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Sample records for child developmental test

  1. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  2. Evaluation of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test for Use in States' Child Outcomes Measurement Systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) for use in states' child outcomes accountability systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Complete Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), assessment data were obtained for 142 children, ages 2 to 62 months, who…

  3. Child Abuse: Its Relationship to Birthweight, Apgar Score, and Developmental Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of child abuse to birthweight, five-minute Apgar score, and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development was studied in 75 low socioeconomic infants (ages 2-30 months). Journal availability: see EC 111 042. (Author)

  4. Developmental Levels of the Child's Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska

    Noting that examining the storytelling skills of children between 4 and 8 years of age can provide insights into the child's overall language development, this study explored the development of children's storytelling, using story coherence and story cohesion to evaluate the developmental level of the child's storytelling. Participating in the…

  5. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  6. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  7. Developmental plasticity in child growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2011-01-01

    The ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to different environments is termed "plasticity," and is part of the organism's "adaptability" to environmental cues. The expressions of suites of genes, particularly during development or life history transitions, probably underlie the fundamental plasticity of an organism. Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to organisms under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology, child growth and maturation, and long-term health and longevity. Developmental origins of health and disease and life history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies for child growth and maturation in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from conception to early childhood, and even beyond to the transition from juvenility to adolescence, and could be transmitted transgenerationally. It involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life history phase transitions.

  8. Child Health, Developmental Plasticity, and Epigenetic Programming

    PubMed Central

    Feil, R.; Constancia, M.; Fraga, M.; Junien, C.; Carel, J.-C.; Boileau, P.; Le Bouc, Y.; Deal, C. L.; Lillycrop, K.; Scharfmann, R.; Sheppard, A.; Skinner, M.; Szyf, M.; Waterland, R. A.; Waxman, D. J.; Whitelaw, E.; Ong, K.; Albertsson-Wikland, K.

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developmental origins of health and disease and life-history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from preconception to early childhood and involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life-history phase transitions. These epigenetic responses influence development, cell- and tissue-specific gene expression, and sexual dimorphism, and, in exceptional cases, could be transmitted transgenerationally. Translational epigenetic research in child health is a reiterative process that ranges from research in the basic sciences, preclinical research, and pediatric clinical research. Identifying the epigenetic consequences of fetal programming creates potential applications in clinical practice: the development of epigenetic biomarkers for early diagnosis of disease, the ability to identify susceptible individuals at risk for adult diseases, and the development of novel preventive and curative measures that are based on diet and/or novel epigenetic drugs. PMID:20971919

  9. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  10. Child maltreatment syndrome: demographics and developmental issues of inpatient cases

    PubMed Central

    Ngiam, Xin Ying; Kang, Ying Qi; Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Kiing, Jennifer; Law, Evelyn Chung Ning

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, developmental and behavioural profile of children hospitalised for alleged child maltreatment syndrome (CMS). METHODS This study was a retrospective review of the consecutive inpatient records of children (0–16 years) admitted to the National University Hospital, Singapore, for alleged CMS over a three-year period. Descriptive data on the demographic characteristics, alleged maltreatment, medical and developmental histories, and family background of these children were collected and analysed. Chi-square statistics were used to test whether family factors were associated with the type of maltreatment and the presence of developmental disorders. RESULTS A total of 89 children, who accounted for 90 admission cases, were studied. Physical abuse (70.0%) was the most common, followed by neglect (11.1%) and sexual abuse (7.8%). Child protection services had already been involved in 29.2% of the cases prior to the child’s admission. Children who were victims of abuse were more likely to come from homes with a prior history of domestic violence (p = 0.028). Financial difficulty was found to be a risk factor for neglect (p = 0.005). Among the 89 children, 15.7% were found to have developmental disorders and 10.1% had mental health diagnoses. Children who had developmental disorders were more likely to have a parent with a mental health disorder (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION A sizeable proportion of the children admitted for alleged CMS had developmental or behavioural disorders. Clinicians have a role in ensuring that these children have appropriate follow-up plans. Children from high-risk families should be screened for maltreatment. PMID:26668405

  11. Early child development and developmental delay in indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Matthew M; Gahagan, Sheila

    2009-12-01

    Developmental delay is common and often responds to early intervention. As with other health outcomes, the prevalence of developmental delay may be socially determined. Children in many Indigenous communities experience increased risk for developmental delay. This article highlights special conditions in Indigenous communities related to child development. It addresses the challenges of screening and evaluation for developmental delay in the context of Indigenous cultures, and in settings where resources are often inadequate. It is clear that careful research on child development in Indigenous settings is urgently needed. Intervention strategies tied to cultural traditions could enhance interest, acceptability, and ultimately developmental outcomes in children at risk.

  12. Teacher-child relationships as a developmental issue.

    PubMed

    Schuengel, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships may be a developmental issue in its own right, instead of an aspect of wider developmental issues such as attachment or adaptation to school. This paper discusses research findings on teacher-child relationships to argue that teacher-child relationships are important for carrying forward the experiences represented in the attachment behavioral system, although it is not clear whether teacher-child relationships themselves add to the attachment behavioral system or to the sociability behavioral system. The research demonstrates that attachment theory offers a useful template for understanding the role of teacher-child relationships in development. Listing teacher-child relationships among main developmental issues for today's children puts the spotlight on avenues for improving teacher-child relationships.

  13. Developmental Assessment of Infants and Toddlers in Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Betty S.

    The Mental Development Scales: Birth to Three Years are instruments designed to assess developmental levels of young children within a setting familiar to the child. They (1) provide a greater understanding of child behavior and development, (2) serve as a basis for planning an individualized curriculum for each child, and (3) furnish the means…

  14. Psychological child maltreatment. A developmental view.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, J

    1993-06-01

    This article explores the concept of psychological child maltreatment. It begins with a definition of psychological maltreatment in terms of care-giver behavior that thwarts the meeting of the needs of children. It focuses on five forms of psychological maltreatment that are of concern to the practitioner: rejecting (sending messages of rejection to the child), ignoring (being psychologically unavailable to the child), terrorizing (using intense fear as a weapon against the child), isolating (cutting the child off from normal social relationships), and corrupting (missocializing the child into self-destructive and antisocial patterns of behavior).

  15. Developmental Factors Related to Deviant Sexual Preferences in Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, Patrick; Beauregard, Eric; Proulx, Jean; Nicole, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between developmental factors and deviant sexual preferences in child molesters. In total, 146 adult males having committed a sexual offence against a child were included in the study. Three types of factors were investigated: negative experiences during childhood, behavior problems during…

  16. Gesell's Developmental Testing: What Purpose Does It Serve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Modlin, Preston D.

    1987-01-01

    Examined usefulness of the Gesell Preschool Test (GPT), a developmental readiness test used by teachers and school psychologists to determine a child's readiness to begin formal instruction. Results revealed that, after accounting for effects of math and reading achievement, GPT failed to contribute to the discrimination of 30 retained and 58…

  17. From parent-child mutuality to security to socialization outcomes: developmental cascade toward positive adaptation in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age eight. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS. The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident.

  18. A Multimedia Child Developmental Screening Checklist: Design and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chen, Li-Ying; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying disability early in life confers long-term benefits for children. The Taipei City Child Development Screening tool, second version (Taipei II) provides checklists for 13 child age groups from 4 months to 6 years. However, the usability of a text-based screening tool largely depends on the literacy level and logical reasoning ability of the caregivers, as well as language barriers caused by increasing numbers of immigrants. Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) design and develop a Web-based multimedia version of the current Taipei II developmental screening tool, and (2) investigate the measurement equivalence of this multimedia version to the original paper-based version. Methods To develop the multimedia version of Taipei II, a team of experts created illustrations, translations, and dubbing of the original checklists. The developmental screening test was administered to a total of 390 primary caregivers of children aged between 4 months and 6 years. Results Psychometric testing revealed excellent agreement between the paper and multimedia versions of Taipei II. Good to excellent reliabilities were demonstrated for all age groups for both the cross-mode similarity (mode intraclass correlation range 0.85-0.96) and the test-retest reliability (r=.93). Regarding the usability, the mean score was 4.80 (SD 0.03), indicating that users were satisfied with their multimedia website experience. Conclusions The multimedia tool produced essentially equivalent results to the paper-based tool. In addition, it had numerous advantages, such as it can facilitate active participation and promote early screening of target populations. ClinicalTrial Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02359591; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02359591 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6l21mmdNn) PMID:27777218

  19. Developmental toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Preventative and therapeutic vaccines are increasingly used during pregnancy and present special considerations for developmental toxicity testing. The various components of the vaccine formulation (i.e., protein or polysaccharide antigen, adjuvants, and excipients) need to be assessed for direct effects on the developing conceptus. In addition, possible adverse influences of the induced antibodies on fetal and/or postnatal development need to be evaluated. A guidance document on the preclinical testing of preventative and therapeutic vaccines for developmental toxicity was issued by the FDA in 2006. Preclinical studies are designed to assess possible influences of vaccines on pre- and postnatal development. The choice of model animal for these experiments is influenced by species differences in the timing and extent of the transfer of the induced maternal antibodies to the fetus. The cross-placental transport of maternal immunoglobulins generally only occurs in late gestation and tends to be greater in humans and monkeys than in non-primate species. For many vaccines, the rabbit shows a greater rate of prenatal transfer of the induced antibodies than rodents. For biotechnology-derived vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species, nonhuman primates may be the only appropriate models. It may be advisable to test new adjuvants using the ICH study designs for conventional pharmaceuticals in addition to the developmental toxicity study with the final vaccine formulation.

  20. Understanding child sexual behavior problems: a developmental psychopathology framework.

    PubMed

    Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran

    2009-11-01

    Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.

  1. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    PubMed

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  2. Child health developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developm...

  3. Developmental Outcome in a Tracheostomized Child: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports developmental outcomes of a child who experienced a tracheostomy and had prolonged hospitalization and psychomotor therapy in an intensive care unit. Found a pattern of delay in speech and language production with no hearing loss, no cognitive impairment, an average level of fine motor disorders, no behavioral disorders, and normal…

  4. Child Maltreatment: Implications for Developmental Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante

    1996-01-01

    Developmental theories can be augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Examination of individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can shed light on system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. Child maltreatment is examined to illustrate benefits from studying individuals subjected to…

  5. Developmental Physical Management of the Multi-Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Beverly; Brown, Glenna

    The manual was designed to provide an overview of the Developmental Physical Management program used at the University of Alabama in classes for infants and children with multiple disabilities. The multidisabled child may be affected by one or more of the following problems: slow development, lack of normal integration of basic reflexes, abnormal…

  6. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  7. Child, parent, and parent-child emotion narratives: implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, David

    2006-01-01

    Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.

  8. Education of a child neurologist: developmental neuroscience relevant to child neurology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael V

    2011-06-01

    Developmental neuroscience is increasingly relevant to clinical child neurology, and study of advances in neurobiology, neurochemistry and neurogenetics should be part of the curriculum of residency training. The profile of synaptic development is especially relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, Fragile X syndrome, and early epileptic encephalopathies. This knowledge is increasingly being translated into therapies for previously untreatable disorders.

  9. Working with Your Child: Suggestions for Families of the Developmentally Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Intended for parents of developmentally disabled children, the booklet (in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese versions) contains information for the parent to share with the child and offers suggestions for activities. Section 1 on physical health and nutrition shows how the proper foods and good eating habits help a healthy body resist illness.…

  10. The Use of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in Infant Welfare Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a single Denver Developmental Screening Test performance on 823 infants attending maternal and child health centers were compared with developmental information recorded by public health nurses during routine well baby care of these same infants. Journal Avaliability: J.B. Lippincott Co; E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  11. Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed.

  12. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  13. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FKBP5

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FKBP5 CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n=179 maltreated; n=147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7–9 and adolescence: ages 15–18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with 1–2 copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward SUD in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  14. From specialist to generalist: Developmental transformations in the genetic structure of early child abilities.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Amanda K; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-07-01

    The heritability of abilities increases substantially over development, and much of heritable variation in abilities is shared with other abilities. No study, however, has formally tested the extent to which developmental increases in heritability occur on shared versus unique variation in child abilities. A transactional perspective predicts that the relative proportion of shared to total genetic variance will increase with age, whereas an endogenous perspective predicts that such proportion will be invariant with age. We tested these competing predictions using data from a sample of 292 twins providing a total of 578 cross-sectional and longitudinal observations between ages 0 and 6 years on measures of Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem-Solving, and Personal-Social abilities. Consistent with predictions of the transactional perspective, developmental increases in heritability were localized to variance shared across abilities.

  15. Meeting report: alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-05-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing chemicals and exposures that may cause developmental neurotoxicity in humans; (b) develop the policies for incorporating DNT alternatives into regulatory decision making; and (c) identify opportunities for reducing, refining, or replacing the use of animals in DNT. The first TestSmart DNT workshop was an open registration meeting held 13-15 March 2006 in Reston, Virginia. The primary objective was to bring together stakeholders (test developers, test users, regulators, and advocates for children's health, animal welfare, and environmental health) and individuals representing diverse disciplines (developmental neurobiology, toxicology, policy, and regulatory science) from around the world to share information and concerns relating to the science and policy of DNT. Individual presentations are available at the CAAT TestSmart website. This report provides a synthesis of workgroup discussions and recommendations for future directions and priorities, which include initiating a systematic evaluation of alternative models and technologies, developing a framework for the creation of an open database to catalog DNT data, and devising a strategy for harmonizing the validation process across international jurisdictional borders.

  16. Child health and parental stress in school-age children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard I; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Shevell, Michael I

    2008-01-01

    Chronic disorders are known to have a wide-ranging impact on overall health and family dynamics. The objective of this study was to assess child health and well-being and parental stress in a cohort of school-age children diagnosed before school entry with either global developmental delay or developmental language impairment. In total, 65 children with preschool developmental delay were assessed at school age (mean +/- SD age: 7.3 +/- 0.7 years) with the Child Health Questionnaire and Parenting Stress Index, with a mean interval between assessment of 3.9 years. Almost all children who completed testing (60/62) continued to show developmental impairments across domains. On the Child Health Questionnaire, children showed the greatest impairment on the mental health scale (median z score: -0.9). The median Child Health Questionnaire psychosocial health score (40.7) was almost 1 SD below established normative values ( P < .001). More than 40% of parents had a Parenting Stress Index above the 85th percentile (clinically significant parenting stress). Using multiple linear regression analysis, high levels of parenting stress were best predicted by a child's Child Health Questionnaire psychosocial health score (r2 = 0.49, P < .001). Thus, 4 years after a preschool-age diagnosis of developmental delay, poor psychosocial health was a common comorbidity. Almost half the parents showed clinically significant levels of parenting stress. There is a need to both recognize and provide ongoing social and emotional support for young children diagnosed with developmental disability and their families.

  17. Developmental and reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The majority of new preventative and therapeutic vaccines are now assessed for developmental toxicity according to guidelines issued by the FDA in 2006. Despite the absence of confirmed effects in humans, vaccines are frequently suspected of having adverse side-effects on the development of children. Such suspicions are perhaps unavoidable considering the extremely widespread use of vaccines. The preclinical developmental toxicology studies are designed to assess possible influences of each component of the vaccine formulation-and the induced antibodies-on the development of the conceptus, neonate and suckling organism. Immune modulation by a vaccine or an adjuvant could, for instance, affect the outcome of pregnancy by interfering with the natural shift in immune balance of the mother during gestation. Maternal immunoglobulins are transferred from the mother to the offspring in order to confer passive immunity during early life. This maternal antibody transport is prenatal in humans and monkeys, but tends to be delayed until after birth in other species. Therefore, a suitable model species needs to be chosen for preclinical studies in order to ensure exposure of the foetus to the induced maternal antibodies following vaccination. Rabbits are the best laboratory model for prenatal immunoglobulin transfer, but rodents are more practical for the necessary postnatal investigations. Non-human primates are the only appropriate models for the testing of vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species. It is advisable to test new adjuvants separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guidelines. Preclinical paediatric investigations are not currently required for vaccines, even though most vaccines are given to children. Other areas of regulatory concern include developmental immunotoxicity and effects on the preimplantation embryo. Because of the limitations of the available animal models for developmental toxicity testing, pharmacovigilance is essential.

  18. The Design and Validation of a Child Developmental e-Screening System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Huang, Po-Hsin; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chen, Li-Ying; Tseng, Kevin C

    2017-04-01

    An effective screening test could significantly impact identification of developmental delays at an early age. However, many studies have shown that delay screenings still use text-based screening survey questionnaires. Unfortunately, the traditional text-based screening method tends to be fairly passive. In addition, the advantages of using an interactive system and animation have been shown to lead to positive effects on learning in medical research. Therefore, a multimedia screening system is necessary. This study constructs a system architecture to develop an e-screening system for child developmental delays. To validate the system after development, this study conducted an experiment and employed a questionnaire to survey users. Five experts and 120 subjects participated in the experiment. After the experiment, the results of the system evaluation revealed excellent agreement between the text-based and multimedia version of Taipei II. A total of 118 (98%) participants preferred the multimedia version or had no preference, and only 2 (2%) preferred the paper version. Regular text-based screening sometimes excludes those with low literacy and those whose native language is different from the text. In addition, text-based screening tools lose users' attention easily. The current study successfully developed a multimedia text-based screening system. Feedback from the participants showed that the e-screening system was well accepted and more easily accessible than the original. In this study, a child developmental delays e-screening system was developed. After the experiment, the subjects indicated that the developmental delay e-screening system increased their comprehension and kept them interested in the screening.

  19. Multilevel developmental approaches to understanding the effects of child maltreatment: Recent advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    POLLAK, SETH D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in the field of child maltreatment has begun to shed new light on the emergence of health problems in children by emphasizing the responsiveness of developmental processes to children’s environmental and biological contexts. Here, I highlight recent trends in the field with an emphasis on the effects of early life stress across multiple levels of developmental domains. PMID:26535932

  20. Child Care Providers' Competence and Confidence in Referring Children at Risk for Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Diane; Bingham, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the benefits of early intervention for children, the majority of children with developmental delays are not identified prior to the age of 5 years. Child care providers could aid in recognition of children at risk for developmental delays; however, there is little research on this topic. This article reports on a qualitative research study…

  1. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  2. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  3. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  4. Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Bignami, G

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity. PMID:9182035

  5. Validity of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Supplemental Developmental Test of Visual Perception.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Rodger, Sylvia

    2008-06-01

    Visual perceptual skills of school-age children are often assessed using the Supplemental Developmental Test of Visual Perception of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. The study purpose was to consider the construct validity of this test by evaluating its scalability (interval level measurement), unidimensionality, differential item functioning, and hierarchical ordering of its items. Visual perceptual performance scores from a sample of 356 typically developing children (171 boys and 185 girls ages 5 to 11 years) were used to complete a Rasch analysis of the test. Seven items were discarded for poor fit, while none of the items exhibited differential item functioning by sex. The construct validity, scalability, hierarchical ordering, and lack of differential item functioning requirements were met by the final test version. Since 7 test items did not fit the Rasch analysis specifications, the clinical value of the test is questionable and limited.

  6. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  7. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... agencies must utilize multiple sources of information on all aspects of each child's development...

  8. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... agencies must utilize multiple sources of information on all aspects of each child's development...

  9. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... agencies must utilize multiple sources of information on all aspects of each child's development...

  10. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... agencies must utilize multiple sources of information on all aspects of each child's development...

  11. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... agencies must utilize multiple sources of information on all aspects of each child's development...

  12. Play and the older child: developmental and clinical opportunities.

    PubMed

    Meersand, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the meaning and function of pretend play in older children. First, a review of the widely accepted developmental sequences, growth-promoting potential, and analytic uses of play for younger children is provided. Then the possible role for play in later childhood is explored through the presentation of Sarah, a twelve-year-old girl in analysis, whose play appeared to provide both clinical and developmental benefits. The suggestion is made to soften the existing developmental line for play in order to allow for its role with preadolescent children.

  13. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C. Anthoney; Cunningham, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to life-threatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair. PMID:23251718

  14. The Serial Use of Child Neurocognitive Tests: Development versus Practice Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter D.; Townes, Brenda D.; Rosenbaum, Gail; Martins, Isabel P.; Luis, Henrique; Bernardo, Mario; Martin, Michael D.; DeRouen, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    When serial neurocognitive assessments are performed, 2 main factors are of importance: test-retest reliability and practice effects. With children, however, there is a third, developmental factor, which occurs as a result of maturation. Child tests recognize this factor through the provision of age-corrected scaled scores. Thus, a ready-made…

  15. Child maltreatment and children's developmental trajectories in early to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Berger, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes.

  16. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early- to Middle-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. PMID:25521556

  17. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  18. Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M.; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3–8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges. PMID:26792974

  19. Adolescent maltreatment in the child welfare system and developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; Motley, Darnell; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Landsverk, John

    2015-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, we tested whether adolescent maltreatment and out-of-home placement as a response to maltreatment altered developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system. Participants included adolescents aged 13 to 17 (M = 15.5, SD = 1.49) at baseline (n = 714), followed over 18 months. Computer-assisted interviews were used to collect self-reported sexual practices and experiences of physical and psychological abuse at both time points. Latent transition analyses were used to identify three patterns of sexual risk behaviors: abstainers, safe sex with multiple partners, and unsafe sex with multiple partners. Most adolescents transitioned to safer sexual behavior patterns over time. Adolescents exhibiting the riskiest sexual practices at baseline were most likely to report subsequent abuse and less likely to be placed into out-of-home care. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of sexual risk among child welfare-involved adolescents and inform practices to promote positive transitions within the system.

  20. Developmental Changes in the Early Child Lexicon in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Meiling; Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua; Xing, Ailing; Jiang, Ying; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of…

  1. Supernumerary chromosome marker (1) in a developmentally delayed child

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphear, N.; Oppenheimer, S.; Lamb, A.

    1995-07-03

    A 15-month-old boy with mild developmental delay and several minor anomalies was found to be mosaic 46,XY/47,XY,+mar(1). The marker r(1) was a small de novo ring identified by FISH with a painting type DNA probe. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology: Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante, Ed.; Toth, Sheree L., Ed.

    This book is devoted to the problems of family violence, child abuse, and child maltreatment, including the legal, social, psychological, and community issues. Articles contained in this volume are as follows: (1) "Child Maltreatment Research and Social Policy: The Neglected Nexus" (D. Cicchetti and S. Toth); (2) "Defining Child…

  3. The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

  4. Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Developmental Research and the Child Advocacy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Developmental researchers face a perilous path as they set out to perform research with child advocacy potential. We offer our observations regarding how researchers can navigate the path between science (the "rock") and advocacy (the "soft place"), based on our recent experience as directors of the MacArthur Juvenile Adjudicative Competence…

  5. Assessment of Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Wheelchair Movement in a Child with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Kahng, SungWoo; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Sveinsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sadler, Christine

    2003-01-01

    An adolescent with developmental disabilities who used a wheelchair was anecdotally observed to display little aggressive behavior when being pushed, but higher rates when movement was terminated. A functional analysis confirmed the elevated aggression and the child was taught to request movement through appropriate means. Aggression decreased…

  6. Parental Factors Correlated with Developmental Outcome in the Migrant Head Start Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Smith, M. Shelton

    1994-01-01

    Examined parental factors correlated with developmental outcomes among 60 Mexican American migrant farmworker children. Found that maternal parenting style accounted for a significant amount of the variance in child behavior problems reported by the mothers, whereas maternal social support helped to explain the variance in peer acceptance reported…

  7. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  8. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  9. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  10. Parent-Child Interaction and Developmental Disabilities: Theory, Research, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfo, Kofi, Ed.

    Examined are the interactions of parents and their children with developmental disabilities, focusing on the following aspects: social, emotional, language, communication, clinical, educational, and methodological. A partial listing of contents follows: "Determinants of Parent and Child Interactive Behavior" (Carl Dunst and Carol…

  11. Developmental Screening Referrals: Child and Family Factors that Predict Referral Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Danielle J.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the predictive impact of developmental screening results and the effects of child and family characteristics on completion of referrals given for evaluation. Logistical and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of 10 independent variables on the predictor variable. The number of…

  12. Conversational Asymmetry and the Child's Perspective in Developmental and Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbers, Ed

    2004-01-01

    Developmental research and educational practice involve conversations between children and adults. The conversational aspects of these situations have rarely been occasions for reflection. Discrepancies between the child's expectations and the adult's intentions can lead to misunderstanding, for example, at school or during a research interview.…

  13. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  14. Guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of chemicals in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimura, T.

    1985-11-01

    With the definition of teratogenicity expanded in terms of the developmental stages when an agent acts and the types of developmental anomalies induced, the concept of developmental toxicity has been established. The examination of functional developmental disorders including behavior has become one of the most important items for the evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals, especially pharmaceutical drugs. The guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of drugs in Japan stress the need for examination of growth and development including behavior and fertility on the postweaning offspring. The outline of the Japanese guidelines is presented and it is emphasized that studies should be done as research and include self evaluation of the scientific truth of the experiment and extrapolation to humans. In addition, the activities of the Behavioral Teratology Meeting, a satellite meeting to the Japanese Teratology Society, are introduced and enquete surveys of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and collaborative studies for the standardization of learning tests in Japan are briefly presented.

  15. Genetic testing of the short child.

    PubMed

    Johnston Rohrbasser, L B

    2011-01-01

    Increased understanding of the pathogenetics of short stature and readily available genetic testing have changed the face of diagnostic endocrinology. It remains essential, however, that each short child undergoes detailed clinical, auxological and traditional endocrine assessment to determine which gene (or genes) to study. Diagnostic algorithms and clinical scoring systems are reviewed and the implications of genetic testing for determination of therapy type are discussed. At present, results from genetic testing do not reliably indicate which growth-promoting therapy would be most effective. However, pharmacogenetic testing may play a future role in the individualisation of therapy.

  16. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: A Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great progress has been made over the past 40 years in understanding the hazards of exposure to a small number of developmental neurotoxicants. Lead, PCBs, and methylmercury are all good examples of science-based approaches to characterizing the hazard to the developing nervous s...

  17. [Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories.

  18. Musical stimulation in the developmentally delayed child: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jones, N L; Molnar, E T; Knasel, A L

    1987-08-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated.

  19. Musical Stimulation in the Developmentally Delayed Child: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nanelle Lavina; Molnar, Eva T.; Knasel, Anne L.

    1987-01-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:2468780

  20. Uses and Abuses of Developmental Screening and School Readiness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the uses and abuses of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Tests and similar tests. First, discusses developmental screening and readiness tests, then focuses on the Gesell tests, specifically addressing their validity and questioning their current uses. Discusses implications of using readiness tests for assigning children to…

  1. Emanuel Miller lecture developmental risks (still) associated with early child care.

    PubMed

    Belsky, J

    2001-10-01

    In the mid to late 1980s a major controversy erupted when Belsky's (1986, 1988. 1990) analysis of research produced the conclusion that early and extensive nonmaternal care carried risks in terms of increasing the probability of insecure infant-parent attachment relationships and promoting aggression and noncompliance during the toddler, preschool, and early primary school years. Widespread critiques of Belsky's analysis called attention to problems associated with the Strange Situation procedure for measuring attachment security in the case of day-care reared children and to the failure of much of the cited research to take into consideration child-care quality and control for background factors likely to make children with varying child-care experiences developmentally different in the first place. In this lecture, research concerning the developmental effects of child care and maternal employment initiated in the first year of life that has emerged since the controversy broke is reviewed. Evidence indicating that early, extensive, and continuous nonmaternal care is associated with less harmonious parent-child relations and elevated levels of aggression and noncompliance suggests that concerns raised about early and extensive child care 15 years ago remain valid and that alternative explanations of Belsky's originally controversial conclusion do not account for seemingly adverse effects of routine nonmaternal care that continue to be reported in the literature.

  2. TESTING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: CURRENT APPROACHES AND FUTURE NEEDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many adverse effects on the nervous system following exposure to environmental chemicals during development. In a number of cases (e.g., lead, methyl mercury) the developing nervous system is a highly susceptible. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) guidelines...

  3. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  4. Borderline personality features in childhood: the role of subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Kathryn F; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, had higher scores on each individual subscale, and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all four subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores, and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed.

  5. [Need to merge child and adult psychiatry into comprehensive developmental psychiatry--consideration from the perspective of forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    The need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a continuum was discussed based on forensic issues in criminal cases involving developmental disorder. Recently, a number of offenders (both juvenile and adult) are being diagnosed with developmental disorder every year, when the system of sending severe juvenile cases from juvenile court to the prosecution as well as the new juror system makes the role of psychiatric examination more important than ever. Because of the unique symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conventional forensic psychiatry does not seem applicable to cases of ASD when making a fair judgement on criminal liability. This indicates that there is a need for not only basic knowledge on child psychiatry for all psychiatrists, but also knowledge on the developmental link between child and adult psychiatry. Therefore, there is a need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a comprehensive field of developmental psychiatry.

  6. Major paternal depression and child consultation for developmental and behavioural problems

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Shreya; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob; Nazareth, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    Background It is well established that maternal depression is associated with enhanced child consultation for developmental and behaviour problems, but there is a dearth of research on paternal depression and child outcome. Aim To assess the association of major paternal depressed mood and child consultation for developmental and behaviour problems. Design of study Cross-sectional study. Setting General practices in London and Hertfordshire, UK. Method Fathers of children aged 4–6 years were recruited via 13 general practices. A sample of 248 biological father and mother dyads completed measures on depressive syndrome (Patient Health Questionnaire), child consultations with health professionals for developmental and behaviour problems, fathering, couple relationship quality, alcohol misuse, other psychiatric impairment, and sociodemographic factors. Results Eight out of 248 fathers (3%) had a major depressive syndrome. Sixty-five out of 247 (26%) fathers reported they were responsible for taking their child to see the doctor at least half the time compared with mothers. Children of fathers with a major depressive syndrome were almost nine times more likely to have consulted a health professional for speech and language problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 8.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.99 to 37.67, P = 0.004) and seven times more likely to have consulted for externalising behaviour problems (adjusted OR = 6.98, 95% CI = 1.00 to 48.76, P = 0.05). Conclusion Children of fathers with major depression were more likely to consult for speech and language problems and externalising behaviour problems. A longitudinal study is recommended to identify causal mechanisms. PMID:19275834

  7. Testing inferences in developmental evolution: the forensic evidence principle.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Hans C E; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-09-01

    Developmental evolution (DE) examines the influence of developmental mechanisms on biological evolution. Here we consider the question: "what is the evidence that allows us to decide whether a certain developmental scenario for an evolutionary change is in fact "correct" or at least falsifiable?" We argue that the comparative method linked with what we call the "forensic evidence principle" (FEP) is sufficient to conduct rigorous tests of DE scenarios. The FEP states that different genetically mediated developmental causes of an evolutionary transformation will leave different signatures in the development of the derived character. Although similar inference rules have been used in practically every empirical science, we expand this approach here in two ways: (1) we justify the validity of this principle with reference to a well-known result from mathematical physics, known as the symmetry principle, and (2) propose a specific form of the FEP for DE: given two or more developmental explanations for a certain evolutionary event, say an evolutionary novelty, then the evidence discriminating between these hypotheses will be found in the most proximal internal drivers of the derived character. Hence, a detailed description of the ancestral and derived states, and their most proximal developmental drivers are necessary to discriminate between various evolutionary developmental hypotheses. We discuss how this stepwise order of testing is necessary, establishes a formal test, and how skipping this order of examination may violate a more accurate examination of DE. We illustrate the approach with an example from avian digit evolution.

  8. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children.

  9. Child with Deletion 9p Syndrome Presenting with Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Developmental Delay, and Multiple Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Sirisena, Nirmala D.; Wijetunge, U. Kalpani S.; de Silva, Ramya; Dissanayake, Vajira H. W.

    2013-01-01

    A 4-month-old Sri Lankan male child case with a de novo terminal deletion in the p22→pter region of chromosome 9 is described. The child presented with craniofacial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and congenital malformations in agreement with the consensus phenotype. A distinctive feature observed in this child was complete collapse of the left lung due to malformation of lung tissue. Cytogenetic studies confirmed terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 distal to band p22 [46,XY,del(9)(p22→pter)]. This is the first reported case of a de novo deletion 9p syndrome associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. This finding contributes to the widening of the spectrum of phenotypic features associated with deletion 9p syndrome. PMID:23984121

  10. Current and future needs for developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Makris, Susan L; Kim, James H; Ellis, Amy; Faber, Willem; Harrouk, Wafa; Lewis, Joseph M; Paule, Merle G; Seed, Jennifer; Tassinari, Melissa; Tyl, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    A review is presented of the use of developmental toxicity testing in the United States and international regulatory assessment of human health risks associated with exposures to pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), chemicals (agricultural, industrial, and environmental), food additives, cosmetics, and consumer products. Developmental toxicology data are used for prioritization and screening of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, for evaluating and labeling of pharmaceuticals, and for characterizing hazards and risk of exposures to industrial and environmental chemicals. The in vivo study designs utilized in hazard characterization and dose-response assessment for developmental outcomes have not changed substantially over the past 30 years and have served the process well. Now there are opportunities to incorporate new technologies and approaches to testing into the existing assessment paradigm, or to apply innovative approaches to various aspects of risk assessment. Developmental toxicology testing can be enhanced by the refinement or replacement of traditional in vivo protocols, including through the use of in vitro assays, studies conducted in alternative nonmammalian species, the application of new technologies, and the use of in silico models. Potential benefits to the current regulatory process include the ability to screen large numbers of chemicals quickly, with the commitment of fewer resources than traditional toxicology studies, and to refine the risk assessment process through an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and their relevance to potential human risk. As the testing paradigm evolves, the ability to use developmental toxicology data to meet diverse critical regulatory needs must be retained.

  11. Setting the Stage: Early Child and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Later Loneliness in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Angela; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Kersh, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities often report having few friends. Researchers have tended to focus on social skill deficits, neglecting other potent predictors of children's feelings of loneliness. In a sample of 82 children with developmental disabilities, we examined characteristics of the child at age 3 (i.e., the conclusion of early…

  12. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  13. Disorders of childhood growth and development: screening and evaluation of the child who misses developmental milestones.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The family physician is one of the few individuals from whom families receive feedback about their children's development; this makes early identification of potential delays an important responsibility. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends formal developmental screening for all children at the 9-, 18-, and 24- and/or 30-month well-child visits as well as developmental surveillance at every office visit through age 5 years. A formal screening measure is recommended, taking into account administration time and cost, characteristics of the patient population (eg, availability of screening tool in numerous languages), and psychometrics (eg, reliability, sensitivity, specificity). In the case of abnormal screening results, family physicians must determine the need for further medical evaluation (eg, by a developmental pediatric subspecialist or a pediatric neurology, genetics, or physiatry subspecialist) and/or further developmental evaluation (eg, by a physical therapy [PT], occupational therapy [OT], speech/language pathology, psychology, or audiology subspecialist). Knowledge of early intervention and early childhood programs is necessary for directing parents to evaluation and treatment sources. In treating patients with developmental delays, family physicians must possess knowledge regarding traditional modalities (eg, speech/language therapy, OT, PT) as well as newer treatments with less research support (eg, gluten-free/casein-free diet, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, neurodevelopmental treatment) that families may consider.

  14. A Pilot Study of Visual-Motor Developmental Inter-Test Reliability: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Gary L.; Binder, Dorothy M.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the intertest reliability of the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BGT), 64 six to nine year olds were administered both tests.

  15. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  16. A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)

  17. Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

  18. Test Review: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" (6th edition). The "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" is a newly updated measure of visual-motor abilities for individuals aged 2 to 100 years that principally represents a normative update from the fifth edition.…

  19. Parent-child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: parallel developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Chelsea M; Shaw, Daniel S; Crossan, Jennifer L; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-02-01

    Parent-child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother-child and father figure (FF)-child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother-child and FF-child conflict and children's adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother-FF-child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother-child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children's adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF-child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother-child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent-child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention.

  20. Parent–Child Conflict and Early Childhood Adjustment in Two-Parent Low-Income Families: Parallel Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Crossan, Jennifer L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother–child and father figure (FF)–child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother–child and FF–child conflict and children’s adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother–FF–child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother–child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children’s adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF–child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother–child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent–child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention. PMID:24610382

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: VARIABILITY IN MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...

  2. Creative solutions for complex developmental testing

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was requested to establish the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Development and Demonstration Center. The Center is housed in a hangar at the Albuquerque International Airport and owns its own aged transport airplane. The Center`s work encompasses research and development in enhanced structural inspection. The goals of the Center are to: promote NDI technology development and maturation; help transfer new nondevelopment item technology to the hangar floor; validate NDI techniques; assess reliability or probability of detection of NDI processes. An important part of this project will be to make sure that the cost of implementation and operation of any technique is seriously considered and that techniques are usable in the field. Among the initial techniques to be evaluated are: enhanced visual, magneto-optic eddy current; coherent optics; ultrasonics; thermographics; eddy current scanners; experimental modal analysis. This project is a perfect example of how Development Testing draws on its own resources and teams up with others, as necessary, to get the job done. In this case, New Mexico State University and a private company, Science Applications International Corporation, are assisting.

  3. Viking Mars lander 1975 dynamic test model/orbiter developmental test model forced vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J.; Brownlee, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking Mars Lander 1975 dynamic test model and orbiter developmental test model were subjected to forced vibration sine tests. Flight acceptance (FA) and type approval (TA) test levels were applied to the spacecraft structure in a longitudinal test configuration using a 133,440-N (30,000-lb) force shaker. Testing in the two lateral axes (X, Y) was performed at lower levels using four 667-N (150-lb) force shakers. Forced vibration qualification (TA) test levels were successfully imposed on the spacecraft at frequencies down to 10 Hz. Measured responses showed the same character as analytical predictions, and correlation was reasonably good. Because of control system test tolerances, orbiter primary structure generally did not reach the design load limits attained in earlier static testing. A post-test examination of critical orbiter structure disclosed no apparent damage to the structure as a result of the test environment.

  4. Sports participation of children with or without developmental delay: prediction from child and family factors.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Willa A; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation is beneficial to health and socioemotional adjustment in youth across development. While there is some evidence indicating lower sports participation for children with developmental delays (DD) as compared with their typically developing (TD) peers, little is known as to the predictors of this differential participation. Given the increased risk of physical and mental health difficulties for children with DD, understanding more about this disparity is important. We examined sports participation in elementary school-aged children with or without DD and examined child and family predictors of three indices of sports participation: number of sports and highest relational sport at ages 6 and 8, and consistent sports from 6 to 8. Children with TD were significantly higher on all three indicators. Mother and child factors related significantly to sports participation indices. The number of sports related positively to mother education and positive perceptions and negatively to mother employment. Relational sports were higher in boys, children with higher social skills, and lower behavior problems. In regression analyses at child age 8 that included these other variables, delay status (DD or TD) did not have a significant effect. Perspectives on varying influences on sports participation and implications for intervention are discussed.

  5. Parent-Child Relationships of Boys in Different Offending Trajectories: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods: Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7-19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending…

  6. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems within Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Transactional Relations across 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children’s high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in families where a child has a DD. The present study investigated transactional relations between child behavior problems and maternal stress within 176 families raising a child with early diagnosed DD. There was evidence of both child-driven and parent-driven effects over the 15-year study period, spanning from early childhood (age 3) to adolescence (age 18), consistent with transactional models of development. Parent-child transactions were found to vary across different life phases and with different domains of behavior problems. PMID:25462487

  7. Linking Maternal Efficacy Beliefs, Developmental Goals, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural Single-Parent African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.; Gibson, Nicole Morgan

    1999-01-01

    Traced links among family financial resource adequacy, maternal beliefs and behavior, developmental goals, and child outcomes in rural, single-parent African American families of 6- to 9-year-olds. Found that financial adequacy was linked with childrearing efficacy. Efficacy beliefs were linked with parenting practices indirectly through…

  8. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  9. A Peer Support and Personal Growth Group for Parents with a Child Who Is Developmentally Disabled or Delayed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Pelt, Jeff

    The manual describes development of a personal growth and peer support group for parents of developmentally delayed or disabled children which was designed to help parents adjust expectations about their infant or young child and to accommodate the handicap. Initial decisions regarding leader and participant characteristics and frequency and…

  10. Using a Time Timer[TM] to Increase Appropriate Waiting Behavior in a Child with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hayes, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the use of a predictive stimulus (Time Timer[TM]) and delayed reinforcement to increase appropriate waiting behavior in a child with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items and activities. The study employed a changing criterion design across settings to gradually increase…

  11. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

  12. Parental Adaptation to Out-of-Home Placement of a Child with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…

  13. Brief Report: Effects of Pressure Vest Usage on Engagement and Problem Behaviors of a Young Child with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E.; Good, Leslie; Wolery, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a pressure vest for a young boy with developmental delays. An A-B-A withdrawal design was used to examine the relation between wearing the pressure vest and child behaviors during a preschool art activity. Although the data showed moderate variability, no systematic differences were…

  14. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  15. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN EARLY MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY.

    PubMed

    Gul, Hesna; Erol, Nese; Akin, Duygu Pamir; Gullu, Belgin Ustun; Akcakin, Melda; Alpas, Başak; Öner, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a method to assess early parent-child dyadic interactions for emotional awareness, perception, experience, and expression between child and parent that describe global relational quality (Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, 2012). The current study aimed to examine the effects of an infant's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and developmental delay (DD) on the maternal EA Scale (EAS; Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, 2012; Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 2000) scores and the relative contributions of infant's age, gender, diagnosis, developmental level, and maternal education on EAS scores in a clinical Turkish sample. Three hundred forty-five infant-mother dyads participated in this study. Results of the research indicated that EAS adult scores were associated with maternal education and infant's diagnosis whereas child scores were associated with infant's age, diagnosis, and developmental level. Infants' involvement and responsiveness to the mother were lower in the group with ASD. Children with OPD, particularly when their mothers have lower education, might be at increased risk of having problems in parent-child interactions. Young ASD subjects with developmental delay are in greatest need of support to increase reactions toward their mother. These findings underscore the importance of using all of the EA dimensions rather than only one measure on children in high-risk populations.

  16. Child Maltreatment: Testing the Social Isolation Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the construct of social isolation in child maltreatment and reports on a study comparing 300 maltreating and nonmaltreating low-income mothers. Considerable variation was found between the two groups' structural network properties, perception of support, and types of resources received. However, maltreating mothers were not…

  17. A Case Study Evaluation of a Transfer-of-Stimulus Control Toilet Training Procedure for a Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    1996-01-01

    This case study describes the use of transfer-of-stimulus prompting procedures to develop toilet skills with a seven-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. By first having the child sit on the toilet with her diaper on for two weeks and then taking the diaper off, the child learned to urinate in the toilet. (CR)

  18. Comparison of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and the Bender-Gestalt test.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J

    1977-12-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration (Beery) and the Bender-Gestalt test (Bender) were administered to 44 second-grade children. Developmental age scores (Koppitz scoring) and age equivalents (Beery) were compared. The correlation of .43 between Bender (Koppitz scoring) and Beery scores was moderate but statistically significant. A t test for dependent groups indicated a significant difference between the means on the Bender and Beery tests. These results confirm that neither test should be utilized as the sole indicator of visual-motor perception.

  19. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  20. Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Second Edition. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…

  1. Linking maternal efficacy beliefs, developmental goals, parenting practices, and child competence in rural single-parent African American families.

    PubMed

    Brody, G H; Flor, D L; Gibson, N M

    1999-01-01

    With a sample of 139 rural, single-parent African American families with a 6- to 9-year-old child, we traced the links among family financial resource adequacy, maternal childrearing efficacy beliefs, developmental goals, parenting practices, and children's academic and psychosocial competence. A multimethod, multiinformant design was used to assess the constructs of interest. Consistent with the hypothesized paths, financial resource adequacy was linked with mothers' sense of childrearing efficacy. Efficacy beliefs were linked with parenting practices indirectly through developmental goals. Competence-promoting parenting practices were indirectly linked with children's academic and psychosocial competence through their association with children's self-regulation.

  2. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder in the child and adolescent: developmental aspects and therapeutic strategies].

    PubMed

    Bouvard, M

    1995-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive disorder has only recently been recognized as a specific pathological entity in children, despite the fact that the first descriptions of pediatric manifestations date back to the beginning of this century (P. Janet, 1903) with further reports having been published regularly since that time. The first assessment of the complete epidemiologic, clinical and functional repercussions of the obsessive-compulsive disorder was reported by the Pediatric Psychiatric Group of the NIMH (Pr Judith Rapoport); of their various publications, one is well known in France: The Child who Couldn't Stop Washing (17). Among possible reasons for this delayed recognition are the special conditions for diagnosis and the frequent underestimation of its importance by the family, and sometimes by doctors. This underassessment could be due to confusion between the normal developmental rituals which are frequently seen between the ages of 3 and 5 years, and which do not cause any particular handicaps, and a more severe symptomatology which interferes with normal academic and social adaptation, presenting a substantially worse long-term prognosis. Having recognized the disorder, questions have arisen as to its possible linkage with the form seen in adults. There are numerous convergent argument suggesting a certain long-term persistence of this disorder throughout development and later life: 1) the relative stability of the incidence and prevalence of the disorder; 2) phenomenologic and developmental similarities; 3) most recently, comparable efficacy of treatments for pediatric and adult obsessive-compulsive disorder, whether by the behavioral modification approaches or by pharmacologic treatment, notably with the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Brief report: Effects of pressure vest usage on engagement and problem behaviors of a young child with developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E; Good, Leslie; Wolery, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a pressure vest for a young boy with developmental delays. An A-B-A withdrawal design was used to examine the relation between wearing the pressure vest and child behaviors during a preschool art activity. Although the data showed moderate variability, no systematic differences were found in child engagement when the vest was worn and when the vest was not worn and problem behavior increased when the vest was being worn. These results are discussed in the context of the study limitations. Implications for future research are provided.

  4. Direct Observational Assessment during Test Sessions and Child Clinical Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.

    2005-01-01

    Test sessions and child clinical interviews offer opportunities for direct observations of children's behavior in controlled settings. Moreover, standardized instruments for test session and interview observations offer more reliable and valid assessment methods than do anecdotal reports. This article reviews characteristics and psychometric…

  5. Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technolog...

  6. Factor Structure Evidence for Developmental Levels of Perceptual Processing on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polubinski, Joseph; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Beery's Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration was individually administered to 193 school-age children. Four factors were obtained, indicating that the test does not measure a unitary dimension of perceptual-motor development, but rather four distinct levels or stages for the age range of children investigated. (Author/ABB)

  7. Parent-Completed Screening Test for Developmentally At-Risk Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Sang Seok

    A computer-based questionnaire was developed to help parents who have not received specialized training to determine whether their young children need further assessment for diagnosis of developmentally at-risk status. The computer automatically determines a starting point for a series of questions according to the child's chronological age. The…

  8. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  9. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  10. The Relationship between the Bender-Gestalt Test and the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, William J.

    The relationship between the Bender-Gesalt Test was studied using the Koppitz Developmental Scoring System and the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception in terms of age, sex, IQ, and socioeconomic status. A relationship to the Harrison Reading Readiness Test was also explored. Subjects were 89 first- and second-grade children…

  11. Irradiation testing of a niobium-molybdenum developmental thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.C.; Greenslade, D.L.

    1991-10-01

    A need exists for a radiation-resistant thermocouple capable of monitoring temperatures in excess of the limits of the chromel/alumel system. Tungsten/rhenium and platinum/rhodium thermocouples have sufficient temperature capability but have proven to be unstable because of irradiation-induced decalibration. The niobium/molybdenum system is believed to hold great potential for nuclear applications at temperatures up to 2000 K. However, the fragility of pure niobium and fabrication problems with niobium/molybdenum alloys have limited development of this system. Utilizing the Fast Flux Test Facility, a developmental thermocouple with a thermoelement pair consisting of a pure molybdenum and a niobium-1%zirconium alloy wire was irradiated fro 7200 hours at a temperature of 1070 K. The thermocouple performed flawlessly for the duration of the experiment and exhibited stability comparable to a companion chromel/alumel unit. A second thermocouple, operating at 1375 K, is currently being employed to monitor a fusion materials experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility. This experiment, also scheduled for 7200 hours, will serve to further evaluate the potential of the niobium-1%zirconium/molybdenum thermoelement system. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Prediction of child performance on a parent-child behavioral approach test with animal phobic children.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Lewis, Krystal M; Cowart, Maria J W; Davis, Thompson

    2012-07-01

    A host of factors including genetic influences, temperament characteristics, learning experiences, information processing biases, parental psychopathology, and specific parenting practices have been hypothesized to contribute to the development and expression of children's phobias. In the present study, the authors focused on parental psychopathology (phobic anxiety) and parenting behaviors (warmth, involvement) in the prediction of child performance on a behavioral approach test (BAT). All children (n = 44) experienced a phobia of animals and were clinic referred. The youth completed two BATs: the first alone and the second one with a parent present. Overall, performance was greater on the parent-present BAT (58% of steps completed) than on the child-alone BAT (38% of steps completed), although considerable variability was present. Performance on the parent-present BAT was associated with parental warmth and involvement but not parental phobic anxiety. Implications of these findings were discussed, and their implications for the use of behavioral analogues tests were explored.

  13. Poster Presentation: Optical Test of NGST Developmental Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Geary, Joseph; Reardon, Patrick; Peters, Bruce; Keidel, John; Chavers, Greg

    2000-01-01

    An Optical Testing System (OTS) has been developed to measure the figure and radius of curvature of NGST developmental mirrors in the vacuum, cryogenic environment of the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The OTS consists of a WaveScope Shack-Hartmann sensor from Adaptive Optics Associates as the main instrument, a Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI), a Point Spread Function (PSF) imager, an alignment system, a Leica Disto Pro distance measurement instrument, and a laser source palette (632.8 nm wavelength) that is fiber-coupled to the sensor instruments. All of the instruments except the laser source palette are located on a single breadboard known as the Wavefront Sensor Pallet (WSP). The WSP is located on top of a 5-DOF motion system located at the center of curvature of the test mirror. Two PC's are used to control the OTS. The error in the figure measurement is dominated by the WaveScope's measurement error. An analysis using the absolute wavefront gradient error of 1/50 wave P-V (at 0.6328 microns) provided by the manufacturer leads to a total surface figure measurement error of approximately 1/100 wave rms. This easily meets the requirement of 1/10 wave P-V. The error in radius of curvature is dominated by the Leica's absolute measurement error of VI.5 mm and the focus setting error of Vi.4 mm, giving an overall error of V2 mm. The OTS is currently being used to test the NGST Mirror System Demonstrators (NMSD's) and the Subscale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBNM).

  14. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed.

  15. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Barae; Hermsen, Sanne A B; Kessels, Maurijn Y; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Piersma, Aldert H; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems withinan alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity ofthyroid-active compounds. Model compounds tested included triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU), methimazole (MMI), sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) and amiodarone hydrochloride (AMI), selected to represent different modes of action affecting thyroid activity. Tested time windows included 48-120 hours post fertilization (hpf), 0-72 hpf and 0-120 hpf. All tested compounds resulted in developmental changes, with T3 being the most potent. The developmental parameters affected included reflective iridophores, beat and glide swimming, inflated swim bladders, as well as resorbed yolk sacs. These effects are only evident by 120 hpf and therefore an existing General Morphology Score (GMS) system was extended to create a General Developmental Score(GDS) that extends beyond the 72 hpfscoring limit of GMS and includes additional parameters that are affected by exposure to model thyroid-active compounds. Moreover, the GDS is cumulative as it includes not only the scoring of developmental morphologies but also integrates developmental dysmorphologies. Exposures from 48-120 hpf did not provide additional information to exposures from 0-120 hpf. The results indicate that the zebrafish GDS can detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid toxicants and may be of use in an integrated testing strategy to reduce, refine and in certain cases replace animal testing.

  16. Genetic Moderation of Early Child-Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and…

  17. The developmental test of visual perception-2 normative study on the visual-perceptual function for children in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Phoebe P P; Poon, Magdelene Y C; Leung, Macy; Wong, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    This research study intended to investigate the visualperceptual performance of children in Hong Kong by comparing them to the accepted norms on the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2nd edition. The research examined whether there was significant difference in child's gender, age, and grade. The normative study recruited two hundred and eight-nine children between the ages of 6 and 7 in normal primary schools in Hong Kong. Results indicated that there was a ceiling effect in eye-hand coordination, position in space and spatial relations subtests. Grade differences were found to be significant in all subtests except eye-hand coordination and visual-motor speed. On the other hand, there were no statistical difference in the test scores between boys and girls except on copying and figure-ground subtests. It is concluded that there is a strong need to ensure that norms for visual-perceptual tests are appropriate for the specific cultural groups being assessed.

  18. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  19. Effects of a Developmental Boot Camp: Improving Student Performance on a College Placement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Heather H.

    2012-01-01

    Nationwide, students are entering college unprepared for college-level work. Recent high school graduates are placing into developmental courses at an alarming rate. The purpose of this research study is to examine the effect of a developmental boot camp on standardized placement test scores of students enrolling at a community college in North…

  20. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  1. The metabolic evaluation of the child with an intellectual developmental disorder: diagnostic algorithm for identification of treatable causes and new digital resource.

    PubMed

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Shevell, Michael; Zschocke, Johannes; Moeschler, John B; Stockler, Sylvia

    2014-04-01

    Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD), characterized by significant impairment of cognitive functions, with limitations of learning, adaptive behavior and skills, are frequent (2.5% of the population affected) and present with significant co-morbidity. The burden of IDD, in terms of emotional suffering and associated health care costs, is significant; prevention and treatment therefore are important. A systematic literature review, updated in 2013, identified 89 inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), which present with IDD as prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. Therapeutic effects include improvement and/or stabilization of psychomotor/cognitive development, behavior/psychiatric disturbances, seizures, neurologic and systemic manifestations. The levels of available evidence for the various treatments range from Level 1b, c (n=5); Level 2a, b, c (n=14); Level 4 (n=53), and Levels 4-5 (n=27). For a target audience comprising clinical and biochemical geneticists, child neurologists and developmental pediatricians, five experts translated....this data into a 2-tiered diagnostic algorithm: The first tier comprises metabolic "screening" tests in urine and blood, which are relatively accessible, affordable, less invasive, and have the potential to identify 60% of all treatable IEMs. The second tier investigations for the remaining disorders are ordered based on individual clinical signs and symptoms. This algorithm is supported by an App www.treatable-id.org, which comprises up-to-date information on all 89 IEMs, relevant diagnostic tests, therapies and a search function based on signs and symptoms. These recommendations support the clinician in early identification of treatable IEMs in the child with IDD, allowing for timely initiation of therapy with the potential to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. The need for future studies to determine yield and usefulness of these recommendations, with subsequent updates and improvements to developments in

  2. Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Naruyuki

    2011-11-01

    In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior.

  3. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  4. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    PubMed

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  5. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early years is to follow your child's development. Most parents also watch for different milestones. Talk ... child's provider if you have concerns about your child's development. Closely watching a "checklist" or calendar of developmental ...

  6. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  7. Current Practices and Future Trends in Neuropathology Assessment for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuing education course on "Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing" (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and non-invasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neu...

  8. ADAPTING THE MEDAKA EMBRYO ASSAY TO A HIGH-THROUGHPUT APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro ...

  9. Does successful attainment of developmental tasks lead to happiness and success in later developmental tasks? A test of Havighurst's (1948) theses.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Gelhaar, Tim

    2008-02-01

    This study tested Havighurst's (1948) contention that successful attainment of age-specific developmental tasks leads to happiness and success in achieving subsequent tasks. A longitudinal study on 146 participants was carried out to investigate the links between developmental progression in adolescence and young adulthood and happiness, which was assessed by two indices: high self-esteem and low symptomatology. The importance individuals place on achieving normative developmental tasks and current developmental status was assessed six times during adolescence and young adulthood, self-esteem and symptomatology were assessed five times. Results revealed a shift in the time frames for accomplishing the stage-specific developmental tasks. Findings with respect to the interrelatedness and progressive attainment partially supported Havighurst's contentions. Although remarkable concurrent links between the two indices of happiness and developmental status were found, developmental outcomes were not predictive for later happiness.

  10. A rare case of unilateral postaxial duplicated foot in a developmentally normal child.

    PubMed

    Sahdi, Haniza; Hoong, Chan Wai; Rasit, Ahmad Hata; Arianto, Fredy; Siong, Lau Kiew; Abdullah, Nur Alyana Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Diplopodia, being a rare congenital disorder, is infrequently discussed in published texts. Most reported cases have accounted the involvement of duplicated preaxial digits with other associated organ system and physical deformities. Here, we present an unusual case of isolated diplopodia involving postaxial toes in a child with no other organ and physical abnormalities. Radiological studies revealed a set of 10-digit-duplicated foot over the lateral aspect of the native foot, complete with phalanges and its corresponding metatarsals as well as tarsals, supplied by an anomalous posterior branch of the popliteal artery. Definitive surgery was performed just before the child was learning to walk.

  11. Special Considerations for Special People: Estate Planning for Families with a Developmentally Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welber, Joel S.

    1984-01-01

    Existing patterns of deinstitutionalization and group home placements funded through Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and private supplemental trusts can provide the means for independent living for developmentally disabled adults. Yet, because of the propensity of probate courts to refrain from alteration of written documents evidencing the…

  12. Teaching Independent Eating to a Developmentally Handicapped Child Showing Chronic Food Refusal and Disruption at Mealtimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Judy; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A successful intervention to establish independent eating behaviors in a developmentally handicapped, autistic-like three-year-old involved teaching appropriate behavior in a hospital setting (where he was being treated for dehydration and malnutrition) and then teaching his mother to implement the strategies at home. Skills were maintained at…

  13. Identification and Differential Diagnosis of Developmental Speech Problems in a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzivinikou, Sotiria

    2005-01-01

    The present, multi-method (methodological triangulation), case study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to obtain a differential diagnosis between the speech problems derived from bilingualism, and the developmental speech problems of an Albanian eight-year-old boy who attended a public primary school in Greece. Although there existed…

  14. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  15. The Course of Childhood Anxiety Symptoms: Developmental Trajectories and Child-Related Factors in Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R.

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a…

  16. Parent-Child Socialization in Diverse Cultures. Annual Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Carter, D. Bruce, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the role of culture in the functioning of families and the socialization of children. Following an introduction by Irving Sigel, the 15 essays are: (1) "Parent-Child Interactions in Urban Indian Families in New Delhi: Are They Changing?" (Jaipaul Roopnarine and Ziarat Hossain); (2) "Chinese…

  17. Developmental Asynchrony in the Acquisition of Subject Properties in Child L2 English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pladevall-Ballester, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Given that L1A of subject properties in non-null subject languages emerges later than that of null subject languages, this study aims at determining to what extent the same pattern of acquisition is observed in early child L2A in bilingual immersion settings where English and Spanish are both source and target languages. Using an elicited oral…

  18. Trauma Adapted Family Connections: Reducing Developmental and Complex Trauma Symptomatology to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn S.; Strieder, Frederick H.; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela A.; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and…

  19. What Happened to My Child? Unknown Causes of Developmental Disability and Research in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    At one time or the other, virtually every parent has gone to the doctor concerned about his or her child. Thanks to the advances of modern medicine, the doctor can diagnose the problem most of the time and treat it successfully. Many potential problems, some life-threatening like diphtheria and neural tube defects, can even be prevented altogether…

  20. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  1. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  2. Development of a Screening Scale for High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo; Tachimori, Hisateru; Saito, Mari; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compile a screening scale for high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS). The 72 participants (IQ greater than or equal to 70) were divided into 3 groups after IQ matching depending on their diagnoses: i.e., PDD,…

  3. Predicting Mental Health among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Relative Contribution of Child, Maternal and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F.; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Many mothers of children with developmental disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress, and compromised mental health. Research is crucial to better understand and assist mothers with compromised mental health, and ultimately better service families raising and supporting a child with a disability. Method: Data were collected…

  4. Socialization and the Child Rearing Practice. [Proceedings from the] Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (4th, Debrecen, Hungary, October 4-6, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar-Kadar, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following…

  5. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for…

  6. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism and other developmental disabilities: associations with ethnicity, child comorbid symptoms, and parental stress.

    PubMed

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Burrows, Bethany; Bernstein, Leora; Hottinger, Kathryn; Lawson, Katharine; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2014-03-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine by children with autism and the association of its use with child comorbid symptoms and parental stress was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interviews. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. In this ethnically diverse sample, the use of complementary and alternative medicine was significantly higher for the autism group. In the autism group, use was significantly related to child's irritability, hyperactivity, food allergies, and parental stress; in the developmental disabilities group, there was no association with child comorbid symptoms or parental stress. The results contribute information to health care providers about families of children with autism who are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine.

  7. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders.

  8. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  9. The course of childhood anxiety symptoms: developmental trajectories and child-related factors in normal children.

    PubMed

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a community sample of 224 children aged 4 to 11 years repeatedly completed a standardized questionnaire of anxiety symptoms during a 2-year period. At Time 1, parents also filled out scales for measuring children's level of behavioral inhibition (BI), internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and prosocial behaviors, while an interview was conducted with children to assess Theory-of-Mind (TOM) ability. Growth Mixture Modeling identified multiple developmental trajectories in childhood anxiety symptoms of which the 'stable-low' or 'stable-medium' reflected the normative trajectories. Further, multinomial regression analyses indicated that the higher developmental trajectories of anxiety were associated with higher levels of BI and internalizing symptoms at Time 1. In sum, results show heterogeneity in the development of anxiety symptoms and underline the importance of early prevention programs for children at high risk for developing an anxiety disorder.

  10. Incremental Validity of the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language and the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Predictive validity of the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language and the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration was investigated singly and in combination for a group of preschool children. The results indicated little practical significance in using both instruments as opposed to either test singly. (Author/CP)

  11. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  12. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  13. 25-KVA Amorphous Metal-Core Transformer Developmental Test Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    after the DROP TEST. Tests were also performed in the Dev. Lab . Results S/N P217061 S/N P265882 S/N P265885 1.Elect.* Factry Test Lab Test Factry Test...10 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS ........ ..................... .. 11 Phase I .......... ........................... . 11 Phase II...characteorist ics of tleo trins formers cilan1ged as a result , of the tests. * Pass/Fail Criteria: Thin transformers had to pass tile commercial

  14. Trauma adapted family connections: reducing developmental and complex trauma symptomatology to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kathryn S; Strieder, Frederick H; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Freeman, Pamela A Clarkson; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and prevent child abuse and neglect. Trauma Adapted Family Connections (TA-FC) is a manualized trauma-focused practice rooted in the principles of Family Connections (FC), an evidence supported preventive intervention developed to address the glaring gap in services for this specific, growing, and underserved population. This paper describes the science based development of TA-FC, its phases and essential components, which are based on theories of attachment, neglect, trauma, and family interaction within a comprehensive community-based family focused intervention framework.

  15. Child eating patterns and weight regulation: a developmental behaviour genetics framework.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Faith, Myles S

    2007-04-01

    There is relatively limited knowledge about the development of child eating patterns and how they may contribute to excess weight gain in early life. Particularly scarce are genetically informative studies that addressed environmental and genetic influences which can be challenging to disentangle. A review of this literature can help identify ongoing themes in the field and may stimulate new ideas for future research. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview about how select environmental factors (e.g. the portion size of foods) and parental feeding practices (e.g. dietary restriction) can affect children's eating behaviour and weight status. The second part of the review explains in more detail the types of studies that can be employed to assess genetic influences (e.g. heritability estimates) on child food intake and body weight and composition. The review closes with suggestions for future research emphasizing the importance of collaborations among investigators from different disciplines to further elucidate gene-environment interactions in the domains of child eating behaviour and obesity.

  16. Child Maltreatment and Adult Cigarette Smoking: A Long-term Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine: (a) child maltreatment’s association with young adult daily cigarette smoking, (b) variations in this association by gender, and (c) mediators of this association. Methods For all study participants (N = 1,125, 94% African American), data from multiple sources (e.g., child welfare records) were collected prospectively at child, adolescent, and young adult time points. Authors enlisted multivariate probit regression for objectives a and b versus exploratory and confirmatory mediation strategies for objective c. Results Maltreatment was significantly associated with daily cigarette smoking. Although not moderated by gender, this relation was fully mediated by adolescent indicators of family support/stability, social adjustment, and cognitive/school performance along with young adult indicators of educational attainment, life satisfaction, substance abuse, and criminality. Conclusions Maltreatment places low-income, minority children at risk for daily cigarette smoking and other deleterious young adult health outcomes. Recommended treatment targets include family support/stability, emotion regulation, social skills, and cognitive/academic functioning. PMID:19995869

  17. The child is father to the man: developmental roles for proteins of importance for neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Danny; Schor, Nina F

    2010-02-01

    Although Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases predominately affect elderly adults, the proteins that play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases are expressed throughout life. In fact, many of the proteins hypothesized to be important in the progression of neurodegeneration play direct or indirect roles in the development of the central nervous system. The systems affected by these proteins include neural stem cell fate decisions, neuronal differentiation, cellular migration, protection from oxidative stress, and programmed cell death. Insights into the developmental roles of these proteins may ultimately impact the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases and lead to the discovery of novel treatments.

  18. Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

  19. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories.

  20. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  1. Race Differences on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, the Slosson Intelligence Test, and the ABC Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Douglas L.; Anderson, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes preschoolers' scores on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI), the Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT), and the ABC Inventory (ABCI). Separate ANOVAs reveal no race effect on the VMI. Race differences favoring Whites are found for SIT and ABCI. There were no effects for sex on any measure. (Author)

  2. Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and Revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Barbara B.; Knopf, Karen F.

    1982-01-01

    Using children with learning disabilities and children enrolled in regular classrooms, test scores on the Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration indicated high and significant correlations for the learning-disabled group and low but significant correlations for regular students. A nine-month mean difference in scores…

  3. Psychosocial Adjustment and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder Using Different Motor Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the consistency between the findings of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as identified by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and explored the psychosocial and attention characteristics of children with DCD identified by the two motor tests,…

  4. The Effects of Developmental Placement and Early Retention on Children's Later Scores on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early school retention as a result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and children's later academic achievement (N=223). Results showed children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures. (JAC)

  5. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction... reproduction and/or development, either at an early stage of assessing the toxicological properties...

  6. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction... reproduction and/or development, either at an early stage of assessing the toxicological properties...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction... reproduction and/or development, either at an early stage of assessing the toxicological properties...

  8. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction... reproduction and/or development, either at an early stage of assessing the toxicological properties...

  9. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false TSCA reproduction/developmental... AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9355 TSCA reproduction... reproduction and/or development, either at an early stage of assessing the toxicological properties...

  10. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27668289

  11. Mapping the developmental pathways of child conduct problems through the neurobiology of empathy.

    PubMed

    Moul, Caroline; Hawes, David J; Dadds, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    The notion that antisocial behavior reflects failures of empathy has a long history in the clinical literature, yet only recently has evidence emerged to support neuroscientific accounts of empathy and the development of child conduct problems. Much of this evidence has come from research into callous-unemotional traits, which correspond to the affective component of psychopathy and therefore encompass deficits in empathy within a broader cluster of emotional impairments. In this review we integrate current evidence concerning the biobehavioral bases of empathy and callous-unemotional traits, and discuss how it may inform models of heterogeneous subgroups of individuals with early onset conduct problems. We argue that somewhat distinct failures of empathy map onto distinct risk pathways to early onset conduct problems, and that these pathways may be best understood by examining empathy in terms of cognitive and environmental prerequisites and the various neurochemical systems implicated therein.

  12. Stress generation in a developmental context: the role of youth depressive symptoms, maternal depression, the parent-child relationship, and family stress.

    PubMed

    Chan, Priscilla T; Doan, Stacey N; Tompson, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined stress generation in a developmental and family context among 171 mothers and their preadolescent children, ages 8-12 years, at baseline (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). In the current study, we examined the bidirectional relationship between children's depressive symptoms and dependent family stress. Results suggest that children's baseline level of depressive symptoms predicted the generation of dependent family stress 1 year later. However, baseline dependent family stress did not predict an increase in children's depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, we examined whether a larger context of both child chronic strain (indicated by academic, behavioral, and peer stress) and family factors, including socioeconomic status and parent-child relationship quality, would influence the stress generation process. Although both chronic strain and socioeconomic status were not associated with dependent family stress at Time 2, poorer parent-child relationship quality significantly predicted greater dependent family stress at Time 2. Child chronic strain, but neither socioeconomic status nor parent-child relationship quality, predicted children's depression symptoms at Time 2. Finally, gender, maternal depression history, and current maternal depressive symptoms did not moderate the relationship between level of dependent family stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, findings provide partial support for a developmental stress generation model operating in the preadolescent period.

  13. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  14. Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    LYNNE-LANDSMAN, SARAH D.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes. PMID:20883591

  15. The usefulness of the Denver Developmental Screening Test to predict kindergarten problems in a general community population.

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, D; Chambers, L W; Walter, S D; Feldman, W; Smith, K; Ferguson, R

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) was administered to 2,569 children five to seven months prior to starting kindergarten in September 1980 in a geographically well-defined community. The test was administered by trained public health nurses. At the end of the 1980-1981 school year, all 163 kindergarten teachers in the area completed a rating form for each child in their class. The rating form determined global ratings of: 1) learning abilities; 2) classroom behavior; 3) amount of special attention required; and 4) referrals to special education services outside the classroom. The specificity of the DDST in predicting kindergarten teacher ratings was 99 per cent for all areas. Test sensitivity varied from 5 per cent to 10 per cent in detecting problems in the four areas. The predictive values of an positive test varied from 31 per cent for behavior problems to 62 per cent for extra attention required in the classroom. Negative test predictive values varied from 79 per cent to 93 per cent. These results based on kindergarten teacher ratings suggest that, because of the low sensitivity and modest predictive value, the DDST may be relatively inefficient to use in a school entry screening program in a general community population of children. PMID:6206733

  16. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  17. Testing multicultural robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a national epidemiological sample in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-08-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a national epidemiological survey in Uruguay. Participants were 1,374 6- to 11-year-olds recruited through 65 schools nationwide; 1,098 (80%) had received no mental health or special education services in the past year (non-referred group), whereas 276 (referred group) had been referred for mental health services, had repeated ≥ 2 grades, or had significant developmental disabilities. Mean item ratings, factor structure, and scale internal consistencies were very similar to findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) and Ivanova et al. (Journal of Clinical Child and Adoloescent Psychology 36: 405-417 2007). Children from low SES school environments obtained higher problem scores, especially in the referred group. Gender, age, and referral status effects paralleled those in the U.S. Non-referred children obtained somewhat higher mean problem scores in Uruguay than in the U.S., but mean score differences between non-referred and referred children were smaller in Uruguay than the U.S. Findings supporting the CBCL's multicultural robustness in a South American country extend the generalizability of findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) for 31 societies.

  18. Developmental changes in attention tests norms: implications for the structure of attention.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Eli; Blachstein, Haya; Sheinman, Masha; Greenstein, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of attention is a key issue in the study of neuropsychological development. In this study we collected Hebrew norms for four frequently used attention tests (Trail Making, Digit-Symbol, Digit Span, and Digit Cancellation), analyzed the developmental sensitivity of each test and traced changes in attention across ages. The tests were administered to 809 boys and girls ranging in age from 8 to 17, divided into 10 age cohorts. The results indicate that, although all tests showed age effects, Digit-Symbol and Digit Cancellation tests were most developmentally sensitive. Another interesting finding was that younger age groups (8-11) are more dissociable by attention tests than older age groups (12-17), indicating that changes in attention are more pronounced in the early years and stabilize in later years.

  19. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition (DTVP-3): A Review, Critique, and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    The "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition" (DTVP-3) is a recent revision of the "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Second Edition" (DTVP-2). The DTVP-3 is designed to assess the visual perceptual and/or visual-motor integration skills of children from 4 to 12 years of age. The test is standardized using…

  20. Developmental Test of the Honeywell Laser Inertial Navigation System (LINS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    navigation system. The system tested at the CIGTF contained an inertial sensor assembly which contained three ring laser gyros, arranged in an...alignment. The inertial sensor assembly is operated heaterless, thus elimininating the usual warm-up rc4uirement for conventional inertial system...continuous; 6900VA start up transient of 50 milli- seconds. LINS ENGINIEERING HARDWARE BASIC LtS FUN~CTIONiAL BlLOCK DIAGRAMl FIGURE 1. LIINS SYSTEM4 BLOCKt

  1. Genetic testing in patients with global developmental delay / intellectual disabilities. A review

    PubMed Central

    MICLEA, DIANA; PECA, LOREDANA; CUZMICI, ZINA; POP, IOAN VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors are responsible for up to 40% developmental disability cases, such as global developmental delay/intellectual disability (GDD/DI). The American and more recently the European guidelines on this group of diseases state that genetic testing is essential and should become a standardized diagnostic practice. The main arguments for the necessity of implementing such a practice are: (1) the high prevalence of developmental disabilities (3% of the population); (2) the high genetic contribution to this type of pathology; (3) insufficient referral for genetic consultation. In an attempt to address these issues, the purpose of this paper is to present the genetic etiology of global developmental delay / intellectual disability with emphasis on the need to implement a genetic testing protocol for the patients with GDD/DI, as indicated by the current guidelines. Chromosomal abnormalities and fragile X syndrome are the most frequent causes of developmental disabilities and the techniques employed to detect such genetic disorders should be used as first line investigations of GDD/DI. PMID:26609258

  2. Developmental visual perception deficits with no indications of prosopagnosia in a child with abnormal eye movements.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Doron, Ravid

    2017-04-08

    Visual categories are associated with eccentricity biases in high-order visual cortex: Faces and reading with foveally-biased regions, while common objects and space with mid- and peripherally-biased regions. As face perception and reading are among the most challenging human visual skills, and are often regarded as the peak achievements of a distributed neural network supporting common objects perception, it is unclear why objects, which also rely on foveal vision to be processed, are associated with mid-peripheral rather than with a foveal bias. Here, we studied BN, a 9 y.o. boy who has normal basic-level vision, abnormal (limited) oculomotor pursuit and saccades, and shows developmental object and contour integration deficits but with no indication of prosopagnosia. Although we cannot infer causation from the data presented here, we suggest that normal pursuit and saccades could be critical for the development of contour integration and object perception. While faces and perhaps reading, when fixated upon, take up a small portion of central visual field and require only small eye movements to be properly processed, common objects typically prevail in mid-peripheral visual field and rely on longer-distance voluntary eye movements as saccades to be brought to fixation. While retinal information feeds into early visual cortex in an eccentricity orderly manner, we hypothesize that propagation of non-foveal information to mid and high-order visual cortex critically relies on circuitry involving eye movements. Limited or atypical eye movements, as in the case of BN, may hinder normal information flow to mid-eccentricity biased high-order visual cortex, adversely affecting its development and consequently inducing visual perceptual deficits predominantly for categories associated with these regions.

  3. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

  4. A Test of Motor (Not Executive) Planning in Developmental Coordination Disorder and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swieten, Lisa M.; van Bergen, Elsje; Williams, Justin H. G.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Plumb, Mandy S.; Kent, Samuel W.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between "motor" and "executive" planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or anticlockwise.…

  5. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received…

  6. MOTOR ACTIVITY IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for a battery of functional and neuropathological assessments in offspring during and following maternal exposure. The battery includes measurement of motor activity on post-natal days (PND) ...

  7. STATISTICAL APPROACH TO BRAIN MORPHOMETRY DATA REQUIRED IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY (DNT) TESTING GUIDELINES: PROFILE ANALYSIS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain morphometry measurements are required in test guidelines proposed by the USEPA to screen chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. Because the DNT is a screening battery, the analysis of this data should be sensitive to dose-related changes in the pattern of brain growt...

  8. Optimization of high-throughput nanomaterial developmental toxicity testing in zebrafish embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterial (NM) developmental toxicities are largely unknown. With an extensive variety of NMs available, high-throughput screening methods may be of value for initial characterization of potential hazard. We optimized a zebrafish embryo test as an in vivo high-throughput assay...

  9. Rasch Analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) ages 4-12 years using the dichotomous Rasch model. The VMI was administered individually to 454 children with ID. Rasch analysis was applied to investigate…

  10. The Use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration as a Group Screening Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1977-01-01

    This article investigates teacher use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as a screening instrument with groups of young school-age children. Findings argue for some refinement in the scoring system in order to improve consistency in scoring. (Author)

  11. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  12. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children™ study. Multimedia & Tools Videos, podcasts and widgets. Child Development: What's New Article: Differences in health care, family, ... and share it with the child’s doctor. More Child Development Basics Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting ...

  13. (Positive) power to the child: The role of children's willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2015-11-01

    In a change from the once-dominant view of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, children are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. However, these newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts, parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months and longitudinally stable; (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months; and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology as well as for prevention and intervention.

  14. (Positive) Power to the Child: The Role of Children's Willing Stance toward Parents in Developmental Cascades from Toddler Age to Early Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to once dominant views of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, they are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. But those newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months, and longitudinally stable, (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months, and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology, and for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  15. Testing the 8-Syndrome Structure of the Child Behavior Checklist in 30 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses,…

  16. Testing for Thresholds in Associations between Child Care Quality and Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Most of the literature has examined linear associations, yielding findings that higher quality is better and lower quality is worse (Vandell, 2004), but identification of thresholds in the association between quality and child outcomes has been a goal of researchers and policy makers for several reasons. A primary goal has been to identify levels…

  17. Predicting Second Grade Achievement Scores with the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor and the Metropolitan Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    The predictive validity of the Slosson Intelligence Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Metropolitan Readiness Test was evaluated for use with kindergarten children. The criterion measure was the California Achievement Tests administered when the children…

  18. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  19. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  20. Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, B B; Knopf, K F

    1982-08-01

    The Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration were administered to two groups of 40 children each, ages 7 through 10 yr. Developmental age scores (Koppitz scoring) and age equivalents (Revised Beery manual) were obtained. Children screened for learning disabilities were selected for one group and children enrolled in regular classrooms were selected for another group. The correlation of .74 between the Bender and Beery test scores was high and statistically significant for the learning-disabled group. The correlation of .36 was low though statistically significant for the regular students, which suggests the groups performed differently on the tests. A significant mean difference of 9 mo. was noted between the Bender and Beery scores.

  1. Bilingualism and Performance on Two Widely Used Developmental Neuropsychological Test Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use. PMID:25922937

  2. Human Neurospheres as Three-Dimensional Cellular Systems for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Moors, Michaela; Rockel, Thomas Dino; Abel, Josef; Cline, Jason E.; Gassmann, Kathrin; Schreiber, Timm; Schuwald, Janette; Weinmann, Nicole; Fritsche, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Background Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals is a serious threat to human health. Current DNT testing guidelines propose investigations in rodents, which require large numbers of animals. With regard to the “3 Rs” (reduction, replacement, and refinement) of animal testing and the European regulation of chemicals [Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH)], alternative testing strategies are needed in order to refine and reduce animal experiments and allow faster and less expensive screening. Objectives The goal of this study was to establish a three-dimensional test system for DNT screening based on human fetal brain cells. Methods We established assays suitable for detecting disturbances in basic processes of brain development by employing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), which grow as neurospheres. Furthermore, we assessed effects of mercury and oxidative stress on these cells. Results We found that human neurospheres imitate proliferation, differentiation, and migration in vitro. Exposure to the proapoptotic agent staurosporine further suggests that human neurospheres possess functioning apoptosis machinery. The developmental neurotoxicants methylmercury chloride and mercury chloride decreased migration distance and number of neuronal-like cells in differentiated hNPCs. Furthermore, hNPCs undergo caspase-independent apoptosis when exposed toward high amounts of oxidative stress. Conclusions Human neurospheres are likely to imitate basic processes of brain development, and these processes can be modulated by developmental neurotoxicants. Thus, this three-dimensional cell system is a promising approach for DNT testing. PMID:19654924

  3. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  4. Embryotoxicity assessment of developmental neurotoxicants using a neuronal endpoint in the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Baek, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lim, Hwa Kyung; Kang, Jin Wook; Seong, Su Kyoung; Choi, Seung Eun; Lim, So Yun; Park, Sung Hee; Nam, Bong-hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mun Sin; Park, Kui Lea

    2012-08-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is a validated in vitro embryotoxicity test; however, as the inhibition of cardiac differentiation alone is used as a differentiation endpoint in the EST, it may not be a useful test to screen embryotoxic chemicals that affect the differentiation of noncardiac tissues. Previously, methylmercury (MeHg), cadmium and arsenic compounds, which are heavy metals that induce developmental neurotoxicity in vivo, were misclassified as nonembryotoxic with the EST. The aim of this study was to improve the EST to correctly screen such developmental neurotoxicants. We developed a neuronal endpoint (Tuj-1 ID₅₀) using flow cytometry analysis of Tuj-1-positive cells to screen developmental neurotoxicants (MeHg, valproic acid, sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite) correctly using an adherent monoculture differentiation method. Using Tuj-1 ID₅₀ in the EST instead of cardiac ID₅₀, all of the tested chemicals were classified as embryotoxic, while the negative controls were correctly classified as nonembryotoxic. To support the validity of Tuj-1 ID₅₀) , we compared the results from two experimenters who independently tested MeHg using our modified EST. An additional neuronal endpoint (MAP2 ID₅₀), obtained by analyzing the relative quantity of MAP2 mRNA, was used to classify the same chemicals. There were no significant differences in the three endpoint values of the two experimenters or in the classification results, except for isoniazid. In conclusion, our results indicate that Tuj-1 ID₅₀ can be used as a surrogate endpoint of the traditional EST to screen developmental neurotoxicants correctly and it can also be applied to other chemicals.

  5. An abbreviated repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity test for high production volume chemicals.

    PubMed

    Scala, R A; Bevan, C; Beyer, B K

    1992-08-01

    A novel protocol is described for obtaining preliminary data on repeated dose systemic effects and reproductive/developmental toxicity. The test protocol was developed by a group of experts at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as part of a Screening Information Data Set on high production volume chemicals. Interest in this protocol is shared by several regulatory agencies, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation, the European Community, and the EPA. To validate the study protocol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) was used. After a dosing period of approximately 6 weeks, EGME showed both systemic and reproductive/developmental effects similar to those previously reported using standard protocols. Thus, this test protocol may be used as a screening tool for high production volume chemicals.

  6. Medical Assessment of the Child with a Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Carol Coleman; McDonald, Patricia L.

    1980-01-01

    A medical assessment based on detailed historical data, a complete physical examination, developmental and neurological assessments, laboratory tests, and discussion with parents is the foundation for planning an effective educational program for the handicapped child. (CJ)

  7. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  8. Toxicological assessment of refined naphthenic acids in a repeated dose/developmental toxicity screening test.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; North, Colin M; Podhasky, Paula; Charlap, Jeffrey H; Kuhl, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are primarily cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids with 10 to 16 carbons. To characterize the potential of refined NAs (>70% purity) to cause reproductive and/or developmental effects, Sprague-Dawley rats (12/group) were given oral doses of 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/d, beginning 14 days prior to mating, then an additional 14 days for males or through lactation day 3 for females (up to 53 days) in a repeated dose/reproductive toxicity test (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] 422). Potential mutagenic effects were assessed using Salmonella (OECD 471) and in in vivo micronucleus tests (OECD 474) using bone marrow taken from treated animals in the screening study described previously. Systemic effects included reduced terminal body weights, increased liver weights, and changes in a number of blood cell parameters. The overall no effect level for all target organ effects was 100 mg/kg/d. In the reproductive/developmental toxicity assessment, there were significant reductions in numbers of live born offspring in groups exposed to 300 and 900 mg/kg/d. The overall no effect level for developmental effects was 100 mg/kg/d. The data from the Salmonella and micronucleus tests provide evidence that refined NAs are not genotoxic.

  9. Comparison of the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation versus developmental screening by parent report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation with developmental screening by parent report, parents completed a developmental screen (the Child Development Review), a pediatrician performed a direct developmental evaluation (Capute Scales), and a psychologist administered the...

  10. Achievement Testing in the No Child Left Behind Era: The Arkansas Benchmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John D.; Howerton, D. Lynn; Jones, Craig H.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act and the accountability movement in public education caused many states to develop criterion-referenced academic achievement tests. Scores from these tests are often used to make high stakes decisions. Even so, these tests typically do not receive independent psychometric scrutiny. We evaluated the 2005 Arkansas…

  11. CDA (Child Development Associate) Instructional Materials. Assessing Competency: Tests for CDA Competencies (Experimental Edition). Book 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotvedt, Kathleen J.; Hotvedt, Martyn O.

    This book of tests is designed to assess the competencies of the Child Development Associate (CDA) trainee: both what the trainee knows and how well the trainee works with children. The tests are designed as posttests to be administered after the trainee's completion of the relevant learning module. Each test consists of multiple choice questions,…

  12. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  13. Denver Developmental Test Findings and their Relationship with Sociodemographic Variables in a Large Community Sample of 0–4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    ÇELİKKIRAN, Seyhan; BOZKURT, Hasan; COŞKUN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of developmental problems and relationship with sociodemographic variables in a community sample of young children. Methods Participants included 1000 children (558 males, 442 females, age range 1–48 months, mean 18.4 months, SD 7.8 months). Children were referred generally by their parents for developmental evaluation and consultation in response to a public announcement in a district area in Istanbul, Turkey. An interview form and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST) were used for sociodemographic data and developmental evaluation. The χ2 test and Pearson’s correlation test were used for data analysis. Results Seven hundred forty-one out of 1000 children (74.1%) had normal, 140 (14%) had risky, and 119 (11.9%) had abnormal findings on the DDST results. The probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results was significantly higher in males (p=0.003), the 2–4-year-old group (p<0.05), families with more than one child (p=0.001), consanguineous marriages (p<0.01), low parental educational levels and low household income (p<0.01), and in children without a history of breastfeeding (p=0.000). Immigration status and delivery mode did not have a significant effect on the probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results (p>0.05). Conclusion Sociodemographic factors have a noteworthy impact on development. Determining these factors is important especially during the first years of life.

  14. The World of the Developmentally Disabled Child: A Parents' Handbook with Directory of Services for Families in Lake County, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suelzle, Marijean; Keenan, Vincent

    Intended for parents of developmentally disabled children, the handbook provides information on service needs and services available in Lake County, Illinois. Section I focuses on life course planning with sections of diagnosis and assessment, professionals involved with special education, education for the developmentally disabled, vocational…

  15. Developmental toxicity testing of biopharmaceuticals in nonhuman primates: previous experience and future directions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pauline L; Weinbauer, Gerhard F

    2010-12-01

    Developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical safety testing are designed to evaluate potential adverse effects of drug treatment on pregnancy and on the developing embryo/fetus. Biopharmaceuticals present specific challenges for developmental toxicity testing because the pharmacology of these molecules, which are frequently human-specific proteins, is often restricted to humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). For those species-restricted molecules, the only option for the evaluation of potential effects on development of the human biopharmaceutical is to use NHPs. This article reviews each of the stages of development in cynomolgus macaques (the most frequently used NHP) and the potential exposure of the embryo, fetus, and infant following administration of a biopharmaceutical during pregnancy and lactation. Because the purpose of the NHP developmental studies is to identify potential human risks, a comparison between macaque and human development and potential exposure has been made when possible. Understanding the potential exposure of the conceptus relative to critical periods in development is essential to designing a scientifically based study that adequately addresses human risks. Some options for NHP study designs, including the option of combining end points into a single study, and the pros and cons of each of the study options have been reviewed. Developmental studies for biopharmaceuticals in NHPs need to be optimally designed on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration the pharmacology of the molecule, the type of molecule (antibody or non-antibody), the potential exposure relative to the development of potential target organs, the clinical use, and the ethical considerations associated with the use of NHPs.

  16. The relation of preschool child-care quality to children's cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade.

    PubMed

    Peisner-Feinberg, E S; Burchinal, M R; Clifford, R M; Culkin, M L; Howes, C; Kagan, S L; Yazejian, N

    2001-01-01

    The cognitive and socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive and socioemotional development at least through kindergarten, and in some cases, through second grade. Differential effects on children's development were found for two aspects of child-care quality. Observed classroom practices were related to children's language and academic skills, whereas the closeness of the teacher-child relationship was related to both cognitive and social skills, with the strongest effects for the latter. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. These findings contribute further evidence of the long-term influences of the quality of child-care environments on children's cognitive and social skills through the elementary school years and are consistent with a bioecological model of development that considers the multiple environmental contexts that the child experiences.

  17. Novel Methods at Molecular Level for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing in 21st Century-Utility of Structure-Activity Relationship

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity testing methods for hazard identification rely on in vivo neurobehavior, neurophysiological, and gross pathology of the nervous system. These measures may not be sensitive enough to detect small changes caused by realistic ex...

  18. Testing causal models of the relationship between childhood gender atypical behaviour and parent-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Salo, Benny; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    An association between childhood gender atypical behaviour (GAB) and a negative parent-child relationship has been demonstrated in several studies, yet the causal relationship of this association is not fully understood. In the present study, different models of causation between childhood GAB and parent-child relationships were tested. Direction of causation modelling was applied to twin data from a population-based sample (n= 2,565) of Finnish 33- to 43-year-old twins. Participants completed retrospective self-report questionnaires. Five different models of causation were then fitted to the data: GAB → parent-child relationship, parent-child relationship → GAB, reciprocal causation, a bivariate genetic model, and a model assuming no correlation. It was found that a model in which GAB and quality of mother-child, and father-child relationship reciprocally affect each other best fitted the data. The findings are discussed in light of how we should understand, including causality, the association between GAB and parent-child relationship.

  19. Parental Expressivity, Child Physiological and Behavioral Regulation, and Child Adjustment: Testing a Three-Path Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…

  20. The challenge of developmentally appropriate care: predictive genetic testing in young people for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Rony E; Gillam, Lynn; Savulescu, Julian; Williamson, Robert; Rogers, John G; Delatycki, Martin B

    2010-03-01

    Predictive genetic tests for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are routinely offered to young people during early adolescence. While this is not controversial, due to the medical benefit conferred by the test, it is nonetheless challenging as a consequence of the stage of life of the young people, and the simultaneous involvement of multiple family members. Despite these challenges, it is possible to ensure that the test is offered in such a way that it actively acknowledges and facilitates young people's developing autonomy and psychosocial well-being. In this paper we present findings from ten in-depth interviews with young people who have undergone predictive genetic testing for FAP (four male, six female; five gene-positive, five gene-negative; aged 10-17 years at the time of their predictive test; aged 12-25 years at the time of their research interview). We present five themes that emerged from the interviews which highlight key ethical challenges associated with such testing. These are: (1) the significance of the test; (2) young people's lack of involvement in the decision to be tested; (3) young people's limited understanding; (4) provision of the blood test at the first visit; and (5) group testing of family members. We draw on these themes to make eight recommendations for future practice. Together, these recommendations highlight the importance of providing developmentally appropriate care to young people undergoing predictive genetic testing for FAP.

  1. Developmental and contextual factors in the role of severe childhood trauma in geriatric depression: the sample case of former indentured child laborers.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Maercker, Andreas; Bachem, Rahel; Simmen, Keti; Burri, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between childhood traumatic experiences and geriatric depression (GDS) in a population of elderly who were exposed to severe childhood trauma. We aimed to identify the role of childhood maltreatment exposure in geriatric depression and the developmental and contextual factors that exacerbate this relationship. We interviewed 141 former indentured child laborers (58 females) about their experiences as children and their current depressive symptoms (Mage=77, SD=6.8). Participants provided their age, the year they were first indentured, duration indentured, current physical health, completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Child maltreatment, specifically emotional abuse, was strongly associated with geriatric depression symptoms. These effects were specific to individuals who were removed from their biological families between the ages of 3 and 9 years, and for children who were indentured for 6-12 years. Finally, depression partially mediated the association between medical conditions and daily health impairment, but not for individuals "at risk" for depression by virtue of their maltreatment experiences. This study was conducted with a specific subpopulation of elderly and therefore may not generalize to all geriatric depression, nor to all generations or populations with exposure to childhood adversity. This study demonstrates the importance of using a developmental framework to understand how childhood maltreatment facilitates increased risk for the development of depression in late life.

  2. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Results of the Modified HIII-6C Test in the Marathon, Boulevard, and Decathlon Child Restraint Systems ii. Comparing the Results of the Britax Marathon Test of the Modified HIII-6C (test H06337) to Those of a Test... ``modified dummy'') in a Britax Marathon child restraint, Britax Boulevard and Britax Decathlon to the...

  3. Japanese and Canadian Children’s Beliefs about Child and Adult Knowledge: A Case for Developmental Equifinality?

    PubMed Central

    Fitneva, Stanka A.; Pile Ho, Elizabeth; Hatayama, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult. In addition, parental and child beliefs were related in Japan but not in Canada. These findings indicate that children growing up in different cultures may take different paths in developing beliefs about age-related knowledge. Implications for theories of socio-cognitive development and learning are discussed. PMID:27632387

  4. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  5. Translating neurobehavioural endpoints of developmental neurotoxicity tests into in vitro assays and readouts.

    PubMed

    van Thriel, Christoph; Westerink, Remco H S; Beste, Christian; Bale, Ambuja S; Lein, Pamela J; Leist, Marcel

    2012-08-01

    The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to chemical insults. Exposure to chemicals can result in neurobehavioural alterations, and these have been used as sensitive readouts to assess neurotoxicity in animals and man. Deconstructing neurobehaviour into relevant cellular and molecular components may allow for detection of specific neurotoxic effects in cell-based systems, which in turn may allow an easier examination of neurotoxic pathways and modes of actions and eventually inform the regulatory assessment of chemicals with potential developmental neurotoxicity. Here, current developments towards these goals are reviewed. Imaging genetics (CB) provides new insights into the neurobiological correlates of cognitive function that are being used to delineate neurotoxic mechanisms. The gaps between in vivo neurobehaviour and real-time in vitro measurements of neuronal function are being bridged by ex vivo measurements of synaptic plasticity (RW). An example of solvent neurotoxicity demonstrates how an in vivo neurological defect can be linked via the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor as a common target to in vitro readouts (AB). Axonal and dendritic morphology in vitro proved to be good correlates of neuronal connectivity and neurobehaviour in animals exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and organophosphorus pesticides (PJL). Similarly, chemically induced changes in neuronal morphology affected the formation of neuronal networks on structured surfaces. Such network formation may become an important readout for developmental neurotoxicity in vitro (CvT), especially when combined with human neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ML). We envision that future in vitro test systems for developmental neurotoxicity will combine the above approaches with exposure information, and we suggest a strategy for test system development and cell-based risk assessment.

  6. Single-center experience of the Korean-Developmental Screening Test for infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Chae-Ri; Sohn, Su Ye; Kim, Gun-Ha; Jung, Seong-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the number of test takers of the Korean-Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) in a single children's hospital within a year, according to age, referral rate, and follow-up percentage. Methods For this study, 4,062 children who visited and received K-DST at Woorisoa Children's Hospital between January and December 2015 were enrolled. Seven test sets were used according to the Korean National Health Screening Program for infants and children in the following age groups: 4 to 6, 9 to 12, 18 to 24, 30 to 36, 42 to 48, 54 to 60, and 66 to 71 months. The results of the K-DST were categorized into 4 groups as follows: further evaluation (<−2 standard deviation [−2SD]), follow-up test (−2SD to −1SD), peer level (−1SD to 1SD), and high level (>1SD). Results The test participants' population and follow-up population were concentrated before the age of 24 months (2,532, 62.3%). The children most commonly referred for further evaluation were those in the 30- to 41-month age group. A mismatch was found between the results of the K-DST and the additional questions. Most of the infants and children with suspicious developmental delays showed catch-up development in their follow-up tests (43 of 55, 78.2%). Conclusion The use of K-DST should be encouraged, especially among children aged over 24 months. Multiple-choice question format for the additional questions is recommended to avoid confusion. We suggest a nationwide study to evaluate and revise the K-DST. PMID:28194214

  7. My Child Doesn't Test Well. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    The writer examines a variety of reasons why test performance may not always be a valid measure of a person's competence or potential. Citing that a sizable percentage of students perform well in their schoolwork but poorly on standardized, multiple-choice tests, Bond defines and discusses four candidates as source factors for the phenomenon: (1)…

  8. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  9. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition Test in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on…

  10. Too young to correct: a developmental test of the three-stage model of social inference.

    PubMed

    Hagá, Sara; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Olson, Kristina R

    2014-12-01

    The 3-stage model of social inference posits that people categorize behaviors and characterize actors or situations effortlessly, but they correct these characterizations with additional information effortfully. The current article tests this model using developmental data, assuming that the less cognitively demanding processes in the model (i.e., categorization, characterization) should appear earlier in development, whereas the more demanding correction process should not appear until later in development. Using 2 different paradigms, Studies 1 and 3 found that younger children failed to take situational information into account while characterizing the actor. Study 2 found that younger children failed to take dispositional information into account while characterizing the situation. In contrast, in these 3 studies, older children used the available information to correct their characterizations of the actors and of the situations. Consistent with the 3-stage model, during elementary school years, children start to integrate additional information when drawing explicit social inferences. In Study 4, children of all age levels used a prior expectancy to draw a dispositional inference, ignoring situational information, suggesting that characterizations based on prior expectancies about an actor are a highly efficient process, not contemplated by the model. The 4 studies together illustrate how developmental data can be valuably used to test adult socio-cognitive models, to extend their validity, or to simply further inform those models.

  11. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Bosgra, Sieto; Westerhout, Joost

    2015-08-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and observations of developmental toxicity in vivo. This modeling strategy is based on (1) the definition of relevant observations of toxicity in vivo, (2) simulation of the corresponding systemic concentrations in vivo by toxicokinetic modeling, and (3) correction for differences in protein binding and lipid partitioning between plasma and in vitro test media. The test results of a feasibility study with a number of known reproductive toxicants has been described previously (Piersma et al. [15]). In the present paper, we take a more detailed look at the toxicokinetics of these compounds, and add the analysis of some compounds from subsequent studies. We discuss how the consideration of toxicokinetics allowed comparison between test systems with differing test medium composition, has helped to interpret the in vitro findings in light of in vivo observations, and to gain confidence in the predictive value of the test battery outcomes. The same toxicokinetic modeling strategy, in reverse order, can now be used for risk assessment purposes to predict toxic doses in vivo from effective concentrations in vitro.

  12. Comparison of Hybrid III child test dummies to pediatric PMHS in blunt thoracic impact response.

    PubMed

    Parent, D P; Crandall, J R; Bolton, J R; Bass, C R; Ouyang, J; Lau, S H

    2010-08-01

    The limited availability of pediatric biomechanical impact response data presents a significant challenge to the development of child dummies. In the absence of these data, the development of the current generation of child dummies has been driven by scaling of the biomechanical response requirements of the existing adult test dummies. Recently published pediatric blunt thoracic impact response data provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of these scaling methodologies. However, the published data include several processing anomalies and nonphysical features. These features are corrected by minimizing instrumentation and processing error to improve the fidelity of the individual force-deflection responses. Using these data, biomechanical impact response corridors are calculated for a 3-year-old child and a 6-year-old child. These calculated corridors differ from both the originally published postmortem human subject (PMHS) corridors and the impact response requirements of the current child dummies. Furthermore, the response of the Hybrid III 3-year-old test dummy in the same impact condition shows a similar deflection but a significantly higher force than the 3-year-old corridor. The response of the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy, on the other hand, correlates well with the calculated 6-year-old corridor. The newly developed 3-year-old and 6-year-old blunt thoracic impact response corridors can be used to define data-driven impact response requirements as an alternative to scaling-driven requirements.

  13. Ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: testing basic assumptions of the developmental model.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Juang, Linda P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney's (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association between ethnic identity and psychological functioning for ethnic minorities, but not for Whites. These hypotheses were tested in three independent samples of ethnically diverse youth. In general, we found weak to moderate support for these three hypotheses, suggesting that the theoretically proposed differences in ethnic identity between ethnic minorities and Whites may not be supported by data. Implications for theory and measurement of ethnic identity are discussed.

  14. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    PubMed

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  15. Prospects for the development of validated screening tests that measure developmental toxicity potential: view of one skeptic.

    PubMed

    Mirkes, P E

    1996-06-01

    Humans are exposed to a variety of potential developmental toxicants. This fact, combined with the knowledge that human development can be disrupted by "environmental" agents, has led to the development of methods designed to identify potential developmental toxicants. Currently, the principal method used to screen drugs and chemicals that are potential human developmental toxicants is the segment II study (i.e., a study in which prospective drugs and chemicals are tested in pregnant animals). Because of the cost and time involved in such studies and the pressure to reduce the number of animals used in such testing, alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing have been sought. This has resulted in a number of in vitro tests whose aim is to screen large numbers of agents quickly and inexpensively. Although numerous in vitro tests of developmental toxicity have been developed during the last 15 years, no one system or combination of tests have been validated for the purpose intended. Nonetheless, two systems--the limb bud/CNS micromass, and the chick embryo neural retina cell culture (CERC)--continue to be advanced as viable in vitro developmental toxicology tests. The purpose of this commentary is to evaluate the prospects for the development of an in vitro test system(s) that can screen the universe of drugs and chemicals and reliably identify those that require further study and those that do not. The conclusion of this investigator is that the prospects for validating such in vitro tests are not promising. This conclusion is based primarily on the lack of basic knowledge regarding the relevance of end points assayed in the micromass and CERC test systems to those end points known or thought to be critical for normal development.

  16. PROJECT HEAD START MEDICAL--A GUIDE FOR DIRECTION OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC.

    HEALTH SERVICES OF PROJECT HEAD START CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS PROVIDE--A MEDICAL EVALUATION OF EACH CHILD INCLUDING MEDICAL HISTORY, DEVELOPMENTAL ASSESSMENT, AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, SCREENING TESTS FOR VISION, HEARING, SPEECH, AND TUBERCULOSIS, LABORATORY TESTS OF URINE FOR ALBUMIN AND TESTS OF SUGAR AND BLOOD FOR ANEMIA, DENTAL ASSESSMENT,…

  17. Zebrafish Development: High-throughput Test Systems to Assess Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Because of its developmental concordance, ease of handling and rapid development, the small teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), is frequently promoted as a vertebrate model for medium-throughput developmental screens. This present chapter discusses zebrafish as an altern...

  18. Child Development, Care and Guidance. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Child Development, Care and Guidance semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics…

  19. "No Child" Effect on English-Learners Mulled: Teachers Welcome Attention, Fault Focus on Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Educators who specialize in teaching English-language learners agree that the 4-year-old No Child Left Behind Act has brought unprecedented attention to those students by requiring schools to isolate test-score data for them. They disagree, though, on whether changes in instruction spurred by the law have been positive or negative overall. Such…

  20. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data…

  1. Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…

  2. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability.

  3. Testing Out Developmental, Psycholinguistics: Teachers Research the Adult/Child Role in Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Christine

    1992-01-01

    Considers teachers' research into adult/pupil dialog. Questions the way teachers converse with students. Asks how teachers listen to what children say and how teachers reciprocate. Studies language facility as an age-related phenomenon and considers whether conversation is led and developed in linguistic context by the adult. (HB)

  4. Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics - strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics.

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  6. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part IV: Treatment of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses the treatment of DAS including linguistic approaches, motor-programming approaches, a combination of linguistic and motor-programming approaches, and treatment approaches that include specific sensory and gestural cueing techniques.…

  7. Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  8. Developing the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD) for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Chun; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument, named the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD), for measuring the amount and quality of use of affected upper limb functions in the daily routines of children with CP. Methods Forty-eight participants (24 children with CP and 24 matched typically developing children) were recruited. The OTCPDD was administered twice (the spontaneous use condition first, followed by the forced use condition) on children with CP. Their parents were asked to complete the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R). The internal consistency, the intrarater and interrater reliabilities, and the convergent and discriminate validities were measured. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities were higher than 0.9 for all of the OTCPDD scores. The convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the OTCPDD and the PMAL-R. For the discriminant validity, significant differences (p<0.05) were found between children with CP and typically developing children. Conclusions The results support that the OTCPDD is a reliable and valid observation-based assessment. The OTCPDD, which uses bimanual daily living activities, is able to represent the children’s general affected hand functions (including capacity, performance, and developmental disregard) in their daily routines. PMID:27010941

  9. The Reliability of Child-Friendly Race-Attitude Implicit Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Amanda; Steele, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit attitudes are evaluations that are made automatically, unconsciously, unintentionally, or without conscious and deliberative processing (Nosek et al., 2007; Gawronski and De Houwer, 2014). For the last two decades implicit measures have been developed and used to assess people’s attitudes and social cognition, with the most widely used measure being the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 2003). This measure has been used extensively to assess racial biases and a number of studies have examined the reliability of the IAT when administered to adults (Cunningham et al., 2001; Gawronski, 2002; Greenwald et al., 2003; Nosek et al., 2005; Nosek and Smyth, 2007; Bar-Anan and Nosek, 2014). In recent years, the IAT has also been modified for use with children. Despite the potential of this measure to provide insight into the early emergence of implicit racial attitudes, little is known about the psychometric properties of these modified child-friendly IATs (Child-IATs). In the current research we examined the internal consistency of race-attitude Child-IATs when either reduced (Study 1) or traditional-length (Study 2) versions were administered to children (Studies 1 and 2) and adults (Study 2). We also examined the test–retest reliability of this measure with both child and adult participants (Study 2). We found that these measures demonstrate an internal consistency comparable to what has been seen in previous research with adults. In addition, the internal consistency of traditional-length Child-IATs completed in succession depended on the order in which they were completed; the first Child-IAT demonstrated higher internal consistency than the second for both children and adults (Study 2). Finally, we provide the first evidence that the test–retest reliability of the Child-IAT is comparable to what has been found previously with adults (Study 2). The implications of these findings for future research examining children’s implicit social

  10. Developmental profile and trajectory of neuropsychological skills in a child with Kabuki syndrome: implications for assessment of syndromes associated with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jacqueline H; Lipkin, Paul; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Mahone, E Mark

    2010-10-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic syndrome involving dysmorphic facial features,and reports of intellectual disability (ID). We examined the developmental trajectory of neuropsychological skills in a child with KS (seen at ages 4, 6, 7, 9, and 11). Examination of raw and age-corrected standard scores suggests that language-based skills developed appropriately, but visually based skills slowed and reached a plateau. Executive dysfunction and mood symptoms were also observed. While ID is described as a core feature of KS,some patients may not meet diagnostic criteria for ID, and may be better described as having specific deficits in nonverbal skills. Longitudinal neuropsychological assessment of children with KS and other syndromes associated with ID is warranted to understand the true prevalence of ID versus isolated cognitive impairments.

  11. Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome.

    PubMed

    PeBenito, R; Fisch, C B; Fisch, M L

    1988-09-01

    The tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and right-left disorientation make up Gerstmann's syndrome. The tetrad has been infrequently described in children with learning disability and has been called developmental Gerstmann's syndrome (DGS). Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome may occur in brain-damaged and apparently normal children. Five children in whom DGS occurred in association with brain abnormalities underwent long-term observation, which indicated persistence of the deficits. The identification of these cases suggests that DGS may not be as rare as previously thought and may often be unrecognized. Testing for the Gerstmann elements in learning-disabled children may identify otherwise undiagnosed cases of DGS and should be routinely employed in the neurologic examination. Until appropriate teaching methods for DGS are found, "bypassing" the deficits and utilizing the child's strengths, plus counseling, seem to offer an effective treatment approach.

  12. Developmental Changes in the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Boys: Effects of Two Dose Levels of Ritalin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Mother/child interactions of 60 hyperactive children 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 years of age were studied during free play and task periods. Significant age effects and several drug effects were found in the task period. Drug effects were essentially the same across all five age levels. (Author/RH)

  13. The Age of Entry into High-Quality Preschool, Child and Family Factors, and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…

  14. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children’s regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members’ reports of current sectarian and non-sectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children’s emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children’s adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  15. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  16. Preschool Teachers' Child-Centered Beliefs: Direct and Indirect Associations with Work Climate and Job-Related Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Eunhye; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood teachers' child-centered beliefs, defined as teachers' attitudes about how children learn, have been associated with teachers' developmentally appropriate practices and positive child outcomes. The predictors of teachers' child-centered beliefs, however, are less frequently explored. Objective: This study tested whether…

  17. Stability of Attachment Style in Adolescence: An Empirical Test of Alternative Developmental Processes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Fraley, R Chris; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Stern, Jessica A; Lejuez, C W; Shaver, Phillip R; Cassidy, Jude

    2017-03-16

    Few studies have examined stability and change in attachment during adolescence. This 5-year longitudinal study (a) examined whether prototype or revisionist developmental dynamics better characterized patterns of stability and change in adolescent attachment (at T1, N = 176; Mage  = 14.0 years, SD = 0.9), (b) tested potential moderators of prototype-like attachment stability, and (c) compared attachment stability in adolescence to stability in adulthood. The results supported the prototype model, which assumes that there is a stable, enduring factor underlying stability and change in attachment. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that family conflict, parental separation or divorce, minority status, and male sex might undermine the prototype-like stability of adolescent attachment. Stability of attachment was lower in adolescence relative to adulthood.

  18. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  19. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z. Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-10-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 {mu}g/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  20. Child poverty in South America: reflections on its magnitude, and the basic-need developmental approach. A retrospect on the International Year of the Child.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, E

    1981-06-01

    Extreme economic poverty in children with its adverse consequences on their mental and physical growth is becoming an increasing concern of governments in South America. There is now a search for effective intervention strategies to alleviate these problems as they are also a bottleneck for national development. Some of these programs are likely to be defined as fitting within the general theoretical framework of the basic-need approach to development. This paper postulates that intervention programs (e.g., nutrition, health and education) directed to economically deprived children will not be successful and are not representative of the basic-needs approach unless they also attend to the broader economic and social needs of families and communities. Although child-directed programs have proven to be moderately successful they do not eliminate the mental and physical growth differences between children determined by economic inequality.

  1. Comparing three novel endpoints for developmental osteotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test

    SciTech Connect

    Nieden, Nicole I. zur; Davis, Lesley A.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2010-09-01

    Birth defects belong to the most serious side effects of pharmaceutical compounds or environmental chemicals. In vivo, teratogens most often affect the normal development of bones, causing growth retardation, limb defects or craniofacial malformations. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is one of the most promising models that allow the in vitro prediction of embryotoxicity, with one of its endpoints being bone tissue development. The present study was designed to describe three novel inexpensive endpoints to assess developmental osteotoxicity using the model compounds penicillin G (non-teratogenic), 5-fluorouracil (strong teratogen) and all-trans retinoic acid (bone teratogen). These three endpoints were: quantification of matrix incorporated calcium by (1) morphometric analysis and (2) measurement of calcium levels as well as (3) activity of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme involved in matrix calcification. To evaluate our data, we have compared the concentration curves and resulting ID{sub 50}s of the new endpoints with mRNA expression for osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is an exclusive marker found only in mineralized tissues, is regulated upon compound treatment and reliably predicts the potential of a chemical entity acting as a bone teratogen. By comparing the new endpoints to quantitative expression of osteocalcin, which we previously identified as suitable to detect developmental osteotoxicity, we were ultimately able to illustrate IMAGE analysis and Ca{sup 2+} deposition assays as two reliable novel endpoints for the EST. This is of particular importance for routine industrial assessment of novel compounds as these two new endpoints may substitute previously used molecular read-out methods, which are often costly and time-consuming.

  2. Comparison of Learning Disabled Children's Performance on Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and Beery's Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeen, Judith A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A comparison was made of the performance of 30 learning-disabled students on the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. A significant correlation of -.72 was obtained. No significant difference was found in estimations of age equivalents. (Author)

  3. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for specific phobias with a child demonstrating severe problem behavior and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thompson E; Kurtz, Patricia F; Gardner, Andrew W; Carman, Nicole B

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and behavior analytic assessment techniques in the CBT of water and height phobia in a 7-year-old male with developmental delays and severe behavior problems. One-session treatment [Ost, L. G. (1989). One-session treatment for specific phobias. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 1-7; Ost, L. G. (1997). Rapid treatment of specific phobias. In G. C. L. Davey (Ed.), Phobias: A handbook of theory, research, and treatment (pp. 227-247). New York: Wiley] was provided for water phobia and then 2 months later for height phobia. The massed exposure therapy sessions combined graduated in vivo exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, reinforcement, and other techniques. Both indirect and direct observation measures were utilized to evaluate treatment efficacy. Results suggested CBT reduced or eliminated behavioral avoidance, specific phobia symptoms, and subjective fear. Negative vocalizations were reduced during height exposure following treatment. Vocalizations following treatment for water phobia were less clear and may have been indicative of typical 7-year-old protests during bath time. Findings indicate CBT can be effective for treating clinical fears in an individual with developmental disabilities and severe behavior. Future research in this population should examine CBT as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., forced exposure) for treating fears.

  4. Is the test of senior friendly/child resistant packaging ethical?

    PubMed

    Bix, Laura; de la Fuente, Javier; Pimple, Kenneth D; Kou, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Research has documented the drastic reduction of unintentional poisonings of children since the introduction of child resistant (CR) packaging. However, studies also indicate that consumers report difficulty using CR packages, in part because tests which determine the 'senior friendliness' of CR designs that are used throughout the world disallow people with 'overt or obvious' disabilities from being test subjects. Our review of drug package usability suggests that the current tests of CR packaging can and should be revised to correct this problem. We use US legislation, regulation and data to exemplify these points, but the conclusions are applicable to all protocols that include the exclusionary provision.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with parental concerns about development detected by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks in a birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Woolfenden, Susan; Eapen, Valsamma; Jalaludin, Bin; Hayen, Andrew; Kemp, Lynn; Dissanyake, Cheryl; Hendry, Alexandra; Axelsson, Emma; Overs, Bronwyn; Eastwood, John; Črnčec, Rudi; McKenzie, Anne; Beasley, Deborah; Murphy, Elisabeth; Williams, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of developmental vulnerability is vital. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of moderate or high developmental risk on the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks; identify associated risk factors; and examine documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Design, participants A prospective birth cohort of 2025 children with 50% of those approached agreeing to participate. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaires and linked electronic medical records. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents to collect PEDS data. Primary and secondary outcomes Multiple logistic regression analyses identified risk factors for moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS. A Cumulative Risk Index examined the impact of multiple risk factors on developmental risk and documentation of the PEDS at the well-child checks. Results Of the original cohort, 792 (39%) had 6-month, 649 (32%) had 12-month and 565 (28%) had 18-month PEDS data. Parental concerns indicating moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS were 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 6 months, 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 12 months and 33% (95% CI 29 to 37) at 18 months. Factors associated with moderate or high developmental risk were perinatal risk (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); maternal Middle Eastern or Asian nationality (OR 6 months: 1.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.4)), (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); and household disadvantage (OR 6 months: 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). As the number of risk factors increased the odds increased for high or moderate developmental risk and no documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Conclusions Children with multiple risk factors are more likely to have parental concerns indicating developmental vulnerability using the PEDS and for these concerns to not be documented. PMID:27609853

  6. Treatment effects of Fast ForWord demonstrated by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a child with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lajiness-O'Neill, R; Akamine, Y; Bowyer, S M

    2007-10-01

    Treatment effects of Fast ForWord, hypothesized to ameliorate temporal processing deficits, were demonstrated by magnetoencephalography in a child with dyslexia using four paradigms: Word/Non-word Reading (NW), Grapheme-to-Phoneme Matching (GP), Verbal, and Spatial Working Memory (VWM, SWM). Shifts in brain activation from right inferior frontal and temporal to left frontal, bilateral supramarginal, and transverse temporal regions occurred during GP. During NW, shifts progressed from (1) right or bilateral anterior and superior to (2) left, inferior frontal, to (3) left, superior posterior temporoparietal, to (4) left, inferior, posterior temporooccipital regions. Reading and written language improvements were noted in passage comprehension and spelling.

  7. Improving child self-regulation and parenting in families of pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties.

    PubMed

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Healey, Cynthia V; Yoerger, Karen; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The transition to school may be particularly difficult for children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties. Such children are likely to experience problems with self-regulation skills, which are critical to school adjustment. Additionally, inconsistent discipline practices and low parental involvement in children's schooling may contribute to a poor transition to school. This study employed a randomized clinical trial to examine the effects of a school readiness intervention that focused on children's self-regulation skills as well as parenting and parental involvement in school. Results showed that the intervention had positive effects on children's self-regulation in kindergarten as measured by teacher and observer reports. Additionally, the intervention significantly reduced ineffective parenting prior to school entry, which in turn affected parental involvement. This finding is significant because it demonstrates that parental involvement in school may be increased by efforts to improve parenting skills in general. Overall, the study demonstrated that school adjustment across kindergarten among children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties can be enhanced through an intervention aimed specifically at improving school readiness skills.

  8. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M S; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction.

  9. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M. S.; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction. PMID:27445667

  10. Rasch analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) ages 4-12 years using the dichotomous Rasch model. The VMI was administered individually to 454 children with ID. Rasch analysis was applied to investigate unidimensionality, item fit to the model, differential item functioning (DIF), and item targeting. Discriminative validity was obtained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Items were eliminated if the task was too easy or too difficult, or showed misfit to the Rasch model. The remaining items fitted the unidimensional construct the test was intended to measure and were free of DIF. The Rasch reduced version of the VMI with 9 items appeared to be suited to measure mild degrees of perceptual-motor impairment and demonstrated excellent reliability (0.91). VMI-9 had a larger area under the ROC curve in its ability to differentiate mild versus moderate to severe ID compared with the original version. Taken together, the VMI-9 provides a quick, reliable and valid measure for screening and identifying perceptual-motor deficits in children with ID.

  11. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict, and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Edward M.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally,…

  12. Test Reviews: Newborg, J. (2005). "Battelle Developmental Inventory--Second Edition." Itasca, IL: Riverside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Stacy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-2), a criterion-referenced, individually administered, standardized assessment used to measure the developmental skills in children aged birth through 7 years, 11 months. The BDI-2 is composed of 450 items grouped into five domains (Adaptive,…

  13. Studies of the Variables Affecting Behavior of Larval Zebrafish for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. We are exploring methods to screen for developmentally neurotoxic chemicals using zebrafish behavior at 6 days of age. The behavioral par...

  14. Studies of the Variables Affecting Behavior of Larval Zebrafish for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. We are exploring methods to detect developmentally neurotoxic chemicals using zebrafish behavior at 6 days of age. The behavioral paradig...

  15. Psychometric Characteristics of a Measure of Emotional Dispositions Developed to Test a Developmental Propensity Model of Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Applegate, Brooks; Chronis, Andrea M.; Jones, Heather A.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Loney, Jan; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman proposed a developmental propensity model in which three dimensions of children's emotional dispositions are hypothesized to transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder, heterogeneity in conduct disorder, and comorbidity with other disorders. To prepare for future tests of this model, a new measure of…

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  17. Interrater Reliability of the Original and a Revised Scoring System for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkin, Sheila Ratsch; Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the interrater reliability of teachers' and school psychology externs' scoring of protocols for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), using a revised scoring system. Results showed high reliability coefficients for all raters, regardless of the scoring system employed. The influence of rater training is discussed.…

  18. Developmental Gender Differences on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test in a Nationally Normed Sample of 5-17 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2006-01-01

    Lynn [Lynn, R., 2002. Sex differences on the progressive matrices among 15-16 year olds: some data from South Africa. "Personality and Individual Differences 33," 669-673.] proposed that biologically based developmental sex differences produce different IQ trajectories across childhood and adolescence. To test this theory we analyzed the…

  19. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  20. Continuing education course #3: current practices and future trends in neuropathology assessment for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Brad; Garman, Robert H; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen G; Allan Johnson, G; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Krinke, Georg; Little, Peter B; Makris, Susan L; Mellon, R Daniel; Sulik, Kathleen K; Jensen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The continuing education course on Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and noninvasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neuropathologists and regulatory scientists regarding suitable DNT practices. Conventional DNT neuropathology endpoints are qualitative histopathology and morphometric endpoints of particularly vulnerable sites (e.g., cerebral, cerebellar, or hippocampal thickness). Novel imaging and stereology measurements hold promise for automated analysis of factors that cannot be effectively examined in routinely processed specimens (e.g., cell numbers, fiber tract integrity). The panel recommended that dedicated DNT neuropathology data sets be acquired on a minimum of 8 sections (for qualitative assessment) or 3 sections (for quantitative linear and stereological analyses) using a small battery of stains to examine neurons and myelin. Where guidelines permit discretion, immersion fixation is acceptable for younger animals (postnatal day 22 or earlier), and peripheral nerves may be embedded in paraffin. Frequent concerns regarding DNT data sets include false-negative outcomes due to processing difficulties (e.g., lack of concordance among sections from different animals) and insensitive analytical endpoints (e.g., qualitative evaluation) as well as false-positive results arising from overinterpretation or misreading by inexperienced pathologists.

  1. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children. Seventy-one children with DCD and 70 children without motor problems were recruited from 14 public schools. Executive functions and school functions were assessed using the WCST, and the School Function Assessment--Chinese Version (SFA-C) respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated significant between-group differences in five WCST measures. The logistic regression analysis showed differences between two groups on eight SFA-C subscales, and significant correlation between items measured on WCST and SFA-C was also found. The result of the study provides further evidence of impaired sub-domains of executive functions (i.e., mental shifting, flexibility) in children with DCD. The finding also adds to recent investigations into the relationship between executive functions and school functions in DCD. Implications for rehabilitation professionals and recommendations for further research are discussed.

  2. The Bender-Gestalt test in an Italian sample: an analysis of Koppitz's Developmental Bender Scoring System deviations.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    2000-04-01

    This study extended the research of the psychometric characteristics of Koppitz's 1963/1975 Developmental Scoring System of the Bender-Gestalt test. Attention was paid to relations among the 7 deviations. The test was administered by licensed psychologists to 1,065 white children, aged from 3 yr., 6 mo. to 11 yr., 5 mo., enrolled in the regular education track of kindergarten and elementary school in Italy.

  3. Head Trajectories of Restrained Child Dummy in Sled Tests Over 56 kph Delta-V

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Hans W.

    2000-01-01

    Child restraint devices (CRDs) have been used for many years to protect children in automotive crashes. The following data was collected to find out whether current restraints would be able to pass more stringent dynamic testing at higher changes in velocity (delta-v), such as the NHTSA NCAP program or the IIHS offset barrier test, and to look at one possible misuse mode. Three basic types of CRDs were sled tested at a delta-v between 57.5 & 61.4 kph (35.7 & 38.1 mph). Data from each test are presented and compared. Comparisons are made between each seat’s sled test results and various countries’ standards. PMID:11558089

  4. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): Creating a Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) Roadmap for Regulatory Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a m...

  5. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  6. 'A Mental Test for Every Child': The Use of Intelligence Tests in Progressive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Paul Davis

    This essay shows that the adoption of intelligence tests by the schools was a complex development. Tests were adopted during the 1920s as part of the reform program fashioned by the network of applied psychologists and school people. While the network itself often viewed testing as a means to improve the schools and society, immigrants and blacks…

  7. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J; Snowden, Robert J; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this hypothesis. Results indicated that child abusers have a stronger sexual preference for submissiveness than rapists, although there were no differences between child abusers and non-sexual offenders. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that submissive-sexy associations have incremental value over child-sex associations in differentiating child abusers from other offenders. The predictive value of both implicit associations was explored by correlating IAT scores with measures for recidivism risk, aggression, and interpersonal anxiety. Child abusers with stronger child-sex associations reported higher levels of interpersonal anxiety and hostility. More research on implicit cognition in sex offenders is required for a better understanding of what these and similar implicit measures are exactly measuring and what role implicit cognition may play in sexual offending.

  8. Screening for Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol; Duran-Flores, Deborah; Dumars, Kenneth W.; Stills, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are responsible for a combination of severe physical, mental, psychological and social deficits. They develop before age 22 years and involve a little more than 1% of the population. Screening for developmental disabilities is the first step in their prevention. Various screening instruments are available for use throughout the developmental years that are designed to detect the wide variety of developmental problems that interfere with a developing person's optimal adaptation to his or her environment. The screening instruments must be inexpensive, reproducible, widely available and cost effective to the child, family and society. PMID:2413633

  9. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  10. Mothers' depressive symptoms and infant negative emotionality in the prediction of child adjustment at age 3: testing the maternal reactivity and child vulnerability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Dix, Theodore; Yan, Ni

    2014-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in how mothers' depressive symptoms affect children's early adjustment. It tested whether problematic development among children high in negative emotionality is accentuated by (a) maternal reactivity, the negative reactivity of mothers with depressive symptoms to difficult child characteristics; and (b) child vulnerability, the susceptibility of negatively emotional children to the negative parenting of mothers with depressive symptoms. Based on 1,364 participants from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, results showed that mothers' depressive symptoms predicted greater risk for adjustment problems at age 3 among children who as infants were high rather than low in negative emotionality. Increased risk was evident for behavior problems, low responsiveness, high separation distress, and low social competence. Mediational tests suggested that increased risk reflected maternal reactivity: the stronger mothers' depressive symptoms, the more they responded with negative parenting to children high in negative emotionality. The proposal that child vulnerability mediates the greater impact of mothers' depressive symptoms on negatively emotional children was verified only for separation distress. The results support the proposal that, when mothers are high in depressive symptoms, aversive characteristics of children and their behavior increasingly influence early adjustment and do so because they elicit negative parent behavior.

  11. Unraveling sexual associations in contact and noncontact child sex offenders using the single category - implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Hempel, I S; Buck, N M L; Goethals, K R; van Marle, H J C

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies found associations between children and sex in child sex offenders (CSOs) using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). We used a modification of this task, the Single Category-Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) to unravel child-sex associations in CSOs. Using the SC-IAT, we were able to test whether CSOs indeed hold stronger child-sex associations relative to adult-sex associations, compared to adult sex offenders and nonoffenders. Furthermore, we examined whether contact CSOs differed from noncontact CSOs in their child-sex associations. The hypothesis that CSOs would have stronger child-sex associations, relative to their adult-sex associations, than adult sex offenders and nonoffenders was confirmed. No difference between contact CSOs and noncontact CSOs was found. Although the Sex SC-IAT was able to distinguish CSOs from nonoffenders, the sensitivity and specificity of the test was poor (AUC of .65) and needs refinement. The results of this study support the existence of a child-sex association as a distinctive characteristic of CSOs. These findings are discussed in the context of theories on deviant cognitions in CSOs and risk for sexual offending.

  12. Monolayer cultivation of osteoprogenitors shortens duration of the embryonic stem cell test while reliably predicting developmental osteotoxicity.

    PubMed

    zur Nieden, Nicole I; Davis, Lesley A; Rancourt, Derrick E

    2010-11-09

    Osteotoxic compounds administered during pregnancy can initiate skeletal congenital anomalies in the embryo. In vitro, developmental osteotoxicity of a compound can be predicted with the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the only in vitro embryotoxicity model identified to date that entirely abrogates the use of animals. Although the previously identified endpoint osteocalcin mRNA expression robustly predicts developmental osteotoxicity, it can only be assayed after 5 weeks of in vitro culture with existing embryoid body (EB)-based differentiation protocols. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize novel earlier endpoints of developmental osteotoxicity for the EST. The currently used EB-based differentiation protocol was modified so that a monolayer culture of pre-differentiated cells was inoculated. The expression profile of five bone-specific mRNAs, including osteocalcin, over the course of 30 differentiation days suggested an acceleration of pre-osteoblast specification in the monolayer over the EB-based protocol. Similarly, calcification was already visible after 14 days of culture in monolayer cultures. Employing image and absorption-based techniques to measure the degree of mineralization in these cells after compound treatment, the three compounds Penicillin G, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and all-trans retinoic acid (RA) were then tested after 14 days in monolayer cultures and compared to embryoid body-based differentiations at day 30. By modifying the culture the three test substances were classified correctly into non- or strong osteotoxic. Moreover, we were successful in shortening the assay duration from 30 to 14 days.

  13. Prediction of the developmental toxicity hazard potential of halogenated drinking water disinfection by-products tested by the in vitro hydra assay

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M. )

    1990-06-01

    A series of seven randomly selected potential halogenated water disinfection by-products were evaluated in vitro by the hydra assay to determine their developmental toxicity hazard potential. For six of the chemicals tested by this assay (dibromoacetonitrile; trichloroacetonitrile; 2-chlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; trichloroacetic acid; dichloroacetone) it was predicted that they would be generally equally toxic to both adult and embryonic mammals when studied by means of standard developmental toxicity teratology tests. However, the potential water disinfection by-product chloroacetic acid (CA) was determined to be over eight times more toxic to the embryonic developmental portion of the assay than it was to the adults. Because of this potential selectivity, CA is a high-priority item for developmental toxicity tests in pregnant mammals to confirm or refute its apparent unique developmental hazard potential and/or to establish a NOAEL by the route of most likely human exposure.

  14. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  15. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Esther; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A B; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Bessems, Jos G M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds,(1) flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  16. Filling the Gap on Developmental Change: Tests of a Dynamic Field Theory of Spatial Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Anne R.; Spencer, John P.

    2010-01-01

    In early childhood, there is a developmental transition in spatial memory biases. Before the transition, children's memory responses are biased toward the midline of a space, while after the transition responses are biased away from midline. The Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) posits that changes in neural interaction and changes in how children…

  17. Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia: Testing the Predictions of the Dual-Route and Connectionist Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phonological and surface subtypes of developmental dyslexia in light of competing predictions made by two computational models of single word reading, the Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC; Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) and Harm and Seidenberg's connectionist model (HS model; Harm & Seidenberg, 1999). The…

  18. Testing the Feasibility of Developmental Asset Measures on College Students to Guide Health Promotion Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ward, Rose Marie; King, Keith A.; Patton, Jon M.; Murray, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the reliability and validity of eight developmental asset measures among a stratified, random sample (N = 540) of college students to guide health promotion efforts. The sample was randomly split to produce exploratory and confirmatory samples for factor analysis using principal axis factoring and…

  19. Teaching Assistants' Preferences for Supervisory Style: Testing a Developmental Model of GTA Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) to determine the frequency of their supervision, their preferences for supervisory style, and how those preferences conformed to theoretical expectations within a comprehensive developmental model. Most GTAs received supervision, but the frequency of supervision was often inadequate. They preferred a…

  20. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  1. Measurement characteristics of the childhood Asthma-Control Test and a shortened, child-only version

    PubMed Central

    Bime, Christian; Gerald, Joe K; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet T; Teague, William G; Wise, Robert A; Gerald, Lynn B

    2016-01-01

    The childhood Asthma-Control Test (C-ACT) is validated for assessing asthma control in paediatric asthma. Among children aged 4–11 years, the C-ACT requires the simultaneous presence of both parent and child. There is an unmet need for a tool that can be used to assess asthma control in children when parents or caregivers are not present such as in the school setting. We assessed the psychometric properties and estimated the minimally important difference (MID) of the C-ACT and a modified version, comprising only the child responses (C-ACTc). Asthma patients aged 6–11 years (n=161) from a previously completed multicenter randomised trial were included. Demographic information, spirometry and questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Participants or their guardians kept a daily asthma diary. Internal consistency reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.76 and 0.67 (Cronbach’s α), respectively. Test–retest reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.72 and 0.66 (intra-class correlation), respectively. Significant correlations were noted between C-ACT scores and ACQ scores (Spearman’s correlation r=−0.56, 95% CI (−0.66, −0.44), P<0.001). The strength of the correlation between C-ACTc scores and ACQ scores was weaker (Spearman’s correlation r=−0.46, 95% CI (−0.58, −0.33), P<0.001). We estimated the MID for the C-ACT and C-ACTc to be 2 points and 1 point, respectively. Among asthma patients aged 6–11 years, the C-ACT had good psychometric properties. The psychometric properties of a shortened child-only version (C-ACTc), although acceptable, are not as strong. PMID:27763622

  2. Differences in American College Test Performance after Seven Years of No Child Left Behind Reform in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Craig Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the effectiveness of No Child Left Behind reform in an urban school district. The researcher obtained American College Test composite scores from a diverse, urban, public school district and a private school within the same city for years 2001 and 2008. Statistical tests were run to determine if seniors' scores were…

  3. Growing up with No Child Left Behind: An Initial Assessment of the Understanding of College Students' Knowledge of Accountability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilberberg, Anna; Anderson, Robin D.; Swerdzewski, Peter J.; Finney, Sara J.; Marsh, Kimberly R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the extensive testing for federal accountability mandates, college students' understanding of federal accountability testing (e.g., No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top, Spellings) has not been examined, resulting in a lack of knowledge regarding how such understanding (or lack thereof) impacts college students' behavior on accountability…

  4. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  5. The application of latent curve analysis to testing developmental theories in intervention research.

    PubMed

    Curran, P J; Muthén, B O

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a prevention or intervention program has traditionally been assessed using time-specific comparisons of mean levels between the treatment and the control groups. However, many times the behavior targeted by the intervention is naturally developing over time, and the goal of the treatment is to alter this natural or normative developmental trajectory. Examining time-specific mean levels can be both limiting and potentially misleading when the behavior of interest is developing systematically over time. It is argued here that there are both theoretical and statistical advantages associated with recasting intervention treatment effects in terms of normative and altered developmental trajectories. The recently developed technique of latent curve (LC) analysis is reviewed and extended to a true experimental design setting in which subjects are randomly assigned to a treatment intervention or a control condition. LC models are applied to both artificially generated and real intervention data sets to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program. Not only do the LC models provide a more comprehensive understanding of the treatment and control group developmental processes compared to more traditional fixed-effects models, but LC models have greater statistical power to detect a given treatment effect. Finally, the LC models are modified to allow for the computation of specific power estimates under a variety of conditions and assumptions that can provide much needed information for the planning and design of more powerful but cost-efficient intervention programs for the future.

  6. MicroRNA Profiling as Tool for In Vitro Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: The Case of Sodium Valproate

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Lena; Block, Katharina; Sittka, Alexandra; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Seiler, Andrea E. M.; Luch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Studying chemical disturbances during neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has been established as an alternative in vitro testing approach for the identification of developmental neurotoxicants. miRNAs represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of neural development and ESC differentiation and specification. Thus, neural differentiation of mESCs in vitro allows investigating the role of miRNAs in chemical-mediated developmental toxicity. We analyzed changes in miRNome and transcriptome during neural differentiation of mESCs exposed to the developmental neurotoxicant sodium valproate (VPA). A total of 110 miRNAs and 377 mRNAs were identified differently expressed in neurally differentiating mESCs upon VPA treatment. Based on miRNA profiling we observed that VPA shifts the lineage specification from neural to myogenic differentiation (upregulation of muscle-abundant miRNAs, mir-206, mir-133a and mir-10a, and downregulation of neural-specific mir-124a, mir-128 and mir-137). These findings were confirmed on the mRNA level and via immunochemistry. Particularly, the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) as well as muscle-specific genes (Actc1, calponin, myosin light chain, asporin, decorin) were found elevated, while genes involved in neurogenesis (e.g. Otx1, 2, and Zic3, 4, 5) were repressed. These results were specific for valproate treatment and―based on the following two observations―most likely due to the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity: (i) we did not observe any induction of muscle-specific miRNAs in neurally differentiating mESCs exposed to the unrelated developmental neurotoxicant sodium arsenite; and (ii) the expression of muscle-abundant mir-206 and mir-10a was similarly increased in cells exposed to the structurally different HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Based on our results we conclude that miRNA expression profiling is a suitable molecular endpoint for

  7. Correlations of scores on the developmental test of visual-motor integration and copying test in a South African multi-ethnic preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Munita; Loxton, Helene; Naidoo, Anthony

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed the intercorrelations of scores on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, the locally standardized Copying Test, and teachers' ratings of scholastic skills in a South African multi-ethnic preschool sample. The study also investigated whether cultural and socioeconomic factors might influence test data. Participants were 71 Black, 101 Coloured, and 66 White children attending preschools in a semirural district. Participants' ages ranged from 4 yr., 9 mo. to 7yr., 0 mo. (M=5.8 yr., SD= 0.3 yr.). Analysis yielded a correlation of .75 between the test scores and supports the suitability of the widely used Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in a multi-ethnic sample. Scores on the Copying Test correlated higher with teachers' ratings. However, significant differences in test performance among groups by race and socioeconomic status suggest the rate of perceptual-motor development may be related to cultural factors. Normative data are reported for groups by race and socioeconomic status.

  8. Performance evaluation of child safety seats in far-side lateral sled tests at varying speeds.

    PubMed

    Ghati, Yoganand; Menon, Rajiv A; Milone, Mary; Lankarani, Hamid; Oliveres, Gerardo

    2009-10-01

    Protection of children in Child Safety Seats (CSS) in side impact crashes has been a topic of recent studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSS in far-side impacts through a series of sled tests conducted at varying test speeds. Forty eight sled tests were conducted at three speeds (24 km/h, 29 km/h and 36 km/h), under two different CSS attachment conditions (LATCH and seat belt attached), using rear facing and forward facing CSS from four different manufacturers. Analyses were conducted to examine head retention within the CSS, velocity of the head as it passes an imaginary plane (cross over into other occupant space or door), lateral trajectory of the head and knee; head, chest and pelvis accelerations; neck and lumbar loads and moments. In addition to these parameters, the CSS were visually inspected for structural integrity after each test. Results from these sled tests highlighted the differential performance of CSS in far-side impacts. During the tests, all CSS experienced significant lateral movement irrespective of attachment type. In rear facing CSS tests, one of the designs failed as the seat disengaged from its base. In forward facing CSS tests, it was observed that the seat belt attached CSS experienced less rotational motion than the LATCH attached CSS. ATD head retention within the seat was not achieved with either CSS attachments at any speed. The findings from this study augment the current efforts to define regulatory sled setup procedure for far-side impact crashes involving children in CSS, which currently does not exist and will eventually further the protection of children in automobiles.

  9. Measuring infant memory: Utility of the visual paired-comparison test paradigm for studies in developmental neurotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Burbacher, Thomas M; Grant, Kimberly S

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of brain function and behavior in young infants is central to understanding the effects of chemical exposure on central nervous system development. One approach to infant cognitive assessment, based on the direct observation of infant eye movements, is known as the Visual Paired-Comparison task. The Visual Paired-Comparison test methodology uses selective visual attention as a vehicle to study emerging recognition memory skills. The utility of this procedure to study visual recognition memory has been well established in both human and nonhuman primate infants. The primary outcome measure produced by this assessment technique is known as the Novelty Preference Score, reflecting the amount of time the infant spends actively looking at novel rather than familiar test stimuli. Visual recognition memory testing has demonstrated a strong sensitivity to conditions that may place infants at risk for poor developmental outcome (e.g. preterm birth, Down syndrome) and in humans; performance is significantly related to later measures of I.Q. and language competency. This assessment methodology has been successfully applied to the study of neurobehavioral effects after fetal neurotoxicant exposure. Field and laboratory studies have used tests of visual recognition memory to better understand the effects of compounds such as lead, methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on emergent cognitive processing. The Visual Paired-Comparison paradigm and its capacity to measure recognition memory in preverbal infants provides a valid and theoretically meaningful approach to neurobehavioral assessment for studies in developmental toxicology and teratology.

  10. Nurses' intention to report child abuse in Taiwan: a test of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B

    2005-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors associated with nurses' intention to report suspected child abuse in Taiwan, and to determine the empirical adequacy of the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain nurses' intention to report child abuse. A stratified quota sampling technique was used to select registered nurses in emergency rooms, psychiatric units, and pediatric units in Taiwan. A total of 1,362 questionnaires from 1,617 nurses were used for the analyses. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that nurses' attitudes toward reporting child abuse, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and knowledge of the child abuse and reporting law explained 85% to 91% of the variance in nurses' intention to report child abuse for the less severe and severe child abuse cases in vignettes, respectively. The findings support the use of the extended TPB in identifying factors associated with nurses' intention to report child abuse in Taiwan.

  11. Expressive language disorder - developmental

    MedlinePlus

    If you are concerned about a child's language development, have the child tested. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  12. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  13. Child Development and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Bettye M.

    1983-01-01

    Each child is to some extent like all children, to some extent like some children, and to some extent like no other child. There are at least three sets of universals that characterize children: (1) they have the same needs and rights; (2) they go through the same developmental stages; and (3) they have essentially the same developmental goals,…

  14. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  15. Prediction of in vivo developmental toxicity by combination of Hand1-Luc embryonic stem cell test and metabolic stability test with clarification of metabolically inapplicable candidates.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Le Coz, Florian; Omori, Takashi; Saito, Koichi

    2016-09-30

    Hand1-Luc Embryonic Stem Cell Test (Hand1-Luc EST) is a promising alternative method for evaluation of developmental toxicity. However, the problems of predictivity have remained due to appropriateness of the solubility, metabolic system, and prediction model. Therefore, we assessed the usefulness of rat liver S9 metabolic stability test using LC-MS/MS to develop new prediction model. A total of 71 chemicals were analyzed by measuring cytotoxicity and differentiation toxicity, and highly reproducible (CV=20%) results were obtained. The first prediction model was developed by discriminant analysis performed on a full dataset using Hand1-Luc EST, and 66.2% of the chemicals were correctly classified by the cross-validated classification. A second model was developed with additional descriptors obtained from the metabolic stability test to calculate hepatic availability, and an accuracy of 83.3% was obtained with applicability domain of 50.7% (=36/71) after exclusion of 22 metabolically inapplicable candidates, which potentially have a metabolic activation property. A step-wise prediction scheme with combination of Hand1-Luc EST and metabolic stability test was therefore proposed. The current results provide a promising in vitro test method for accurately predicting in vivo developmental toxicity.

  16. Does routine child health surveillance contribute to the early detection of children with pervasive developmental disorders? – An epidemiological study in Kent, U.K.

    PubMed Central

    Tebruegge, Marc; Nandini, Vridhagiri; Ritchie, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Background Recently changed guidelines for child health surveillance in the United Kingdom (U.K.) suggest targeted checks only, instead of the previously conducted routine or universal screening at 2 years and 3.5 years. There are concerns that these changes could lead to a delay in the detection of children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Recent U.K. studies have suggested that the prevalence of PDD is much higher than previously estimated. This study establishes to which extent the routine checks contributed to the early detection and assessment of cases of PDD. Simultaneously we have evaluated the process involved and estimate the prevalence of PDD in our district. Methods Retrospective study design utilising community medical files. Headteachers of schools (n = 75) within Maidstone district (Kent) were asked to report all children with an established diagnosis of autism or PDD attending year 4 (born '91 and '92 / n = 2536) in October 2000 based on educational records. Results 59 schools (78.7%) took part in the study. A total of 33 children were reported. 21 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (12 falsely reported). The prevalences were (per 10,000): PDD 82.8 (male to female ratio 6:1), childhood autism 23.7, Asperger's syndrome 11.8 and autistic spectrum disorder 47.3. Co-existing medical conditions were noted in 14.3%; 52.4% were attending mainstream schools. In 63.2% of cases concerns – mainly in the area of speech and language development (SLD) – had been documented at the 2 year check. At the 3.5 year check concerns were noted in 94.1% – the main area was again SLD (76.5%), although behavioural abnormalities were becoming more frequent (47.1%). A total of 13 children (68.4%) were referred for further assessment as a direct result of the checks. Conclusions The prevalences for different types of PDD were similar to figures published recently, but much higher than reported a few years ago. Analysis of our data suggests that

  17. Developing and testing a framework for evaluating the quality of comprehensive family assessment in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Smithgall, Cheryl; Jarpe-Ratner, Elizabeth; Gnedko-Berry, Natalya; Mason, Sally

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade, Comprehensive Family Assessment (CFA) has become a best practice in child welfare. Comprehensive Family Assessments go beyond risk assessment to develop a full picture of the child's and family's situation. When appropriately synthesized, assessment information can lead to a clear articulation of the patterns of child or family functioning which are related to child abuse and maltreatment or which can be strengthened to facilitate change. This study defines and provides concrete examples of dimensions of quality in child welfare assessment reports that are consistent with the CFA guidelines and best practices embraced by child welfare agencies, courts, and other key stakeholders. Leveraging a random assignment design, the study compares the quality of reports written by a caseworker alone versus those written by a caseworker paired with a licensed Integrated Assessment (IA) screener. Findings are discussed in the context of the dual professional model and factors contributing to the timely completion of high quality assessment reports.

  18. Reciprocity among maternal distress, child behavior, and parenting: transactional processes and early childhood risk.

    PubMed

    Ciciolla, Lucia; Gerstein, Emily D; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Transactional theories support that parent-child processes are best studied in conjunction with one another, addressing their reciprocal influence and change across time. This study tested a longitudinal, autoregressive model exploring bidirectional relations among maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity during the preschool period (child ages 3 to 5 years), comparing relations among families of typically developing children and children with developmental risk. This study included 250 families, 110 of which had a child with early developmental delay. Analyses utilized data from maternal report, father report, and observational methods. The results indicated significant stability in maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity over time. Support for bidirectional effects between maternal symptomatology and child internalizing symptoms was found specifically for mothers of children with developmental risk. Maternal symptomatology was found to mediate the influence of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms on maternal sensitivity. The findings underscore critical transactional processes within families of children with early developmental risk that connect increased maternal symptomatology to emerging child internalizing symptoms during the preschool period.

  19. High-Stakes Testing under the No Child Left Behind Act: How Has It Impacted School Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingey, RaShel Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of high-stakes testing under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act on school culture. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with first grade through sixth grade teachers and principals from two of Nebo School District's schools located in Utah. Their responses were categorized…

  20. Developmental Planning: An Introduction for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Jim

    2009-01-01

    "Developmental Planning" is the thinking process of using developmental milestones as a general basis for planning and predicting needs for the child within the early years. It considers the time frames associated with normal development across all facets of the child's development. The areas include bone and joint development, movement, sensory…

  1. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    1999-01-01

    Three distinct periods mark the history of developmental psychology in Canada. Period 1 was dominated by cognitive developmental theorist, James Mark Baldwin. Period 2, defined by the Child Study Movement, began in the 1920s with Mental Hygiene Movement and founding of two child study centers. Period 3, started in the 1950s, focused on…

  2. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  3. Developmental monitoring in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, C. E.; Roberts, W.

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring child development is an essential part of primary health care. Successful surveillance depends on physicians' thorough knowledge of normal progress along the four developmental streams: motor, language, cognitive, and social and emotional. Being alert to "red flags" that suggest problems is important. Effective interventions can minimize developmental problems. PMID:8792021

  4. Get Ready to Read! Making Child Care Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moomaw, Sally; Hieronymus, Brenda; Pearson, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    Teachers can help parents foster emerging literacy skills in their preschool children in a way that is developmentally appropriate and fun: by collaborating to develop their child's lifelong love of reading and writing. Incorporating selected teacher-tested activities from the popular book "More Than Letters," this accessible guide…

  5. Individualized Child-Focused Curriculum: A Differentiated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Gaye

    2016-01-01

    How do you focus on each individual child in a full classroom? Learn to integrate individualized curriculum into daily practice with this step-­by-­step guide. Even good observers and documenters do not always use these insights to inform their curriculum planning. Using Developmental Studies, a new tool created and successfully field­-tested by…

  6. Consensus Statement: Chromosomal Microarray Is a First-Tier Clinical Diagnostic Test for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities or Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David T.; Adam, Margaret P.; Aradhya, Swaroop; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Brothman, Arthur R.; Carter, Nigel P.; Church, Deanna M.; Crolla, John A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Epstein, Charles J.; Faucett, W. Andrew; Feuk, Lars; Friedman, Jan M.; Hamosh, Ada; Jackson, Laird; Kaminsky, Erin B.; Kok, Klaas; Krantz, Ian D.; Kuhn, Robert M.; Lee, Charles; Ostell, James M.; Rosenberg, Carla; Scherer, Stephen W.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Tepperberg, James H.; Thorland, Erik C.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Waggoner, Darrel J.; Watson, Michael S.; Martin, Christa Lese; Ledbetter, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient substantially increases the total cost of genetic testing. The International Standard Cytogenomic Array (ISCA) Consortium held two international workshops and conducted a literature review of 33 studies, including 21,698 patients tested by CMA. We provide an evidence-based summary of clinical cytogenetic testing comparing CMA to G-banded karyotyping with respect to technical advantages and limitations, diagnostic yield for various types of chromosomal aberrations, and issues that affect test interpretation. CMA offers a much higher diagnostic yield (15%–20%) for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained DD/ID, ASD, or MCA than a G-banded karyotype (∼3%, excluding Down syndrome and other recognizable chromosomal syndromes), primarily because of its higher sensitivity for submicroscopic deletions and duplications. Truly balanced rearrangements and low-level mosaicism are generally not detectable by arrays, but these are relatively infrequent causes of abnormal phenotypes in this population (<1%). Available evidence strongly supports the use of CMA in place of G-banded karyotyping as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for patients with DD/ID, ASD, or MCA. G-banded karyotype analysis should be reserved for patients with obvious chromosomal syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome), a family history of chromosomal rearrangement, or a history of multiple miscarriages. PMID:20466091

  7. Child Development and Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Four major issues are explored in this study of child development research and its implications for children's playgrounds: (1) theories and philosophies of play; (2) the historical evolution of playgrounds; (3) research on child development, play, and playgrounds; and (4) creating playgrounds that meet children's developmental needs. Discussion…

  8. Amidst the Test: The Lived Experience of Teaching "under" No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Barbara Agard

    2011-01-01

    In this hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry I explore the lived experience of public school teachers teaching amidst the federal law entitled No Child Left Behind. My research question wonders, "What is the lived experience of teaching under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)?" My exploration relies heavily upon the work of Ted…

  9. Manual for Replication of the Mother-Child Home Program. (Preliminary Version, for Field-Testing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis; And Others

    Information to assist local institutions in operating Mother-Child Programs i s provided in this manual as part of the Verbal Interaction Project. Following an introduction, the manual discusses the following topics: (1) Ingredients and Procedures of a Mother-Child Program, (2) Major Program Components, (3) Administrative and Other Practical…

  10. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  11. USING PEA AND SOYBEAN IN DEVELOPMENTAL TESTS FOR NON-TARGET PLANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current tests required for pesticide registration do not investigate the potential effects of chemical exposure on plant development. The tests investigate only seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant developm...

  12. Developmental delay referrals and the roles of Fragile X testing and molecular karyotyping: a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Elaine; O'Connor, Rachel; Zhang, Anna; Lim, Christina; Love, Jennifer M; Ashton, Fern; Claxton, Karen; Gregersen, Nerine; George, Alice M; Love, Donald R

    2013-05-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) affects ~1-3% of children, many of whom will also have intellectual disability (ID). Fragile X is the major genetic cause of GDD with mental retardation (MR) in males, accounting for ~20% of all X-linked MR. As Fragile X has serious genetic implications, the overwhelming majority of developmental delay (DD) cases referred to our laboratory are concerned with the exclusion of a diagnosis of Fragile X, along with simultaneous karyotype analysis to confirm chromosome aberrations. Critically, molecular laboratories have generally experienced a falling positive detection frequency of Fragile X. In this context, the recent implementation of array‑based techno-logy has significantly increased the likelihood of detecting chromosome aberrations that underpin DD. In the current study, we report a Fragile X mutation detection frequency for DD referrals that is comparable with the falling UK detection frequencies. In addition, we find that there is a 9‑fold greater likelihood of detecting clinically significant chromosomal aberrations than of detecting a full Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene CGG repeat expansion in cases referred on the basis of DD. We propose a more efficent sequential testing algorithm that involves an initial molecular karyotype, cascading to FMR1 gene analysis in the event of a negative result.

  13. Comparability of developmental cognitive assessments between standard and computer testing methods

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Dorothy J.; Sackett, Gene P.

    2008-01-01

    Substantial questions have been raised about the validity of using computer-based testing to assess cognitive development with young children. However, little work has been done to assess the comparability of performance elicited using computerized methods with performance garnered using standard testing methods. The purpose of this study was to establish whether computerized testing resulted in performance that was different than established performance norms for infant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) tested on four highly used cognitive tasks. Infants performed comparably on simple discrimination, reversal learning, and delayed nonmatch-to-sample rule learning. However, the infants tested in a computer testing-environment appeared to have difficulty on a task that required them to form response strategies. The results of the study reveal some apparent limitations of computer-based testing with infants, but do show that performance on several common cognitive tasks is comparable between the environments. PMID:18688805

  14. Handedness and developmental coordination disorder in Portuguese children: study with the M-ABC test.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cidália; Vasconcelos, Maria Olga; Botelho, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to identify differences in motor performance according to handedness, sex and age in typically developing Portuguese children not engaged in out-of-school sports. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) was applied to a convenience sample of 154 right-handed and 119 left-handed children (n=273), aged 4-12 (mean age=7.96 years, SD=2.38). The results suggest that the occurrence rate of probable DCD was 25.3% for right-handers and 36.1% for left-handers. This study showed a significant effect of handedness in age band 2, left-handers exhibited a higher prevalence of probable DCD than right-handers. Sex produced a significant effect, with girls performing better in manual dexterity in age band 1 and boys performing better in ball skills in age bands 2 and 3. The lower motor performances were observed in older children. These findings reinforce for Portuguese children and particularly for left-handers, the need for further investigation involving longitudinal studies and children of different handedness in the motor coordination domain. Moreover, we highlight the importance of developing physical education programmes that emphasize motor coordination parameters, especially in left-handed children.

  15. Automation Analysis System of Child's Development Test and Multi-Viewpoints Input Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Kirana, Rini Pura; Yonemura, Keiichi

    This study presents a simple method for examining a child's development by automatically analyzing the child's reactions while feedback images are displayed for 2 min. This computer analysis recognizes some features of an image of the child's reactions. This system can perform that analysis in a shorter time than conventional methods, as typified by the Enjoji-method. Moreover, evaluation results of our system verify its validity compared to conventional methods. This system is applicable to achieve automatic analyses through a network to thereby realize telemedicine as part of a Multimedia Communication System.

  16. Sex-Specific Pathways to Early Puberty, Sexual Debut, and Sexual Risk Taking: Tests of an Integrated Evolutionary-Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jenee; Ellis, Bruce J.; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested sex-specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking, as specified by an integrated evolutionary-developmental model of adolescent sexual development and behavior. In a prospective study of 238 adolescents (n = 129 girls and n = 109 boys) followed from approximately 12-18 years of age, we tested for…

  17. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  18. Low-trauma fractures and bone mineral density testing in adults with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities: a population study.

    PubMed

    Balogh, R; Wood, J; Dobranowski, K; Lin, E; Wilton, A; Jaglal, S B; Gemmill, M; Lunsky, Y

    2017-02-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at risk for low-trauma fractures. We investigated the rate of low-trauma fractures and the odds of BMD testing in adults with/without IDD. Adults with IDD were more likely to have a low-trauma fracture, but there was no difference in bone mineral density (BMD) testing rates.

  19. Perception and Production in Child Phonology: The Testing of Four Hypotheses. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mary Louise

    1974-01-01

    Perception and production data were collected from 28 children, ages 1 year 8 months to 3 years 11 months to test four specific hypotheses on the acquisition of initial fricatives and glides in English, based on the assumptions that perception precedes production and unmarked precedes marked. Perception data were collected by the Shvachkin-Garnica…

  20. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... of growing up and testing adult guidelines and expectations. It is one way for children to learn ... At times, it is due to unreasonable parental expectations. Or it might be related to the child's ...

  1. Research on Children's Play: Analysis of Developmental and Early Education Journals from 2005 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Mei-Fang; Johnson, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Our review examined four early childhood journals ("Early Child Development and Care," "Early Childhood Education Journal," "Journal of Research in Childhood Education," and "Early Childhood Research Quarterly") and four developmental science journals ("Child Development," "Developmental Psychology," "Journal of Applied Developmental…

  2. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  3. Seasonal changes in humidity impact drought resistance in tropical Drosophila leontia: testing developmental effects of thermal versus humidity changes.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam

    2014-03-01

    Drosophila leontia is native to highly humid equatorial tropical habitats but its desiccation sensitivity (~10h) is not consistent with its abundance during the drier autumn season in the subtropical regions. We have tested the effects of developmental acclimation on desiccation resistance and water balance related traits of D. leontia collected during rainy and autumn seasons. The isofemale lines of seasonal populations were reared under ecologically relevant growth temperatures (18 or 26 °C) or humidity conditions (35 or 85% RH) but tested at different times under identical experimental conditions. The larvae as well as flies reared under two thermal conditions (18 or 26 °C) showed no effect on desiccation related traits as well as storage and utilization of energy metabolites. In contrast, for D. leontia reared under low humidity (35% RH), significant changes at larval as well adult stages include increase in the desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity, reduced levels of rate of body water loss, higher storage of carbohydrates but lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates as compared with flies reared at high humidity (85% RH). D. leontia has responded to rearing under low humidity conditions by increasing its desiccation resistance but not due to changes in the growth temperatures. These laboratory observations on seasonal populations highlight differences due to rearing conditions but not due to seasons. Further, direct analysis of wild-caught seasonal populations has shown trends similar to developmental acclimation effects. For wild caught flies, there are significant seasonal differences i.e. higher desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity but reduced rate of water loss for autumn than rainy season flies. Thus, our laboratory observations are relevant for understanding seasonal adaptations of natural populations of tropical D. leontia to wet-dry conditions in the wild.

  4. Political violence and child adjustment: longitudinal tests of sectarian antisocial behavior, family conflict, and insecurity as explanatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Edward M; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally, mothers and their adolescents (M = 12.33, SD = 1.78, at Time 1) from 2-parent families in Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures assessing multiple levels of a social ecological model. Utilizing autoregressive controls, a 3-wave longitudinal model test (T1, n = 299; T2, n = 248; T3, n = 197) supported a specific pathway linking sectarian community violence, family conflict, children's insecurity about family relationships, and adjustment problems.

  5. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  6. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  7. Finding the Roots of Adolescent Aggressive Behaviour: A Test of Three Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Boet, Sylvie; Born, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive behaviours in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the "mother early dissatisfaction" pathway…

  8. Developmental neurotoxicity testing in vitro: Models for assessing chemical effects on neurite outgrowth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro models may be useful for the rapid toxicological screening of large numbers of chemicals for their potential to produce toxicity. Such screening could facilitate prioritization of resources needed for in vivo toxicity testing towards those chemicals most likely to resul...

  9. Developmental Placement of Kindergarten Children Based on the Gesell School Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porwancher, Donna; De Lisi, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Examined kindergarten children's performance on the Gesell School Readiness Test (GSRT) and their participation in two different instructional programs in relation to measures of intelligence, academic achievement, and temperament. Found significant relationships among the GSRT, IQ, and academic achievement. Temperament ratings varied according to…

  10. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  11. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  12. Validation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) among Chinese Children in a Child Psychiatry Clinic in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Mo, Flora Y. M.; Lee, Marshall M. C.; Shea, Caroline K. S.; Chan, Grace F. C.; Che, Kiti K. I.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Mak, Arthur D. P.; Warrington, Richard; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder with high levels of co-morbidities. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) is a relatively new instrument designed to provide dimensional as well as categorical assessment of autistic behaviours among children with normal intelligence. Its sound psychometric properties and…

  13. A Child with Signs of Developmental Apraxia of Speech with Whom a Palatal Lift Prosthesis Was Used to Manage Palatal Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl who exhibited characteristics consistent with developmental apraxia of speech, including excessive nasal resonance and nasal emission of air resulting from velopharyngeal port dysfunction, was fitted with a palatal lift prosthesis and followed for 11 years. Results of use of the lift and speech/language remedial programing are…

  14. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  15. Editors' Conclusion: Child, Youth, and Parent Responses to the Terrorism of September 11, 2001--Implications for Applied Developmental Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

    2004-01-01

    Even as the events of September 11, 2001 recede into the past, the need for applied developmental science to lend its expertise to assist with one's understanding of and coping with civilian responses to terrorism has never been greater. What has the field learned from studies of the effects of events of September 11th on children, youths, and…

  16. Developmental Neurotoxicology: History and Outline of Developmental Neurotoxicity Study Guidelines.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work provides a brief review of basic concepts in developmental neurotoxicology, as well as current representative testing guidelines for evaluating developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of xenobiotics. Historically, DNT was initially recognized as a “functional” teratoge...

  17. Adolescent Pregnancy and Unfinished Developmental Tasks of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy may occur when childhood developmental needs have not been met adequately. Once the needs have been identified, intervention for the adolescent and her child can be tailored to fill developmental gaps. (Author/MT)

  18. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  19. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Performance in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Griffin P.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Bello, Danielle T.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of visuoconstructional abilities is a common part of clinical neuropsychological assessment, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI; K. E. Beery & N. A. Beery, 2004) is often used for this purpose. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties when used to assess children and…

  20. Is the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Developmental Screening Test, Valid and Reliable for Persian Speaking Children?

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Farin; Azari, Nadia; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Shahshahani, Soheila; Karimi, Hossein; Kraskian, Adis; Shahrokhi, Amin; Teymouri, Robab; Gharib, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have substantially improved the survival of at-risk infants over the past two decades. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler developmental Screening test in Persian-speaking children. Methods This was a cross-sectional prospective study of 403 children aged 1 - 42-months. The Bayley scales screening instrument, which consists of five domains (cognitive, receptive, and expressive communication and fine and gross motor items), was used to measure infants’ and toddlers’ development. The psychometric properties examined included the face and content validity of the scale, in addition to cultural and linguistic modifications to the scale and its test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Results An expert team changed some of the test items relating to cultural and linguistic issues. In almost all the age groups, cultural or linguistic changes were made to items in the communication domains. According to Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency, the reliability of the cognitive scale was r = 0.79, and the reliability of the receptive scale was r = 0.76. The reliability for expressive communication, fine motor, and gross motor scales was r = 0.81, r = 0.80, and r = 0.81, respectively. The construct validity of the tests was confirmed using a factor analysis and comparison of the mean scores of the age groups. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley Scales were good-to-excellent. Conclusions The results indicated that the Bayley Scales had a high level of reliability in the present study. Thus, the scale can be used in a Persian population. PMID:28203335

  1. A Developmental Psychology Perspective in Germany: Co-Construction of Transitions between Family and Education System by the Child, Parents and Pedagogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebel, Wilfried; Niesel, Renate

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, there exists a traditional gap between kindergarten and primary school. Transition research has led to a new understanding of the need for cooperation between different educational institutions and the family at this time. This article emphasises that educational transitions affect not only the child but also the parents, who actively…

  2. Profiles of Child Developmental Dimensions in Kindergarten and the Prediction of Achievement in the First and Second Grades of Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascareño, Mayra; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.

    2014-01-01

    A successful transition from kindergarten to 1st grade requires a positive combination of multiple dimensions of child competence. Using latent class analysis, we simultaneously examined the academic skills, work attitude, and social/behavioral competence of a large sample of Dutch kindergarten children to identify profiles of kindergarten…

  3. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  4. Antenatal testing and the subsequent birth of a child with Down syndrome: a phenomenological study of parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Sooben, Roja D

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to gain a deeper insight into the lived experiences of parents during antenatal testing for Down syndrome and the subsequent birth of their baby. A phenomenological research inquiry used unstructured interviews and thematic framework analysis. Conversations between parents and midwives about Down syndrome, when they occurred, were brief, functional and had a biomedical problem orientation. Antenatal screening failed to meet parents' expectations of better preparation for birth. After birth, children's 'differentness' rather than health needs was the main focus of care interventions. The inquiry revealed the 'invisibility' of the potential child with Down syndrome. Professionals in maternity care services must be equipped with appropriate knowledge about Down syndrome in order to better support parents. Such preparation must include a balanced view of the future of the child, consistent with the principle of reproductive autonomy. Appropriate support after birth is also essential in helping parents to adapt to their new situation.

  5. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...) for compliance with the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for child restraint systems. The HIII... safety seat, but who cannot adequately fit a vehicle's lap and shoulder belt system. Adopting the HIII... joint submission from ATD manufacturers First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) and Denton ATD...

  6. No Child Left Behind: A Legislative Catalyst for Superintendent Action to Eliminate Test-Score Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.

    2008-01-01

    Proponents of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) hail it as vital legislation that supports a civil rights agenda because of explicit recognition that achievement gaps are unacceptable. One way to make sense of NCLB's impact on school divisions and to understand whether NCLB recognizes the complexity of why minority and low-socioeconomic-background…

  7. It Takes a Village to Deliver and Test Child and Family-Focused Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Mary M.; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia M.; Kalogerogiannis, Kosta; Umpierre, Mari; Olshtain-Mann, Orly; Bannon, William; Elwyn, Laura; Goldstein, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to highlight the benefits of collaboration in child focused mental health services research. Method: Three unique research projects are described. These projects address the mental health needs of vulnerable, urban, minority children and their families. In each one, service delivery was codesigned,…

  8. Femininity and Kin-Directed Altruism in Androphilic Men: A Test of an Evolutionary Developmental Model.

    PubMed

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Petterson, Lanna J; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward males whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward females. This study tested the adaptive feminine phenotype model of the evolution of male androphilia via kin selection, which posits that the development of an evolved disposition toward elevated kin-directed altruism among androphilic males is contingent on the behavioral expression of femininity. Gynephilic men, androphilic women, and androphilic men (N = 387) completed measures of childhood and adulthood gender expression and concern for kin's well-being. Adulthood femininity correlated positively with uncle/aunt-like tendencies among androphilic men and women. Although androphilic women reported greater willingness to invest in nieces and nephews than gynephilic and androphilic men, mediation analyses indicated that adult femininity completely mediated these group differences. In addition, changes in the expression of femininity between childhood and adulthood were associated with parallel changes in concern for the well-being of kin among androphilic men. Thus, these findings suggest that femininity is key to the expression of kin-directed altruism among androphilic males and may have been important in the evolution of male androphilia.

  9. Testing the relationship between human occupancy in the landscape and tadpole developmental stress.

    PubMed

    Eterovick, Paula C; Bar, Luís F F; Souza, Jorge B; Castro, José F M; Leite, Felipe S F; Alford, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance.

  10. Testing the Relationship between Human Occupancy in the Landscape and Tadpole Developmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Eterovick, Paula C.; Bar, Luís F. F.; Souza, Jorge B.; Castro, José F. M.; Leite, Felipe S. F.; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

  11. Child-Parent and Child-Peer Interaction: Observational Similarities and Differences at Age Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrits, Marleen H.; Goudena, Paul P.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2005-01-01

    According to Russell et al. ("Developmental Rev" 1998; 18: 313) child-parent interaction could contain horizontal qualities, similar to child-peer interactions. To study this, child-parent and child-peer play interactions were compared on several observed horizontal and vertical characteristics in 55 7-year-old children interacting with their…

  12. Releasing Educational Potential through Movement: A Summary of Individual Studies Carried out Using the INPP Test Battery and Developmental Exercise Programme for Use in Schools with Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Sally Goddard

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of findings from a series of independent studies that have been undertaken separately. The studies used a specific developmental test battery--the Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology (INPP) Developmental Test Battery for use in schools with children with special educational needs--with a total of 810…

  13. A Baseline Evaluation Procedure for Federal Standards on the Prevention, Identification and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. Volume I: Development, Field Testing and Recommended Procedure. Volume II: State of Washington Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, James R.; And Others

    The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect funded a project to develop and field-test an evaluation procedure that could be used by interested states or communities to determine the extent of congruity between (1) their provisions for responding to the problems of child abuse and neglect, and (2) provisions prescribed in the Federal Standards…

  14. Developmental Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) during sensitive developmental windows can interfere with cognitive function and behavior, which are critical components of neurodevelopment. The association between developmental exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment has been extensively studied using animal models. In this review, we focus on the accumulating evidence in humans. Despite methodological, geographical, and temporal differences between studies, the majority of the epidemiologic evidence supports that early life exposure to PBDEs measured during pregnancy and/or during childhood is detrimental to child neurodevelopment in domains related to child behavior, cognition, and motor skills. While the precise mechanism of action of PBDEs on neurodevelopment is unknown, PBDE-induced neurotoxicity via thyroid hormone disruption and direct action of PBDEs on the developing brain have been proposed and tested. Additional studies are suggested to better understand how early life and/or childhood PBDE exposures, including exposure to specific PBDE congeners, impact neurodevelopmental indices. PMID:25530937

  15. Albendazole causes stage-dependent developmental toxicity and is deactivated by a mammalian metabolization system in a modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Anna; Ullerås, Erik; Patring, Johan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2012-08-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test has previously been combined with an external metabolic activation system (MAS) to assess developmental toxicity of metabolites produced by maternal metabolism. Due to toxicity of MAS the exposure was limited to one early and short period. We have modified the method and included additional testing time points with extended exposure durations. Using the anthelmintic drug albendazole as a model substance, we demonstrated stage-dependent toxic effects at three windows of zebrafish embryo development, i.e. 2-3, 12-14 and 24-28h post fertilization, and showed that MAS, by metabolic deactivation, reduced the toxicity of albendazole at all time points. Chemical analysis confirmed that albendazole was efficiently metabolized by MAS to the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone, which are non-toxic to zebrafish embryos. To conclude, the modified zebrafish embryotoxicity test with MAS can be expanded for assessment of metabolites at different developmental stages.

  16. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  17. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  18. The classification of motor neuron defects in the zebrafish embryo toxicity test (ZFET) as an animal alternative approach to assess developmental neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Wichmann, Arne; Delov, Vera; Fenske, Martina

    2012-07-01

    Rodents are widely used to test the developmental neurotoxicity potential of chemical substances. The regulatory test procedures are elaborate and the requirement of numerous animals is ethically disputable. Therefore, non-animal alternatives are highly desirable, but appropriate test systems that meet regulatory demands are not yet available. Hence, we have developed a new developmental neurotoxicity assay based on specific whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons (using the monoclonal antibodies znp1 and zn8) in zebrafish embryos. By classifying the motor neuron defects, we evaluated the severity of the neurotoxic damage to individual primary and secondary motor neurons caused by chemical exposure and determined the corresponding effect concentration values (EC₅₀). In a proof-of-principle study, we investigated the effects of three model compounds thiocyclam, cartap and disulfiram, which show some neurotoxicity-indicating effects in vertebrates, and the positive controls ethanol and nicotine and the negative controls 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and triclosan. As a quantitative measure of the neurotoxic potential of the test compounds, we calculated the ratios of the EC₅₀ values for motor neuron defects and the cumulative malformations, as determined in a zebrafish embryo toxicity test (zFET). Based on this index, disulfiram was classified as the most potent and thiocyclam as the least potent developmental neurotoxin. The index also confirmed the control compounds as positive and negative neurotoxicants. Our findings demonstrate that this index can be used to reliably distinguish between neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic chemicals and provide a sound estimate for the neurodevelopmental hazard potential of a chemical. The demonstrated method can be a feasible approach to reduce the number of animals used in developmental neurotoxicity evaluation procedures.

  19. CWLA Standards of Excellence for the Management and Governance of Child Welfare Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Carl, Ed.

    This document presents the 1996 Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) standards based on current knowledge, children's developmental needs, and tested ways of meeting these needs most effectively. The standards are intended to provide goals for improving services to children and families and are used in the development of the standards of the…

  20. Inclusive Child Care for Infants and Toddlers: Meeting Individual and Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Marion

    With an increasing emphasis on inclusive child care, that is, care for children with and without disabilities within the same setting, there is a greater need for tested and workable approaches to provision of such care. Based on a developmental-ecological model of care and early intervention, this book is a resource for practitioners providing…

  1. What Are Good Child Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Evans, V. Jeffery; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Roth, Jodie

    This paper considers the question "What are good child outcomes?" from the perspectives of developmental psychology, economics, and sociology. Section 1 of the paper examines good child outcomes as characteristics of stage-salient tasks of development. Section 2 emphasizes the acquisition of "human capital," the development of productive traits…

  2. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  3. Parent Stress, Parenting Competence and Family-Centered Support to Young Children with an Intellectual or Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Keen, Deb; Pennell, Donna; O'Reilly, Jess; Neilands, Judy

    2009-01-01

    A family-centered approach to the support of families with a young child with an intellectual or developmental disability has been widely adopted in the last decade. While some of the foundational assumptions of family-centered theory have been tested, there remain considerable gaps in the research evidence for this approach. While parenting…

  4. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population.

  5. Testing Specificity Among Parents’ Depressive Symptoms, Parenting, and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15-years-old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. PMID:26882467

  6. Developmental status and home environment among children born to immigrant women married to Taiwanese men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chwen-Jen; Hsu, Chiung-Wen; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Chien, Li-Yin

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine (a) the developmental status and home environments of children (6-24 months) of immigrant women married to Taiwanese men, and (b) the association of child developmental status with parental socio-demographics, maternal language abilities, and home environment qualities. Participants were 61 children and their mothers from China and Vietnam. Data were collected with interviews, home observations, and developmental testing. The children had lower cognitive and language but higher motor and social development scores compared with native norms. Home environment and maternal perceived language ability were positively associated with child development. The association of home environment and maternal language ability with early childhood development was supported for immigrant populations in Taiwan.

  7. Developmental Growth Trajectories of Self-Esteem in Adolescence: Associations with Child Neglect and Drug Use and Abuse in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Carlson, Matthew W; Kwon, Josephine A; Zeichner, Amos; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2017-01-01

    Neglectful rearing is linked with young adults' substance use and abuse, though the developmental mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. The present study examines links between self-esteem growth during adolescence, childhood supervisory versus physical neglect severity, and substance use and abuse in young adulthood. A sample of youth was obtained from the Add Health study (N = 8738; 55.4 %-Female; 20 %-African American, 14.7 %-Hispanic). Growth mixture modeling analyses supported declining, ascending, and stable high self-esteem trajectories. The declining and ascending trajectories reported greater neglect and alcohol abuse (but not use) as well as cannabis use and abuse. The findings suggest that compromised development of self-esteem underlies associations between neglect and substance use and abuse. Preventive interventions may benefit from targeting self-esteem among neglected youth.

  8. Exceptional Child I: Building Understanding [and] Exceptional Child II: Focusing on Nurturing & Learning. The Developing Child. [Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magna Systems, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL.

    These two videotape recordings and accompanying workbook provide information on the developmental stages of childhood, influences on child development, and identifying children with disabilities. The videos, "Exceptional Child 1: Building Understanding," (27 minutes) and "Exceptional Child 2: Focusing on Nurturing & Learning," (28 minutes) address…

  9. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  10. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  11. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  12. Analytical Research on Developmental Aspects of Metamemory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plude, Dana J.; Nelson, Thomas O.; Scholnick, Ellin K.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews selected pioneering findings in the child-developmental and adulthood-aging literature and evaluates them within the framework of Nelson (Thomas O.) and Narens' (Louis) (1990) theory of metamemory. Makes suggestions for conceptually-based analytical research to help specify the mechanisms that underlie developmental differences in…

  13. Markers of murine embryonic and neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes: reference points for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is a significant concern for environmental chemicals, as well as for food and drug constituents. The sensitivity of animal-based DNT models is unclear, and they are expensive and time consuming. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) recapitulate sev...

  14. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    The history of developmental psychology in Canada prior to 1960 is concisely recounted. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the…

  15. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old ... > For Parents > Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Print A A ...

  16. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  17. The Impact of the Correlation between the No Child Left Behind Act's High Stakes Testing and the High Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Lavada M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    The author looks at critical dialogue surrounding the causes for the alarming high numbers of high school dropouts in states that use high stakes standardized testing mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, and investigates the perceived correlations between high stakes testing and high numbers of high school dropouts of minority students.

  18. Child maltreatment, parent alcohol and drug-related problems, polydrug problems, and parenting practices: a test of gender differences and four theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Locke, Thomas F; Newcomb, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The authors tested how adverse childhood experiences (child maltreatment and parent alcohol- and drug-related problems) and adult polydrug use (as a mediator) predict poor parenting in a community sample (237 mothers and 81 fathers). These relationships were framed within several theoretical perspectives, including observational learning, impaired functioning, self-medication, and parentification-pseudomaturity. Structural models revealed that child maltreatment predicted poor parenting practices among mothers. Parent alcohol- and drug-related problems had an indirect detrimental influence on mothers' parenting and practices through self-drug problems. Among fathers, emotional neglect experienced as a child predicted lack of parental warmth more parental neglect, and sexual abuse experienced as a child predicted a rejecting style of parenting.

  19. [The 'ideal therapy process': testing a new approach for assessing process quality in inpatient parent-child facilities].

    PubMed

    Musekamp, G; Lukasczik, M; Gerlich, C; Saupe-Heide, M; Löbmann, R; Vogel, H; Neuderth, S

    2014-12-01

    Instruments for external quality assurance in inpatient parent-child rehabilitation and prevention facilities were developed in 2 projects. For the assessment of process quality, we sought an alternative test to the peer review procedure which also places a stronger emphasis on patient perspectives. The aim was to define an "ideal process" as a standard, to develop quantifiable criteria, and to test a multimethod approach which involves different data levels. On the basis of different sources, the "ideal process" for parent-child rehabilitation and prevention and associated criteria were defined by involving an accompanying expert group during a consensus process. Criteria were assessed on different levels: on the rehabilitation/prevention centre level, a questionnaire of process-relevant structural features was used; on the patient level, a case-related routine documentation filled in by clinic staff and an incident-related patient questionnaire were applied. Data were collected in 37 centres (prevention: 19; rehabilitation: 11; 7 offering both types of programmes). Analysis of patient-related data is based on a sample of 1 513 prevention patients and 286 rehabilitation patients. The resulting "ideal process" consists of the stages "preparation", "arrival", "treatment planning", "treatment", "completion of treatment", and "organisation", each containing specific criteria. Exemplarily, the outcomes for the stages "treatment planning" and "treatment" are presented. There is variability both between features and between clinics. The majority of the patients report that the criteria are fulfilled while there are medium to high levels of fulfillment regarding the routine documentation. The criteria of the questionnaire of process-relevant structural features are mostly fulfilled according to the clinics. Agreement between the 3 data levels can be observed. On the basis of the defined "ideal process", the methods that were tested seem to be appropriate to illustrate

  20. Helping Your Child Perform Well on Tests. Assessment Brief. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietel, Ron

    2004-01-01

    To gain some insight into test preparation, some testing experts were asked to share their thoughts from their own parenting experiences. A crucial performance factor for a substantial number of students is test anxiety. According to University of Southern California Professor Harold O'Neil, Jr., "The relationship between high anxiety and…

  1. Developmental and sex differences in somatosensory perception--a systematic comparison of 7- versus 14-year-olds using quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, M; Meyer, D; Hirschfeld, G; Kraemer, N; Hechler, T; Aksu, F; Krumova, E K; Magerl, W; Maier, C; Zernikow, B

    2011-11-01

    There are controversial discussions regarding developmental- and sex-related differences in somatosensory perception, which were found, eg, when comparing younger children (6-8 years), older children (9-12 years), and adolescents (13-16 years) using quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aim of our current study was to systematically assess the impact of age and sex using the QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS). QST, including thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, was assessed in 86 healthy 7-year-old children (42 girls and 44 boys) and 87 healthy 14-year-old adolescents (43 girls and 44 boys). The sample size was calculated a priori to detect medium-sized effects as found in the previous studies with adequate power. Developmental and sex differences were tested using univariate analysis of variance. Children were more sensitive to most pain stimuli, except cold pain stimuli, compared with adolescents, but did not differ in mechanical and thermal detection thresholds except in regard to cold stimuli. Sex had an impact only on warm detection, with girls being more sensitive. There were no interactions between age and sex. In conclusion, developmental changes during the puberty appear to influence pain perception, whereas sex effects in childhood are negligible. At present, it is not clear what brings about the differences between adult men and women that are apparent in epidemiological studies. Our results contradict the hypothesis that differences in peripheral nerve-fiber functioning underlie sex effects.

  2. Does developmental timing of exposure to child maltreatment predict memory performance in adulthood? Results from a large, population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Busso, Daniel S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smoller, Jordan W; Nelson, Charles A; Doyle, Alysa E; Luk, Gigi

    2016-01-01

    Although maltreatment is a known risk factor for multiple adverse outcomes across the lifespan, its effects on cognitive development, especially memory, are poorly understood. Using data from a large, nationally representative sample of young adults (Add Health), we examined the effects of physical and sexual abuse on working and short-term memory in adulthood. We examined the association between exposure to maltreatment as well as its timing of first onset after adjusting for covariates. Of our sample, 16.50% of respondents were exposed to physical abuse and 4.36% to sexual abuse by age 17. An analysis comparing unexposed respondents to those exposed to physical or sexual abuse did not yield any significant differences in adult memory performance. However, two developmental time periods emerged as important for shaping memory following exposure to sexual abuse, but in opposite ways. Relative to non-exposed respondents, those exposed to sexual abuse during early childhood (ages 3-5), had better number recall and those first exposed during adolescence (ages 14-17) had worse number recall. However, other variables, including socioeconomic status, played a larger role (than maltreatment) on working and short-term memory. We conclude that a simple examination of "exposed" versus "unexposed" respondents may obscure potentially important within-group differences that are revealed by examining the effects of age at onset to maltreatment.

  3. Does developmental timing of exposure to child maltreatment predict memory performance in adulthood? Results from a large, population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Busso, Daniel S.; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nelson, Charles A.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Luk, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    Although maltreatment is a known risk factor for multiple adverse outcomes across the lifespan, its effects on cognitive development, especially memory, are poorly understood. Using data from a large, nationally representative sample of young adults (Add Health), we examined the effects of physical and sexual abuse on working and short-term memory in adulthood. We examined the association between exposure to maltreatment as well as its timing of first onset after adjusting for covariates. Of our sample, 16.50% of respondents were exposed to physical abuse and 4.36 % to sexual abuse by age 17. An analysis comparing unexposed respondents to those exposed to physical or sexual abuse did not yield any significant differences in adult memory performance. However, two developmental time periods emerged as important for shaping memory following exposure to sexual abuse, but in opposite ways. Relative to non-exposed respondents, those exposed to sexual abuse during early childhood (ages 3-5), had better number recall and those first exposed during adolescence (ages 14-17) had worse number recall. However, other variables, including socioeconomic status, played a larger role (than maltreatment) on working and short-term memory. We conclude that a simple examination of “exposed” versus “unexposed” respondents may obscure potentially important within-group differences that are revealed by examining the effects of age at onset to maltreatment. PMID:26585216

  4. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family.

  5. A category approach to predicting the developmental (neuro) toxicity of organotin compounds: the value of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test (ZET).

    PubMed

    Beker van Woudenberg, Anna; Wolterbeek, André; Te Brake, Lindsey; Snel, Cor; Menke, Aswin; Rubingh, Carina; de Groot, Didima; Kroese, Dinant

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different organotin compounds during very early development (<100h post fertilization). Morphology, histopathology and swimming activity (in a motor activity test) were the endpoints analyzed. DBTC was, by far, the most embryotoxic compound at all time points and endpoints studied. In fact, we observed a clear concordance between the effects observed in our zebrafish embryo model, and those observed with these compounds in full rodent in vivo studies. All organotin compounds classified as developmental (neuro) toxicants in vivo, were correctly classified in the present assay. Together, our results support the ZET model as a valuable tool for providing biological verification for a grouping and a read-across approach to developmental (neuro) toxicity.

  6. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  7. A Description and an Analysis of Tests for the Bilingual Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Dal S.

    Because of the recent Lau vs. Nichols decision by the Supreme Court, school districts will be looking for various instruments to determine language functionality in bilingual students. Nine tests are reviewed: the Leiter International Performance Scale (LIPS), the Michigan Oral Language Productive Tests Structured Response, the Michigan Oral…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Youth Conduct Problems: Testing Later Development and Related Outcomes in a 12-Year Period.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Villar, Paula

    2016-10-06

    Developmental heterogeneity of youth conduct problems has been widely assumed, leading to the identification of distinctive groups at particular risk of more serious problems later in development. The present study intends to expand the main results of a prior study focused on identifying developmental trajectories of conduct problems (Stable-low, Stable-high, and Decreasing), by analyzing their developmental course and related outcomes during middle/late adolescence and early adulthood. Two follow-up studies were conducted 10 and 12 years after the initial study with 115 and 122 youths respectively (mean = 17.29 and 19.18). Overall results underline that the Early-onset persistent group showed the highest risk-profile; the Childhood-limited group revealed a moderate level of later maladjustment; and the Adolescence-onset group, currently identified, showed a significant peak of risk particularly in middle/late adolescence. These findings provide a more comprehensive representation of youth conduct problems, and open new means of discussion in terms of preventive intervention.

  9. Developmental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1994-01-01

    Developmental evaluation is proposed as a term to describe certain long-term partnering relationships with clients who are, themselves, engaged in ongoing program development. Rather than a model, developmental evaluation is a relationship founded on a shared purpose and is a way of being useful in innovative settings. (SLD)

  10. Mediating and moderating effects of social support in the study of child abuse and adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  12. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-19...). (c) The body strength test prescribed in § 160.171-17(k) except that the cylinders must be 50 mm...

  13. Development and psychometric testing of a scale for the assessment of the quality of developmental care in neonatal intensive care units in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Farin; Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Rafiey, Hassan; Salavati, Mahyar; Nasiri, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Developmental care provided to infants hospitalized at neonatal intensive care units (NICU) help weaken environmental stressors and reduce infant morbidity rates. Assessments are the first step to improving the quality of any type of care. Therefore, this study was conducted to design and assess the psychometric features of a scale designed for measuring quality of developmental care in the NICU in Iran. Methods This study was conducted from December 2014 through September 2015 in Tehran, Iran. The present mixed-methods sequential exploratory (quantitative-qualitative) study used the Delphi method to design an initial questionnaire through a review of the literature and by using the input of experts. The validity of the questionnaire was ensured by assessing then validity of its content (qualitative-quantitative), face (qualitative-quantitative), and construct (exploratory factor analysis with 500 NICU personnel from 34 hospitals in Tehran), and its reliability was ensured by assessing its internal consistency (using Cronbach’s alpha) and by assessing its stability through the test-retest method. Results The qualitative stage of the study resulted in a 93-item questionnaire with eight domains. After performing the content and face analyses, a factor analysis was performed on 90 items of the questionnaire, yielding a 76-item questionnaire with five domains, including “sleep, pain and stress management,” “routine care,” “the family,” “management,” and “sensory care,” which explained 62.5% of the variance. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.9 and its stability was confirmed by an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.93. Conclusion The questionnaire developed for the assessment of developmental care in the NICU covered all of the dimensions of this type of care, and it is a valid and reliable tool for assessing and improving developmental care in the NICU. PMID:26952183

  14. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Melanie G; Byers, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) is a major medical concern in the United States. One of the challenges in evaluation of children with unexplained fractures is that genetic forms of bone fragility are one of the differential diagnoses. Infants who present with fractures with mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (OI type I or OI type IV), the most common genetic form of bone disease leading to fractures might be missed if clinical evaluation alone is used to make the diagnosis. Diagnostic clinical features (blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, Wormian bones on X-rays or positive family history) may not be present or apparent at the age of evaluation. The evaluating clinician faces the decision about whether genetic testing is necessary in certain NAI cases. In this review, we outline clinical presentations of mild OI and review the history of genetic testing for OI in the NAI versus OI setting. We summarize our data of molecular testing in the Collagen Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) from 2008 to 2014 where NAI was noted on the request for DNA sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2. We provide recommendations for molecular testing in the NAI versus OI setting. First, DNA sequencing of COL1A1, COL1A2, and IFITM5 simultaneously and duplication/deletion testing is recommended. If a causative variant is not identified, in the absence of a pathologic clinical phenotype, no additional gene testing is indicated. If a VUS is found, parental segregation studies are recommended.

  15. Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... think there’s a problem. Watch the video » Child Development: It’s Better to Know (in Spanish) Learn why ... to do if you have concerns about your child's development. Watch this Spanish language video » Related Pages ...

  16. Predicting developmental disorder in infants using an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Farin; Teymouri, Robab; Biglarian, Akbar

    2013-07-13

    Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother-child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants.  The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant's development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  17. The Relationship between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Nevill, Rose; Uljarevic, Mirko; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical…

  18. Preschool-Age Problem Behavior and Teacher-Child Conflict in School: Direct and Moderation Effects by Preschool Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…

  19. [The nursing process in helping a family with foreign mother and hearing impaired child].

    PubMed

    Wu, Meei-Lian; Tang, Jing-Shia

    2004-12-01

    This case report aims to present a nursing experience involving a child with severe hearing impairment and delayed language development. The patient was discovered during a home visit. At the time she was two and a half years old, but still had not developed any language behavior. She only used eye contact, physical touch, and body language to communicate with her family. She also did not respond to sound stimulation. The results of a Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) showed delayed development, especially of language. The child's mother is from Vietnam. The culture, education, language, and environment of Vietnam are totally different from Taiwan. In addition, the mother did not know how to raise her child. So the author tried to follow up on the case. Data were collected by home visits, phone calls, interviews, and communication with members of a professional health care team during the nursing care period (about six months). Data were recorded and it was written a processing analyzed. They revealed five health problems, as follows: (1) hearing impairment causing delayed language development; (2) poor family recognition deviation understanding of delayed development; (3) insufficient community resources; (4) low self-protection, limited capacity for caused by hearing impairment; (5) foreign mother's sense of helplessness about raising the child. The author provided supportive care to the patient and her family, counseled them, and transferred the child quickly to a treatment center. She also coordinated resources and the professional care team in assisting the parents in facing and adapting to the child's developmental delay. As a result, the parents gained knowledge and the ability to make judgments about developmental delay. This fostered a positive attitude on their part and acceptance of the child's admission to the treatment center. The child and family could deal with their problems appropriately because the nurse intervened at the appropriate time

  20. Children with disabilities: a longitudinal study of child development and parent well-being.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Cram, P; Warfield, M E; Shonkoff, J P; Krauss, M W; Sayer, A; Upshur, C C

    2001-01-01

    This Monograph presents the results of the Early Intervention Collaborative Study, a longitudinal investigation of the cognitive and adaptive behavior development of children with developmental disabilities and the adaptation of their parents, extending from infancy through middle childhood. The study was designed to generate and test conceptual models of child and family development and contribute to the knowledge base that informs social policy and practice. The sample for the investigation reported here consists of 183 children with Down syndrome, motor impairment, developmental delay and their families who were recruited at the time of their enrollment in an early intervention program in Massachusetts or New Hampshire. Data were collected at five time points between entry to early intervention and the child's 10th birthday. Home visits were conducted at each time point and included child assessments, maternal interview, and questionnaires completed independently by both parents. Trajectories in children's development and parental well-being were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Predictor variables were measured at age 3 years when children were exiting early intervention programs. Children's type of disability predicted trajectories of development in cognition, social skills, and daily living skills. Children's type of disability also predicted changes in maternal (but not paternal) child-related and parent-related stress. Beyond type of disability, child self-regulatory processes (notably behavior problems and mastery motivation) and one aspect of the family climate (notably mother-child interaction) were key predictors of change in both child outcomes and parent well-being. A different aspect of the family climate--family relations--also predicted change in child social skills. Parent assets, measured as social support and problem-focused coping, predicted change in maternal and paternal parent-related stress respectively. The implications of

  1. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61…

  2. Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…

  3. Developmental toxicity studies with 6 forms of titanium dioxide test materials (3 pigment-different grade & 3 nanoscale) demonstrate an absence of effects in orally-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Boatman, R; Brown, S C

    2015-12-01

    Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50-82 m(2)/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal

  4. State Test Programs Mushroom as NCLB Mandate Kicks in: Nearly Half of States Are Expanding Their Testing Programs to Additional Grades This School Year to Comply with the Federal No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three states are expanding their testing programs to additional grades this school year to comply with the federal No Child Left Behind Act. In devising the new tests, most states have defied predictions and chosen to go beyond multiple-choice items, by including questions that ask students to construct their own responses. But many state…

  5. Affective Films for the Hearing Impaired Child: A Test of Captioned Inside/Out Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, John

    Two captioned affective films from the AIT series Inside/Out were tested with 14 intermediate (ages 13 to 15) and 39 elementary (ages 11 and 12) hearing impaired children at the Hawaii School for the Deaf and Blind. Measures of attention, post-film discussion, student comprehension, and student and teacher opinions were taken to determine the…

  6. Using NAEP to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has not yet published an official guidance document for using NAEP achievement level scores to confirm state testing results. A review of the literature, however, identified four principles that inform the valid use of NAEP scores in a confirming analysis. The principles address the appropriate NAEP statistics to…

  7. Regulatory Forum opinion piece: New testing paradigms for reproductive and developmental toxicity--the NTP modified one generation study and OECD 443.

    PubMed

    Foster, Paul M D

    2014-12-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has developed a new flexible study design, termed the modified one generation (MOG) reproduction study. The MOG study will encompass measurements of developmental and reproductive toxicity parameters as well as enable the setting of appropriate dose levels for a cancer bioassay through evaluation of target organ toxicity that is based on test article exposure that starts during gestation. This study design is compared and contrasted with the new Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 443 test guideline, the extended one generation reproduction study. The MOG study has a number of advantages, with a focus on F 1 animals, the generation of adequately powered, robust data sets that include both pre and postnatal developmental toxicity information, and the measurement of effects on reproductive structure and function in the same animals. This new study design does not employ the use of internal triggers in the design structure for the use of animals already on test and is also consistent with the principles of the 3R's.

  8. Validating the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: Testing Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance across Child Gender and Age in a Dutch Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Verschueren, Karine; van Schooten, Erik; Jak, Suzanne; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is widely used to examine teachers' relationships with young students in terms of closeness, conflict, and dependency. This study aimed to verify the dimensional structure of the STRS with confirmatory factor analysis, test its measurement invariance across child gender and age, improve its measurement…

  9. Keep Your Eye on Texas and California: A Look at Testing, School Reform, No Child Left Behind, and Implications for Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causey-Bush, Tonia

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the reform movements in the nation's two most populous states--Texas and California. Both states are in a desperate pursuit to demonstrate student competency of standards and achievement by way of student performance on standardized tests to meet federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) compliance. In examining the accountability…

  10. Tests of the accuracy and speed of categorizing foods into child vs. professional categories using two methods of browsing with children.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research tested whether children could categorize foods more accurately and speedily when presented with child-generated rather than professionally-generated food categories; and whether a graphically appealing browse procedure similar to the Apple, Inc, "cover flow" graphical user interface ac...

  11. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  12. The value of respiratory muscle testing in a child with congenital muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Khirani, Sonia; Dabaj, Ivana; Amaddeo, Alessandro; Ramirez, Adriana; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory muscle testing is often limited to noninvasive volitional tests such as vital capacity and maximal static pressures. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) in whom invasive and non-volitional respiratory muscle tests showed an elective diaphragmatic dysfunction with the preservation of expiratory muscle strength. This finding, coupled with a clinical phenotype associating diffuse muscle atrophy with finger hyperlaxity and proximal contractures, strengthened the suspicion of Ullrich CMD. Skin-cultured fibroblasts showed intracellular retention of collagen 6 (COL6), muscle magnetic resonance imaging was typical of COL6 myopathy, and molecular studies identified a COL6 gene mutation (COL6A2 c.954+2T>C). The diagnosis of a diaphragmatic dysfunction led to a sleep study that evidenced periods of hypoxemia which justified nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. This case report highlights the benefit of assessing respiratory muscles, through invasive procedure, to assist in clinical diagnosis and to guide clinical management. PMID:25473580

  13. Attention problems and parent-rated behavior and stress in young children at risk for developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Raymond C

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this article is to characterize the neurobehavior of young children at risk for developmental delay and attention problems. Two hundred and eighty-one children, ages 18 to 70 months, were evaluated. All parents/guardians completed the Child Development Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½ to 5, Inventory for Client and Agency Planning, and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. All children had significant delays (developmental ratios <.70). A Mann-Whitney U test compared those with and without attention problems (T score >70). A 2-tailed P value of <.05 indicated statistical significance. Children with attention problems were more likely to have withdrawn behavior, sleep problems, and aggressive behavior. All had severe problem behaviors, and their families experienced significant stress. Attention problems and other serious problem behaviors occur frequently in young children at risk for developmental delay. Parental stress warrants prompt intervention for their children and positive supports for them.

  14. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse.

  15. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  16. Revising the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: A Test of the Four-Factor Structure in a Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Hong, Chaoqin; Tao, Xiaodan; Zhu, Lingyi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the revised Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (N = 933). The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  17. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Retrospective Version (ICAST-R): Delphi Study and Field Testing in Seven Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Andreva-Miller, Inna; Choo, Wan Yuen; Dunne, Simon K.; Gerbaka, Bernard; Isaeva, Oksana; Jain, Dipty; Kasim, Mohd Sham; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Mamyrova, Nurgul; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Youssef, Randa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To gain consensus among an ethnically and linguistically diverse group of international child protection experts on the structure and content of a new survey tool for retrospective measurement of child abuse, and to determine the performance of the instrument through an international field trial with young adults. Methods: The…

  18. Investigating the Relationship between Effective Communication of Spouse and Father-Child Relationship (Test Pattern Causes to Education Parents)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ataeifar, Robabeh; Amiri, Sholeh; Ali Nadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research is targeted with the plan of father-child model or effective relationship mediating of spouses or investigating attachment style, personality traits, communication skills, and spouses' sexual satisfaction. Based on this, 260 people (father and child) were selected through random sampling method based on share. Participants were…

  19. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool Children's Version (ICAST-C): Instrument Development and Multi-National Pilot Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Dunne, Michael P.; Jain, Dipty; Peturs, Helga R.; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Deb, Sibnath; Lidchi, Victoria; Muhammad, Tufail; Isaeva, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop a child victimization survey among a diverse group of child protection experts and examine the performance of the instrument through a set of international pilot studies. Methods: The initial draft of the instrument was developed after input from scientists and practitioners representing 40 countries. Volunteers from the…

  20. Use of Child Development Assessment in Early Childhood Education: Early Childhood Practitioner and Student Attitudes toward Formal and Informal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jacqueline; Rolfe, Sharne A.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty early childhood practitioners (ECPs) and final-year Bachelor of Early Childhood Studies students completed a questionnaire about their use (or planned use) of formal and informal child development assessment instruments, their choice of specific instruments, and factors influencing decisions to conduct child development assessments within…

  1. Neighborhood Social Context and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposures Associated with Child Cognitive Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Eldred-Skemp, Nicolia; Quinn, James W.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Rauh, Virginia A.; Rundle, Andrew; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cognitive and test-taking abilities have long-term implications for educational achievement and health, and may be influenced by household environmental exposures and neighborhood contexts. This study evaluates whether age 5 scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R, administered in English) are associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and neighborhood context variables including poverty, low educational attainment, low English language proficiency, and inadequate plumbing. The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health enrolled African-American and Dominican-American New York City women during pregnancy, and conducted follow-up for subsequent childhood health outcomes including cognitive test scores. Individual outcomes were linked to data characterizing 1-km network buffers around prenatal addresses, home observations, interviews, and prenatal PAH exposure data from personal air monitors. Prenatal PAH exposure above the median predicted 3.5 point lower total WPPSI-R scores and 3.9 point lower verbal scores; the association was similar in magnitude across models with adjustments for neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood-level low English proficiency was independently associated with 2.3 point lower mean total WPPSI-R score, 1.2 point lower verbal score, and 2.7 point lower performance score per standard deviation. Low neighborhood-level educational attainment was also associated with 2.0 point lower performance scores. In models examining effect modification, neighborhood associations were similar or diminished among the high PAH exposure group, as compared with the low PAH exposure group. Early life exposure to personal PAH exposure or selected neighborhood-level social contexts may predict lower cognitive test scores. However, these results may reflect limited geographic exposure variation and limited generalizability. PMID:24994947

  2. Costs along the service cascades for HIV testing and counselling and prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Opuni, Marjorie; Contreras-Loya, David; Kwan, Ada; Chaumont, Claire; Chompolola, Abson; Condo, Jeanine; Galárraga, Omar; Martinson, Neil; Masiye, Felix; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Ochoa-Moreno, Ivan; Wamai, Richard; Wang’ombe, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We estimate facility-level average annual costs per client along the HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service cascades. Design: Data collected covered the period 2011–2012 in 230 HTC and 212 PMTCT facilities in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia. Methods: Input quantities and unit prices were collected, as were output data. Annual economic costs were estimated from the service providers’ perspective using micro-costing. Average annual costs per client in 2013 United States dollars (US$) were estimated along the service cascades. Results: For HTC, average cost per client tested ranged from US$5 (SD US$7) in Rwanda to US$31 (SD US$24) in South Africa, whereas average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$122 (SD US$119) in Zambia to US$1367 (SD US$2093) in Rwanda. For PMTCT, average cost per client tested ranged from US$18 (SD US$20) in Rwanda to US$89 (SD US$56) in South Africa; average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$567 (SD US$417) in Zambia to US$2021 (SD US$3210) in Rwanda; average cost per client on antiretroviral prophylaxis ranged from US$704 (SD US$610) in South Africa to US$2314 (SD US$3204) in Rwanda; and average cost per infant on nevirapine ranged from US$888 (SD US$884) in South Africa to US$2359 (SD US$3257) in Rwanda. Conclusion: We found important differences in unit costs along the HTC and PMTCT service cascades within and between countries suggesting that more efficient delivery of these services is possible. PMID:27753679

  3. The Bender-Gestalt test: Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System administered to two samples of Italian preschool and primary school children.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to extend research on Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System to Italian samples. Specific attention has been given to the study of errors for the single designs to assess the relationship of these errors with total errors and to assess the designs' varying difficulty. A second purpose was to study possible cultural influences between different Italian regions. According to Koppitz (1975) research findings support that the rate of development in visuomotor perception differs among children of various ethnic groups. Subjects were 538 boys and 527 girls enrolled in the regular kindergarten and elementary schools in Italy. Detailed analyses were carried out on total mean errors and mean errors for each design. Mean errors decrease across age groups; that is, perceptuomotor integration is improved for older children. No significant differences were found between Northern and Southern Italy.

  4. Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nuckley, David J; Linders, David R; Ching, Randal P

    2013-04-05

    Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (p<0.014) and failure (p<0.0001) mechanics exhibited significant relationships with age. Nonlinear flexibility curves described the functional response of the cervical spine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects.

  5. Genetics and the investigation of developmental delay/intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Srour, Myriam; Shevell, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Global developmental delay and intellectual disabilities are common reasons for diagnostic assessment by paediatricians. There are a multiplicity of possible causes many of which have genetic, management and treatment implications for the child and family. Genetic causes are estimated to be responsible for approximately a quarter to one-half of identified cases. The multiplicity of individually rare genetic causes challenges the practitioner with respect to the selection of diagnostic tests and accurate diagnosis. To assist the practitioner practice guidelines have been formulated and these are reviewed and summarised in this particular article.

  6. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis with distinct dental, skeletal and developmental abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joseph; Guelmann, Marcio; Barak, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 9-year-old child with hereditary gingival fibromatosis, supernumerary tooth, chest deformities, auricular cartilage deformation, joint laxity and undescended testes is described. The exact mode of inheritance is unclear; a new mutation pattern is possible. These features resemble but differ from the previously reported Laband syndrome. The dental treatment consisted of surgical removal of the fibrous tissue and conservative restorative treatment under general anesthesia. The dental practitioner should be alert for developmental abnormalities such as supernumerary teeth and delayed tooth eruption. A comprehensive medical history and physical systemic evaluation is essential to rule out other systemic abnormalities. Genetic consultation is mandatory for future family planing.

  7. Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI): An Effective Outcome Measure for Handwriting Interventions for Kindergarten, First-Grade, and Second-Grade Students?

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Moskowitz, Beverly; Paoletti, Andrew; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Zylstra, Sheryl Eckberg; Murray, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether a widely used assessment of visual-motor skills, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), is appropriate for use as an outcome measure for handwriting interventions. A two-group pretest-posttest design was used with 207 kindergarten, first-grade, and second-grade students. Two well-established handwriting measures and the VMI were administered pre- and postintervention. The intervention group participated in the Size Matters Handwriting Program for 40 sessions, and the control group received standard instruction. Paired and independent-samples t tests were used to analyze group differences. The intervention group demonstrated significant improvements on the handwriting measures, with change scores having mostly large effect sizes. We found no significant difference in change scores on the VMI, t(202)=1.19, p=.23. Results of this study suggest that the VMI may not detect changes in handwriting related to occupational therapy intervention.

  8. Meeting the Needs of the Youngest Infants in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Amanda; Petersen, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    Children may enter group care at very young ages. Developmentally, newborns (from birth to 4 months old) offer unique opportunities and challenges for child care providers. Are child care programs ready? Little information is available on providing group care to children at this critical developmental stage. This article explores the challenges of…

  9. Developmental contributions to motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Savion-Lemieux, Tal; Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

    2009-05-01

    Little is known about how children acquire new motor sequences. In particular, it is not clear if the same learning progression observed in adults is also present in childhood nor whether motor skills are acquired in a similar fashion across development. In the present study we used the multi-finger sequencing task (MFST), a variant of the serial reaction time (SRT) task, to study motor sequence learning, across two consecutive days, in three cross-sectional samples of children aged 6, 8, and 10 years, and a control sample of adults. In the MFST, participants reproduced 10-element sequences of key presses on an electronic keyboard, using four fingers of the right hand. Each block of practice included 10 intermixed trials of a Repeated (REP) sequence and four trials of Random (RAN) sequences. Performance was assessed by examining changes in accuracy, a component of the task that requires the association of the visual stimulus with the motor response, and response synchronization, a component that requires fine-grained sensorimotor integration and timing. Additionally, participants completed Recognition and Recall tests, to assess explicit knowledge of the repeated sequence. Overall, results showed a developmental progression in motor sequence learning within and across days of practice. Interestingly, the two behavioral measures showed different developmental trajectories. For accuracy, differences were greatest for the two youngest groups early in learning, and these groups also showed the greatest rate of improvement. However, by the end of Day 2, only the 6-year-olds still lagged behind all other groups. For response synchronization, all child groups differed from adults early in learning, but both child and adult groups showed similar rates of improvement across blocks of practice. By the end of Day 2, 10-year-olds reached adult levels of performance, whereas 6- and 8-year-olds did not. Taken together, the dissociation observed with our two behavioral measures

  10. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  11. Comparison of the Qualitative and Developmental Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…

  12. Coordinated waves of gene expression during neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells as basis for novel approaches to developmental neurotoxicity testing

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, B; Kuegler, P B; Baudis, B; Genewsky, A; Tanavde, V; Koh, W; Tan, B; Waldmann, T; Kadereit, S; Leist, M

    2011-01-01

    As neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) recapitulates embryonic neurogenesis, disturbances of this process may model developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). To identify the relevant steps of in vitro neurodevelopment, we implemented a differentiation protocol yielding neurons with desired electrophysiological properties. Results from focussed transcriptional profiling suggested that detection of non-cytotoxic developmental disturbances triggered by toxicants such as retinoic acid (RA) or cyclopamine was possible. Therefore, a broad transcriptional profile of the 20-day differentiation process was obtained. Cluster analysis of expression kinetics, and bioinformatic identification of overrepresented gene ontologies revealed waves of regulation relevant for DNT testing. We further explored the concept of superimposed waves as descriptor of ordered, but overlapping biological processes. The initial wave of transcripts indicated reorganization of chromatin and epigenetic changes. Then, a transient upregulation of genes involved in the formation and patterning of neuronal precursors followed. Simultaneously, a long wave of ongoing neuronal differentiation started. This was again superseded towards the end of the process by shorter waves of neuronal maturation that yielded information on specification, extracellular matrix formation, disease-associated genes and the generation of glia. Short exposure to lead during the final differentiation phase, disturbed neuronal maturation. Thus, the wave kinetics and the patterns of neuronal specification define the time windows and end points for examination of DNT. PMID:20865013

  13. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration performance in children with traumatic brain injury and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Griffin P; Barchard, Kimberly A; Bello, Danielle T; Thaler, Nicholas S; Ringdahl, Erik; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of visuoconstructional abilities is a common part of clinical neuropsychological assessment, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI; K. E. Beery & N. A. Beery, 2004) is often used for this purpose. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties when used to assess children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), even though these are among the most common acquired and neurodevelopmental forms of brain dysfunction in children. This study examined the validity of VMI scores in 123 children with TBI and 65 with ADHD. The TBI and ADHD groups performed significantly worse than the standardization sample, obtaining VMI mean scores of 87.2 (SD = 13.7) and 93.5 (SD = 11.27). Previous research has noted decrements in visuoconstructional abilities in TBI but relative sparing in ADHD. To examine the criterion validity of VMI scores, the authors therefore compared these 2 groups. As anticipated, the TBI group performed significantly worse than the ADHD group, but receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated that VMI scores were poor at discriminating between groups. Nonetheless, convergent validity evidence supported interpretation of VMI scores as measuring perceptual organization in both groups. In particular, principal components analysis indicated that VMI total scores loaded with perceptual organization tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd ed. (WISC-III; D. Wechsler, 1997), and its highest correlation was with the WISC-III Perceptual Organization Index. Also, the VMI correlated significantly with the Grooved Pegboard test for the group with TBI. These findings suggest that VMI scores are sensitive to visuoconstructional and motor deficits in children with developmental and acquired brain dysfunction.

  14. “A room full of strangers every day”: The psychosocial impact of developmental prosopagnosia on children and their families

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A.; Fletcher, Kimberley; Corrow, Sherryse; Nair, Roshan das; Barton, Jason J. S.; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Objective Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (‘face blindness’) have severe face recognition difficulties due to a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for recognizing faces. These difficulties occur in the absence of brain damage and despite normal low-level vision and intellect. Adults with developmental prosopagnosia report serious personal and emotional consequences from their inability to recognize faces, but little is known about the psychosocial consequences in childhood. Given the importance of face recognition in daily life, and the potential for unique social consequences of impaired face recognition in childhood, we sought to evaluate the impact of developmental prosopagnosia on children and their families. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 8 children with developmental prosopagnosia and their parents. A battery of face recognition tests was used to confirm the face recognition impairment reported by the parents of each child. We used thematic analysis to develop common themes among the psychosocial experiences of the children and their parents. Results Three themes were developed from the child reports: 1) awareness of their difficulties, 2) coping strategies, such as using non-facial cues to identify others, and 3) social implications, such as discomfort in, and avoidance of, social situations. These themes were paralleled by the parent reports and highlight the unique social and practical challenges associated with childhood developmental prosopagnosia. Conclusion Our findings indicate a need for increased awareness and treatment of developmental prosopagnosia to help these children manage their face recognition difficulties and to promote their social and emotional wellbeing. PMID:25077856

  15. Standardized Developmental Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirlam, David; Byrne, Maureen

    The feasibility of standardized assessment of features of children's organization of knowledge and the demonstration of differences in organization between stages of development were investigated. It was possible to standardize developmentally derived instruments, in the same way as empirically derived tests because such evaluations concern the…

  16. Furthering the Understanding of Parent–Child Relationships: A Nursing Scholarship Review Series. Part 5: Parent–Adolescent and Teen Parent–Child Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Anderson, Lori S.; Pridham, Karen A.; Lutz, Kristin F.; Becker, Patricia T.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing’s contribution to understanding the parent–adolescent and the teen parent–child relationships. CONCLUSION Relationships between parents and adolescents may reflect turmoil and affect adolescents’ health and development. The social and developmental contexts for teen parenting are powerful and may need strengthening. Several interventions to help teen mothers interact sensitively with their infants have been developed and tested. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Nurse researchers have begun to provide evidence for practitioners to use in caring for families of adolescents and teen parents to acquire interaction skills that, in turn, may promote optimal health and development of the child. PMID:20618633

  17. The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harold P.

    The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…

  18. Developmental Dependencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Researchers have long focused upon the problems of student/adolescent drug use; however, such a limited perspective may actually provide inaccurate information as to the actual nature and extent of total drug use. It may be more appropriate to emphasize a lifespan developmental perspective regarding drug abuse behaviors, insofar as drug use must…

  19. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Ruth S

    2004-10-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined.

  20. [Child developmental disorder and art therapy].

    PubMed

    Laroquea, Fabienne; Sudres, Jean-luc

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying the art therapy of a young girl suffering from evolutive disharmony shows how this therapeutic mediation can be used in a beneficial way. As part of the workshop proposed by carers, the use of painting and collages of different materials led to a transformation process. The girl became less aggressive, more receptive to her emotions and more open to the outside world.

  1. The infant's developmental path in phonological acquisition.

    PubMed

    Swingley, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Research on how language acquisition begins has been fragmented both in terms of scientific communities and in terms of the phenomena that are taken to characterize developmental progress. In her article, Marilyn Vihman argues for an integrative approach that takes the child's efforts at speech production as primary, and notes that infants' knowledge of how words sound may accrue over a protracted period developmentally. Here, I briefly discuss how reconceptualization of the process can help integrate perspectives previously at odds.

  2. Biological Gender Differences in Students' Errors on Mathematics Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…

  3. Reliability and validity testing for the Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Reduced (COHIP-SF 19)

    PubMed Central

    Broder, Hillary L.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile–Short Form 19 (COHIP-SF 19) from the validated 34-item COHIP. Methods Participants included 205 pediatric, 107 orthodontic, and 863 patients with craniofacial anomalies (CFAs). Item level evaluations included examining content overlap, distributional properties, and use of the response set. Confirmatory factor analysis identified potential items for deletion. Scale reliability was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Discriminant validity of the COHIP-SF 19 was evaluated as follows: among pediatric participants, scores were compared with varying amounts of decayed and filled surfaces (DFS) and presence of caries on permanent teeth; for orthodontic patients, scores were correlated with anterior tooth spacing/crowding; and for those with CFA, scores were compared with clinicians’ ratings of extent of defect (EOD) for nose and lip and/or speech hypernasality. Convergent validity was assessed by examining the partial Spearman correlation between the COHIP scores and a standard Global Health self-rating. Comparisons between the COHIP and the COHIP-SF 19 were completed across samples. Results The reduced questionnaire consists of 19 items: Oral Health (five items), Functional Well-Being (four items), and a combined subscale named Socio-Emotional Well-Being (10 items). Internal reliability is ≥0.82 for the three samples. Results demonstrate that the COHIP-SF 19 discriminates within and across treatment groups by EOD and within a community-based pediatric sample. The measure is associated with the Global Health rating (P < 0.05), thereby indicating convergent validity. Conclusions Reliability and validity testing demonstrate that the COHIP-SF 19 is a psychometrically sound instrument to measure oral health-related quality of life across school-aged pediatric populations. PMID:22536873

  4. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics × Instruction Interactions on Third Graders’ Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children’s initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics × instruction (C×I) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether C×I interactions might present an underlying and predictable mechanism for explaining individual differences in how students respond to third-grade classroom literacy instruction. To this end, we designed and tested an instructional intervention (Individualizing Student Instruction [ISI]). Teachers (n = 33) and their students (n = 448) were randomly assigned to the ISI intervention or a vocabulary intervention, which was not individualized. Teachers in both conditions received professional development. Videotaped classroom observations conducted in the fall, winter, and spring documented the instruction that each student in the classroom received. Teachers in the ISI group were more likely to provide differentiated literacy instruction that considered C×I interactions than were the teachers in the vocabulary group. Students in the ISI intervention made greater gains on a standardized assessment of reading comprehension than did students in the vocabulary intervention. Results indicate that C×I interactions likely contribute to students’ varying response to literacy instruction with regard to their reading comprehension achievement and that the association between students’ profile of language and literacy skills and recommended instruction is nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. Hence, dynamic and complex theories about classroom instruction and environment impacts on student learning appear to be warranted and should inform more effective literacy instruction in third grade. PMID:27867226

  5. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics × Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction.

    PubMed

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics × instruction (C×I) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether C×I interactions might present an underlying and predictable mechanism for explaining individual differences in how students respond to third-grade classroom literacy instruction. To this end, we designed and tested an instructional intervention (Individualizing Student Instruction [ISI]). Teachers (n = 33) and their students (n = 448) were randomly assigned to the ISI intervention or a vocabulary intervention, which was not individualized. Teachers in both conditions received professional development. Videotaped classroom observations conducted in the fall, winter, and spring documented the instruction that each student in the classroom received. Teachers in the ISI group were more likely to provide differentiated literacy instruction that considered C×I interactions than were the teachers in the vocabulary group. Students in the ISI intervention made greater gains on a standardized assessment of reading comprehension than did students in the vocabulary intervention. Results indicate that C×I interactions likely contribute to students' varying response to literacy instruction with regard to their reading comprehension achievement and that the association between students' profile of language and literacy skills and recommended instruction is nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. Hence, dynamic and complex theories about classroom instruction and environment impacts on student learning appear to be warranted and should inform more effective literacy instruction in third grade.

  6. Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: example lists and criteria for their selection and use.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Michael; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Daneshian, Mardas; Fritsche, Ellen; Hasiwa, Nina; Hartung, Thomas; Hogberg, Helena T; Leist, Marcel; Li, Abby; Mundi, William R; Padilla, Stephanie; Piersma, Aldert H; Bal-Price, Anna; Seiler, Andrea; Westerink, Remco H; Zimmer, Bastian; Lein, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of information concerning the developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard posed by industrial and environmental chemicals. New testing approaches will most likely be based on batteries of alternative and complementary (non-animal) tests. As DNT is assumed to result from the modulation of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes (such as neuronal differentiation, precursor cell migration or neuronal network formation) by chemicals, the first generation of alternative DNT tests target these processes. The advantage of such types of assays is that they capture toxicants with multiple targets and modes-of-action. Moreover, the processes modelled by the assays can be linked to toxicity endophenotypes, i.e., alterations in neural connectivity that form the basis for neurofunctional deficits in man. The authors of this review convened in a workshop to define criteria for the selection of positive/negative controls, to prepare recommendations on their use, and to initiate the setup of a directory of reference chemicals. For initial technical optimization of tests, a set of > 50 endpoint-specific control compounds was identified. For further test development, an additional "test" set of 33 chemicals considered to act directly as bona fide DNT toxicants is proposed, and each chemical is annotated to the extent it fulfills these criteria. A tabular compilation of the original literature used to select the test set chemicals provides information on statistical procedures, and toxic/non-toxic doses (both for pups and dams). Suggestions are provided on how to use the > 100 compounds (including negative controls) compiled here to address specificity, adversity and use of alternative test systems.

  7. The Child's World: Assessing Children in Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Jan, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to recent development in the research and practice of assessing children in need. The book examines the policy framework for assessment, the process of assessment, and how to assess a child's developmental needs and the capacity of that child's parents and family to respond to those needs. Following an…

  8. Focus on Preschool Aquatics: Child Care Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Nancy E.

    This paper proposes state regulations for the training of child care staff members in developmentally appropriate safe aquatic practices, outlines required features of any pools that children visit, and suggests safe practices for water-related activities at child care centers and swimming pools. The staff training regulation suggestions include…

  9. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  10. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing. PMID:20157427

  11. Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: example lists and criteria for their selection and use

    PubMed Central

    Aschner, Michael; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Daneshian, Mardas; Fritsche, Ellen; Hasiwa, Nina; Hartung, Thomas; Hogberg, Helena T.; Leist, Marcel; Li, Abby; Mundy, William R.; Padilla, Stephanie; Piersma, Aldert H.; Bal-Price, Anna; Seiler, Andrea; Westerink, Remco H.; Zimmer, Bastian; Lein, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of information concerning the developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard posed by industrial and environmental chemicals. New testing approaches will most likely be based on batteries of alternative and complementary (non-animal) tests. As DNT is assumed to result from the modulation of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes (such as neuronal differentiation, precursor cell migration or neuronal network formation) by chemicals, the first generation of alternative DNT tests target these processes. The advantage of such types of assays is that they capture toxicants with multiple targets and modes-of-action. Moreover, the processes modelled by the assays can be linked to toxicity endophenotypes, i.e. alterations in neural connectivity that form the basis for neurofunctional deficits in man. The authors of this review convened in a workshop to define criteria for the selection of positive/negative controls, to prepare recommendations on their use, and to initiate the setup of a directory of reference chemicals. For initial technical optimization of tests, a set of >50 endpoint-specific control compounds was identified. For further test development, an additional “test” set of 33 chemicals considered to act directly as bona fide DNT toxicants is proposed, and each chemical is annotated to the extent it fulfills these criteria. A tabular compilation of the original literature used to select the test set chemicals provides information on statistical procedures, and toxic/non-toxic doses (both for pups and dams). Suggestions are provided on how to use the >100 compounds (including negative controls) compiled here to address specificity, adversity and use of alternative test systems. PMID:27452664

  12. Child Guidance for Child Caregivers: Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Designed to enhance student knowledge of and skills in child guidance in group care settings, this manual provides 50 laboratory experiences for five units. Units cover foundations and assumptions (2 laboratory experiences), developmental factors (8), indirect guidance (14), direct guidance (14), and strategies (12). Each unit includes performance…

  13. Towards an internationally harmonized test method for reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in marine copepods.

    PubMed

    Kusk, K Ole; Wollenberger, Leah

    2007-02-01

    New and updated methods to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment since these substances are often not detected using existing chronic toxicity tests. Numerous reports on the effects of EDCs on crustacean development and reproduction have been published and the development of life-cycle tests with crustaceans has been prioritized within the OECD work program for endocrine disrupter testing and assessment. As a result, Sweden, and Denmark initiated a proposal for development of a full life-cycle test with marine copepods (Acartia tonsa, Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe battagliai, and Amphiascus tenuiremis). The present paper gives an overview on the endocrine system of crustaceans with special emphasis on development and reproduction, which are targets for endocrine disruption, and reviews available methods for detecting effects on development and reproduction in calanoid and harpacticoid copepods. A draft OECD guideline Copepod Development and Reproduction Test has been developed, and a pre-validation of this draft guideline was completed in 2005. An updated draft guideline, taking into account the results of the pre-validation, is now under validation in an international ring-test, which is running till the end of 2006.

  14. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  15. An Effective Training Approach for Child Day Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Melissa G.; Smock, Sue Marx

    Controversy exists in the field of child day care concerning the training of child care workers. Becker (1979) states that trainers should be child care professionals who help to engage workers in an educational/developmental process, as opposed to "outside" trainers from other professions who view training as a mechanism to "add…

  16. Social support is associated with blood pressure responses in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Stephen; Whiteley, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether parents caring for children with developmental disabilities would have higher blood pressure compared to parents of typically developing children (controls). It also examined the psychosocial factors underlying this observation. Thirty-five parents of children with developmental disability and thirty controls completed standard measures of perceived stress, child challenging behaviours and social support and wore an ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitor throughout the day, for one day. Relative to controls, parents caring for children with developmental disabilities reported poorer psychosocial functioning and had a higher mean systolic BP. Of the psychosocial predictors, only social support was found to be predictive. Moreover, variations in social support accounted for some of the between group differences with the β for parental group attenuated from .42 to .34 in regression analyses. It appears that social support may influence blood pressure responses in parental caregivers. Finally, our findings underscore the importance of providing psychosocial interventions to improve the health of family caregivers.

  17. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues.

  18. Developmental Validation of the ParaDNA® Screening System - A presumptive test for the detection of DNA on forensic evidence items.

    PubMed

    Dawnay, Nick; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Moore, Dave; Blackman, Stephen; Rendell, Paul; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Nagy, Randy; Wells, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Current assessment of whether a forensic evidence item should be submitted for STR profiling is largely based on the personal experience of the Crime Scene Investigator (CSI) and the submissions policy of the law enforcement authority involved. While there are chemical tests that can infer the presence of DNA through the detection of biological stains, the process remains mostly subjective and leads to many samples being submitted that give no profile or not being submitted although DNA is present. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System was developed to address this issue. It consists of a sampling device, pre-loaded reaction plates and detection instrument. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon™ detection of PCR amplicons to identify the presence and relative amount of DNA on an evidence item and also provides a gender identification result in approximately 75 minutes. This simple-to-use design allows objective data to be acquired by both DNA analyst and non-specialist personnel, to enable a more informed submission decision to be made. The developmental validation study described here tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Screening System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrates that the ParaDNA Screening System identifies the presence of DNA on a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva and touch DNA items.

  19. Child Development and Intergenerational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Marsha S.

    1989-01-01

    Child development can be fostered through relationships between older adults and children. Children's social isolation resulting from demographic, economic, and social changes can be addressed by means of intergenerational programs. During four developmental stages from infancy to adolescence, older adults can play a significant role in…

  20. Phelan-McDermid syndrome presenting with developmental delays and facial dysmorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Myung; Choi, In-Hee; Kim, Jun Suk; Kim, Ja Hye; Cho, Ja Hyang; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Choi, Jin-Ho; Seo, Eul-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by the terminal or interstitial deletion of the chromosome 22q13.3. Patients with this syndrome usually have global developmental delay, hypotonia, and speech delays. Several putative genes such as the SHANK3, RAB, RABL2B, and IB2 are responsible for the neurological features. This study describes the clinical features and outcomes of Korean patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Two patients showing global developmental delay, hypotonia, and speech delay were diagnosed with Phelan-McDermid syndrome via chromosome analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of Patients 1 and 2 showed delayed myelination and severe communicating hydrocephalus, respectively. Electroencephalography in patient 2 showed high amplitude spike discharges from the left frontotemporoparietal area, but neither patient developed seizures. Kidney ultrasonography of both the patients revealed multicystic kidney disease and pelviectasis, respectively. Patient 2 experienced recurrent respiratory infections, and chest computed tomography findings demonstrated laryngotracheomalacia and bronchial narrowing. He subsequently died because of heart failure after a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation at 5 months of age. Patient 1, who is currently 20 months old, has been undergoing rehabilitation therapy. However, global developmental delay was noted, as determines using the Korean Infant and Child Development test, the Denver developmental test, and the Bayley developmental test. This report describes the clinical features, outcomes, and molecular genetic characteristics of two Korean patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome. PMID:28018439