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Sample records for child developmental test

  1. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  2. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  3. Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

    This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

  4. Child Abuse: Its Relationship to Birthweight, Apgar Score, and Developmental Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of child abuse to birthweight, five-minute Apgar score, and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development was studied in 75 low socioeconomic infants (ages 2-30 months). Journal availability: see EC 111 042. (Author)

  5. Developmental Levels of the Child's Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska

    Noting that examining the storytelling skills of children between 4 and 8 years of age can provide insights into the child's overall language development, this study explored the development of children's storytelling, using story coherence and story cohesion to evaluate the developmental level of the child's storytelling. Participating in the…

  6. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  7. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  8. Developmental Awareness and Moral Stage Development in Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies the strategies that 41 perpetrators of child abuse used to insure that the victim remained silent. Results indicate that the perpetrators altered their strategies to coincide with the developmental level of the child. (RJC)

  9. Child Health, Developmental Plasticity, and Epigenetic Programming

    PubMed Central

    Feil, R.; Constancia, M.; Fraga, M.; Junien, C.; Carel, J.-C.; Boileau, P.; Le Bouc, Y.; Deal, C. L.; Lillycrop, K.; Scharfmann, R.; Sheppard, A.; Skinner, M.; Szyf, M.; Waterland, R. A.; Waxman, D. J.; Whitelaw, E.; Ong, K.; Albertsson-Wikland, K.

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developmental origins of health and disease and life-history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from preconception to early childhood and involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life-history phase transitions. These epigenetic responses influence development, cell- and tissue-specific gene expression, and sexual dimorphism, and, in exceptional cases, could be transmitted transgenerationally. Translational epigenetic research in child health is a reiterative process that ranges from research in the basic sciences, preclinical research, and pediatric clinical research. Identifying the epigenetic consequences of fetal programming creates potential applications in clinical practice: the development of epigenetic biomarkers for early diagnosis of disease, the ability to identify susceptible individuals at risk for adult diseases, and the development of novel preventive and curative measures that are based on diet and/or novel epigenetic drugs. PMID:20971919

  10. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  11. Child maltreatment syndrome: demographics and developmental issues of inpatient cases

    PubMed Central

    Ngiam, Xin Ying; Kang, Ying Qi; Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Kiing, Jennifer; Law, Evelyn Chung Ning

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, developmental and behavioural profile of children hospitalised for alleged child maltreatment syndrome (CMS). METHODS This study was a retrospective review of the consecutive inpatient records of children (0–16 years) admitted to the National University Hospital, Singapore, for alleged CMS over a three-year period. Descriptive data on the demographic characteristics, alleged maltreatment, medical and developmental histories, and family background of these children were collected and analysed. Chi-square statistics were used to test whether family factors were associated with the type of maltreatment and the presence of developmental disorders. RESULTS A total of 89 children, who accounted for 90 admission cases, were studied. Physical abuse (70.0%) was the most common, followed by neglect (11.1%) and sexual abuse (7.8%). Child protection services had already been involved in 29.2% of the cases prior to the child’s admission. Children who were victims of abuse were more likely to come from homes with a prior history of domestic violence (p = 0.028). Financial difficulty was found to be a risk factor for neglect (p = 0.005). Among the 89 children, 15.7% were found to have developmental disorders and 10.1% had mental health diagnoses. Children who had developmental disorders were more likely to have a parent with a mental health disorder (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION A sizeable proportion of the children admitted for alleged CMS had developmental or behavioural disorders. Clinicians have a role in ensuring that these children have appropriate follow-up plans. Children from high-risk families should be screened for maltreatment. PMID:26668405

  12. Developmental Assessment of Infants and Toddlers in Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Betty S.

    The Mental Development Scales: Birth to Three Years are instruments designed to assess developmental levels of young children within a setting familiar to the child. They (1) provide a greater understanding of child behavior and development, (2) serve as a basis for planning an individualized curriculum for each child, and (3) furnish the means…

  13. The replacement child--a developmental tragedy: some preliminary comments.

    PubMed

    Legg, C; Sherick, I

    1976-01-01

    Some of the clinical and theoretical issues thought to be involved in the psychology of "replacement children" are discussed. A developmental framework is proposed within which to view such children. The replacement child is becoming an identifiable clinical syndrome, and a developmental framework is sorely needed to encourage more systematic research. A replacement child perceives his status differently on both a cognitive and emotional level within the context of each developmental phase, and the affective and associative links need to be reworked each time. We view the status of being a replacement child as a developmental interference insofar as demands are placed on the child's immature ego which he might not yet be equipped to cope with.

  14. Developmental Factors Related to Deviant Sexual Preferences in Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, Patrick; Beauregard, Eric; Proulx, Jean; Nicole, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between developmental factors and deviant sexual preferences in child molesters. In total, 146 adult males having committed a sexual offence against a child were included in the study. Three types of factors were investigated: negative experiences during childhood, behavior problems during…

  15. Gesell's Developmental Testing: What Purpose Does It Serve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Modlin, Preston D.

    1987-01-01

    Examined usefulness of the Gesell Preschool Test (GPT), a developmental readiness test used by teachers and school psychologists to determine a child's readiness to begin formal instruction. Results revealed that, after accounting for effects of math and reading achievement, GPT failed to contribute to the discrimination of 30 retained and 58…

  16. From Parent-Child Mutuality to Security to Socialization Outcomes: Developmental Cascade toward Positive Adaptation in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age 8. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident. PMID:26258443

  17. From parent-child mutuality to security to socialization outcomes: developmental cascade toward positive adaptation in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age eight. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS. The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident.

  18. Understanding child sexual behavior problems: a developmental psychopathology framework.

    PubMed

    Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran

    2009-11-01

    Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.

  19. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    PubMed

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  20. From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model

    PubMed Central

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence, as well as to cannabis abuse and dependence (CAD) symptoms in adolescence. Youth CAD symptoms were primarily related directly to child maltreatment and externalizing problems. Childhood internalizing symptoms contributed to later childhood decreases in social competence, which predicted increases in late adolescent externalizing problems. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, results are discussed in relation to cascade and transactional effects and the interplay between problem behaviors during childhood and development of CAD symptoms during early and late adolescence. PMID:20883588

  1. Child health developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developm...

  2. Developmental Physical Management of the Multi-Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Beverly; Brown, Glenna

    The manual was designed to provide an overview of the Developmental Physical Management program used at the University of Alabama in classes for infants and children with multiple disabilities. The multidisabled child may be affected by one or more of the following problems: slow development, lack of normal integration of basic reflexes, abnormal…

  3. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  4. Developmental Outcome in a Tracheostomized Child: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports developmental outcomes of a child who experienced a tracheostomy and had prolonged hospitalization and psychomotor therapy in an intensive care unit. Found a pattern of delay in speech and language production with no hearing loss, no cognitive impairment, an average level of fine motor disorders, no behavioral disorders, and normal…

  5. Developmental Effects of Child Abuse: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.

    1982-01-01

    Four areas in child abuse research are identified, and suggestions are made for solving the problems. The following topics (sample suggestions in parentheses) are addressed: definition (extent, type, and frequency of abuse); generalizaton (expansion to more middle and upper socioeconomic status children); causality (longitudinal studies); and…

  6. Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed.

  7. The developmental toxicity testing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Hazelden, Keith P

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of biologic drugs, as compared with small molecules, confer significant advantages for both the drug developer and the prospective patients. The necessity for, and the timing of, developmental toxicity testing in the preclinical program must be considered. Choice of an appropriate test system is of particular importance, one that shows pharmacodynamic activity comparable to man. Where the conventional rodent/non-rodent species show such functional cross-reactivity, those species can be used in developmental testing, but often the only relevant species will be a nonhuman primate, in which case an extended study design (the ePPND) should be the default. Such an approach provides appropriate toxicity screening while reducing animal usage.

  8. Testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Claudio, L; Kwa, W C; Russell, A L; Wallinga, D

    2000-04-01

    Human brain development is slow and delicate, involving many unique, though interrelated, cellular events. The fetus and child are often more susceptible to chemical toxins that alter the structure and/or function of the brain, although susceptibility varies for individual neurotoxicants. Early exposure to neurotoxins has been implicated in neurological diseases and mental retardation. Pesticide exposures pose a particular concern since many are designed to be neurotoxic to pests and can also affect humans. Acknowledging the potential for vulnerability of the developing brain, EPA recently began to "call in" data on developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) from manufacturers of pesticides already registered and considered to be neurotoxic-around 140 pesticides. Chemicals are to be tested following the DNT testing guideline (OPPTS 870.6300). This paper assesses whether tests performed according to this guideline can effectively identify developmental neurotoxicants. We found the testing guideline deficient in several respects, including: It is not always triggered appropriately within the current tiered system for testing; It does not expose developing animals during all critical periods of vulnerability; It does not assess effects that may become evident later in life; It does not include methodology for consideration of pharmacokinetic variables; Methodology for assessment of neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometry is highly variable; Testing of neurochemical changes is limited and not always required. We propose modifications to the EPA testing guideline that would improve its adequacy for assessing and predicting risks to infants and children. This paper emphasizes that deficiencies in the testing methodology for developmental neurotoxicants represent a significant gap and increase the uncertainty in the establishment of safe levels of exposure to developing individuals.

  9. Developmental milestones in abused children, and their improvement with a family-oriented approach to the treatment of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Parish, R A; Myers, P A; Brandner, A; Templin, K H

    1985-01-01

    Few objective measures of the efficacy of intervention programs in the treatment of child abuse exist. One such measure may be improvement in the developmental delays often seen in abused children. Using the Learning Assessment Profile, we tested 53 abused children, ages 2.5-5 years, just before and after involvement in our Family Development Center Program (FDC). The FDC emphasizes therapy-group-interaction for parents, where alternative ways of expressing anger are explored. Children attend daily preschool classes, and take occasional outside field trips. Of the 53 children tested 42 (79%) showed greater than expected developmental skills gains. Six children demonstrated no improvement in developmental skills, four of whom had severe developmental delays in one or two areas. Fine motor and language skills were significantly delayed for the group as a whole; these areas showed the greatest improvement after FDC. There did not appear to be an overall association between increased improvement in developmental skills and length of time in the FDC program, although certain subgroups of children appeared to improve with time while others appeared to lose ground. A five-year follow-up study of these children is presently underway. We conclude that a program which involves both parent and child, and focuses on their interaction, appears to be effective in dealing with abusive families; monitoring developmental levels in the abused children is one means of assessing their progress in such a program. Further controlled prospective trials are needed in this area.

  10. Developmental and reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The majority of new preventative and therapeutic vaccines are now assessed for developmental toxicity according to guidelines issued by the FDA in 2006. Despite the absence of confirmed effects in humans, vaccines are frequently suspected of having adverse side-effects on the development of children. Such suspicions are perhaps unavoidable considering the extremely widespread use of vaccines. The preclinical developmental toxicology studies are designed to assess possible influences of each component of the vaccine formulation-and the induced antibodies-on the development of the conceptus, neonate and suckling organism. Immune modulation by a vaccine or an adjuvant could, for instance, affect the outcome of pregnancy by interfering with the natural shift in immune balance of the mother during gestation. Maternal immunoglobulins are transferred from the mother to the offspring in order to confer passive immunity during early life. This maternal antibody transport is prenatal in humans and monkeys, but tends to be delayed until after birth in other species. Therefore, a suitable model species needs to be chosen for preclinical studies in order to ensure exposure of the foetus to the induced maternal antibodies following vaccination. Rabbits are the best laboratory model for prenatal immunoglobulin transfer, but rodents are more practical for the necessary postnatal investigations. Non-human primates are the only appropriate models for the testing of vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species. It is advisable to test new adjuvants separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guidelines. Preclinical paediatric investigations are not currently required for vaccines, even though most vaccines are given to children. Other areas of regulatory concern include developmental immunotoxicity and effects on the preimplantation embryo. Because of the limitations of the available animal models for developmental toxicity testing, pharmacovigilance is essential.

  11. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  12. Multilevel developmental approaches to understanding the effects of child maltreatment: Recent advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    POLLAK, SETH D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in the field of child maltreatment has begun to shed new light on the emergence of health problems in children by emphasizing the responsiveness of developmental processes to children’s environmental and biological contexts. Here, I highlight recent trends in the field with an emphasis on the effects of early life stress across multiple levels of developmental domains. PMID:26535932

  13. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  14. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  15. Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bignami, G

    1996-04-01

    The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity.

  16. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  17. Neuropsychological Testing of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Problems and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nancy W.; Levin, Harvey S.

    1979-01-01

    The study involving 13 developmentally delayed children (36-66 months old) was conducted to determine the applicability of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Motor Impersistence Test, Graphesthesia Test, and Stereognosis-Tactile Test with developmentally delayed infants and preschoolers. (SBH)

  18. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45...

  19. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45...

  20. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45...

  1. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C. Anthoney; Cunningham, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to life-threatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair. PMID:23251718

  2. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early- to Middle-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. PMID:25521556

  3. Developmental overview of child and youth sports for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Tofler, Ian R; Butterbaugh, Grant J

    2005-10-01

    This article presents an overview of sporting participation for children and adolescents from psychological, physical, social, developmental, and historical perspectives. The following areas are reviewed: (1) normal developmental readiness and sporting participation; (2) benefits and risks of athletic participation for the child and adolescent; (3) self concept and sporting participation; (4) adverse psychophysiological and somatoform effects of sports; (5) interactional and systemic contributions to adverse physical and psychological effects; (6) a historical/social perspective of sport in the United States; (7) the current and future role of psychiatrists in conjunction with sports medicine physicians; (8) the sports psychiatry interview of the child, family, and coach; and (9) summary and future challenges.

  4. The Serial Use of Child Neurocognitive Tests: Development versus Practice Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter D.; Townes, Brenda D.; Rosenbaum, Gail; Martins, Isabel P.; Luis, Henrique; Bernardo, Mario; Martin, Michael D.; DeRouen, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    When serial neurocognitive assessments are performed, 2 main factors are of importance: test-retest reliability and practice effects. With children, however, there is a third, developmental factor, which occurs as a result of maturation. Child tests recognize this factor through the provision of age-corrected scaled scores. Thus, a ready-made…

  5. Developmental, cognitive, and behavioral sequelae of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Cahill, L T; Kaminer, R K; Johnson, P G

    1999-10-01

    There is growing interest in the neurologic, behavioral, and cognitive effects of child abuse and neglect. This article explores the literature on the short and long term sequelae of physically and sexually abused and neglected children, along with controversies generated by the studies themselves. Recommendations are made for swift and ongoing intervention in cases of child abuse to protect young victims from potentially devastating effects. PMID:10553206

  6. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  7. Association of maternal developmental disorder traits with child mistreatment: a prospective study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kasahara, Mari; Tsujii, Hiromi; Okuyama, Makiko

    2014-08-01

    Maternal mental disorders are known risk factors for child mistreatment. However, little is known about the involvement of maternal developmental disorder traits. The aim of this study was to examine maternal traits related to Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and their possible association with child mistreatment. Maternal PDD and ADHD were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire (N=846) during mid-pregnancy using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS) and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The mothers completed another questionnaire on child mistreatment when the offspring was approximately 18 months of age. The associations between maternal PDD and ADHD traits and child mistreatment score were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for covariates. Mothers who exhibited stronger PDD traits showed significantly higher child mistreatment score, even after adjustment for maternal characteristics at baseline and ADHD traits. At the same time, ADHD traits were significantly associated with child mistreatment after adjustment of covariates, although the association became non-significant after adjustment of PDD traits. Mothers who showed PDD and ADHD traits during pregnancy were more likely to mistreat their children. It is essential to educate mothers with such traits with appropriate, easy-to-follow childcare instructions, preferably in simple language combined with pictorial aids.

  8. Developmental Changes in the Early Child Lexicon in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Meiling; Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua; Xing, Ailing; Jiang, Ying; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of…

  9. Intervention for a Bilingual Child with Developmental Speech Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzivinikou, Sotiria

    2004-01-01

    Cultural differences and bilingualism should not stand as obstacles in the intellectual and linguistic growth, as well as the social and the psychological potential, of bilingual children. So, the aim of the present study was the construction and the application of an intervention programme for the developmental speech problems of a bilingual,…

  10. Supernumerary chromosome marker (1) in a developmentally delayed child

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphear, N.; Oppenheimer, S.; Lamb, A.

    1995-07-03

    A 15-month-old boy with mild developmental delay and several minor anomalies was found to be mosaic 46,XY/47,XY,+mar(1). The marker r(1) was a small de novo ring identified by FISH with a painting type DNA probe. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  12. Contributions of Incidental Teaching, Developmental Quotient, and Peer Interactions to Child Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Amy M.; McWilliam, R. A.; Sims, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis reported in this article was to determine to what extent child and classroom characteristics were associated with the amount of time children with disabilities spent displaying each of 5 categories of engagement. Predictors consisted of children's receipt of incidental teaching, developmental quotient, and quality of…

  13. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  14. Developmental Screening Referrals: Child and Family Factors that Predict Referral Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Danielle J.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the predictive impact of developmental screening results and the effects of child and family characteristics on completion of referrals given for evaluation. Logistical and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of 10 independent variables on the predictor variable. The number of…

  15. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  16. Assessment of Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Wheelchair Movement in a Child with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Kahng, SungWoo; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Sveinsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sadler, Christine

    2003-01-01

    An adolescent with developmental disabilities who used a wheelchair was anecdotally observed to display little aggressive behavior when being pushed, but higher rates when movement was terminated. A functional analysis confirmed the elevated aggression and the child was taught to request movement through appropriate means. Aggression decreased…

  17. Parent-Child Interaction and Developmental Disabilities: Theory, Research, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfo, Kofi, Ed.

    Examined are the interactions of parents and their children with developmental disabilities, focusing on the following aspects: social, emotional, language, communication, clinical, educational, and methodological. A partial listing of contents follows: "Determinants of Parent and Child Interactive Behavior" (Carl Dunst and Carol Trivette); "The…

  18. Identification and Assessment of Children with Developmental Disabilities in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick; Tappan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of a Child Protective Services (CPS) screening and investigation process to identify children with developmental disabilities. The study used an emergent design, ethnographic interviews, purposive sampling, inductive data analysis, and grounded theory building. Ethnographic interviews were…

  19. Developmental Differences in Parent-Child Interpretations of Family Communication Patterns: Implications for Mass Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Erica Weintraub

    A study examined parent-child differences in the Family Communication Patterns (FCP) model using the FCP's socio- and concept orientation measures extended to include measures of structure of control and involvement with the expectation that developmental differences in interpretation by parents and children will be demonstrated via differing…

  20. The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

  1. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  2. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 CFR 1304.40(f)(2) (i) and (ii) to enroll and participate in a system of ongoing family health care... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(2), and 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1), “entry” means the first day that Early Head Start or...

  3. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 CFR 1304.40(f)(2) (i) and (ii) to enroll and participate in a system of ongoing family health care... this section) from the child's entry into the program (for the purposes of 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(1), 45 CFR 1304.20(a)(2), and 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1), “entry” means the first day that Early Head Start or...

  4. A Comparison of Child-Tested Early Childhood Education Software with Professional Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Theresa H.; Evans, Sharon

    This study explored children's preferences for 13 computer software programs and field-tested the relationship of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) ratings of early childhood computer software programs to actual child selection. Participants were 19 4-year-olds. The Haugland and Shade (1990) evaluation instrument was used to assign DAP…

  5. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  6. The influence of Chinese one-child family status on developmental coordination disorder status.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jing; Jin, Hua; Gu, Guixiong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Lijun; Wu, Zhuochun

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a population-based study on Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in mainland China to explore the influence of one-child status in Chinese families on DCD. A total of 4001 children selected from 160 classes in 15 public nursery schools. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children assessed motor function. The prevalence of DCD in Chinese one-child families (8.7%) was higher than that in multi-child families (5.9%). Chinese one-child family status (compared with younger children in multi-child families) were negatively related with total score (-1.793), Manual dexterity (-0.228), Aiming and catching (-1.145), Balance (-0.433) of MABC-2 and DCD (OR=2.294) when adjusted for the children's and family's characteristics, and perinatal factors (each p<0.05). As one of the studies in this Chinese context, it provides a platform for future intervention programs in one-child families in preventing children's developmental disorders.

  7. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: A Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great progress has been made over the past 40 years in understanding the hazards of exposure to a small number of developmental neurotoxicants. Lead, PCBs, and methylmercury are all good examples of science-based approaches to characterizing the hazard to the developing nervous s...

  8. Time-Critical Reading Comprehension Tests and Developmental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstiens, Gene

    This study investigated the effect of timed testing on developmental students' scores and developed data that might better reveal students' reading and testing behaviors. Three tests were administered to provide six variables, including the Cooperative English Test, Form 1A (Coop 1A); Cooperative English Test, Form 1B (Coop 1B); and Degrees of…

  9. Uses and Abuses of Developmental Screening and School Readiness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the uses and abuses of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Tests and similar tests. First, discusses developmental screening and readiness tests, then focuses on the Gesell tests, specifically addressing their validity and questioning their current uses. Discusses implications of using readiness tests for assigning children to…

  10. [Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories.

  11. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in developing alternative methods for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) that are cost-efficient, use fewer animals and are based on current scientific knowledge of the developing nervous system. Alternative methods will require demonstration of the...

  12. TESTING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: CURRENT APPROACHES AND FUTURE NEEDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many adverse effects on the nervous system following exposure to environmental chemicals during development. In a number of cases (e.g., lead, methyl mercury) the developing nervous system is a highly susceptible. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) guidelines...

  13. Major paternal depression and child consultation for developmental and behavioural problems

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Shreya; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob; Nazareth, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    Background It is well established that maternal depression is associated with enhanced child consultation for developmental and behaviour problems, but there is a dearth of research on paternal depression and child outcome. Aim To assess the association of major paternal depressed mood and child consultation for developmental and behaviour problems. Design of study Cross-sectional study. Setting General practices in London and Hertfordshire, UK. Method Fathers of children aged 4–6 years were recruited via 13 general practices. A sample of 248 biological father and mother dyads completed measures on depressive syndrome (Patient Health Questionnaire), child consultations with health professionals for developmental and behaviour problems, fathering, couple relationship quality, alcohol misuse, other psychiatric impairment, and sociodemographic factors. Results Eight out of 248 fathers (3%) had a major depressive syndrome. Sixty-five out of 247 (26%) fathers reported they were responsible for taking their child to see the doctor at least half the time compared with mothers. Children of fathers with a major depressive syndrome were almost nine times more likely to have consulted a health professional for speech and language problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 8.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.99 to 37.67, P = 0.004) and seven times more likely to have consulted for externalising behaviour problems (adjusted OR = 6.98, 95% CI = 1.00 to 48.76, P = 0.05). Conclusion Children of fathers with major depression were more likely to consult for speech and language problems and externalising behaviour problems. A longitudinal study is recommended to identify causal mechanisms. PMID:19275834

  14. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children.

  15. Current and future needs for developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Makris, Susan L; Kim, James H; Ellis, Amy; Faber, Willem; Harrouk, Wafa; Lewis, Joseph M; Paule, Merle G; Seed, Jennifer; Tassinari, Melissa; Tyl, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    A review is presented of the use of developmental toxicity testing in the United States and international regulatory assessment of human health risks associated with exposures to pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), chemicals (agricultural, industrial, and environmental), food additives, cosmetics, and consumer products. Developmental toxicology data are used for prioritization and screening of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, for evaluating and labeling of pharmaceuticals, and for characterizing hazards and risk of exposures to industrial and environmental chemicals. The in vivo study designs utilized in hazard characterization and dose-response assessment for developmental outcomes have not changed substantially over the past 30 years and have served the process well. Now there are opportunities to incorporate new technologies and approaches to testing into the existing assessment paradigm, or to apply innovative approaches to various aspects of risk assessment. Developmental toxicology testing can be enhanced by the refinement or replacement of traditional in vivo protocols, including through the use of in vitro assays, studies conducted in alternative nonmammalian species, the application of new technologies, and the use of in silico models. Potential benefits to the current regulatory process include the ability to screen large numbers of chemicals quickly, with the commitment of fewer resources than traditional toxicology studies, and to refine the risk assessment process through an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and their relevance to potential human risk. As the testing paradigm evolves, the ability to use developmental toxicology data to meet diverse critical regulatory needs must be retained.

  16. Two Language Screening Tests Compared with Developmental Sentence Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxley, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The performance of 90 children between the ages of four and six years on two language screening tests was compared with their performance on Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) to determine the accuracy of these screening tests in identifying language impairments. The Bankson Language Screening Test was generally accurate in the identification of…

  17. Added syllable complexity in a child's developmental speech and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Babatsouli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Added syllable complexity, whereby a non-targeted consonant is added next to a targeted consonant in the syllable, has received relatively little attention in studies of children with speech sound disorders (SSD) and typically developing children. Despite the scarcity and subtlety of the pattern, evidence in child and adult data indicates universality. The present article examines the pattern in a bilingual child's longitudinal speech in English from age 2;7 to 4;0, focusing on word-initial consonant addition. The purpose is to identify phonological and psycholinguistic processes associated with the pattern. It is suggested that the complexity pattern with both legal and illegal outputs is a systemic developmental behaviour linked to the child's level of phonological acquisition, facilitating acquisition of the complex CCV rule as well as of non-acquired singleton consonants. Implications of the results for children's SSD intervention techniques and for adult degenerative speech are discussed. PMID:27111094

  18. Added syllable complexity in a child's developmental speech and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Babatsouli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Added syllable complexity, whereby a non-targeted consonant is added next to a targeted consonant in the syllable, has received relatively little attention in studies of children with speech sound disorders (SSD) and typically developing children. Despite the scarcity and subtlety of the pattern, evidence in child and adult data indicates universality. The present article examines the pattern in a bilingual child's longitudinal speech in English from age 2;7 to 4;0, focusing on word-initial consonant addition. The purpose is to identify phonological and psycholinguistic processes associated with the pattern. It is suggested that the complexity pattern with both legal and illegal outputs is a systemic developmental behaviour linked to the child's level of phonological acquisition, facilitating acquisition of the complex CCV rule as well as of non-acquired singleton consonants. Implications of the results for children's SSD intervention techniques and for adult degenerative speech are discussed.

  19. Program Helps Design Tests Of Developmental Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Computer program called "A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs" (TRL) provides automatic software tool and formal language used to implement category-partition method and produce specification of test cases in testing phase of development of software. Category-partition method useful in defining input, outputs, and purpose of test-design phase of development and combines benefits of choosing normal cases having error-exposing properties. Traceability maintained quite easily by creating test design for each objective in test plan. Effort to transform test cases into procedures simplified by use of automatic software tool to create cases based on test design. Method enables rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration and facilitates review of test designs by peer groups. Written in C language.

  20. Setting the Stage: Early Child and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Later Loneliness in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Angela; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Kersh, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities often report having few friends. Researchers have tended to focus on social skill deficits, neglecting other potent predictors of children's feelings of loneliness. In a sample of 82 children with developmental disabilities, we examined characteristics of the child at age 3 (i.e., the conclusion of early…

  1. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. PMID:25530189

  2. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  3. Disorders of childhood growth and development: screening and evaluation of the child who misses developmental milestones.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The family physician is one of the few individuals from whom families receive feedback about their children's development; this makes early identification of potential delays an important responsibility. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends formal developmental screening for all children at the 9-, 18-, and 24- and/or 30-month well-child visits as well as developmental surveillance at every office visit through age 5 years. A formal screening measure is recommended, taking into account administration time and cost, characteristics of the patient population (eg, availability of screening tool in numerous languages), and psychometrics (eg, reliability, sensitivity, specificity). In the case of abnormal screening results, family physicians must determine the need for further medical evaluation (eg, by a developmental pediatric subspecialist or a pediatric neurology, genetics, or physiatry subspecialist) and/or further developmental evaluation (eg, by a physical therapy [PT], occupational therapy [OT], speech/language pathology, psychology, or audiology subspecialist). Knowledge of early intervention and early childhood programs is necessary for directing parents to evaluation and treatment sources. In treating patients with developmental delays, family physicians must possess knowledge regarding traditional modalities (eg, speech/language therapy, OT, PT) as well as newer treatments with less research support (eg, gluten-free/casein-free diet, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, neurodevelopmental treatment) that families may consider.

  4. Movement Control in Cerebral Palsied Children during a Developmental Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Philippa M.; Williams, John G.

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether particular aspects of movement control influenced the performance of 2-year-old children on a standard developmental test, and thus influenced assessments of intellectual progress based on that test. Six cerebral-palsied (CP) children were compared with six children not suffering motor system…

  5. Utilization of genetic testing among children with developmental disabilities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Bridget; Vettam, Sujit; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several professional societies recommend that genetic testing be routinely included in the etiologic workup of children with developmental disabilities. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which genetic testing is performed in this population, based on data from a nationally representative survey. Methods Data were analyzed from the Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, a telephone-based survey of parents and guardians of US school-age children with current or past developmental conditions. This study included 3,371 respondents who indicated that their child had an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and/or developmental delay (DD) at the time of survey administration. History of genetic testing was assessed based on report by the parent/s. Children were divided into the following five mutually exclusive condition groups: ASD with ID; ASD with DD, without ID; ASD only, without ID or DD; ID without ASD; and DD only, without ID or ASD. Logistic regression was used to assess the demographic correlates of genetic testing, to compare the rates of genetic testing across groups, and to examine associations between genetic testing and use of other health-care services. Results Overall, 32% of this sample had a history of genetic testing, including 34% of all children with ASD and 43% of those with ID. After adjusting for demographics, children with ASD + ID were more than seven times as likely as those with ASD only, and more than twice as likely as those who had ID without ASD, to have undergone genetic testing. Prior specialist care (developmental pediatrician or neurologist) and access to all needed providers within the previous year were associated with higher odds of genetic testing. Conclusion The majority of children in this nationally representative sample did not undergo recommended genetic testing. Research is needed to identify barriers to the use of genetic testing in this population. PMID:27468247

  6. A Pilot Study of Visual-Motor Developmental Inter-Test Reliability: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Gary L.; Binder, Dorothy M.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the intertest reliability of the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BGT), 64 six to nine year olds were administered both tests.

  7. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD. Methods The participants for this study were restricted to mothers living within the greater Tokyo metropolitan area who had given birth to a first child with PDD within the past 18 years. The ten participants were encouraged to describe their experiences of second-child related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD on the basis of semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed by using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which is concerned with understanding what the participant thinks or believes about the topic under discussion. Results We identified two superordinate themes. The first was balancing hopes and fears, in which hope was the potential joy to be gained by the birth of a new child without PDD and fears were characterized as uncertainty of PDD and perception of recurrence risk, burden on later-born children, and negative effects on a child with PDD. The second superordinate theme was assessing the manageability of the situation, which was affected by factors as diverse as severity of PDD, relationship between mother and father, and social support and acceptance for PDD. Our 10 participants suffered from extreme psychological conflict, and lack of social support and acceptance for PDD created numerous practical difficulties in having second children. Conclusions Our participants faced various difficulties when considering second pregnancies after the birth of children with PDD in the Japanese society. As lack

  8. Testing for HIV-1 infection in a public developmental center.

    PubMed

    Blair, CaraLee R; Gill, Chandler E; Taylor, Henry M; McGowan, Catherine C; Charles, P David

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection in an individual who recently moved from a developmental center prompted the center to offer HIV testing to current and former residents. The guardians of 199 (93 percent) of the Center's current residents consented to testing. The remaining 14 current residents (seven percent) were not tested because informed consent for testing was not received. Consent for testing of 41 former residents was also obtained. All people who underwent testing were seronegative. Whether former residents who were not included in the present analysis received testing from other sources is not known. PMID:19791542

  9. Testing for HIV-1 infection in a public developmental center.

    PubMed

    Blair, CaraLee R; Gill, Chandler E; Taylor, Henry M; McGowan, Catherine C; Charles, P David

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection in an individual who recently moved from a developmental center prompted the center to offer HIV testing to current and former residents. The guardians of 199 (93 percent) of the Center's current residents consented to testing. The remaining 14 current residents (seven percent) were not tested because informed consent for testing was not received. Consent for testing of 41 former residents was also obtained. All people who underwent testing were seronegative. Whether former residents who were not included in the present analysis received testing from other sources is not known.

  10. Cognitive Pretesting and the Developmental Validity of Child Self-Report Instruments: Theory and Applications.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Michael E; Bowen, Gary L; Bowen, Natasha K

    2004-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the context of the importance of valid self-report measures to research and evidence-based practice in social work, an argument-based approach to validity is presented and the concept of developmental validity introduced. Cognitive development theories are applied to the self-report process of children and cognitive pretesting is reviewed as a methodology to advance the validity of self-report instruments for children. An application of cognitive pretesting is presented in the development of the Elementary School Success Profile. METHOD: Two phases of cognitive pretesting were completed to gather data about how children read, interpret and answer self-report items. RESULTS: Cognitive pretesting procedures identified validity problems with numerous items leading to modifications. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive pretesting framed by an argument-based approach to validity holds significant potential to improve the developmental validity of child self-report instruments.

  11. Cognitive Pretesting and the Developmental Validity of Child Self-Report Instruments: Theory and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Michael E.; Bowen, Gary L.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective In the context of the importance of valid self-report measures to research and evidence-based practice in social work, an argument-based approach to validity is presented and the concept of developmental validity introduced. Cognitive development theories are applied to the self-report process of children and cognitive pretesting is reviewed as a methodology to advance the validity of self-report instruments for children. An application of cognitive pretesting is presented in the development of the Elementary School Success Profile. Method Two phases of cognitive pretesting were completed to gather data about how children read, interpret and answer self-report items. Results Cognitive pretesting procedures identified validity problems with numerous items leading to modifications. Conclusions Cognitive pretesting framed by an argument-based approach to validity holds significant potential to improve the developmental validity of child self-report instruments. PMID:21709820

  12. A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)

  13. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  14. Test Review: The Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" (6th edition). The "Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration" is a newly updated measure of visual-motor abilities for individuals aged 2 to 100 years that principally represents a normative update from the fifth edition. Published by Pearson,…

  15. Zebrafish as a systems toxicology model for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Sasagawa, Shota; Umemoto, Noriko; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The developing brain is extremely sensitive to many chemicals. Exposure to neurotoxicants during development has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Although rodents have been widely used for developmental neurotoxicity testing, experiments using large numbers of rodents are time-consuming, expensive, and raise ethical concerns. Using alternative non-mammalian animal models may relieve some of these pressures by allowing testing of large numbers of subjects while reducing expenses and minimizing the use of mammalian subjects. In this review, we discuss some of the advantages of using zebrafish in developmental neurotoxicity testing, focusing on central nervous system development, neurobehavior, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics in this species. We also describe some important examples of developmental neurotoxicity testing using zebrafish combined with gene expression profiling, neuroimaging, or neurobehavioral assessment. Zebrafish may be a systems toxicology model that has the potential to reveal the pathways of developmental neurotoxicity and to provide a sound basis for human risk assessments.

  16. Parent–Child Conflict and Early Childhood Adjustment in Two-Parent Low-Income Families: Parallel Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Crossan, Jennifer L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother–child and father figure (FF)–child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother–child and FF–child conflict and children’s adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother–FF–child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother–child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children’s adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF–child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother–child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent–child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention. PMID:24610382

  17. Creative solutions for complex developmental testing

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was requested to establish the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Development and Demonstration Center. The Center is housed in a hangar at the Albuquerque International Airport and owns its own aged transport airplane. The Center`s work encompasses research and development in enhanced structural inspection. The goals of the Center are to: promote NDI technology development and maturation; help transfer new nondevelopment item technology to the hangar floor; validate NDI techniques; assess reliability or probability of detection of NDI processes. An important part of this project will be to make sure that the cost of implementation and operation of any technique is seriously considered and that techniques are usable in the field. Among the initial techniques to be evaluated are: enhanced visual, magneto-optic eddy current; coherent optics; ultrasonics; thermographics; eddy current scanners; experimental modal analysis. This project is a perfect example of how Development Testing draws on its own resources and teams up with others, as necessary, to get the job done. In this case, New Mexico State University and a private company, Science Applications International Corporation, are assisting.

  18. Viking Mars lander 1975 dynamic test model/orbiter developmental test model forced vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J.; Brownlee, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking Mars Lander 1975 dynamic test model and orbiter developmental test model were subjected to forced vibration sine tests. Flight acceptance (FA) and type approval (TA) test levels were applied to the spacecraft structure in a longitudinal test configuration using a 133,440-N (30,000-lb) force shaker. Testing in the two lateral axes (X, Y) was performed at lower levels using four 667-N (150-lb) force shakers. Forced vibration qualification (TA) test levels were successfully imposed on the spacecraft at frequencies down to 10 Hz. Measured responses showed the same character as analytical predictions, and correlation was reasonably good. Because of control system test tolerances, orbiter primary structure generally did not reach the design load limits attained in earlier static testing. A post-test examination of critical orbiter structure disclosed no apparent damage to the structure as a result of the test environment.

  19. Sports participation of children with or without developmental delay: prediction from child and family factors.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Willa A; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation is beneficial to health and socioemotional adjustment in youth across development. While there is some evidence indicating lower sports participation for children with developmental delays (DD) as compared with their typically developing (TD) peers, little is known as to the predictors of this differential participation. Given the increased risk of physical and mental health difficulties for children with DD, understanding more about this disparity is important. We examined sports participation in elementary school-aged children with or without DD and examined child and family predictors of three indices of sports participation: number of sports and highest relational sport at ages 6 and 8, and consistent sports from 6 to 8. Children with TD were significantly higher on all three indicators. Mother and child factors related significantly to sports participation indices. The number of sports related positively to mother education and positive perceptions and negatively to mother employment. Relational sports were higher in boys, children with higher social skills, and lower behavior problems. In regression analyses at child age 8 that included these other variables, delay status (DD or TD) did not have a significant effect. Perspectives on varying influences on sports participation and implications for intervention are discussed.

  20. Should We Consider Alternatives to Universal Well-Child Behavioral-Developmental Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Urkin, Jacob; Bar-David, Yair; Porter, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental disabilities in the young age is of the order of 15%. When behavioral and social-emotional disorders, physical impairments, and sensory disorders are included, the need for special intervention increases to one out of four children. As the sensitivity and specificity of the best screening tests are in the range of 70–80%, their predictive value is controversial. The cost of conducting definitive tests and repeat screening for those who fail the screening tests is high. Children with severe disorders can be identified clinically without a screening test. The poor predictability, difficulty in implementation, and the high costs of developmental testing suggest that children, particularly those in high-risk communities, might be better served by implementing intervention programs for all, instead of trying to identify the outliers through screening. PMID:25853111

  1. Parent-Child Relationships of Boys in Different Offending Trajectories: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods: Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7-19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending…

  2. Innovations: child & adolescent psychiatry: Training in developmental responses to trauma for child service providers.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Deborah A; Joshi, Paramjit T; Lewin, Shulamit M

    2007-01-01

    Youths most at risk of exposure to community violence are often those who are least likely to receive the attention of mental health professionals. The column describes the development and testing of training about trauma for school personnel and other community providers of children's services. The curriculum was developed with input from focus groups of school nurses. The one-day training sessions address nine areas: normal responses to stress, abnormal responses to stress, posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder, stage theories of loss and grief, risk and protective factors, crisis and disaster planning, resilience, mental health referral sources, and self-care techniques. PMID:17215407

  3. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

  4. Linking Maternal Efficacy Beliefs, Developmental Goals, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural Single-Parent African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.; Gibson, Nicole Morgan

    1999-01-01

    Traced links among family financial resource adequacy, maternal beliefs and behavior, developmental goals, and child outcomes in rural, single-parent African American families of 6- to 9-year-olds. Found that financial adequacy was linked with childrearing efficacy. Efficacy beliefs were linked with parenting practices indirectly through…

  5. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN EARLY MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY.

    PubMed

    Gul, Hesna; Erol, Nese; Akin, Duygu Pamir; Gullu, Belgin Ustun; Akcakin, Melda; Alpas, Başak; Öner, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a method to assess early parent-child dyadic interactions for emotional awareness, perception, experience, and expression between child and parent that describe global relational quality (Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, 2012). The current study aimed to examine the effects of an infant's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and developmental delay (DD) on the maternal EA Scale (EAS; Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, 2012; Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 2000) scores and the relative contributions of infant's age, gender, diagnosis, developmental level, and maternal education on EAS scores in a clinical Turkish sample. Three hundred forty-five infant-mother dyads participated in this study. Results of the research indicated that EAS adult scores were associated with maternal education and infant's diagnosis whereas child scores were associated with infant's age, diagnosis, and developmental level. Infants' involvement and responsiveness to the mother were lower in the group with ASD. Children with OPD, particularly when their mothers have lower education, might be at increased risk of having problems in parent-child interactions. Young ASD subjects with developmental delay are in greatest need of support to increase reactions toward their mother. These findings underscore the importance of using all of the EA dimensions rather than only one measure on children in high-risk populations.

  6. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  7. Using a Time Timer[TM] to Increase Appropriate Waiting Behavior in a Child with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hayes, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the use of a predictive stimulus (Time Timer[TM]) and delayed reinforcement to increase appropriate waiting behavior in a child with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items and activities. The study employed a changing criterion design across settings to gradually increase…

  8. Family Dynamics and Child Outcomes in Early Intervention: The Role of Developmental Theory in the Specification of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Peters, Rachel; Lawrence, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of early intervention for children facing biological and/or socioeconomic risk have tended to focus most directly on change in the child, treating family variables primarily as mediators of change. In contrast, the current study used developmental theory to articulate hypotheses that address one way in which a focus on the relationship…

  9. Parental Adaptation to Out-of-Home Placement of a Child with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…

  10. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  11. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems within Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Transactional Relations across 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children’s high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in families where a child has a DD. The present study investigated transactional relations between child behavior problems and maternal stress within 176 families raising a child with early diagnosed DD. There was evidence of both child-driven and parent-driven effects over the 15-year study period, spanning from early childhood (age 3) to adolescence (age 18), consistent with transactional models of development. Parent-child transactions were found to vary across different life phases and with different domains of behavior problems. PMID:25462487

  12. Integrating functional brain neuroimaging and developmental cognitive neuroscience in child psychiatry research

    PubMed Central

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Sweeney, John A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of clinical research aiming to develop a mechanistic understanding of brain dysfunction in child psychiatric disorders. Method Technological, conceptual and translational approaches relevant to the investigation of brain function in pediatric psychiatric illnesses are explored. Research in the area of pediatric bipolar disorder is used as a prototypic model illustrating the use of complementary techniques of functional magnetic neuroimaging and neurocognitive studies to identify abnormalities in neural circuitry function. Results Studies of bipolar youth indicate impairment in cognitive and affective neural systems and in the interface of these two circuits. This evolving field paves a future pathway for identifying diagnostic biomarkers for the disorder, providing tools for monitoring response to pharmacotherapy, examining illness-associated alterations in developmental trajectory, and facilitating the use of animal research for guiding the development of novel treatment strategies. Conclusion Studies of brain function in child psychiatry are establishing a platform of knowledge and methods that offer promise for revolutionizing both models of illness pathophysiology as well as future diagnostic and therapeutic practice. PMID:18827719

  13. A Case Study Evaluation of a Transfer-of-Stimulus Control Toilet Training Procedure for a Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    1996-01-01

    This case study describes the use of transfer-of-stimulus prompting procedures to develop toilet skills with a seven-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. By first having the child sit on the toilet with her diaper on for two weeks and then taking the diaper off, the child learned to urinate in the toilet. (CR)

  14. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  15. Maternal Affective Illness in the Perinatal Period and Child Development: Findings on Developmental Timing, Mechanisms, and Intervention.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Burke, Anne S

    2016-03-01

    Maternal mental illness is one of the most reliable risks for clinically significant child adjustment difficulties. The research literature in this area is very large and broad and dates back decades. In this review, we consider recent research findings on maternal mental illness and child development by focusing particularly on affective illness the perinatal period. We do this because maternal affective illness in the perinatal period is common; recent evidence suggests that pre- and postpartum maternal depression may have lasting effects on child behavioral and somatic health; research in the perinatal period raises acute and compelling questions about mechanisms of transmission and effect; and perinatal-focused interventions may offer distinct advantages for benefitting mother and child and gaining insights into developmental mechanisms. Throughout the review, we attend to the increasing integration of psychological and biological models and the trans-disciplinary approach now required for clinical investigation.

  16. Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Second Edition. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…

  17. Denver Developmental Screening Test survey of Bangkok children.

    PubMed

    Sriyaporn, P P; Pissasoontorn, W; Sakdisawadi, O

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary developmental survey (using DDST) of 1442 Bangkok children who were between the ages of two weeks and six years was conducted between June 1983 and December 1987. The results of this study showed that the 25th percentile for the development of Bangkok children in the areas of personal-social, fine motor adaptive, language and gross motor skills were comparable to the children in original samples in Denver. Although the Bangkok group seems to have passed many test items at earlier ages, the 75th-90th percentile in each test item was generally more delayed in the Bangkok group. The investigative team suggests that further research for the purpose of establishing a norm for the DDST be pursued on the basis of geographical sampling more than socioeconomical sampling that was used in this study.

  18. Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technolog...

  19. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed.

  20. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. PMID:23584184

  1. Waiting for child developmental and rehabilitation services: an overview of issues and needs.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anton R; Armstrong, Robert W; Mâsse, Louise C; Klassen, Anne F; Shen, Jane; O'Donnell, Maureen E

    2008-11-01

    Concern about the length of time that children, young people, and families may have to wait to access assessment, diagnostic, interventional, therapeutic, and supportive child developmental and rehabilitation (CDR) services is widespread, but adequate data collection and research on this issue remain limited. We review key concepts and issues relevant to waiting for CDR services from the published literature, a national workshop devoted to this topic, and international experience. We conclude that gaps in data, evidence, and consensus challenge our ability to address the issue of waiting for CDR services in a systematic way. A program of research coupled with actions based on consensus-building is required. Research priorities include acquiring evidence of the appropriateness and effectiveness of different models of intervention and rehabilitation services, and documenting the experience and expectations of waiting families. Consensus-building processes are critical to identify, categorize, and prioritize 'sentinel' components of CDR service pathways: (1) to reduce the inherent complexity of the field; (2) to create benchmarks for waiting for these respective services; and (3) to develop definitions for wait-time subcomponents in CDR services. Collection of accurate and replicable data on wait times for CDR services can be used to document baseline realities, to monitor and improve system performance, and to conduct comparative and analytic research in the field of CDR services.

  2. Testing English Language Learners under No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Title III of Public Law 107-110 (No Child Left Behind; NCLB) provided for creation of assessments of English language learners (ELLs) and established, through the Enhanced Assessment Grant program, a platform from which four consortia of states developed ELL tests aligned to rigorous statewide content standards. Those four tests (ACCESS for ELLs,…

  3. Embryonic stem cells: An alternative approach to developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S; Jyoti, S

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells in the body have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to more specialized cell types having functional commitments. Under specified growth conditions, these cell types remain unspecialized but can be triggered to become specific cell type of the body such as heart, nerve, or skin cells. This ability of embryonic stem cells for directed differentiation makes it a prominent candidate as a screening tool in revealing safer and better drugs. In addition, genetic variations and birth defects caused by mutations and teratogens affecting early human development could also be studied on this basis. Moreover, replacement of animal testing is needed because it involves ethical, legal, and cost issues. Thus, there is a strong requirement for validated and reliable, if achievable, human stem cell-based developmental assays for pharmacological and toxicological screening.

  4. Help Your Child Prepare for Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document offers suggestions to parents and students to prepare New Mexico students for the four state-required assessments. Test descriptions, dates and audiences are identified. Before testing, it is recommended that students: (1) Get plenty of rest; (2) Eat a good breakfast; and (3) Relax. During testing, students are encouraged to: (1)…

  5. Nonmentalizing states in early-childhood survivors of the Holocaust: developmental considerations regarding treatment of child survivors of genocidal atrocities.

    PubMed

    Sossin, K Mark

    2007-03-01

    This paper attempts to coalesce considerations of attachment processes, trauma, mentalization, and nonverbal behavior to underscore some of the developmental and therapeutic challenges demonstrated by older-adult child survivors of the Holocaust, and by implication, other child victims of similar genocidal and traumatic events. Young child survivors experienced not only their own traumatic exposure to violence, harm, and loss, but also the stress-transmission of the adult caregivers who raised them in the years that followed. For some, the horrendous losses, combined with impediments to organizing relationships, and to experiences of predictable and trusted continuities, negatively impact the development of the reflective function, and of interpretive skills basic to successful implicit relatedness and explicit exchanges. "Neutral flow" of bodily tension and shape often signals the freezing accompanying nonmentalizing states. Misalignments in individual personality structure and discordances in interpersonal exchange underscore the need to address fundamental building blocks of relatedness and mentalization in the therapeutic process. PMID:17510620

  6. Provider management of child stress behavior in family day care facilities: scaffolding for learning and development by developmentally appropriate practice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ying; Austin, Ann M Berghout; Piercy, Kathleen W

    2006-06-01

    Six children (5 boys, 1 girl; aged 36-60 months) participated in this qualitative study. Each child was enrolled in a different family child care facility. The authors rated the child care providers in 3 of the facilities as using developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) most of the time and rated the providers in the 3 other facilities as rarely or never using DAP. They also examined provider management of children's stress behaviors. The authors observed less active and passive stress behaviors in the high-DAP facilities than in the low-DAP facilities. The authors discuss the results with regard to the distinctively different day care culture found in high-DAP facilities versus low-DAP facilities and the implications for practice.

  7. The Relationship between the Bender-Gestalt Test and the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, William J.

    The relationship between the Bender-Gesalt Test was studied using the Koppitz Developmental Scoring System and the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception in terms of age, sex, IQ, and socioeconomic status. A relationship to the Harrison Reading Readiness Test was also explored. Subjects were 89 first- and second-grade children…

  8. Developmental Scales for Preschool Children. Annotated Bibliography of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    Most of the 161 rating scales, observation instruments, and questionnaires in this bibliography are geared to assessing the developmental levels of preschoolers and children. There are, however, some scales to assess adults' and adolescents' development. Both non-handicapped and handicapped populations are represented. Developmental areas assessed…

  9. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  10. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  11. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  12. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval testing for child size immersion suit. 160.171... Approval testing for child size immersion suit. A child size suit must pass the following tests: (a) The stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test...

  13. Interventions for postnatal depression assessing the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tsivos, Zoe-Lydia; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) has negative effects on maternal well-being as well as implications for the mother–infant relationship, subsequent infant development, and family functioning. There is growing evidence demonstrating that PND impacts on a mother’s ability to interact with sensitivity and responsiveness as a caregiver, which may have implications for the infant’s development of self-regulatory skills, making the infant more vulnerable to later psychopathology. Given the possible intergenerational transmission of risk to the infant, the mother–infant relationship is a focus for treatment and research. However, few studies have assessed the effect of treatment on the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes. The main aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and investigate effect sizes of interventions for PND, which assess the quality of the mother–infant dyad relationship and/or child outcomes in addition to maternal mood. Nineteen studies were selected for review, and their methodological quality was evaluated, where possible, effect sizes across maternal mood, quality of dyadic relationship, and child developmental outcomes were calculated. Finally, clinical implications in the treatment of PND are highlighted and recommendations made for further research. PMID:25960678

  14. Parental adaptation to out-of-home placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jeffrey B; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-05-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified as either inducing emotional stress (i.e., guilt, sadness, fear and worry, anger and frustration, and uncertainty) or relief. Parental appraisals of responses to placement by children, extended family, and friends were identified as factors affecting the parents' adaptation to placement. The primary coping methods used by parents to decrease emotional stress and increase relief consisted of reappraisals regarding the necessity of placement, involvement in the child's life, psychotherapy, and the passage of time.

  15. Reciprocal Influences between Developmental Transitions and Parent-Child Relationships in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist on the effects of young adult-parent relationships on developmental status transitions into adulthood. Such transitions in turn predicted less conflicted and closer young adult-parent relationships. But systematic investigations of reciprocal effects between developmental transitions and young adult-parent relationships…

  16. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. PMID:26921524

  17. Bruises, blood coagulation tests and the battered child syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, A C

    2008-06-01

    Cutaneous bruises are a common symptom and a sign of injury and blood coagulation disorders in childhood. A carefully-taken history, coupled with a thorough physical examination, would lead to the diagnosis, or guide the clinician to the necessary laboratory investigations. Most children suffering from non-accidental injury can have their diagnosis established on clinical grounds alone and do not require laboratory investigation. An initial screening with full blood counts, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time will be adequate in most cases if laboratory investigation is indicated, but the clinician must be aware of the limitations of these tests. The finding of an abnormal coagulation test does not exclude child abuse as it can be a consequence of maltreatment, or the two conditions may coexist. Whenever necessary, the opinion of a haematologist should be sought in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis, which is essential for subsequent management and the prevention of further injury in the case of child abuse.

  18. Genetic Moderation of Early Child-Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and…

  19. Mother-Child Attachment and Preschool Behavior Problems in Children with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMont, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Secure mother-child attachment has been found to be an important factor in the healthy emotional development of children and has been shown to have effects on child, adolescent, and adult behavior. Previous research has primarily focused on attachment in children who are typically developing. However, little research has been conducted in…

  20. Toward a developmental model of child compliance: the role of emotion regulation in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stifter, C A; Spinrad, T L; Braungart-Rieker, J M

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between early emotion regulation and later compliance. When infants were 5, 10, and 18 months of age, they participated in a frustration task. The degree to which they reacted negatively to the stimuli and the behaviors they used to regulate that response were coded. Baseline heart rate also was recorded and a measure of cardiac vagal tone (VNA) was derived. Several tasks (electrode placement, toy clean-up, and test situation) were administered to elicit compliance/noncompliance when the participants were 30 months of age. Results revealed that infants who demonstrated low levels of regulatory behavior were more likely to be noncompliant as toddlers. Several interaction effects suggested that the prediction to later noncompliance was also dependent upon the infants' level of reactivity. Cardiac vagal tone also was related to compliance but in a contradictory fashion. High VNA was related to noncompliance to toy clean-up, whereas low VNA was related to noncompliance to electrode placement. The data provide support for a developmental model of compliance that includes the ability to regulate emotional arousal. PMID:10191513

  1. Effects of a Developmental Boot Camp: Improving Student Performance on a College Placement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Heather H.

    2012-01-01

    Nationwide, students are entering college unprepared for college-level work. Recent high school graduates are placing into developmental courses at an alarming rate. The purpose of this research study is to examine the effect of a developmental boot camp on standardized placement test scores of students enrolling at a community college in North…

  2. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  3. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  4. The experiences and perspectives of Japanese substitute caregivers and maltreated children: a cultural-developmental approach to child welfare practice.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Sachiko

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the experiences and perspectives of child welfare workers and maltreated children living in Japanese state care. Japanese adults emphasize supporting children's emotional well-being and empowerment through developmentally and ecologically focused socialization strategies. One developmental goal articulated by caregivers of maltreated children has been for them to create their Ibasho--that is, a place where they feel peace, security, acceptance, and belonging. Adults support children's Ibasho creation, in part, through the socialization practice of mimamori--that is, watching over others as a protective figure. Through mimamori, adults may create an accepting and positive social-emotional context that provides children with opportunities for exploration, self-expression, and peer relationships, which are important for Ibasho creation. Understanding of how maltreated children secure their Ibasho and what facilitates their Ibasho creation can provide insights into possible protective factors that may be incorporated into caregivers' daily practice with maltreated children, therapeutic interventions, and innovation in child welfare services as a whole. Understanding of culturally embedded beliefs and practices that may support the resilience and well-being of maltreated children allows social workers to reflect and step outside of that which they take for granted to consider how differently they may serve maltreated children in their own society. PMID:20408354

  5. Development of a test battery (NPM-X) for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination of children with developmental disabilities or mental retardation. A theoretical and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gjaerum, B

    1997-01-01

    Biological and behavioural diagnosis often do not provide information on functional competence. This is, however, of utmost importance in planning services as well as in research on treatment effects for children with developmental disorders. For school-aged children neuropsychological assessment has proved its value in this respect. For children of chronological age (CA) below 5-7 with specific developmental disabilities, and for children with severe mental retardation there has been a lack of applicable test batteries. This thesis presents a new test battery for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination, NPM-X, for these two groups of children. The first part of the thesis reviews available medical and psychological tests and assessment procedures with respect to applicability and relevance for neuropsychological assessment to children with mental retardation and mental age (MA) below 7. The second part describes the theoretical background and the content of the new test battery. The methodology for testing these children, who due to their age and/or their developmental disabilities often co-operate poorly, is described. Scoring categories, specifically developed to enable a detailed and differentiated description of the child, are presented. Because of the instability of the behavioural function in early age as well as in cases of severe disability, the scoring system records both the child's optimal functional capacity and inconsistencies in behaviour. For the purpose of planning treatment and training according to the child's resources as well as dysfunctions, two different functional profiles are provided. In the normative functional profile the child's functional level is compared to normal expectations for the child's CA, and in the ideographic functional profile the child's function in each area is compared to the child's average functional level. In the third part of the thesis the reliability results are presented and discussed. A pair of trained M

  6. The Child's Demystification of Psychological Defense Mechanisms: A Structural and Developmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Michael J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Explored the relationships between the cognitive developmental level of preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational children (N=10) and their success in interpreting and explaining each of eight commonly described mechanisms of psychological defense. (JMB)

  7. A comparative test of the developmental, role-playing, and defensive explanations of offspring identification.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J L; Minns, D R

    1978-01-01

    Following Mussen and Distler (1959) and Bandura, Ross and Ross (1963), the developmental, defensive, and role-playing theories of identification are tested on high school seniors. Previous tests have supported the developmental and role-playing hypotheses about equally, while the defensive hypothesis lacks consistent empirical support. Questions are raised, however, about the merit of these tests. Data are presented on seniors in an Eastern suburban school and a Midwestern small town school which support the developmental (warmth) hypothesis but which are inconsistent with the defensive and role-playing hypotheses. Parental behavior is measured by the Bronfenbrenner Parent Behavior Questionnaire and identification is measured by the semantic differential.

  8. The metabolic evaluation of the child with an intellectual developmental disorder: diagnostic algorithm for identification of treatable causes and new digital resource.

    PubMed

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Shevell, Michael; Zschocke, Johannes; Moeschler, John B; Stockler, Sylvia

    2014-04-01

    Intellectual developmental disorders (IDD), characterized by significant impairment of cognitive functions, with limitations of learning, adaptive behavior and skills, are frequent (2.5% of the population affected) and present with significant co-morbidity. The burden of IDD, in terms of emotional suffering and associated health care costs, is significant; prevention and treatment therefore are important. A systematic literature review, updated in 2013, identified 89 inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), which present with IDD as prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. Therapeutic effects include improvement and/or stabilization of psychomotor/cognitive development, behavior/psychiatric disturbances, seizures, neurologic and systemic manifestations. The levels of available evidence for the various treatments range from Level 1b, c (n=5); Level 2a, b, c (n=14); Level 4 (n=53), and Levels 4-5 (n=27). For a target audience comprising clinical and biochemical geneticists, child neurologists and developmental pediatricians, five experts translated....this data into a 2-tiered diagnostic algorithm: The first tier comprises metabolic "screening" tests in urine and blood, which are relatively accessible, affordable, less invasive, and have the potential to identify 60% of all treatable IEMs. The second tier investigations for the remaining disorders are ordered based on individual clinical signs and symptoms. This algorithm is supported by an App www.treatable-id.org, which comprises up-to-date information on all 89 IEMs, relevant diagnostic tests, therapies and a search function based on signs and symptoms. These recommendations support the clinician in early identification of treatable IEMs in the child with IDD, allowing for timely initiation of therapy with the potential to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. The need for future studies to determine yield and usefulness of these recommendations, with subsequent updates and improvements to developments in

  9. Developmental Models for Time of Testing x Cohort x Grade (Age) Research Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Delane

    Missing data for a given cohort of students in a longitudinal study occurs for at least two reasons: either the student has moved or otherwise become unavailable for testing, or the cohort was not in the testing range at a given testing time. A developmental sampling for time of testing x cohort x grade research plan of testing is used to…

  10. Japanese and Canadian Children's Beliefs about Child and Adult Knowledge: A Case for Developmental Equifinality?

    PubMed

    Fitneva, Stanka A; Pile Ho, Elizabeth; Hatayama, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult. In addition, parental and child beliefs were related in Japan but not in Canada. These findings indicate that children growing up in different cultures may take different paths in developing beliefs about age-related knowledge. Implications for theories of socio-cognitive development and learning are discussed. PMID:27632387

  11. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  12. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  13. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    PubMed

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  14. ADAPTING THE MEDAKA EMBRYO ASSAY TO A HIGH-THROUGHPUT APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro ...

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: A QUALIFICATIVE RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF POSITIVE CONTROL DATA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline calls for both functional and neuropathological assessments in offspring during and following maternal exposure. This guideline also requires data from positive control (PC) agents. Submission of these data permit e...

  16. Current Practices and Future Trends in Neuropathology Assessment for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuing education course on "Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing" (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and non-invasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neu...

  17. A developmental approach to the risk of a first recurrence in child protective services.

    PubMed

    Hélie, Sonia; Laurier, Catherine; Pineau-Villeneuve, Catherine; Royer, Marie-Noële

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of a first recurrence over a five-year period following initial child protective services (CPS) intervention and identify the characteristics associated with the risk of recurrence for three different age groups. Recurrence is defined as the first substantiated report within the observation period after initial services have ended. The study involved a cohort of 25,897 Quebec children who received postinvestigation services for the first time and whose cases were closed between 2005 and 2009. Survival analysis was used to estimate the five-year risk of recurrence and Cox regression to model the risk of recurrence for three age groups. The covariates introduced into the regression analyses were characteristics of the child and initial services. The risk of recurrence in the five years following termination of initial CPS services was 36% for the entire cohort and varied depending on the child's age at the time of case closure. Children aged 6-11 when their cases were closed had the highest risk of recurrence. Although Aboriginal descent and prior CPS investigations have a consistent effect on the risk of recurrence in all three age groups, the effects of other covariates, such as out-of-home placement and court involvement, vary or are even reversed, depending on the child's age. These findings highlight the need to adopt a differential approach that takes into account the child's age, both in the provision of protective services and in research involving the population receiving such services.

  18. Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Naruyuki

    2011-11-01

    In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior. PMID:22869307

  19. Developmental Levels and Suggested Learning Activities for the Visually Impaired Preschool Child. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Lois, Comp.

    The paper presents developmental charts detailing the needs and patterns of very young visually impaired children. Five age levels are considered (0-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-.25 years, 2.5-4 years, and 4-5 years) within the context of auditory awareness, body image, development of meaningful language, tactual awareness and manipulative skills,…

  20. Paternal versus Maternal Coping Styles with Child Diagnosis of Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis…

  1. Learning Can Be Child's Play: A Developmental Presentation for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Rae

    The implementation of a developmental kindergarten program designed to address the needs of kindergarten children with learning and behavior problems was resisted by parents. As a result, a practicum was designed for teachers to (1) provide information needed to improve skills necessary for conferences with parents regarding developmental…

  2. The Course of Childhood Anxiety Symptoms: Developmental Trajectories and Child-Related Factors in Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R.

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a…

  3. Developmental Program for Training of the Preschool Child. (Includes Skills Achievement Profile.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Margaret G.

    Presented is a developmental curriculum for training potentially learning disabled preschool children. Part 1 includes introductory information such as a rationale for the program and suggestions for the parent-teacher. Provided are guidelines for eight curriculum areas: attention; sensory stimulation, reception, and response; adaptive behaviors…

  4. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  5. Identification and Differential Diagnosis of Developmental Speech Problems in a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzivinikou, Sotiria

    2005-01-01

    The present, multi-method (methodological triangulation), case study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to obtain a differential diagnosis between the speech problems derived from bilingualism, and the developmental speech problems of an Albanian eight-year-old boy who attended a public primary school in Greece. Although there existed…

  6. Teaching Independent Eating to a Developmentally Handicapped Child Showing Chronic Food Refusal and Disruption at Mealtimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Judy; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A successful intervention to establish independent eating behaviors in a developmentally handicapped, autistic-like three-year-old involved teaching appropriate behavior in a hospital setting (where he was being treated for dehydration and malnutrition) and then teaching his mother to implement the strategies at home. Skills were maintained at…

  7. Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... many causes of developmental disabilities, including Genetic or chromosome abnormalities. These cause conditions such as Down syndrome and Rett syndrome. Prenatal exposure to substances. Drinking alcohol when ... also help. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  8. Predicting Mental Health among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Relative Contribution of Child, Maternal and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F.; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Many mothers of children with developmental disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress, and compromised mental health. Research is crucial to better understand and assist mothers with compromised mental health, and ultimately better service families raising and supporting a child with a disability. Method: Data were collected…

  9. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  10. What Science Is Telling Us: How Neurobiology and Developmental Psychology Are Changing the Way Policymakers and Communities Think about the Developing Child. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dorian

    2006-01-01

    By bringing together neurologists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, and economists, the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child offers a unique knowledge base from which early childhood policy and practice can be informed. By communicating how and why early experiences have a lasting impact on brain architecture--and what…

  11. Development of a Screening Scale for High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo; Tachimori, Hisateru; Saito, Mari; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compile a screening scale for high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS). The 72 participants (IQ greater than or equal to 70) were divided into 3 groups after IQ matching depending on their diagnoses: i.e., PDD,…

  12. Socialization and the Child Rearing Practice. [Proceedings from the] Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (4th, Debrecen, Hungary, October 4-6, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar-Kadar, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following papers; (1)…

  13. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  14. Developmental Play Stages in Child Identity Construction: An Interactionist Theoretical Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Lars-Erik

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theory of child-development stages that reflects the relationship between children's play and the need to create a personal identity. Considers the relationship between socializing play and individuation, and defines four stages of identity development through play: amorphous, play, games, and generalization and maturity. (JPB)

  15. What Happened to My Child? Unknown Causes of Developmental Disability and Research in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    At one time or the other, virtually every parent has gone to the doctor concerned about his or her child. Thanks to the advances of modern medicine, the doctor can diagnose the problem most of the time and treat it successfully. Many potential problems, some life-threatening like diphtheria and neural tube defects, can even be prevented altogether…

  16. Observing Purchase-Related Parent-Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N = 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence…

  17. Trauma Adapted Family Connections: Reducing Developmental and Complex Trauma Symptomatology to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn S.; Strieder, Frederick H.; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela A.; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and…

  18. Parent-Child Socialization in Diverse Cultures. Annual Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Carter, D. Bruce, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the role of culture in the functioning of families and the socialization of children. Following an introduction by Irving Sigel, the 15 essays are: (1) "Parent-Child Interactions in Urban Indian Families in New Delhi: Are They Changing?" (Jaipaul Roopnarine and Ziarat Hossain); (2) "Chinese Families" (Harold…

  19. Yale Child Study Center School Development Program: Developmental History and Long Term Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.; And Others

    Research findings indicate that the Yale Child Study Center School Development Program (SDP) has led to consistent progress in academic achievement and school attendance from 1969 to 1984 in the New Haven (Connecticut) schools in which it has been used. This report evaluates SDP, which attempts to strengthen student academic and social skills in…

  20. A developmental approach to the risk of a first recurrence in child protective services.

    PubMed

    Hélie, Sonia; Laurier, Catherine; Pineau-Villeneuve, Catherine; Royer, Marie-Noële

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of a first recurrence over a five-year period following initial child protective services (CPS) intervention and identify the characteristics associated with the risk of recurrence for three different age groups. Recurrence is defined as the first substantiated report within the observation period after initial services have ended. The study involved a cohort of 25,897 Quebec children who received postinvestigation services for the first time and whose cases were closed between 2005 and 2009. Survival analysis was used to estimate the five-year risk of recurrence and Cox regression to model the risk of recurrence for three age groups. The covariates introduced into the regression analyses were characteristics of the child and initial services. The risk of recurrence in the five years following termination of initial CPS services was 36% for the entire cohort and varied depending on the child's age at the time of case closure. Children aged 6-11 when their cases were closed had the highest risk of recurrence. Although Aboriginal descent and prior CPS investigations have a consistent effect on the risk of recurrence in all three age groups, the effects of other covariates, such as out-of-home placement and court involvement, vary or are even reversed, depending on the child's age. These findings highlight the need to adopt a differential approach that takes into account the child's age, both in the provision of protective services and in research involving the population receiving such services. PMID:23768933

  1. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  2. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  3. Developmental correlates and predictors of emotional availability in mother-child interaction: a longitudinal study from infancy to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-02-01

    In this investigation we examined the developmental correlates and predictors of maternal emotional availability in interactions with their 7-year-old children among a sample of families at psychosocial risk. We found developmental coherence in maternal interactive behavior, and in the relations between maternal emotional availability and children's functioning in middle childhood. Mothers and children were observed at home and in a laboratory playroom in infancy to assess maternal interactive behavior and child attachment security. When children were 7 years of age, dyads were observed in the lab; maternal emotional availability was coded using the Emotional Availability Scales, and children's disorganized and controlling attachment behavior was assessed. Classroom teachers reported on children's behavior problems; at age 8, children reported on their depressive symptoms. Results showed that aspects of maternal emotional availability (sensitivity, nonhostility, nonintrusiveness [passive/withdrawn behavior]) were associated with children's functioning in middle childhood: (a) controlling and disorganized attachment behavior, (b) behavior problems in school, and (c) self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal emotional availability in childhood was predicted by early mother-infant relationship dysfunction (maternal hostility, disrupted communication, and infant attachment insecurity).

  4. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism and other developmental disabilities: associations with ethnicity, child comorbid symptoms, and parental stress.

    PubMed

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Burrows, Bethany; Bernstein, Leora; Hottinger, Kathryn; Lawson, Katharine; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2014-03-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine by children with autism and the association of its use with child comorbid symptoms and parental stress was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interviews. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. In this ethnically diverse sample, the use of complementary and alternative medicine was significantly higher for the autism group. In the autism group, use was significantly related to child's irritability, hyperactivity, food allergies, and parental stress; in the developmental disabilities group, there was no association with child comorbid symptoms or parental stress. The results contribute information to health care providers about families of children with autism who are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine.

  5. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  6. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  7. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  8. Does Successful Attainment of Developmental Tasks Lead to Happiness and Success in Later Developmental Tasks? A Test of Havighurst's (1948) Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Gelhaar, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This study tested Havighurst's (1948) contention that successful attainment of age-specific developmental tasks leads to happiness and success in achieving subsequent tasks. A longitudinal study on 146 participants was carried out to investigate the links between developmental progression in adolescence and young adulthood and happiness, which was…

  9. Genetic Moderation of Early Child Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and first grade—but not thereafter. Only children carrying the 7-repeat allele proved susceptible to quality-of-care effects. The behavior-problem interactions proved more consistent with diathesis-stress than differential-susceptibility thinking, whereas the reverse was true of the social-skills' results. Finally, the discerned gene-X-environment interactions did not account for previously reported parallel ones involving difficult temperament in infancy. PMID:23432522

  10. Child Maltreatment and Adult Cigarette Smoking: A Long-term Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine: (a) child maltreatment’s association with young adult daily cigarette smoking, (b) variations in this association by gender, and (c) mediators of this association. Methods For all study participants (N = 1,125, 94% African American), data from multiple sources (e.g., child welfare records) were collected prospectively at child, adolescent, and young adult time points. Authors enlisted multivariate probit regression for objectives a and b versus exploratory and confirmatory mediation strategies for objective c. Results Maltreatment was significantly associated with daily cigarette smoking. Although not moderated by gender, this relation was fully mediated by adolescent indicators of family support/stability, social adjustment, and cognitive/school performance along with young adult indicators of educational attainment, life satisfaction, substance abuse, and criminality. Conclusions Maltreatment places low-income, minority children at risk for daily cigarette smoking and other deleterious young adult health outcomes. Recommended treatment targets include family support/stability, emotion regulation, social skills, and cognitive/academic functioning. PMID:19995869

  11. Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

  12. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories.

  13. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories. PMID:25590946

  14. Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and Revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Barbara B.; Knopf, Karen F.

    1982-01-01

    Using children with learning disabilities and children enrolled in regular classrooms, test scores on the Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration indicated high and significant correlations for the learning-disabled group and low but significant correlations for regular students. A nine-month mean difference in scores…

  15. Psychosocial Adjustment and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder Using Different Motor Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the consistency between the findings of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as identified by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and explored the psychosocial and attention characteristics of children with DCD identified by the two motor tests,…

  16. The Effects of Developmental Placement and Early Retention on Children's Later Scores on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early school retention as a result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and children's later academic achievement (N=223). Results showed children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures. (JAC)

  17. Race Differences on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, the Slosson Intelligence Test, and the ABC Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Douglas L.; Anderson, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes preschoolers' scores on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI), the Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT), and the ABC Inventory (ABCI). Separate ANOVAs reveal no race effect on the VMI. Race differences favoring Whites are found for SIT and ABCI. There were no effects for sex on any measure. (Author)

  18. A Study of the Effects of Child Rearing Patterns on Test Anxiety in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mine, Hiroshi; And Others

    This study of Japanese families postulated that positive and negative parental attitudes may affect the degree of test anxiety experienced by children in the families. The study used translations of the Reactions to Tests (RTT) inventory and parental attitude tests to identify relationships between child rearing practices and the child's…

  19. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: Evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O’Bleness, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about mechanisms of their impact. We examined early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children’s affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in Family Study and maternal responsiveness in Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps that led children to believe they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationship moderated the future developmental trajectory: Children’s attenuated tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in Family Study indicated that the links between low tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by parental stronger discipline pressure. By influencing indirectly future developmental sequelae, early relationship may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes. PMID:24280347

  20. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  1. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27668289

  2. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  4. Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    LYNNE-LANDSMAN, SARAH D.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes. PMID:20883591

  5. Wake-up test in total hip arthroplasty with high-riding developmental dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Sung, Chun-Sung; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) for patients with Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip is technically challenging. This group of patients has a higher incidence of nerve injury during THA. Although neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring has been developed to provide nerve monitoring, it is not always available. The wake-up test has been used for intraoperative spinal cord monitoring during major spinal surgery, but no study has reported the use of the wake-up test for neurologic monitoring during THA in patients with severe developmental dysplasia of the hip. The authors retrospectively reviewed 22 THA procedures in 20 patients with Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent the wakeup test during THA. In the current study, 1 patient could not dorsiflex her foot during the wake-up test. Therefore, the authors immediately reduced the length of limb lengthening by 1 cm. Postoperative drop foot and numbness occurred but resolved completely 2 months later. None of the patients who showed no deficits in motion of the feet during the intraoperative wake-up test had signs of postoperative nerve injury. In the current study, there was no false-positive or false-negative finding. The authors concluded that the wake-up test, which is simple, safe, and reliable, is a useful technique and a possible alternative to neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring in checking nerve function during THA in patients with severe developmental dysplasia of the hip. PMID:24992057

  6. The behavioral neurogenetics of fragile X syndrome: analyzing gene-brain-behavior relationships in child developmental psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Allan L; Dant, Christopher C

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing gene-brain-behavior linkages in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, a research approach called "behavioral neurogenetics," has provided new insights into understanding how both genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex variations in typical and atypical human development. Research into etiologically more homogeneous disorders, such as fragile X syndrome, in particular, allows the use of more precise metrics of genetic risk so that we can more fully understand the complex pathophysiology of childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we review our laboratory's behavioral neurogenetics research by examining gene-brain-behavior relationships in fragile X syndrome, a single-gene disorder that has become a well-characterized model for studying neurodevelopmental dysfunction in childhood. Specifically, we examine genetic influences, trajectories of cognition and behavior, variation in brain structure and function, and biological and environmental factors that influence developmental and cognitive outcomes of children with fragile X. The converging approaches across these multilevel scientific domains indicate that fragile X, which arises from disruption of a single gene leading to the loss of a specific protein, is associated with a cascade of aberrations in neurodevelopment, resulting in a central nervous system that is suboptimal with respect to structure and function. In turn, structural and functional brain alterations lead to early disruption in emotion, cognition, and behavior in the child with fragile X. The combination of molecular genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioral research have advanced our understanding of the linkages between genetic variables, neurobiological measures, IQ, and behavior. Our research and that of others demonstrates that neurobehavior and neurocognition, genetics, and neuroanatomy are all different views of the same intriguing biological puzzle, a puzzle that today is rapidly emerging into a

  7. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition (DTVP-3): A Review, Critique, and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    The "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Third Edition" (DTVP-3) is a recent revision of the "Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Second Edition" (DTVP-2). The DTVP-3 is designed to assess the visual perceptual and/or visual-motor integration skills of children from 4 to 12 years of age. The test is standardized using…

  8. Genetic testing in patients with global developmental delay / intellectual disabilities. A review

    PubMed Central

    MICLEA, DIANA; PECA, LOREDANA; CUZMICI, ZINA; POP, IOAN VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors are responsible for up to 40% developmental disability cases, such as global developmental delay/intellectual disability (GDD/DI). The American and more recently the European guidelines on this group of diseases state that genetic testing is essential and should become a standardized diagnostic practice. The main arguments for the necessity of implementing such a practice are: (1) the high prevalence of developmental disabilities (3% of the population); (2) the high genetic contribution to this type of pathology; (3) insufficient referral for genetic consultation. In an attempt to address these issues, the purpose of this paper is to present the genetic etiology of global developmental delay / intellectual disability with emphasis on the need to implement a genetic testing protocol for the patients with GDD/DI, as indicated by the current guidelines. Chromosomal abnormalities and fragile X syndrome are the most frequent causes of developmental disabilities and the techniques employed to detect such genetic disorders should be used as first line investigations of GDD/DI. PMID:26609258

  9. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A close-up of an experimental drag chute deploying in a cloud of dust behind NASA's B-52 research aircraft just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover

  10. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A rear view of NASA's B-52 research aircraft deploying an experimental drag chute just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid

  11. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An experimental drag chute deploys amidst a cloud of dust behind NASA's B-52 research aircraft just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space

  12. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's B-52 research aircraft deploys an experimental drag chute just after landing the runway at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  13. B-52 Testing Developmental Space Shuttle Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An aerial view of NASA's B-52 research aircraft deploying an experimental drag chute just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. The B-52's tests led to the development of a drag chute to help the Space Shuttle land more safely and easily. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid

  14. STATISTICAL APPROACH TO BRAIN MORPHOMETRY DATA REQUIRED IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY (DNT) TESTING GUIDELINES: PROFILE ANALYSIS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain morphometry measurements are required in test guidelines proposed by the USEPA to screen chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. Because the DNT is a screening battery, the analysis of this data should be sensitive to dose-related changes in the pattern of brain growt...

  15. Optimization of high-throughput nanomaterial developmental toxicity testing in zebrafish embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterial (NM) developmental toxicities are largely unknown. With an extensive variety of NMs available, high-throughput screening methods may be of value for initial characterization of potential hazard. We optimized a zebrafish embryo test as an in vivo high-throughput assay...

  16. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received…

  17. Rasch Analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) ages 4-12 years using the dichotomous Rasch model. The VMI was administered individually to 454 children with ID. Rasch analysis was applied to investigate…

  18. Handbook of Remedial or Developmental Activities to Accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Drucilla, Comp.

    This handbook, intended to accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, describes numerous remedial and developmental activities for perceptual motor and psychomotor skills. Observable classroom behaviors associated with various perceptual motor and psychomotor disabilities (visual-motor channel disability, auditory-vocal channel…

  19. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  20. International Space Station Alpha's bearing, motor, and roll ring module developmental testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, David L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the design and developmental testing associated with the bearing, motor, and roll ring module (BMRRM) used for the beta rotation axis on International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The BMRRM with its controllers located in the electronic control unit (ECU), provides for the solar array pointing and tracking functions as well as power and signal transfer across a rotating interface.

  1. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The 3rd International Conference on Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT3), organized by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, was held from May 10 -13, 20...

  2. The Use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration as a Group Screening Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1977-01-01

    This article investigates teacher use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as a screening instrument with groups of young school-age children. Findings argue for some refinement in the scoring system in order to improve consistency in scoring. (Author)

  3. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children.…

  4. Does ABLA Test Performance on the ABLA Test Predict Picture Receptive Name Recognition with Persons with Severe Developmental Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeke, Aynsley K.; Martin, Garry L.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Toby L.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that performance on the "Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities" (ABLA) test correlates with language assessments for persons with developmental disabilities. This study investigated whether performance on ABLA Level 6, an auditory-visual discrimination, predicts performance on a receptive language task with persons with severe…

  5. Testing multicultural robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a national epidemiological sample in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-08-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a national epidemiological survey in Uruguay. Participants were 1,374 6- to 11-year-olds recruited through 65 schools nationwide; 1,098 (80%) had received no mental health or special education services in the past year (non-referred group), whereas 276 (referred group) had been referred for mental health services, had repeated ≥ 2 grades, or had significant developmental disabilities. Mean item ratings, factor structure, and scale internal consistencies were very similar to findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) and Ivanova et al. (Journal of Clinical Child and Adoloescent Psychology 36: 405-417 2007). Children from low SES school environments obtained higher problem scores, especially in the referred group. Gender, age, and referral status effects paralleled those in the U.S. Non-referred children obtained somewhat higher mean problem scores in Uruguay than in the U.S., but mean score differences between non-referred and referred children were smaller in Uruguay than the U.S. Findings supporting the CBCL's multicultural robustness in a South American country extend the generalizability of findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) for 31 societies.

  6. Adolescent mothers and their children: changes in maternal characteristics and child developmental and behavioral outcome at school age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W

    1996-06-01

    This study examines stability and change in characteristics of adolescent mothers from their child's infancy to school age, describes cognitive and behavioral characteristics of their children at school age, and reports on the relationship between maternal characteristics and child behavior and development at school age. Cognitive status and childrearing attitudes were assessed in 43 adolescent mothers (mean age 16.3 years) when their children were infants (Time 1) and again when children were school age (Time 2). At school age, mothers also completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist, and children were administered the Slosson Intelligence Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test. Significant correlations were obtained between maternal measures at Time 1 and Time 2, and no significant differences were observed between mean scores at Time 1 and Time 2 on any measures. Children demonstrated average intelligence, but mean achievement was almost 1 SD below average. Significantly more children had high scores than expected on scales for hyperactivity and academic disability. Except for maternal vocabulary, maternal measures obtained at Time 1 were not directly related to children's IQ or behavior problems. Maternal vocabulary and authoritarian and hostile childrearing attitudes assessed at Time 1 contributed independently to prediction of achievement test scores in a positive direction. Mothers' vocabulary at Time 2 and high or increased hostile childrearing attitudes contributed positively to prediction of child IQ. Mothers who still had high scores in authoritarian childrearing attitudes or whose scores increased had children with lower IQs. Changes in attitudes or contemporary measures of attitudes were also related to behavior problems at school age.

  7. (Positive) power to the child: The role of children's willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2015-11-01

    In a change from the once-dominant view of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, children are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. However, these newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts, parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months and longitudinally stable; (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months; and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology as well as for prevention and intervention.

  8. (Positive) Power to the Child: The Role of Children's Willing Stance toward Parents in Developmental Cascades from Toddler Age to Early Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to once dominant views of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, they are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. But those newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months, and longitudinally stable, (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months, and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology, and for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  9. (Positive) power to the child: The role of children's willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J

    2015-11-01

    In a change from the once-dominant view of children as passive in the parent-led process of socialization, children are now seen as active agents who can considerably influence that process. However, these newer perspectives typically focus on the child's antagonistic influence, due either to a difficult temperament or aversive, resistant, negative behaviors that elicit adversarial responses from the parent and lead to future coercive cascades in the relationship. Children's capacity to act as receptive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents is largely overlooked. Informed by attachment theory and other relational perspectives, we depict children as able to adopt an active willing stance and to exert robust positive influence in the mutually cooperative socialization enterprise. A longitudinal study of 100 community families (mothers, fathers, and children) demonstrates that willing stance (a) is a latent construct, observable in diverse parent-child contexts, parallel at 38, 52, and 67 months and longitudinally stable; (b) originates within an early secure parent-child relationship at 25 months; and (c) promotes a positive future cascade toward adaptive outcomes at age 10. The outcomes include the parent's observed and child-reported positive, responsive behavior, as well as child-reported internal obligation to obey the parent and parent-reported low level of child behavior problems. The construct of willing stance has implications for basic research in typical socialization and in developmental psychopathology as well as for prevention and intervention. PMID:26439058

  10. THE JOHNS HOPKINS PERCEPTUAL TEST, THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID INTELLIGENCE TEST FOR THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSENBERG, LEON A.; AND OTHERS

    IN ORDER TO DEVELOP AN INTELLIGENCE TEST FOR PRESCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN THAT WOULD OVERCOME SOME OF THE LIMITATIONS OF AVAILABLE TESTS, A PERCEPTUAL DISCRIMINATION TEST USING POLYGONAL FORMS HAS BEEN DESIGNED AND TESTED. THE CHILD POINTS TO ONE OF TWO, THREE, OR FIVE FORMS MATCHING A STIMULUS FORM. INITIAL TESTING WITH 44 CHILDREN RANGING IN AGE FROM…

  11. Single-neuron axonal pathfinding under geometric guidance: low-dose-methylmercury developmental neurotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lina; Sweeney, Andrew J; Sheng, Liyuan; Fang, Yu; Kindy, Mark S; Xi, Tingfei; Gao, Bruce Z

    2014-09-21

    Because the nervous system is most vulnerable to toxicants during development, there is a crucial need for a highly sensitive developmental-neurotoxicity-test model to detect potential toxicants at low doses. We developed a lab-on-chip wherein single-neuron axonal pathfinding under geometric guidance was created using soft lithography and laser cell-micropatterning techniques. After coating the surface with L1, an axon-specific member of the Ig family of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and optimizing microunit geometric parameters, we introduced low-dose methylmercury, a well-known, environmentally significant neurotoxicant, in the shared medium. Its developmental neurotoxicity was evaluated using a novel axonal pathfinding assay including axonal turning and branching rates at turning points in this model. Compared to the conventional neurite-outgrowth assay, this model's detection threshold for low-dose methylmercury was 10-fold more sensitive at comparable exposure durations. These preliminary results support study of developmental effects of known and potential neurotoxicants on axon pathfinding. This novel assay model would be useful to study neuronal disease mechanisms at the single-cell level. To our knowledge, the potential of methylmercury chloride to cause acute in vitro developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) at such a low dosage has not been reported. This is the first DNT test model with high reproducibility to use single-neuron axonal pathfinding under precise geometric guidance. PMID:25041816

  12. Bilingualism and Performance on Two Widely Used Developmental Neuropsychological Test Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use. PMID:25922937

  13. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  14. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  15. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  16. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  17. Testing the 8-Syndrome Structure of the Child Behavior Checklist in 30 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses,…

  18. Testing for Thresholds in Associations between Child Care Quality and Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Most of the literature has examined linear associations, yielding findings that higher quality is better and lower quality is worse (Vandell, 2004), but identification of thresholds in the association between quality and child outcomes has been a goal of researchers and policy makers for several reasons. A primary goal has been to identify levels…

  19. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, R S; Gross-Tsur, V

    2001-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the acquisition of arithmetic skills in an otherwise-normal child. Although poor teaching, environmental deprivation, and low intelligence have been implicated in the etiology of developmental dyscalculia, current data indicate that this learning disability is a brain-based disorder with a familial-genetic predisposition. The neurologic substrate of developmental dyscalculia is thought to involve both hemispheres, particularly the left parietotemporal areas. Developmental dyscalculia is a common cognitive handicap; its prevalence in the school population is about 5-6%, a frequency similar to those of developmental dyslexia and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Unlike these, however, it is as common in females as in males. Developmental dyscalculia frequently is encountered in neurologic disorders, examples of which include attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. The long-term prognosis of developmental dyscalculia is unknown; it appears, however, to persist, at least for the short-term, in about half of affected preteen children. The consequences of developmental dyscalculia and its impact on education, employment, and psychologic well-being of affected individuals are unknown. PMID:11516606

  20. Medical Assessment of the Child with a Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Carol Coleman; McDonald, Patricia L.

    1980-01-01

    A medical assessment based on detailed historical data, a complete physical examination, developmental and neurological assessments, laboratory tests, and discussion with parents is the foundation for planning an effective educational program for the handicapped child. (CJ)

  1. Comparison of the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation versus developmental screening by parent report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation with developmental screening by parent report, parents completed a developmental screen (the Child Development Review), a pediatrician performed a direct developmental evaluation (Capute Scales), and a psychologist administered the...

  2. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  3. Children Becoming More Intelligent: Can the Flynn Effect Be Generalized to Other Child Intelligence Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Tunteler, Erika

    2007-01-01

    In this article, time effects on intelligence test scores have been investigated. In particular, we examined whether the "Flynn effect" is manifest in children from the middle and higher IQ distribution range, measured with a child intelligence test based on information processing principles--the Leiden Diagnostic Test. The test was administered…

  4. Embryonic stem cell test: stem cell use in predicting developmental cardiotoxicity and osteotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kuske, Béatrice; Pulyanina, Polina Y; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent birth defects, toxicology programs have been designed to identify toxicities that may potentially be encountered in human embryos. With appropriate toxicity data sets, acceptable exposure levels and actual safety of prescription and nonprescription drugs as well as environmental chemicals could be established for individuals that are more vulnerable to chemical exposure, such as pregnant women and their unborn children. The gathering of such embryotoxicity data is currently performed in animal models. To reduce the spending of live animals, an assortment of in vitro assays has been proposed.In this chapter, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) is reviewed as an alternative model for testing embryotoxicity. In contrast to most in vitro toxicity assays, the EST uses two permanent cell lines: murine 3T3 fibroblasts and murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). To establish developmental toxicity, the difference in sensitivity towards the cytotoxic potential of a given test compound between the adult and the embryonic cells is compared with an MTT assay. In addition, the EST contrasts the inhibition of development that a test compound may cause utilizing the in vitro differentiation potential of the ESCs.We describe here protocols to culture both cell lines as well as the differentiation of the ESCs into cardiomyocytes. Classically, the EST assesses developmental toxicity through counting of contracting cardiomyocyte agglomerates, which will be described as one endpoint. Although this classic EST has been validated in an EU-wide study, tremendous problems exist with the choice of endpoints, the EST's predictivity, and the associated costs. We therefore also give details on the more recently introduced molecular analysis of cardiomyocyte-specific mRNAs, which already has been used to successfully predict developmental toxicity. Moreover, this chapter will explain a method to evaluate developmental bone toxicity and hencewith an experimental setup to

  5. Discriminating classes of developmental toxicants using gene expression profiling in the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    van Dartel, Dorien A M; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Robinson, Joshua F; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-03-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been shown to be a promising in vitro method for the prediction of developmental toxicity. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the implementation of gene expression analysis in the EST may further improve the identification of developmental toxicants. In the present study, we investigated if gene expression profiling could be used to discriminate compound classes with distinct modes of action (MoA) using the EST protocol. Gene expression data of our previous study were used and were analyzed of embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation cultures exposed to six compounds belonging to two classes with distinct MoA, namely phthalates and triazoles. We used three approaches to study class-characteristic gene regulation that may be useful for discrimination of compound classes. First, at the individual gene level, gene signatures characteristic for each class were identified that successfully discriminated both classes using principal component analysis. Second, at the functional level, enriched gene ontology (GO) biological processes showed their usefulness for class discrimination via hierarchical clustering. Third, two previously identified gene sets, which we designed to predict developmental toxicity, appeared successful in separating phthalate from triazole compounds. In summary, we established the possibility to discriminate between compound classes in the EST system using three different specific transcriptomics-based approaches. Differential gene expression information specific for the class of compound under study may be employed to optimize prioritization of compounds within that class for further testing.

  6. Validity and Reliability of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2016-07-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3) is a recently published revision of a visual perceptual test from the United States, frequently used by occupational therapists. It is important that tests have adequate documented reliability and validity and are evaluated in cross-cultural contexts. The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the DTVP-3 when completed by a group of Australian participants. Thirty-nine typically developing children 6-8 years of age completed the DTVP-3 and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - 6th edition (VMI-6). The internal consistency of the DVTP-3 was assessed using Cronbach alpha coefficients and the DTVP-3's convergent validity was examined by correlating it with the VMI-6 and its two supplementary tests. The five DTVP-3 subscales' Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.60 to.80 while its three composite indexes had coefficients all at the.80 level. The VMI-6 was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground and Visual Closure subscales and the Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index (MRVPI). The VMI-6 Visual Perception Supplementary Test was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground, Visual Closure, Form Constancy, MRVPI, and General Visual Perception Index. The DTVP-3 exhibited acceptable levels of internal consistency and moderate levels of convergent validity with the VMI-6 when completed by a group of Australian children.

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2016-07-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3) is a recently published revision of a visual perceptual test from the United States, frequently used by occupational therapists. It is important that tests have adequate documented reliability and validity and are evaluated in cross-cultural contexts. The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the DTVP-3 when completed by a group of Australian participants. Thirty-nine typically developing children 6-8 years of age completed the DTVP-3 and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - 6th edition (VMI-6). The internal consistency of the DVTP-3 was assessed using Cronbach alpha coefficients and the DTVP-3's convergent validity was examined by correlating it with the VMI-6 and its two supplementary tests. The five DTVP-3 subscales' Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.60 to.80 while its three composite indexes had coefficients all at the.80 level. The VMI-6 was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground and Visual Closure subscales and the Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index (MRVPI). The VMI-6 Visual Perception Supplementary Test was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground, Visual Closure, Form Constancy, MRVPI, and General Visual Perception Index. The DTVP-3 exhibited acceptable levels of internal consistency and moderate levels of convergent validity with the VMI-6 when completed by a group of Australian children. PMID:26913939

  8. Interparental conflict, children's social cognitions, and child aggression: a test of a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Marcus, N E; Lindahl, K M; Malik, N M

    2001-06-01

    Although correlations between interparental conflict and child maladjustment are well-established, the processes connecting these 2 phenomena are less understood. The present study tested whether an aggressogenic cognitive style mediates the relationship between interparental conflict and child aggression. A multiethnic sample of 115 families with a child between the ages of 7 and 13 years participated. Questionnaires were used to assess parents' and children's perceptions of interparental conflict, children's social problem-solving strategies and beliefs about aggression, and parent and teacher reports of child aggression. Support was found for the mediating effect of aggressogenic cognitions on children's school aggression but not on children's aggression at home. Implications for understanding the associations among interparental conflict, children's social cognitions, and child aggression in different environmental contexts are discussed.

  9. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  10. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Putnick, Diane L; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperín, Celia Zingman

    2010-04-15

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed. PMID:20824179

  11. The World of the Developmentally Disabled Child: A Parents' Handbook with Directory of Services for Families in Lake County, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suelzle, Marijean; Keenan, Vincent

    Intended for parents of developmentally disabled children, the handbook provides information on service needs and services available in Lake County, Illinois. Section I focuses on life course planning with sections of diagnosis and assessment, professionals involved with special education, education for the developmentally disabled, vocational…

  12. Xenopus tropicalis as a test system for developmental and reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Berg, Cecilia; Gyllenhammar, Irina; Kvarnryd, Moa

    2009-01-01

    The usefulness of Xenopus tropicalis as a model species to investigate endocrine disruption and developmental reproductive toxicity was assessed. In our test system tadpoles were exposed to test substances from shortly after hatching until metamorphosis, including the period of gonadal differentiation. Effects on the sex hormone and thyroid hormone axes were evidenced as skewed sex ratios, malformations of reproductive organs, altered cytochrome (CYP19) (aromatase) activity, and gene expression in gonads and brain, as well as changed thyroid histology and time to metamorphosis. Reproductive toxicity was evaluated at sexual maturity. Male-to-female sex reversal was implied at concentrations as low as 6 pM (1.8 ng/L) ethynylestradiol (EE2), which is comparable to EE2 levels observed in the environment. EE2-exposed males that were not sex reversed had significantly reduced fertility and a reduced amount of spermatozoa in testes compared with control males. This indicates that reproduction in wild frogs might be impaired by estrogenic environmental pollutants. Aromatase activity in brain and testes of adult frogs was not affected by larval EE2 exposure. Preliminary results indicate that exposure to the environmentally relevant pharmaceutical clotrimazole modulated aromatase activity in brain and gonads during sex differentiation, which warrants further investigation. The susceptibility to estrogen-induced sex reversal of X. tropicalis was comparable to that of other frog species and fish. Similarities between the reproductive effects in X. tropicalis and those reported in fish, birds, and mammals after developmental exposure to estrogens make X. tropicalis promising model for research on endocrine disruption and developmental reproductive toxicity. PMID:19184736

  13. Ethnicity, educational level and attitudes contribute to parental intentions about genetic testing for child obesity.

    PubMed

    Kocken, Paul L; Theunissen, Meinou H C; Schönbeck, Yvonne; Henneman, Lidewij; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Detmar, Symone B

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess parental beliefs and intentions about genetic testing for their children in a multi-ethnic population with the aim of acquiring information to guide interventions for obesity prevention and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) selected from Youth Health Care registries. The age range of the children was 5-11 years. Parents with lower levels of education and parents of non-native children were more convinced that overweight has a genetic cause and their intentions to test the genetic predisposition of their child to overweight were firmer. A firmer intention to test the child was associated with the parents' perceptions of their child's susceptibility to being overweight, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and anticipated regret at not having the child tested while at risk for overweight. Interaction effects were found in ethnic and socio-economic groups. Ethnicity and educational level play a role in parental beliefs about child overweight and genetic testing. Education programmes about obesity risk, genetic testing and the importance of behaviour change should be tailored to the cultural and behavioural factors relevant to ethnic and socio-economic target groups.

  14. The relation of preschool child-care quality to children's cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade.

    PubMed

    Peisner-Feinberg, E S; Burchinal, M R; Clifford, R M; Culkin, M L; Howes, C; Kagan, S L; Yazejian, N

    2001-01-01

    The cognitive and socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive and socioemotional development at least through kindergarten, and in some cases, through second grade. Differential effects on children's development were found for two aspects of child-care quality. Observed classroom practices were related to children's language and academic skills, whereas the closeness of the teacher-child relationship was related to both cognitive and social skills, with the strongest effects for the latter. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. These findings contribute further evidence of the long-term influences of the quality of child-care environments on children's cognitive and social skills through the elementary school years and are consistent with a bioecological model of development that considers the multiple environmental contexts that the child experiences. PMID:11699686

  15. Third Grade Effects of the Mother-Child Home Program. Developmental Continuity Consortium Follow-Up Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    This followup study of the effects of the Mother-Child Home Program developed by the Verbal Interaction Project (VIP) measures the school performance of nine groups of 162 third grade children from low income families. The program of 92 home sessions spaced over two school years focused on the mother and child as a socially interactive dyad, and…

  16. Adapting the medaka embryo assay to a high-throughput approach for developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Oxendine, Sharon L; Cowden, John; Hinton, David E; Padilla, Stephanie

    2006-09-01

    Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro methods are useful for screening, these methods do not replicate all the intricacies of embryonic development and should ideally be complemented by an in vivo screening strategy. In this study, we modify a medaka fish embryo assay to meet the requirements of high-throughput, developmental toxicant testing in vivo. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) offers several advantages over traditional mammalian model systems, including economic husbandry, high fecundity, and rapid ex utero development. In most studies where fish eggs are exposed to a chemical, the exposure takes place in a common vessel, with many embryos being exposed to the same solution. This type of design is not amenable to high-throughput methodology, does not allow the investigator to follow the same embryo throughout gestation, and may confound statistical analysis of the results. Therefore, we developed a 96-well microtiter plate method to facilitate exposure of individual medaka embryos in single wells and compared this approach to the common vessel method using the industrial solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the test compound. At lower DMSO concentrations (0% or 1%), the 96-well microtiter plate assay replicated results obtained using the common vessel exposure method. There was, however, increased lethality and decreased hatching rate in the bottle-reared embryos treated with the higher DMSO concentrations (5% or 10%). Because the embryos reared in the 96-well microtiter plates never showed increased adverse effects (as compared to the bottle-reared embryos) at any DMSO concentration, we conclude that the 96-well microtiter plate assay provides a rapid and efficient alternative for developmental toxicity screens that

  17. Testing causal models of the relationship between childhood gender atypical behaviour and parent-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Salo, Benny; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    An association between childhood gender atypical behaviour (GAB) and a negative parent-child relationship has been demonstrated in several studies, yet the causal relationship of this association is not fully understood. In the present study, different models of causation between childhood GAB and parent-child relationships were tested. Direction of causation modelling was applied to twin data from a population-based sample (n= 2,565) of Finnish 33- to 43-year-old twins. Participants completed retrospective self-report questionnaires. Five different models of causation were then fitted to the data: GAB → parent-child relationship, parent-child relationship → GAB, reciprocal causation, a bivariate genetic model, and a model assuming no correlation. It was found that a model in which GAB and quality of mother-child, and father-child relationship reciprocally affect each other best fitted the data. The findings are discussed in light of how we should understand, including causality, the association between GAB and parent-child relationship.

  18. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  19. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  20. Translating neurobehavioural endpoints of developmental neurotoxicity tests into in vitro assays and readouts.

    PubMed

    van Thriel, Christoph; Westerink, Remco H S; Beste, Christian; Bale, Ambuja S; Lein, Pamela J; Leist, Marcel

    2012-08-01

    The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to chemical insults. Exposure to chemicals can result in neurobehavioural alterations, and these have been used as sensitive readouts to assess neurotoxicity in animals and man. Deconstructing neurobehaviour into relevant cellular and molecular components may allow for detection of specific neurotoxic effects in cell-based systems, which in turn may allow an easier examination of neurotoxic pathways and modes of actions and eventually inform the regulatory assessment of chemicals with potential developmental neurotoxicity. Here, current developments towards these goals are reviewed. Imaging genetics (CB) provides new insights into the neurobiological correlates of cognitive function that are being used to delineate neurotoxic mechanisms. The gaps between in vivo neurobehaviour and real-time in vitro measurements of neuronal function are being bridged by ex vivo measurements of synaptic plasticity (RW). An example of solvent neurotoxicity demonstrates how an in vivo neurological defect can be linked via the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor as a common target to in vitro readouts (AB). Axonal and dendritic morphology in vitro proved to be good correlates of neuronal connectivity and neurobehaviour in animals exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and organophosphorus pesticides (PJL). Similarly, chemically induced changes in neuronal morphology affected the formation of neuronal networks on structured surfaces. Such network formation may become an important readout for developmental neurotoxicity in vitro (CvT), especially when combined with human neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ML). We envision that future in vitro test systems for developmental neurotoxicity will combine the above approaches with exposure information, and we suggest a strategy for test system development and cell-based risk assessment. PMID:22008243

  1. Translating neurobehavioural endpoints of developmental neurotoxicity tests into in vitro assays and readouts

    PubMed Central

    van Thriel, Christoph; Westerink, Remco; Beste, Christian; Bale, Ambuja S.; Lein, Pamela J.; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to chemical insults. Exposure to chemicals can results in neurobehavioural alterations, and these have been be used as sensitive readouts to assess neurotoxicity in animals and man. Deconstructing neurobehaviour into relevant cellular and molecular components may allow for detection of specific neurotoxic effects in cell-based systems, which in turn may allow an easier examination of neurotoxic pathways and modes of actions and eventually inform the regulatory assessment of chemicals with potential developmental neurotoxicity. Here, current developments towards these goals are reviewed. Imaging genetics (CB) provides new insights into the neurobiological correlates of cognitive function that are being used to delineate neurotoxic mechanisms. The gaps between in vivo neurobehaviour and real-time in vitro measurements of neuronal function are being bridged by ex vivo measurements of synaptic plasticity (RW). An example of solvent neurotoxicity demonstrates how an in vivo neurological defect can be linked via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor as a common target to in vitro readouts (AB). Axonal and dendritic morphology in vitro proved to be good correlates of neuronal connectivity and neurobehaviour in animals exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and organophosphorus pesticides (PJL). Similarly, chemically-induced changes in neuronal morphology affected the formation of neuronal networks on structured surfaces. Such network formation may become an important readout for developmental neurotoxicity in vitro (CvT), especially when combined with human neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ML). We envision that future in vitro test systems for developmental neurotoxicity will combine the above approaches with exposure information, and we suggest a strategy for test system development and cell-based risk assessment. PMID:22008243

  2. Parental Expressivity, Child Physiological and Behavioral Regulation, and Child Adjustment: Testing a Three-Path Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…

  3. Testing the Suitability of Mediation of Child Support Orders in Title IV-D Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Scot; Li, Quan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test mediation versus a traditional court process for the establishment or modification of child support orders. The intention is to determine which dispute resolution process is associated with greater client satisfaction and compliance. An auxiliary objective is to test the type of cases which are most…

  4. Reliability and Responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition Test in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Jui-Hsing; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2) Test for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: One hundred and forty-four Taiwanese children with DCD aged 6 to 12 years (87 males, 57 females) were tested on…

  5. Japanese and Canadian Children’s Beliefs about Child and Adult Knowledge: A Case for Developmental Equifinality?

    PubMed Central

    Fitneva, Stanka A.; Pile Ho, Elizabeth; Hatayama, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult. In addition, parental and child beliefs were related in Japan but not in Canada. These findings indicate that children growing up in different cultures may take different paths in developing beliefs about age-related knowledge. Implications for theories of socio-cognitive development and learning are discussed. PMID:27632387

  6. Too young to correct: a developmental test of the three-stage model of social inference.

    PubMed

    Hagá, Sara; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Olson, Kristina R

    2014-12-01

    The 3-stage model of social inference posits that people categorize behaviors and characterize actors or situations effortlessly, but they correct these characterizations with additional information effortfully. The current article tests this model using developmental data, assuming that the less cognitively demanding processes in the model (i.e., categorization, characterization) should appear earlier in development, whereas the more demanding correction process should not appear until later in development. Using 2 different paradigms, Studies 1 and 3 found that younger children failed to take situational information into account while characterizing the actor. Study 2 found that younger children failed to take dispositional information into account while characterizing the situation. In contrast, in these 3 studies, older children used the available information to correct their characterizations of the actors and of the situations. Consistent with the 3-stage model, during elementary school years, children start to integrate additional information when drawing explicit social inferences. In Study 4, children of all age levels used a prior expectancy to draw a dispositional inference, ignoring situational information, suggesting that characterizations based on prior expectancies about an actor are a highly efficient process, not contemplated by the model. The 4 studies together illustrate how developmental data can be valuably used to test adult socio-cognitive models, to extend their validity, or to simply further inform those models.

  7. Reproductive and developmental toxicity testing: Examination of the extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study guideline.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Dorato, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    An important aspect of safety assessment of chemicals (industrial and agricultural chemicals and pharmaceuticals) is determining their potential reproductive and developmental toxicity. A number of guidelines have outlined a series of separate reproductive and developmental toxicity studies from fertilization through adulthood and in some cases to second generation. The Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study (EOGRTS) is the most recent and comprehensive guideline in this series. EOGRTS design makes toxicity testing progressive, comprehensive, and efficient by assessing key endpoints across multiple life-stages at relevant doses using a minimum number of animals, combining studies/evaluations and proposing tiered-testing approaches based on outcomes. EOGRTS determines toxicity during preconception, development of embryo/fetus and newborn, adolescence, and adults, with specific emphasis on the nervous, immunological, and endocrine systems, EOGRTS also assesses maternal and paternal toxicity. However, EOGRTS guideline is complex, criteria for selecting doses is unclear, and monitoring systemic dose during the course of the study for better interpretation and human relevance is not clear. This paper discusses potential simplification of EOGRTS, suggests procedures for relevant dose selection and monitors systemic dose at multiple life-stages for better interpretation of data and human relevance.

  8. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes.

    PubMed

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Leist, Marcel; Allen, Sandra; Arand, Michael; Buetler, Timo; Delrue, Nathalie; FitzGerald, Rex E; Hartung, Thomas; Heinonen, Tuula; Hogberg, Helena; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Oggier, Daniela; Paparella, Martin; Axelstad, Marta; Piersma, Aldert; Rached, Eva; Schilter, Benoît; Schmuck, Gabriele; Stoppini, Luc; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Tiramani, Manuela; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Wilks, Martin F; Ylikomi, Timo; Fritsche, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a matching of regulatory needs on the one hand and the opportunities provided by new test systems and methods on the other hand. Alignment of academically and industrially driven assay development with regulatory needs in the field of DNT is a core mission of the International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) in DNT testing. The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment. Next steps to be considered in follow-up activities are the use of case studies to further apply the AOP concept in regulatory DNT testing, making use of AOP intersections (common key events) for economic development of screening assays, and addressing the transition from qualitative descriptions to quantitative network modelling.

  9. Prospects for the development of validated screening tests that measure developmental toxicity potential: view of one skeptic.

    PubMed

    Mirkes, P E

    1996-06-01

    Humans are exposed to a variety of potential developmental toxicants. This fact, combined with the knowledge that human development can be disrupted by "environmental" agents, has led to the development of methods designed to identify potential developmental toxicants. Currently, the principal method used to screen drugs and chemicals that are potential human developmental toxicants is the segment II study (i.e., a study in which prospective drugs and chemicals are tested in pregnant animals). Because of the cost and time involved in such studies and the pressure to reduce the number of animals used in such testing, alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing have been sought. This has resulted in a number of in vitro tests whose aim is to screen large numbers of agents quickly and inexpensively. Although numerous in vitro tests of developmental toxicity have been developed during the last 15 years, no one system or combination of tests have been validated for the purpose intended. Nonetheless, two systems--the limb bud/CNS micromass, and the chick embryo neural retina cell culture (CERC)--continue to be advanced as viable in vitro developmental toxicology tests. The purpose of this commentary is to evaluate the prospects for the development of an in vitro test system(s) that can screen the universe of drugs and chemicals and reliably identify those that require further study and those that do not. The conclusion of this investigator is that the prospects for validating such in vitro tests are not promising. This conclusion is based primarily on the lack of basic knowledge regarding the relevance of end points assayed in the micromass and CERC test systems to those end points known or thought to be critical for normal development.

  10. Prospects for the development of validated screening tests that measure developmental toxicity potential: view of one skeptic.

    PubMed

    Mirkes, P E

    1996-06-01

    Humans are exposed to a variety of potential developmental toxicants. This fact, combined with the knowledge that human development can be disrupted by "environmental" agents, has led to the development of methods designed to identify potential developmental toxicants. Currently, the principal method used to screen drugs and chemicals that are potential human developmental toxicants is the segment II study (i.e., a study in which prospective drugs and chemicals are tested in pregnant animals). Because of the cost and time involved in such studies and the pressure to reduce the number of animals used in such testing, alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing have been sought. This has resulted in a number of in vitro tests whose aim is to screen large numbers of agents quickly and inexpensively. Although numerous in vitro tests of developmental toxicity have been developed during the last 15 years, no one system or combination of tests have been validated for the purpose intended. Nonetheless, two systems--the limb bud/CNS micromass, and the chick embryo neural retina cell culture (CERC)--continue to be advanced as viable in vitro developmental toxicology tests. The purpose of this commentary is to evaluate the prospects for the development of an in vitro test system(s) that can screen the universe of drugs and chemicals and reliably identify those that require further study and those that do not. The conclusion of this investigator is that the prospects for validating such in vitro tests are not promising. This conclusion is based primarily on the lack of basic knowledge regarding the relevance of end points assayed in the micromass and CERC test systems to those end points known or thought to be critical for normal development. PMID:8910978

  11. Zebrafish Development: High-throughput Test Systems to Assess Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Because of its developmental concordance, ease of handling and rapid development, the small teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), is frequently promoted as a vertebrate model for medium-throughput developmental screens. This present chapter discusses zebrafish as an altern...

  12. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    PubMed

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods.

  13. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  14. My Child Doesn't Test Well. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    The writer examines a variety of reasons why test performance may not always be a valid measure of a person's competence or potential. Citing that a sizable percentage of students perform well in their schoolwork but poorly on standardized, multiple-choice tests, Bond defines and discusses four candidates as source factors for the phenomenon: (1)…

  15. Analysis of cursive letters, syllables, and words handwriting in a French second-grade child with Developmental Coordination Disorder and comparison with typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Caroline; Gentaz, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    Poor handwriting is a core deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). In a previous study, we compared the evolution of cursive letters handwriting in a girl with DCD throughout her second-grade year with that of typically developing (TD) children. We found that her handwriting evolved much less than that of TD children and remained similar to that of pre-schoolers at all stages, suggesting that her handwriting skills have reached a steady state level. We present here a continuation of this work, in which we focused on the velocity aspects of handwriting in another French child with DCD. Indeed, different velocity patterns have been observed in Chinese and English children with DCD. In the French cursive style of writing, consecutive letters are joined, a major difference with the English script style of writing. We thus analyzed the handwriting of a second-grade French girl with DCD, not only for isolated letters but also for syllables and words, in comparison to that of TD first-graders (6–7 years old; N = 85) and second-graders (7–8 years old; N = 88). Each written track was digitized, and nine kinematic parameters were measured to evaluate writing fluency. Results showed that the productions of the child with DCD were more similar to those of first-graders than to those of second-graders. In line with our previous study, the most discriminative parameters between the child with DCD and TD children were size and mean speed. Moreover, her handwriting was less fluent than that of TD children. In contrast to previous observations, we observed a higher writing velocity of the child with DCD when compared to TD children, whatever the complexity of the item, and no significant difference with TD children in the pausing time during writing. These differences may reflect linguistic specificities. For syllables and words, each letter was treated separately as a single unit, thus reflecting a problem in anticipation and automation. PMID:24478735

  16. Analysis of cursive letters, syllables, and words handwriting in a French second-grade child with Developmental Coordination Disorder and comparison with typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Caroline; Gentaz, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Poor handwriting is a core deficit in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). In a previous study, we compared the evolution of cursive letters handwriting in a girl with DCD throughout her second-grade year with that of typically developing (TD) children. We found that her handwriting evolved much less than that of TD children and remained similar to that of pre-schoolers at all stages, suggesting that her handwriting skills have reached a steady state level. We present here a continuation of this work, in which we focused on the velocity aspects of handwriting in another French child with DCD. Indeed, different velocity patterns have been observed in Chinese and English children with DCD. In the French cursive style of writing, consecutive letters are joined, a major difference with the English script style of writing. We thus analyzed the handwriting of a second-grade French girl with DCD, not only for isolated letters but also for syllables and words, in comparison to that of TD first-graders (6-7 years old; N = 85) and second-graders (7-8 years old; N = 88). Each written track was digitized, and nine kinematic parameters were measured to evaluate writing fluency. Results showed that the productions of the child with DCD were more similar to those of first-graders than to those of second-graders. In line with our previous study, the most discriminative parameters between the child with DCD and TD children were size and mean speed. Moreover, her handwriting was less fluent than that of TD children. In contrast to previous observations, we observed a higher writing velocity of the child with DCD when compared to TD children, whatever the complexity of the item, and no significant difference with TD children in the pausing time during writing. These differences may reflect linguistic specificities. For syllables and words, each letter was treated separately as a single unit, thus reflecting a problem in anticipation and automation.

  17. Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  18. Developing the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD) for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Chun; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument, named the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD), for measuring the amount and quality of use of affected upper limb functions in the daily routines of children with CP. Methods Forty-eight participants (24 children with CP and 24 matched typically developing children) were recruited. The OTCPDD was administered twice (the spontaneous use condition first, followed by the forced use condition) on children with CP. Their parents were asked to complete the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R). The internal consistency, the intrarater and interrater reliabilities, and the convergent and discriminate validities were measured. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities were higher than 0.9 for all of the OTCPDD scores. The convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the OTCPDD and the PMAL-R. For the discriminant validity, significant differences (p<0.05) were found between children with CP and typically developing children. Conclusions The results support that the OTCPDD is a reliable and valid observation-based assessment. The OTCPDD, which uses bimanual daily living activities, is able to represent the children’s general affected hand functions (including capacity, performance, and developmental disregard) in their daily routines. PMID:27010941

  19. Morphology-based mammalian stem cell tests reveal potential developmental toxicity of donepezil.

    PubMed

    Lau, Caroline G Y; Marikawa, Yusuke

    2014-11-01

    Various compounds, including therapeutic drugs, can adversely impact the survival and development of embryos in the uterus. Identification of such development-interfering agents is a challenging task, although multi-angle approaches--including the use of in vitro toxicology studies involving embryonic stem cells--should alleviate some of the current difficulties. In the present study, we utilized the in vitro elongation of embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from mouse embryonal carcinoma stem cell line P19C5 as a model of early embryological events, specifically that of gastrulation and axial patterning. From our study, we identified donepezil, a medication indicated for the management of Alzheimer's disease, as a potential developmental toxicant. The extent of P19C5 EB axial elongation was diminished by donepezil in a dose-dependent manner. Although donepezil is a known inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, interference of elongation was not mediated through this enzyme. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR revealed that donepezil altered the expression pattern of a specific set of developmental regulator genes involved in patterning along the anterior-posterior body axis. When tested in mouse whole embryo culture, donepezil caused morphological abnormalities including impaired somitogenesis. Donepezil also diminished elongation morphogenesis of EBs generated from human embryonic stem cells. These results suggest that donepezil interferes with axial elongation morphogenesis of early embryos by altering the expression pattern of regulators of axial development.

  20. Testing the developmental distinctiveness of male proactive and reactive aggression with a nested longitudinal experimental intervention.

    PubMed

    Barker, Edward D; Vitaro, Frank; Lacourse, Eric; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Carbonneau, Rene; Tremblay, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    An experimental preventive intervention nested into a longitudinal study was used to test the developmental distinctiveness of proactive and reactive aggression. The randomized multimodal preventive intervention targeted a subsample of boys rated disruptive by their teachers. These boys were initially part of a sample of 895 boys, followed from kindergarten to 17 years of age. Semiparametric analyses of developmental trajectories for self-reported proactive and reactive aggression (between 13 and 17 years of age) indicated three trajectories for each type of aggression that varied in size and shape (Low, Moderate, and High Peaking). Intent-to-treat comparisons between the boys in the prevention group and the control group confirmed that the preventive intervention between 7 and 9 years of age, which included parenting skills and social skills training, could impact the development of reactive more than proactive aggression. The intervention effect identified in reactive aggression was related to a reduction in self-reported coercive parenting. The importance of these results for the distinction between subtypes of aggressive behaviors and the value of longitudinal-experimental studies from early childhood onward is discussed. PMID:20052694

  1. PROJECT HEAD START MEDICAL--A GUIDE FOR DIRECTION OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC.

    HEALTH SERVICES OF PROJECT HEAD START CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS PROVIDE--A MEDICAL EVALUATION OF EACH CHILD INCLUDING MEDICAL HISTORY, DEVELOPMENTAL ASSESSMENT, AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, SCREENING TESTS FOR VISION, HEARING, SPEECH, AND TUBERCULOSIS, LABORATORY TESTS OF URINE FOR ALBUMIN AND TESTS OF SUGAR AND BLOOD FOR ANEMIA, DENTAL ASSESSMENT,…

  2. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  4. Low Rates of Genetic Testing in Children With Developmental Delays, Intellectual Disability, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, John; DeMaria, Lisa; Tamandong-LaChica, Diana; Florentino, Jhiedon; Acelajado, Maria Czarina; Burgon, Trever

    2015-01-01

    To explore the routine and effective use of genetic testing for patients with intellectual disability and developmental delay (ID/DD), we conducted a prospective, randomized observational study of 231 general pediatricians (40%) and specialists (60%), using simulated patients with 9 rare pediatric genetic illnesses. Participants cared for 3 randomly assigned simulated patients, and care responses were scored against explicit evidence-based criteria. Scores were calculated as a percentage of criteria completed. Care varied widely, with a median overall score of 44.7% and interquartile range of 36.6% to 53.7%. Diagnostic accuracy was low: 27.4% of physicians identified the correct primary diagnosis. Physicians ordered chromosomal microarray analysis in 55.7% of cases. Specific gene sequence testing was used in 1.4% to 30.3% of cases. This study demonstrates that genetic testing is underutilized, even for widely available tests. Further efforts to educate physicians on the clinical utility of genetic testing may improve diagnosis and care in these patients. PMID:27335989

  5. Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics - strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics.

  6. Child Development, Care and Guidance. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Child Development, Care and Guidance semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics…

  7. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a…

  8. Speechreading Development in Deaf and Hearing Children: Introducing the Test of Child Speechreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…

  9. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  10. No Child Left Behind: High-Stakes Testing and Teacher Burnout in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 calls for 100% proficiency in reading and mathematics by 2014. The mandate thus transforms reading and mathematics into high-stakes subject areas. This quantitative cross-sectional study examined legislated testing mandates in relation to burnout subscales, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  11. Developmental changes and fructose absorption in children: effect on malabsorption testing and dietary management.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hilary F; Butler, Ross N; Moore, David J; Brooks, Doug A

    2013-05-01

    Fructose malabsorption came to prominence in the pediatric arena as so-called "apple juice diarrhea," with excess consumption of fructose being linked to gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Over the past two decades the amount of fructose in children's diets has been increasing in the United States. A test for fructose malabsorption has yet to be fully validated, due mainly to the lack of an established etiology. In animal models, however, the fructose transporter GLUT5 is developmentally regulated, and this could be consistent with the greater susceptibility of children, especially toddlers, to fructose malabsorption. Additionally, the available evidence indicates the fructose breath hydrogen test has no apparent diagnostic utility in infants younger than 1 year; it may, therefore, be advisable to test for malabsorption by dietary exclusion in these patients. The present review aims to expound on the biological basis for fructose malabsorption in children and evaluate the current evidence for diagnostic procedures in order to identify clinical testing strategies that can be recommended and areas where further investigation is required.

  12. Developmental normative data for the Baron-Hopkins Board test of spatial location memory.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Hopp, Crista; Weiss, Brandi A

    2015-01-01

    Developmentally appropriate domain-specific tests with strong psychometric properties for preschoolers are lacking and infrequently developed. Baron's modification of the Hopkins Board test (B-HB) to assess spatial location learning and recall in 3- and 6-year-old children has shown promise in the study of young children born prematurely. Current study data were analyzed on 172 typically developing children at age 3 years and 193 at age 6 years, born at term (≥ 37 weeks; ≥ 2500 grams). Statistically significant gender differences were found and data stratification of T-scores and percentile ranks are provided for each of the eight B-HB measures. The B-HB's strong interrater reliability (99.5%), low-to-moderate test-retest reliability across the 3-year age span, Pearson correlations showing criterion validity, and differential functioning from other selective attention and visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests provide initial normative data for this novel measure of spatial location memory in young children. PMID:25265314

  13. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z. Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-10-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 {mu}g/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  14. Developmental normative data for the Baron-Hopkins Board test of spatial location memory.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Hopp, Crista; Weiss, Brandi A

    2015-01-01

    Developmentally appropriate domain-specific tests with strong psychometric properties for preschoolers are lacking and infrequently developed. Baron's modification of the Hopkins Board test (B-HB) to assess spatial location learning and recall in 3- and 6-year-old children has shown promise in the study of young children born prematurely. Current study data were analyzed on 172 typically developing children at age 3 years and 193 at age 6 years, born at term (≥ 37 weeks; ≥ 2500 grams). Statistically significant gender differences were found and data stratification of T-scores and percentile ranks are provided for each of the eight B-HB measures. The B-HB's strong interrater reliability (99.5%), low-to-moderate test-retest reliability across the 3-year age span, Pearson correlations showing criterion validity, and differential functioning from other selective attention and visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests provide initial normative data for this novel measure of spatial location memory in young children.

  15. Preschool Teachers' Child-Centered Beliefs: Direct and Indirect Associations with Work Climate and Job-Related Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Eunhye; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early childhood teachers' child-centered beliefs, defined as teachers' attitudes about how children learn, have been associated with teachers' developmentally appropriate practices and positive child outcomes. The predictors of teachers' child-centered beliefs, however, are less frequently explored. Objective: This study tested whether…

  16. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePlus

    ... foot Rides tricycle well Starts school Understands size concepts Understands time concepts School-age child -- 6 to 12 years Begins ... and recognition is of vital importance Understands abstract concepts ... topics include: Developmental milestones record - 2 months ...

  17. 16 CFR 1109.13 - Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child care articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Component part testing for phthalates in..., Component Parts, and Chemicals § 1109.13 Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child... children's toy or child care article for phthalate content provided that the requirements in § 1109.5...

  18. 16 CFR 1109.13 - Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child care articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Component part testing for phthalates in..., Component Parts, and Chemicals § 1109.13 Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child... children's toy or child care article for phthalate content provided that the requirements in § 1109.5...

  19. 16 CFR 1109.13 - Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child care articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Component part testing for phthalates in..., Component Parts, and Chemicals § 1109.13 Component part testing for phthalates in children's toys and child... children's toy or child care article for phthalate content provided that the requirements in § 1109.5...

  20. Response to Cross and Saxe's "A Critique of the Validity of Polygraph Testing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vergil L.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to an article (1992) in which Cross and Saxe assert that polygraph testing is inaccurate and inappropriate in the area of child sexual abuse. Presents a summary of recent polygraph validity and reliability studies to refute their claims, and discusses current uses of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases. (JPS)

  1. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  2. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  3. A novel 5q11.2 microdeletion in a child with mild developmental delay and dysmorphic features.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Paolo; Tortora, Cristina; Petillo, Roberta; Falco, Mariateresa; Miniero, Martina; De Brasi, Davide; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta

    2016-09-01

    5q11.2 Deletion is a very rare genomic disorder, and its clinical phenotype has not yet been characterized. This report describes a patient with an 8.6 Mb deletion, showing hypotonia, mild developmental delay, short stature, and distinctive dysmorphic features (frontal bossing, square face, deep-set eyes, prominent columella, long philtrum, thin lips). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Study of 571 Children with Developmental Disorders in a Slum-Population of Bombay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Madhuri; And Others

    This paper summarizes a study of 571 children with developmental disabilities between 6 weeks and 12 years of age living in the largest slum in Asia, the Dharavi neighborhood of Bombay, India. Each child was administered developmental and psychological tests, diagnosed, and treated by a special early intervention clinic. Most had not had their…

  5. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  6. ECG in stress testing: child of a lesser diagnostic god?

    PubMed

    Longo, S; Del Negro, B; Picano, E

    1997-01-01

    When new technologies are added to the previously existing ones, the latter can be prematurely discarded and judged obsolete not only on the basis of rational scientific facts, but also on irrational trends. Old techniques, like electrocardiography, suffer from diagnostic ambiguities that can be solved by combination with a cardiac imaging technique, like stress echocardiography. ECG monitoring during all forms of stress testing can still offer surprising dividends for a better understanding of the complex physiology of coronary artery disease, a better clinical characterization of patients with microvascular angina, and may serve as an important adjunct marker to cardiac imaging techniques. PMID:9350596

  7. Comparing three novel endpoints for developmental osteotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test

    SciTech Connect

    Nieden, Nicole I. zur; Davis, Lesley A.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2010-09-01

    Birth defects belong to the most serious side effects of pharmaceutical compounds or environmental chemicals. In vivo, teratogens most often affect the normal development of bones, causing growth retardation, limb defects or craniofacial malformations. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is one of the most promising models that allow the in vitro prediction of embryotoxicity, with one of its endpoints being bone tissue development. The present study was designed to describe three novel inexpensive endpoints to assess developmental osteotoxicity using the model compounds penicillin G (non-teratogenic), 5-fluorouracil (strong teratogen) and all-trans retinoic acid (bone teratogen). These three endpoints were: quantification of matrix incorporated calcium by (1) morphometric analysis and (2) measurement of calcium levels as well as (3) activity of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme involved in matrix calcification. To evaluate our data, we have compared the concentration curves and resulting ID{sub 50}s of the new endpoints with mRNA expression for osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is an exclusive marker found only in mineralized tissues, is regulated upon compound treatment and reliably predicts the potential of a chemical entity acting as a bone teratogen. By comparing the new endpoints to quantitative expression of osteocalcin, which we previously identified as suitable to detect developmental osteotoxicity, we were ultimately able to illustrate IMAGE analysis and Ca{sup 2+} deposition assays as two reliable novel endpoints for the EST. This is of particular importance for routine industrial assessment of novel compounds as these two new endpoints may substitute previously used molecular read-out methods, which are often costly and time-consuming.

  8. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    PubMed

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic.

  9. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  10. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  11. Comparison of Learning Disabled Children's Performance on Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and Beery's Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeen, Judith A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A comparison was made of the performance of 30 learning-disabled students on the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. A significant correlation of -.72 was obtained. No significant difference was found in estimations of age equivalents. (Author)

  12. Testing a novel child farm safety intervention for Anabaptist audiences.

    PubMed

    Burgus, Shari; Rademaker, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Farming within the Anabaptist (within this article defined as various religious groups that do not believe in infant baptism; Amish, Hutterites, Mennonites, and Brethren are included within the definition and usually practice selective use of technology) population creates a unique situation with regards to teaching farm safety and health to children. Children working at an age younger than typical farm families, using older equipment and with increased exposure to livestock, affect injuries among Anabaptist children and youth. Addressing social differences and using low-tech methods for demonstrations help when planning resources and programs.An existing Farm Safety 4 Just Kids (FS4JK) magnetic farm scene, hazard hunt program was adapted for Anabaptist youth to include more images related to the Anabaptist lifestyle. The adapted educational display was piloted in 5 locations (Iowa, Pennsylvania, Ohio (2), and Ontario). Fifty-four boys and 54 girls participated in the pilot programs. Youth survey results indicated that animal-related issues were primary in Anabaptist youths' learning from the lessons. Behaviors most likely mentioned by youth as unsafe actions involved jumping off moving vehicles, mowing with bare feet, and approaching animals unsafely. Youth were most likely to change behavior when working with animals. Instructors indicated that the magnetic display medium was well received by the Anabaptist audience. Pilot testing led to adaptations to content and pictorial images.

  13. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for specific phobias with a child demonstrating severe problem behavior and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Davis, Thompson E; Kurtz, Patricia F; Gardner, Andrew W; Carman, Nicole B

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and behavior analytic assessment techniques in the CBT of water and height phobia in a 7-year-old male with developmental delays and severe behavior problems. One-session treatment [Ost, L. G. (1989). One-session treatment for specific phobias. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 1-7; Ost, L. G. (1997). Rapid treatment of specific phobias. In G. C. L. Davey (Ed.), Phobias: A handbook of theory, research, and treatment (pp. 227-247). New York: Wiley] was provided for water phobia and then 2 months later for height phobia. The massed exposure therapy sessions combined graduated in vivo exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, reinforcement, and other techniques. Both indirect and direct observation measures were utilized to evaluate treatment efficacy. Results suggested CBT reduced or eliminated behavioral avoidance, specific phobia symptoms, and subjective fear. Negative vocalizations were reduced during height exposure following treatment. Vocalizations following treatment for water phobia were less clear and may have been indicative of typical 7-year-old protests during bath time. Findings indicate CBT can be effective for treating clinical fears in an individual with developmental disabilities and severe behavior. Future research in this population should examine CBT as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., forced exposure) for treating fears.

  14. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M S; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction. PMID:27445667

  15. Avian Test Battery for the Evaluation of Developmental Abnormalities of Neuro- and Reproductive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Ahmed, Walaa M. S.; Nagino, Koki; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the currently used toxicity assays for environmental chemicals use acute or chronic systemic or reproductive toxicity endpoints rather than neurobehavioral endpoints. In addition, the current standard approaches to assess reproductive toxicity are time-consuming. Therefore, with increasing numbers of chemicals being developed with potentially harmful neurobehavioral effects in higher vertebrates, including humans, more efficient means of assessing neuro- and reproductive toxicity are required. Here we discuss the use of a Galliformes-based avian test battery in which developmental toxicity is assessed by means of a combination of chemical exposure during early embryonic development using an embryo culture system followed by analyses after hatching of sociosexual behaviors such as aggression and mating and of visual memory via filial imprinting. This Galliformes-based avian test battery shows promise as a sophisticated means not only of assessing chemical toxicity in avian species but also of assessing the risks posed to higher vertebrates, including humans, which are markedly sensitive to nervous or neuroendocrine system dysfunction. PMID:27445667

  16. Studies of the Variables Affecting Behavior of Larval Zebrafish for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. We are exploring methods to detect developmentally neurotoxic chemicals using zebrafish behavior at 6 days of age. The behavioral paradig...

  17. Studies of the Variables Affecting Behavior of Larval Zebrafish for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. We are exploring methods to screen for developmentally neurotoxic chemicals using zebrafish behavior at 6 days of age. The behavioral par...

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with parental concerns about development detected by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks in a birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Woolfenden, Susan; Eapen, Valsamma; Jalaludin, Bin; Hayen, Andrew; Kemp, Lynn; Dissanyake, Cheryl; Hendry, Alexandra; Axelsson, Emma; Overs, Bronwyn; Eastwood, John; Črnčec, Rudi; McKenzie, Anne; Beasley, Deborah; Murphy, Elisabeth; Williams, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of developmental vulnerability is vital. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of moderate or high developmental risk on the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks; identify associated risk factors; and examine documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Design, participants A prospective birth cohort of 2025 children with 50% of those approached agreeing to participate. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaires and linked electronic medical records. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents to collect PEDS data. Primary and secondary outcomes Multiple logistic regression analyses identified risk factors for moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS. A Cumulative Risk Index examined the impact of multiple risk factors on developmental risk and documentation of the PEDS at the well-child checks. Results Of the original cohort, 792 (39%) had 6-month, 649 (32%) had 12-month and 565 (28%) had 18-month PEDS data. Parental concerns indicating moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS were 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 6 months, 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 12 months and 33% (95% CI 29 to 37) at 18 months. Factors associated with moderate or high developmental risk were perinatal risk (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); maternal Middle Eastern or Asian nationality (OR 6 months: 1.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.4)), (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); and household disadvantage (OR 6 months: 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). As the number of risk factors increased the odds increased for high or moderate developmental risk and no documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Conclusions Children with multiple risk factors are more likely to have parental concerns indicating developmental vulnerability using the PEDS and for these concerns to not be documented. PMID:27609853

  19. Effects of Antecedent Prompt and Test Procedure on Teaching Simulated Menstrual Care Skills to Females with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Gulhan; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Kircaali-Iftar, Gonul

    2009-01-01

    Although menstrual care is among the most important skill areas for females with mild to moderate developmental disabilities to facilitate their independence, there is limited research examining this issue. The present study was designed to analyze the acquisition and maintenance effects of antecedent prompt and test procedure on teaching changing…

  20. Interrater Reliability of the Original and a Revised Scoring System for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkin, Sheila Ratsch; Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the interrater reliability of teachers' and school psychology externs' scoring of protocols for the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), using a revised scoring system. Results showed high reliability coefficients for all raters, regardless of the scoring system employed. The influence of rater training is discussed.…

  1. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  2. Developmental Gender Differences on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test in a Nationally Normed Sample of 5-17 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2006-01-01

    Lynn [Lynn, R., 2002. Sex differences on the progressive matrices among 15-16 year olds: some data from South Africa. "Personality and Individual Differences 33," 669-673.] proposed that biologically based developmental sex differences produce different IQ trajectories across childhood and adolescence. To test this theory we analyzed the Naglieri…

  3. READING DEVELOPMENTAL SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURDY, ROBERT J.; AND OTHERS

    DEVELOPMENTAL SKILLS IMPORTANT TO READING READINESS ARE PRESENTED WITH SUGGESTIONS TO HELP TEACHERS OFFER EXPERIENCES FOR EACH CHILD ON THE BASIS OF HIS LEVEL OF SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE. SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHER OBSERVATION AND EVALUATION OF THE CHILD'S LEVEL OF VISUAL, MOTOR, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE SKILLS AND PLANS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL…

  4. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  5. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  6. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  7. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict, and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Edward M.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally,…

  8. Global developmental delay, progressive relapsing-remitting parkinsonism, and spinal syrinx in a child with SOX6 mutation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ori; Pugh, Jeffrey; Kiddoo, Darcie; Sonnenberg, Lyn K; Bamforth, Steven; Goez, Helly R

    2014-11-01

    SOX6, a member of the SOX gene family, plays a key role in the development of several mammalian tissues and organs, including the central nervous system. Specifically, this gene modulates the differentiation and proliferation of interneurons in the medial ganglionic eminence, as well as oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord. We describe the case of a 4-year-old girl with global developmental delay and a spinal cord syrinx who presented with recurrent episodes of parkinsonian symptoms subsequent to febrile illnesses. The symptoms included gait instability, tremor, and dysarthria, with a progressive relapsing-remitting course over the span of 2 years. The patient was later found to have a large deletion-type mutation in the SOX6 gene. This case is the first report in humans implying a role for SOX6 in basal ganglia function, as well as spinal cord development.

  9. The Bender-Gestalt test in an Italian sample: an analysis of Koppitz's Developmental Bender Scoring System deviations.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    2000-04-01

    This study extended the research of the psychometric characteristics of Koppitz's 1963/1975 Developmental Scoring System of the Bender-Gestalt test. Attention was paid to relations among the 7 deviations. The test was administered by licensed psychologists to 1,065 white children, aged from 3 yr., 6 mo. to 11 yr., 5 mo., enrolled in the regular education track of kindergarten and elementary school in Italy.

  10. Continuing education course #3: current practices and future trends in neuropathology assessment for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Brad; Garman, Robert H; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen G; Allan Johnson, G; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Krinke, Georg; Little, Peter B; Makris, Susan L; Mellon, R Daniel; Sulik, Kathleen K; Jensen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The continuing education course on Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and noninvasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neuropathologists and regulatory scientists regarding suitable DNT practices. Conventional DNT neuropathology endpoints are qualitative histopathology and morphometric endpoints of particularly vulnerable sites (e.g., cerebral, cerebellar, or hippocampal thickness). Novel imaging and stereology measurements hold promise for automated analysis of factors that cannot be effectively examined in routinely processed specimens (e.g., cell numbers, fiber tract integrity). The panel recommended that dedicated DNT neuropathology data sets be acquired on a minimum of 8 sections (for qualitative assessment) or 3 sections (for quantitative linear and stereological analyses) using a small battery of stains to examine neurons and myelin. Where guidelines permit discretion, immersion fixation is acceptable for younger animals (postnatal day 22 or earlier), and peripheral nerves may be embedded in paraffin. Frequent concerns regarding DNT data sets include false-negative outcomes due to processing difficulties (e.g., lack of concordance among sections from different animals) and insensitive analytical endpoints (e.g., qualitative evaluation) as well as false-positive results arising from overinterpretation or misreading by inexperienced pathologists. PMID:21075916

  11. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children. Seventy-one children with DCD and 70 children without motor problems were recruited from 14 public schools. Executive functions and school functions were assessed using the WCST, and the School Function Assessment--Chinese Version (SFA-C) respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated significant between-group differences in five WCST measures. The logistic regression analysis showed differences between two groups on eight SFA-C subscales, and significant correlation between items measured on WCST and SFA-C was also found. The result of the study provides further evidence of impaired sub-domains of executive functions (i.e., mental shifting, flexibility) in children with DCD. The finding also adds to recent investigations into the relationship between executive functions and school functions in DCD. Implications for rehabilitation professionals and recommendations for further research are discussed. PMID:21458225

  12. Toddler Developmental Delays After Extensive Hospitalization: Primary Care Practitioner Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Dana C; Sadler, Lois S

    2015-01-01

    This review investigated developmental delays toddlers may encounter after a lengthy pediatric hospitalization (30 days or greater). Physical, motor, cognitive, and psychosocial development of children aged 1 to 3 years was reviewed to raise awareness of factors associated with developmental delay after extensive hospitalization. Findings from the literature suggest that neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU) graduates are most at risk for developmental delays, but even non-critical hospital stays interrupt development to some extent. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) may be able to minimize risk for delays through the use of formal developmental screening tests and parent report surveys. References and resources are described for developmental assessment to help clinicians recognize delays and to educate families about optimal toddler development interventions. Pediatric PCPs play a leading role in coordinating health and developmental services for the young child following an extensive hospital stay. PMID:26665423

  13. Developmental Reinforcement and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garris, Raymond P.

    The author uses a developmental model (1) to describe the developmental reinforcement process as it occurs in a child's life, using a hierarchical concept, and (2) to discuss some educational consequences of a reinforcement deficit. The developmental reinforcement process is composed of a hierarchy of four levels. Development takes place in…

  14. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): Creating a Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) Roadmap for Regulatory Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a m...

  15. Testing if Social Services Prevent Fatal Child Maltreatment Among a Sample of Children Previously Known to Child Protective Services.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the potential impact of child welfare services on the risk for fatal child maltreatment. This was conducted using a subsample of children who were identified as "prior victims" in the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System from 2008 to 2012. At the multivariate level, the analyses show that case management services act to protect children from death as do family support services, family preservation services, and foster care, but that the results vary by type of maltreatment experienced. The author recommends that before strong conclusions are drawn, additional research in this area is warranted.

  16. Testing if Social Services Prevent Fatal Child Maltreatment Among a Sample of Children Previously Known to Child Protective Services.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the potential impact of child welfare services on the risk for fatal child maltreatment. This was conducted using a subsample of children who were identified as "prior victims" in the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System from 2008 to 2012. At the multivariate level, the analyses show that case management services act to protect children from death as do family support services, family preservation services, and foster care, but that the results vary by type of maltreatment experienced. The author recommends that before strong conclusions are drawn, additional research in this area is warranted. PMID:27412527

  17. It Takes a Village to Deliver and Test Child and Family-Focused Services.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary M; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia M; Kalogerogiannis, Kosta; Umpierre, Mari; Olshtain-Mann, Orly; Bannon, William; Elwyn, Laura; Goldstein, Leah

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to highlight the benefits of collaboration in child focused mental health services research. METHOD: Three unique research projects are described. These projects address the mental health needs of vulnerable, urban, minority children and their families. In each one, service delivery was codesigned, interventions were co-delivered and a team of stakeholders collaboratively tested the impact of each one. RESULTS: The results indicate that the three interventions designed, delivered, and tested are associated with reductions in youth mental health symptoms. CONCLUSION: These interventions are feasible alternatives to traditional individualized outpatient treatment.

  18. It Takes a Village to Deliver and Test Child and Family-Focused Services

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary M.; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia M.; Kalogerogiannis, Kosta; Umpierre, Mari; Olshtain-Mann, Orly; Bannon, William; Elwyn, Laura; Goldstein, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to highlight the benefits of collaboration in child focused mental health services research. Method Three unique research projects are described. These projects address the mental health needs of vulnerable, urban, minority children and their families. In each one, service delivery was codesigned, interventions were co-delivered and a team of stakeholders collaboratively tested the impact of each one. Results The results indicate that the three interventions designed, delivered, and tested are associated with reductions in youth mental health symptoms. Conclusion These interventions are feasible alternatives to traditional individualized outpatient treatment. PMID:21274415

  19. Marital dissolution by sex of the petitioner: a test of the man-child affiliative bond.

    PubMed

    Mackey, W C

    1993-09-01

    The problems in disentangling the tabula rasa explanations, as opposed to the biocultural explanations, in the understanding and prediction of human behavior are deep, real, and difficult. This study tested two conflicting sets of predictions concerning divorce patterns in the United States: a socioeconomic set and a biocultural set. The socio-economic perspective predicts that the addition of one or more children to a marriage would increase the husband's (as compared with the wife's) motivation to petition for a divorce. The biocultural perspective posits that a man-to-child affiliative bond would add to a man's adherence to his child(ren) and, in turn, would lower his motivation (as compared with the woman's) to petition for a divorce. The biocultural perspective was supported in this study.

  20. Examining the developmental history of child maltreatment, peer relations, and externalizing problems among adolescents with symptoms of paranoid personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Misaki N; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the childhood history of maltreatment, peer relations, and externalizing problems among individuals who manifested low, moderate, or high symptom levels of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in adolescence. Participants included 174 children who attended a longitudinal summer camp research program between the ages of 9 to 12. Multiple sources of information (self-, peer, and counselor reports) were utilized. Subsequently, they participated in a personality disorder assessment during adolescence (mean age = 15.30). The results indicated that children who manifested higher levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence had higher odds of having a history of child maltreatment. Children who manifested high levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence showed a faster growth rate for peer bullying and externalizing problems in childhood. In addition, their peers rated them as less cooperative, less likely to be leaders, and more likely to initiate fights. These findings suggested that children who manifested elevated PPD symptoms in adolescence had shown early signs of behavioral disturbances in childhood, some of which gradually worsened as they approach adolescence.

  1. Fragile X Premutation Carrier Epidemiology and Symptomatology in Israel-Results from a Tertiary Child Developmental Center.

    PubMed

    Gabis, Lidia V; Gruber, Noah; Berkenstadt, Michal; Shefer, Shahar; Attia, Odelia Leon; Mula, Dana; Cohen, Yoram; Elizur, Shai E

    2016-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most prevalent known genetically inherited cause for autism and intellectual disability. Premutation state can cause several clinical disorders as well. We aimed to perform a nesting approach to acquire data with regard to first degree relatives of index fragile X cases at the largest child development center in Israel in order to map characteristics of Israeli FXS permutation women carriers. Seventy-nine women were referred due to a related fragile X syndrome patient, mainly an offspring or sibling. General information regarding demographics, ethnicity, and associated medical conditions were collected using interviews and structured questionnaires. Thirteen (17 %) of the women who were referred as "carrier" were proven to be actually full mutation. The mean years of education were 14 (±1.51, range 12-17). Twenty-one women (27 %) originated from Tunisia (mainly from the island of Djerba). Ten women (13 %) reported delivery of their affected offspring beyond 41 gestational weeks. Twenty-two percent of women with premutation reported symptoms consistent with learning difficulties, mainly dyscalculia, and 14 % reported ADHD symptoms. Awareness about clinical disorders of the carriers was existent only in 25 % of the patients. Increased awareness and knowledge dissemination concerning premutation symptomatology and associated medical conditions are warranted. We suggest a national registry to be installed in different countries in order to identify fragile X premutation carriers at increased risk for various medical complications. PMID:27312842

  2. Screening for Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol; Duran-Flores, Deborah; Dumars, Kenneth W.; Stills, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are responsible for a combination of severe physical, mental, psychological and social deficits. They develop before age 22 years and involve a little more than 1% of the population. Screening for developmental disabilities is the first step in their prevention. Various screening instruments are available for use throughout the developmental years that are designed to detect the wide variety of developmental problems that interfere with a developing person's optimal adaptation to his or her environment. The screening instruments must be inexpensive, reproducible, widely available and cost effective to the child, family and society. PMID:2413633

  3. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  4. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. PMID:26439062

  5. Developmental Dyslexia: A Diagnostic Screening Procedure on Three Characteristic Patterns of Reading and Spelling. A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boder, Elena

    A diagnostic screening procedure for developmental dyslexia which analyzes how a child reads and writes rather than at what level, is outlined. Briefly, the test entails a presentation of a word list at each reading level to determine the child's sight vocabulary and his ability to employ word-attack skills. Following the administration of the…

  6. Monolayer cultivation of osteoprogenitors shortens duration of the embryonic stem cell test while reliably predicting developmental osteotoxicity.

    PubMed

    zur Nieden, Nicole I; Davis, Lesley A; Rancourt, Derrick E

    2010-11-01

    Osteotoxic compounds administered during pregnancy can initiate skeletal congenital anomalies in the embryo. In vitro, developmental osteotoxicity of a compound can be predicted with the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the only in vitro embryotoxicity model identified to date that entirely abrogates the use of animals. Although the previously identified endpoint osteocalcin mRNA expression robustly predicts developmental osteotoxicity, it can only be assayed after 5 weeks of in vitro culture with existing embryoid body (EB)-based differentiation protocols. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize novel earlier endpoints of developmental osteotoxicity for the EST. The currently used EB-based differentiation protocol was modified so that a monolayer culture of pre-differentiated cells was inoculated. The expression profile of five bone-specific mRNAs, including osteocalcin, over the course of 30 differentiation days suggested an acceleration of pre-osteoblast specification in the monolayer over the EB-based protocol. Similarly, calcification was already visible after 14 days of culture in monolayer cultures. Employing image and absorption-based techniques to measure the degree of mineralization in these cells after compound treatment, the three compounds Penicillin G, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and all-trans retinoic acid (RA) were then tested after 14 days in monolayer cultures and compared to embryoid body-based differentiations at day 30. By modifying the culture the three test substances were classified correctly into non- or strong osteotoxic. Moreover, we were successful in shortening the assay duration from 30 to 14 days.

  7. Prediction of the developmental toxicity hazard potential of halogenated drinking water disinfection by-products tested by the in vitro hydra assay

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M. )

    1990-06-01

    A series of seven randomly selected potential halogenated water disinfection by-products were evaluated in vitro by the hydra assay to determine their developmental toxicity hazard potential. For six of the chemicals tested by this assay (dibromoacetonitrile; trichloroacetonitrile; 2-chlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; trichloroacetic acid; dichloroacetone) it was predicted that they would be generally equally toxic to both adult and embryonic mammals when studied by means of standard developmental toxicity teratology tests. However, the potential water disinfection by-product chloroacetic acid (CA) was determined to be over eight times more toxic to the embryonic developmental portion of the assay than it was to the adults. Because of this potential selectivity, CA is a high-priority item for developmental toxicity tests in pregnant mammals to confirm or refute its apparent unique developmental hazard potential and/or to establish a NOAEL by the route of most likely human exposure.

  8. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  9. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J; Snowden, Robert J; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this hypothesis. Results indicated that child abusers have a stronger sexual preference for submissiveness than rapists, although there were no differences between child abusers and non-sexual offenders. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that submissive-sexy associations have incremental value over child-sex associations in differentiating child abusers from other offenders. The predictive value of both implicit associations was explored by correlating IAT scores with measures for recidivism risk, aggression, and interpersonal anxiety. Child abusers with stronger child-sex associations reported higher levels of interpersonal anxiety and hostility. More research on implicit cognition in sex offenders is required for a better understanding of what these and similar implicit measures are exactly measuring and what role implicit cognition may play in sexual offending. PMID:25079778

  10. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J; Snowden, Robert J; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this hypothesis. Results indicated that child abusers have a stronger sexual preference for submissiveness than rapists, although there were no differences between child abusers and non-sexual offenders. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that submissive-sexy associations have incremental value over child-sex associations in differentiating child abusers from other offenders. The predictive value of both implicit associations was explored by correlating IAT scores with measures for recidivism risk, aggression, and interpersonal anxiety. Child abusers with stronger child-sex associations reported higher levels of interpersonal anxiety and hostility. More research on implicit cognition in sex offenders is required for a better understanding of what these and similar implicit measures are exactly measuring and what role implicit cognition may play in sexual offending.

  11. Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia: Testing the Predictions of the Dual-Route and Connectionist Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phonological and surface subtypes of developmental dyslexia in light of competing predictions made by two computational models of single word reading, the Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC; Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) and Harm and Seidenberg's connectionist model (HS model; Harm & Seidenberg, 1999). The…

  12. Filling the Gap on Developmental Change: Tests of a Dynamic Field Theory of Spatial Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Anne R.; Spencer, John P.

    2010-01-01

    In early childhood, there is a developmental transition in spatial memory biases. Before the transition, children's memory responses are biased toward the midline of a space, while after the transition responses are biased away from midline. The Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) posits that changes in neural interaction and changes in how children…

  13. Testing the Feasibility of Developmental Asset Measures on College Students to Guide Health Promotion Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ward, Rose Marie; King, Keith A.; Patton, Jon M.; Murray, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the reliability and validity of eight developmental asset measures among a stratified, random sample (N = 540) of college students to guide health promotion efforts. The sample was randomly split to produce exploratory and confirmatory samples for factor analysis using principal axis factoring and…

  14. Temperament, recalled parenting styles, and self-regulation: testing the developmental postulates of self-discrepancy theory.

    PubMed

    Manian, N; Strauman, T J; Denney, N

    1998-11-01

    Self-discrepancy theory (SDT) postulates that self-regulatory systems corresponding to the ideal and ought self-domains emerge from the influences of temperament (e.g., sensitivity to stimuli for positive vs. negative outcomes) and socialization (e.g., parenting behaviors and interpersonal outcome contingencies). This article reports 2 studies testing the developmental postulates of SDT concurrently and retrospectively. Study 1 showed that self-regulation with reference to the ideal vs. the ought domain was differentially associated with recollections of parenting styles of warmth and rejection, respectively. In Study 2, these findings were replicated, and self-regulation with reference to the ideal vs. ought domain was discriminantly associated with questionnaire measures of positive vs. negative temperament. Findings support the developmental postulates of SDT, despite the limitations of retrospective studies.

  15. Unraveling sexual associations in contact and noncontact child sex offenders using the single category - implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Hempel, I S; Buck, N M L; Goethals, K R; van Marle, H J C

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies found associations between children and sex in child sex offenders (CSOs) using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). We used a modification of this task, the Single Category-Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) to unravel child-sex associations in CSOs. Using the SC-IAT, we were able to test whether CSOs indeed hold stronger child-sex associations relative to adult-sex associations, compared to adult sex offenders and nonoffenders. Furthermore, we examined whether contact CSOs differed from noncontact CSOs in their child-sex associations. The hypothesis that CSOs would have stronger child-sex associations, relative to their adult-sex associations, than adult sex offenders and nonoffenders was confirmed. No difference between contact CSOs and noncontact CSOs was found. Although the Sex SC-IAT was able to distinguish CSOs from nonoffenders, the sensitivity and specificity of the test was poor (AUC of .65) and needs refinement. The results of this study support the existence of a child-sex association as a distinctive characteristic of CSOs. These findings are discussed in the context of theories on deviant cognitions in CSOs and risk for sexual offending.

  16. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  17. Dextrocardia, atrial septal defect, severe developmental delay, facial anomalies, and supernumerary ribs in a child with a complex unbalanced 8;22 translocation including partial 8p duplication.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kathleen; Samanich, Joy; Ramesh, K H; Cannizzaro, Linda; Pan, Qiulu; Babcock, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    We report on a child with dextrocardia, atrial septal defect (ASD), severe developmental delay, hypotonia, 13 pairs of ribs, left preauricular choristoma, hirsutism, and craniofacial abnormalities. Prenatal cytogenetic evaluation showed karyotype 46,XY,?dup(8p)ish del(8)pter. Postnatal array CGH demonstrated a 6.8 Mb terminal deletion at 8p23.3-p23, an interstitial 31.1 Mb duplication within 8p23.1-p11, and a terminal duplication of 0.24 Mb at 22q13.33, refining the karyotype to 46,XY,der(8)dup(8)(p23.1p11.1)t(8;22)(p23.1;q13.1).ish der(8)dup(8)(p23.1p11.1)t(8;22)(p23.1;q13.1) (D8S504-,MS607 + ,ARSA + ,D8Z1 + , RP115713 + +). Previous reports of distal 8p deletion, 8p duplication, and distal 22q duplication have shown similar manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual impairment, and multiple minor anomalies. We correlate the patient's clinical findings with these particular areas of copy number. This case study supports the use of aCGH to identify subtle chromosomal rearrangement in infants with cardiac malformation as their most significant or only apparent birth defect. Additionally, it illustrates why aCGH is essential in the description of chromosome rearrangements, even those seemingly visible via routine karyotype. This method shows that there is often greater complexity submicroscopically, essential to an adequate understanding of a patient's genotype and phenotype.

  18. MicroRNA Profiling as Tool for In Vitro Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: The Case of Sodium Valproate

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Lena; Block, Katharina; Sittka, Alexandra; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Seiler, Andrea E. M.; Luch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Studying chemical disturbances during neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has been established as an alternative in vitro testing approach for the identification of developmental neurotoxicants. miRNAs represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of neural development and ESC differentiation and specification. Thus, neural differentiation of mESCs in vitro allows investigating the role of miRNAs in chemical-mediated developmental toxicity. We analyzed changes in miRNome and transcriptome during neural differentiation of mESCs exposed to the developmental neurotoxicant sodium valproate (VPA). A total of 110 miRNAs and 377 mRNAs were identified differently expressed in neurally differentiating mESCs upon VPA treatment. Based on miRNA profiling we observed that VPA shifts the lineage specification from neural to myogenic differentiation (upregulation of muscle-abundant miRNAs, mir-206, mir-133a and mir-10a, and downregulation of neural-specific mir-124a, mir-128 and mir-137). These findings were confirmed on the mRNA level and via immunochemistry. Particularly, the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) as well as muscle-specific genes (Actc1, calponin, myosin light chain, asporin, decorin) were found elevated, while genes involved in neurogenesis (e.g. Otx1, 2, and Zic3, 4, 5) were repressed. These results were specific for valproate treatment and―based on the following two observations―most likely due to the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity: (i) we did not observe any induction of muscle-specific miRNAs in neurally differentiating mESCs exposed to the unrelated developmental neurotoxicant sodium arsenite; and (ii) the expression of muscle-abundant mir-206 and mir-10a was similarly increased in cells exposed to the structurally different HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Based on our results we conclude that miRNA expression profiling is a suitable molecular endpoint for

  19. Measurement characteristics of the childhood Asthma-Control Test and a shortened, child-only version

    PubMed Central

    Bime, Christian; Gerald, Joe K; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet T; Teague, William G; Wise, Robert A; Gerald, Lynn B

    2016-01-01

    The childhood Asthma-Control Test (C-ACT) is validated for assessing asthma control in paediatric asthma. Among children aged 4–11 years, the C-ACT requires the simultaneous presence of both parent and child. There is an unmet need for a tool that can be used to assess asthma control in children when parents or caregivers are not present such as in the school setting. We assessed the psychometric properties and estimated the minimally important difference (MID) of the C-ACT and a modified version, comprising only the child responses (C-ACTc). Asthma patients aged 6–11 years (n=161) from a previously completed multicenter randomised trial were included. Demographic information, spirometry and questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Participants or their guardians kept a daily asthma diary. Internal consistency reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.76 and 0.67 (Cronbach’s α), respectively. Test–retest reliabilities of the C-ACT and C-ACTc were 0.72 and 0.66 (intra-class correlation), respectively. Significant correlations were noted between C-ACT scores and ACQ scores (Spearman’s correlation r=−0.56, 95% CI (−0.66, −0.44), P<0.001). The strength of the correlation between C-ACTc scores and ACQ scores was weaker (Spearman’s correlation r=−0.46, 95% CI (−0.58, −0.33), P<0.001). We estimated the MID for the C-ACT and C-ACTc to be 2 points and 1 point, respectively. Among asthma patients aged 6–11 years, the C-ACT had good psychometric properties. The psychometric properties of a shortened child-only version (C-ACTc), although acceptable, are not as strong. PMID:27763622

  20. Differences in American College Test Performance after Seven Years of No Child Left Behind Reform in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Craig Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the effectiveness of No Child Left Behind reform in an urban school district. The researcher obtained American College Test composite scores from a diverse, urban, public school district and a private school within the same city for years 2001 and 2008. Statistical tests were run to determine if seniors' scores were…

  1. Growing up with No Child Left Behind: An Initial Assessment of the Understanding of College Students' Knowledge of Accountability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilberberg, Anna; Anderson, Robin D.; Swerdzewski, Peter J.; Finney, Sara J.; Marsh, Kimberly R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the extensive testing for federal accountability mandates, college students' understanding of federal accountability testing (e.g., No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top, Spellings) has not been examined, resulting in a lack of knowledge regarding how such understanding (or lack thereof) impacts college students' behavior on accountability…

  2. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  3. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed. PMID:3572740

  4. Field-testing the WHO child growth standards in four countries.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Adelheid W; de Onis, Mercedes; Caroli, Margherita; Shah, Uzma; Sguassero, Yanina; Redondo, Nora; Carroli, Berenise

    2007-01-01

    In April 2006 the WHO released a set of growth standards for children from birth to the age of 5 y. Prior to their release, the standards were field-tested in 4 countries. The main objective was to compare children's length/height-for-age and weight-for-length/height based on the new standards with clinician assessments of the same children. The study sampled children <5-y-old attending well-child clinics in 2 affluent populations (Argentina and Italy) and 2 less-affluent ones (Maldives and Pakistan). Length/height and weight were measured by doctors and epidemiologists who also recorded a clinical assessment of each child's length/height in relation to age and weight relative to length/height. Anthropometric indicators of nutritional status were generated based on the WHO standards. As expected, Pakistan and the Maldives had higher rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight than Italy and Argentina, and the reverse was true for overweight and obesity. Where stunting was prevalent, the children classified as short were a mean <-2 SD for height-for-age. In all sites, the children classified as thin were indeed wasted (<-2 SD for weight-for-height) and a positive association in trend was evident between weight-for-height and the line-up of groups from thin to obese. The overall concordance between clinical assessments and the WHO standards-based indicators attested to the clinical soundness of the standards.

  5. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  6. Risk factors for infant developmental problems.

    PubMed

    Maria-Mengel, Margaret Rose Santa; Martins Linhares, Maria Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive-correlational study aimed to detect risks for child developmental problems in the first four years of age, to identify the protective resources in the familiar environment, and to verify the best predictive variables of the development at risk. The non-clinical sample was composed by 120 children registered in a Family Health Program. The assessment instruments for global development, expressive language and familiar environment were used. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the lower the father's educational level, the higher the risk for developmental problems. Both the history of low nutritional state at six months of age and the psychosocial risk in the family environment increased the chances of having expressive language problems. It is concluded that screening tests of risk for developmental problems and the analysis of the psychosocial factors in the familiar context should be considered as preventive intervention procedure in the Family Health Programs.

  7. Prediction of in vivo developmental toxicity by combination of Hand1-Luc embryonic stem cell test and metabolic stability test with clarification of metabolically inapplicable candidates.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Le Coz, Florian; Omori, Takashi; Saito, Koichi

    2016-09-30

    Hand1-Luc Embryonic Stem Cell Test (Hand1-Luc EST) is a promising alternative method for evaluation of developmental toxicity. However, the problems of predictivity have remained due to appropriateness of the solubility, metabolic system, and prediction model. Therefore, we assessed the usefulness of rat liver S9 metabolic stability test using LC-MS/MS to develop new prediction model. A total of 71 chemicals were analyzed by measuring cytotoxicity and differentiation toxicity, and highly reproducible (CV=20%) results were obtained. The first prediction model was developed by discriminant analysis performed on a full dataset using Hand1-Luc EST, and 66.2% of the chemicals were correctly classified by the cross-validated classification. A second model was developed with additional descriptors obtained from the metabolic stability test to calculate hepatic availability, and an accuracy of 83.3% was obtained with applicability domain of 50.7% (=36/71) after exclusion of 22 metabolically inapplicable candidates, which potentially have a metabolic activation property. A step-wise prediction scheme with combination of Hand1-Luc EST and metabolic stability test was therefore proposed. The current results provide a promising in vitro test method for accurately predicting in vivo developmental toxicity.

  8. Parent Training in Groups: Pilot Study with Parents of Infants with Developmental Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccols, Alison; Mohamed, Shaheen

    2000-01-01

    Parents actively learned skills in sensitive responding to infant cues in an 8-week training group for parents of infants with developmental delay. Comparison of 12 participants and 5 controls on self-report pre-test/post-test measures indicated the intervention resulted in decreases in dysfunctional parent-child interactions, parental distress,…

  9. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  10. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  11. Developmental Planning: An Introduction for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Jim

    2009-01-01

    "Developmental Planning" is the thinking process of using developmental milestones as a general basis for planning and predicting needs for the child within the early years. It considers the time frames associated with normal development across all facets of the child's development. The areas include bone and joint development, movement, sensory…

  12. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    1999-01-01

    Three distinct periods mark the history of developmental psychology in Canada. Period 1 was dominated by cognitive developmental theorist, James Mark Baldwin. Period 2, defined by the Child Study Movement, began in the 1920s with Mental Hygiene Movement and founding of two child study centers. Period 3, started in the 1950s, focused on…

  13. Perceptions of Developmental Skills (PODS): A Multi-Source Rating Profile of Functional Capabilities for the Preschool Child. Research Edition. A Descriptive Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnato, Stephen J., Jr.; And Others

    The Perceptions of Developmental Skills (PODS) Profile is a rating scale designed to keep standardize and profile subjective perceptions of adults who have frequent contact with handicapped preschool children. It is intended to complement, rather than to replace, standardized developmental assessment procedures, by integrating a diagnostic…

  14. Relative developmental toxicity potencies of retinoids in the embryonic stem cell test compared with their relative potencies in in vivo and two other in vitro assays for developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Louisse, Jochem; Gönen, Süleyman; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Verwei, Miriam

    2011-05-30

    The present study determines the relative developmental toxicity potencies of retinoids in the embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cell differentiation assay of the embryonic stem cell test, and compares the outcomes with their relative potencies in in vivo and two other in vitro assays for developmental toxicity. The results reveal that the potency ranking obtained in the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay is similar to the reported potency rankings in the two other in vitro assays for developmental toxicity. TTNPB ((E)-4[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-propenyl]benzoic acid) was the most potent retinoid, whereas etretinate and retinol had the lowest potency. All-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid and acitretin showed an intermediate potency. In vivo potency rankings of the developmental toxicity of retinoids appear to be dependent on the species and/or exposure regimens used. The obtained in vitro potency ranking does not completely correspond with the in vivo potency rankings, although TTNPB is correctly predicted to be the most potent and retinol the least potent congener. The lack of in vivo kinetic processes in the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay might explain the deviating potency predictions of some retinoids. Therefore, knowledge on the species-dependent in vivo kinetics is essential when using in vitro toxicity data for the estimation of in vivo developmental toxicity potencies within series of related compounds.

  15. Developing and testing a framework for evaluating the quality of comprehensive family assessment in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Smithgall, Cheryl; Jarpe-Ratner, Elizabeth; Gnedko-Berry, Natalya; Mason, Sally

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade, Comprehensive Family Assessment (CFA) has become a best practice in child welfare. Comprehensive Family Assessments go beyond risk assessment to develop a full picture of the child's and family's situation. When appropriately synthesized, assessment information can lead to a clear articulation of the patterns of child or family functioning which are related to child abuse and maltreatment or which can be strengthened to facilitate change. This study defines and provides concrete examples of dimensions of quality in child welfare assessment reports that are consistent with the CFA guidelines and best practices embraced by child welfare agencies, courts, and other key stakeholders. Leveraging a random assignment design, the study compares the quality of reports written by a caseworker alone versus those written by a caseworker paired with a licensed Integrated Assessment (IA) screener. Findings are discussed in the context of the dual professional model and factors contributing to the timely completion of high quality assessment reports.

  16. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  17. Comparing Ways of Altering Parent-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Kate L.; Tyler, Nancy B.

    This study tests the effectiveness of 2 approaches to parenting instruction for parents of preschool developmentally delayed children aged 3 through 5. Sixty parent/child pairs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) individual parenting instruction only, (2) individual plus group instruction, and (3) comparison group with no instruction.…

  18. Individualized Child-Focused Curriculum: A Differentiated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronlund, Gaye

    2016-01-01

    How do you focus on each individual child in a full classroom? Learn to integrate individualized curriculum into daily practice with this step-­by-­step guide. Even good observers and documenters do not always use these insights to inform their curriculum planning. Using Developmental Studies, a new tool created and successfully field­-tested by…

  19. An invertebrate embryo test with the apple snail Marisa cornuarietis to assess effects of potential developmental and endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Schirling, M; Bohlen, A; Triebskorn, R; Köhler, H-R

    2006-09-01

    A novel invertebrate embryo test with the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis, comprising a test protocol for the following developmental endpoints is described: formation of eyes and tentacles, heart rate, hatching, weight after hatching. To evaluate effects on embryonic development, the snails were treated in a first step with 250 or 500 microg/l cadmium. Sublethal effects in terms of a significant delay in hatching could be found in the 250 microg/l treated animals, whereas 500 microg/l Cd were lethal for the snail embryos. To test endocrine disrupting chemicals with this protocol, experiments with bisphenol A (50 microg/l, 100 microg/l) and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (10 microg/l) were performed. In both treatments an increase of weight after hatching was observed as well as a significant decline in the heart rate of the embryos. As shown here, the sensitivity of M. cornuarietis embryos test is equal or even higher than other test species like zebrafish embryos and, therefore, this test can be regarded as an alternative or supplement for ecotoxicological studies.

  20. USING PEA AND SOYBEAN IN DEVELOPMENTAL TESTS FOR NON-TARGET PLANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current tests required for pesticide registration do not investigate the potential effects of chemical exposure on plant development. The tests investigate only seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant developm...

  1. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  2. [The molecular genetic characteristic of RNA of human enterovirus detected in bio-test from child with serous meningitis].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Petrov, A A; Kazantsev, A V; Suroviatkin, A V; Kokonova, M S; Lebedev, V N; Alekseev, Ia I; Varlamov, D A; Kutaev, D A; Vakhnov, E Iu; Borisevich, S V

    2014-12-01

    The article considers molecular genetic characteristic of RNA of human enterovirus detected in bio-test from child with serous meningitis. The nucleotide sequence of genome DNA is analyzed. In 98% it is identical to corresponding nucleotide sequences of strains of human enterovirus A serotype 71 detected in China.

  3. Individual and combined developmental toxicity assessment of bisphenol A and genistein using the embryonic stem cell test in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dan; Xing, Lina; Liu, Ran; Jiang, Jianjun; Wang, Wanyi; Shang, Lanqin; Wei, Xuetao; Hao, Weidong

    2013-10-01

    The potential developmental toxicity of environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptors have become a great concern in recent years. In this study, two typical environmental oestrogen, namely, bisphenol A (BPA) and genistein (GEN) were investigated for potential embryotoxicity using the embryonic stem cell test model. Afterwards, a 4×4 full factorial design and the estimated marginal means plot were performed to assess the combined effects of these two compounds. According to the linear discriminant functions and classification criteria, bisphenol A and genistein were classified as weakly embryotoxic and strongly embryotoxic respectively. As for combined effects, the overall interaction between BPA and GEN on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation was synergistic at low dosages, however, on ESCs and 3T3 cell proliferation, the predominate action was additive. Considering the actual daily intake of these chemicals, it is concluded that BPA alone might not have adverse reproductive or developmental effects on human being. However, given that BPA and GEN do have synergistic effect at low concentration, they may disturb normal embryo development together, which could result in birth defect and behavioral alterations later in life.

  4. Multi-parametric profiling network based on gene expression and phenotype data: a novel approach to developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Reiko; Akanuma, Hiromi; Qin, Xian-Yang; Imanishi, Satoshi; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Sone, Hideko

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of more efficient approaches for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) has been an emerging issue for children's environmental health. Here we describe a systematic approach for DNT using the neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) as a model of fetal programming. During embryoid body (EB) formation, mESCs were exposed to 12 chemicals for 24 h and then global gene expression profiling was performed using whole genome microarray analysis. Gene expression signatures for seven kinds of gene sets related to neuronal development and neuronal diseases were selected for further analysis. At the later stages of neuronal cell differentiation from EBs, neuronal phenotypic parameters were determined using a high-content image analyzer. Bayesian network analysis was then performed based on global gene expression and neuronal phenotypic data to generate comprehensive networks with a linkage between early events and later effects. Furthermore, the probability distribution values for the strength of the linkage between parameters in each network was calculated and then used in principal component analysis. The characterization of chemicals according to their neurotoxic potential reveals that the multi-parametric analysis based on phenotype and gene expression profiling during neuronal differentiation of mESCs can provide a useful tool to monitor fetal programming and to predict developmentally neurotoxic compounds. PMID:22312247

  5. Influence of developmental stage, salts and food presence on various end points using Caenorhabditis elegans for aquatic toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.; Williams, P.L.

    1995-12-01

    This study used a randomized block design to investigate the importance of several variables in using the free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, for aquatic toxicity testing. Concentration-response data were obtained on nematodes of various developmental stages exposed to four metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg) and a water-soluble organic toxicant, sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), under conditions of varied solvent medium (with or without salts and with or without a bacterial food source). The end points measured were 24- and 96-h mortality LC50 value, as well as development of larval stages to adulthood and evidence of reproduction. The results suggest that nematodes of various ages respond similarity to a given toxicant for all end points measured, although adults cultured from eggs appeared more sensitive than adults cultured from dauer larvae. The most important environmental variable in determining toxicity was the medium in which the tests were conducted. The presence of potassium and sodium salts in the medium significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the toxicity of many test samples. The presence of bacteria had little effect on 24-h tests with salts, but was important in 96-h survival and development. Based on sensitivity and ease of handling, adults cultured from eggs are recommended in both 24h and 96-h tests.

  6. Developmental validation of a novel lateral flow strip test for rapid identification of human blood (Rapid Stain Identification--Blood).

    PubMed

    Schweers, Brett A; Old, Jennifer; Boonlayangoor, P W; Reich, Karl A

    2008-06-01

    Human blood is the body fluid most commonly encountered at crime scenes, and blood detection may aid investigators in reconstructing what occurred during a crime. In addition, blood detection can help determine which items of evidence should be processed for DNA-STR testing. Unfortunately, many common substances can cause red-brown stains that resemble blood. Furthermore, many current human blood detection methods are presumptive and prone to false positive results. Here, the developmental validation of a new blood identification test, Rapid Stain Identification--Blood (RSID--Blood), is described. RSID--Blood utilizes two anti-glycophorin A (red blood cell membrane specific protein) monoclonal antibodies in a lateral flow strip test format to detect human blood. We present evidence demonstrating that this test is accurate, reproducible, easy to use, and highly specific for human blood. Importantly, RSID--Blood does not cross-react with ferret, skunk, or primate blood and exhibits no high-dose hook effect. Also, we describe studies on the sensitivity, body fluid specificity, and species specificity of RSID--Blood. In addition, we show that the test can detect blood from a variety of forensic exhibits prior to processing for DNA-STR analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that RSID--Blood is effective and useful for the detection of human blood on forensic exhibits, and offers improved blood detection when compared to other currently used methods.

  7. Developmental delays and autism: Screening and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Delahunty, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Screening and surveillance are crucial components to the early detection of developmental disorders in children, which enables early interventions that provide the best chances for improved outcomes. Identifying a developmental disorder is the initial step in evaluating the disorder. Surveillance is a flexible, continuous, longitudinal process aimed at identifying concerns, and it should be performed at every well-child visit. Screening involves administering a brief, standardized tool normalized for specific ages and stages of development to identify any developmental delays or specific concerns such as autism. Screening is recommended at every office visit and whenever a parent expresses a concern. Two general types of screening tests are available: problem-specific screening and broadband developmental screening. For each type, there are multiple different tests available that can be administered by a parent or a health care provider. Factors to consider in the test selection are the age range for which it is intended, time it takes to complete and score, cost, whether the test is paper-based or electronic, and the language availability.

  8. Sequence of Child Care Type and Child Development: What Role Does Peer Exposure Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.

    2010-01-01

    Child care arrangements change as children age; in general, hours in home-based child care decrease as hours in center-based settings increase. This sequence of child care type may correspond with children's developmental needs; the small peer groups and low child-adult ratios typical of home-based care may allow for more individual child-adult…

  9. Sex-Specific Pathways to Early Puberty, Sexual Debut, and Sexual Risk Taking: Tests of an Integrated Evolutionary-Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jenee; Ellis, Bruce J.; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested sex-specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking, as specified by an integrated evolutionary-developmental model of adolescent sexual development and behavior. In a prospective study of 238 adolescents (n = 129 girls and n = 109 boys) followed from approximately 12-18 years of age, we tested for…

  10. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  11. Manual for Replication of the Mother-Child Home Program. (Preliminary Version, for Field-Testing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis; And Others

    Information to assist local institutions in operating Mother-Child Programs i s provided in this manual as part of the Verbal Interaction Project. Following an introduction, the manual discusses the following topics: (1) Ingredients and Procedures of a Mother-Child Program, (2) Major Program Components, (3) Administrative and Other Practical…

  12. Amidst the Test: The Lived Experience of Teaching "under" No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Barbara Agard

    2011-01-01

    In this hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry I explore the lived experience of public school teachers teaching amidst the federal law entitled No Child Left Behind. My research question wonders, "What is the lived experience of teaching under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)?" My exploration relies heavily upon the work of Ted Aoki,…

  13. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  14. Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature.

  15. Research on Children's Play: Analysis of Developmental and Early Education Journals from 2005 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Mei-Fang; Johnson, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Our review examined four early childhood journals ("Early Child Development and Care," "Early Childhood Education Journal," "Journal of Research in Childhood Education," and "Early Childhood Research Quarterly") and four developmental science journals ("Child Development," "Developmental Psychology," "Journal of Applied Developmental…

  16. BWR full integral simulation test (FIST) program. TRAC-BWR model development. Volume 3. Developmental assessment for plant application

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Y.K.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Chu, K.H.; Shaug, J.C.

    1985-11-01

    The TRACB04 computer code has been developed under the model development tasks in the FIST Program. This report describes two developmental assessment calculations performed on BWR plants with TRACB04. A BWR/2 Design Basis Accident (DBA) including the containment response and a BWR/4 DBA with Low Pressure Coolant Injection (LPCI) water injected into the lower plenum were calculated and results of these cases were documented. These cases serve to test some of the new features of the TRACB04 (air field, containment model, ''water packing'' fixes and faster numerics in the three dimensional vessel component) and to demonstrate that the code has been assembled properly. They also provide best estimate LOCA results for the two plant types.

  17. Causal Connections in the Acquisition of an Orthographic Rule: A Test of Uta Frith's Developmental Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Claire; Bryant, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a longitudinal study we tested Frith's causal hypothesis that children first gain orthographic knowledge through reading and then later, as a consequence, through spelling. Method: Children from Years 2 and 3 were tested three times over two years on their reading and spelling of pseudo-words which conformed to the conditional…

  18. Seasonal changes in humidity impact drought resistance in tropical Drosophila leontia: testing developmental effects of thermal versus humidity changes.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam

    2014-03-01

    Drosophila leontia is native to highly humid equatorial tropical habitats but its desiccation sensitivity (~10h) is not consistent with its abundance during the drier autumn season in the subtropical regions. We have tested the effects of developmental acclimation on desiccation resistance and water balance related traits of D. leontia collected during rainy and autumn seasons. The isofemale lines of seasonal populations were reared under ecologically relevant growth temperatures (18 or 26 °C) or humidity conditions (35 or 85% RH) but tested at different times under identical experimental conditions. The larvae as well as flies reared under two thermal conditions (18 or 26 °C) showed no effect on desiccation related traits as well as storage and utilization of energy metabolites. In contrast, for D. leontia reared under low humidity (35% RH), significant changes at larval as well adult stages include increase in the desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity, reduced levels of rate of body water loss, higher storage of carbohydrates but lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates as compared with flies reared at high humidity (85% RH). D. leontia has responded to rearing under low humidity conditions by increasing its desiccation resistance but not due to changes in the growth temperatures. These laboratory observations on seasonal populations highlight differences due to rearing conditions but not due to seasons. Further, direct analysis of wild-caught seasonal populations has shown trends similar to developmental acclimation effects. For wild caught flies, there are significant seasonal differences i.e. higher desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity but reduced rate of water loss for autumn than rainy season flies. Thus, our laboratory observations are relevant for understanding seasonal adaptations of natural populations of tropical D. leontia to wet-dry conditions in the wild.

  19. AN INTELLIGENT REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING PARADIGM FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing the chemical evaluation bottleneck that currently exists can only be achieved through progressive changes to the current testing paradigm. The primary resources for addressing these issues lie in computational toxicology, a field enriched by recent advances in computer...

  20. Developmental dysplasia of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Noordin, Shahryar; Umer, Masood; Hafeez, Kamran; Nawaz, Haq

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a spectrum of anatomical abnormalities of the hip joint in which the femoral head has an abnormal relationship with the acetabulum. Most studies report an incidence of 1 to 34 cases per 1,000 live births and differences could be due to different diagnostic methods and timing of evaluation. Risk factors include first born status, female sex, positive family history, breech presentation and oligohydramnios. Clinical presentations of DDH depend on the age of the child. Newborns present with hip instability, infants have limited hip abduction on examination, and older children and adolescents present with limping, joint pain, and/or osteoarthritis. Repeated, careful examination of all infants from birth and throughout the first year of life until the child begins walking is important to prevent late cases. Provocative testing includes the Barlow and Ortolani maneuvers. Other signs, such as shorting of the femur with hips and knees flexed (Galeazzi sign), asymmetry of the thigh or gluteal folds, and discrepancy of leg lengths are potential clues. Treatment depends on age at presentation and outcomes are much better when the child is treated early, particularly during the first six months of life. PMID:21808709

  1. A simple spatial working memory and attention test on paired symbols shows developmental deficits in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Jinhua; Ma, Lina; Jesse, Forrest Fabian; Teng, Xiaochun; Zhou, Ying; Bao, Hechen; Chen, Shiqing; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chu, Xixia; Ding, Wenhua; Du, Yasong; Cheng, Zaohuo; Wu, Bin; Chen, Shanguang; He, Guang; He, Lin; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    People with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia often display deficits in spatial working memory and attention. Evaluating working memory and attention in schizophrenia patients is usually based on traditional tasks and the interviewer's judgment. We developed a simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols (SWAPS). It takes only several minutes to complete, comprising 101 trials for each subject. In this study, we tested 72 schizophrenia patients and 188 healthy volunteers in China. In a healthy control group with ages ranging from 12 to 60, the efficiency score (accuracy divided by reaction time) reached a peak in the 20-27 age range and then declined with increasing age. Importantly, schizophrenia patients failed to display this developmental trend in the same age range and adults had significant deficits compared to the control group. Our data suggests that this simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols can be a useful tool for studies of spatial working memory and attention in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-10

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

  3. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. PMID:24094999

  4. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: A United States national study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathaniel J.; Glisson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths’ psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers’ responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers’ (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. PMID:24094999

  5. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development.

  6. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development. PMID:26248798

  7. The Effects of Attention Problems on Depression: Developmental, Academic, and Cognitive Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated developmental pathways between inattention and depression, particularly the roles of school maladjustment and child cognitions. Additionally, a measure of conduct problems was included in all analyses to test competing theories about the emergence of depressive symptoms. Results supported the hypothesized path models…

  8. Integrating Concepts and Tests of Intelligence from the Differential and Developmental Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie; Demetriou, Andreas; Platsidou, Matria; Kazi, Smaragda

    2001-01-01

    Studied a possible convergence in the structure of cognitive abilities as specified by classical psychometric theory and two neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development by administering a large test battery to 120 children aged 7 to 10. Results support the integration of several theories of intelligence into a comprehensive system. (SLD)

  9. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information concerning the effects of a test substance on male and female reproductive performance such as... the reproductive system. The number of implantation sites should be recorded. Corpora lutea should be...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice...

  10. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information concerning the effects of a test substance on male and female reproductive performance such as... the reproductive system. The number of implantation sites should be recorded. Corpora lutea should be...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice...

  11. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information concerning the effects of a test substance on male and female reproductive performance such as... the reproductive system. The number of implantation sites should be recorded. Corpora lutea should be...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice...

  12. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information concerning the effects of a test substance on male and female reproductive performance such as... the reproductive system. The number of implantation sites should be recorded. Corpora lutea should be...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information concerning the effects of a test substance on male and female reproductive performance such as... the reproductive system. The number of implantation sites should be recorded. Corpora lutea should be...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice...

  14. The Effects of Alternative Study Guide Labels on Testing in Developmental Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Shellie Calhoun

    2012-01-01

    Methods and teaching tools have been researched to determine if they prove to be successful in effectively teaching the underprepared. This study was conducted to compare the differences in the utilization of alternative labeling on study guides to determine if the usage affects the outcome on participant's test scores. A quasi-experimental…

  15. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  16. The Effect of Supplementary Entries on Reading Comprehension Tests in College Level, Developmental Reading Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanias, George Stephen

    A study investigated whether students who were allowed to underline, highlight, make notes in the margin, and indicate where they found their answers in the reading selection of a test scored higher than students who were allowed only to refer to the reading materials to find the correct answers. Subjects were 41 students in 2 classes of college…

  17. Developmental Placement of Kindergarten Children Based on the Gesell School Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porwancher, Donna; De Lisi, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Examined kindergarten children's performance on the Gesell School Readiness Test (GSRT) and their participation in two different instructional programs in relation to measures of intelligence, academic achievement, and temperament. Found significant relationships among the GSRT, IQ, and academic achievement. Temperament ratings varied according to…

  18. Developmental neurotoxicity testing in vitro: Models for assessing chemical effects on neurite outgrowth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro models may be useful for the rapid toxicological screening of large numbers of chemicals for their potential to produce toxicity. Such screening could facilitate prioritization of resources needed for in vivo toxicity testing towards those chemicals most likely to resul...

  19. Developmental Neurotoxicology: History and Outline of Developmental Neurotoxicity Study Guidelines.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work provides a brief review of basic concepts in developmental neurotoxicology, as well as current representative testing guidelines for evaluating developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of xenobiotics. Historically, DNT was initially recognized as a “functional” teratoge...

  20. Political violence and child adjustment: longitudinal tests of sectarian antisocial behavior, family conflict, and insecurity as explanatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Edward M; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally, mothers and their adolescents (M = 12.33, SD = 1.78, at Time 1) from 2-parent families in Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures assessing multiple levels of a social ecological model. Utilizing autoregressive controls, a 3-wave longitudinal model test (T1, n = 299; T2, n = 248; T3, n = 197) supported a specific pathway linking sectarian community violence, family conflict, children's insecurity about family relationships, and adjustment problems.

  1. Predicting the continued use of overlays in school children--a comparison of the Developmental Eye Movement test and the Rate of Reading test.

    PubMed

    Northway, Nadia

    2003-09-01

    Coloured overlays have been advocated to enhance reading speed and ability in children with reading difficulty or dyslexia. Assessing the efficacy of overlays has to date been largely subjective. Objective assessment is presently carried out with the Rate of Reading test (RRT), where an increase in reading speed of more than 5% is considered to indicate a positive prognosis for continued use of the overlay. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is used to assess horizontal scanning behaviour in a number naming task. In this study both tests were utilised to determine whether coloured overlays could enhance reading performance or scanning. This article shows that for some children rate of reading is not improved with coloured overlays although performance on the DEM test does improve. Improvements to the DEM scores occurred in 88% of children who continued to use overlays for more than 3 months. This compared with 60% sensitivity in the RRT. The possible reasons for this phenomenon and the clinical implications are discussed. PMID:12950892

  2. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  3. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  4. Editors' Conclusion: Child, Youth, and Parent Responses to the Terrorism of September 11, 2001--Implications for Applied Developmental Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

    2004-01-01

    Even as the events of September 11, 2001 recede into the past, the need for applied developmental science to lend its expertise to assist with one's understanding of and coping with civilian responses to terrorism has never been greater. What has the field learned from studies of the effects of events of September 11th on children, youths, and…

  5. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  6. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part II: The Nature and Causes of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses issues and current thinking about the nature and causes of the disorder. These include the idea that DAS is a disorder of overall language development or that DAS is a problem of the "motor-programming" system for speech. An…

  7. Validation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) among Chinese Children in a Child Psychiatry Clinic in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Mo, Flora Y. M.; Lee, Marshall M. C.; Shea, Caroline K. S.; Chan, Grace F. C.; Che, Kiti K. I.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Mak, Arthur D. P.; Warrington, Richard; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder with high levels of co-morbidities. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) is a relatively new instrument designed to provide dimensional as well as categorical assessment of autistic behaviours among children with normal intelligence. Its sound psychometric properties and…

  8. A Child with Signs of Developmental Apraxia of Speech with Whom a Palatal Lift Prosthesis Was Used to Manage Palatal Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl who exhibited characteristics consistent with developmental apraxia of speech, including excessive nasal resonance and nasal emission of air resulting from velopharyngeal port dysfunction, was fitted with a palatal lift prosthesis and followed for 11 years. Results of use of the lift and speech/language remedial programing are…

  9. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Performance in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Griffin P.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Bello, Danielle T.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of visuoconstructional abilities is a common part of clinical neuropsychological assessment, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI; K. E. Beery & N. A. Beery, 2004) is often used for this purpose. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties when used to assess children and…

  10. A Developmental English Proficiency Test (ADEPT): A Study in the Effectiveness of the ADEPT Assessment on Teacher Candidate Instructional Planning for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nancy; Tucker, Janice

    2011-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) are a dynamic and rapidly growing population within the California school system. In this age of greater accountability, teachers need access to the tools necessary for effectively reaching this growing subpopulation of students. In this study, A Developmental English Proficiency Test (ADEPT), a language assessment…

  11. A Factorial Analysis of Variance and Resulting Norm Tables for Tennessee Head Start Children Based on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara A.

    Data from a statewide screening of Tennessee Head Start children on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) are analyzed in this report for two purposes: to determine whether sex, race, and residence have a significant influence on visual motor development as measured by the VMI, and to develop VMI norms for the Tennessee Head…

  12. Developmental differences in explicit and implicit conceptual memory tests: a processing view account.

    PubMed

    Sauzéon, Hélène; Déjos, Marie; Lestage, Philippe; Arvind Pala, Prashant; N'kaoua, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed contradictory results in childhood literature about conceptual priming. Based on the processing view, two forms of conceptual priming were investigated across two experiments in children aged from 7 to 16: associative priming (using the free-association test) and relational (categorical) priming (using the categorical exemplar generation test) as well as their explicit memory measure counterparts (the associative-cued recall and the category-cued recall). Experiment 1 compared age differences in associative and relational (categorical) priming. Experiment 2 focused on relational (categorical) priming with manipulations of blocked/unblocked words per category. The results showed that (a) associative priming was unchanged in children aged from 7 to 16, whereas relational (categorical) priming improved from 7-9 to 13-16 years old, and (b) age differences in relational (categorical) priming still occurred under unblocked conditions and blocked condition, while age differences in explicit measures were reduced under blocked conditions. These findings were discussed in line with the debate between the system and processing view and in terms of knowledge and automaticity development. PMID:21500114

  13. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  14. Speechreading development in deaf and hearing children: introducing a new Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS)

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Fiona Elizabeth; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We describe the development of a new Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS) specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill which is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test that measures child speechreading (silent lipreading) at three psycholinguistic levels: words, sentences and short stories. The aims of the study were to standardize ToCS with deaf and hearing children and investigate the effects of hearing status, age and linguistic complexity on speechreading ability. Method 86 severely and profoundly deaf and 91 hearing children aged between 5 and 14 years participated. The deaf children were from a range of language and communication backgrounds and their preferred mode of communication varied. Results: Speechreading skills significantly improved with age for both deaf and hearing children. There was no effect of hearing status on speechreading ability and deaf and hearing showed similar performance across all subtests on ToCS. Conclusions The Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS) is a valid and reliable assessment of speechreading ability in school-aged children that can be used to measure individual differences in performance in speechreading ability. PMID:23275416

  15. Testing Models for the Contributions of Genes and Environment to Developmental Change in Adolescent Depression.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy L

    2015-07-01

    We tested two models to identify the genetic and environmental processes underlying longitudinal changes in depression among adolescents. The first assumes that observed changes in covariance structure result from the unfolding of inherent, random individual differences in the overall levels and rates of change in depression over time (random growth curves). The second assumes that observed changes are due to time-specific random effects (innovations) accumulating over time (autoregressive effects). We found little evidence of age-specific genetic effects or persistent genetic innovations. Instead, genetic effects are consistent with a gradual unfolding in the liability to depression and rates of change with increasing age. Likewise, the environment also creates significant individual differences in overall levels of depression and rates of change. However, there are also time-specific environmental experiences that persist with fidelity. The implications of these differing genetic and environmental mechanisms in the etiology of depression are considered.

  16. Testing Models for the Contributions of Genes and Environment to Developmental Change in Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy L.

    2015-01-01

    We tested two models to identify the genetic and environmental processes underlying longitudinal changes in depression among adolescents. The first assumes that observed changes in covariance structure result from the unfolding of inherent, random individual differences in the overall levels and rates of change in depression over time (random growth curves). The second assumes that observed changes are due to time-specific random effects (innovations) accumulating over time (autoregressive effects). We found little evidence of age-specific genetic effects or persistent genetic innovations. Instead, genetic effects are consistent with a gradual unfolding in the liability to depression and rates of change with increasing age. Likewise, the environment also creates significant individual differences in overall levels of depression and rates of change. However, there are also time-specific environmental experiences that persist with fidelity. The implications of these differing genetic and environmental mechanisms in the etiology of depression are considered. PMID:25894924

  17. Effects of parental presence and child characteristics on children's neuropsychological test performance: third party observer effect confirmed.

    PubMed

    Yantz, Christine L; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    An observer's presence during neuropsychological testing can impair task performance in adults, but this phenomenon has yet to be examined as it pertains to neuropsychological testing of children. The current study focused on parental presence effects on nonverbal intelligence and verbal learning performance of children aged 6 to 8 years. Each of 53 children completed one form of the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-3rd Edition (TONI-3) and the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) with his/her parent in the room and an alternate form of each with only the experimenter with the child in the testing room. Of several possible covariates, only the child's age was significant and included in final analyses. Using a doubly multivariate MANCOVA it was discovered that parent's observation status significantly interacted with the order of observation to impact task performance. This significant effect can mainly be attributed to a steeper positive slope (i.e., children's greater improvement over time) for TONI-3 T scores in children whose parent observed first; children whose parents were absent for the first half of testing improved to a lesser extent over time. No significant relationship was found between observation and SRT scores. These results lend some support to the assertion of previous studies that the presence of third party observers may affect the validity of neuropsychological test results. PMID:18609333

  18. A Developmental Psychology Perspective in Germany: Co-Construction of Transitions between Family and Education System by the Child, Parents and Pedagogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebel, Wilfried; Niesel, Renate

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, there exists a traditional gap between kindergarten and primary school. Transition research has led to a new understanding of the need for cooperation between different educational institutions and the family at this time. This article emphasises that educational transitions affect not only the child but also the parents, who actively…

  19. Developmental Continuity and Stability of Emotional Availability in the Family: Two Ages and Two Genders in Child-Mother Dyads from Two Regions in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gini, Motti; Venuti, Paola; de Falco, Simona; Heslington, Marianne; de Galperin, Celia Zingman

    2010-01-01

    This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective, and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and US American metropolitan and rural residence…

  20. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  1. Testing the Relationship between Human Occupancy in the Landscape and Tadpole Developmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Eterovick, Paula C.; Bar, Luís F. F.; Souza, Jorge B.; Castro, José F. M.; Leite, Felipe S. F.; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

  2. Testing the relationship between human occupancy in the landscape and tadpole developmental stress.

    PubMed

    Eterovick, Paula C; Bar, Luís F F; Souza, Jorge B; Castro, José F M; Leite, Felipe S F; Alford, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

  3. Effect of primary language on developmental testing in children born extremely preterm

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Jean R.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Vohr, Betty; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Duncan, Andrea F.; Watterberg, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Aim To better understand the impact of non-English language spoken in the home on measures of cognition, language, and behavior in toddlers born extremely preterm. Methods Eight hundred and fifty children born at <28 weeks gestational ages were studied. 427 male and 423 female participants from three racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic) were evaluated at 18-22 months adjusted age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition and the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). Children whose primary language was Spanish (n=98) were compared with children whose primary language was English (n=752), using multivariable regression adjusted for medical and psychosocial factors. Results Cognitive scores were similar between groups; however, receptive, expressive and composite language scores were lower for children whose primary language was Spanish. These differences remained significant after adjustment for medical and socio-economic factors. Spanish speaking children scored worse on the BITSEA competence and problem scores using univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for medical and socio-economic factors. Conclusions Our finding that preterm children whose primary language was Spanish had similar cognitive but lower language scores than those whose primary language was English suggests that using English language-based testing tools may introduce bias against non-English speaking children born preterm. PMID:23735043

  4. Femininity and Kin-Directed Altruism in Androphilic Men: A Test of an Evolutionary Developmental Model.

    PubMed

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Petterson, Lanna J; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward males whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward females. This study tested the adaptive feminine phenotype model of the evolution of male androphilia via kin selection, which posits that the development of an evolved disposition toward elevated kin-directed altruism among androphilic males is contingent on the behavioral expression of femininity. Gynephilic men, androphilic women, and androphilic men (N = 387) completed measures of childhood and adulthood gender expression and concern for kin's well-being. Adulthood femininity correlated positively with uncle/aunt-like tendencies among androphilic men and women. Although androphilic women reported greater willingness to invest in nieces and nephews than gynephilic and androphilic men, mediation analyses indicated that adult femininity completely mediated these group differences. In addition, changes in the expression of femininity between childhood and adulthood were associated with parallel changes in concern for the well-being of kin among androphilic men. Thus, these findings suggest that femininity is key to the expression of kin-directed altruism among androphilic males and may have been important in the evolution of male androphilia. PMID:26597647

  5. Early developmental delays: neuropsychological sequelae and subsequent diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee

    2012-01-01

    Developmental delay is a frequent diagnosis given to young children when developmental milestones are not met in an age-expected time frame. Research on early delays in speech and motor milestones is unclear regarding possible long-term cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of children who suffered early developmental delays in speech or motor function. Participants (N = 60) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test, Children's Memory Test (CMT), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and the Child Behavior Checklist/Youth Self-Report. The Delay group had a significantly lower Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), and when controlling for IQ (analysis of covariance), the Delay group had significantly lower scores on measures of immediate and delayed visual memory skills (CMT). Group scores were not significantly different for any other tests. Neither group had any test scores significantly below FSIQ, a finding suggesting developmental delays may subsequently lead to weaknesses but not impairments. Results appear to support the resiliency of the young brain. Chi-square analysis showed the Delay group was more likely to subsequently be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but not learning disorders. Data appear to suggest that early developmental delays may place children as risk for ADHD and perhaps visual memory weaknesses, though not clear impairments. PMID:23428279

  6. Congenital hypotonia: clinical and developmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Susan R

    2008-12-01

    Identifying the underlying cause of congenital hypotonia remains difficult, despite advances in diagnostic laboratory and imaging techniques. Clinical evaluation strategies and standardized developmental tests can assist in differentiating hypotonia resulting from primary involvement of the upper motoneuron (central hypotonia) versus that involving the lower motoneuron and motor unit (peripheral hypotonia). This is especially important in infants with idiopathic hypotonia. This review outlines and describes the components of the clinical assessment: detailed infant and family history, clinical techniques and characteristics for differentiating hypotonia of central versus peripheral origin, and clinical evaluation (muscle tone, primitive reflexes, deep tendon reflexes, etc). Recent research that has contributed to the differential diagnosis of congenital hypotonia is reviewed and directions for future research are provided. Ideally, the assessment of infants with congenital hypotonia is best accomplished by an interdisciplinary team of developmental specialists including pediatricians, medical geneticists, child neurologists, and physical or occupational therapists. PMID:19046184

  7. Tests of the Dynamic Field Theory and the Spatial Precision Hypothesis: Capturing a Qualitative Developmental Transition in Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Anne R.; Spencer, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a dynamic field theory (DFT) of spatial working memory and an associated spatial precision hypothesis (SPH). Between three and six years of age there is a qualitative shift in how children use reference axes to remember locations: 3-year-olds’ spatial recall responses are biased toward reference axes after short memory delays, whereas 6-year-olds’ responses are biased away from reference axes. According to the DFT and the SPH, quantitative improvements over development in the precision of excitatory and inhibitory working memory processes lead to this qualitative shift. Simulations of the DFT in Experiment 1 predict that improvements in precision should cause the spatial range of targets attracted toward a reference axis to narrow gradually over development with repulsion emerging and gradually increasing until responses to most targets show biases away from the axis. Results from Experiment 2 with 3- to 5-year-olds support these predictions. Simulations of the DFT in Experiment 3 quantitatively fit the empirical results and offer insights into the neural processes underlying this developmental change. PMID:19968430

  8. Reference values for quantitative sensory testing in children and adolescents: developmental and gender differences of somatosensory perception.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, M; Boekens, H; Hechler, T; Maier, C; Krumova, E; Scherens, A; Magerl, W; Aksu, F; Zernikow, B

    2010-04-01

    The Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) protocol of the German research network on neuropathic pain (DFNS) encompassing all somatosensory modalities assesses the functioning of different nerve fibers and of central pathways. The aim of our study was: (1) to explore, whether this QST protocol is feasible for children, (2) to detect distribution properties of QST data and the impact of body site, age and gender and (3) to establish reference values for QST in children and adolescents. The QST protocol of the DFNS with modification of instructions and pain rating was used in 176 children aged 6.12-16.12years for six body sites. QST was feasible for children over 5years of age. ANOVAs revealed developmental, gender and body site differences of somatosensory functions similar to adults. The face was more sensitive than the hand and/or foot. Younger children (6-8years) were generally less sensitive to all thermal and mechanical detection stimuli but more sensitive to all pain stimuli than older (9-12years) children, whereas there were little differences between older children and adolescents (13-17years). Girls were more sensitive to thermal detection and pain stimuli, but not to mechanical detection and pain stimuli. Reference values differ from adults, but distribution properties (range, variance, and side differences) were similar and plausible for statistical factors. Our results demonstrate that the full QST protocol is feasible and valid for children over 5years of age with their own reference values.

  9. Child Development Research and the Poor Children of America: A Call for a Developmental Contextual Approach to Research and Outreach [and] Further Perspectives on Child Development Research: A Reconsideration and a Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Marvin H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    McKinney et al. assert that most studies of child development focus on European-American middle class children and do not consider the ecology of children's development. They recommend that researchers include diversity and context in the research agenda. Fabes et al. respond by advising researchers how to evaluate the importance of social…

  10. Developmental Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) during sensitive developmental windows can interfere with cognitive function and behavior, which are critical components of neurodevelopment. The association between developmental exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment has been extensively studied using animal models. In this review, we focus on the accumulating evidence in humans. Despite methodological, geographical, and temporal differences between studies, the majority of the epidemiologic evidence supports that early life exposure to PBDEs measured during pregnancy and/or during childhood is detrimental to child neurodevelopment in domains related to child behavior, cognition, and motor skills. While the precise mechanism of action of PBDEs on neurodevelopment is unknown, PBDE-induced neurotoxicity via thyroid hormone disruption and direct action of PBDEs on the developing brain have been proposed and tested. Additional studies are suggested to better understand how early life and/or childhood PBDE exposures, including exposure to specific PBDE congeners, impact neurodevelopmental indices. PMID:25530937

  11. It Takes a Village to Deliver and Test Child and Family-Focused Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Mary M.; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia M.; Kalogerogiannis, Kosta; Umpierre, Mari; Olshtain-Mann, Orly; Bannon, William; Elwyn, Laura; Goldstein, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to highlight the benefits of collaboration in child focused mental health services research. Method: Three unique research projects are described. These projects address the mental health needs of vulnerable, urban, minority children and their families. In each one, service delivery was codesigned,…

  12. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  13. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  14. Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibb, T. Clifford

    1998-01-01

    Outlines steps developmental educators need to take to win the cooperation of more students. Argues also that developmental educators must include computer literacy in their understanding of literacy. (SR)

  15. HIV counseling and testing for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Swaziland: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Sagna, Marguerite L; Schopflocher, Donald

    2015-01-01

    HIV counseling and voluntary testing during antenatal care have been proven to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from mother to child, through increasing knowledge about safe behaviors, ascertaining HIV status and increasing coverage of effective antiretroviral regimens. However, it remains that, in developing countries where 95 % of mother-to-child HIV transmissions (MTCT) take place, such interventions are not widely accessible or available. Using a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey, the present study aimed to examine individual- and contextual-level influences on the receipt of HIV pre-test counseling and uptake of HIV testing during the antenatal care period in Swaziland, a country highly burdened by HIV/AIDS. The study sample was restricted to women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the past five years preceding the survey and who received antenatal care for the most recent birth. The findings of this study indicated that only 62 % of women received pre-test counseling for the prevention of MTCT and no more than 56 % of women consented to be tested for HIV during antenatal care. The multilevel regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of receiving HIV pre-test counseling increases significantly with higher parity, education level, household wealth and antenatal visits while it is lower in areas where poverty is pervasive (OR = 0.474) and in rural regions (OR = 0.598) as well. Beyond all the significant predictors, undergoing pre-test counseling has emerged as an important determinant of HIV testing. Receiving pre-test counseling increases the odds of accepting an HIV test by 77 %. Evidence from this analysis underscores bottlenecks and challenges that persist in increasing the need for and uptake of HIV preventive and treatment services to stop new HIV infections among children. PMID:24810361

  16. Extended Child and Caregiver Benefits of Behavior-Based Child Contingency Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…

  17. Deletion of SNURF/SNRPN U1B and U1B* upstream exons in a child with developmental delay and excessive weight.

    PubMed

    Koufaris, Costas; Alexandrou, Angelos; Papaevripidou, Ioannis; Alexandrou, Ioanna; Christophidou-Anastasiadou, Violetta; Sismani, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay and excessive appetite. This syndrome is caused by the loss of function of paternally-expressed genes located in an imprinting centre in 15q11-q13. Here, we report the case of a patient who was referred to us with Prader-Willi syndrome-like symptoms including obesity and developmental delay. Examination of this patient revealed that he was a carrier of a paternally inherited deletion that affected the U1B and U1B* upstream exons of the SNURF-SNRNP gene within the 15q11-q13 imprinted region. Mutations localized within this genomic region have not been previously reported in Prader-Willi syndrome patients. It is possible that disruption of upstream exons of SNURF-SNRNP could contribute to Prader-Willi phenotype by disrupting brain-specific alternative transcripts, although, case reports from further patients with a comparable phenotype are required. PMID:27659333

  18. Inclusive Child Care for Infants and Toddlers: Meeting Individual and Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Marion

    With an increasing emphasis on inclusive child care, that is, care for children with and without disabilities within the same setting, there is a greater need for tested and workable approaches to provision of such care. Based on a developmental-ecological model of care and early intervention, this book is a resource for practitioners providing…

  19. CWLA Standards of Excellence for the Management and Governance of Child Welfare Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Carl, Ed.

    This document presents the 1996 Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) standards based on current knowledge, children's developmental needs, and tested ways of meeting these needs most effectively. The standards are intended to provide goals for improving services to children and families and are used in the development of the standards of the…

  20. The Empirical Interests of Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Kenneth O.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classification system for developmental psychology that was constructed by means of a survey of articles published in the journals "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" in 1969 and 1987. The survey found that eight empirical questions encompassed the full range of empirical interests expressed by developmental…

  1. Neurocognitive Outcomes Following Pediatric Brain Injury: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Armande Marcela

    2003-01-01

    This literature review was conducted to evaluate the developmental perspective on neurocognitive recovery/development following a child's traumatic brain injury. Overall, the described findings support a developmental view and suggest that predictions of prognosis should be based on the child's remaining ability to learn. (Contains 50 references.)…

  2. What Are Good Child Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Evans, V. Jeffery; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Roth, Jodie

    This paper considers the question "What are good child outcomes?" from the perspectives of developmental psychology, economics, and sociology. Section 1 of the paper examines good child outcomes as characteristics of stage-salient tasks of development. Section 2 emphasizes the acquisition of "human capital," the development of productive traits…

  3. Writing Stages: A Developmental Hierarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.

    The developmental stages of writing can be related to Jean Piaget's final three stages of development (preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational) and to the narrative, descriptive, explanative, analytical, and artistic rhetorical modes. As the child enters kindergarten or the first grade, narrative blooms. By this age most young…

  4. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  5. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  6. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    The history of developmental psychology in Canada prior to 1960 is concisely recounted. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the…

  7. Progressive and Regressive Developmental Changes in Neural Substrates for Face Processing: Testing Specific Predictions of the Interactive Specialization Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jane E.; Gathers, Ann D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Face processing undergoes a fairly protracted developmental time course but the neural underpinnings are not well understood. Prior fMRI studies have only examined progressive changes (i.e. increases in specialization in certain regions with age), which would be predicted by both the Interactive Specialization (IS) and maturational theories of…

  8. Markers of murine embryonic and neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes: reference points for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is a significant concern for environmental chemicals, as well as for food and drug constituents. The sensitivity of animal-based DNT models is unclear, and they are expensive and time consuming. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) recapitulate sev...

  9. Exceptional Child I: Building Understanding [and] Exceptional Child II: Focusing on Nurturing & Learning. The Developing Child. [Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magna Systems, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL.

    These two videotape recordings and accompanying workbook provide information on the developmental stages of childhood, influences on child development, and identifying children with disabilities. The videos, "Exceptional Child 1: Building Understanding," (27 minutes) and "Exceptional Child 2: Focusing on Nurturing & Learning," (28 minutes) address…

  10. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population.

  11. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  12. Evidence of Compensatory Processing in Adults with Developmental Language Impairment: Testing the Predictions of the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Poll, Gerard H.; Miller, Carol A.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) proposes that individuals with primary developmental language impairment (DLI) have a deficient procedural memory, compromising their syntactic abilities. Individuals with DLI may compensate for procedural memory deficits by engaging declarative memory for syntactic tasks. Arguments are part of the lexicon whereas adjuncts rely on syntactic processing. As a result, individuals with DLI may have unusual difficulty processing adjuncts. Alternatively, processing for adjuncts may be typical for individuals with DLI but show frequency effects, indicating compensatory use of declarative memory. Aims Our goal was to test the predictions of the PDH by comparing argument and adjunct processing times for adults with and without DLI, and to seek evidence of compensatory use of declarative memory for adjunct processing. We further evaluated group performance on measures of visual procedural and declarative memory. Methods & Procedures Forty-four adults, 21 with DLI, completed a self-paced listening task, a procedural memory task, and a declarative memory task. The self-paced listening task tracked the word-by-word processing time for sentences that included prepositional phrases acting as arguments or adjuncts. We used regression analysis to determine effects of group membership and argument or adjunct status on processing times. Correlation analyses evaluated relationships between argument and adjunct frequency on processing times by group. Results & Outcomes We found no effect of group membership on the processing time for arguments and adjuncts in the self-paced listening task. Argument phrases were processed more easily by both groups. There were frequency effects for adjunct processing for the group with DLI, but not the group with typical language. We did not find the expected frequency effects for argument processing. The group with DLI also performed more poorly in both the procedural and declarative memory tasks

  13. Developmental and sex differences in somatosensory perception--a systematic comparison of 7- versus 14-year-olds using quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, M; Meyer, D; Hirschfeld, G; Kraemer, N; Hechler, T; Aksu, F; Krumova, E K; Magerl, W; Maier, C; Zernikow, B

    2011-11-01

    There are controversial discussions regarding developmental- and sex-related differences in somatosensory perception, which were found, eg, when comparing younger children (6-8 years), older children (9-12 years), and adolescents (13-16 years) using quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aim of our current study was to systematically assess the impact of age and sex using the QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS). QST, including thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, was assessed in 86 healthy 7-year-old children (42 girls and 44 boys) and 87 healthy 14-year-old adolescents (43 girls and 44 boys). The sample size was calculated a priori to detect medium-sized effects as found in the previous studies with adequate power. Developmental and sex differences were tested using univariate analysis of variance. Children were more sensitive to most pain stimuli, except cold pain stimuli, compared with adolescents, but did not differ in mechanical and thermal detection thresholds except in regard to cold stimuli. Sex had an impact only on warm detection, with girls being more sensitive. There were no interactions between age and sex. In conclusion, developmental changes during the puberty appear to influence pain perception, whereas sex effects in childhood are negligible. At present, it is not clear what brings about the differences between adult men and women that are apparent in epidemiological studies. Our results contradict the hypothesis that differences in peripheral nerve-fiber functioning underlie sex effects.

  14. 78 FR 69943 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Q3s 3-Year-Old Child Side Impact Test Dummy, Incorporation by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical issues: Peter... of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) which NHTSA published on May 2, 2002, 67 FR 21836. In early 2002... tests and component tests. Sled tests establish the consistency of the dummy's kinematics, its...

  15. Frontal Sled Tests Comparing Rear and Forward Facing Child Restraints with 1–3 Year Old Dummies

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Crandall, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  16. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  17. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  18. Developmental issues in managing children with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Savinetti-Rose, B

    1994-01-01

    Children who are newly diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are expected to learn a substantial amount of new information within a few hospital days. It is important for nurses who design lesson plans for the child with IDDM to assess the child's developmental capabilities in relation to the necessary skills required of diabetes management and understand the family influence on the child's ability to perform self-care. PMID:8159478

  19. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  20. [Child neurology and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, K

    2000-05-01

    The history of child neurology and the changing pattern of research methods in this field are reviewed with special reference to holoprosencephaly and recent technical advances in sleep research. This is followed by a discussion on the relationship between child neurology and rehabilitation. The majority of child neurologic disorders are developmental disabilities, but acquired child neurological diseases also show chronic progressive course in many cases. Therefore, child neurologist should understand the basis of rehabilitation approach and appreciate the three classes of disabilities; subsequently, a plan needs to be incorporating medical treatment and a program of rehabilitation for the disabled children. It is important that the role of the various rehabilitation specialists (rehabilitation doctor, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, and others) are understood in relation to the work of pediatric neurologist. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on the rehabilitation approach of patients with hypoxic encephalopathy and the information of welfare equipment.

  1. Does developmental timing of exposure to child maltreatment predict memory performance in adulthood? Results from a large, population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Busso, Daniel S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smoller, Jordan W; Nelson, Charles A; Doyle, Alysa E; Luk, Gigi

    2016-01-01

    Although maltreatment is a known risk factor for multiple adverse outcomes across the lifespan, its effects on cognitive development, especially memory, are poorly understood. Using data from a large, nationally representative sample of young adults (Add Health), we examined the effects of physical and sexual abuse on working and short-term memory in adulthood. We examined the association between exposure to maltreatment as well as its timing of first onset after adjusting for covariates. Of our sample, 16.50% of respondents were exposed to physical abuse and 4.36% to sexual abuse by age 17. An analysis comparing unexposed respondents to those exposed to physical or sexual abuse did not yield any significant differences in adult memory performance. However, two developmental time periods emerged as important for shaping memory following exposure to sexual abuse, but in opposite ways. Relative to non-exposed respondents, those exposed to sexual abuse during early childhood (ages 3-5), had better number recall and those first exposed during adolescence (ages 14-17) had worse number recall. However, other variables, including socioeconomic status, played a larger role (than maltreatment) on working and short-term memory. We conclude that a simple examination of "exposed" versus "unexposed" respondents may obscure potentially important within-group differences that are revealed by examining the effects of age at onset to maltreatment.

  2. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family.

  3. Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Presenting as a Developmental Coordination Disorder with Bullying by Peers in a School-Age Child.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshiharu; Gunji, Tetsuki; Tohyama, Jun; Nairita, Aya; Nanba, Eiji; Ohno, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder, often with onset after normal early childhood development. Juvenile onset NPC patients slowly develop cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment and often experience difficulties at school. However, these problems may be overlooked due to the unpublicized nature of NPC, given that it is a rare metabolic disorder. In this report, we present an 11-year-old male NPC patient, who suffered from clumsiness and difficulties in attention and academic and social skills. His symptoms were initially considered to be due to developmental coordination disorder (DCD) coexisting with bullying by peers. DCD is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder defined according to DSM-IV and is characterized by clumsiness that interferes with academic achievement and social integration not due to other general medical conditions. However, a detailed investigation of the patient suggested that the problems could be attributed to the onset of NPC. Clinicians should keep neurodegenerative disorders as differential diagnosis of children with multiple school problems. PMID:26788393

  4. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family. PMID:24259184

  5. The Effectiveness of Aligned Developmental Feedback on the Overhand Throw in Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rona; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Lidor, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    Background: To improve student performance, teachers need to evaluate the developmental level of the child and to deliver feedback statements that correspond with the student's ability to process the information delivered. Therefore, feedback aligned with the developmental level of the child (aligned developmental feedback--ADF) is sometimes…

  6. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2010-06-01

    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and international governmental testing guidelines. The Segment II (developmental toxicity) study design, described in rodents and rabbits, has evolved with additional enhanced endpoints and better descriptions, mechanistic insights, range-finding studies, and toxico/pharmacokinetic ADME information (especially for pharmaceuticals). Society members were also involved in the development of the current screening assays and tests for endocrine disruptors (beginning in 1996) and are now involved with developing new testing guidelines (e.g., the extended one-generation protocol), and evaluating the current test guidelines and new initiatives under ILSI/HESI sponsorship. New initiatives include ToxCast from the U.S. EPA to screen, prioritize, and predict toxic chemicals by high throughput and high-content in vitro assays, bioinformation, and modeling to reduce (or eliminate) in vivo whole animal studies. Our Society and its journal have played vital roles in the scientific and regulatory accomplishments in birth defects research over the past 50 years and will continue to do so in the future. Happy 50th anniversary!

  7. The Impact of the Correlation between the No Child Left Behind Act's High Stakes Testing and the High Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Lavada M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    The author looks at critical dialogue surrounding the causes for the alarming high numbers of high school dropouts in states that use high stakes standardized testing mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, and investigates the perceived correlations between high stakes testing and high numbers of high school dropouts of minority students.

  8. Interparental conflict and child adjustment: testing the mediational role of appraisals in the cognitive-contextual framework.

    PubMed

    Grych, J H; Fincham, F D; Jouriles, E N; McDonald, R

    2000-01-01

    Children's appraisals of interparental conflict consistently have been associated with adjustment problems, but the processes that give rise to this association are not well understood. This paper proposes that appraisals of threat and self-blame mediate the association between children's reports of interparental conflict and internalizing problems, and tests this mediational hypothesis in two samples of children, one drawn from the community (317 ten- to fourteen-year-olds) and the other from battered women's shelters (145 ten- to twelve-year-olds). Results indicate that perceived threat mediates the association between interparental conflict and internalizing problems for boys and girls in both samples, and self-blame mediates this association for boys in both samples and girls in the shelter sample. Perceived threat and self-blame do not mediate links with externalizing problems, and there is no evidence of a moderating effect of appraisals on the association between conflict and child adjustment. Implications for understanding the mechanism by which exposure to interparental conflict could lead to child maladjustment are discussed.

  9. Developmental norms for the Gardner Steadiness Test and the Purdue Pegboard: a study with children of a metropolitan school in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, G N O; Santos-Morales, T R

    2002-08-01

    Norms for the Gardner Steadiness Test and the Purdue Pegboard were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. A computer-generated unbiased sample of 346 children with a mean age of 9.4 years (SD = 2.76), who were attending a large normal public school in this urban area, was the subject of this study. Two boys were removed from the study, one for refusing to participate and the other due to severe strabismus. Therefore, the final sample contained 344 children (173 boys and 171 girls). Sex and age of the child and hand preferred for writing, but not ethnic membership or social class, had significant effects on performance in the Gardner Steadiness Test and the Purdue Pegboard. Girls outperformed boys. Older children performed better than younger children. However, the predictive relationship between age of the child and neuropsychological performance included linear and curvilinear components. Comparison of the present results to data gathered in the United States revealed that the performance of this group of Brazilian children is equivalent to that of US children after Bonferroni's correction of the alpha level of significance. It is concluded that sex and age of the child and hand preferred for writing should be taken into account when using the normative data for the two instruments evaluated in the present study. Furthermore, the relevance of neurobehavioral antidotes for the obliteration of some of the probable neuropsychological effects of cultural deprivation in Brazilian public school children is hypothesized.

  10. Evidence-based milestone ages as a framework for developmental surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Dosman, Cara F; Andrews, Debbi; Goulden, Keith J

    2012-01-01

    Developmental surveillance is the process of monitoring child development over time to promote healthy development and to identify possible problems. Standardized developmental screeners have greater sensitivity than milestone-based history taking. Unfortunately, Canadian screening guidelines, to date, are sparse, logistical barriers to implementation have slowed uptake of screening tests and physicians continue to rely on milestones. When using clinical impression as a framework for surveillance, clinicians may not know when to consider a milestone delayed because developmental attainments exist within an age range and there is an absence of referenced percentiles on available published tables, which are particularly problematic for the cognitive and social-emotional sectors, which are less familiar to physicians. A novel, five-sector milestone framework with upper limits, referenced to the best available level of evidence, is presented. This framework may be used in teaching and may help physicians to better recognize failed milestones to facilitate early identification of children at risk for developmental disorders. PMID:24294064

  11. Evidence-based milestone ages as a framework for developmental surveillance.

    PubMed

    Dosman, Cara F; Andrews, Debbi; Goulden, Keith J

    2012-12-01

    Developmental surveillance is the process of monitoring child development over time to promote healthy development and to identify possible problems. Standardized developmental screeners have greater sensitivity than milestone-based history taking. Unfortunately, Canadian screening guidelines, to date, are sparse, logistical barriers to implementation have slowed uptake of screening tests and physicians continue to rely on milestones. When using clinical impression as a framework for surveillance, clinicians may not know when to consider a milestone delayed because developmental attainments exist within an age range and there is an absence of referenced percentiles on available published tables, which are particularly problematic for the cognitive and social-emotional sectors, which are less familiar to physicians. A novel, five-sector milestone framework with upper limits, referenced to the best available level of evidence, is presented. This framework may be used in teaching and may help physicians to better recognize failed milestones to facilitate early identification of children at risk for developmental disorders.

  12. Helping Your Child Perform Well on Tests. Assessment Brief. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietel, Ron

    2004-01-01

    To gain some insight into test preparation, some testing experts were asked to share their thoughts from their own parenting experiences. A crucial performance factor for a substantial number of students is test anxiety. According to University of Southern California Professor Harold O'Neil, Jr., "The relationship between high anxiety and poor…

  13. 46 CFR 160.171-19 - Approval testing for child size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stability test prescribed in § 160.171-17(c)(8), except that only six children need be used as test subjects...). (c) The body strength test prescribed in § 160.171-17(k) except that the cylinders must be 50 mm...

  14. Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... think there’s a problem. Watch the video » Child Development: It’s Better to Know (in Spanish) Learn why ... to do if you have concerns about your child's development. Watch this Spanish language video » Related Pages ...

  15. Home Intervention: Validating the Item Order of a Developmental Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, A. T.; Jansen, G. G.; van der Meulen, B. F.; Oenema-Mostert, C. E.; Ruijssenaars, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    To adapt home intervention processes to the needs of a child, a correct overview of skills that the child masters is necessary. The Portage Program, a home intervention program for families with children from 0 to 6 years of age with special educational needs, uses a checklist to assess the developmental skills that the child masters (S. M. Bluma,…

  16. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  17. Validation of symptom validity tests using a "child-model" of adult cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Rienstra, A; Spaan, P E J; Schmand, B

    2010-08-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children's cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Word Memory Test (WMT), the Amsterdam Short-Term Memory (ASTM) test, and the Word Completion Memory Test (WCMT), along with several neuropsychological instruments were administered to 48 Dutch school children aged 7-12. All children scored above the established adult cut-offs on the TOMM and the WMT. They could pass the ASTM test if their reading skills were at a level equivalent to that of 9 year olds. All children passed our criterion of a negative WCMT score. However, the WCMT does seem sensitive to the level of verbal fluency. Implications for the applicability of these SVTs in adult populations are discussed. PMID:20484327

  18. Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…

  19. Developmental toxicity studies with 6 forms of titanium dioxide test materials (3 pigment-different grade & 3 nanoscale) demonstrate an absence of effects in orally-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Boatman, R; Brown, S C

    2015-12-01

    Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50-82 m(2)/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal

  20. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043