wearing the pressure vest and child behaviors during a preschool art activity. Although the data showed moderate variability, no systematic differences were…

  4. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN EARLY MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY.

    PubMed

    Gul, Hesna; Erol, Nese; Akin, Duygu Pamir; Gullu, Belgin Ustun; Akcakin, Melda; Alpas, Başak; Öner, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a method to assess early parent-child dyadic interactions for emotional awareness, perception, experience, and expression between child and parent that describe global relational quality (Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, 2012). The current study aimed to examine the effects of an infant's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and developmental delay (DD) on the maternal EA Scale (EAS; Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, 2012; Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 2000) scores and the relative contributions of infant's age, gender, diagnosis, developmental level, and maternal education on EAS scores in a clinical Turkish sample. Three hundred forty-five infant-mother dyads participated in this study. Results of the research indicated that EAS adult scores were associated with maternal education and infant's diagnosis whereas child scores were associated with infant's age, diagnosis, and developmental level. Infants' involvement and responsiveness to the mother were lower in the group with ASD. Children with OPD, particularly when their mothers have lower education, might be at increased risk of having problems in parent-child interactions. Young ASD subjects with developmental delay are in greatest need of support to increase reactions toward their mother. These findings underscore the importance of using all of the EA dimensions rather than only one measure on children in high-risk populations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Parental Adaptation to Out-of-Home Placement of a Child with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…

  6. A Peer Support and Personal Growth Group for Parents with a Child Who Is Developmentally Disabled or Delayed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Pelt, Jeff

    The manual describes development of a personal growth and peer support group for parents of developmentally delayed or disabled children which was designed to help parents adjust expectations about their infant or young child and to accommodate the handicap. Initial decisions regarding leader and participant characteristics and frequency and…

  7. Parental Adaptation to Out-of-Home Placement of a Child with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…

  8. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  9. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  10. Using a Time Timer[TM] to Increase Appropriate Waiting Behavior in a Child with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hayes, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the use of a predictive stimulus (Time Timer[TM]) and delayed reinforcement to increase appropriate waiting behavior in a child with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items and activities. The study employed a changing criterion design across settings to gradually increase…

  11. Child Developmental Impact of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) in High-Risk Communities: First-Phase Authentic Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Suen, Hoi K.; Brickley, Dale; Smith-Jones, Janell; Dettore, Ernie

    2002-01-01

    This study used an "enhanced constructed comparison group" statistical model to conduct longitudinal research on the child developmental impact of Pittsburgh's early childhood initiative (ECI), a partnership to provide high-quality early care and education for children in high-risk neighborhoods. First-phase findings indicate that…

  12. Using a Time Timer[TM] to Increase Appropriate Waiting Behavior in a Child with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hayes, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the use of a predictive stimulus (Time Timer[TM]) and delayed reinforcement to increase appropriate waiting behavior in a child with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items and activities. The study employed a changing criterion design across settings to gradually increase…

  13. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems within Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Transactional Relations across 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children’s high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in families where a child has a DD. The present study investigated transactional relations between child behavior problems and maternal stress within 176 families raising a child with early diagnosed DD. There was evidence of both child-driven and parent-driven effects over the 15-year study period, spanning from early childhood (age 3) to adolescence (age 18), consistent with transactional models of development. Parent-child transactions were found to vary across different life phases and with different domains of behavior problems. PMID:25462487

  14. Microarray as a first genetic test in global developmental delay: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) would have on the total cost of the workup for GDD. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of aCGH compared with karyotyping by retrospectively analysing the cost of workup in a cohort of 114 children (69 males; 45 females) representing a consecutive series of children diagnosed with GDD. The average increase in cost if aCGH had been performed instead of karyotyping as a first test was $442 per individual when performed by a private company (98% confidence interval $238-604). In contrast, $106 (98% confidence interval -$17 to $195) would have been saved if aCGH was performed locally in a laboratory already possessing the required technology. The incremental cost per additional diagnosis was estimated to be $12,874 if aCGH was performed in a private laboratory, but <$1379 if performed locally. (Costs reported in Canadian dollars, using 2010 prices.) aCGH would be cost-effective as a first genetic test in the clinical evaluation of individuals with GDD. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Developmental age and taxonomic affinity of the Mojokerto child, Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Antón, S C

    1997-04-01

    An increasing number of claims place hominids outside Africa and deep in Southeast Asia at about the same time that Homo erectus first appears in Africa. The most complete of the early specimens is the partial child's calvaria from Mojokerto (Perning I), Java, Indonesia. Discovered in 1936, the child has been assigned to Australopithecus and multiple species of Homo, including H. modjokertensis, and given developmental ages ranging from 1-8 years. This study systematically assesses Mojokerto relative to modern human and fossil hominid growth series and relative to adult fossil hominids. Cranial base and vault comparisons between Mojokerto and H. sapiens sapiens (Hss) (n = 56), Neandertal (n = 4), and H. erectus (n = 4) juveniles suggest a developmental age range between 4 and 6 years. This range is based in part on new standards for assessing the relative development of the glenoid fossa. Regression analyses of vault arcs and chords indicate that H. erectus juveniles have more rounded frontals and less angulated occipitals than their adult counterparts, whereas Hss juveniles do not show these differences relative to adults. The growth of the cranial superstructures and face appear critical to creating differences in vault contours between H. erectus and Hss. In comparison with adult H. erectus and early Homo (n = 27) and adult Hss (n = 179), the Mojokerto child is best considered a juvenile H. erectus on the basis of synapomorphies of the cranial vault, particularly a metopic eminence and occipital torus, as well as a suite of characters that describe but do not define H. erectus, including obelion depression, supratoral gutter, postorbital constriction, mastoid fissure, lack of sphenoid contribution to glenoid fossa, and length and breadth ratios of the temporomandibular joint. Mojokerto is similar to other juvenile H. erectus in the degree of development of its cranial superstructures and its vault contours relative to adult Indonesian specimens. The

  16. A Case Study Evaluation of a Transfer-of-Stimulus Control Toilet Training Procedure for a Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    1996-01-01

    This case study describes the use of transfer-of-stimulus prompting procedures to develop toilet skills with a seven-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. By first having the child sit on the toilet with her diaper on for two weeks and then taking the diaper off, the child learned to urinate in the toilet. (CR)

  17. Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technolog...

  18. Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technolog...

  19. Validity and Reliability Determination of Denver Developmental Screening Test-II in 0-6 Year-Olds in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Shahshahani, Soheila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Azari, Nadia; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan

    2010-09-01

    This research was designed to identify the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) in Iranian children, in order to provide an appropriate developmental screening tool for Iranian child health workers. At first a precise translation of test was done by three specialists in English literature and then it was revised by three pediatricians familiar with developmental domains. Then, DDST-II was performed on 221 children ranging from 0 to 6 years, in four Child Health Clinics, in north, south, east and west regions of Tehran city. In order to determine the agreement coefficient, these children were also evaluated by ASQ test. Because ASQ is designed to use for 4-60 month- old children, children who were out of this rang were evaluated by developmental pediatricians. Available sampling was used. Obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software. Developmental disorders were observed in 34% of children who were examined by DDST-II, and in 12% of children who were examined by ASQ test. The estimated consistency coefficient between DDST-II and ASQ was 0.21, which is weak, and between DDST-II and the physicians' examination was 0.44. The content validity of DDST-II was verified by reviewing books and journals, and by specialists' opinions. All of the questions in DDST-II had appropriate content validity, and there was no need to change them. Test-retest and Inter-rater methods were used in order to determine reliability of the test, by Cronbach's α and Kauder-Richardson coefficients. Kauder-Richardson coefficient for different developmental domains was between 61% and 74%, which is good. Cronbach's α coefficient and Kappa measure of agreement for test-retest were 92% and 87% and for Inter-rater 90% and 76%, respectively. This research showed that Persian version of DDST-II has a good validity and reliability, and can be used as a screening tool for developmental screening of children in Tehran city.

  20. Associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and early child behavior problems: Testing a mutually adjusted prospective longitudinal model.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane

    2016-05-15

    While there is substantial empirical work on maternal depression, less is known about how mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms compare in their association with child behavior problems in early childhood. In particular, few studies have examined unique relationships in the postpartum period by controlling for the other parent, or looked at longitudinal change in either parent's depressive symptoms across the first living years as a predictor of child problems. We examined depressive symptoms in parents at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months following childbirth, and child behavior problems at 48 months. Linear growth curve analysis was used to model parents' initial levels and changes in symptoms across time and their associations with child outcomes. Mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted behavior problems at 48 months for all syndrome scales, while fathers' did not. Estimates for mothers' symptoms were significantly stronger on all subscales. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms over time was a significantly larger predictor of child aggressive behavior than corresponding change in mothers'. No interaction effects between parents' symptoms on behavior problems appeared, and few child gender differences. Child behavior was assessed once precluding tests for bidirectional effects. We only looked at linear change in parental symptoms. Mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms are a stronger predictor for early child behavior problems than fathers'. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms across this developmental period was uniquely and strongly associated with child aggressive problems, and should therefore be addressed in future research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Second Edition. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…

  2. Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Second Edition. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…

  3. TESTING AND THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENNON, ROGER T.

    THE USE OF TESTS IN THE EDUCATION OF THE CULTURALLY DEPRIVED IS PRESENTED. APPROPRIATE USE OF SUCH TESTS CAN MAKE SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DISCOVERY OF TALENT, TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING DIFFICULTIES, AND TO THE BETTER GUIDANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN. MOST TESTS MEASURE ABILITY OR APTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT. THE FORMER…

  4. [Verbal fluency test--developmental aspects in health and illness].

    PubMed

    Stolarska, Urszula; Kroczka, Sławomir; Gergont, Aleksandra; Steczkowska, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The Verbal Fluency Test is one of the easiest method in the neuropsychological evaluation of the frontal and temporal lobes' functioning. The amount of reasearch considering children's performance is still small compared to the adult population. The test lacks polish norms (as well as norms for children in other countries, except for unique cases). it was to present possible methods of quality and quantity analysis of the Verbal Fluency Test, and the statistical interpretation of children's performance, depending on the general result, age and diagnosis. the research was done on a group of 80 children, aged 6-17, including 50 girls and 30 boys, who were hospitalized during the yeras 2007/2008 in the Department of Pediatric Neurology Chair of Pediatric and Adolescent Neurology Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The children were diagnosed with epilepsia (44 children) or headache (36 children). The Verbal Flunecy Test was used in the neuropsychological evaluation among other methods, such as Rey Osterrieth Compex Figure test, Clock test, and intelligence tests WISC-R and WAIS-R(PL). the results confirm the charakter of the method, as a executive rather than memory function measure. The general result was influenced mainly by the ability to switch between specific subcategories. The general result correlated with age and gender, also children with headache performed better than children with epilepsia. Apropriately interpreted, especially considering quality analysis, the Verbal Fluency test is a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis in children, and detection of subtle weakening in the development of certain cognitive abilities. It is crucial to gather appropriate normative data for the population of children in Poland, which would enable the test's use in more general practice, as one of the early detection methods in the diagnosis of developmental disorders.

  5. Father's experiences of involvement in the daily care of their child with developmental disability in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Shu-Ling; Tsai, Sen-Wei

    2012-11-01

    This study explored Taiwanese fathers' experience of involvement in the daily care of a child with developmental disability within Chinese culture. Most studies on parents' experiences of having a child with a disability have focused on mothers or mixed fathers' voices with mothers'. Focussing only on mothers and ignoring fathers may hinder the latter's engagement with their child's care and encourage traditional or detached fathering roles. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was applied to explore and interpret fathers' experience. Sixteen fathers were purposively sampled from a medical centre in central Taiwan. All participants were interviewed twice with semi-structured and in-depth interviews. All transcripts and journal notes were analysed with the hermeneutic circle to achieve thick descriptions that richly described the meaning of fathers' experience. Analysis of interviews with fathers on their experiences of raising the disabled child at home revealed three shared meanings: keeping hope alive, concerns about quality of medical care and maximising family function. Hope for their disabled child's good outcome and future was highly significant for these fathers, but hope was diminished when their child received poor medical care or their own ability was too poor to care for the disabled child. However, fathers still did not give up working for their children and for the well-being of their families and society. Nurses should acknowledge that fathers' involvement in their disabled child's care can contribute to the well-being of both child and family. Also, nurses should educate parents on the best possible ways to help their child. Finally, nurses need to encourage discussions between parents and professionals about their own and the family's situation to develop a trusting and equal parent-professional relationship, thus alleviating fathers' concerns and better meeting the child's care needs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Burnette, Mandi L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-12-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders.

  7. Developmental Pathways to Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and Dependence: Child Maltreatment, Emerging Personality, and Internalizing versus Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across three waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an ecological-transactional model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. PMID:21534646

  8. Direct Observational Assessment during Test Sessions and Child Clinical Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.

    2005-01-01

    Test sessions and child clinical interviews offer opportunities for direct observations of children's behavior in controlled settings. Moreover, standardized instruments for test session and interview observations offer more reliable and valid assessment methods than do anecdotal reports. This article reviews characteristics and psychometric…

  9. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder in the child and adolescent: developmental aspects and therapeutic strategies].

    PubMed

    Bouvard, M

    1995-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive disorder has only recently been recognized as a specific pathological entity in children, despite the fact that the first descriptions of pediatric manifestations date back to the beginning of this century (P. Janet, 1903) with further reports having been published regularly since that time. The first assessment of the complete epidemiologic, clinical and functional repercussions of the obsessive-compulsive disorder was reported by the Pediatric Psychiatric Group of the NIMH (Pr Judith Rapoport); of their various publications, one is well known in France: The Child who Couldn't Stop Washing (17). Among possible reasons for this delayed recognition are the special conditions for diagnosis and the frequent underestimation of its importance by the family, and sometimes by doctors. This underassessment could be due to confusion between the normal developmental rituals which are frequently seen between the ages of 3 and 5 years, and which do not cause any particular handicaps, and a more severe symptomatology which interferes with normal academic and social adaptation, presenting a substantially worse long-term prognosis. Having recognized the disorder, questions have arisen as to its possible linkage with the form seen in adults. There are numerous convergent argument suggesting a certain long-term persistence of this disorder throughout development and later life: 1) the relative stability of the incidence and prevalence of the disorder; 2) phenomenologic and developmental similarities; 3) most recently, comparable efficacy of treatments for pediatric and adult obsessive-compulsive disorder, whether by the behavioral modification approaches or by pharmacologic treatment, notably with the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Smart merger of developmental and operational test and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizzelle, Charles Delano, Jr.

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has implemented Acquisition Reform to take advantage of commercial products, to compress the acquisition cycle, and to reduce the overall life-cycle cost of major weapon systems. This initiative, following requirements of the National Performance Review to perform faster, cheaper, and better, is expected to produce significant savings required to fund a new generation of weapons for the United States military. The DoD has a clear requirement to verify through a rigorous test and evaluation (T&E) that these advanced weapons are suitable and effective for use in combat. T&E is an inherently expensive and time-consuming activity performed to ensure that the system under test can meet contractual specifications and the operational user requirements. With a detailed and rich theoretical base, T&E has come to consider alternatives. Making a change from the safe and traditional paradigm of sequential developmental and operational T&E to a combined T&E strategy is one option. The central research question for this dissertation is "Does combining developmental and operational T&E permit faster acquisition cycle times without unnecessarily increasing risks of deploying ineffective systems?" In this interrupted time-series multiple case study, the impact of the independent variable of acquisition reform is assessed regarding the applicability and utility of a combined T&E strategy for the dependent variable of the Brilliant Eyes, Follow-on Early Warning System, and Space-based Infra-red System programs. In this analysis, the Brilliant Eyes and Follow-on Early Warning System preceded application of the independent variable while the Space-based Infra-red System followed Acquisition Reform. The conclusion of this dissertation is that the combined T&E strategy, where developmental and operational T&E events and resources are merged to the greatest extent possible consistent with mission requirements, provides significant advantages in cost and

  11. Linking maternal efficacy beliefs, developmental goals, parenting practices, and child competence in rural single-parent African American families.

    PubMed

    Brody, G H; Flor, D L; Gibson, N M

    1999-01-01

    With a sample of 139 rural, single-parent African American families with a 6- to 9-year-old child, we traced the links among family financial resource adequacy, maternal childrearing efficacy beliefs, developmental goals, parenting practices, and children's academic and psychosocial competence. A multimethod, multiinformant design was used to assess the constructs of interest. Consistent with the hypothesized paths, financial resource adequacy was linked with mothers' sense of childrearing efficacy. Efficacy beliefs were linked with parenting practices indirectly through developmental goals. Competence-promoting parenting practices were indirectly linked with children's academic and psychosocial competence through their association with children's self-regulation.

  12. Changes in Child Psychiatry Training Required by Developmental-Adaptive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Wells

    1972-01-01

    Briefly discussed are the need for a change in child psychiatry training and two proposed models for child psychiatric services involving clinical diagnosis and for training of child psychiatry fellows. (CB)

  13. Brief report: Effects of pressure vest usage on engagement and problem behaviors of a young child with developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E; Good, Leslie; Wolery, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a pressure vest for a young boy with developmental delays. An A-B-A withdrawal design was used to examine the relation between wearing the pressure vest and child behaviors during a preschool art activity. Although the data showed moderate variability, no systematic differences were found in child engagement when the vest was worn and when the vest was not worn and problem behavior increased when the vest was being worn. These results are discussed in the context of the study limitations. Implications for future research are provided.

  14. Use of directed history and behavioral indicators in the assessment of the child with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Joni Jacobsen

    2002-01-01

    It can be very difficult to get a complete history and review of systems for children with developmental disabilities and poor communication skills. In addition, many children with developmental disabilities may engage in self-injurious or aggressive behavior. Although the causes of inappropriate behavior are frequently environmental, physiologic components may exist as well, particularly pain or discomfort. History taking must be focused and specific and may need to focus on the child's behavioral patterns, because the child may not have sufficient communication skills to describe his or her problem and parents or guardians may not realize the relevance of certain behaviors. Gastrointestinal problems in particular may be a source of discomfort and should be reviewed with particular care. Referral to a psychologist who is able to perform a functional analysis of behavior may be necessary to treat problem behavior, especially if medical causes have been ruled out.

  15. Comparing decalage and development with cognitive developmental tests.

    PubMed

    Bond, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    The use of Rasch measurement techniques with data from developmental psychology has provided important insights into human development (e.g., Bond, 1997, 2003; Dawson, 2002 a, b;). In particular, Rasch methods support investigations into what has been, up until now, intractable theoretical and empirical problems. Research into the development of formal operational thinking using the Rasch model (Bond 1995 a, b; Bond and Bunting, 1995; Bond and Fox, 2001) substantiates important aspects of the original theorizing of Piaget (Inhelder and Piaget, 1955/1958), which was based wholly on qualitative structural analyses of children's problem-solving responses. Common-person equating of student performances has been used across different formal operational thinking tasks to estimate the relative difficulties of tasks measuring the same underlying developmental construct (Bond, 1995b; Bond and Fox, 2001). Repeated person performance measures on the same task have been used in order to estimate cognitive development over time. Rasch measurement estimates of cognitive development do not exceed 0.5 logits per annum (Bond, 1996; Endler, 1998; Stanbridge, 2001); a result that has been estimated independently in two large research projects in the United Kingdom (Shayer, 1999) and in Papua-New Guinea (Lake, 1996). Interestingly, difficulty differences (decalage) between tests of formal thought are as large as 2.0 logits (Bond, 1995a; Bond, 1996; Bond and Fox, 2001), confounding attempts to differentiate development from decalage. Given the problems and possibilities raised by the Rasch measurement quantification of cognitive development, this article canvasses the promise of using Rasch modelling techniques to investigate systematically these fundamental aspects of human cognitive performance.

  16. Factor Structure Evidence for Developmental Levels of Perceptual Processing on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polubinski, Joseph; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Beery's Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration was individually administered to 193 school-age children. Four factors were obtained, indicating that the test does not measure a unitary dimension of perceptual-motor development, but rather four distinct levels or stages for the age range of children investigated. (Author/ABB)

  17. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using a Time Timer to increase appropriate waiting behavior in a child with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Grey, Ian; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hayes, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the use of a predictive stimulus (Time Timer) and delayed reinforcement to increase appropriate waiting behavior in a child with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items and activities. The study employed a changing criterion design across settings to gradually increase reinforcement delay from 1s to 10 min. Firstly a baseline phase was conducted to measure the duration of appropriate waiting behavior to access tangible reinforcers/activities. Phase 2 involved the use of a red cue card and the verbal instruction "wait". Phase 3 involved the introduction of the Time Timer with the cue card attached, and the verbal instruction "wait". Finally, Phase 4 utilised the Time Timer without the cue card. This method was an effective strategy for increasing appropriate waiting behavior with this participant in a school setting. The role of adding a concurrent activity during the reinforcement delay, using cues to predict reinforcement, future generalization, maintenance and the teaching of functionally equivalent skills are discussed.

  19. [Trauma, developmental stages, and motivational abilities in indentured Swiss child laborers in old age].

    PubMed

    Simmen-Janevska, Keti; Horn, Andrea B; Krammer, Sandy; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between potential traumatic events in childhood and motivational abilities in old adulthood according to developmental stage. The motivational abilities of self-efficacy, conscientiousness and impulsivity (self control) were investigated in a sample of 114 formerly indentured Swiss child laborers. Adversities were assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The sample was split into four age groups according to the beginning of the potential trauma: infancy (0-2), preschool (3-5), early childhood (6-9), and early adolescence (≥ 10). The strongest relationship was found between self-efficacy and CTQ in the group "early adolescence," followed by the relationship between conscientiousness and CTQ in the same group. Impulsivity and CTQ were most strongly associated in the "preschool" group. Childhood adversities seem to have a negative impact on self-efficacy and conscientiousness after the age of ten. In contrast, self-control seems to be affected by the deleterious effect of trauma or adversity already at an earlier age.

  20. The Relationship between the Bender-Gestalt Test and the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, William J.

    The relationship between the Bender-Gesalt Test was studied using the Koppitz Developmental Scoring System and the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception in terms of age, sex, IQ, and socioeconomic status. A relationship to the Harrison Reading Readiness Test was also explored. Subjects were 89 first- and second-grade children…

  1. Irradiation testing of a niobium-molybdenum developmental thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.C.; Greenslade, D.L.

    1991-10-01

    A need exists for a radiation-resistant thermocouple capable of monitoring temperatures in excess of the limits of the chromel/alumel system. Tungsten/rhenium and platinum/rhodium thermocouples have sufficient temperature capability but have proven to be unstable because of irradiation-induced decalibration. The niobium/molybdenum system is believed to hold great potential for nuclear applications at temperatures up to 2000 K. However, the fragility of pure niobium and fabrication problems with niobium/molybdenum alloys have limited development of this system. Utilizing the Fast Flux Test Facility, a developmental thermocouple with a thermoelement pair consisting of a pure molybdenum and a niobium-1%zirconium alloy wire was irradiated fro 7200 hours at a temperature of 1070 K. The thermocouple performed flawlessly for the duration of the experiment and exhibited stability comparable to a companion chromel/alumel unit. A second thermocouple, operating at 1375 K, is currently being employed to monitor a fusion materials experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility. This experiment, also scheduled for 7200 hours, will serve to further evaluate the potential of the niobium-1%zirconium/molybdenum thermoelement system. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Parent-Completed Screening Test for Developmentally At-Risk Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Sang Seok

    A computer-based questionnaire was developed to help parents who have not received specialized training to determine whether their young children need further assessment for diagnosis of developmentally at-risk status. The computer automatically determines a starting point for a series of questions according to the child's chronological age. The…

  3. Poster Presentation: Optical Test of NGST Developmental Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Geary, Joseph; Reardon, Patrick; Peters, Bruce; Keidel, John; Chavers, Greg

    2000-01-01

    An Optical Testing System (OTS) has been developed to measure the figure and radius of curvature of NGST developmental mirrors in the vacuum, cryogenic environment of the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The OTS consists of a WaveScope Shack-Hartmann sensor from Adaptive Optics Associates as the main instrument, a Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI), a Point Spread Function (PSF) imager, an alignment system, a Leica Disto Pro distance measurement instrument, and a laser source palette (632.8 nm wavelength) that is fiber-coupled to the sensor instruments. All of the instruments except the laser source palette are located on a single breadboard known as the Wavefront Sensor Pallet (WSP). The WSP is located on top of a 5-DOF motion system located at the center of curvature of the test mirror. Two PC's are used to control the OTS. The error in the figure measurement is dominated by the WaveScope's measurement error. An analysis using the absolute wavefront gradient error of 1/50 wave P-V (at 0.6328 microns) provided by the manufacturer leads to a total surface figure measurement error of approximately 1/100 wave rms. This easily meets the requirement of 1/10 wave P-V. The error in radius of curvature is dominated by the Leica's absolute measurement error of VI.5 mm and the focus setting error of Vi.4 mm, giving an overall error of V2 mm. The OTS is currently being used to test the NGST Mirror System Demonstrators (NMSD's) and the Subscale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBNM).

  4. Poster Presentation: Optical Test of NGST Developmental Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Geary, Joseph; Reardon, Patrick; Peters, Bruce; Keidel, John; Chavers, Greg

    2000-01-01

    An Optical Testing System (OTS) has been developed to measure the figure and radius of curvature of NGST developmental mirrors in the vacuum, cryogenic environment of the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The OTS consists of a WaveScope Shack-Hartmann sensor from Adaptive Optics Associates as the main instrument, a Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI), a Point Spread Function (PSF) imager, an alignment system, a Leica Disto Pro distance measurement instrument, and a laser source palette (632.8 nm wavelength) that is fiber-coupled to the sensor instruments. All of the instruments except the laser source palette are located on a single breadboard known as the Wavefront Sensor Pallet (WSP). The WSP is located on top of a 5-DOF motion system located at the center of curvature of the test mirror. Two PC's are used to control the OTS. The error in the figure measurement is dominated by the WaveScope's measurement error. An analysis using the absolute wavefront gradient error of 1/50 wave P-V (at 0.6328 microns) provided by the manufacturer leads to a total surface figure measurement error of approximately 1/100 wave rms. This easily meets the requirement of 1/10 wave P-V. The error in radius of curvature is dominated by the Leica's absolute measurement error of VI.5 mm and the focus setting error of Vi.4 mm, giving an overall error of V2 mm. The OTS is currently being used to test the NGST Mirror System Demonstrators (NMSD's) and the Subscale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBNM).

  5. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  6. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects...

  7. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects...

  8. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects...

  9. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects...

  10. Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Thomas B; Kavlock, Robert J; Daston, George P; Stedman, Donald; Hixon, Mary; Kim, James H

    2011-10-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technologies for the assessment of developmental toxicology. This session provided an overview of the application of genomics technologies for developmental safety assessment, the use of mouse embryonic stem cells to capture data on developmental toxicity pathways, dynamical cell imaging of zebrafish embryos, the use of computation models of development pathways and systems, and finally, high-throughput in vitro approaches being utilized by the EPA ToxCast program. Issues discussed include the challenges of anchoring in vitro predictions to relevant in vivo endpoints and the need to validate pathway-based predictions with targeted studies in whole animals. Currently, there are 10,000 to 30,000 chemicals in world-wide commerce in need of hazard data for assessing potential health risks. The traditional animal study designs for assessing developmental toxicity cannot accommodate the evaluation of this large number of chemicals, requiring that alternative technologies be utilized. Though a daunting task, technologies are being developed and utilized to make that goal reachable. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Screening for developmental delay in preschool-aged children using parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires: additional insights into child development.

    PubMed

    Abo El Elella, Soheir S; Tawfik, Maha A M; Abo El Fotoh, Wafaa Moustafa M; Barseem, Naglaa Fathy

    2017-10-01

    Developmental delay is a delay in areas of speech, language, motor, social and cognitive development. Because of the negative impact of intellectual and learning disabilities, early identification of children with developmental and behavioral problems using appropriate screening tests is crucial. Utilization of parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQs) for detecting the developmental delay in preschool age children and clarification of possible associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1012 children aged 24-60 months enrolled from six centers (n=608) and six villages (n=404) located in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. All children were screened by nine age-based questionnaires in the first stage of assessment. Children whose scores were ≤ cut-off points in one or more of the screened developmental areas were considered to have suspected developmental delay (SDD) and underwent further evaluation in the second stage assessment. Among the 1012 studied children aged 24-60 months, 978 (96.4%) had normal development. SDD had an overall prevalence of 3.4%, with the highest rates of SDD in problem-solving (3%), followed by communication (2.4%), fine motor skills (2.2%) and social-personal domain (1%), with no SDD in gross motor skills. SDD was more commonly observed in boys, with a significant association with both parental education and consanguinity. Problems with learning (32.3%) was the most commonly observed provisional diagnosis, followed by language disorders (29.4%). Children with SDD in more than one area of ASQ skills also had mild to borderline IQ scores. The use of of parent-completed ASQs showed an overall prevalence of developmental delay in children aged 24-60 months of3.4%. Male gender, consanguinity and parental education were identified as risk factors for developmental delay. Family counselling about the child's developmental state is needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  12. Immunizations and Developmental Milestones for Your Child from Birth Through 6 Years Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... www. cdc. gov/ vaccines/ schedules/ easy- to- read/ child. html (Immunization) or www.cdc.gov/milestones (Milestones) VISIT DATE ... www. cdc. gov/ vaccines/ schedules/ easy- to- read/ child. html (Immunization) or www.cdc.gov/milestones (Milestones) WEIGHT HEIGHT ...

  13. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  14. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Barae; Hermsen, Sanne A B; Kessels, Maurijn Y; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Piersma, Aldert H; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems withinan alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity ofthyroid-active compounds. Model compounds tested included triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU), methimazole (MMI), sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) and amiodarone hydrochloride (AMI), selected to represent different modes of action affecting thyroid activity. Tested time windows included 48-120 hours post fertilization (hpf), 0-72 hpf and 0-120 hpf. All tested compounds resulted in developmental changes, with T3 being the most potent. The developmental parameters affected included reflective iridophores, beat and glide swimming, inflated swim bladders, as well as resorbed yolk sacs. These effects are only evident by 120 hpf and therefore an existing General Morphology Score (GMS) system was extended to create a General Developmental Score(GDS) that extends beyond the 72 hpfscoring limit of GMS and includes additional parameters that are affected by exposure to model thyroid-active compounds. Moreover, the GDS is cumulative as it includes not only the scoring of developmental morphologies but also integrates developmental dysmorphologies. Exposures from 48-120 hpf did not provide additional information to exposures from 0-120 hpf. The results indicate that the zebrafish GDS can detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid toxicants and may be of use in an integrated testing strategy to reduce, refine and in certain cases replace animal testing.

  15. Prediction of child performance on a parent-child behavioral approach test with animal phobic children.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Lewis, Krystal M; Cowart, Maria J W; Davis, Thompson

    2012-07-01

    A host of factors including genetic influences, temperament characteristics, learning experiences, information processing biases, parental psychopathology, and specific parenting practices have been hypothesized to contribute to the development and expression of children's phobias. In the present study, the authors focused on parental psychopathology (phobic anxiety) and parenting behaviors (warmth, involvement) in the prediction of child performance on a behavioral approach test (BAT). All children (n = 44) experienced a phobia of animals and were clinic referred. The youth completed two BATs: the first alone and the second one with a parent present. Overall, performance was greater on the parent-present BAT (58% of steps completed) than on the child-alone BAT (38% of steps completed), although considerable variability was present. Performance on the parent-present BAT was associated with parental warmth and involvement but not parental phobic anxiety. Implications of these findings were discussed, and their implications for the use of behavioral analogues tests were explored.

  16. Detection of unsafety in families with parental and/or child developmental problems at the start of family support.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Hermanns, Jo; van Rijn-van Gelderen, Loes; Sondeijker, Frouke

    2016-01-21

    Risk assessment is crucial in preventing child maltreatment as it can identify high-risk cases in need of child protection intervention. Despite this importance, there have been no validated risk assessment instruments available in the Netherlands for assessing the risk of child maltreatment. Therefore, the predictive validity of the California Family Risk Assessment (CFRA) was examined in Dutch families who received family support. In addition, the added value of a number of experimental items was examined. Finally, it was examined whether the predictive value of the instrument could be improved by modifying the scoring procedure. Dutch families who experienced parenting and/or child developmental problems and were referred by the Centres for Youth and Family for family support between July 2009 and March 2011 were included. This led to a sample of 491 families. The predictive validity of the CFRA and the added value of the experimental items were examined by calculating AUC values. A CHAID analysis was performed to examine whether the scoring procedure could be improved. About half of the individual CFRA items were not related to future reports of child maltreatment. The predictive validity of the CFRA in predicting future reports of child maltreatment was found to be modest (AUC = .693). The addition of some of the experimental items and the modification of the scoring procedure by including only items that were significantly associated with future maltreatment reports resulted in a 'high' predictive validity (AUC = .795). This new set of items might be a valuable instrument that also saves time because only variables that uniquely contribute to the prediction of future reports of child maltreatment are included. Furthermore, items that are perceived as difficult to assess by professionals, such as parental mental health problems or parents' history of abuse/neglect, could be omitted without compromising predictive validity. However, it is important to

  17. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  18. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  19. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  20. Improving the Sensitivity of the Language Sector of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glascoe, Frances P.; Borowitz, Kathleen C.

    1988-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and an expressive language measure were administered to 114 children (aged 24 to 74 months) suspected of developmental difficulties. The DDST did not identify the majority of children who failed the expressive language screening, even after cutoff scores were made more rigorous. (Author/JDD)

  1. Perspectives of Turkish Mothers on Having a Child with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavkaytar, Atilla; Batu, Sema; Cetin, Oya Beklan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the perspectives of Turkish mothers of their children with developmental disabilities. A descriptive study was conducted via collecting data using semi-structured interviews. 39 mothers of children with developmental disabilities who were enrolled in a university unit. The data analysis has shown…

  2. Parent-Completed Developmental Questionnaires: A Low-Cost Strategy for Child-Find and Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Jane

    1996-01-01

    The "Ages and Stages Questionnaires," a parent-completed developmental monitoring system, is described, and various strategies for using the system to identify young children with developmental delays are compared. Strategies include mail-out, home visit, on-site (completed by either parent with assistance from service provider),…

  3. The developmental test of visual perception-2 normative study on the visual-perceptual function for children in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Phoebe P P; Poon, Magdelene Y C; Leung, Macy; Wong, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    This research study intended to investigate the visualperceptual performance of children in Hong Kong by comparing them to the accepted norms on the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2nd edition. The research examined whether there was significant difference in child's gender, age, and grade. The normative study recruited two hundred and eight-nine children between the ages of 6 and 7 in normal primary schools in Hong Kong. Results indicated that there was a ceiling effect in eye-hand coordination, position in space and spatial relations subtests. Grade differences were found to be significant in all subtests except eye-hand coordination and visual-motor speed. On the other hand, there were no statistical difference in the test scores between boys and girls except on copying and figure-ground subtests. It is concluded that there is a strong need to ensure that norms for visual-perceptual tests are appropriate for the specific cultural groups being assessed.

  4. Developmental Models for Time of Testing x Cohort x Grade (Age) Research Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Delane

    Missing data for a given cohort of students in a longitudinal study occurs for at least two reasons: either the student has moved or otherwise become unavailable for testing, or the cohort was not in the testing range at a given testing time. A developmental sampling for time of testing x cohort x grade research plan of testing is used to…

  5. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mother-Child Attachment and Preschool Behavior Problems in Children with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMont, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Secure mother-child attachment has been found to be an important factor in the healthy emotional development of children and has been shown to have effects on child, adolescent, and adult behavior. Previous research has primarily focused on attachment in children who are typically developing. However, little research has been conducted in…

  7. Genetic Moderation of Early Child-Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and…

  8. The Future of Child Development Lab Schools: Applied Developmental Science in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Nancy, Ed.; McBride, Brent A., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Child development laboratory schools are found on college and university campuses throughout the U.S. Over the last century, they have acquired a long, rich history. Originally seen as settings for the new field of child study in the early 1900s, their functions have evolved over time. These programs often play a central role in supporting…

  9. Genetic Moderation of Early Child-Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and…

  10. Parent-child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Current Practices and Future Trends in Neuropathology Assessment for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuing education course on "Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing" (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and non-invasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neu...

  12. ADAPTING THE MEDAKA EMBRYO ASSAY TO A HIGH-THROUGHPUT APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro ...

  13. A Comment on the Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, James H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test an easily administered measure of four areas of infant and preschool development, was evaluated using an estimate of the base rate of mental retardation in the screening population. (Author/CL)

  14. ADAPTING THE MEDAKA EMBRYO ASSAY TO A HIGH-THROUGHPUT APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro ...

  15. Current Practices and Future Trends in Neuropathology Assessment for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuing education course on "Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing" (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and non-invasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neu...

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: A QUALIFICATIVE RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF POSITIVE CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline calls for both functional and neuropathological assessments in offspring during and following maternal exposure. This guideline also requires data from positive control (PC) agents. Submission of these data permit e...

  17. Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity: A History and Path Forward (OECD EFSA workshop)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental contaminants is well documented to adversely impact the development of the nervous system. However, the time, animal and resource intensive EPA and OECD testing guideline methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) are not a viable solution to characte...

  18. Test selection, adaptation, and evaluation: a systematic approach to assess nutritional influences on child development in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S; Ullman, Michael T; Shankar, Anuraj H; Alcock, Katherine J

    2010-03-01

    Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. We present several principles for the selection, adaptation, and evaluation of tests assessing the developmental outcomes of nutrition interventions in developing countries where standard assessment tests do not exist. We then report the application of these principles for a nutrition trial on the Indonesian island of Lombok. Three hundred children age 22-55 months in Lombok participated in a series of pilot tests for the purpose of test adaptation and evaluation. Four hundred and eighty-seven 42-month-old children in Lombok were tested on the finalized test battery. The developmental assessment tests were adapted to the local context and evaluated for a number of psychometric properties, including convergent and discriminant validity, which were measured based on multiple regression models with maternal education, depression, and age predicting each test score. The adapted tests demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties and the expected pattern of relationships with the three maternal variables. Maternal education significantly predicted all scores but one, maternal depression predicted socio-emotional competence, socio-emotional problems, and vocabulary, while maternal age predicted socio-emotional competence only. Following the methodological principles we present resulted in tests that were appropriate for children in Lombok and informative for evaluating the developmental outcomes of nutritional supplementation in the research context. Following this approach in future studies will help to determine which interventions most effectively improve child development in developing countries.

  19. The experiences and perspectives of Japanese substitute caregivers and maltreated children: a cultural-developmental approach to child welfare practice.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Sachiko

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the experiences and perspectives of child welfare workers and maltreated children living in Japanese state care. Japanese adults emphasize supporting children's emotional well-being and empowerment through developmentally and ecologically focused socialization strategies. One developmental goal articulated by caregivers of maltreated children has been for them to create their Ibasho--that is, a place where they feel peace, security, acceptance, and belonging. Adults support children's Ibasho creation, in part, through the socialization practice of mimamori--that is, watching over others as a protective figure. Through mimamori, adults may create an accepting and positive social-emotional context that provides children with opportunities for exploration, self-expression, and peer relationships, which are important for Ibasho creation. Understanding of how maltreated children secure their Ibasho and what facilitates their Ibasho creation can provide insights into possible protective factors that may be incorporated into caregivers' daily practice with maltreated children, therapeutic interventions, and innovation in child welfare services as a whole. Understanding of culturally embedded beliefs and practices that may support the resilience and well-being of maltreated children allows social workers to reflect and step outside of that which they take for granted to consider how differently they may serve maltreated children in their own society.

  20. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  1. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    PubMed

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  2. Utility of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Profile II in Identifying Preschool Children with Cognitive, Language, and Motor Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Michael L.

    1982-01-01

    Scores of 84 referred preschoolers on the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Profile II were compared with subsequent standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and language ability. Results suggested that both instruments are imperfect yet useful tools. (Author/CL)

  3. Predicting School Problems from Preschool Developmental Screening: A Four-Year Follow-Up of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Role of Parent Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1987-01-01

    The Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and parental reports of developmental concerns were compared for effectiveness in predicting school problems four years after a preschool screening program. Results suggested the test accurately identified only those children later found to have severe learning problems. (Author/DB)

  4. Does successful attainment of developmental tasks lead to happiness and success in later developmental tasks? A test of Havighurst's (1948) theses.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Gelhaar, Tim

    2008-02-01

    This study tested Havighurst's (1948) contention that successful attainment of age-specific developmental tasks leads to happiness and success in achieving subsequent tasks. A longitudinal study on 146 participants was carried out to investigate the links between developmental progression in adolescence and young adulthood and happiness, which was assessed by two indices: high self-esteem and low symptomatology. The importance individuals place on achieving normative developmental tasks and current developmental status was assessed six times during adolescence and young adulthood, self-esteem and symptomatology were assessed five times. Results revealed a shift in the time frames for accomplishing the stage-specific developmental tasks. Findings with respect to the interrelatedness and progressive attainment partially supported Havighurst's contentions. Although remarkable concurrent links between the two indices of happiness and developmental status were found, developmental outcomes were not predictive for later happiness.

  5. The metabolic evaluation of the child with an intellectual developmental disorder: diagnostic algorithm for identification of treatable causes and new digital resource.

    PubMed

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Shevell, Michael; Zschocke, Johannes; Moeschler, John B; Stockler, Sylvia

    2014-04-01

    Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD), characterized by significant impairment of cognitive functions, with limitations of learning, adaptive behavior and skills, are frequent (2.5% of the population affected) and present with significant co-morbidity. The burden of IDD, in terms of emotional suffering and associated health care costs, is significant; prevention and treatment therefore are important. A systematic literature review, updated in 2013, identified 89 inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), which present with IDD as prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. Therapeutic effects include improvement and/or stabilization of psychomotor/cognitive development, behavior/psychiatric disturbances, seizures, neurologic and systemic manifestations. The levels of available evidence for the various treatments range from Level 1b, c (n=5); Level 2a, b, c (n=14); Level 4 (n=53), and Levels 4-5 (n=27). For a target audience comprising clinical and biochemical geneticists, child neurologists and developmental pediatricians, five experts translated....this data into a 2-tiered diagnostic algorithm: The first tier comprises metabolic "screening" tests in urine and blood, which are relatively accessible, affordable, less invasive, and have the potential to identify 60% of all treatable IEMs. The second tier investigations for the remaining disorders are ordered based on individual clinical signs and symptoms. This algorithm is supported by an App www.treatable-id.org, which comprises up-to-date information on all 89 IEMs, relevant diagnostic tests, therapies and a search function based on signs and symptoms. These recommendations support the clinician in early identification of treatable IEMs in the child with IDD, allowing for timely initiation of therapy with the potential to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. The need for future studies to determine yield and usefulness of these recommendations, with subsequent updates and improvements to developments in

  6. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 572 RIN 2127-AJ49 Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child... specifications and qualification requirements for a Hybrid III 10-year- old size child test dummy (HIII-10C). In... Correlates 4. Repeatability in Systems Testing f. Dummy Development Efforts 1. Hybrid III Child Dummy...

  7. The Indian picture puzzle test - a developmental test designed and standardised for Indian children.

    PubMed

    Singhania, Rajeshree; Sonksen, Patricia

    2004-05-01

    To construct a test used by community pediatricians and other professionals in the UK as a screening test for verbal and non-verbal development in children aged 2 to 4 years of age. A multifaceted developmental test of cognitive skills was constructed, modeled on the Bus Puzde Test (Egan 1984) for its case of administration and appeal. Each stage in the design was piloted in Rajasthan in all socioeconomic groups. Stages include simple ethnic modification of the original test, development of more socioculturally appropriate scenes, a detailed statistical procedure of item analysis and reliability studies. The picture was converted into a wooden insert puzzle, called The Indan Picture Puzzle Test (IPPT) and standardized on a random sample of 616 children to construct the norms. The IPPT assesses aspects of early language, picture interpretation, performance skills and conceptual development in children aged 2 to 5 years. Analysis of the standardized data highlighted the need for separate norms for each socioeconomic group. Verbal abilities were significantly different between advantaged and disadvantaged (slum and rural) groups though performance skills were comparable.

  8. Genetic moderation of early child-care effects on social functioning across childhood: a developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and first grade-but not thereafter. Only children carrying the 7-repeat allele proved susceptible to quality-of-care effects. The behavior-problem interactions proved more consistent with diathesis-stress than differential-susceptibility thinking, whereas the reverse was true of the social-skills' results. Finally, the discerned Gene × Environment interactions did not account for previously reported parallel ones involving difficult temperament in infancy. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Japanese and Canadian Children's Beliefs about Child and Adult Knowledge: A Case for Developmental Equifinality?

    PubMed

    Fitneva, Stanka A; Pile Ho, Elizabeth; Hatayama, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult. In addition, parental and child beliefs were related in Japan but not in Canada. These findings indicate that children growing up in different cultures may take different paths in developing beliefs about age-related knowledge. Implications for theories of socio-cognitive development and learning are discussed.

  10. Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Naruyuki

    2011-11-01

    In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior.

  11. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  12. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  13. Incremental Validity of the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language and the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Predictive validity of the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language and the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration was investigated singly and in combination for a group of preschool children. The results indicated little practical significance in using both instruments as opposed to either test singly. (Author/CP)

  14. 25-KVA Amorphous Metal-Core Transformer Developmental Test Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    after the DROP TEST. Tests were also performed in the Dev. Lab . Results S/N P217061 S/N P265882 S/N P265885 1.Elect.* Factry Test Lab Test Factry Test...10 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS ........ ..................... .. 11 Phase I .......... ........................... . 11 Phase II...characteorist ics of tleo trins formers cilan1ged as a result , of the tests. * Pass/Fail Criteria: Thin transformers had to pass tile commercial

  15. Critical evaluation of current developmental toxicity testing strategies: a case of babies and their bathwater.

    PubMed

    Carney, Edward W; Ellis, Amy L; Tyl, Rochelle W; Foster, Paul M D; Scialli, Anthony R; Thompson, Kary; Kim, James

    2011-10-01

    This review is the second in a series of four papers emanating from a workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions," which was sponsored by the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee. The present review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of current developmental safety testing approaches in an effort to identify those strengths that should be retained in the future versus the weaknesses that should be eliminated. Workshop participants considered the following to be key strengths of current testing approaches: the integrated biology of pregnant animal models including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, the ability to detect low incidence malformations as well as maternally mediated toxicity, and the long history of use coupled with extensive historical data. A number of weaknesses were related to the resource-intensive nature of developmental toxicity testing (e.g., large number of animals, high costs, low throughput, the inability to keep pace with the demand for more toxicity data). Other weaknesses included the use of very high dose levels that often far exceed human exposure levels, the confounding influence of maternal toxicity, sparse understanding of basic developmental mechanisms and genetics of standard animal models relative to mouse or lower organisms, difficulties interpreting low incidence findings, and issues surrounding the interpretation of minor skeletal variations. An appreciation of these strengths and weaknesses is critical for the design of new approaches to developmental toxicity testing in the 21st century. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  17. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  18. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early years is to follow your child's development. Most parents also watch for different milestones. Talk ... child's provider if you have concerns about your child's development. Closely watching a "checklist" or calendar of developmental ...

  19. Stochastic parameterization testing with NOAA's developmental Global Ensemble Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamill, Thomas M.

    2017-04-01

    In the next few years, the US National Weather Service will be switching the production of its global ensemble forecast system (GEFS) from the current spectrally based dynamical core to a finite-volume dynamical core (FV3). A suite of stochastic parameterizations, some developed at other centres, have been developed for the spectral and then adapted for the FV3 dynamical core. The stochastic parameterizations include the SPPT scheme developed at ECMWF and a stochastically perturbed boundary-layer humidity scheme (SHUM) developed within NOAA. The stochastic parameterizations appear more active in the FV3 developmental system with the same parameter settings used in the spectral-based system, and probabilistic skill scores are competitive with or better than with the old spectral core. This talk will review the particular implementation of the stochastic parameterizations in FV3, compare probabilistic forecasts between the old and new system, and discuss the underlying reasons for greater activity of stochastic parameterizations in FV3.

  20. Developmental Levels and Suggested Learning Activities for the Visually Impaired Preschool Child. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Lois, Comp.

    The paper presents developmental charts detailing the needs and patterns of very young visually impaired children. Five age levels are considered (0-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-.25 years, 2.5-4 years, and 4-5 years) within the context of auditory awareness, body image, development of meaningful language, tactual awareness and manipulative skills,…

  1. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  2. Intellectual Disability and Developmental Risk: Promoting Intervention to Improve Child and Family Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crnic, Keith A.; Neece, Cameron L.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2017-01-01

    Initial intervention processes for children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) largely focused on direct efforts to impact core cognitive and academic deficits associated with the diagnosis. Recent research on risk processes in families of children with ID, however, has influenced new developmental system approaches to early intervention. Recent…

  3. Teaching Independent Eating to a Developmentally Handicapped Child Showing Chronic Food Refusal and Disruption at Mealtimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Judy; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A successful intervention to establish independent eating behaviors in a developmentally handicapped, autistic-like three-year-old involved teaching appropriate behavior in a hospital setting (where he was being treated for dehydration and malnutrition) and then teaching his mother to implement the strategies at home. Skills were maintained at…

  4. An Examination of the Relationship between a Child's Developmental Age and Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Christine E.; Senseny, Karlen

    2016-01-01

    American students typically attend kindergarten at the chronological age (CA) of five and currently with the implementation of Common Core State Standards, there are expectations that children learn how to read in order to meet these academic standards, despite whether or not they are developmentally ready. This mixed methods study examined age…

  5. Special Considerations for Special People: Estate Planning for Families with a Developmentally Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welber, Joel S.

    1984-01-01

    Existing patterns of deinstitutionalization and group home placements funded through Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and private supplemental trusts can provide the means for independent living for developmentally disabled adults. Yet, because of the propensity of probate courts to refrain from alteration of written documents evidencing the…

  6. The Course of Childhood Anxiety Symptoms: Developmental Trajectories and Child-Related Factors in Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R.

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a…

  7. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  8. Identification and Differential Diagnosis of Developmental Speech Problems in a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzivinikou, Sotiria

    2005-01-01

    The present, multi-method (methodological triangulation), case study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to obtain a differential diagnosis between the speech problems derived from bilingualism, and the developmental speech problems of an Albanian eight-year-old boy who attended a public primary school in Greece. Although there existed…

  9. Parent-Child Shared Time From Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  10. A rare case of unilateral postaxial duplicated foot in a developmentally normal child.

    PubMed

    Sahdi, Haniza; Hoong, Chan Wai; Rasit, Ahmad Hata; Arianto, Fredy; Siong, Lau Kiew; Abdullah, Nur Alyana Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Diplopodia, being a rare congenital disorder, is infrequently discussed in published texts. Most reported cases have accounted the involvement of duplicated preaxial digits with other associated organ system and physical deformities. Here, we present an unusual case of isolated diplopodia involving postaxial toes in a child with no other organ and physical abnormalities. Radiological studies revealed a set of 10-digit-duplicated foot over the lateral aspect of the native foot, complete with phalanges and its corresponding metatarsals as well as tarsals, supplied by an anomalous posterior branch of the popliteal artery. Definitive surgery was performed just before the child was learning to walk.

  11. Correcting for prematurity affects developmental test scores in infants born late and moderately preterm.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Shalin A; Boyle, Elaine M; Guy, Alexa; Blaggan, Samarita; Manktelow, Bradley N; Wolke, Dieter; Johnson, Samantha

    2016-03-01

    Corrected age is typically applied when assessing the development of children born <32 weeks of gestation. There is no consensus as to whether corrected age should be applied when assessing children born late/moderately preterm (LMPT; 32-36 weeks of gestation). This study explored the impact of corrected age on developmental test scores in infants born LMPT. 221 LMPT infants were assessed at two years corrected age using the Bayley-III cognitive and language scales, from which cognitive and language composite scores were derived (Normative Mean 100; SD 15). Assessments were then re-scored using chronological age. Bayley-III composite scores <80 were used to define developmental delay. Paired sample t-tests were used to assess the difference in mean test scores derived using corrected versus chronological age, and McNemar's tests to assess the difference in the proportion of infants with developmental delay using corrected versus chronological age. Mean corrected age scores were significantly higher than chronological age scores (cognitive: 2.1 points; 95% CI 1.6, 2.5; language 2.5; 95% CI 2.1, 2.8). Overall, significantly more LMPT infants were classified with developmental delay when chronological (18.3%) versus corrected (15.0%) age was used (p=0.016). Correcting for prematurity results in significantly higher developmental test scores and a significantly lower prevalence of developmental delay in LMPT infants and may affect eligibility for intervention services. Researchers and clinicians should be aware that the use of corrected age may impact on developmental test scores at both an individual and population level among infants born LMPT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

  13. Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

  14. Testing a Series of Causal Propositions Relating Time in Child Care to Children's Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Kathleen; Burchinal, Margaret; Clarke-Stewart, Aliso; Bub, Kristen L.; Owen, Margaret T.; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has documented associations between hours in child care and children's externalizing behavior. A series of longitudinal analyses were conducted to address 5 propositions, each testing the hypothesis that child care hours causes externalizing behavior. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child…

  15. Parent-Child Socialization in Diverse Cultures. Annual Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Carter, D. Bruce, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the role of culture in the functioning of families and the socialization of children. Following an introduction by Irving Sigel, the 15 essays are: (1) "Parent-Child Interactions in Urban Indian Families in New Delhi: Are They Changing?" (Jaipaul Roopnarine and Ziarat Hossain); (2) "Chinese…

  16. A Project to Help Child Development Students Recognize Piagetian Developmental Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husmann, Ann

    This practicum report was designed to help child development students differentiate between the preoperational and concrete operational stages of the Piagetian cognitive hierarchy. The 36 on-campus and 63 instructional television students used a Piagetian Game booklet, which is included in the appendix. Using this booklet, students were able to…

  17. Trauma Adapted Family Connections: Reducing Developmental and Complex Trauma Symptomatology to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn S.; Strieder, Frederick H.; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela A.; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and…

  18. Developmental Asynchrony in the Acquisition of Subject Properties in Child L2 English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pladevall-Ballester, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Given that L1A of subject properties in non-null subject languages emerges later than that of null subject languages, this study aims at determining to what extent the same pattern of acquisition is observed in early child L2A in bilingual immersion settings where English and Spanish are both source and target languages. Using an elicited oral…

  19. Developmental Asynchrony in the Acquisition of Subject Properties in Child L2 English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pladevall-Ballester, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Given that L1A of subject properties in non-null subject languages emerges later than that of null subject languages, this study aims at determining to what extent the same pattern of acquisition is observed in early child L2A in bilingual immersion settings where English and Spanish are both source and target languages. Using an elicited oral…

  20. Observing Purchase-Related Parent-Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N = 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence…

  1. What Happened to My Child? Unknown Causes of Developmental Disability and Research in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    At one time or the other, virtually every parent has gone to the doctor concerned about his or her child. Thanks to the advances of modern medicine, the doctor can diagnose the problem most of the time and treat it successfully. Many potential problems, some life-threatening like diphtheria and neural tube defects, can even be prevented altogether…

  2. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions (β = −0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS. PMID:24191247

  3. What Happened to My Child? Unknown Causes of Developmental Disability and Research in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    At one time or the other, virtually every parent has gone to the doctor concerned about his or her child. Thanks to the advances of modern medicine, the doctor can diagnose the problem most of the time and treat it successfully. Many potential problems, some life-threatening like diphtheria and neural tube defects, can even be prevented altogether…

  4. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  5. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories.

  6. What Science Is Telling Us: How Neurobiology and Developmental Psychology Are Changing the Way Policymakers and Communities Think about the Developing Child. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dorian

    2006-01-01

    By bringing together neurologists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, and economists, the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child offers a unique knowledge base from which early childhood policy and practice can be informed. By communicating how and why early experiences have a lasting impact on brain architecture--and what…

  7. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for…

  8. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  9. Predicting Mental Health among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Relative Contribution of Child, Maternal and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F.; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Many mothers of children with developmental disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress, and compromised mental health. Research is crucial to better understand and assist mothers with compromised mental health, and ultimately better service families raising and supporting a child with a disability. Method: Data were collected…

  10. Development of a Screening Scale for High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo; Tachimori, Hisateru; Saito, Mari; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compile a screening scale for high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS). The 72 participants (IQ greater than or equal to 70) were divided into 3 groups after IQ matching depending on their diagnoses: i.e., PDD,…

  11. Socialization and the Child Rearing Practice. [Proceedings from the] Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (4th, Debrecen, Hungary, October 4-6, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar-Kadar, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following…

  12. Predicting Mental Health among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Relative Contribution of Child, Maternal and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F.; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Many mothers of children with developmental disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress, and compromised mental health. Research is crucial to better understand and assist mothers with compromised mental health, and ultimately better service families raising and supporting a child with a disability. Method: Data were collected…

  13. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  14. Socialization and the Child Rearing Practice. [Proceedings from the] Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (4th, Debrecen, Hungary, October 4-6, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar-Kadar, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following…

  15. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for…

  16. A developmental approach to the risk of a first recurrence in child protective services.

    PubMed

    Hélie, Sonia; Laurier, Catherine; Pineau-Villeneuve, Catherine; Royer, Marie-Noële

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of a first recurrence over a five-year period following initial child protective services (CPS) intervention and identify the characteristics associated with the risk of recurrence for three different age groups. Recurrence is defined as the first substantiated report within the observation period after initial services have ended. The study involved a cohort of 25,897 Quebec children who received postinvestigation services for the first time and whose cases were closed between 2005 and 2009. Survival analysis was used to estimate the five-year risk of recurrence and Cox regression to model the risk of recurrence for three age groups. The covariates introduced into the regression analyses were characteristics of the child and initial services. The risk of recurrence in the five years following termination of initial CPS services was 36% for the entire cohort and varied depending on the child's age at the time of case closure. Children aged 6-11 when their cases were closed had the highest risk of recurrence. Although Aboriginal descent and prior CPS investigations have a consistent effect on the risk of recurrence in all three age groups, the effects of other covariates, such as out-of-home placement and court involvement, vary or are even reversed, depending on the child's age. These findings highlight the need to adopt a differential approach that takes into account the child's age, both in the provision of protective services and in research involving the population receiving such services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Race Differences on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, the Slosson Intelligence Test, and the ABC Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Douglas L.; Anderson, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes preschoolers' scores on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI), the Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT), and the ABC Inventory (ABCI). Separate ANOVAs reveal no race effect on the VMI. Race differences favoring Whites are found for SIT and ABCI. There were no effects for sex on any measure. (Author)

  18. Race Differences on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, the Slosson Intelligence Test, and the ABC Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Douglas L.; Anderson, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes preschoolers' scores on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI), the Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT), and the ABC Inventory (ABCI). Separate ANOVAs reveal no race effect on the VMI. Race differences favoring Whites are found for SIT and ABCI. There were no effects for sex on any measure. (Author)

  19. The course of childhood anxiety symptoms: developmental trajectories and child-related factors in normal children.

    PubMed

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a community sample of 224 children aged 4 to 11 years repeatedly completed a standardized questionnaire of anxiety symptoms during a 2-year period. At Time 1, parents also filled out scales for measuring children's level of behavioral inhibition (BI), internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and prosocial behaviors, while an interview was conducted with children to assess Theory-of-Mind (TOM) ability. Growth Mixture Modeling identified multiple developmental trajectories in childhood anxiety symptoms of which the 'stable-low' or 'stable-medium' reflected the normative trajectories. Further, multinomial regression analyses indicated that the higher developmental trajectories of anxiety were associated with higher levels of BI and internalizing symptoms at Time 1. In sum, results show heterogeneity in the development of anxiety symptoms and underline the importance of early prevention programs for children at high risk for developing an anxiety disorder.

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder Using Different Motor Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the consistency between the findings of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as identified by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and explored the psychosocial and attention characteristics of children with DCD identified by the two motor tests,…

  1. The Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test as a Language Screening Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Jennifer; Bernthal, John

    1996-01-01

    The validity of using the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) was investigated by testing 199 preschool children (ages 3-4) and reviewing the results 6 months later. Results indicated that the RDDST was an efficient prognostic tool in predicting formal assessment results for children at risk for language impairments. (CR)

  2. Effectiveness of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test in Identifying Children at Risk for Learning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1990-01-01

    Findings from a 5-year follow-up study of 78 kindergartners suggest that while the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) accurately predicts academic achievement and standardized test performance, it consistently misclassifies as normal the performance of a significant number of children who require special help in their early…

  3. Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and Revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Barbara B.; Knopf, Karen F.

    1982-01-01

    Using children with learning disabilities and children enrolled in regular classrooms, test scores on the Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration indicated high and significant correlations for the learning-disabled group and low but significant correlations for regular students. A nine-month mean difference in scores…

  4. Psychosocial Adjustment and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder Using Different Motor Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the consistency between the findings of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as identified by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and explored the psychosocial and attention characteristics of children with DCD identified by the two motor tests,…

  5. The Effects of Developmental Placement and Early Retention on Children's Later Scores on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early school retention as a result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and children's later academic achievement (N=223). Results showed children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures. (JAC)

  6. Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and Revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Barbara B.; Knopf, Karen F.

    1982-01-01

    Using children with learning disabilities and children enrolled in regular classrooms, test scores on the Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration indicated high and significant correlations for the learning-disabled group and low but significant correlations for regular students. A nine-month mean difference in scores…

  7. Preschool Preposition Test: Developmental Screening for Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May; And Others

    As a preschool screening instrument, the Preschool Preposition Test (PPT) can play an important role in the early identification of cognitive delay. PPT scores increase appropriately with chronological age. Cognitive data demonstrate impressive correlations with recognized intelligence tests (the Stanford-Binet and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary…

  8. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  9. Cognitive rehabilitation in a child with Joubert Syndrome: Developmental trends and adaptive changes in a single case report.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Chiara; Brenna, Viola; Romaniello, Romina; Arrigoni, Filippo; Tavano, Alessandro; Romani, Marta; Valente, Enza Maria; Borgatti, Renato

    2015-12-01

    We report the clinical and rehabilitative follow up of M, a female child carrying a compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations in the TCTN1 gene and affected by Joubert Syndrome (JS). JS is a congenital cerebellar ataxia characterized by "the molar tooth sign" on axial MRI, a pathognomonic neuroradiological malformation involving the cerebellum and brainstem. JS presents with high phenotypic/cognitive variability, and little is known about cognitive rehabilitation programs. We describe the therapeutic settings, intensive rehabilitation targets and outcome indexes in M's cognitive development. Using a single case evidence-based approach, we attempt to distinguish the effectiveness of the intervention from the overall developmental trend. We assume that an adequate amount of focused, goal directed treatment in a relative short period of time can be at least as effective as one provided in longer time, and much less interfering with the child's everyday life. We conclude by discussing specific issues in cognitive development and rehabilitation in JS and, more broadly, in cerebellar malformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism and other developmental disabilities: associations with ethnicity, child comorbid symptoms, and parental stress.

    PubMed

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Burrows, Bethany; Bernstein, Leora; Hottinger, Kathryn; Lawson, Katharine; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2014-03-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine by children with autism and the association of its use with child comorbid symptoms and parental stress was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interviews. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. In this ethnically diverse sample, the use of complementary and alternative medicine was significantly higher for the autism group. In the autism group, use was significantly related to child's irritability, hyperactivity, food allergies, and parental stress; in the developmental disabilities group, there was no association with child comorbid symptoms or parental stress. The results contribute information to health care providers about families of children with autism who are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine.

  11. Trauma adapted family connections: reducing developmental and complex trauma symptomatology to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kathryn S; Strieder, Frederick H; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Freeman, Pamela A Clarkson; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and prevent child abuse and neglect. Trauma Adapted Family Connections (TA-FC) is a manualized trauma-focused practice rooted in the principles of Family Connections (FC), an evidence supported preventive intervention developed to address the glaring gap in services for this specific, growing, and underserved population. This paper describes the science based development of TA-FC, its phases and essential components, which are based on theories of attachment, neglect, trauma, and family interaction within a comprehensive community-based family focused intervention framework.

  12. Genetic Moderation of Early Child Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and first grade—but not thereafter. Only children carrying the 7-repeat allele proved susceptible to quality-of-care effects. The behavior-problem interactions proved more consistent with diathesis-stress than differential-susceptibility thinking, whereas the reverse was true of the social-skills' results. Finally, the discerned gene-X-environment interactions did not account for previously reported parallel ones involving difficult temperament in infancy. PMID:23432522

  13. Child eating patterns and weight regulation: a developmental behaviour genetics framework.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Faith, Myles S

    2007-04-01

    There is relatively limited knowledge about the development of child eating patterns and how they may contribute to excess weight gain in early life. Particularly scarce are genetically informative studies that addressed environmental and genetic influences which can be challenging to disentangle. A review of this literature can help identify ongoing themes in the field and may stimulate new ideas for future research. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview about how select environmental factors (e.g. the portion size of foods) and parental feeding practices (e.g. dietary restriction) can affect children's eating behaviour and weight status. The second part of the review explains in more detail the types of studies that can be employed to assess genetic influences (e.g. heritability estimates) on child food intake and body weight and composition. The review closes with suggestions for future research emphasizing the importance of collaborations among investigators from different disciplines to further elucidate gene-environment interactions in the domains of child eating behaviour and obesity.

  14. Child Maltreatment and Adult Cigarette Smoking: A Long-term Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine: (a) child maltreatment’s association with young adult daily cigarette smoking, (b) variations in this association by gender, and (c) mediators of this association. Methods For all study participants (N = 1,125, 94% African American), data from multiple sources (e.g., child welfare records) were collected prospectively at child, adolescent, and young adult time points. Authors enlisted multivariate probit regression for objectives a and b versus exploratory and confirmatory mediation strategies for objective c. Results Maltreatment was significantly associated with daily cigarette smoking. Although not moderated by gender, this relation was fully mediated by adolescent indicators of family support/stability, social adjustment, and cognitive/school performance along with young adult indicators of educational attainment, life satisfaction, substance abuse, and criminality. Conclusions Maltreatment places low-income, minority children at risk for daily cigarette smoking and other deleterious young adult health outcomes. Recommended treatment targets include family support/stability, emotion regulation, social skills, and cognitive/academic functioning. PMID:19995869

  15. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  16. A comparison of the korean-ages and stages questionnaires and denver developmental delay screening test.

    PubMed

    Ga, Hyo-Yun; Kwon, Jeong Yi

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate concurrent validity between the Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaires (K-ASQ) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST II), and to evaluate the validity of the K-ASQ as a screening tool for detecting developmental delay of Korean children. A retrospective chart review was done to examine concurrent validity of the screening potentials for developmental delay between the K-ASQ and the DDST II (n=226). We examined validity of the K-ASQ compared with Capute scale (n=141) and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=69) as a gold standard of developmental delay. Correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between tests. A fair to good strength relationship (k=0.442, p<0.05) was found between the K-ASQ and the DDST II. The test characteristics of the K-ASQ were sensitivity 76.3-90.2%, specificity 62.5-76.5%, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 2.41-3.40, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.16-0.32. Evidence of concurrent validity of the K-ASQ with DDST II was found. K-ASQ can be used for screening of developmental delay.

  17. The child is father to the man: developmental roles for proteins of importance for neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Danny; Schor, Nina F

    2010-02-01

    Although Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases predominately affect elderly adults, the proteins that play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases are expressed throughout life. In fact, many of the proteins hypothesized to be important in the progression of neurodegeneration play direct or indirect roles in the development of the central nervous system. The systems affected by these proteins include neural stem cell fate decisions, neuronal differentiation, cellular migration, protection from oxidative stress, and programmed cell death. Insights into the developmental roles of these proteins may ultimately impact the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases and lead to the discovery of novel treatments.

  18. Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    LYNNE-LANDSMAN, SARAH D.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes. PMID:20883591

  19. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, while a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Further, developmental considerations have received scant attention. In this paper, we test a developmentally-based 4-dimension model of disruptive behavior theorized to represent the defining features of disruptive behavior at preschool age: Temper Loss, Noncompliance, Aggression, and Low Concern for Others. Method Model testing was conducted in two independent samples of preschoolers: Clinically-Enriched (N=336) and Epidemiologic (N=532). Tau-equivalent confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the fit of the Developmental Model relative to 3 leading competing models (DSM ODD/CD Model, “Callous” Model and an “Irritable/Headstrong/Hurtful” Model). Reliability of the 4 dimensions was also tested. Validity of the dimensions was tested by predicting multi-informant, multi-method ratings of disruptive behavior and impairment, and incremental utility relative to DSM symptoms. Results In both samples, the Developmental Model demonstrated a superior fit compared to the competing models within the full sample, and across key demographic sub-groups. Validity was also demonstrated, including incremental utility relative to DSM-IV disruptive behavior symptoms. Conclusions Critical next steps for achieving scientific consensus about the optimal dimensional model of disruptive behavior and its clinical application are discussed. PMID:22632619

  20. Denver Developmental Test Findings and their Relationship with Sociodemographic Variables in a Large Community Sample of 0-4-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Çelikkiran, Seyhan; Bozkurt, Hasan; Coşkun, Murat

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of developmental problems and relationship with sociodemographic variables in a community sample of young children. Participants included 1000 children (558 males, 442 females, age range 1-48 months, mean 18.4 months, SD 7.8 months). Children were referred generally by their parents for developmental evaluation and consultation in response to a public announcement in a district area in Istanbul, Turkey. An interview form and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST) were used for sociodemographic data and developmental evaluation. The χ(2) test and Pearson's correlation test were used for data analysis. Seven hundred forty-one out of 1000 children (74.1%) had normal, 140 (14%) had risky, and 119 (11.9%) had abnormal findings on the DDST results. The probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results was significantly higher in males (p=0.003), the 2-4-year-old group (p<0.05), families with more than one child (p=0.001), consanguineous marriages (p<0.01), low parental educational levels and low household income (p<0.01), and in children without a history of breastfeeding (p=0.000). Immigration status and delivery mode did not have a significant effect on the probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results (p>0.05). Sociodemographic factors have a noteworthy impact on development. Determining these factors is important especially during the first years of life.

  1. Atmospheric Characterization During Super-Resolution Vision System Developmental Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    scenes as the SRVS during testing. The ARL EOVAF range is located on the eastern border of WSMR proper, at the foot of the Jarilla mountains in the...dimensions of K2 m−2/3. 5. Data Plots In this section the various data sets collected are plotted. We first consider the data from the two scintillometers

  2. The embryonic stem cell test combined with toxicogenomics as an alternative testing model for the assessment of developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    van Dartel, Dorien A M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-09-01

    One of the most studied in vitro alternative testing methods for identification of developmental toxicity is the embryonic stem cell test (EST). Although the EST has been formally validated, the applicability domain as well as the predictability of the model needs further study to allow successful implementation of the EST as an alternative testing method in regulatory toxicity testing. Genomics technologies have already provided a proof of principle of their value in identification of toxicants such as carcinogenic compounds. Also within the EST, gene expression profiling has shown its value in the identification of developmental toxicity and in the evaluation of factors critical for risk assessment, such as dose and time responses. It is expected that the implementation of genomics into the EST will provide a more detailed end point evaluation as compared to the classical morphological scoring of differentiation cultures. Therefore, genomics may contribute to improvement of the EST, both in terms of definition of its applicability domain as well as its predictive capacity. In the present review, we present the progress that has been made with regard to the prediction of developmental toxicity using the EST combined with transcriptomics. Furthermore, we discuss the developments of additional aspects required for further optimization of the EST, including kinetics, the use of human embryonic stem cells (ESC) and computational toxicology. Finally, the current and future use of the EST model for prediction of developmental toxicity in testing strategies and in regulatory toxicity evaluations is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental changes in attention tests norms: implications for the structure of attention.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Eli; Blachstein, Haya; Sheinman, Masha; Greenstein, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of attention is a key issue in the study of neuropsychological development. In this study we collected Hebrew norms for four frequently used attention tests (Trail Making, Digit-Symbol, Digit Span, and Digit Cancellation), analyzed the developmental sensitivity of each test and traced changes in attention across ages. The tests were administered to 809 boys and girls ranging in age from 8 to 17, divided into 10 age cohorts. The results indicate that, although all tests showed age effects, Digit-Symbol and Digit Cancellation tests were most developmentally sensitive. Another interesting finding was that younger age groups (8-11) are more dissociable by attention tests than older age groups (12-17), indicating that changes in attention are more pronounced in the early years and stabilize in later years.

  4. The usefulness of the Denver Developmental Screening Test to predict kindergarten problems in a general community population.

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, D; Chambers, L W; Walter, S D; Feldman, W; Smith, K; Ferguson, R

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) was administered to 2,569 children five to seven months prior to starting kindergarten in September 1980 in a geographically well-defined community. The test was administered by trained public health nurses. At the end of the 1980-1981 school year, all 163 kindergarten teachers in the area completed a rating form for each child in their class. The rating form determined global ratings of: 1) learning abilities; 2) classroom behavior; 3) amount of special attention required; and 4) referrals to special education services outside the classroom. The specificity of the DDST in predicting kindergarten teacher ratings was 99 per cent for all areas. Test sensitivity varied from 5 per cent to 10 per cent in detecting problems in the four areas. The predictive values of an positive test varied from 31 per cent for behavior problems to 62 per cent for extra attention required in the classroom. Negative test predictive values varied from 79 per cent to 93 per cent. These results based on kindergarten teacher ratings suggest that, because of the low sensitivity and modest predictive value, the DDST may be relatively inefficient to use in a school entry screening program in a general community population of children. PMID:6206733

  5. Comparison of Griffiths-II and Bayley-II tests for the developmental assessment of high-risk infants.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Ilaria; Bickle Graz, Myriam; Tolsa, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Two important risk factors for abnormal neurodevelopment are preterm birth and neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The new revisions of Griffiths Mental Development Scale (Griffiths-II, [1996]) and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II, [1993]) are two of the most frequently used developmental diagnostics tests. The Griffiths-II is divided into five subscales and a global development quotient (QD), and the BSID-II is divided into two scales, the Mental scale (MDI) and the Psychomotor scale (PDI). The main objective of this research was to establish the extent to which developmental diagnoses obtained using the new revisions of these two tests are comparable for a given child. Retrospective study of 18-months-old high-risk children examined with both tests in the follow-up Unit of the Clinic of Neonatology of our tertiary care university Hospital between 2011 and 2012. To determine the concurrent validity of the two tests paired t-tests and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were computed. Using the BSID-II as a gold standard, the performance of the Griffiths-II was analyzed with receiver operating curves. 61 patients (80.3% preterm, 14.7% neonatal asphyxia) were examined. For the BSID-II the MDI mean was 96.21 (range 67-133) and the PDI mean was 87.72 (range 49-114). For the Griffiths-II, the QD mean was 96.95 (range 60-124), the locomotors subscale mean was 92.57 (range 49-119). The score of the Griffiths locomotors subscale was significantly higher than the PDI (p<0.001). Between the Griffiths-II QD and the BSID-II MDI no significant difference was found, and the area under the curve was 0.93, showing good validity. All correlations were high and significant with a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient >0.8. The meaning of the results for a given child was the same for the two tests. Two scores were interchangeable, the Griffiths-II QD and the BSID-II MDI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition (DTVP-3): A Review, Critique, and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    The "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition" (DTVP-3) is a recent revision of the "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Second Edition" (DTVP-2). The DTVP-3 is designed to assess the visual perceptual and/or visual-motor integration skills of children from 4 to 12 years of age. The test is standardized using…

  7. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition (DTVP-3): A Review, Critique, and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    The "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition" (DTVP-3) is a recent revision of the "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Second Edition" (DTVP-2). The DTVP-3 is designed to assess the visual perceptual and/or visual-motor integration skills of children from 4 to 12 years of age. The test is standardized using…

  8. Genetic testing in patients with global developmental delay / intellectual disabilities. A review.

    PubMed

    Miclea, Diana; Peca, Loredana; Cuzmici, Zina; Pop, Ioan Victor

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors are responsible for up to 40% developmental disability cases, such as global developmental delay/intellectual disability (GDD/DI). The American and more recently the European guidelines on this group of diseases state that genetic testing is essential and should become a standardized diagnostic practice. The main arguments for the necessity of implementing such a practice are: (1) the high prevalence of developmental disabilities (3% of the population); (2) the high genetic contribution to this type of pathology; (3) insufficient referral for genetic consultation. In an attempt to address these issues, the purpose of this paper is to present the genetic etiology of global developmental delay / intellectual disability with emphasis on the need to implement a genetic testing protocol for the patients with GDD/DI, as indicated by the current guidelines. Chromosomal abnormalities and fragile X syndrome are the most frequent causes of developmental disabilities and the techniques employed to detect such genetic disorders should be used as first line investigations of GDD/DI.

  9. Genetic testing in patients with global developmental delay / intellectual disabilities. A review

    PubMed Central

    MICLEA, DIANA; PECA, LOREDANA; CUZMICI, ZINA; POP, IOAN VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors are responsible for up to 40% developmental disability cases, such as global developmental delay/intellectual disability (GDD/DI). The American and more recently the European guidelines on this group of diseases state that genetic testing is essential and should become a standardized diagnostic practice. The main arguments for the necessity of implementing such a practice are: (1) the high prevalence of developmental disabilities (3% of the population); (2) the high genetic contribution to this type of pathology; (3) insufficient referral for genetic consultation. In an attempt to address these issues, the purpose of this paper is to present the genetic etiology of global developmental delay / intellectual disability with emphasis on the need to implement a genetic testing protocol for the patients with GDD/DI, as indicated by the current guidelines. Chromosomal abnormalities and fragile X syndrome are the most frequent causes of developmental disabilities and the techniques employed to detect such genetic disorders should be used as first line investigations of GDD/DI. PMID:26609258

  10. A continuous-scale measure of child development for population-based epidemiological surveys: a preliminary study using Item Response Theory for the Denver Test.

    PubMed

    Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Marshall, Tom; de Carvalho Leite, José Carlos

    2007-03-01

    A method for translating research data from the Denver Test into individual scores of developmental status measured in a continuous scale is presented. It was devised using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) but can be used for Denver II. The DDST was applied in a community-based survey of 3389 under-5-year-olds in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The items of success were standardised by logistic regression on log chronological age. Each child's ability age was then estimated by maximum likelihood as the age in this reference population corresponding to the child's success and failures in the test. The score of developmental status is the natural logarithm of this ability age divided by chronological age and thus measures the delay or advance in the child's ability age compared with chronological age. This method estimates development status using both difficulty and discriminating power of each item in the reference population, an advantage over scores based on total number of items correctly performed or failed, which depend on difficulty only. The score corresponds with maternal opinion of child developmental status and with the 3-category scale of the DDST. It shows good construct validity, indicated by symmetrical and homogeneous variability from 3 months upwards, and reasonable results in describing gender differences in development by age, the mean score increasing with socio-economic conditions and diminishing among low-birthweight children. If a standardised measure of development status (z-scores) is required, this can be obtained by dividing the score by its standard deviation. Concurrent and discriminant validity of the score must be examined in further studies.

  11. Collaborative office rounds: continuing education in the psychosocial/developmental aspects of child health.

    PubMed

    Fishman, M E; Kessel, W; Heppel, D E; Brannon, M E; Papai, J J; Bryn, S D; Nora, A H; Hutchins, V L

    1997-04-01

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on the mental health aspects of primary health care for children and adolescents. The Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau has contributed to efforts aimed at strengthening primary care not only in early identification and beginning intervention with mental disorders, but also in prevention of emotional and behavioral problems and in promotion of positive psychosocial development. The Collaborative Office Rounds (COR) Program is a noteworthy part of these efforts. The COR program supports small discussion groups that meet at regular intervals over sustained periods of time to address the mental health aspects of pediatric care. The groups are jointly led by pediatricians and child psychiatrists. Although they vary in a number of ways, all are concerned with the day-to-day psychosocial issues that confront primary care providers serving children, adolescents, and their families. COR groups have addressed a wide range of areas including numerous problems and disorders, health supervision issues, family and community topics, personal challenges and practical complexities, and clinical management issues. Evaluation information indicates a positive response on the part of participants and moderators. This is reflected in group stability, high attendance rates, universal readiness to recommend the COR experience, and a variety of collateral accomplishments. Experience to date points to the COR group as a useful tool for addressing psychosocial issues in primary care. Its potential may be more fully realized by applying this approach more widely, even as further assessment is pursued.

  12. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: Evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O’Bleness, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about mechanisms of their impact. We examined early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children’s affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in Family Study and maternal responsiveness in Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps that led children to believe they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationship moderated the future developmental trajectory: Children’s attenuated tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in Family Study indicated that the links between low tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by parental stronger discipline pressure. By influencing indirectly future developmental sequelae, early relationship may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes. PMID:24280347

  13. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  14. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27668289

  15. Program Director Survey: Attitudes Regarding Child Neurology Training and Testing.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Ignacio; Feist, Terri B; Gilbert, Donald L

    2016-04-01

    As a result of major clinical and scientific advances and changes in clinical practice, the role of adult neurology training for Child Neurology and Neurodevelopmental Disability (NDD) certification has become controversial. The most recently approved requirements for board eligibility for child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residents still include 12 months in adult neurology rotations. The objective of this study was to assess United States child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residency program directors' opinions regarding optimal residency training. The authors developed an 18-item questionnaire and contacted all 80 child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability program directors via e-mail, using SurveyMonkey. A total of 44 program directors responded (55%), representing programs that train 78 categorical and 94 total resident positions, approximately 70% of those filled in the match. Respondents identified multiple areas where child neurology residents need more training, including genetics and neuromuscular disease. A substantial majority (73%) believed child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability residents need less than 12 adult neurology training months; however, most (75%) also believed adult hospital service and man-power needs (55%) and finances (34%) would pose barriers to reducing adult neurology. Most (70%) believed reductions in adult neurology training should be program flexible. A majority believed the written initial certification examination should be modified with more child neurology and fewer basic neuroscience questions. Nearly all (91%) felt the views of child neurology and neurodevelopmental disability program directors are under-represented within the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Residency Review Committee. The requirement for 12 adult neurology months for Child Neurology and Neurodevelopmental Disability certification is not consistent with the views of the majority of program

  16. A Test of Motor (Not Executive) Planning in Developmental Coordination Disorder and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swieten, Lisa M.; van Bergen, Elsje; Williams, Justin H. G.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Plumb, Mandy S.; Kent, Samuel W.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between "motor" and "executive" planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or anticlockwise.…

  17. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

  18. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received…

  19. Optimization of high-throughput nanomaterial developmental toxicity testing in zebrafish embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterial (NM) developmental toxicities are largely unknown. With an extensive variety of NMs available, high-throughput screening methods may be of value for initial characterization of potential hazard. We optimized a zebrafish embryo test as an in vivo high-throughput assay...

  20. Rasch Analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) ages 4-12 years using the dichotomous Rasch model. The VMI was administered individually to 454 children with ID. Rasch analysis was applied to investigate…

  1. The Use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration as a Group Screening Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1977-01-01

    This article investigates teacher use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as a screening instrument with groups of young school-age children. Findings argue for some refinement in the scoring system in order to improve consistency in scoring. (Author)

  2. The Use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration as a Group Screening Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1977-01-01

    This article investigates teacher use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as a screening instrument with groups of young school-age children. Findings argue for some refinement in the scoring system in order to improve consistency in scoring. (Author)

  3. Rasch Analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) ages 4-12 years using the dichotomous Rasch model. The VMI was administered individually to 454 children with ID. Rasch analysis was applied to investigate…

  4. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  5. Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test on Infants from Yucatan, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomons, Hope C.

    1982-01-01

    Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) on 288 babies raning in age from two to 54 weeks in Yucatan, Mexico, yielded such findings as that subtest scores increased with age, and that the DDST failed to identify a "questionable" 16 or 17 babies with borderline scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. (Author/MC)

  6. MOTOR ACTIVITY IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for a battery of functional and neuropathological assessments in offspring during and following maternal exposure. The battery includes measurement of motor activity on post-natal days (PND) ...

  7. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received…

  8. STATISTICAL APPROACH TO BRAIN MORPHOMETRY DATA REQUIRED IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY (DNT) TESTING GUIDELINES: PROFILE ANALYSIS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain morphometry measurements are required in test guidelines proposed by the USEPA to screen chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. Because the DNT is a screening battery, the analysis of this data should be sensitive to dose-related changes in the pattern of brain growt...

  9. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  10. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

  11. A Test of Motor (Not Executive) Planning in Developmental Coordination Disorder and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swieten, Lisa M.; van Bergen, Elsje; Williams, Justin H. G.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Plumb, Mandy S.; Kent, Samuel W.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between "motor" and "executive" planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or anticlockwise.…

  12. Optimization of high-throughput nanomaterial developmental toxicity testing in zebrafish embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterial (NM) developmental toxicities are largely unknown. With an extensive variety of NMs available, high-throughput screening methods may be of value for initial characterization of potential hazard. We optimized a zebrafish embryo test as an in vivo high-throughput assay...

  13. Mapping the developmental pathways of child conduct problems through the neurobiology of empathy.

    PubMed

    Moul, Caroline; Hawes, David J; Dadds, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    The notion that antisocial behavior reflects failures of empathy has a long history in the clinical literature, yet only recently has evidence emerged to support neuroscientific accounts of empathy and the development of child conduct problems. Much of this evidence has come from research into callous-unemotional traits, which correspond to the affective component of psychopathy and therefore encompass deficits in empathy within a broader cluster of emotional impairments. In this review we integrate current evidence concerning the biobehavioral bases of empathy and callous-unemotional traits, and discuss how it may inform models of heterogeneous subgroups of individuals with early onset conduct problems. We argue that somewhat distinct failures of empathy map onto distinct risk pathways to early onset conduct problems, and that these pathways may be best understood by examining empathy in terms of cognitive and environmental prerequisites and the various neurochemical systems implicated therein.

  14. Testing multicultural robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a national epidemiological sample in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-08-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a national epidemiological survey in Uruguay. Participants were 1,374 6- to 11-year-olds recruited through 65 schools nationwide; 1,098 (80%) had received no mental health or special education services in the past year (non-referred group), whereas 276 (referred group) had been referred for mental health services, had repeated ≥ 2 grades, or had significant developmental disabilities. Mean item ratings, factor structure, and scale internal consistencies were very similar to findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) and Ivanova et al. (Journal of Clinical Child and Adoloescent Psychology 36: 405-417 2007). Children from low SES school environments obtained higher problem scores, especially in the referred group. Gender, age, and referral status effects paralleled those in the U.S. Non-referred children obtained somewhat higher mean problem scores in Uruguay than in the U.S., but mean score differences between non-referred and referred children were smaller in Uruguay than the U.S. Findings supporting the CBCL's multicultural robustness in a South American country extend the generalizability of findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) for 31 societies.

  15. Stress generation in a developmental context: the role of youth depressive symptoms, maternal depression, the parent-child relationship, and family stress.

    PubMed

    Chan, Priscilla T; Doan, Stacey N; Tompson, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined stress generation in a developmental and family context among 171 mothers and their preadolescent children, ages 8-12 years, at baseline (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). In the current study, we examined the bidirectional relationship between children's depressive symptoms and dependent family stress. Results suggest that children's baseline level of depressive symptoms predicted the generation of dependent family stress 1 year later. However, baseline dependent family stress did not predict an increase in children's depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, we examined whether a larger context of both child chronic strain (indicated by academic, behavioral, and peer stress) and family factors, including socioeconomic status and parent-child relationship quality, would influence the stress generation process. Although both chronic strain and socioeconomic status were not associated with dependent family stress at Time 2, poorer parent-child relationship quality significantly predicted greater dependent family stress at Time 2. Child chronic strain, but neither socioeconomic status nor parent-child relationship quality, predicted children's depression symptoms at Time 2. Finally, gender, maternal depression history, and current maternal depressive symptoms did not moderate the relationship between level of dependent family stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, findings provide partial support for a developmental stress generation model operating in the preadolescent period.

  16. Embryonic stem cells and the next generation of developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Josephine; Huhse, Bettina; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The advent of stem cell technology has seen the establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as molecular model systems and screening tools. Although ESCs are nowadays widely used in research, regulatory implementation for developmental toxicity testing is pending. Areas Covered: This review evaluates the performance of current ESC, including human (h)ESC testing systems, trying to elucidate their potential for developmental toxicity testing. It shall discuss defining parameters and mechanisms, their relevance and contemplate what can realistically be expected. Crucially this includes the question of how to ascertain the quality of currently employed cell lines and tests based thereon. Finally, the use of hESCs will raise ethical concerns which should be addressed early on. Expert Opinion: While the suitability of (h)ESCs as tools for research and development goes undisputed, any routine use for developmental toxicity testing currently still seems premature. The reasons for this comprise inherent biological deficiencies as well as cell line quality and system validation. Overcoming these issues will require collaboration of scientists, test developers and regulators. Also, validation needs to be made worthwhile for academia. Finally we have to continuously rethink existing strategies, making room for improved testing and innovative approaches.

  17. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  18. Tests for trend in developmental toxicity experiments with correlated binary data.

    PubMed

    Fung, K Y; Krewski, D; Rao, J N; Scott, A J

    1994-08-01

    In this article, the operating characteristics of recently proposed tests for trend in correlated binary data arising in laboratory studies of developmental toxicity are examined using both computer-generated and experimental data. Specifically, we consider adjusted Cochran-Armitge tests based on the Rao-Scott transformation which are of the same general form as that for uncorrelated data. In addition, generalized score tests based on generalized estimating equations allowing for extrabinomial variation in the data are discussed. Specific forms of these statistics demonstrating favorable type I and type II error rates are identified and recommended for use in practice. The application of these tests is illustrated using data from studies of developmental toxicity that have been reported in the literature.

  19. Developmental transitions in presentations of externalizing problems among boys and girls at risk for child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    VILLODAS, MIGUEL T.; LITROWNIK, ALAN J.; THOMPSON, RICHARD; JONES, DEBORAH; ROESCH, SCOTT C.; HUSSEY, JON M.; BLOCK, STEPHANIE; ENGLISH, DIANA J.; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of children’s maltreatment experiences on the emergence of externalizing problem presentations among children during different developmental periods. The sample included 788 youth and their caregivers who participated in a multisite, prospective study of youth at-risk for maltreatment. Externalizing problems were assessed at ages 4, 8, and 12, and symptoms and diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were assessed at age 14, during interviews with youth and caregivers. Information about maltreatment allegations was coded from official records. Latent transition analysis identified three groups of youth with similar presentations of externalizing problems (“well adjusted,” “hyperactive/oppositional,” and “aggressive/rule-breaking”) and transitions between groups from ages 4, 8, and 12. A “defiant/deceitful” group also emerged at age 12. Girls were generally more likely to present as well adjusted than boys. Children with recent physical abuse allegations had an increased risk for aggressive/rule-breaking presentations during the preschool and preadolescent years, while children with sexual abuse or neglect allegations had lower probabilities of having well-adjusted presentations during middle childhood. These findings indicate that persistently severe aggressive conduct problems, which are related to the most concerning outcomes, can be identified early, particularly among neglected and physically and sexually abused children. PMID:25045912

  20. Child social skills training in developmental crime prevention: effects on antisocial behavior and social competence.

    PubMed

    Beelmann, Andreas; Lösel, Friedrich

    2006-08-01

    Social skills training for children is becoming increasingly popular as a measure for developmental crime prevention. Although previous reviews of such programs have shown positive effects, they have also revealed problems of research design, outcome measures, and long-term follow up. Accordingly, this article reports on a recent meta-analysis of randomized evaluations of the effect of social skills training in preventing antisocial behavior and promoting social competence. Of 841 retrievable references, 84 research reports with a total of 136 treatment-control comparisons fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Results showed a small but significant overall positive effect of d = .39 at post-intervention and d = .28 at follow-up (3 months and later). Effect sizes were somewhat greater for outcome measures of social competence than for measures of antisocial behavior, particularly when delinquency was assessed. Cognitive-behavioral programs revealed the best results in terms of generalization over time and on outcome criteria. In addition, prevention measures indicated for children and adolescents who already manifested some behavioral problems had higher effect sizes than universal approaches. Because most studies dealt with small sample sizes, non-official outcome data, and measurements after less than one year, the results should be interpreted with caution. Further high-quality studies with long-term empirical outcome criteria are needed, particularly outside the United States.

  1. Developmental Toxicology—New Directions Workshop: Refining Testing Strategies and Study Designs

    PubMed Central

    Brannen, Kimberly C.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Hansen, Deborah K.; Harrouk, Wafa; Kim, James H.; Shuey, Dana

    2012-01-01

    In April 2009, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute’s (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a two-day workshop entitled “Developmental Toxicology—New Directions.” The third session of the workshop focused on ways to refine animal studies to improve relevance and predictivity for human risk. The session included five presentations on: (1) considerations for refining developmental toxicology testing and data interpretation; (2) comparative embryology and considerations in study design and interpretation; (3) pharmacokinetic considerations in study design; (4) utility of genetically modified models for understanding mode-of-action; and (5) special considerations in reproductive testing for biologics. The presentations were followed by discussion by the presenters and attendees. Much of the discussion focused on aspects of refining current animal testing strategies, including use of toxicokinetic data, dose selection, tiered/triggered testing strategies, species selection, and use of alternative animal models. Another major area of discussion was use of non-animal-based testing paradigms, including how to define a “signal” or adverse effect, translating in vitro exposures to whole animal and human exposures, validation strategies, the need to bridge the existing gap between classical toxicology testing and risk assessment, and development of new technologies. Although there was general agreement among participants that the current testing strategy is effective, there was also consensus that traditional methods are resource-intensive and improved effectiveness of developmental toxicity testing to assess risks to human health is possible. This article provides a summary of the session’s presentations and discussion and describes some key areas that warrant further consideration. PMID:22006510

  2. Developmental toxicology: new directions workshop: refining testing strategies and study designs.

    PubMed

    Brannen, Kimberly C; Fenton, Suzanne E; Hansen, Deborah K; Harrouk, Wafa; Kim, James H; Shuey, Dana

    2011-10-01

    In April 2009, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a two-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions." The third session of the workshop focused on ways to refine animal studies to improve relevance and predictivity for human risk. The session included five presentations on: (1) considerations for refining developmental toxicology testing and data interpretation; (2) comparative embryology and considerations in study design and interpretation; (3) pharmacokinetic considerations in study design; (4) utility of genetically modified models for understanding mode-of-action; and (5) special considerations in reproductive testing for biologics. The presentations were followed by discussion by the presenters and attendees. Much of the discussion focused on aspects of refining current animal testing strategies, including use of toxicokinetic data, dose selection, tiered/triggered testing strategies, species selection, and use of alternative animal models. Another major area of discussion was use of non-animal-based testing paradigms, including how to define a "signal" or adverse effect, translating in vitro exposures to whole animal and human exposures, validation strategies, the need to bridge the existing gap between classical toxicology testing and risk assessment, and development of new technologies. Although there was general agreement among participants that the current testing strategy is effective, there was also consensus that traditional methods are resource-intensive and improved effectiveness of developmental toxicity testing to assess risks to human health is possible. This article provides a summary of the session's presentations and discussion and describes some key areas that warrant further consideration. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Predicting Second Grade Achievement Scores with the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor and the Metropolitan Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    The predictive validity of the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Metropolitan Readiness Test was evaluated for use with kindergarten children. The criterion measure was the California Achievement Tests administered when the children…

  4. Developmental visual perception deficits with no indications of prosopagnosia in a child with abnormal eye movements.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Doron, Ravid

    2017-06-01

    Visual categories are associated with eccentricity biases in high-order visual cortex: Faces and reading with foveally-biased regions, while common objects and space with mid- and peripherally-biased regions. As face perception and reading are among the most challenging human visual skills, and are often regarded as the peak achievements of a distributed neural network supporting common objects perception, it is unclear why objects, which also rely on foveal vision to be processed, are associated with mid-peripheral rather than with a foveal bias. Here, we studied BN, a 9 y.o. boy who has normal basic-level vision, abnormal (limited) oculomotor pursuit and saccades, and shows developmental object and contour integration deficits but with no indication of prosopagnosia. Although we cannot infer causation from the data presented here, we suggest that normal pursuit and saccades could be critical for the development of contour integration and object perception. While faces and perhaps reading, when fixated upon, take up a small portion of central visual field and require only small eye movements to be properly processed, common objects typically prevail in mid-peripheral visual field and rely on longer-distance voluntary eye movements as saccades to be brought to fixation. While retinal information feeds into early visual cortex in an eccentricity orderly manner, we hypothesize that propagation of non-foveal information to mid and high-order visual cortex critically relies on circuitry involving eye movements. Limited or atypical eye movements, as in the case of BN, may hinder normal information flow to mid-eccentricity biased high-order visual cortex, adversely affecting its development and consequently inducing visual perceptual deficits predominantly for categories associated with these regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromosomal microarrays testing in children with developmental disabilities and congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Lay-Son, Guillermo; Espinoza, Karena; Vial, Cecilia; Rivera, Juan C; Guzmán, María L; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-01-01

    Clinical use of microarray-based techniques for the analysis of many developmental disorders has emerged during the last decade. Thus, chromosomal microarray has been positioned as a first-tier test. This study reports the first experience in a Chilean cohort. Chilean patients with developmental disabilities and congenital anomalies were studied with a high-density microarray (CytoScan™ HD Array, Affymetrix, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA). Patients had previous cytogenetic studies with either a normal result or a poorly characterized anomaly. This study tested 40 patients selected by two or more criteria, including: major congenital anomalies, facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Copy number variants (CNVs) were found in 72.5% of patients, while a pathogenic CNV was found in 25% of patients and a CNV of uncertain clinical significance was found in 2.5% of patients. Chromosomal microarray analysis is a useful and powerful tool for diagnosis of developmental diseases, by allowing accurate diagnosis, improving the diagnosis rate, and discovering new etiologies. The higher cost is a limitation for widespread use in this setting. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Single-Neuron Axonal Pathfinding under Geometric Guidance: Low-Dose-Methylmercury Developmental Neurotoxicity Test

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lina; Sweeney, Andrew J.; Sheng, Liyuan; Fang, Yu; Kindy, Mark S.; Xi, Tingfei; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2014-01-01

    Because the nervous system is most vulnerable to toxicants during development, there is a crucial need for a highly sensitive developmental-neurotoxicity-test model to detect potential toxicants at low doses. We developed a lab-on-chip wherein single-neuron axonal pathfinding under geometric guidance was created using soft lithography and laser cell-micropatterning techniques. After coating the surface with L1, an axon-specific member of the Ig family of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and optimizing microunit geometric parameters, we introduced low-dose methylmercury, a well-known, environmentally significant neurotoxicant, in the shared medium. Its developmental neurotoxicity was evaluated using a novel axonal pathfinding assay including axonal turning and branching rates at turning points in this model. Compared to the conventional neurite-outgrowth assay, this model's detection threshold for low-dose methylmercury was 10-fold more sensitive at comparable exposure durations. These preliminary results support study of developmental effects of known and potential neurotoxicants on axon pathfinding. This novel assay model would be useful to study neuronal disease mechanisms at the single-cell level. To our knowledge, the potential of methylmercury chloride to cause acute in vitro developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) at such a low dosage has not been reported. This is the first DNT test model with high reproducibility to use single-neuron axonal pathfinding under precise geometric guidance. PMID:25041816

  7. Bilingualism and Performance on Two Widely Used Developmental Neuropsychological Test Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use. PMID:25922937

  8. Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, B B; Knopf, K F

    1982-08-01

    The Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration were administered to two groups of 40 children each, ages 7 through 10 yr. Developmental age scores (Koppitz scoring) and age equivalents (Revised Beery manual) were obtained. Children screened for learning disabilities were selected for one group and children enrolled in regular classrooms were selected for another group. The correlation of .74 between the Bender and Beery test scores was high and statistically significant for the learning-disabled group. The correlation of .36 was low though statistically significant for the regular students, which suggests the groups performed differently on the tests. A significant mean difference of 9 mo. was noted between the Bender and Beery scores.

  9. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  10. Human Neurospheres as Three-Dimensional Cellular Systems for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Moors, Michaela; Rockel, Thomas Dino; Abel, Josef; Cline, Jason E.; Gassmann, Kathrin; Schreiber, Timm; Schuwald, Janette; Weinmann, Nicole; Fritsche, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Background Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals is a serious threat to human health. Current DNT testing guidelines propose investigations in rodents, which require large numbers of animals. With regard to the “3 Rs” (reduction, replacement, and refinement) of animal testing and the European regulation of chemicals [Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH)], alternative testing strategies are needed in order to refine and reduce animal experiments and allow faster and less expensive screening. Objectives The goal of this study was to establish a three-dimensional test system for DNT screening based on human fetal brain cells. Methods We established assays suitable for detecting disturbances in basic processes of brain development by employing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), which grow as neurospheres. Furthermore, we assessed effects of mercury and oxidative stress on these cells. Results We found that human neurospheres imitate proliferation, differentiation, and migration in vitro. Exposure to the proapoptotic agent staurosporine further suggests that human neurospheres possess functioning apoptosis machinery. The developmental neurotoxicants methylmercury chloride and mercury chloride decreased migration distance and number of neuronal-like cells in differentiated hNPCs. Furthermore, hNPCs undergo caspase-independent apoptosis when exposed toward high amounts of oxidative stress. Conclusions Human neurospheres are likely to imitate basic processes of brain development, and these processes can be modulated by developmental neurotoxicants. Thus, this three-dimensional cell system is a promising approach for DNT testing. PMID:19654924

  11. Adolescent mothers and their children: changes in maternal characteristics and child developmental and behavioral outcome at school age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W

    1996-06-01

    This study examines stability and change in characteristics of adolescent mothers from their child's infancy to school age, describes cognitive and behavioral characteristics of their children at school age, and reports on the relationship between maternal characteristics and child behavior and development at school age. Cognitive status and childrearing attitudes were assessed in 43 adolescent mothers (mean age 16.3 years) when their children were infants (Time 1) and again when children were school age (Time 2). At school age, mothers also completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist, and children were administered the Slosson Intelligence Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test. Significant correlations were obtained between maternal measures at Time 1 and Time 2, and no significant differences were observed between mean scores at Time 1 and Time 2 on any measures. Children demonstrated average intelligence, but mean achievement was almost 1 SD below average. Significantly more children had high scores than expected on scales for hyperactivity and academic disability. Except for maternal vocabulary, maternal measures obtained at Time 1 were not directly related to children's IQ or behavior problems. Maternal vocabulary and authoritarian and hostile childrearing attitudes assessed at Time 1 contributed independently to prediction of achievement test scores in a positive direction. Mothers' vocabulary at Time 2 and high or increased hostile childrearing attitudes contributed positively to prediction of child IQ. Mothers who still had high scores in authoritarian childrearing attitudes or whose scores increased had children with lower IQs. Changes in attitudes or contemporary measures of attitudes were also related to behavior problems at school age.

  12. Testing the 8-Syndrome Structure of the Child Behavior Checklist in 30 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses,…

  13. Testing the 8-Syndrome Structure of the Child Behavior Checklist in 30 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses,…

  14. The Effect of a Child's Age at School Entrance on Reading Readiness and Achievement Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magliacano, Karen

    A study was conducted to determine whether or not a child who is older when entering school performs better on reading readiness and achievement tests than a younger child. Two samples of second grade students from a middle class community in Bloomfield, New Jersey, were established by examining the ages of all the children in the cohort. Sample A…

  15. Embryotoxicity assessment of developmental neurotoxicants using a neuronal endpoint in the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Baek, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lim, Hwa Kyung; Kang, Jin Wook; Seong, Su Kyoung; Choi, Seung Eun; Lim, So Yun; Park, Sung Hee; Nam, Bong-hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mun Sin; Park, Kui Lea

    2012-08-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is a validated in vitro embryotoxicity test; however, as the inhibition of cardiac differentiation alone is used as a differentiation endpoint in the EST, it may not be a useful test to screen embryotoxic chemicals that affect the differentiation of noncardiac tissues. Previously, methylmercury (MeHg), cadmium and arsenic compounds, which are heavy metals that induce developmental neurotoxicity in vivo, were misclassified as nonembryotoxic with the EST. The aim of this study was to improve the EST to correctly screen such developmental neurotoxicants. We developed a neuronal endpoint (Tuj-1 ID₅₀) using flow cytometry analysis of Tuj-1-positive cells to screen developmental neurotoxicants (MeHg, valproic acid, sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite) correctly using an adherent monoculture differentiation method. Using Tuj-1 ID₅₀ in the EST instead of cardiac ID₅₀, all of the tested chemicals were classified as embryotoxic, while the negative controls were correctly classified as nonembryotoxic. To support the validity of Tuj-1 ID₅₀) , we compared the results from two experimenters who independently tested MeHg using our modified EST. An additional neuronal endpoint (MAP2 ID₅₀), obtained by analyzing the relative quantity of MAP2 mRNA, was used to classify the same chemicals. There were no significant differences in the three endpoint values of the two experimenters or in the classification results, except for isoniazid. In conclusion, our results indicate that Tuj-1 ID₅₀ can be used as a surrogate endpoint of the traditional EST to screen developmental neurotoxicants correctly and it can also be applied to other chemicals.

  16. (Positive) Power to the Child: The Role of Children's Willing Stance toward Parents in Developmental Cascades from Toddler Age to Early Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to once dominant views of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, they are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. But those newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months, and longitudinally stable, (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months, and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology, and for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  17. (Positive) power to the child: The role of children's willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2015-11-01

    In a change from the once-dominant view of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, children are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. However, these newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts, parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months and longitudinally stable; (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months; and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology as well as for prevention and intervention.

  18. Testing for Thresholds in Associations between Child Care Quality and Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Most of the literature has examined linear associations, yielding findings that higher quality is better and lower quality is worse (Vandell, 2004), but identification of thresholds in the association between quality and child outcomes has been a goal of researchers and policy makers for several reasons. A primary goal has been to identify levels…

  19. An abbreviated repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity test for high production volume chemicals.

    PubMed

    Scala, R A; Bevan, C; Beyer, B K

    1992-08-01

    A novel protocol is described for obtaining preliminary data on repeated dose systemic effects and reproductive/developmental toxicity. The test protocol was developed by a group of experts at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as part of a Screening Information Data Set on high production volume chemicals. Interest in this protocol is shared by several regulatory agencies, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation, the European Community, and the EPA. To validate the study protocol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) was used. After a dosing period of approximately 6 weeks, EGME showed both systemic and reproductive/developmental effects similar to those previously reported using standard protocols. Thus, this test protocol may be used as a screening tool for high production volume chemicals.

  20. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  1. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  2. Toxicological assessment of refined naphthenic acids in a repeated dose/developmental toxicity screening test.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; North, Colin M; Podhasky, Paula; Charlap, Jeffrey H; Kuhl, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are primarily cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids with 10 to 16 carbons. To characterize the potential of refined NAs (>70% purity) to cause reproductive and/or developmental effects, Sprague-Dawley rats (12/group) were given oral doses of 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/d, beginning 14 days prior to mating, then an additional 14 days for males or through lactation day 3 for females (up to 53 days) in a repeated dose/reproductive toxicity test (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] 422). Potential mutagenic effects were assessed using Salmonella (OECD 471) and in in vivo micronucleus tests (OECD 474) using bone marrow taken from treated animals in the screening study described previously. Systemic effects included reduced terminal body weights, increased liver weights, and changes in a number of blood cell parameters. The overall no effect level for all target organ effects was 100 mg/kg/d. In the reproductive/developmental toxicity assessment, there were significant reductions in numbers of live born offspring in groups exposed to 300 and 900 mg/kg/d. The overall no effect level for developmental effects was 100 mg/kg/d. The data from the Salmonella and micronucleus tests provide evidence that refined NAs are not genotoxic.

  3. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  4. Children Becoming More Intelligent: Can the Flynn Effect Be Generalized to Other Child Intelligence Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Tunteler, Erika

    2007-01-01

    In this article, time effects on intelligence test scores have been investigated. In particular, we examined whether the "Flynn effect" is manifest in children from the middle and higher IQ distribution range, measured with a child intelligence test based on information processing principles--the Leiden Diagnostic Test. The test was administered…

  5. Developmental neurotoxicity testing: recommendations for developing alternative methods for the screening and prioritization of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Kevin M; Mundy, William R; Lein, Pamela J; Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Seiler, Andrea E M; Knaut, Holger; Buzanska, Leonora; Goldberg, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemicals. This document provides recommendations for developing alternative DNT approaches that will generate the type of data required for evaluating and comparing predictive capacity and efficiency across test methods and laboratories. These recommendations were originally drafted to stimulate and focus discussions of alternative testing methods and models for DNT at the TestSmart DNT II meeting (http://caat.jhsph.edu/programs/workshops/dnt2.html) and this document reflects critical feedback from all stakeholders that participated in this meeting. The intent of this document is to serve as a catalyst for engaging the research community in the development of DNT alternatives and it is expected that these recommendations will continue to evolve with the science.

  6. Validity and Reliability of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2016-07-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3) is a recently published revision of a visual perceptual test from the United States, frequently used by occupational therapists. It is important that tests have adequate documented reliability and validity and are evaluated in cross-cultural contexts. The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the DTVP-3 when completed by a group of Australian participants. Thirty-nine typically developing children 6-8 years of age completed the DTVP-3 and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - 6th edition (VMI-6). The internal consistency of the DVTP-3 was assessed using Cronbach alpha coefficients and the DTVP-3's convergent validity was examined by correlating it with the VMI-6 and its two supplementary tests. The five DTVP-3 subscales' Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.60 to.80 while its three composite indexes had coefficients all at the.80 level. The VMI-6 was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground and Visual Closure subscales and the Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index (MRVPI). The VMI-6 Visual Perception Supplementary Test was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground, Visual Closure, Form Constancy, MRVPI, and General Visual Perception Index. The DTVP-3 exhibited acceptable levels of internal consistency and moderate levels of convergent validity with the VMI-6 when completed by a group of Australian children.

  7. Developmental toxicity testing of biopharmaceuticals in nonhuman primates: previous experience and future directions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pauline L; Weinbauer, Gerhard F

    2010-12-01

    Developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical safety testing are designed to evaluate potential adverse effects of drug treatment on pregnancy and on the developing embryo/fetus. Biopharmaceuticals present specific challenges for developmental toxicity testing because the pharmacology of these molecules, which are frequently human-specific proteins, is often restricted to humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). For those species-restricted molecules, the only option for the evaluation of potential effects on development of the human biopharmaceutical is to use NHPs. This article reviews each of the stages of development in cynomolgus macaques (the most frequently used NHP) and the potential exposure of the embryo, fetus, and infant following administration of a biopharmaceutical during pregnancy and lactation. Because the purpose of the NHP developmental studies is to identify potential human risks, a comparison between macaque and human development and potential exposure has been made when possible. Understanding the potential exposure of the conceptus relative to critical periods in development is essential to designing a scientifically based study that adequately addresses human risks. Some options for NHP study designs, including the option of combining end points into a single study, and the pros and cons of each of the study options have been reviewed. Developmental studies for biopharmaceuticals in NHPs need to be optimally designed on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration the pharmacology of the molecule, the type of molecule (antibody or non-antibody), the potential exposure relative to the development of potential target organs, the clinical use, and the ethical considerations associated with the use of NHPs.

  8. Denver Developmental Test Findings and their Relationship with Sociodemographic Variables in a Large Community Sample of 0–4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    ÇELİKKIRAN, Seyhan; BOZKURT, Hasan; COŞKUN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of developmental problems and relationship with sociodemographic variables in a community sample of young children. Methods Participants included 1000 children (558 males, 442 females, age range 1–48 months, mean 18.4 months, SD 7.8 months). Children were referred generally by their parents for developmental evaluation and consultation in response to a public announcement in a district area in Istanbul, Turkey. An interview form and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST) were used for sociodemographic data and developmental evaluation. The χ2 test and Pearson’s correlation test were used for data analysis. Results Seven hundred forty-one out of 1000 children (74.1%) had normal, 140 (14%) had risky, and 119 (11.9%) had abnormal findings on the DDST results. The probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results was significantly higher in males (p=0.003), the 2–4-year-old group (p<0.05), families with more than one child (p=0.001), consanguineous marriages (p<0.01), low parental educational levels and low household income (p<0.01), and in children without a history of breastfeeding (p=0.000). Immigration status and delivery mode did not have a significant effect on the probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results (p>0.05). Conclusion Sociodemographic factors have a noteworthy impact on development. Determining these factors is important especially during the first years of life.

  9. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  10. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-03-01

    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Novel Methods at Molecular Level for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing in 21st Century-Utility of Structure-Activity Relationship

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity testing methods for hazard identification rely on in vivo neurobehavior, neurophysiological, and gross pathology of the nervous system. These measures may not be sensitive enough to detect small changes caused by realistic ex...

  12. Novel Methods at Molecular Level for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing in 21st Century-Utility of Structure-Activity Relationship

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity testing methods for hazard identification rely on in vivo neurobehavior, neurophysiological, and gross pathology of the nervous system. These measures may not be sensitive enough to detect small changes caused by realistic ex...

  13. Xenopus tropicalis as a test system for developmental and reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Berg, Cecilia; Gyllenhammar, Irina; Kvarnryd, Moa

    2009-01-01

    The usefulness of Xenopus tropicalis as a model species to investigate endocrine disruption and developmental reproductive toxicity was assessed. In our test system tadpoles were exposed to test substances from shortly after hatching until metamorphosis, including the period of gonadal differentiation. Effects on the sex hormone and thyroid hormone axes were evidenced as skewed sex ratios, malformations of reproductive organs, altered cytochrome (CYP19) (aromatase) activity, and gene expression in gonads and brain, as well as changed thyroid histology and time to metamorphosis. Reproductive toxicity was evaluated at sexual maturity. Male-to-female sex reversal was implied at concentrations as low as 6 pM (1.8 ng/L) ethynylestradiol (EE2), which is comparable to EE2 levels observed in the environment. EE2-exposed males that were not sex reversed had significantly reduced fertility and a reduced amount of spermatozoa in testes compared with control males. This indicates that reproduction in wild frogs might be impaired by estrogenic environmental pollutants. Aromatase activity in brain and testes of adult frogs was not affected by larval EE2 exposure. Preliminary results indicate that exposure to the environmentally relevant pharmaceutical clotrimazole modulated aromatase activity in brain and gonads during sex differentiation, which warrants further investigation. The susceptibility to estrogen-induced sex reversal of X. tropicalis was comparable to that of other frog species and fish. Similarities between the reproductive effects in X. tropicalis and those reported in fish, birds, and mammals after developmental exposure to estrogens make X. tropicalis promising model for research on endocrine disruption and developmental reproductive toxicity.

  14. Achievement Testing in the No Child Left Behind Era: The Arkansas Benchmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John D.; Howerton, D. Lynn; Jones, Craig H.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act and the accountability movement in public education caused many states to develop criterion-referenced academic achievement tests. Scores from these tests are often used to make high stakes decisions. Even so, these tests typically do not receive independent psychometric scrutiny. We evaluated the 2005 Arkansas…

  15. CDA (Child Development Associate) Instructional Materials. Assessing Competency: Tests for CDA Competencies (Experimental Edition). Book 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotvedt, Kathleen J.; Hotvedt, Martyn O.

    This book of tests is designed to assess the competencies of the Child Development Associate (CDA) trainee: both what the trainee knows and how well the trainee works with children. The tests are designed as posttests to be administered after the trainee's completion of the relevant learning module. Each test consists of multiple choice questions,…

  16. Comparison of the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation versus developmental screening by parent report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To compare the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation with developmental screening by parent report, parents completed a developmental screen (the Child Development Review), a pediatrician performed a direct developmental evaluation (Capute Scales), and a psychologist administered the...

  17. Medical Assessment of the Child with a Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Carol Coleman; McDonald, Patricia L.

    1980-01-01

    A medical assessment based on detailed historical data, a complete physical examination, developmental and neurological assessments, laboratory tests, and discussion with parents is the foundation for planning an effective educational program for the handicapped child. (CJ)

  18. The challenge of developmentally appropriate care: predictive genetic testing in young people for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Rony E; Gillam, Lynn; Savulescu, Julian; Williamson, Robert; Rogers, John G; Delatycki, Martin B

    2010-03-01

    Predictive genetic tests for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are routinely offered to young people during early adolescence. While this is not controversial, due to the medical benefit conferred by the test, it is nonetheless challenging as a consequence of the stage of life of the young people, and the simultaneous involvement of multiple family members. Despite these challenges, it is possible to ensure that the test is offered in such a way that it actively acknowledges and facilitates young people's developing autonomy and psychosocial well-being. In this paper we present findings from ten in-depth interviews with young people who have undergone predictive genetic testing for FAP (four male, six female; five gene-positive, five gene-negative; aged 10-17 years at the time of their predictive test; aged 12-25 years at the time of their research interview). We present five themes that emerged from the interviews which highlight key ethical challenges associated with such testing. These are: (1) the significance of the test; (2) young people's lack of involvement in the decision to be tested; (3) young people's limited understanding; (4) provision of the blood test at the first visit; and (5) group testing of family members. We draw on these themes to make eight recommendations for future practice. Together, these recommendations highlight the importance of providing developmentally appropriate care to young people undergoing predictive genetic testing for FAP.

  19. An Examination of Specific Child Behavior Problems as Predictors of Parenting Stress among Families of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Allyson L.; Neece, Cameron L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have shown that parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children or children with other types of developmental delays (DD). This relationship appears to be mediated by elevated levels of behavior problems observed in children with…

  20. The World of the Developmentally Disabled Child: A Parents' Handbook with Directory of Services for Families in Lake County, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suelzle, Marijean; Keenan, Vincent

    Intended for parents of developmentally disabled children, the handbook provides information on service needs and services available in Lake County, Illinois. Section I focuses on life course planning with sections of diagnosis and assessment, professionals involved with special education, education for the developmentally disabled, vocational…

  1. The Contributions of Developmental Science to the Study of Substance Use and Disorder: Introduction to a Special Section of Child Development Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hussong, Andrea M

    2011-11-01

    This Special Section of Child Development Perspectives highlights the contributions of developmental science to the study of substance use and disorder. It focuses on the specific question of how genetic, biological, and environmental factors vary in the way they interactively predict substance use and disorder over the course of development. The first three articles outline answers to this question that are emerging from the study of substance use disorder and contributing contexts, particularly the work on the externalizing or behavioral-undercontrol risk pathway to substance use disorder. The markers of risk and contextual variation are further integrated in the final contribution, which evaluates current evidence for this pathway to substance use disorder.

  2. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  3. The validity and reliability of developmental test of visual perception-2nd edition (DTVP-2).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Hockey, Sarah Caitlin

    2013-11-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2nd edition (DTVP-2) is frequently used by occupational therapists to evaluate school-age children. It is important that therapists use assessments with established validity and reliability. This study investigated the convergent validity and internal consistency of the DTVP-2. Forty-five healthy participants from Australia, aged 6-12 years, completed the DTVP-2, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-6th edition (VMI), and the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills-3rd edition (TVPS-3). A Spearman rho correlation coefficient was used to investigate the DTVP-2's convergent validity and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used to determine the DTVP-2's internal consistency. Statistically significant correlations between the DTVP-2, VMI, and TVPS-3 total scale scores and subscale scores were found. Internal consistency of items for the DTVP-2, VMI, and TVPS-3 total scores was >0.80 and internal consistency of items for subscale scores was >0.70. The DTVP-2 exhibited evidence of convergent validity with the VMI and TVPS-3, and moderate to high levels of internal consistency.

  4. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II.

    PubMed

    De-Andrés-Beltrán, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; Güeita-Rodríguez, Javier; Lambeck, Johan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II in a population of Spanish children. Two hundred children ranging from 9 month to 6 years were grouped into two samples (healthy/with psychomotor delay) and screened in order to check whether they suffered from psychomotor delay. Children from three Early Intervention Centres and three schools participated in this study. Criterion validity was calculated by the method of extreme groups, comparing healthy children to those with development delay. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated using Cohen Kappa coefficient, and internal consistency was calculated via the Kuder-Richardson coefficient. The scale demonstrated 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, a positive predicted value of 91% and a negative predicted value of 89%, whereas the positive and negative likelihood ratio was 11.12 and 0.12, respectively. Intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.662 to 1, and interobserver reliability ranged from 0.886 to 1. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient values ranged from 87.5 to 97.6%. The Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II was found to have a good criterion validity, reliability and internal consistency and is a suitable screening test for use in a population of Spanish children.

  5. Parental Attributions of Control for Child Behaviour and Their Relation to Discipline Practices in Parents of Children with and Without Developmental Delays.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Marks Woolfson, Lisa; Hunter, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for developing behavior problems. Research suggests that parents' causal attributions for child behavior are related to parenting. This study investigated this association in parents of children with DD compared to parents of typically developing (TD) children. It specifically focused on attributions of child control by separating these from attributions of responsibility, blame and intent, and from attributions of parent control and responsibility. Fifty-one parents of children with DD and 69 parents of TD children completed two questionnaires. The Written Analogue Questionnaire measured causal attributions. The Parenting Scale measured dysfunctional discipline practices. Parents of children with DD viewed the child's role in problematic behavior more positively while also viewing misbehavior as more fixed than parents of TD children. Parents of TD children who viewed their child as more in control over misbehavior used less dysfunctional discipline, but this association was not found for parents of children with DD. The results advance understanding of how parents perceive behavior problems in children with DD and the important role these perceptions play in parental behavior management strategies. More importantly, these perceptions relate to discipline practices differently for parents of children with DD compared to parents of TD children, highlighting that parent interventions should be adapted to the specific needs of parents of children with DD.

  6. Translating neurobehavioural endpoints of developmental neurotoxicity tests into in vitro assays and readouts.

    PubMed

    van Thriel, Christoph; Westerink, Remco H S; Beste, Christian; Bale, Ambuja S; Lein, Pamela J; Leist, Marcel

    2012-08-01

    The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to chemical insults. Exposure to chemicals can result in neurobehavioural alterations, and these have been used as sensitive readouts to assess neurotoxicity in animals and man. Deconstructing neurobehaviour into relevant cellular and molecular components may allow for detection of specific neurotoxic effects in cell-based systems, which in turn may allow an easier examination of neurotoxic pathways and modes of actions and eventually inform the regulatory assessment of chemicals with potential developmental neurotoxicity. Here, current developments towards these goals are reviewed. Imaging genetics (CB) provides new insights into the neurobiological correlates of cognitive function that are being used to delineate neurotoxic mechanisms. The gaps between in vivo neurobehaviour and real-time in vitro measurements of neuronal function are being bridged by ex vivo measurements of synaptic plasticity (RW). An example of solvent neurotoxicity demonstrates how an in vivo neurological defect can be linked via the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor as a common target to in vitro readouts (AB). Axonal and dendritic morphology in vitro proved to be good correlates of neuronal connectivity and neurobehaviour in animals exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and organophosphorus pesticides (PJL). Similarly, chemically induced changes in neuronal morphology affected the formation of neuronal networks on structured surfaces. Such network formation may become an important readout for developmental neurotoxicity in vitro (CvT), especially when combined with human neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ML). We envision that future in vitro test systems for developmental neurotoxicity will combine the above approaches with exposure information, and we suggest a strategy for test system development and cell-based risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Translating neurobehavioural endpoints of developmental neurotoxicity tests into in vitro assays and readouts

    PubMed Central

    van Thriel, Christoph; Westerink, Remco; Beste, Christian; Bale, Ambuja S.; Lein, Pamela J.; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to chemical insults. Exposure to chemicals can results in neurobehavioural alterations, and these have been be used as sensitive readouts to assess neurotoxicity in animals and man. Deconstructing neurobehaviour into relevant cellular and molecular components may allow for detection of specific neurotoxic effects in cell-based systems, which in turn may allow an easier examination of neurotoxic pathways and modes of actions and eventually inform the regulatory assessment of chemicals with potential developmental neurotoxicity. Here, current developments towards these goals are reviewed. Imaging genetics (CB) provides new insights into the neurobiological correlates of cognitive function that are being used to delineate neurotoxic mechanisms. The gaps between in vivo neurobehaviour and real-time in vitro measurements of neuronal function are being bridged by ex vivo measurements of synaptic plasticity (RW). An example of solvent neurotoxicity demonstrates how an in vivo neurological defect can be linked via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor as a common target to in vitro readouts (AB). Axonal and dendritic morphology in vitro proved to be good correlates of neuronal connectivity and neurobehaviour in animals exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and organophosphorus pesticides (PJL). Similarly, chemically-induced changes in neuronal morphology affected the formation of neuronal networks on structured surfaces. Such network formation may become an important readout for developmental neurotoxicity in vitro (CvT), especially when combined with human neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ML). We envision that future in vitro test systems for developmental neurotoxicity will combine the above approaches with exposure information, and we suggest a strategy for test system development and cell-based risk assessment. PMID:22008243

  8. Single-center experience of the Korean-Developmental Screening Test for infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Chae-Ri; Sohn, Su Ye; Kim, Gun-Ha; Jung, Seong-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the number of test takers of the Korean-Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) in a single children's hospital within a year, according to age, referral rate, and follow-up percentage. Methods For this study, 4,062 children who visited and received K-DST at Woorisoa Children's Hospital between January and December 2015 were enrolled. Seven test sets were used according to the Korean National Health Screening Program for infants and children in the following age groups: 4 to 6, 9 to 12, 18 to 24, 30 to 36, 42 to 48, 54 to 60, and 66 to 71 months. The results of the K-DST were categorized into 4 groups as follows: further evaluation (<−2 standard deviation [−2SD]), follow-up test (−2SD to −1SD), peer level (−1SD to 1SD), and high level (>1SD). Results The test participants' population and follow-up population were concentrated before the age of 24 months (2,532, 62.3%). The children most commonly referred for further evaluation were those in the 30- to 41-month age group. A mismatch was found between the results of the K-DST and the additional questions. Most of the infants and children with suspicious developmental delays showed catch-up development in their follow-up tests (43 of 55, 78.2%). Conclusion The use of K-DST should be encouraged, especially among children aged over 24 months. Multiple-choice question format for the additional questions is recommended to avoid confusion. We suggest a nationwide study to evaluate and revise the K-DST. PMID:28194214

  9. Southeast Kansas Demonstration Child Development Center. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Joan I.

    The development of 10 preschool children who attended the Southeast Kansas Demonstration Child Development Center was compared with the development of 10 preschool children who did not attend a child care center to ascertain the value of the center's program. Both groups were tested with the Denver Developmental Screening Test at the beginning and…

  10. Testing causal models of the relationship between childhood gender atypical behaviour and parent-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Salo, Benny; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    An association between childhood gender atypical behaviour (GAB) and a negative parent-child relationship has been demonstrated in several studies, yet the causal relationship of this association is not fully understood. In the present study, different models of causation between childhood GAB and parent-child relationships were tested. Direction of causation modelling was applied to twin data from a population-based sample (n= 2,565) of Finnish 33- to 43-year-old twins. Participants completed retrospective self-report questionnaires. Five different models of causation were then fitted to the data: GAB → parent-child relationship, parent-child relationship → GAB, reciprocal causation, a bivariate genetic model, and a model assuming no correlation. It was found that a model in which GAB and quality of mother-child, and father-child relationship reciprocally affect each other best fitted the data. The findings are discussed in light of how we should understand, including causality, the association between GAB and parent-child relationship.

  11. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  12. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  13. Too young to correct: a developmental test of the three-stage model of social inference.

    PubMed

    Hagá, Sara; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Olson, Kristina R

    2014-12-01

    The 3-stage model of social inference posits that people categorize behaviors and characterize actors or situations effortlessly, but they correct these characterizations with additional information effortfully. The current article tests this model using developmental data, assuming that the less cognitively demanding processes in the model (i.e., categorization, characterization) should appear earlier in development, whereas the more demanding correction process should not appear until later in development. Using 2 different paradigms, Studies 1 and 3 found that younger children failed to take situational information into account while characterizing the actor. Study 2 found that younger children failed to take dispositional information into account while characterizing the situation. In contrast, in these 3 studies, older children used the available information to correct their characterizations of the actors and of the situations. Consistent with the 3-stage model, during elementary school years, children start to integrate additional information when drawing explicit social inferences. In Study 4, children of all age levels used a prior expectancy to draw a dispositional inference, ignoring situational information, suggesting that characterizations based on prior expectancies about an actor are a highly efficient process, not contemplated by the model. The 4 studies together illustrate how developmental data can be valuably used to test adult socio-cognitive models, to extend their validity, or to simply further inform those models.

  14. Comparison of two methods of teaching early childhood professionals to score a developmental screening test.

    PubMed

    Mayson, Tanja A; Hayes, Virginia E; Harris, Susan R; Backman, Catherine L

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, computer-assisted learning is becoming an educational method of choice. This study compared the effectiveness of in-class versus Internet-based training in achieving reliability when administering a developmental screening test, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Forty-eight early childhood professionals, including physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses, and infant development consultants, took part in the study. Participants in this convenience sample were each assigned to one of the two learning groups. We assessed interrater reliability and participants' satisfaction with training method. Disciplines were equally distributed within the two groups, but geographical locations differed significantly. There was no difference in intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater reliability between the two groups. Although there was no difference in overall satisfaction with the quality of the courses, significant differences were found in the trainees' satisfaction with certain aspects of the courses. Although several study limitations existed, Internet-based training provides a feasible option for training practitioners to reliably use developmental screening tests such as the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

  15. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition Test in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on…

  16. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition Test in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on…

  17. Testing the Suitability of Mediation of Child Support Orders in Title IV-D Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Scot; Li, Quan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test mediation versus a traditional court process for the establishment or modification of child support orders. The intention is to determine which dispute resolution process is associated with greater client satisfaction and compliance. An auxiliary objective is to test the type of cases which are most…

  18. Parental Expressivity, Child Physiological and Behavioral Regulation, and Child Adjustment: Testing a Three-Path Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…

  19. Parental Expressivity, Child Physiological and Behavioral Regulation, and Child Adjustment: Testing a Three-Path Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…

  20. The relation of preschool child-care quality to children's cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade.

    PubMed

    Peisner-Feinberg, E S; Burchinal, M R; Clifford, R M; Culkin, M L; Howes, C; Kagan, S L; Yazejian, N

    2001-01-01

    The cognitive and socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive and socioemotional development at least through kindergarten, and in some cases, through second grade. Differential effects on children's development were found for two aspects of child-care quality. Observed classroom practices were related to children's language and academic skills, whereas the closeness of the teacher-child relationship was related to both cognitive and social skills, with the strongest effects for the latter. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. These findings contribute further evidence of the long-term influences of the quality of child-care environments on children's cognitive and social skills through the elementary school years and are consistent with a bioecological model of development that considers the multiple environmental contexts that the child experiences.

  1. Ghent developmental balance test: a new tool to evaluate balance performance in toddlers and preschool children.

    PubMed

    De Kegel, Alexandra; Baetens, Tina; Peersman, Wim; Maes, Leen; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2012-06-01

    Balance is a fundamental component of movement. Early identification of balance problems is important to plan early intervention. The Ghent Developmental Balance Test (GDBT) is a new assessment tool designed to monitor balance from the initiation of independent walking to 5 years of age. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric characteristics of the GDBT. To evaluate test-retest reliability, 144 children were tested twice on the GDBT by the same examiner, and to evaluate interrater reliability, videotaped GDBT sessions of 22 children were rated by 3 different raters. To evaluate the known-group validity of GDBT scores, z scores on the GDBT were compared between a clinical group (n = 20) and a matched control group (n = 20). Concurrent validity of GDBT scores with the subscale standardized scores of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (M-ABC-2), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-Second Edition (PDMS-2), and the balance subscale of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test-Second Edition (BOT-2) was evaluated in a combined group of the 20 children from the clinical group and 74 children who were developing typically. Test-retest and interrater reliability were excellent for the GDBT total scores, with intraclass correlation coefficients of .99 and .98, standard error of measurement values of 0.21 and 0.78, and small minimal detectable differences of 0.58 and 2.08, respectively. The GDBT was able to distinguish between the clinical group and the control group (t(38) = 5.456, P<.001). Pearson correlations between the z scores on GDBT and the standardized scores of specific balance subscales of the M-ABC-2, PDMS-2, and BOT-2 were moderate to high, whereas correlations with subscales measuring constructs other than balance were low. The GDBT is a reliable and valid clinical assessment tool for the evaluation of balance in toddlers and preschool-aged children.

  2. Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture.

    PubMed

    Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-10-01

    Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children's ADHD symptoms, and the role of children's ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and nonbiologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5-8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for evocative rGE processes in the

  3. 16 CFR 1109.13 - Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child care articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... children's toys and child care articles. 1109.13 Section 1109.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT..., Component Parts, and Chemicals § 1109.13 Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child... children's toy or child care article for phthalate content provided that the requirements in § 1109.5 are...

  4. 16 CFR 1109.13 - Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child care articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... children's toys and child care articles. 1109.13 Section 1109.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT..., Component Parts, and Chemicals § 1109.13 Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child... children's toy or child care article for phthalate content provided that the requirements in § 1109.5 are...

  5. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Results of the Modified HIII-6C Test in the Marathon, Boulevard, and Decathlon Child Restraint Systems ii. Comparing the Results of the Britax Marathon Test of the Modified HIII-6C (test H06337) to Those of a Test... ``modified dummy'') in a Britax Marathon child restraint, Britax Boulevard and Britax Decathlon to the...

  6. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Bosgra, Sieto; Westerhout, Joost

    2015-08-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and observations of developmental toxicity in vivo. This modeling strategy is based on (1) the definition of relevant observations of toxicity in vivo, (2) simulation of the corresponding systemic concentrations in vivo by toxicokinetic modeling, and (3) correction for differences in protein binding and lipid partitioning between plasma and in vitro test media. The test results of a feasibility study with a number of known reproductive toxicants has been described previously (Piersma et al. [15]). In the present paper, we take a more detailed look at the toxicokinetics of these compounds, and add the analysis of some compounds from subsequent studies. We discuss how the consideration of toxicokinetics allowed comparison between test systems with differing test medium composition, has helped to interpret the in vitro findings in light of in vivo observations, and to gain confidence in the predictive value of the test battery outcomes. The same toxicokinetic modeling strategy, in reverse order, can now be used for risk assessment purposes to predict toxic doses in vivo from effective concentrations in vitro.

  7. Developmental and contextual factors in the role of severe childhood trauma in geriatric depression: the sample case of former indentured child laborers.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Maercker, Andreas; Bachem, Rahel; Simmen, Keti; Burri, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between childhood traumatic experiences and geriatric depression (GDS) in a population of elderly who were exposed to severe childhood trauma. We aimed to identify the role of childhood maltreatment exposure in geriatric depression and the developmental and contextual factors that exacerbate this relationship. We interviewed 141 former indentured child laborers (58 females) about their experiences as children and their current depressive symptoms (Mage=77, SD=6.8). Participants provided their age, the year they were first indentured, duration indentured, current physical health, completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Child maltreatment, specifically emotional abuse, was strongly associated with geriatric depression symptoms. These effects were specific to individuals who were removed from their biological families between the ages of 3 and 9 years, and for children who were indentured for 6-12 years. Finally, depression partially mediated the association between medical conditions and daily health impairment, but not for individuals "at risk" for depression by virtue of their maltreatment experiences. This study was conducted with a specific subpopulation of elderly and therefore may not generalize to all geriatric depression, nor to all generations or populations with exposure to childhood adversity. This study demonstrates the importance of using a developmental framework to understand how childhood maltreatment facilitates increased risk for the development of depression in late life.

  8. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  9. My Child Doesn't Test Well. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    The writer examines a variety of reasons why test performance may not always be a valid measure of a person's competence or potential. Citing that a sizable percentage of students perform well in their schoolwork but poorly on standardized, multiple-choice tests, Bond defines and discusses four candidates as source factors for the phenomenon: (1)…

  10. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  11. Ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: testing basic assumptions of the developmental model.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Juang, Linda P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney's (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association between ethnic identity and psychological functioning for ethnic minorities, but not for Whites. These hypotheses were tested in three independent samples of ethnically diverse youth. In general, we found weak to moderate support for these three hypotheses, suggesting that the theoretically proposed differences in ethnic identity between ethnic minorities and Whites may not be supported by data. Implications for theory and measurement of ethnic identity are discussed.

  12. Longitudinal Test of a Developmental Model of the Transition to Early Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Settles, Regan E.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal test of a developmental model of early drinking that specifies transactions among personality, learning and behavior in the risk process. The model was tested on 1906 children making the transition from elementary school to middle school across three time points: the spring of 5th grade, the fall of 6th grade, and the spring of 6th grade. In a transaction that has been referred to as Acquired Preparedness, individual differences in the trait positive urgency at the end of 5th grade were associated with increases in expectancies for social facilitation from alcohol at the start of 6th grade, which then predicted drinker status at the end of 6th grade. In addition, the alcohol expectancy and drinker status predicted each other reciprocally across time. Multiple factors appear to transact to predict early drinking behavior. PMID:24661166

  13. Prospects for the development of validated screening tests that measure developmental toxicity potential: view of one skeptic.

    PubMed

    Mirkes, P E

    1996-06-01

    Humans are exposed to a variety of potential developmental toxicants. This fact, combined with the knowledge that human development can be disrupted by "environmental" agents, has led to the development of methods designed to identify potential developmental toxicants. Currently, the principal method used to screen drugs and chemicals that are potential human developmental toxicants is the segment II study (i.e., a study in which prospective drugs and chemicals are tested in pregnant animals). Because of the cost and time involved in such studies and the pressure to reduce the number of animals used in such testing, alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing have been sought. This has resulted in a number of in vitro tests whose aim is to screen large numbers of agents quickly and inexpensively. Although numerous in vitro tests of developmental toxicity have been developed during the last 15 years, no one system or combination of tests have been validated for the purpose intended. Nonetheless, two systems--the limb bud/CNS micromass, and the chick embryo neural retina cell culture (CERC)--continue to be advanced as viable in vitro developmental toxicology tests. The purpose of this commentary is to evaluate the prospects for the development of an in vitro test system(s) that can screen the universe of drugs and chemicals and reliably identify those that require further study and those that do not. The conclusion of this investigator is that the prospects for validating such in vitro tests are not promising. This conclusion is based primarily on the lack of basic knowledge regarding the relevance of end points assayed in the micromass and CERC test systems to those end points known or thought to be critical for normal development.

  14. Zebrafish Development: High-throughput Test Systems to Assess Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Because of its developmental concordance, ease of handling and rapid development, the small teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), is frequently promoted as a vertebrate model for medium-throughput developmental screens. This present chapter discusses zebrafish as an altern...

  15. Zebrafish Development: High-throughput Test Systems to Assess Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Because of its developmental concordance, ease of handling and rapid development, the small teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), is frequently promoted as a vertebrate model for medium-throughput developmental screens. This present chapter discusses zebrafish as an altern...

  16. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability.

  17. A Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Developmental Neurotoxicity Study in Support of OECD Test Guideline 426

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Susan L.; Raffaele, Kathleen; Allen, Sandra; Bowers, Wayne J.; Hass, Ulla; Alleva, Enrico; Calamandrei, Gemma; Sheets, Larry; Amcoff, Patric; Delrue, Nathalie; Crofton, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in support of the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG 426). Information sources and analysis In this review we summarize extensive scientific efforts that form the foundation for this testing paradigm, including basic neurotoxicology research, interlaboratory collaborative studies, expert workshops, and validation studies, and we address the relevance, applicability, and use of the DNT study in risk assessment. Conclusions The OECD DNT guideline represents the best available science for assessing the potential for DNT in human health risk assessment, and data generated with this protocol are relevant and reliable for the assessment of these end points. The test methods used have been subjected to an extensive history of international validation, peer review, and evaluation, which is contained in the public record. The reproducibility, reliability, and sensitivity of these methods have been demonstrated, using a wide variety of test substances, in accordance with OECD guidance on the validation and international acceptance of new or updated test methods for hazard characterization. Multiple independent, expert scientific peer reviews affirm these conclusions. PMID:19165382

  18. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    PubMed

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 6. Developmental Airdrop Testing Techniques and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Drag (lb) or Diameter (ft), general Do Nominal diameter of the parachute canopy - A5-’/" (ft) DR1 Skirt diameter of reefed canopy (ft) DRo Diameter of...flight test program be derigned to move in an orderly, controlled sequence from the least hazardous to the most hazardous test, employing whatever...34 handle and the "SEQ LOCK" ratchet handle (Figure 5). A definite sequence of actions by these controls will result in the LH latches being placed in the

  20. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  1. Numerical simulation of a child restraint system in an aircraft crash-test.

    PubMed

    Oggero, E; Pipino, M; Deweese, R; Mugnai, A; Aljundi, B; Pagnacco, G

    2000-01-01

    Studies conducted at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute have shown that when used in aircraft, automotive child restraint devices do not always provide the level of safety desired. Various factors that contribute to poor performance, such as seat belt anchor location, cushion stiffness, and child restraint device design features, were evaluated by a dynamic impact test program. To efficiently continue the research, a computer model was developed using MADYMO. Results of two of the impact tests were used to validate the model. Both test configurations utilized a typical commercial transport airplane passenger seat and a popular automotive child restraint device. These tests were considered representative of the extremes of child restraint device and occupant kinematics due to variance in seat belt anchor location. Details are presented of the test parameters and geometry, as well as cushion and restraint system properties. Test and modelling results for these two impact conditions are summarized and compared. Parametric studies were then conducted that used the model to investigate the effect of cushion stiffness, belt anchor spacing, and initial belt tension.

  2. Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  3. Developing the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD) for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Chun; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument, named the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD), for measuring the amount and quality of use of affected upper limb functions in the daily routines of children with CP. Methods Forty-eight participants (24 children with CP and 24 matched typically developing children) were recruited. The OTCPDD was administered twice (the spontaneous use condition first, followed by the forced use condition) on children with CP. Their parents were asked to complete the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R). The internal consistency, the intrarater and interrater reliabilities, and the convergent and discriminate validities were measured. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities were higher than 0.9 for all of the OTCPDD scores. The convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the OTCPDD and the PMAL-R. For the discriminant validity, significant differences (p<0.05) were found between children with CP and typically developing children. Conclusions The results support that the OTCPDD is a reliable and valid observation-based assessment. The OTCPDD, which uses bimanual daily living activities, is able to represent the children’s general affected hand functions (including capacity, performance, and developmental disregard) in their daily routines. PMID:27010941

  4. The Role of Child-Centered Perspectives in a Model of Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Tested a conceptual model of parenting to determine whether maternal child-centered perspectives mediated relations between parenting resources of social support, child-rearing history, and self-esteem and the child's developmental level with parenting behavior. Found that mothers' perspectives directly related to parenting behavior in two…

  5. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    PubMed

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  6. Japanese and Canadian Children’s Beliefs about Child and Adult Knowledge: A Case for Developmental Equifinality?

    PubMed Central

    Fitneva, Stanka A.; Pile Ho, Elizabeth; Hatayama, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult. In addition, parental and child beliefs were related in Japan but not in Canada. These findings indicate that children growing up in different cultures may take different paths in developing beliefs about age-related knowledge. Implications for theories of socio-cognitive development and learning are discussed. PMID:27632387

  7. Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics - strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for parents of young children with developmental delays: implications for parental mental health and child behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Neece, Cameron L

    2014-03-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems; however, it is rarely addressed in interventions aimed at reducing child behaviour problems. The current study examined the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents of children with DD by investigating whether this intervention is effective in reducing parenting stress and whether decreases in parenting stress lead to reductions in behaviour problems among children with DD. Forty six parents of children with DD were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or wait list-control group. Participants completed questionnaires assessing parental stress and child behaviour problems at intake and at a second assessment, which took place after only the immediate treatment group had received the MBSR. Parents who participated in MBSR reported significantly less stress and depression as well as greater life satisfaction compared with wait list-control parents. Regarding child outcomes, children whose parents participated in MBSR were reported to have fewer behaviour problems following the intervention, specifically in the areas of attention problems and ADHD symptomatology. Results indicated that MBSR may be an effective intervention for ameliorating parental stress and mental health problems among parents of children with DD. Additionally, these benefits may 'spill over' and improve behaviour challenges among these children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Testing Out Developmental, Psycholinguistics: Teachers Research the Adult/Child Role in Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Christine

    1992-01-01

    Considers teachers' research into adult/pupil dialog. Questions the way teachers converse with students. Asks how teachers listen to what children say and how teachers reciprocate. Studies language facility as an age-related phenomenon and considers whether conversation is led and developed in linguistic context by the adult. (HB)

  10. Stability of Attachment Style in Adolescence: An Empirical Test of Alternative Developmental Processes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Fraley, R Chris; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Stern, Jessica A; Lejuez, C W; Shaver, Phillip R; Cassidy, Jude

    2017-03-16

    Few studies have examined stability and change in attachment during adolescence. This 5-year longitudinal study (a) examined whether prototype or revisionist developmental dynamics better characterized patterns of stability and change in adolescent attachment (at T1, N = 176; Mage  = 14.0 years, SD = 0.9), (b) tested potential moderators of prototype-like attachment stability, and (c) compared attachment stability in adolescence to stability in adulthood. The results supported the prototype model, which assumes that there is a stable, enduring factor underlying stability and change in attachment. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that family conflict, parental separation or divorce, minority status, and male sex might undermine the prototype-like stability of adolescent attachment. Stability of attachment was lower in adolescence relative to adulthood.

  11. Comparison of Hybrid III child test dummies to pediatric PMHS in blunt thoracic impact response.

    PubMed

    Parent, D P; Crandall, J R; Bolton, J R; Bass, C R; Ouyang, J; Lau, S H

    2010-08-01

    The limited availability of pediatric biomechanical impact response data presents a significant challenge to the development of child dummies. In the absence of these data, the development of the current generation of child dummies has been driven by scaling of the biomechanical response requirements of the existing adult test dummies. Recently published pediatric blunt thoracic impact response data provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of these scaling methodologies. However, the published data include several processing anomalies and nonphysical features. These features are corrected by minimizing instrumentation and processing error to improve the fidelity of the individual force-deflection responses. Using these data, biomechanical impact response corridors are calculated for a 3-year-old child and a 6-year-old child. These calculated corridors differ from both the originally published postmortem human subject (PMHS) corridors and the impact response requirements of the current child dummies. Furthermore, the response of the Hybrid III 3-year-old test dummy in the same impact condition shows a similar deflection but a significantly higher force than the 3-year-old corridor. The response of the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy, on the other hand, correlates well with the calculated 6-year-old corridor. The newly developed 3-year-old and 6-year-old blunt thoracic impact response corridors can be used to define data-driven impact response requirements as an alternative to scaling-driven requirements.

  12. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z. Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-10-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 {mu}g/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  13. Child Development, Care and Guidance. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Child Development, Care and Guidance semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics…

  14. "No Child" Effect on English-Learners Mulled: Teachers Welcome Attention, Fault Focus on Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Educators who specialize in teaching English-language learners agree that the 4-year-old No Child Left Behind Act has brought unprecedented attention to those students by requiring schools to isolate test-score data for them. They disagree, though, on whether changes in instruction spurred by the law have been positive or negative overall. Such…

  15. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data…

  16. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act. Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the appendices to the "High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act" report. It contains the following appendices: (1) Example of Context for Assessing State-Level Stakes Sheet--Connecticut; (2) Example of Completed Rewards and Sanctions Worksheet--Connecticut; (3) Directions…

  17. Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…

  18. Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…

  19. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…