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Sample records for child injury prevention

  1. Injury prevention and the attainment of child and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Peden, Margie; Soori, Hamid; Bartolomeos, Kidist

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Urgent attention is required to tackle the problem of child and adolescent injury across the world. There have been considerable shifts in the epidemiological patterns of child deaths; while great progress has been made in preventing infectious diseases, the exposure of children and adolescents to the risks of injury appear to be increasing and will continue to do so in the future. The issue of injuries is too often absent from child and adolescent health agendas. In December 2008, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund published the World report on child injury prevention, calling global attention to the problem of child injuries. This article expands on the report’s arguments that child injuries must be integrated into child health initiatives and proposes initial steps for achieving this integration. PMID:19551258

  2. Child injury prevention in Vietnam: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Ali, Maria; Nguyen, Ha T; Stevenson, Mark; Vu, Thien C; Nguyen, Duyen T Y; Ivers, Rebecca; Pham, Cuong V; Nguyen, An T T

    2012-01-01

    As with other South Asian countries, injury is becoming a leading cause of death and morbidity among children in Vietnam. In response to the increasing burden of child injury, government and non-government agencies in Vietnam have combined efforts during the last decade to develop and implement various child injury prevention strategies and programmes. This article provides, through a review of relevant documents and interviews with major stakeholders, an overview of these efforts and highlights major challenges to child injury prevention in the country. The findings point to notable achievements in terms of increasing awareness of injury facing children at all levels in the community and developing a sound injury prevention policy framework in a relatively short period of time. However, much needs to be done to implement necessary environmental and legislative changes, strengthen child injury surveillance and injury prevention research; and to improve access to health services. The insight into the experience of Vietnam could benefit other low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of child injury.

  3. Legislation coverage for child injury prevention in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Scherpbier, Robert; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Xin; Luo, Jiesi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the extent to which effective interventions to prevent unintentional child injury are reflected in the laws and regulations of China. Methods We focused on the six common causes of fatal child injuries – drowning, road traffic injury, falls, poisoning, burns and suffocation. We investigated 27 interventions recommended by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization or the European Child Safety Alliance. We searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Lawyee for Chinese legislations using keywords and synonyms for the 27 interventions. We reviewed the identified legislations for statements specifying the responsible implementation department. Findings Seven national laws, nine regulations of the State Council and 46 departmental regulations were found to relate to at least one of the interventions. Although seven of the 27 internationally recommended interventions were covered by Chinese laws, 10 were not covered by any current Chinese law or regulation. None of the interventions against drowning and falls that we investigated was covered by national laws. The implementation responsibilities for effective interventions were either not specified or were assigned to multiple governmental departments in 11 or 20 legislative documents, respectively. Conclusion In Chinese laws and regulations, interventions proven to prevent major causes of unintentional child injuries are underrepresented and the associated implementation responsibilities are often poorly defined. China should include all such interventions in laws and regulations, and assign implementation responsibility for each to a single department of the national government. PMID:25838612

  4. Child safety seats for the prevention of traffic injuries.

    PubMed

    Collar, M

    2001-05-01

    It's an old joke among new parents in Labor and Delivery: How many people did it take to install your car seat? Although the remark elicits chuckles from new moms and dads, using a child safety seat--and using it correctly--is no laughing matter. More children between the ages of one and ten die in automobile crashes than from any other type of injury or disease. In the under-one-year age group, this health risk is second only to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Some physicians, knowing how complicated child safety seats can be to use, may be reluctant to give advice to parents on their use. In addition, the potential liability of dispensing incorrect information may be enough to make some doctors reluctant to do so. However, there are some basic tips that physicians can and should be passing on to parents. Most parents place great trust in their child's physician; asking about the child's transportation and advocating proper child safety seat use is an effective prevention technique.

  5. Assessment of caregiver responsibility in unintentional child injury deaths: challenges for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Patricia G; Covington, Theresa M; Kruse, Robin L

    2011-02-01

    Most unintentional injury deaths among young children result from inadequate supervision or failure by caregivers to protect the child from potential hazards. Determining whether inadequate supervision or failure to protect could be classified as child neglect is a component of child death review (CDR) in most states. However, establishing that an unintentional injury death was neglect related can be challenging as differing definitions, lack of standards regarding supervision, and changing norms make consensus difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess CDR team members' categorisation of the extent to which unintentional injury deaths were neglect related. CDR team members were surveyed and asked to classify 20 vignettes-presented in 10 pairs-that described the circumstances of unintentional injury deaths among children. Vignette pairs differed by an attribute that might affect classification, such as poverty or intent. Categories for classifying vignettes were: (1) caregiver not responsible/not neglect related; (2) some caregiver responsibility/somewhat neglect related; (3) caregiver responsible /definitely neglect related. CDR team members from five states (287) completed surveys. Respondents assigned the child's caregiver at least some responsibility for the death in 18 vignettes (90%). A majority of respondents classified the caregiver as definitely responsible for the child's death in eight vignettes (40%). This study documents attributes that influence CDR team members' decisions when assessing caregiver responsibility in unintentional injury deaths, including supervision, intent, failure to use safety devices, and a pattern of previous neglectful behaviour. The findings offer insight for incorporating injury prevention into CDR more effectively.

  6. Child unintentional injury prevention in Eastern Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Soori, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The issue of child injuries in the EMR is a major public health concern. Objectives: This study aimed to present the epidemiological pattern of children's unintentional injuries in this region and compare the results for the EMR member states and the global status based on the findings of the World Report. Materials and Methods: This is a secondary analysis and focuses on unintentional injuries specifically road traffic injuries, drowning, burns, falls and poisoning, and adjusted for countries from EMR. Results: About 12% of all deaths due to unintentional injuries taking place globally under the age of 20 years took place in EMR with 113 327 deaths which is about 19% higher than the world rate (45.5 Vs. 38.8 per 100 000). In EMR the top five leading causes of death due to childhood unintentional injuries are reported to be from road traffic injuries (17.4 per 100 000), drowning (6.8 per 100 000), burns (4.5 per 100 000), falls (2.9 per 100 000) and poisoning (1.6 per 100 000). Estimated mortality showed that boys were more likely to be killed than girls. However, there was no significant difference for by age group. Conclusions: Injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among children in the EMR and that injury programmes focusing on major risk factors need to be integrated into other child health strategies, with ministries of health playing a pivotal role. PMID:27051620

  7. Child restraint misuse: a case example and strategies for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Beringer-Brown, Carol; Pearce, Jeanette; Rush, Carole

    2005-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death and serious injury for children. Emergency nurses can play a key role in encouraging parents and caregivers to use child restraints consistently and correctly. This article will discuss a case scenario where a young child is seriously injured in a motor vehicle crash where his child car seat was not used correctly. Injury prevention strategies for emergency nurses will be reviewed.

  8. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... not ride on these vehicles. After having a concussion or mild head injury , your child may need ...

  9. Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among special populations, and the role of sleep and fatigue on pediatric pedestrian safety. The second section of the review considers child pedestrian injury prevention strategies. Categorized by mode of presentation, we discuss parent instruction strategies, school-based instruction strategies (including crossing guards), and streetside training techniques. Technology-based training strategies using video, internet, and virtual reality are reviewed. We conclude the section on prevention with discussion of community-based interventions. PMID:23066380

  10. Parent–Child Injury Prevention Conversations Following a Trip to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Plumert, Jodie M.; Peterson, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the study was to examine how parents use conversation to promote the internalization of safety values after their child has been seriously injured. Methods Parent interviews detailing postinjury conversations were coded for strategies mentioned to prevent injuries in the future and information about circumstances surrounding the injury. Results Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents were more likely to discuss why an activity was dangerous with older than younger children, and were more likely to urge daughters than sons to be more careful in the future. Injuries resulting from the presence of environmental hazards predicted parents telling children to be more careful in the future. Having others involved predicted parents urging children not to engage in the behavior again. Conclusions Findings suggest that parents modulated strategies according to age, gender, and injury circumstances to maximize the likelihood that children would behave differently in the future. PMID:26275976

  11. Health and Safety in the Child Care Setting: Prevention of Injuries--A Curriculum for the Training of Child Care Providers. Module 2. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This curriculum was first published in June 1998 to be used by qualified health and safety trainers to fulfill part of the learning needs and licensing requirements of child care providers (Health and Safety Code, Section 1596.866) in California. This second and updated edition of Module 2, Prevention of Injuries, covers the content of the…

  12. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  13. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  14. Prevention of childhood injuries.

    PubMed

    Greensher, J

    1984-11-01

    Accidents account for more deaths among children aged 1 to 14 years than the next five most common causes. Thinking about accidents as injuries that happen in a context comprising a host, an agent, and an environment may help prevent them. Until a profile of the family and child at risk of injuries is developed, causal factors must be identified and removed, and parents and children educated about injury prevention. Different problems occur at different stages of a child's development. The agents most commonly associated with injuries are automobiles, bicycles, swimming, and animals. The special vulnerability of infants was addressed by the American Academy of Pediatrics' "First Ride/A Safe Ride" program, which encouraged the use of safety seats. Design changes have reduced the number of bicycle injuries, but human factors continue to contribute significantly. Most drownings occur in fresh water, with many children within a few feet of safety; continuing education is essential. Inculcating respect for animals, learning safety rules for interaction, and advice on pet ownership help to reduce animal bite injuries.

  15. Injury prevention: role of the hospital-based Child Passenger Safety Program (CPSP).

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kristine G; Mowery, Betsey

    2010-12-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are the leading cause of death for people 3 to 34 years of age. Despite evidence that child safety seats (CSS) reduce the risk of fatal injury by 71% for infants (< 1 year of age) and by 54% for toddlers (1-4 years of age) in passenger cars, 48% of the 23 Arkansas children under age 16 that died in 2007 were unrestrained. We review the goals of a hospital-based CPSP, briefly review one American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Statement, describe how one CPSP functions, and provide resources to those interested in program development.

  16. Effectiveness of a Technology-Based Injury Prevention Program for Enhancing Mothers’ Knowledge of Child Safety: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Chun Bong; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Leung, Wing Cheong; Tang, Mary Hoi-Yin; Chan, Ko Ling; Or, Calvin KL; Li, Tim MH; Ho, Frederick Ka Wing; Lo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Provision of anticipatory guidance for parents is recommended as an effective strategy to prevent injuries among young children. Technology-based anticipatory guidance has been suggested to reinforce the effectiveness of injury prevention and improve parents’ knowledge of child safety. Objective This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a technology-based injury prevention program with parental anticipatory guidance for enhancing mothers’ knowledge of child safety. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 308 mothers will be recruited from the antenatal clinics and postnatal wards of two major public hospitals in Hong Kong. Participating mothers will be randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group will be given free access to a technology-based injury prevention program with anticipatory guidance, whereas mothers in the control group will be given a relevant booklet on parenting. The injury prevention program, available as a website or on a mobile app, includes behavioral components based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The primary outcome measure will be the change in the mother’s knowledge of child safety. The secondary outcome measures will be age-appropriate domestic safety knowledge, attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and self-reported behavior related to home safety practice. We will also determine dose-response relationships between the outcome measures and the website and mobile app usage. Results Enrolment of participants will begin in October 2016. Results are expected by June 2018. Conclusions Parents will be able to easily access the domestic injury prevention website to find information regarding child injury prevention. It is anticipated that the technology-based intervention will help parents improve their knowledge of child safety and raise their awareness about the consequences of domestic injuries and the importance of prevention. Trial Registration

  17. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  18. Childhood injury: significance and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Crawley, T

    1996-08-01

    Unintentional preventable injury is the number one killer of our children. Each year more children die of injuries than of all childhood diseases combined. It is important for nurses to understand the epidemiology and significance of childhood injury. This article discusses developmental and environmental factors that influence the child's probability of sustaining an unintentional injury and offers suggestions for client, family, and community injury prevention efforts for nurses.

  19. Prevention of injuries to children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rivara, F P; Aitken, M

    1998-01-01

    Injury prevention is one of the most important preventive health challenges for pediatricians worldwide. A science of injury control has developed. Matching a child's skill and development age is needed for anticipatory guidance. Poor children living in rural areas are at greatest risk and require continuous reinforcement. Family function relates closely to injuries and recovery from injury. Prevention involves education, legislation, environmental modification, and engineering techniques.

  20. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  1. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  2. Process Structure of Parent-Child-Environment Relations and the Prevention of Children's Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valsiner, Jaan; Lightfoot, Cynthia

    1987-01-01

    The reasoning of caregivers is discussed in the context of preventing childhood accidents. This reasoning process, which uses knowledge about children's behavior in an environment, leads to appropriate preventive actions on the part of the caregiver. Illustrative examples of parents interacting with children are presented. (VM)

  3. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  4. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  5. Prevent Children's Sports Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheli, Lyle J.

    1983-01-01

    Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)

  6. Study: ED providers could be doing more to prevent injuries, deaths related to improperly restrained child passengers.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    Researchers from the University of Michigan's CS Mott Children's Hospital in Ann Arbor, MI, report that both general and pediatric-trained emergency providers are missing opportunities to get critical information about the proper use of child restraints out to the families of children when they are brought to the ED following motor vehicle crashes. In a survey sent to a random sample of 1200 emergency physicians across the country, fewer than one-half of the responding physicians indicated that the parents of a 2-year-old being discharged from their ED following a motor vehicle crash would be supplied with discharge instructions that include advice about the proper use of car seats. The study notes that 20% of 1 to 3-year-olds and about one-half of 4 to 7-year-olds are typically not restrained in the recommended restraint for their age. Child passenger injuries in crashes are the leading cause of death for children who are older than age 3 years in the United States, and they are the second leading cause of death among children aged 1 to 4. Researchers recommend that resources on child passenger safety be highlighted in discharge instructions, and that emergency providers tap into their own experiences when speaking with families about the importance of properly restraining child passengers.

  7. A Data Book of Child and Adolescent Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains 54 graphs and accompanying narrative which summarize available data on child and adolescent non-natural injuries and deaths and are intended to help in the multi-disciplinary and multi-agency "Healthy People 2000" campaign to improve the nation's health and prevent needless child and adolescent injuries. Graphs illustrate…

  8. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...

  9. Unintentional injuries in child care centers in the United States: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa, Andrew N; Newton, Manya F; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Stevens, Martha W

    2015-03-01

    The study systematically reviewed all types of unintentional injury and injury prevention research studies occurring within child care centers in the United States. A total of 2 reviewers searched 11 electronic databases to identify 53 articles meeting inclusion criteria. No studies used trauma registries or randomized control trials. Data were not pooled for further analysis because studies lacked standardized definitions for injury, rates, severity, exposure, and demographics. The following child care center injury rates were reported: (0.25-5.31 injuries per 100,000 child-hours); (11.3-18 injuries per 100 children per year); (6-49 injuries per 1000 child-years); (2.5-8.29 injuries per child-year); (2.6-3.3 injuries per child); (3.3-6.3 injuries per 100 observations); (635-835 medically attended injuries per year per 100,000 children and 271-364 child care center playground injuries per year per 100,000 children); and (3.8 injuries per child per 2000 exposure hours). Child care center injury rates were comparable to injury rates published for schools, playground, and summer camp. Most injuries were minor, while most severe injuries (fractures and concussions) were falls from playground structures. Future studies need to use standardized injury definitions and injury severity scales, focus efforts on preventing severe playground injuries in child care centers, and report child care parameters for inclusion in national injury databases.

  10. A Preventative Child Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Bette Unger; And Others

    This article describes the Child Development and Parenting Program (CDP), a preventative child abuse program that assists single women who are pregnant or have preschool children to cope constructively with the problems of single parenting. The short-term goals of the program, i.e., providing education in child development and parenting skills and…

  11. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  12. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 5 and 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at children because it is early in life that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of child development,…

  13. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... corner. Mentor Advocate Donate Parenting Tip of the Week – Know the Protective Factors Last week we wrote about recognizing warning signs of child ... Donate Our Latest Resources Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Knowing the Protective ...

  14. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence Data LGB Suicidal Thoughts & Experiences Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ...

  15. Injuries and injury prevention among indigenous children and young people.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lawrence R; Wallace, L J David; Bill, Nancy M

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the world, injuries and violence are a leading cause of mortality and suffering among Indigenous communities. Among American Indian and Alaska Native children aged 1 to 19 years, 71% of deaths are from injuries. Motor-vehicle accidents, attempted suicide, and interpersonal violence are the most common causes of injuries in highly industrialized countries. For Indigenous populations in middle- and low-income countries, trauma caused by motor-vehicle accidents, agricultural injuries, interpersonal violence, child labor, and the ravages of war are priorities for intervention. To be effective, injury-prevention efforts should be based on scientific evidence, be developmentally and culturally appropriate, and draw on the inherent strengths of Indigenous communities.

  16. Childhood injury prevention: time for tougher measures.

    PubMed Central

    Pless, I B

    1996-01-01

    The publication in this issue of an article describing the fatal strangulation of two children on clothing drawstrings (see pages 1417 to 1419) coincides with National Child Day. This juxtaposition prompts the author to examine Canadian child health policy and practices in relation to injury prevention and product safety. The absence of a central body in Canada responsible for injury prevention may reflect the absence of advocacy groups concerned exclusively with the prevention of childhood injuries and stands in sharp contrast to the attention given to various "high-profile" but comparatively rare childhood diseases. In Canada, taking a firm regulatory or legislative approach to product safety appears to be the exception rather than the rule. Instead, we rely on product safety bulletins, the effectiveness of which has never been evaluated. The adoption of tougher measures would be facilitated by the establishment of a national centre for injury prevention and control. Such centres in the United States and Sweden have been successful and demonstrate that the creation of a Canadian body responsible for addressing the epidemic of accidental injury is long overdue. PMID:8943931

  17. Health and Safety in the Child Care Setting: Prevention of Injuries. Module 2. Second Edition. A Curriculum for the Training of Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.

    This curriculum module is intended to help childcare providers understand how injuries happen and how, by planning ahead and taking simple precautions, most injuries can be avoided. The 3- to 5-hour curriculum is designed to fulfill the learning needs and licensing requirements of childcare providers in California. Introductory remarks present…

  18. Parents as Advocates for Child Pedestrian Injury Prevention: What Do They Believe about the Efficacy of Prevention Strategies and about How to Create Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrancesco, Susan; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Bishai, David; Mahoney, Patricia; Ho, Shiu; Guyer, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the support of parents and other community members for child pedestrian safety measures, their willingness to pay in terms of volunteer time and money for efforts to make child pedestrian safety improvements in their neighborhood, and their views on how to affect child pedestrian safety improvements in their communities. In…

  19. Preventing Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a result of a twisting or pivoting motion. This injury may cause susceptibility to repeat injuries and knee instability, and therefore often requires surgery. Occasionally, a twisting or hyperextension force to the knee may result in a tibial ...

  20. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Judy

    2005-08-01

    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  1. Editorial. Bicycle injuries and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Pless, I B

    2014-07-01

    In 1989, long before this journal added injuries to its title, it published two papers on childhood injuries and I was asked to write an editorial for this occasion. I chose the title "Challenges for Injury Prevention: Two Neglected Aspects" because I thought the papers neglected to mention the inadequacy of injury statistics (at the time there were no emergency department data) and also failed to emphasize the public health importance of childhood injuries. It is instructive, therefore, to compare this issue's offerings with how matters stood nearly 25 years ago and see what progress we've made. Papers in this and the previous issue of this journal discuss bicycle safety in general and helmet use in particular. Although this is a somewhat narrow focus, it serves as one indicator of how the field has evolved and what remains to be done to improve both the science and policy in this domain.

  2. Injury prevention for children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Thornton, Lisa S

    2002-11-01

    Little injury data exists for children who have disabilities. There is an urgent need to address injury prevention and to improve safety standards for this group. Understanding the epidemiology of injuries will allow clinicians to accurately advise patients and their families on individual risks and counsel them in steps to take to reduce those risks. Safety information must be tailored to consider each child's functional impairments. All children who have disabilities are at risk for maltreatment. Open discussion of this problem is warranted given the immensity of the problem. Identifying parental concerns and supporting parents in the use of respite resources are appropriate. For children who have problems in mobility, falls are the number one concern. Collaboration with reliable vendors and therapists that adhere to standards for safe seating is essential for reducing the risk of wheelchair tips and falls. In addition, therapists should be directed to provide mobility training for activities from safe transfers to street crossing in a community setting. Parents should be counseled to approach their child's injury risk based on the child's cognitive and behavioral level rather than their chronological level. Knowledge of the child's developmental quotient or intelligence quotient will also allow the clinician to accurately formulate an injury prevention plan. Many children will always need supervision for tasks that put them in situations of injury risk (i.e., swimming, street crossing, bathing). Sensorineural deficits such as blindness or deafness create significant alterations in negotiating the environment and an increased risk of injury. Awareness of the special needs for fire risk reduction and street safety are critical in this population. The collection of injury data is critical to define the scope of the problem and to influence changes in policy and the development of technical standards. Educational efforts focused on safety should include

  3. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  4. Preventing head and neck injury.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

    2005-06-01

    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  5. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  6. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... may prescribe rest, medicines to ease inflammation, and physical therapy. When recovery is complete, your child's technique or training schedule might need to be ... and Exercise Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports Dehydration ...

  7. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists.

    PubMed Central

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  8. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by the repeated stress of the overhead motions used with swimming or throwing a ball. The ... Doing so places stress upon the injury and forces the body to compensate for the weakness, which ...

  9. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Preschool-Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  10. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 3 and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  11. Preventing Injury: A Safety Curriculum. Grades 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, J. Scott; And Others

    The focus of this curriculum is on prevention of spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The program is aimed at young children because it is during the early years that behavioral patterns are formed which become increasingly more difficult to modify as the child enters adolescence. The curriculum is based on principles of…

  12. Buckled-up children: understanding the mechanism, injuries, management, and prevention of seat belt related injuries.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kimberly L

    2004-01-01

    In the United States motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children. Although laws and public awareness campaigns have increased the use of passive restraints, many children continue to be unrestrained or improperly restrained. Age-appropriate child restraint systems are a vital means to prevent injury and death. The young school-aged child presents unique challenges to standardized vehicle restraint systems. As these children outgrow child safety seats, they frequently are placed in lap/shoulder belt systems designed for the adult. When prematurely graduated to the vehicle's restraint systems they are predisposed to injuries to the abdomen and lumbar spine known as the "seat belt syndrome" or "lap belt complex." These injuries often present subtly, and are not as obvious as the often life-threatening injuries found in the unrestrained pediatric trauma patient. However if undetected or missed these injuries can significantly impact the child's recovery and functional outcome. This article will provide a comprehensive overview of pediatric seat belt injuries. Content will explore the mechanisms responsible for producing the typical patterns of injury, recognition of these potential injuries during the trauma assessment, diagnostic evaluation and management of children with suspected or actual seat belt injuries. Prevention strategies will be discussed that will enable trauma nurses to effectively advocate the use of booster seats for the young school-aged child.

  13. Health promotion policy and politics: lessons from childhood injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Sleet, David A; Schieber, Richard A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2003-04-01

    Health promotion policies--including laws that regulate safe products, environments, and behaviors--are among the most effective mechanisms for reducing childhood injuries for large segments of the population. In this article, five examples of safety legislation and regulation to reduce childhood injury are described. Two such efforts are aimed at preventing injury-producing events from occurring: child-resistant packaging for medications and hazardous substances, and graduated licensing for teen drivers. Three other examples illustrate the value and complexities of policies designed to prevent an injury once a hazardous event has occurred: bicycle helmet legislation, children's sleepwear standards, and child safety seat laws. One important role of health promotion is to tackle not only how health promotion policies and politics can improve child health, but also how to educate legislators and policy makers in the process.

  14. Safe Kids Worldwide: preventing unintentional childhood injuries across the globe.

    PubMed

    Mickalide, Angela; Carr, Kate

    2012-12-01

    Unintentional injuries are predictable and preventable. Yet every hour, a child in the United States dies from an unintentional injury. Globally, the number is even more staggering, with nearly 1 million children dying from unintentional injuries each year. Motor vehicle-related injuries, burns, drowning, falls, suffocation or choking, and poisoning are just a few of the unintentional injury risks threatening children. Patient safety requires a three-pronged strategy of behavior change, use of safety devices, and improvement of laws and regulations to ensure that all children lead healthy and productive lives.

  15. Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Avoid tobacco products. Anti-Inflammatory Foods • Green vegetables • Carrots • Avocados • Pecans • Seeds – Sesame – Flax – Pumpkin ... benefits , from maintaining low back health to preventing knee injury; • Pilates is an alternative approach for treating non-specific low back pain

  16. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y.; Ozgediz, Doruk; Jayaraman, Sudha; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Mutto, Milton; Kobusingye, Olive C.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. Data were collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6); 68% (95% CI 65–72%) were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%), falls (18%) and violence (15%). Most children (87%) were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  17. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  18. Child injury control: trends, themes, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among US children, and an important driver of health status globally. Despite its enormous burden, injury is preventable. Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in the reduction of unintentional injury among US children. However, aggregate trends mask important disparities by age group, region, and injury mechanism. Basic and translation research is needed to develop and test prevention strategies to address these new or recalcitrant problems. Motor vehicle occupant injury has fallen to historic lows, but challenges remain in protecting novice drivers and managing the distraction of new technologies. Injury to pedestrians has also declined, but likely as a result of decreased exposure as fewer children walk. This calls for a broader public health perspective to promote activity while enhancing safety. Deaths due to drowning are common and illustrate the difficulty in measuring and promoting appropriate supervision. Environmental modification and use of protective products may be a more appropriate response. Concussion in sport is another challenging issue: public health laws promote identification and appropriate management of concussed athletes, but less progress has been made on primary prevention of these injuries. Unintentional poisoning is on the rise, attributable to misuse of, and overdose with, prescription opioids. Injury deaths to infants are also increasing. This trend is driven in part by better death investigation that classifies more sleep-related deaths as suffocation events. Finally, we examine a sample of cross-cutting themes and controversies in injury control that might be amenable to empiric evaluation.

  19. Needlestick and sharps injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Susan Q

    2004-09-30

    Every day while caring for patients, nurses are at risk to exposure to bloodborne pathogens potentially resulting in infections such as HIV or hepatitis B and C. These exposures, while preventable, are often accepted as being a part of the job. In the United States, needlestick injuries have begun to decrease from an estimated one million exposures per year in 1996 to 385,000 per year in 2000. This decline has resulted from the protections afforded by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Reasons for the success in decreasing needlestick and sharps injuries may be attributed to the elimination of needle recapping and the use of safer needle devices, sharps collection boxes, gloves and personal protective gear, and universal precautions. The prevention of needlestick injuries has made slow progress over the past 20 years since the HIV epidemic drew attention to the deadly nature of health care work and to protection of health care worker health and safety. In Africa, where the AIDS virus originated and where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among hospitalized patients is highest in the world, attention has been directed only recently at protecting health care workers. Nurses, especially those infected from a preventable exposure, have been at the forefront of advocacy for prevention. This article includes a review about the hazard of exposure to bloodborne pathogens and epidemiology of occupational infection. The author discusses how to apply standard methods of occupational health and industry hygiene using the hierarchy of controls framework to prevent exposure to blood, and discusses evidence-based prevention and efficacy of particular control measures. Legislative progress and implementation of enforceable policy to protect health care workers is outlined.

  20. Triathlon related musculoskeletal injuries: the status of injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Gabbe, Belinda J; Forbes, Andrew B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a popular participation sport that combines swimming, cycling and running into a single event. A number of studies have investigated the incidence of injury, profile of injuries sustained and factors contributing to triathlon injury. This paper summarises the published literature in the context of the evidence base for the prevention of triathlon related injuries. Relevant articles on triathlon injuries were sourced from peer-reviewed English language journals and assessed using the Translating Research into Injury Prevention Practice (TRIPP) framework. This review highlights the significant knowledge gap that exists in the published literature describing the incidence of injury, the profile of injuries sustained and evidence for the prevention of injury in triathlon. Despite the number of studies undertaken to address TRIPP Stages 1 and 2 (injury surveillance, aetiology and mechanism of injury), most triathlon studies have been limited by retrospective designs with substantial, and unvalidated, recall periods, inconsistency in the definitions used for a reportable injury and exposure to injury, or a failure to capture exposure data at all. Overall, the paucity of quality, prospective studies investigating the incidence of injury in triathlon and factors contributing to their occurrence has led to an inability to adequately inform the development of injury prevention strategies (TRIPP Stages 3-6) for this sport, a situation that must be rectified if gains are to be made in reducing the burden of triathlon related injury.

  1. Which injuries may indicate child abuse?

    PubMed

    Maguire, S

    2010-12-01

    Making the decision as to whether an injury is a result of child abuse or not is stressful for both the family involved and the clinical team. It is not a decision that is taken lightly, and with an increasing expectation by the investigating agencies, lawyers and the public in general, to ensure that it is based on explicit 'evidence', clinicians need to be up to date with the latest scientific publications in the field. This article aims to summarise the current evidence in relation to all physical injuries except those pertaining to the central nervous system, which will form a separate article. It will examine the pattern of accidental and abusive bruises, fractures, burns, abdominal injuries and oral injuries focusing on discriminating features and necessary investigations.

  2. Child Mortality: A Preventable Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seipel, Michael M. O.

    1996-01-01

    Worldwide data reveal that child mortality (ages 1-5) accounts for about 10-15% of all deaths in developing countries, and less than 1% of all deaths in developed countries. Strategies for reducing child mortality include improving health services, improving environmental conditions, enhancing the social conditions of children, and protecting and…

  3. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-30

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes - muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness - all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers.

  4. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  5. Skiing and snowboarding injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Warda, Lynne J; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-01-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are popular recreational and competitive sport activities for children and youth. Injuries associated with both activities are frequent and can be serious. There is new evidence documenting the benefit of wearing helmets while skiing and snowboarding, as well as data refuting suggestions that helmet use may increase the risk of neck injury. There is also evidence to support using wrist guards while snowboarding. There is poor uptake of effective preventive measures such as protective equipment use and related policy. Physicians should have the information required to counsel children, youth and families regarding safer snow sport participation, including helmet use, wearing wrist guards for snowboarding, training and supervision, the importance of proper equipment fitting and binding adjustment, sun safety and avoiding substance use while on the slopes.

  6. Youth Sport Injury Prevention is KEY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)

  7. Current controversies in child accident prevention. An analysis of some areas of dispute in the prevention of child trauma.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J H

    1985-12-01

    The rate of serious child trauma has not been significantly reduced in the last two decades. During this time, both infant mortality rates and the total child death rate have fallen by 30%. Child trauma, as a relative contributor to child mortality in general, continues to increase. Effective prevention depends on a detailed understanding of causes, an appraisal of options, and cost-benefit audit of intervention programmes. Controversial themes are common in accident prevention work; controversies relating to child safety result from both an absence of data about detailed causes, and from philosophical conflicts about whose responsibility it is to prevent child trauma, and who will bear the cost. Five controversial areas have been selected and are discussed to illustrate these current problems. These are the inevitability of accidents, the loss of personal freedom that occurs in the regulation of a safe environment, "drownproofing" of infants, questions of sporting injuries involving children and the progressive upgrading of rules to make sports safer, and problems relating to the assessment of true exposure risks.

  8. Community perceptions of unintentional child injuries in Makwanpur district of Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Nepal, childhood unintentional injury is an emerging public health problem but it has not been prioritised on national health agenda. There is lack of literature on community perceptions about child injuries. This study has explored community perceptions about child injuries and how injuries can be prevented. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with mothers, school students and community health volunteers from urban and rural parts of Makwanpur district in Nepal. FGDs were conducted in Nepali languages. These were recorded, transcribed and translated into English. A theoretical framework was identified and thematic analysis conducted. Results Three focus group discussions, with a total of 27 participants, took place. Participants were able to identify examples of child injuries which took place in their community but these generally related to fatal and severe injuries. Participants identified risk factors such as the child’s age, gender, behaviours and whether they had been supervised. Consequences of injuries such as physical and psychological effects, impact on household budgets and disturbance in household plans were identified. Suggestions were made about culturally appropriate prevention measures, and included; suitable supervision arrangements, separation of hazards and teaching about safety to the parents and children. Conclusion Community members in Nepal can provide useful information about childhood injuries and their prevention but this knowledge is not transferred into action. Understanding community perceptions about injuries and their prevention can contribute to the development of preventive interventions in low income settings. PMID:24886124

  9. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  10. The work of the Child Accident Prevention Trust.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R H; Cooper, S; Hayes, H R

    1988-01-01

    In 1983 an article was published in this Journal describing the work of the Child Accident Prevention Trust. Since that time many developments have taken place in the field of child accident prevention. There has been an increased recognition of the role of accidents and injuries in child health and the importance of accident prevention at an international, national, and local level. This has, in part, been a result of work undertaken by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. Much remains to be done, however, and doctors and other health workers involved with children must recognise the part that they can play in reducing this epidemic. Mortality and morbidity from accidents is the largest single problem in the health of children after the first year of life. The aim of this article is to stimulate interest in the problem of accidents in childhood especially among community paediatricians and clinical medical officers. Hospital doctors and general practitioners also have a particular part to play in drawing the attention of appropriate authorities to factors which have led to accidents that may have been preventable (see Annotation in this issue). PMID:3355217

  11. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  12. Prevention and the Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for…

  13. Injury prevention. Where are the resources?

    PubMed

    Feury, Karen Jean

    2003-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control (2002), each year nearly 150,000 Americans die from injuries, making injury the leading cause of death among children and young adults and a significant problem for Americans of all ages. Nonfatal injuries account for approximately 114 million physician office visits and 25% of all emergency department examinations. It is estimated that one in four Americans will suffer a potentially preventable injury serious enough to require medical attention (Shienfield Gorin & Arnold, 1998). As injury-prevention advocates, we must address this public health problem with a multidimensional approach that includes the three Es: education, engineering, and enforcement. Professionals from many disciplines, including nurses, physicians, health educators, school teachers, social workers, police officers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and coaches, must have accurate information to educate. Education in injury prevention must be a collaborative approach. These injury-prevention leaders must stay informed and knowledgeable of this ever-changing science. This article highlights common injuries, preventive strategies, and resources for injury-prevention information. This information will assist the healthcare provider in finding accurate sources of information concerning injury prevention (Shienfield Gorin & Arnold, 1998).

  14. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of muscle or joint injury, such as tendinitis or a stress fracture, that's caused by repetitive ... Khan K, et al. Overview of chronic (overuse) tendinopathies. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 21, ...

  15. Cheerleading Injuries. Patterns, Prevention, Case Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Although cheerleading carries a relatively low injury risk, injuries that do occur can be severe, commonly affecting the ankle, head, and neck. Two case reports are presented that illustrate acute injuries typical of cheerleading. Prevention recommendations are offered related to supervising, screening, limiting stunts, optimizing the environment…

  16. Alpine ski injuries and their prevention.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael S; Lloyd-Smith, Rob; Taunton, Jack E

    2002-01-01

    Alpine skiing is a popular sport with significant risk of injury. Since the 1970s, injury rates have dropped from approximately 5 to 8 per 1000 skier-days to about 2 to 3 per 1000 skier-days. The nature of the injuries has also been transformed over the same period. Lower leg injuries are becoming less common while the incidence of knee sprains and upper extremity injuries is becoming more common. Much of this change can be attributed to advancements in binding technology, which effectively reduces lower leg injury, but does not adequately address the issue of knee sprains. Along with design, binding adjustment and maintenance are important preventative factors. Poorly adjusted bindings have been correlated with increased injury rates. Upper extremity injuries constitute approximately one-third of skiing injuries, with ulnar collateral ligament sprains and shoulder injuries being the most common. Strategies to prevent these include proper poling technique and avoidance of non-detachable ski pole retention devices. Spinal injuries in skiers have been traditionally much less common than in snowboarders, but this disparity is likely to diminish with the recent trend of incorporating snowboarding moves into skiing. Strategies to help reduce these injuries include promoting the development of terrain parks and focussing on proper technique during such moves. Head injuries have been increasing in incidence over recent decades and account for more than half of skiing-related deaths. The issue of ski helmets remains controversial while evidence for their efficacy remains under debate. There is no evidence to demonstrate that traditional ski instruction reduces injury frequency. More specific programmes focussed on injury prevention techniques are effective. The question of pre-season conditioning to prevent injuries needs further research to demonstrate efficacy.

  17. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  18. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Red Book Resources Internet Point of Care Quality Improvement Research Practice-Based Research Pediatrician Surveys Tobacco Control Research Child Health Measurement Project Research Findings Research ...

  19. Cheerleading injuries: epidemiology and recommendations for prevention.

    PubMed

    LaBella, Cynthia R; Mjaanes, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, cheerleading has increased dramatically in popularity and has evolved from leading the crowd in cheers at sporting events into a competitive, year-round sport involving complex acrobatic stunts and tumbling. Consequently, cheerleading injuries have steadily increased over the years in both number and severity. Sprains and strains to the lower extremities are the most common injuries. Although the overall injury rate remains relatively low, cheerleading has accounted for approximately 66% of all catastrophic injuries in high school girl athletes over the past 25 years. Risk factors for injuries in cheerleading include higher BMI, previous injury, cheering on harder surfaces, performing stunts, and supervision by a coach with low level of training and experience. This policy statement describes the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and provides recommendations for injury prevention.

  20. Injury prevention: a strategic priority for environmental health?

    PubMed

    Stone, D H; Morris, G P

    2010-10-01

    Injury results from the acute transfer of energy (or the acute lack of a vital element) from the environment to human tissue. It is thus, ipso facto, an 'environmental health' issue par excellence. This paper argues that injury consequently deserves consideration as a major strategic priority by environmental health professionals. Two international agreements concerning children's health and the environment have major implications for safety. The Children's Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) and the European Environmental Health Strategy make reference to the need for improved evidence and greater co-operation between the environmental and health sectors. CEHAPE is particularly relevant to safety as it focuses on four regional priority goals, the second of which refers to the prevention and reduction of health consequences from injuries by promoting safe, secure and supportive human settlements for all children. The natural strategic 'home' for injury prevention may therefore lie within environmental health, a domain from which it has generally been excluded. In support of this assertion, Scotland's recent policy initiative on the environment and human health 'Good Places, Better Health' is cited, where injury in children up to 8 years of age is one of four child health priorities being tackled during its initial implementation. An important test of the initiative may be its capacity to inform policy, practice and research in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. If successful, it will help to validate the environmental health approach to a field that remains relatively neglected by public agencies, policy makers, practitioners and researchers.

  1. Injury prevention: the time has come.

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, R

    1995-01-01

    Although cancer, heart disease and stroke occupy much of society's attention to health matters, injuries account for more potential years of life lost before age 65 than all these diseases combined. The time has come to set the record straight and to give injury its rightful place on the health policy agenda. Contrary to popular belief, most injuries are no accident. More than 90% of injuries are both predictable and preventable. Injury prevention, a multidisciplinary effort, is coming of age in Canada. Education alone is not enough. New technology, innovative approaches to safety education and the mobilization of community resources can help to change behaviour and legislation to decrease the risk of injury. Physicians have an important role to play in this process. PMID:7804918

  2. Tennis injuries: occurrence, aetiology, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, B M; Staal, J B; Windler, G E; Jayanthi, N

    2006-01-01

    A systematic search of published reports was carried out in three electronic databases from 1966 on to identify relevant articles relating to tennis injuries. There were 39 case reports, 49 laboratory studies, 28 descriptive epidemiological studies, and three analytical epidemiological studies. The principal findings of the review were: first, there is a great variation in the reported incidence of tennis injuries; second, most injuries occur in the lower extremities, followed by the upper extremities and then the trunk; third, there have been very few longitudinal cohort studies that investigated the association between risk factors and the occurrence of tennis injuries (odds ratios, risk ratios, hazard ratios); and fourth, there were no randomised controlled trials investigating injury prevention measures in tennis. More methodologically sound studies are needed for a better understanding of risk factors, in order to design useful strategies to prevent tennis injuries. PMID:16632572

  3. Prevention and the child protection system.

    PubMed

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for ongoing services. Preventive services delivered by CPS to high-risk families, says Waldfogel, typically include case management and supervision. The families may also receive one or more other preventive services, including individual and family counseling, respite care, parenting education, housing assistance, substance abuse treatment, child care, and home visits. Researchers generally find little evidence, however, that these services reduce the risk of subsequent maltreatment, although there is some promising evidence on the role of child care. Many families receive few services beyond periodic visits by usually overburdened caseworkers, and the services they do receive are often poor in quality. Preventive services for lower-risk families often focus on increasing parents' understanding of the developmental stages of childhood and on improving their child-rearing competencies. The evidence base on the effectiveness of these services remains thin. Most research focuses on home-visiting and parent education programs. Studies of home visiting have provided some promising evidence. Little is as yet known about the effects of parent education. Waldfogel concludes that researchers have much more to learn about what services CPS agencies should expand to do a better job of preventing maltreatment. Some families, especially those with mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence problems, are at especially high risk, which suggests that more effective treatment services for such parents could help. Very young children, too, are at high risk, suggesting a potentially important role for child care-one area where the

  4. Parental Compliance with Childhood Injury Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    Preliminary data from a study documenting parental perceptions of injuries and steps taken by inner-city and suburban parents to make their homes safe are reported. Participants were 407 families with children under 5 years old. Families were provided one of the following interventions: (1) a well child visit; (2) safety equipment (3) physician…

  5. Prevention of Hamstring Injuries in Collegiate Sprinters

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sato, Yamato

    2017-01-01

    Background: No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. Purpose: To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The study subjects were a total of 613 collegiate male sprinters trained by the same coach over 24 seasons. Tow training was used throughout the research period as a normal sprint training method. The hamstring injury prevention program evolved over time. From 1988 to 1991 (period 1), prevention focused on strength training alone; from 1992 to 1999 (period 2), a combination of strength and agility training was used; and from 2000 to 2011 (period 3), the program incorporated strength, agility, and flexibility training. The incidence of hamstring injuries was compared for each of the 3 prevention strategies. Results: The incidence of hamstring injuries per athlete-seasons was 137.9 for period 1, 60.6 for period 2, and 6.7 for period 3. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury according to the different prevention programs (χ2(2) = 31.78, P < .001, effect size: Cramer V = 0.23, 1 − β = 0.999). Residual analysis showed that the number of hamstring injuries for period 1 was significantly greater than the expected value (P < .01), whereas that for period 3 was significantly lower than the expected value (P < .01). Conclusion: The incidence of hamstring injuries in sprinters decreased as agility and flexibility were added to strength training. PMID:28210652

  6. Core Competencies for Injury and Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Bou-Saada, Ingrid; Hunter, Wanda; Lindemer, Kristen; Runyan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence require a workforce that is knowledgeable and skilled in prevention. However, there has been no systematic process to ensure that professionals possess the necessary competencies. To address this deficiency, we developed a set of core competencies for public health practitioners in injury and violence prevention programs. The core competencies address domains including public health significance, data, the design and implementation of prevention activities, evaluation, program management, communication, stimulating change, and continuing education. Specific learning objectives establish goals for training in each domain. The competencies assist in efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence and can provide benchmarks against which to assess progress in professional capacity for injury and violence prevention. PMID:19197083

  7. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  8. Community-based Injury Prevention Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Terry P.; MacKay, J. Morag; Moher, David; Walker, Annie; Jones, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed 32 studies that evaluated the impact of community-based injury prevention efforts on childhood injuries, safety behaviors, and adoption of safety devices. Interventions targeted schools, municipalities, and cities. This approach effectively increased some safety practices (e.g, bicycle helmet and car seat use) but not others. Common…

  9. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  10. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  11. Child murder by mothers: patterns and prevention

    PubMed Central

    HATTERS FRIEDMAN, SUSAN; RESNICK, PHILLIP J

    2007-01-01

    The tragedy of maternal filicide, or child murder by mothers, has occurred throughout history and throughout the world. This review of the research literature sought to identify common predictors in the general population as well as in correctional and psychiatric samples. Further research is needed to improve identification of children and mothers at risk. Infanticide laws are discussed. Suggestions for prevention are made based on the current literature and the authors' experiences. PMID:18188430

  12. Pressure injuries: causes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bliss, M R

    1998-11-01

    Pressure injuries are caused by peripheral circulatory failure in acutely ill or traumatized patients, which is exacerbated by increased tissue deformability over bony prominences as a result of hypotension, dehydration or poor muscle tone.

  13. [Causes and prevention of typical volleyball injuries].

    PubMed

    Hell, H; Schönle, C

    1985-01-01

    A survey conducted among 224 volleyball players in the German Federal League revealed a high number of serious injuries. The upper ankle joint (55.1% of all serious injuries) and the fingers (22.4%) were most commonly affected. The principal cause of the accidents was a collision with an opponent at the net. There is a close relationship between the player's position, the part he plays in the game and the frequency of injury. Aside from other measures a change of one of the international volleyball rules would represent a suitable method of preventing such injuries.

  14. Firearm injury prevention training in Preventive Medicine Residency programs.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Preventive medicine plays a central role in the reducing the number of deaths due to preventable causes of premature deaths. General Preventive Medicine Residency programs have not been studied in relation to training in this area. A three-wave mail survey was conducted with email and telephone follow-ups. The outcome measures were the portion of program directors involved in training residents on firearm injury prevention issues and their perceived benefits and barriers of training residents on firearm injury prevention issues. Only 25% of the programs provided formal training on firearm injury prevention. Program directors who provided formal training perceived significantly higher number of benefits to offering such training than did directors who did not provide such training but no significant difference was found between the two for number of perceived barriers. If preventive medicine residency graduates are to play a role in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from firearms it will require more residencies to offer formal training in this area. The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research needs to develop guidelines on specific curriculum topics regarding firearm injury prevention.

  15. Community based prevention programs targeting all injuries for children

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, A; Turner, C; McClure, R; Nixon, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Community based models for injury prevention have become an accepted part of the overall injury control strategy. This systematic review of the scientific literature examines the evidence for their effectiveness in reducing all-cause injury in children 0–14 years of age. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was performed using the following study selection criteria: community based intervention study; children under 14 years; outcome measure was injury rates; and either a community control or an historical control was used in the design. Quality assessment and data abstraction were guided by a standardized procedure and performed independently by two authors. Data synthesis was in tabular and text form with meta-analysis not being possible due to the discrepancy in methods and measures between the studies. Results: Thorough electronic and library search techniques yielded only nine formally evaluated community based all-cause child injury prevention programs that have reported actual injury outcomes. Of these nine studies, seven provided high level evidence where contemporary control communities were used for comparison; the remaining two used a pre and post-design or time trend analysis where historical data from the community were used as the comparison. Only three of the seven studies with contemporary control communities found significant effect of the intervention; the two studies without controls noted significant reductions in injury rates after the intervention period. Conclusion: There is a paucity of research from which evidence regarding the effectiveness of community based childhood injury prevention programs can be obtained and hence a clear need to increase the effort on developing this evidence base. PMID:15178676

  16. Hamstring Strain Injuries: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Sherry, Marc A.; Silder, Amy; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Hamstring strain injuries remain a challenge for both athletes and clinicians given the high incidence rate, slow healing, and persistent symptoms. Moreover, nearly one-third of these injuries recur within the first year following a return to sport, with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high reinjury rate suggests that commonly utilized rehabilitation programs may be inadequate at resolving possible muscular weakness, reduced tissue extensibility, and/or altered movement patterns associated with the injury. Further, the traditional criteria used to determine the readiness of the athlete to return to sport may be insensitive to these persistent deficits, resulting in a premature return. There is mounting evidence that the risk of reinjury can be minimized by utilizing rehabilitation strategies that incorporate neuromuscular control exercises and eccentric strength training, combined with objective measures to assess musculotendon recovery and readiness to return to sport. In this paper, we first describe the diagnostic examination of an acute hamstring strain injury, including discussion of the value of determining injury location in estimating the duration of the convalescent period. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring injuries including specific criteria for treatment progression and return to sport. Finally, we describe directions for future research including injury-specific rehabilitation programs, objective measures to assess reinjury risk, and strategies to prevent injury occurrence. Level of evidence: Diagnosis/therapy, level 5. PMID:20118524

  17. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  18. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  19. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  20. Prevention of sports-related eye injury.

    PubMed

    Stock, J G; Cornell, F M

    1991-08-01

    Sports-related eye injury is an important cause of vision loss. Many eye injuries can be prevented through the supervision of play, the enforcement of game rules and the use of eye protective devices. State-of-the-art eye protective devices incorporate highly impact-resistant optical material, usually polycarbonate lenses, in a sturdy frame. Protective devices are available for use in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey and other sports.

  1. Recognition and Prevention of Rugby Injuries.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, J D; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1989-06-01

    In brief: Rugby is a popular, strenuous contact sport that demands almost continuous action by the players. Players, coaches, and physicians must be aware of the potential for and types of injuries that occur during matches and of ways to avoid, or at least reduce, this number and severity. Minor and moderate injuries are more frequent than severe injuries, but all must be regarded seriously. Concussions, although relatively rare, can have serious consequences, and cervical spine injuries can be catastrophic. Player fitness and conditioning and a pregame warm-up are all essential for preventing injuries. Equally important are coaching, adherence to the rules of the game, and avoidance of dangerous play. If these measures are practiced consistently, rugby will be safer.

  2. Injury prevention education in medical schools: an international survey of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Villaveces, A; Kammeyer, J; Bencevic, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Injuries account for an estimated 9% of global mortality. Health professionals worldwide receive little formal injury prevention training, especially in developing countries. Objective: To identify injury prevention training topics taught in a sample of medical schools throughout the world. Design and setting: Cross sectional survey of 82 medical schools from 31 countries. Based on a convenience sample, respondents recalled the injury prevention concepts they were taught, estimated the time dedicated to these topics, specified the courses and rotations where these concepts were taught, and noted whether they were compulsory or elective sessions. Participants: Medical students in their last year of medical training. Main exposure measures: Student recall of classes and rotations where topics of injury prevention and control were discussed. Results: Basic injury prevention concepts including risk factors for injuries and injury classification systems were not covered in 60% of medical schools. Concepts related to child abuse and neglect and emergency care were more commonly taught than others such as traffic injury prevention and youth violence prevention. In general, injury prevention and control concepts were less frequently taught in Middle Eastern and African universities compared with other regions and some topics such as violence prevention were more frequently taught in medical schools in the Americas. Injury prevention concepts were taught most frequently in preventive medicine, forensic medicine, emergency medicine, surgery and pediatrics courses, and rotations. Conclusions: Injury prevention and control education is infrequent and fragmented in medical schools around the world. Inclusion or further development of curricula on this subject could benefit prevention and control efforts. PMID:16326768

  3. Preventing injuries and illnesses in the wilderness.

    PubMed

    Angert, David; Schaff, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Wilderness trips have become increasingly popular, especially in the adolescent population. The wilderness can be a source of rejuvenation while being mentally and physically challenging; however, it is also fraught with the potential for injury, illness, and even death. Epidemiologic studies of injuries and illnesses from hikers are not extensive, but there are sufficient data to identify the most common risk factors to offer some strategies for prevention. Many youth will have a medical visit or preparticipation physical assessment before an organized wilderness experience. This article highlights commonly seen wilderness injuries and illnesses and provides guidance for proper planning and problem solving.

  4. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... knee and elbow pads, wrist braces, and gloves. Swimming/diving prevention tips • Do not dive in water ... all rules and warning signs at water parks, swimming pools, and public beaches. • The first time you ...

  5. Injury prevention and care: an important public health agenda for health, survival and safety of children.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Gopalkrishna

    2013-03-01

    Injuries affect the lives of thousands of young people and their families each year in India. With the gradual decline of communicable and nutritional diseases, injuries will be a leading cause of mortality, morbidity and disabilities and the success achieved so far in child health and survival is in jeopardy. Available data indicate that among children less than 18 y, 10-15 % of deaths, 20-30 % of hospital registrations and 20 % of disabilities are due to injuries. Based on available data, it is estimated that injuries result in death of nearly 1, 00,000 children every year in India and hospitalisations among 2 million children. Road Traffic Injuries (RTI's), drowning, falls, burns and poisoning are leading injury causes in India. Drowning and burns are major causes of mortality in less than 5 y, while RTIs, falls and poisoning are leading causes in 5-18 y. A shift in the occurrence of suicides to younger age groups of 15-20 y is a matter of serious concern in recent years. More number of males, those in rural areas, and majority of poor income households are affected due to injuries.Child injuries are predictable and preventable. Children have limitations of size, development, vision, hearing and risk perceptions as compared to adults and hence are more susceptible and vulnerable to injuries. Thus, it is important to make products and home - road and school environments safer along with greater supervision by parents and care givers. The key approaches include vehicle and product safety, environmental modification, legislation and enforcement, education and skills development along with availability of quality trauma care. Child injury prevention and care requires good quality data, building human and financial resources, strengthening policies and programmes based on evidence and integrated implementation of countermeasures along with monitoring and evaluation. Child injury prevention and control is crucial and should be an integral part of child health and

  6. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  7. Behavioral versus Traditional Approaches to Prevention of Child Abduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevention of child abduction and states shortcomings of traditional versus behavioral approaches to prevention of child abduction. Reveals that behavioral-skills training appears to be a necessary component in effective prevention programs and suggests children undergo such training, with the focus being on self-protective…

  8. Biomechanical analysis of pediatric injuries and child restraint system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Harcourt, John; Herbst, Brian; Strickland, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Airbag related injuries to infants in rear facing child seats are common in frontal crashes. Several vehicular modifications such as deactivated passenger airbags, manual cut-off switches, depowered airbags and smart airbags have been advanced to mitigate the effect of airbag deployment on child seats. However, there is limited research effort to address the biomechanics of airbag injuries due to modification in child restraint systems. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the biomechanical effects of a protective barrier between the rear facing child restraint and the frontal passenger airbag of the vehicle. An experimental study was conducted using an Anthropometric Test Dummy (ATD) in a vehicular partial structure (buck). The rear facing child seat was placed in the right front passenger seat of the vehicle. The child seat was restrained using the three-point restraint in the vehicle. The six-month-old instrumented ATD was restrained in the child seat. The ATD was instrumented with the head tri-axial and two uni-axial linear accelerometers. The uni-axial linear acceleration was used to calculate the angular acceleration. Two different rear facing child seats, the standard rear facing infant seat and the rear facing infant seat inside the protective barrier structure were tested. In each test, the Head Injury Criteria (HIC) and angular head acceleration were measured. Results show that the HIC was reduced by 95% and the angular head acceleration was reduced by 85% by the protective barrier. The head injury values were well below the tolerance limit for the child with the barrier. The protective barrier deflected the airbag away from the ATD’s head and also acted as a shield to minimize airbag force on the child seat. In the typical infant seat, the airbag contacted the ATD’s head and exerted significant force on the child seat which rotated the seat rearward. These kinematic responses may explain the clinical observation of severe head injuries by

  9. Gastrointestinal radiation injury: Prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shadad, Abobakr K; Sullivan, Frank J; Martin, Joseph D; Egan, Laurence J

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in detection and treatment of cancer, there is an increasing emphasis on the efficacy and safety aspects of cancer therapy. Radiation therapy is a common treatment for a wide variety of cancers, either alone or in combination with other treatments. Ionising radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract is a frequent side effect of radiation therapy and a considerable proportion of patients suffer acute or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms as a result. These side effects often cause morbidity and may in some cases lower the efficacy of radiotherapy treatment. Radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract can be minimised by either of two strategies: technical strategies which aim to physically shift radiation dose away from the normal intestinal tissues, and biological strategies which aim to modulate the normal tissue response to ionising radiation or to increase its resistance to it. Although considerable improvement in the safety of radiotherapy treatment has been achieved through the use of modern optimised planning and delivery techniques, biological techniques may offer additional further promise. Different agents have been used to prevent or minimize the severity of gastrointestinal injury induced by ionising radiation exposure, including biological, chemical and pharmacological agents. In this review we aim to discuss various technical strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury during cancer radiotherapy, examine the different therapeutic options for acute and chronic gastrointestinal radiation injury and outline some examples of research directions and considerations for prevention at a pre-clinical level. PMID:23345942

  10. Stretching and injury prevention: an obscure relationship.

    PubMed

    Witvrouw, Erik; Mahieu, Nele; Danneels, Lieven; McNair, Peter

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that increasing the flexibility of a muscle-tendon unit promotes better performances and decreases the number of injuries. Stretching exercises are regularly included in warm-up and cooling-down exercises; however, contradictory findings have been reported in the literature. Several authors have suggested that stretching has a beneficial effect on injury prevention. In contrast, clinical evidence suggesting that stretching before exercise does not prevent injuries has also been reported. Apparently, no scientifically based prescription for stretching exercises exists and no conclusive statements can be made about the relationship of stretching and athletic injuries. Stretching recommendations are clouded by misconceptions and conflicting research reports. We believe that part of these contradictions can be explained by considering the type of sports activity in which an individual is participating. Sports involving bouncing and jumping activities with a high intensity of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) [e.g. soccer and football] require a muscle-tendon unit that is compliant enough to store and release the high amount of elastic energy that benefits performance in such sports. If the participants of these sports have an insufficient compliant muscle-tendon unit, the demands in energy absorption and release may rapidly exceed the capacity of the muscle-tendon unit. This may lead to an increased risk for injury of this structure. Consequently, the rationale for injury prevention in these sports is to increase the compliance of the muscle-tendon unit. Recent studies have shown that stretching programmes can significantly influence the viscosity of the tendon and make it significantly more compliant, and when a sport demands SSCs of high intensity, stretching may be important for injury prevention. This conjecture is in agreement with the available scientific clinical evidence from these types of sports activities. In contrast, when the type

  11. Noise Injury: Etiology and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to noise might be responsible for a wide and varied spectrum of physical and mental morbidity, although many of the claims of cause and effect relationship are controversial and unproven. The etiological relationship between noise and high frequency hearing loss is, however, well documented. While noise-induced hearing loss is considered to be primarily an occupational problem, current leisure time activities have created the potential for it to become more common in the community at large. Once developed, this hearing loss is permanent and cannot be influenced by therapy. Noise-induced hearing loss is almost completely preventable and the family physician has an important responsibility for primary and secondary prevention, whether the noise source is in the workplace or in some other location. PMID:21286519

  12. [Typical injuries in snowboarding. Possible prevention strategies].

    PubMed

    Ehrnthaller, C; Gebhard, F; Kusche, H

    2014-01-01

    Due to the specific position on a snowboard, crashes often result in snowboard-specific injuries. As snowboarding nowadays represents a mass sport, treatment of injured snowboarders is becoming common clinical practice. Optimal treatment makes knowledge about snowboard-specific injuries and their underlying mechanisms mandatory. The upper extremities are most frequently affected, with the most frequent injury being the distal radius fracture. Because especially beginners are more often injured, prevention strategies seem to be promising. It was demonstrated that wrist-protection guards are able to decrease the risk of suffering a distal radius fracture. Moreover, use of a helmet was also shown to be protective. Against this background, wearing protective gear such as wrist guards and helmets is strongly recommended to decrease injury severity and frequency.

  13. Epidemiology of Child Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Fatalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    Although children represent only 10-15 % of the overall traffic fatality burden in the United States, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults; and, close to half of all unintentional injury deaths to children and adolescents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [CDC NCIPC WISQARS] 2010). Moreover, their exposure to motor vehicle risk is significant because they travel by motor vehicles nearly as much as adults. Prevention of the fatalities, injuries and disability associated with MVC must be a priority for ensuring our children's overall health.

  14. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun; Wu, Yue; Schwebel, David C.; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%). Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries. PMID:27399740

  15. Pediatricians Offer Heads-Up for Preventing Soccer Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163060.html Pediatricians Offer Heads-Up for Preventing Soccer Injuries Sprains and strains ... benefit from wearing heel cups or arch supports. Head injuries: Concussions are a common soccer-related injury. ...

  16. Factors related to child maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Liao, Junlin; Heard, Jason; Kealey, Lyn; Kealey, Gerald; Oral, Resmiye

    2014-01-01

    The underpinnings of maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries are necessary to discern as detection and prevention rest on a clear delineation of factors associated with maltreatment. Inaccurate identification of child victims can result in perpetuation of the maltreatment and its attendant neuropsychological sequela. The authors sought to determine factors associated with maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries, which would guide the burn team in assessing the likelihood of maltreatment. All consenting children admitted with burn injuries were surveyed regarding their injury mechanism and current sociodemographic status. Suspicious injuries were referred by the burn team to the multidisciplinary review team (MRT). The MRT reported injuries with signs of physical abuse, supervision neglect, neglect of other basic needs, or sexual abuse. These children constituted the cases in our study. Variables related to maltreatment were entered into stepwise logistic regression to identify independent predicting variables. P< .05 was considered significant. MRT identified 16 children (24%) admitted with burn injuries with suspicions of maltreatment. Risk factors related to suspicions of maltreatment included: young age, large burns, tap water injury, immersion lines, delay in care, absence of a two-parent family (unconventional family structure), young parents, inconsistent history, and injury pattern. In this single-center prospective study, the authors identified several factors that, when present in injuries with initial suspicion of maltreatment, should trigger a child maltreatment workup. Burn clinicians have an important role as advocates for children and their families. It is important to continue to further the knowledge of maltreatment detection and prevention among children presenting with burn injuries.

  17. Accidental injury: risk and preventative interventions

    PubMed Central

    van Weeghel, I.; Kendrick, D.; Marsh, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 16 April 1997
 OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the relation between risk factors for childhood unintentional injury and requests for injury prevention interventions as part of the Nottingham Safe at Home project, a primary care based controlled intervention study assessing the effectiveness of a package of injury prevention interventions.
SETTING—17 practices in Nottingham randomly selected from 55 practices volunteering to take part in the study.
METHODS—Postal questionnaire to all parents of children aged 3 to 12 months registered with the intervention practices (n = 1124) to assess risk factors for injury and to elicit requests for three injury prevention interventions: free home safety checks, low cost safety equipment, and free first aid training.
RESULTS—73% of parents responded to the questionnaire. The distribution of sociodemographic variables among responders was similar to that for the population of Nottingham. One third of parents (34%) requested one intervention, 21% requested two interventions, and 10% requested three. Receipt of means tested benefits, ethnicity, and residence in a deprived area were independently associated with requesting home safety checks. Non-owner occupation, lack of access to a car, receipt of means tested benefits, ethnicity, and unemployment were independently associated with requesting low cost safety equipment. Non-owner occupiers were less likely to request first aid training.
CONCLUSIONS—Families with risk factors for childhood unintentional injury do request home safety checks and low cost safety equipment, but they are less likely to request first aid training. Other methods for providing first aid advice may be needed to reach such families.

 PMID:9279147

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English Español ( ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  19. Child Development and Pediatric Sport and Recreational Injuries by Age

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. Objective: To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001–2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Patients or Other Participants: Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Results: Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Conclusions: Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in

  20. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  1. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  2. Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The Use of Social Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dale Robert

    A review of the clinically relevant literature on prevention of child maltreatment was conducted in an attempt to provide: (1) a definition and theoretical understanding of some aspects of prevention, child maltreatment, and social support systems; (2) a proposal of the usefulness of social isolation as an important theme in interpreting the…

  3. Implementing Injury Prevention Counseling in a Clinic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBailly, Susan A.; And Others

    While physicians should provide injury prevention counseling to parents of young children, they do not always feel they are adequately prepared to provide such counseling. An injury prevention training project was developed to train physicians in injury prevention counseling and to examine factors related to parental compliance with injury…

  4. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  5. Caregiver reports of serious injuries in children who remain at home after a child protective services investigation.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Leslie, Laurel K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-02-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a 15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20-3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population.

  6. Repetitive strain injury: causes, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Ann

    Repetitive strain injury (RSI) has become increasingly prevalent with the growth of computer-based and automated occupations. While environmental factors such as work stations and repetitive tasks are primary causes, a number of secondary causes can increase a person's risk of RSI. Various treatments provide relief but the rate of recovery varies widely. Prevention involves adopting a range of measures that will also promote recovery in those with RSI.

  7. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  8. Child Abuse Mimic: Avulsion Injury in a Child With Penoscrotal Webbing.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephanie Anne; Long, Christopher J; Srinivasan, Arun K; Wood, Joanne N

    2017-04-01

    Sexual abuse of children is prevalent in today's society. In 2012, approximately 686,000 children (9.2 per 1000) in the United States were determined to be victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect, according to national data compiled by child protective service agencies; victimization rates were highest for children younger than 1 year. Nearly 9.3% of maltreated children were victims of sexual abuse, this finding was reported by US Department of Health and Human Services (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment). Previous research has shown that as many as 1 in 3 girls and 1 in 7 boys will be sexually abused during childhood (Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27:1205-1222). Although sexual abuse seems to be less common in boys than girls, this may be partly due to underdiagnosis and underreporting of sexual abuse in boys (Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:328-331). Clinicians should therefore consider the possibility of sexual abuse when boys present with genital injuries, because failing to recognize and diagnose sexual abuse can pose an ongoing safety risk to a child. However, an erroneous diagnosis of sexual abuse can have equally hazardous repercussions, including removal of a child from their caregivers or prosecution of an innocent individual. A number of medical conditions can mimic child sexual abuse injuries, including anal fissures, failure of midline fusion, perianal streptococcal dermatitis, and straddle injury (J Pediatr Health Care. 2009;23:283-288 and Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:590-593). The following case involves a 5-week-old male infant who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an avulsion injury to his penis concerning for sexual abuse. He was ultimately diagnosed with a relatively rare anatomic variant of the genitalia and determined to have sustained an accidental injury whose appearance mimicked abuse.

  9. Child Care Lead Poisoning Prevention. Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch.

    In an effort to address young children's substantial risk for exposure to lead in out-of-home child care programs, outreach and training were developed for child care providers. This workshop curriculum consists of training activities and materials appropriate for child care providers in centers or homes for the purpose of educating them about the…

  10. Father-Child Interactions and Children's Risk of Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Freeman, Emily; Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is an important cause of infant and child hospitalisation and parents play a key role in reducing children's risk-taking behaviour. Studies show that maternal and paternal parenting and supervision of children differ, but there is little research showing how fathers' parenting may influence children's tendency to engage in…

  11. Household Safety: Preventing Injuries from Firearms (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  12. Cycling safety: injury prevention in Oxford cyclists

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, L; Smith, N

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To assess injury prevention measures used by cyclists in Oxford and to detect any differences between wearers and non-wearers of cycling helmets. Method—A prospective observational survey of a series of cyclists passing a single point on a busy city road in reduced lighting. Two observers jointly recorded four measures of injury prevention: use of front or rear light, high visibility (reflective or fluorescent) clothing, and cycling helmet. The use of the first three interventions was analysed in relation to helmet use/non-use. Results—A total of 392 cyclists were observed over one hour. Fourteen (3.6%) were observed to use all four studied measures, while 137 (34.9%) used none of them. The frequency of measures observed was: lit front light 190 (48.5%), lit rear light 197 (50.2%), both lights on 163 (41.6%), helmet on 104 (26.5%), and high visibility clothing 39 (9.9%). Despite the helmet using group's smaller size, it contained a significantly higher proportion of cyclists with lit front light (60.6% v 44.1%), lit rear light (61.5% v 46.2%), and high visibility clothing (27.9% v 3.5%), than the non-helmet group (p≤0.01). Whereas only 22% of the helmet users had no other observed measures, 47.2% of non-users did so. Conclusion—Cycling helmet users were significantly more likely to use collision prevention measures in conditions of reduced visibility. Explanations may include higher levels of risk awareness and greater knowledge of safe cycling practices in the smaller, helmet using group. However, current measures by cyclists in a major cycling centre may be insufficient to prevent collisions and consequent serious injury or death. PMID:11144629

  13. Watching as an ordinary affect: Care and mothers’ preemption of injury in child supervision

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Amy

    2014-01-01

    As unintentional injuries continue to be the leading cause of hospitalization and death for toddlers between the ages of 1 and 4, the Centers for Disease Control has argued that child supervision is a key factor in reducing these injuries and fatalities. This article focuses on the affective relationships in the concept of supervision and practice of watching as an injury prevention method. Three parts frame our argument. First, we describe how watching is an ordinary affect. Second, as part of the ethos of caring, watching is embedded in a temporal frame of anticipation and gives rise to an affectsphere of watching and to a parents’ subjectivity as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ supervisors. Third, these affective relationships generate seemingly contradictory outcomes wherein children are expected to gain independence and experience injury. The affective qualities of watching provide a critique of the individualizing forces of supervision and an analysis of subjectivities generated by gender and class. PMID:25114724

  14. Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

  15. Injuries in Female Gymnasts: Trends Suggest Prevention Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Susan J.; Taunton, Jack E.

    1994-01-01

    Survey of 100 young female gymnasts examined injuries over a 40-month period. Injury rates were similar to those found in other studies of female competitive gymnasts, but there were several notable findings regarding injury patterns. Prevention methods to reduce injury include modifying mat design and prescribing strengthening and stretching…

  16. A wearable airbag to prevent fall injuries.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Yoshimura, Takumi; Sekine, Masaki; Uchida, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a wearable airbag that incorporates a fall-detection system that uses both acceleration and angular velocity signals to trigger inflation of the airbag. The fall-detection algorithm was devised using a thresholding technique with an accelerometer and gyro sensor. Sixteen subjects mimicked falls, and their acceleration waveforms were monitored. Then, we developed a fall-detection algorithm that could detect signals 300 ms before the fall. This signal was used as a trigger to inflate the airbag to a capacity of 2.4 L. Although the proposed system can help to prevent fall-related injuries, further development is needed to miniaturize the inflation system.

  17. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  18. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  19. Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention: Working with Staff, Parents, and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phyfe-Perkins, Elizabeth; Birtwell, Nancy

    University Child Care at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst uses written policies, a personal safety curriculum, and parent-teacher dialogues to prevent child sexual abuse. This paper discusses aspects of these three components. Discussion of written policies focuses on the mandated reporter status of caregivers, state laws, procedures for…

  20. Social competence at 2 years following child traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Vicki; Beauchamp, Miriam Helen; Yeates, Keith Owen; Crossley, Louise; Ryan, Nicholas Peter; Hearps, Stephen J C; Catroppa, Cathy

    2017-02-08

    Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk of social impairment, but research is yet to document the trajectory of these skills post-injury and factors that may predict social problems. The study addressed these gaps in knowledge, reporting on findings from a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study which investigated social outcomes post injury and explored factors contributing to these outcomes at 2 years post-injury. The sample included 113 children, 74 with TBI and 39 typically developing (TD) controls. TBI participants were recruited on presentation to hospital. Parents rated pre-injury function at that time and all children underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Participants were followed up at 2 years post-injury. Outcomes were social adjustment, social participation, social relationships, and social cognition. Predictors of social outcomes examined included brain lesion characteristics, child cognition (6 months post-TBI) and behavior and environmental factors (pre-injury and 2 years). Reduced social adjustment (p=.011) and social participation (p<.001) were evident in children with TBI compared to TD controls. Poor social adjustment was predicted by externalizing behaviour problems and younger age at injury. Reduced social participation was linked to internalizing behavior problems. Greater lesion volume, lower socioeconomic status and family burden contributed to poorer social relationships, while age at injury predicted social cognition. Within the TBI group, 23% of children exhibited social impairment: younger age at injury, greater pre-injury and current behavior problems and family dysfunction, poorer IQ, processing speed, and empathy were linked to impairment. Further follow-up is required to track social recovery and the influences of cognition, brain, and environment over time.

  1. Need for injury-prevention education in medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Isaac; Sayegh, Rockan; Lotfipour, Shahram; Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury.

  2. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    34to make her listen to me." Abuse also may be a pattern of behavior such as incest between parent and child extending over many years or parents...when his or her parents leave. "Today, I heard Jerry telling Sandy, ’Don’t cry, your mom will come back soon!’ I think that’s his way of assuring

  3. Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... of heart and lungs), warm-up exercises, proper coaching, use of safety equipment. Track and Field Common ... males, sunscreen, water. Injury prevention: Proper conditioning and coaching. Football Common injuries and locations: Bruises, sprains, strains, ...

  4. Childhood injury prevention: intervention in the Bedouin city of Rahat.

    PubMed

    Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Merrick, Efrat; Endy-Findling, Liri; Freh, Aziza Abu; Jinich-Aronowitz, Claudia; Korn, Liat; Merrick, Joav

    2005-08-08

    For several years, the National Center for Children's Health and Safety (Beterem) has worked on many levels to promote safety and prevent injury of the children in Israel. As part of intervention programs in 20 communities around Israel, this paper describes a 1-year, multidisciplinary, multistrategic childhood safety promotion and injury prevention project. The project took place in the Bedouin city of Rahat in the Southern part of Israel, the Negev, conducted by a local safety coordinator. This specific intervention study took place from March 2003 to March 2004. The main goal was to identify hazards and dangerous obstacles in public places in Rahat, then remove or repair the obstacles found, in order to secure a safe public environment for children. "Obstacle" was defined as any barrier that could endanger the safety of a child. Ten examples are used to illustrate this applied research project, and 80% of the problems were solved within the project period (time to solve between 1 week to 3 months, depending on various factors). We recommend the involvement of a safety coordinator from the community to focus on safety hazards for children, the use of a documentation diary to log the time frame, and also the use of pictures to illustrate the hazards and the changes, or to use as arguments in the lobbying process.

  5. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  6. Decreasing mitochondrial fission prevents cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzheng; Wang, Li; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K; Bronk, Steven F; Gores, Gregory J; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-12-05

    Mitochondria frequently change their shape through fission and fusion in response to physiological stimuli as well as pathological insults. Disrupted mitochondrial morphology has been observed in cholestatic liver disease. However, the role of mitochondrial shape change in cholestasis is not defined. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo models of bile acid-induced liver injury, we investigated the contribution of mitochondrial morphology to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease. We found that the toxic bile salt glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) rapidly fragmented mitochondria, both in primary mouse hepatocytes and in the bile transporter-expressing hepatic cell line McNtcp.24, leading to a significant increase in cell death. GCDC-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. We found that preventing mitochondrial fragmentation in GCDC by inhibiting mitochondrial fission significantly decreased not only ROS levels but also cell death. We also induced cholestasis in mouse livers via common bile duct ligation. Using a transgenic mouse model inducibly expressing a dominant-negative fission mutant specifically in the liver, we demonstrated that decreasing mitochondrial fission substantially diminished ROS levels, liver injury, and fibrosis under cholestatic conditions. Taken together, our results provide new evidence that controlling mitochondrial fission is an effective strategy for ameliorating cholestatic liver injury.

  7. Esophageal carcinoma secondary to a chemical injury in a child.

    PubMed

    Schettini, S T; Ganc, A; Saba, L

    1998-09-01

    Twin sisters were clinically and endoscopically followed due to chemical injuries to the esophagus after ingestion of muriatic acid at 10 months of age. One of the girls developed esophageal carcinoma 10 years later and died after esophagectomy because of progression of the disease. Her twin sister has a severe stenosis at the distal esophagus and is waiting for surgical treatment. Malignization of a chemical injury to the esophagus in a child has not yet been described in the literature, emphasizing the role of endoscopic follow-up with periodic biopsies.

  8. Potential lessons from public health and health promotion for the prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanne B; Green, Lawrence W; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Two successful public health efforts of the last third of the twentieth century-tobacco control and automobile injury control-are reviewed for relevance to the problem of child abuse. Potential lessons for child abuse prevention are identified and the following approaches are suggested: Investigate varied logic models or conceptual frameworks to identify new opportunities for effective intervention. Use a multidisciplinary, multi-sector approach. Normalize desired behaviors and denormalize undesirable behaviors. Balance efficacy, feasibility, and cultural appropriateness. Develop strategies for effective policy advocacy based upon who benefits and who shoulders most of the burden.

  9. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  10. Preventing unintentional injuries in Indigenous children and youth in Canada.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in Canadian Indigenous children and youth, occurring at rates three to four times the national average. Death and disabling injuries not only devastate families and communities but take a heavy toll on health care resources. The lack of statistics, ongoing surveillance or injury prevention programs for Indigenous children and adolescents further compound human and health care costs. Indigenous communities are heterogeneous culturally, in terms of access to resources, and even as to risks and patterns of injury. Yet in general, they are far more likely to be poor, to have substandard housing and to have difficulty accessing health care, factors which increase the risk and impact of injury. There are urgent needs for injury surveillance, research, capacity-building, knowledge dissemination, as well as for injury prevention programs that focus on Indigenous populations. Effective injury prevention would involve multidisciplinary, collaborative and sustainable approaches based on best practices while being culturally and linguistically specific and sensitive.

  11. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  12. Carpal tunnel syndrome following an electrical injury in a child

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sambandam; Findlay, Alice Rima; Anand, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is very rare in children and has been reported very infrequently in the literature. We present an unusual case of CTS in a 14-year-old girl who developed this following an accidental electrical shock. As far as we are aware, this is the first case report of CTS in a child following electrical injury. This rare complication of electrical injury can easily be disregarded or misdiagnosed as neuropraxia, and this can delay appropriate treatment, as evidenced by this case. We propose that CTS should be considered when instigating initial medical care after an electrical injury, and that a referral to a hand surgeon should not be delayed, as these children need urgent surgical intervention to preserve hand function. PMID:25733087

  13. Injuries to dancers. Prevalence, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sohl, P; Bowling, A

    1990-05-01

    Studies from the USA and UK indicate that the back, neck and shoulder and the lower limb (particularly the hip, knee, ankle and foot) are the most frequent sites of injury among dancers. Most injuries are soft tissue injuries. Most dancers experience injuries at some time and about half have chronic injuries. Shoulder injuries appear to be caused by frequent or unaccustomed lifting, and are treated by rest and oral anti-inflammatory medication. Back injuries include sprains, prolapsed or herniated intervertebral discs, and spondylolytic stress fractures. Several risk factors, especially training error, have been identified for overuse injuries. Hip injuries include degenerative changes and osteoarthritis, stress fractures, bursitis and damage to the sciatic nerve. The most common foot injury is an anterior lateral ligament sprain, which may lead to permanent instability in the ankle. More soundly based research into the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of injuries is needed.

  14. Injury Prevention and Control for Children and Youth. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widome, Mark D., Ed.

    This book was compiled for pediatricians and others who are interested in the control of pediatric injuries. The manual's three sections are: (1) "The Field of Pediatric Injury Prevention and Control," which provides a broad overview of the field and highlights the roles of the pediatrician in the control of injuries and a developmental approach…

  15. CDC School Health Guidelines to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Sleet, David A.; Mercy, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of all deaths among children and adolescents aged five to 19 years results from injury-related causes: motor-vehicle crashes, all other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Schools have a responsibility to prevent injuries from occurring on school property and at school-sponsored events. In addition, schools can…

  16. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  17. Efficacy of child-focused and parent-focused interventions in a child anxiety prevention study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or non-intervention (n = 56) group. Families completed a pretest and 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Children selected as high-anxious or at risk were found to remain more susceptible to having anxiety problems and developing anxiety disorders than median-anxious children. Both intervention types showed favorable outcomes compared to no intervention on the number of "ADIS improved" children. These findings underline the need for effective preventive interventions for child anxiety. General improvements over time were found for symptoms of child and parental anxiety, however, and parental anxiety did not predict improvement in child anxiety after controlling for intervention. Therefore, it may not be necessary to focus on parental anxiety in interventions aimed at preventing child anxiety.

  18. Physician-directed injury prevention for young skiers and snowboarders

    PubMed Central

    Macnab, Andrew J; Cadman, Robert E; Greenlaw, Julia V

    1998-01-01

    Based on earlier studies of ski injury, which indicated that youths were at increased risk of injury, that males were most likely to injure the head or face and that females were most likely to injure the knee, a study to identify factors relevant for physicians to use in injury prevention initiatives was undertaken. The authors then conducted a search for effective injury prevention strategies using MEDLINE. The results of both undertakings were the basis for proposed guidelines for prevention strategies that physicians can use when counselling skiers and snowboarders. PMID:20401274

  19. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  20. Solar Injury and Heat Illness. Treatment and Prevention in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to solar injury and heat illness. Physicians can lower children's risk through education about short-term and long-term sequelae and through various prevention efforts. The paper discusses how to screen for risk factors and how to prevent and treat heat illness and solar injury. (SM)

  1. Wisconsin EMT Association: A Statewide Injury Prevention Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ralph; Evans, Diane

    This report provides a detailed description of a statewide injury prevention program of the Wisconsin Emergency Medical Technician Association. A project introduction is followed by brief descriptions of the components of the injury prevention program: occupant protection seminars; mock crash seminars; Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Buckle Bear,…

  2. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  3. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries.

    PubMed

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-07-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse.

  4. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  5. 76 FR 10371 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: February 14,...

  6. 75 FR 30040 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:30... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  7. 75 FR 39544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  8. 75 FR 7606 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  9. Sports-related workload and injury risk: simply knowing the risks will not prevent injuries.

    PubMed

    Drew, Michael K; Cook, Jill; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-05-10

    Training loads contribute to sports injury risk but their mitigation has rarely been considered in a sports injury prevention framework. A key concept behind monitoring training loads for injury prevention is to screen for those at increased risk of injury so that workloads can be adjusted to minimise these risks. This review describes how advances in management of workload can be applied as a preventive measure. Primary prevention involves screening for preparticipation load risk factors, such as low training loads, prior to a training period or competition. Secondary prevention involves screening for workloads that are known to precede an injury developing so that modification can be undertaken to mitigate this risk. Tertiary prevention involves rehabilitation practices that include a graded return to training programme to reduce the risk of sustaining a subsequent injury. The association of training loads with injury incidence is now established. Prevention measures such as rule changes that affect the workload of an athlete are universal whereas those that address risk factors of an asymptomatic subgroup are more selective. Prevention measures, when implemented for asymptomatic individuals exhibiting possible injury risk factors, are indicated for an athlete at risk of developing a sports injury. Seven key indicated risks and associated prevention measures are proposed.

  10. Staying Healthy in Child Care: Preventing Infectious Diseases in Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Beth, Ed.

    This guide provides explanations of control methods for infection and diseases in child care with an emphasis on prevention and health. The guide consists of two parts. The first part covers the following topics on preventing illness in children: how infections spread; handwashing; separation into age groups; nappy changing and toileting; cleaning…

  11. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  13. Fatal child neglect: characteristics, causation, and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ginger L; Bonner, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    Research in child fatalities because of abuse and neglect has continued to increase, yet the mechanisms of the death incident and risk factors for these deaths remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the types of neglect that resulted in children's deaths as determined by child welfare and a child death review board. This case review study reviewed 22 years of data (n=372) of child fatalities attributed solely to neglect taken from a larger sample (N=754) of abuse and neglect death cases spanning the years 1987-2008. The file information reviewed was provided by the Oklahoma Child Death Review Board (CDRB) and the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (DHS) Division of Children and Family Services. Variables of interest were child age, ethnicity, and birth order; parental age and ethnicity; cause of death as determined by child protective services (CPS); and involvement with DHS at the time of the fatal event. Three categories of fatal neglect--supervisory neglect, deprivation of needs, and medical neglect--were identified and analyzed. Results found an overwhelming presence of supervisory neglect in child neglect fatalities and indicated no significant differences between children living in rural and urban settings. Young children and male children comprised the majority of fatalities, and African American and Native American children were over-represented in the sample when compared to the state population. This study underscores the critical need for prevention and educational programming related to appropriate adult supervision and adequate safety measures to prevent a child's death because of neglect.

  14. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  15. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  16. Prevention of Neurologic Injuries in Equestrian Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William H.; Bixby-Hammett, Doris M.

    1988-01-01

    Risk of neurological injuries accompanies horseback riding, especially for children and adolescents. This article describes the mechanisms of craniospinal injuries and suggests measures to lessen risks. Measures include: identifying individuals who should not ride, developing criteria for resumption of riding after injury, developing protective…

  17. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  18. Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fox, Alice J. S.; Chaudhury, Salma; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Competitive swimmers are predisposed to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper limb, knee, and spine. This review discusses the epidemiology of these injuries, in addition to prevention strategies that may assist the physician in formulating rehabilitation programs for the swimmer following an injury. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed by a review of Google Scholar, OVID, and PubMed articles published from 1972 to 2011. Results: This study highlights the epidemiology of injuries common to competitive swimmers and provides prevention strategies for the sports health professional. Conclusions: An understanding of swimming biomechanics and typical injuries in swimming aids in early recognition of injury, initiation of treatment, and design of optimal prevention and rehabilitation strategies. PMID:23016094

  19. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    PubMed

    Laraque, D; Barlow, B; Durkin, M; Heagarty, M

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children.

  20. [The tropical traveling child: risks and prevention].

    PubMed

    Alcoba, G; Chappuis, F

    2015-05-06

    Children increasingly travel to the tropics. Compared with adults, the risks of severe malaria, dehydration due to diarrhea, and the number of infectious episodes, are higher. Paradoxically, children receive less pre-travel advice than adults, and some parents are opposed to vaccinations. The consultation must target essential prevention topics. We present the age-related schedules for immunizations against yellow and typhoid fevers, hepatitis A and B, tick-borne and Japanese encephalitis, and rabies. We discuss the preventive measures for malaria, accidents, altitude, and prescriptions for antimalarial drugs, rehydration solutions and standby antibiotics according to weight.

  1. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.

  2. An injury prevention program to prevent gymnastic injuries in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Swainston, Erin M; Dahlstrom, Jill J; Gubler, K; Long, William B; Beaton, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    There are more than 5 million participants in 1 of 6 gymnastic disciplines that are prone to spinal cord injuries. Working with the gifted scholar and attorney, Jeffrey Beaton, the authors have participated in developing an injury prevention program for children and teenagers who participate in gymnastics. This program includes the following components: (1) a gymnastics center that complies with the e-Book design of gymnasticszone.com; (2) all teachers and students in gymnastics should be members of USA Gymnastics (USAG) and purchase a copy of the USA Gymnastics Safety Manual, the official manual of the United States Gymnastics Safety Association; (3) trampolines should be sunk in the ground with the bed level with the floor; and finally, (4) immediate emergency access of the injured gymnast to either a skilled orthopedic or neurosurgeon.

  3. A public health approach to preventing child abuse in low- and middle-income countries: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Violence against children is prevalent across all countries and cultures, with the burden of child injury and violence heaviest in low- and middle-income (LAMI) settings. There are several types of program to prevent child abuse, with family-based approaches to prevention being the most comprehensively researched and successful interventions in high-income settings. In LAMI countries, however, there is very little research evidence for the prevention of child abuse. We conducted a systematic search of relevant databases for studies published between 1995 and 2011 and the search revealed only one relevant study. There is thus a need for research into child maltreatment prevention in LAMI settings, taking account of local resources and contexts. In the light of the lack of evidence, we focus on two case studies that document the use of home visiting by community health workers perinatally to improve maternal and child outcomes. We propose four areas for action moving forward, including increased investment in early intervention and prevention programs, development of a research agenda that prioritizes prevention research, integration of implementation research into efforts to scale up interventions, and improving systematically collected information on child maltreatment.

  4. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians.

  5. Prevention of child sexual abuse: a survey of 87 programs.

    PubMed

    Plummer, C A

    2001-10-01

    In the past, child sexual abuse prevention programs have been examined for changes in children's knowledge, attitude and skills about preventing sexual abuse. Although many studies challenge prevention programs to incorporate a variety of methods, including parent education and community awareness efforts, little is known about how prevention programs actually function in their community contexts. This exploratory study reports data from 87 programs as provided by program leaders and advocates. Variables considered include: funding, types of materials and approaches utilized, barriers encountered, length of program existence, demographics of target populations, and demographics of those spearheading local prevention programs. Prevention leaders indicated that program continuance is affected by factors such as adequate and secure funding, community level of denial, competing agendas, and community collaboration. This study also documents that programs are responding to challenges in the literature to improve prevention program components, although one-time programs for children are still the norm.

  6. Who Completes Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs? Data Trends #153

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" describes child maltreatment prevention programs designed to increase protective factors and decrease risk factors in families who may otherwise succumb to…

  7. Role of Natural Helpers in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballew, Julius R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines social isolation and the use of informal helping networks of families (N=130) at risk for child abuse or neglect. Preventive service workers' (N=13) responses to a natural helper survey revealed that friends, relatives, and neighbors are potential helpers for such families and are effective in resolving problems they address. (NRB)

  8. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  9. Interactions Between Child Behavior Patterns and Parent Supervision: Implications for Children's Risk of Unintentional Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Klemencic, Nora; Corbett, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for children. Prior research has implicated both child behavioral attributes and parent supervisory patterns as risk factors. The present study assessed interactions between these two risk factors and determined whether supervision moderates the relation between child attributes and injury.…

  10. Studying injury prevention: practices, problems, and pitfalls in implementation.

    PubMed

    Sangvai, Shilpa; Cipriani, Lynne; Colborn, D Kathleen; Wald, Ellen R

    2007-04-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine feasibility and effectiveness of a chronic care model approach to injury prevention compared with standard anticipatory guidance. Enrolled caregivers of children aged 0 to 5 years received focused counseling from a physician and health assistant, educational handouts, phone follow-up, and access to free safety devices and automobile restraint evaluations. Only 35.1% of eligible parents participated. Home visits were completed at 6 months to observe safety practices. Injuries were gleaned from parent report and medical record review. Safety practices were evaluated in 27 households. Chart review showed no significant difference in the number of medically attended injuries between groups (P = 0.6). The impact of the chronic care model on injury prevention in primary care could not be determined with certainty. Evaluating effectiveness of injury prevention strategies on actual safety practices with direct observation is challenging.

  11. Injury Prevention: What Music Teachers Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guptill, Christine; Zaza, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The risk of injury in musicians has been well established over the past twenty-five years. Concerns about the risk of becoming injured have been increasingly present in the music world. Research in performing arts medicine has demonstrated that approximately 25 percent of music students experience a playing-related injury. Since musicians'…

  12. Preventing Dance Injuries: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    This book on the interdisciplinary nature of dance medicine as an emerging field of inquiry contains the following chapters: (1) "A Comparison of Patterns of Injury in Ballet, Modern, and Aerobic Dance" (Marie Schafle, And Others); (2) "Pronation as a Predisposing Factor in Overuse Injuries" (Steven R. Kravitz); (3) "Some…

  13. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  14. National Action Plan for the Prevention of Playground Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan

    Recognizing the need for a nationally coordinated effort to reduce playground injuries, the National Program for Playground Safety was created in 1995. This booklet describes the national action plan for prevention of playground injuries. Designed for use by parents, teachers, recreation and park personnel, and caregivers involved in providing…

  15. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... more about ending child abuse and how to get involved, visit www.ChildWelfare.gov/Preventing. NOW... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of...

  16. Preventing Burns and Scalds. Injury Prevention for Young Children from the National Safety Certification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Sheryl L.; Walker, April L.

    This booklet outlines a comprehensive fire and burn injury prevention program which includes an instructor's manual, a videotape, and a test: the video provides additional information and examples of injury prevention techniques, and the test measures the amount of knowledge acquired. Following an introduction, the prevalence and extent of burn…

  17. Effect of an injury prevention program on muscle injuries in elite professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Paul, Darren J; Orhant, Emmanuel; Collie, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    Due to the continual physical, physiological, and psychological demands of elite level soccer increasing the incidence and risk of injuries, preventative training programs have become a common feature of soccer players training schedule. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the effectiveness of a structured injury prevention program on the number of muscle injuries and the total number of injuries within elite professional soccer. The present study was conducted over 2 consecutive seasons, of which the first (2008-2009) being the intervention season and the second the control season (2009-2010). In total, 26 and 23 elite male professional soccer players competing within the Scottish Premier League and European competition participated. The training program was performed twice weekly for the entirety of the season (58 prevention sessions). The results revealed an increase in the total number of injuries within the intervention season (88 vs. 72); however, this was largely due to the greater number of contusion injuries sustained within the intervention season (n = 44) when compared with control season (n = 23). Significantly less muscle injuries were observed during the intervention season (moderate effect), and this occurred concomitant with a bigger squad size (large effect, p < 0.001). The findings from this study identify that a multicomponent injury prevention-training program may be appropriate for reducing the number of muscle injuries during a season but may not be adequate to reduce all other injuries.

  18. [Snowboard sports technique, injury pattern, prevention].

    PubMed

    Dingerkus, M L; Imhoff, A; Hipp, E

    1997-02-20

    Although, in Europe, snowboarding is a young sport, it has already established itself and, in common with Alpine skiing, is represented in the Olympics. Its biomechanical aspects (technique, shoeboard connection), lead not only to a typical pattern of movements, but also to a snowboard-specific pattern of injuries, which differs from that seen with Alpine skiing. In the case of snowboarding, the upper limbs are appreciably more often involved in injuries than are the lower extremities. The most common injuries are fractures of or close to the wrist. Since many children and adolescents are to be found among snowboarding fans, the percentage of epiphyseal injuries is high. Depending on the style employed-Alpine or freestyle-the risk of lower limb injuries differ in terms of ankles and knee injuries. Through the use of special protective equipment, such as gloves provided with extra protection for wrist and fingers, (possibly also helmets, knee and elbow protectors for beginners), together with improvements in technique in a snowboard school, and the optimisation of the materials used by the industry, the risk of injury can be reduced.

  19. 75 FR 18848 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health...

  20. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join Team ThinkFirst! Order Products Contact Us National Conferences Read more Promoting Safety Continued Messaging Read more Education Search form Product Catalog Order ThinkFirst Products Injury is ...

  1. GIS and Injury Prevention and Control: History, Challenges, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nathaniel; Schuurman, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Intentional and unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and potential years of life lost in the first four decades of life in industrialized countries around the world. Despite surgical innovations and improved access to emergency care, research has shown that certain populations remain particularly vulnerable to the risks and consequences of injury. Recent evidence has shown that the analytical, data linkage, and mapping tools of geographic information systems (GIS) technology provide can further address these determinants and identify populations in need. This paper traces the history of injury prevention and discusses current and future challenges in furthering our understanding of the determinants of injury through the use of GIS. PMID:20617015

  2. Prevention and Management of Nerve Injuries in Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Hugh G; Donahue, Dean M

    2015-11-01

    Nerve injuries can cause substantial morbidity after thoracic surgical procedures. These injuries are preventable, provided that the surgeon has a thorough understanding of the anatomy and follows important surgical principles. When nerve injuries occur, it is important to recognize the options available in the immediate and postoperative settings, including expectant management, immediate nerve reconstruction, or auxiliary procedures. This article covers the basic anatomy and physiology of nerves and nerve injuries, an overview of techniques in nerve reconstruction, and a guide to the nerves most commonly involved in thoracic operative procedures.

  3. Child booster seats and lethal seat belt injury.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Noblett, H

    2004-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy travelling in the rear seat of a sedan car was wearing a lap-shoulder seat belt and sitting on a booster seat. Following a collision the boy 'submarined' under the seat belt sustaining trauma to the anterior aspect of his neck, cardiac arrest and subsequent death from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This case demonstrates a potential problem with unsecured older-style booster seats. Movement of a seat in a collision may cause a child to slip under a seat belt and sustain significant neck injuries. Seatbelts for children must be correctly fitted, booster seats or capsules must be securely fastened and manufacturer's recommendations for size and weight limits should be followed. Unfortunately older booster seats may not have attached instructions for installation and use, may not fit later model vehicles, may not conform to current safety recommendations and may have worn webbing. For these reasons their use should be discouraged.

  4. A Better Start: Child Maltreatment Prevention as a Public Health Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Francie; Mercy, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse prevention programs have historically focused on individual and family dynamics rather than community-based or societal strategies to prevent child maltreatment. Recently, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of communitywide efforts to prevent child maltreatment before abuse or neglect occurs by offering a continuum…

  5. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  6. Outdoor pedestrian fall-related injuries among Swedish senior citizens--injuries and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Gyllencreutz, Lina; Björnstig, Johanna; Rolfsman, Ewa; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-06-01

    Senior citizens get around, to a large extent, as pedestrians, and safe walking is desirable for senior citizens allowing them to stay mobile, independent and healthy in old age. Senior citizens are over-represented in injury statistics, and fall-related injuries are common. The aim of this study was to investigate fall-related injuries including healthcare costs among senior citizen pedestrians injured when walking in public outdoor environments and to describe their self-reported causes and suggested preventive strategies. The data were based on a combination of information from injury data and a questionnaire. Three hundred senior citizens attended one emergency department after sustaining injuries from pedestrian falls; 60% suffered nonminor injuries, mostly fractures. One-fifth of the pedestrians were hospitalised for an average of 8 days with an indirect hospital cost of 6.2 million EUR (55 million SEK). Environmental factors such as ice were the most commonly described cause of the injury incident. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that the municipality was responsible for the cause of the injury incident. Fewer respondents mentioned their own responsibility as a preventive strategy. Thirty per cent described a combination of improvements such as better road maintenance, changes in human behaviour and use of safety products as preventive strategies. It is of great importance to highlight general safety, products and preventive strategies to minimise injury risks, so that pedestrians can safely realise the known health benefits of walking and thereby limit healthcare costs.

  7. Promotion of children's rights and prevention of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Reading, Richard; Bissell, Susan; Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Harwin, Judith; Masson, Judith; Moynihan, Sian; Parton, Nigel; Pais, Marta Santos; Thoburn, June; Webb, Elspeth

    2009-01-24

    In medical literature, child maltreatment is considered as a public-health problem or an issue of harm to individuals, but less frequently as a violation of children's human rights. Public-health approaches emphasise monitoring, prevention, cost-effectiveness, and population strategies; protective approaches concentrate on the legal and professional response to cases of maltreatment. Both approaches have been associated with improvement in outcomes for children, yet maltreatment remains a major global problem. We describe how children's rights provide a different perspective on child maltreatment, and contribute to both public-health and protective responses. Children's rights as laid out in the UN convention on the rights of the child (UNCRC) provide a framework for understanding child maltreatment as part of a range of violence, harm, and exploitation of children at the individual, institutional, and societal levels. Rights of participation and provision are as important as rights of protection. The principles embodied in the UNCRC are concordant with those of medical ethics. The greatest strength of an approach based on the UNCRC is that it provides a legal instrument for implementing policy, accountability, and social justice, all of which enhance public-health responses. Incorporation of the principles of the UNCRC into laws, research, public-health policy, and professional training and practice will result in further progress in the area of child maltreatment.

  8. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past year injuries serious enough to seek medical atten tion were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and re ported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Results. Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR = 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2 1.9), teacher report (OR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1 1.7), or parent- and teacher-report combined (OR = 1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.1). Children who self reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR = 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1 2.4). Low caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR = 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Conclusion Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externaliz ing problems may reduce the burden of injury. PMID:25073079

  9. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested.

  10. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  11. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  12. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M

    2015-12-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role in obesity interventions. Building on a previous study, this study examines a refined health messaging (Let's Go 5-2-1-0) program delivered to fourth and fifth graders (n = 72) by a school nurse with reinforcement on-site health coaching by senior nursing students. Two nursing schools and two elementary schools participated. Measures of PA, body mass index percentile, and self-reported health habits were collected at baseline (School A, September 2009 and School B, January 2010) and end of year (April 2010 for both schools). Findings included statistically significant increases in PA levels and improvements in child-reported health habits. School nurses can influence obesity prevention. Further research on adoption of school nurse-led obesity interventions is warranted.

  13. Early detection of children at risk for antisocial behaviour using data from routine preventive child healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Youth antisocial behaviour is highly prevalent. Young people are usually not willing to disclose such behaviour to professionals and parents. Our aim was to assess whether child health professionals (CHP) working in preventive child healthcare could identify pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour through using data that they obtain in routine practice. Methods CHPs examined a national sample of 974 pre-adolescents aged 8-12 years (response 79.1%), and interviewed parents and children during routine well-child assessments. We obtained data on family background and current health of the child from the CHP; on developmental concerns from parents, and on social and emotional well-being, injuries, and substance use from the children. Antisocial behaviour concerned the adolescent-reported 15 item International Self-Reported Delinquency study questionnaire, among which are 5 items on violence against people. Results The prevalence of 2+acts of any antisocial behaviour was 21.8%, and 33.9% for 1+acts of violence (10.5% for 2+). Children who were male, had a young mother, no parent employed, recent injuries, poor performance at school or who were bored by school, and who had parental concerns more often reported 2+antisocial acts and 1+violence against people. Detection algorithms on the basis of these variables were moderately able to classify outcomes, with Areas-Under-the-Curves ranging from 0.66 to 0.71. Conclusions Data from routine well-child assessment can help CHPs to detect pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour, but detection algorithms need to be further improved. This could be done by obtaining additional information on factors that are associated with antisocial behaviour. PMID:22405493

  14. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized.

  15. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 papers found 12 studies eligible for inclusion. It can be concluded that injury prevention strategies that focus on preseason conditioning, functional training, education, balance and sport‐specific skills, which should be continued throughout the sporting season, are effective. The evidence for the effectiveness of protective equipment in injury prevention is inconclusive and requires further assessment. PMID:17496070

  16. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  17. Preventing Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: The Signs of Self-Injury Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Walsh, Barent W.; McDade, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continues to be a problem among youth and there is a great need for programming aimed at reducing NSSI in adolescents. The signs of self-injury program is the first known NSSI school-based prevention program for adolescents that attempts to increase knowledge, improve help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, and…

  18. Music and Medicine: Preventing Performance Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carol Anne

    2001-01-01

    Describes medical conditions that musicians may contract. Addresses what experts believe may help avoid some conditions and what to do if injury is possible. Provides a bibliography of resources on performing arts medicine, including books and periodicals, and a list of associations for performing arts medicine. (CMK)

  19. Prevention of back injuries and pain

    SciTech Connect

    Baptiste, B.

    1982-10-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in conjunction with Hansen and Associates (San Mateo, CA), developed an employee education and training class in back care. In three years about 1500 LLNL employees have attended this class. According to accident statistics and employee questionnaires, the class has been effective in reducing back injury and pain.

  20. Youth sports and concussions: preventing preventable brain injuries. One client, one cause, and a new law.

    PubMed

    Adler, Richard H

    2011-11-01

    Effective concussion prevention and management for youth athletes requires both education and legislation. Education alone effectively begins the awareness of an issue, but does not change behavior. Education and legislation are required to prevent preventable concussion and brain injuries in youth athletes.

  1. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1–4 years and 5–9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes. PMID:26633439

  2. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey.

    PubMed

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-11-30

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1-4 years and 5-9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes.

  3. Neuroscience Application to Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Dustin R.; Onate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Many factors, including anatomy, neuromuscular control, hormonal regulation, and genetics, are known to contribute to the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk profile. The neurocognitive and neurophysiological influences on the noncontact ACL injury mechanism have received less attention despite their implications to maintain neuromuscular control. Sex-specific differences in neurocognition may also play a critical role in the elevated female ACL injury risk. This report serves to frame existing literature in a new light to consider neurocognition and its implications for movement control, visual-motor function, and injury susceptibility. Evidence Acquisition: Sources were obtained from PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and LISTA (EBSCO) databases from 1990 onward and ranged from diverse fields including psychological and neuroscience reviews to injury epidemiology and biomechanical reports. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Neurological factors may contribute to the multifactorial ACL injury risk paradigm and the increased female injury susceptibility. Conclusion: When developing ACL injury prevention programs, considering neurocognition and its role in movement, neuromuscular control, and injury risk may help improve intervention effectiveness. PMID:26608453

  4. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  5. Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes and counselling on injury prevention for preschool children in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnica, Vanja; Mujkić, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia.

  6. Prevention of injury from x-radiation.

    PubMed

    HOLDEN, F R; TOCHILIN, E; HINE, C H; LEWIS, L

    1951-03-01

    Despite continued advances in x-ray technology, evidence indicates that x-radiation injuries occur today to an excessive degree. These injuries have led to a progressive stiffening of standards of permissible exposure, especially in the past 15 years. Protection from radiation damage is logically based on dosimetry, preferably administered by a centralized service laboratory. The experience of two large hospitals in the control of x-radiation exposure is cited. Personnel exposed to x-radiation may be monitored by either pocket dosimeters of the ion chamber or electroscope type or by standardized film badge dosimeters. A recently developed film badge dosimeter that measures effective x-ray energy and radiation exposure in a quantitative manner is described.

  7. PREVENTION OF INJURY FROM X-RADIATION

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Francis R.; Tochilin, Eugene; Hine, Charles H.; Lewis, Leon

    1951-01-01

    Despite continued advances in x-ray technology, evidence indicates that x-radiation injuries occur today to an excessive degree. These injuries have led to a progressive stiffening of standards of permissible exposure, especially in the past 15 years. Protection from radiation damage is logically based on dosimetry, preferably administered by a centralized service laboratory. The experience of two large hospitals in the control of x-radiation exposure is cited. Personnel exposed to x-radiation may be monitored by either pocket dosimeters of the ion chamber or electroscope type or by standardized film badge dosimeters. A recently developed film badge dosimeter that measures effective x-ray energy and radiation exposure in a quantitative manner is described. PMID:14812354

  8. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-14

    intervention. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a commonly used method to study cerebral function. EEG is particularly attractive for field use because the...trauma. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. Aug 1989;73(2):94-106. 14. Cernak I, Savic J, Ignjatovic D, Jevtic M. Blast injury from...Quantitative electroencephalography in a swine model of cerebral arterial gas embolism. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International

  9. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  10. [Evaluation of school-based child sexual abuse prevention program].

    PubMed

    del Campo Sánchez, Amaia; López Sánchez, Félix

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of a program entitled "Prevention of child sexual abuse" the first structured program in Spain designed to prevent such risks. With this purpose, we carried out a study of 382 minors with ages ranging between 8 and 12 years. The result s show that the program has a very positive impact, increasing the awareness of the minors about this type of risk and improving their skills for coping with a possible event of sexual abuse. The efficacy of the program is also apparent, at the level of secondary prevention, in that it increased the likelihood that the children would reveal such events. Finally, exploration of the possible adverse effects of the program showed that the negative effects observed by parents and educators are negligible.

  11. [Prevention of hand injuries - current situation in Europe].

    PubMed

    Leixnering, M; Quadlbauer, S; Szolarcz, C; Schenk, C; Leixnering, S; Körpert, K

    2013-12-01

    Hand injuries are a frequent occurrence and account for 41% of all occupational injuries. In general such accidents are the result of stress, inattention, tiredness, use of defective or poorly maintained machinery. However, artention must equally be directed at the large number of accidents occurring in leisure time activities since the inability to work due to a leisure time accident is similarly cost-intensive. Throughout Europe attempts have been made in the past 10 years to improve prevention. At the initiative of the Hand Trauma Committee (HTC) of FESSH prevention conferences were stated in 2009. These have in part reduced the number of hand injuries in -Europe. In Austria a special controlling committee was founded by the Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA) with the specific objective of reducing the number of hand injuries. Similarly the "Circle for Leisure Time Hand Injury Prevention" was created to specifically deal with hand injuries occurring during leisure time activities. Through the cooperation of these 2 committees and implementation of the thus decided measures, a reduction in the number of accidents involving the hand is to be expected with a concomitant reduction in the associated costs.

  12. Injury prevention among friends: the benefits of school connectedness.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R L; Buckley, L; Reveruzzi, B; Sheehan, M

    2014-08-01

    Unsafe road behaviors, violence and alcohol use, are primary contributors to adolescent injury. Research suggests that adolescents look out for their friends and engage in protective behavior to reduce others' risk-taking and that school connectedness is associated with reduced injury-risks. This study examined the role of school connectedness in willingness to protect and prevent friends from involvement in alcohol use, fights and unlicensed driving. Surveys were completed at two time points, six months apart, by 545 13-14 year olds from seven Australian high schools. Females were significantly more likely than males to report willingness to protect their friends. School connectedness significantly and positively predicted willingness to protect across all three injury-risk behaviors, after accounting for sex and own involvement in injury-risk behaviors. School connectedness may therefore be an important factor to target in school-based prevention programs, both to reduce adolescents' own injury-risk behavior and to increase injury prevention among friends.

  13. Hamstring injuries. Current trends in treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Orava, S; Järvinen, M

    1997-06-01

    Pre-exercise stretching and adequate warm-up are important in the prevention of hamstring injuries. A previous mild injury or fatigue may increase the risk of injury. Hamstring muscle tear is typically partial and takes place during eccentric exercise when the muscle develops tension while lengthening, but variation in injury mechanisms is possible. Diagnosis of typical hamstring muscle injury is usually based on typical injury mechanism and clinical findings of local pain and loss of function. Diagnosis of avulsion in the ischial tuberosity, with the need for longer immobilisation, and a complete rupture of the hamstring origin, in which immediate operative treatment is necessary, poses a challenge to the treating physician. X-rays, ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be helpful in differential diagnostics. After first aid with rest, compression, cold and elevation, the treatment of hamstring muscle injury must be tailored to the grade of injury. Conservative treatment is based on a knowledge of the biological background of the healing process of the muscle. Experimental studies have shown that a short period of immobilisation is needed to accelerate formation of the granulation tissue matrix following injury. The length of the immobilisation is, however, dependent on the grade of injury and should be optimised so that the scar can bear the pulling forces operating on it without re-rupture. Mobilisation, on the other hand, is required in order to regain the original strength of the muscle and to achieve good final results in resorption of the connective tissue scar and re-capillarisation of the damaged area. Another important aim of mobilisation--especially in sports medical practice--is to avoid muscle atrophy and loss of strength and extensibility, which rapidly result from prolonged immobilisation. Complete ruptures with loss of function should be operated on, as should cases resistant to conservative therapy in which, in the late phase of

  14. Shoulder injuries in the skeletally immature baseball pitcher and recommendations for the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Zaremski, Jason L; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Since 1996, when the first article on pitch restriction recommendations was published, the number of research articles involving skeletally immature pitchers has increased. Potential shoulder injuries in this age group are proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and superior labrum anteroposterior lesions. Fatigue, improper biomechanics, and overuse are the most common reasons for these injuries. In the hopes of preventing injury to young pitchers, numerous organizations, including the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee, The American Sports Medicine Institute, Little League Baseball & Softball, and the Long Term Athlete Development Program for Baseball Canada, have developed recommendations on pitching restrictions that include limits on pitch count, pitches per week, pitches per season, and rest between pitching. Awareness by sports medicine providers, coaches, and parents/guardians of the most up-to-date recommendations on injury prevention and return to play guidelines should reduce the incidence of acute and chronic injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers.

  15. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries.

  16. Characteristics of non-vitreoretinal ocular injury in child maltreatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Betts, T; Ahmed, S; Maguire, S; Watts, P

    2017-03-24

    PurposeTo identify the spectrum of non-vitreoretinal ocular injury due to child maltreatment.MethodsAll language search of MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, AMED, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases, 1950-2015, was conducted.

  17. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings.

  18. Effects of a Citizens Review Panel in Preventing Child Maltreatment Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Yager, Steve; Covington, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment (CM) fatalities are often preventable, and reviewing these deaths often highlights problems in law, policy or practice that can be addressed to prevent future deaths. Citizen Review Panels (CRPs) comprised of medical and child welfare professionals were established in 1996 to review Child Protective Services (CPS)…

  19. 3 CFR 8645 - Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... overcome this devastating problem, concerned Americans can visit: www.ChildWelfare.gov/Preventing. NOW... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child... 8645 of March 31, 2011 Proc. 8645 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President of...

  20. Neglected Thorn Injury Mimicking Soft Tissue Mass in a Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kumar, Dharmendra; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Arya, Rajendera Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Thorn injuries are common especially in rural areas. The diagnosis of such in children is always missed. An untreated retained thorn may cause late soft tissue and osseous complications. Herein, we report a case of neglected thorn injury mimicking soft tissue mass in an 11-year-old male child. The presence of the thorn was confirmed with ultrasound scan and computerized tomography. The child was successfully managed with removal of thorn with excision of foreign body granuloma. PMID:26155524

  1. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention.

  2. Traumatic Injury in a Child with Scurvy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Angsanuntsukh, Chanika; Chulsomlee, Kulapat; Taracheewin, Anan; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Woratanarat, Thira; Woratanarat, Patarawan

    2015-09-01

    This case report aimed to describe the clinical presentation, treatments and prognosis of a child who had scurvy and traumatic injury of the left thigh. A 30-month-old boy had presented with left hip pain two weeks after falling down on the floor while walking. He developed pain, warmness of the left hip and thigh, and finally was unable to bear weight. He also had a high fever gingival hemorrhage, dental caries, petechiae, positive rolling test and limited range of motion of the left hip. The radiographs revealed Wimberger's ring and Frenkel line as scurvy. Vitamin C supplement had been prescribed for one week. However, there was no clinical response and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) suggested subperiosteal abscess as well as osteomyelitis of bilateral femurs and tibias. Debridement and biopsy of the left femur were performed and found only subperiosteal blood. A clinical improvement was noted on the second day after surgery. Vitamin C level was reported at 0.03 mg/dl which was very low. Bacterial culture was negative and the pathological findings were callus formation with hemorrhage. The patient continued the treatment for two months and all conditions were healed eventually. In severe scurvy with trauma, prolonged subperiosteal hematoma was susceptible to infection, and may need debridement simultaneously with vitamin C supplement to shorten the clinical course.

  3. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references from these articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Original data, insight, and recommendations were added. Results: The majority of baseball elbow injuries are noncontact injuries to the dominant arm resulting from repetitive pitching. Five percent of youth pitchers suffer a serious elbow or shoulder injury (requiring surgery or retirement from baseball) within 10 years. The risk factor with the strongest correlation to injury is amount of pitching. Specifically, increased pitches per game, innings pitched per season, and months pitched per year are all associated with increased risk of elbow injury. Pitching while fatigued and pitching for concurrent teams are also associated with increased risk. Pitchers who also play catcher have an increased injury risk, perhaps due to the quantity of throws playing catcher adds to the athlete’s arm. Another risk factor is poor pitching biomechanics. Improper biomechanics may increase the torque and force produced about the elbow during each pitch. Although throwing breaking pitches at a young age has been suggested as a risk factor, existing clinical, epidemiologic, and biomechanical data do not support this claim. Conclusions: Some elbow injuries to youth baseball pitchers can be prevented with safety rules, recommendations, education, and common sense. Scientific and medical organizations have published safety rules and recommendations, with emphasis on prevention of overuse and pitching while fatigued. Strength

  4. The biomechanics of cervical spine injury and implications for injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Winkelstein, B A; Myers, B S

    1997-07-01

    Most catastrophic cervical spinal injuries occur as a result of head impacts in which the head stops and the neck is forced to stop the moving torso. In these situations the neck is sufficiently fragile that injuries have been reported at velocities as low as 3.1 m/s with only a fraction of the mass of the torso loading the cervical spine. Cervical spinal injury occurs in less than 20 ms following head impact, explaining the absence of a relationship between clinically reported head motions and the cervical spinal injury mechanism. In contrast, the forces acting on the spine at the time of injury are able to explain the injury mechanism and form a rational basis for classification of vertebral fractures and dislocations. Fortunately, most head impacts do not result in cervical spine injuries. Analysis of the biomechanical and clinical literature shows that the flexibility of the cervical spine frequently allows the head and neck to flex or extend out of the path of the torso and escape injury. Accordingly, constraints which restrict the motion of the neck can increase the risk for cervical spine injury. These observations serve as a foundation on which injury prevention strategies, including coaching, helmets, and padding, may be evaluated.

  5. Youth baseball injuries: recognition, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tracy R

    2010-01-01

    Baseball is a very popular and safe sport for children and adolescents. Understanding bone maturation and risk factors for overuse will guide the practitioner to manage these athletes properly. Overuse injury risk can be minimized by limiting pitch counts, ensuring adequate recovery, developing proper mechanics, and allowing for early evaluation and intervention. Rest, albeit difficult for the athlete, is the mainstay of treatment for many of the maladies affecting this age group of throwers. Individualized approaches to treatment for this population are advised. Structural damage that may lead to surgery is rare but may need consideration if there is no response to conservative measures. Several resources are available to educate players, coaches, and parents regarding safe play.

  6. Youth Sports: A Pediatrician's Perspective on Coaching and Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: My objective is to review the factors that influence youth participation in sports, to discuss the role coaches may play in youth sports injuries, and to call on athletic trainers and other health professionals to become involved in youth sports in an effort to limit injury risk. Background: Millions of American youths participate in team sports. Their primary motivation to participate is to have fun. Unfortunately, large numbers of participants have sustained correspondingly large numbers of injuries. Many injuries can be attributed to improper technique and conditioning methods taught by volunteer coaches. Although not the only contributors to injuries, these may be the most amenable to preventive measures, such as formal instruction for coaches in the areas of proper biomechanics and player-coach communication. Description: I provide an overview of the reasons why children participate in sports, discuss participation motivation, and review the literature on coaches' communication methods that have been proved effective in maximizing learning and enjoyment for young athletes. Clinical Advantages: This article provides certified athletic trainers with the background knowledge needed to take an active role in youth sports injury prevention at the community level. PMID:16558664

  7. The effectiveness of the nationwide BokSmart rugby injury prevention program on catastrophic injury rates.

    PubMed

    Brown, J C; Verhagen, E; Knol, D; Van Mechelen, W; Lambert, M I

    2016-02-01

    Rugby Union ("rugby") participants have a higher than average risk of injury compared with participants of other popular team sports. BokSmart, a nationwide injury prevention program was launched in South Africa in mid-2009, with the goal of reducing catastrophic head/neck (serious) injuries in players. The program provides injury prevention information to coaches and referees. This study investigated if BokSmart has been associated with a reduction in these injuries. The BokSmart program collected data on all South African rugby-related serious injuries since 2008. Using a Poisson regression, injury numbers were compared pre-BokSmart (2008-2009) to the years post-implementation (2010-2013). Player numbers were assumed to be constant throughout this evaluation: junior = 529,483; senior = 121,663. In junior players, the "post-BokSmart" period had 2.5 less annual serious injuries than "pre-BokSmart" (incidence rate ratio: 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.7, P < 0.000). In contrast, there was no significant difference in these periods in seniors. The absence of effect in seniors may be a result of fewer players or of differences in effectiveness of BokSmart in this group--future studies should investigate these questions.

  8. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's function. Part 1: Overview, evidence, risk factors, protective factors and triggers].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment is a common and serious problem. It harms children in the short and long term, affecting their future health and their offspring. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary preventing interventions target on child abuse are described. Evidence-based recommendations on child abuse prevention and examples of researches with proven efficacy are detailed. Risk factors, protective factors and triggers of child abuse and their relationships are described.

  9. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  10. Self-injurious Behavior in a Young Child with Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Sahoo, Alok Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase-1. Few reports on behavioral aspects especially self-injurious behavior in LNS patients are available. We report a case of LNS in an 8-year-old male child, who presented with characteristic self-injurious behavior.

  11. Self-injurious Behavior in a Young Child with Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Sahoo, Alok Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase-1. Few reports on behavioral aspects especially self-injurious behavior in LNS patients are available. We report a case of LNS in an 8-year-old male child, who presented with characteristic self-injurious behavior. PMID:27833236

  12. Stretching and injury prevention in football: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2011-04-01

    Stretching exercises are regularly recommended as a part of football-training sessions and in preparation for competition. There is little sound empirical evidence, however, to substantiate the role of stretching exercises and consequently increased flexibility on injury prevention in football. Furthermore, in the last decade or so, fundamental research has shed some light on the biomechanical adaptation of the muscle-tendon unit following different stretching protocols, improving knowledge about the topic and enabling better understanding of the stretching-injury relationship. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on the role of stretching and/or increased flexibility on injury prevention in football, with presented results analyzed in the context of the up-to-date basic science research evidence.

  13. [Hand injuries management of care and hand prevention networks].

    PubMed

    Couturier, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Injuries of the hand are common and sometimes more serious than it appears on a non-specialist initial examination. They are a public health issue with some major impact on the continued activity of patients who have been victims of those injuries. The European Federation of Hand Emergency Services (FESUM) accredits SOS Hand centers, dedicated hand trauma organizations in which the specialized medical cares is optima, avoiding the loss of chance to inadequate primary orientation. If nevertheless a serious injury leaves a debilitating sequela Hand Prevention networks, organized by practitioners of SOS Hand centers, help patients establish a process of socio-professional rehabilitation as soon as possible. These networks organize primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of hand trauma and disabilities that can accompany them. Innovative organizations, they resemble a national association that supports the development of new structures. They are open to all professionals of health and their patients, members or not of the network.

  14. Prevention of arm injury in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kerut, Edmund Kenneth; Kerut, Denise Goodfellow; Fleisig, Glenn S; Andrews, James R

    2008-01-01

    The advent of youth year-round baseball has come with an increased incidence of pitching related injury and surgery, most notably involving the shoulder and elbow (ulnar collateral ligament). These injuries become evident in high school and college, but begin at the youth level. Several studies have identified baseball pitching risk factors during youth that increase likelihood for injury and surgery in subsequent years. Based on these studies, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee has published guidelines for pitching that include limits on pitch count and pitches per week and season as well as recommendations for number of rest days between pitching. Also, recommendations include the restriction of breaking balls prior to puberty, the importance of instruction for proper pitching mechanics as early as possible in development, and at least three months of rest after a season. This review is intended to help guide primary care physicians and pediatricians when discussing youth pitching and injury prevention with parents and coaches.

  15. Childhood injury prevention practices by parents in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mock, C; Arreola, R; Trevino, P; Almazan, S; Enrique, Z; Gonzalez, S; Simpson, K; Hernandez, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Scientifically based injury prevention efforts have not been widely implemented in Latin America. This study was undertaken to evaluate the baseline knowledge and practices of childhood safety on the part of parents in Monterrey, Mexico and in so doing provide information on which to base subsequent injury prevention efforts. Methods: Interviews were carried out with parents from three socioeconomic strata (upper, middle, lower). Questionnaires were based on Spanish language materials developed by The Injury Prevention Program (TIPP) of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Results: Data were obtained from parents of 1123 children. Overall safety scores (percent safe responses) increased with increasing socioeconomic status. The differences among the socioeconomic groups were most pronounced for transportation and less pronounced for household and recreational safety. The differences were most notable for activities that required a safety related device such as a car seat, seat belt, helmet, or smoke detector. Appropriate use of such devices declined from 47% (upper socioeconomic group) to 25% (middle) to 15% (lower). Conclusions: Considerable differences in the knowledge and especially the practice of childhood safety exist among parents in different socioeconomic levels in Mexico. Future injury prevention efforts need to address these and especially the availability, cost, and utilization of specific highly effective safety devices. PMID:12460967

  16. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... discussion. To ] facilitate as much group interaction as possible, formal presentations will not be permitted... Group, Inc., 110 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421; Attention: OSHA Injury and Illness Prevention... Series (OHSAS) Project Group, which is an international association of government agencies,...

  17. Research on injury prevention: topics for systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, F; Johansen, J; Thompson, D

    2002-01-01

    Background: Duplication should be avoided in research and only effective intervention programs should be implemented. Objective: To arrive at a consensus among injury control investigators and practitioners on the most important research questions for systematic review in the area of injury prevention. Design: Delphi survey. Methods: A total of 34 injury prevention experts were asked to submit questions for systematic review. These were then collated; experts then ranked these on importance and availability of research. Results: Twenty one experts generated 79 questions. The prevention areas with the most number of questions generated were fires and burns, motor vehicle, and violence (other than intimate partner), and the least were other interventions (which included Safe Communities), and risk compensation. These were ranked by mean score. There was good agreement between the mean score and the proportion of experts rating questions as important or very important. Nine of the top 24 questions were rated as having some to a substantial amount of research available, and 15 as having little research available. Conclusions: The Delphi technique provided a useful means to develop consensus on injury prevention research needs and questions for systematic review. PMID:12120838

  18. Injury Prevention for the Elderly. Field Test Instructor Coursebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie

    This coursebook is intended for use by the instructors presenting a workshop on preventing injuries in the elderly that was developed as a field test of a larger 10-module training program for staff of long-term health care facilities, senior center and adult day care staff, and home health aides. The curriculum guide served as a blueprint for the…

  19. Preventing Death and Serious Injury from Falling Trees and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Of 128 outdoor education related deaths examined since 1960, 14 have been due to falling trees or branches. This article examines the grounds on which death or serious injury due to falling trees or branches can be regarded as an inherent risk in outdoor education, and the extent to which such incidents can be regarded as preventable. It compares…

  20. Prevention of growth arrest by fibrin interposition into physeal injury.

    PubMed

    Jie, Qiang; Hu, Yunyu; Yang, Liu; Lei, Wei; Zhao, Li; Lv, Rong; Wang, Jun

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the repair effects of fat and fibrin graft interposition through a proximal tibia transphyseal injury model and assessed the effectiveness of treatment to physeal injury with the fibrin. In this study, a unilateral growth plate injury was created in the right proximal tibia of 28 rats without any graft interposition; all left tibias were left untouched. In the other group of 28 rats, a bilateral physeal injury was made with the left tibia filled with autogenously adipose tissue and the right tibia filled with fibrin. To compare the malformed extents induced by different interventions, the length and the metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle of the tibia of three injured groups were examined. Further studies on bone density analysis and histological change were used to compare the bony bridge formation under different interventions. Results showed that the deformity angle and medial length of the tibia were significantly different between the grafted groups and nongrafted group at 4, 16, and 24 weeks postoperative (P<0.01). Results also showed no significant difference between fibrin-graft and fat-graft groups (P>0.05). Furthermore, the bone mineralization density of bony bridge induced by injury was significantly different between the grafted group and nongrafted group at 4, 16, and 24 weeks postoperative (P<0.01). Histological findings showed that bony repair after physeal injury was inhibited by both fibrin and fat interventions. We concluded that fibrin could be a substitute of adipose tissue in preventing the deformities induced by epiphyseal injury. Similar to autogenous fat, fibrin was found to alleviate limb shortness and prevent angular malformation by forming a scar instead of a bony bridge. The use of fibrin can help us to develop effective and compound intervention grafts to prevent skeletal deformity and regenerate normal cartilage tissue in the future.

  1. Environmental and occupational medicine and injury prevention: education and impact, classroom and community.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar

    2002-01-01

    The core value guiding the work of physicians and health workers, including those in Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology and Medicine and Injury Prevention, is to protect the health of the public, especially its most vulnerable individuals. In these fields, we emphasize teaching the use of epidemiology, the core discipline of public health, as a tool for early detection and prevention of disease and injury, as well as an instrument for hypothesis testing. The classic core topics are toxic and physical exposures and their effects, and strategies for their prevention; emerging issues are child labor, mass violence, and democide. In environmental health, students need to be prepared for the reality that the most important and severe problems are often the most difficult to investigate, solve, and evaluate. The following are some recommendations for producing graduates who are effective in protecting communities from environmental hazards and risks: (1) Teach the precautionary principle and its application; (2) Evaluate programs for teaching environmental and occupational health, medicine and epidemiology in schools of public health by their impact on the WHO health indicators and their impact on measures of ecosystem sustainability; (3) Develop problem-oriented projects and give academic credit for projects with definable public health impact and redefine the role of the health officer as the chief resident for Schools of Public Health and Community Medicine; (4) Teach the abuses of child labor and working conditions of women in the workplace and how to prevent the hazards and risks from the more common types of child work; (5) Upgrade teaching of injury prevention and prevention of deaths from external causes; (6) Teach students to recognize the insensitivity of epidemiology as a tool for early detection of true risk; (7) Teach the importance of context in the use of tests of statistical significance; (8) Teach the epidemiologic importance of short latency

  2. Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? A A A My ... outer ear. The good news is that outer ear infections often can be prevented. For starters, your daughter ...

  3. Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? A A A ... year-round and has recently been getting swimmer's ear. Can these infections be prevented? – Jovana Swimmer's ear , ...

  4. Radiological and forensic medicine aspects of traumatic injuries in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Solarino, M; De Filippi, C; Solarino, B

    2009-12-01

    Child abuse is a topical issue in modern society and has social and medical implications which directly concern the doctor, both as a private citizen and as a health professional. Abuse injuries can be of very different types, e.g. physical, psychological or sexual. Hence they require a multidisciplinary and multispecialty approach, which must begin with an accurate medical examination, conducted in compliance with the lege artis principles and with respect for the victim's dignity. Diagnostic imaging becomes essential, together with epicrisis, which is useful to distinguish between accidental and abusive injuries. This paper describes the radiologist's key role in identifying physical injuries due to child abuse, in accordance with current regulations.

  5. Parental distress, parenting practices, and child adaptive outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.

  6. HIV prevention is not enough: child survival in the context of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic research has identified increasingly effective interventions to reduce mother to child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings These scientific breakthroughs have been implemented in some programmes, although much remains to be done to improve coverage and quality of these programmes. But prevention of HIV transmission is not enough. It is necessary also to consider ways to improve maternal health and protect child survival. A win-win approach is to ensure that all pregnant and lactating women with CD4 counts of <350 cells/mm3 have access to antiretroviral therapy. On its own, this approach will substantially improve maternal health and markedly reduce mother to child HIV transmission during pregnancy and delivery and through breastfeeding. This approach can be combined with additional interventions for women with higher CD4 counts, either extended prophylaxis to infants or extended regimens of antiretroviral drugs to women, to reduce transmission even further. Attempts to encourage women to abstain from all breastfeeding or to shorten the optimal duration of breastfeeding have led to increases in mortality among both uninfected and infected children. A better approach is to support breastfeeding while strengthening programmes to provide antiretroviral therapy for pregnant and lactating women who need it and offering antiretroviral drug interventions through the duration of breastfeeding. This will lead to reduced HIV transmission and will protect the health of women without compromising the health and well-being of infants and young children. PMID:20015345

  7. Addendum to "Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial".

    PubMed

    Prinz, Ronald J; Sanders, Matthew R; Shapiro, Cheri J; Whitaker, Daniel J; Lutzker, John R

    2016-04-01

    A previous article published several years ago (Prinz et al. Prevention Science, 10, 1-12, 2009) described the main results of a place-randomized-design study focused on the prevention of child-maltreatment-related outcomes at a population level through the implementation of a multilevel system of parenting and family support (the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program). The current report, prepared at the encouragement of the journal, provides additional details about procedures, measures, and design-related decisions, presents an additional analysis of the main outcome variables, and poses questions about the study and its implications. We also offer guidance about how the field can move forward to build on this line of research. From the outset, the three designated primary child maltreatment outcomes were county-wide rates for substantiated child maltreatment cases, out-of-home placements, and hospital-treated child maltreatment injuries, derived from independent data sources available through administrative archival records. Baseline equivalence between the two intervention conditions was reaffirmed. The additional analysis, which made use of a 5-year baseline (replacing a 1-year baseline) and ANCOVA, yielded large effect sizes for all three outcomes that converged with those from the original analyses. Overall, the study underscored the potential for community-wide parenting and family support to produce population-level preventive impact on child maltreatment. Issues addressed included (1) the need for replication of population-oriented maltreatment prevention strategies like the one tested in this randomized experiment, (2) the need to demonstrate that a parenting-based population approach to maltreatment prevention can also impact children's adjustment apart from child abuse, and (3) the role of implementation science for achieving greater population reach and maintenance over time.

  8. Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child Care or School

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Reducing the Spread of Illness in Child Care Page Content ​​Whenever children are together, there is ... each dose. Measures to Promote Good Hygiene in Child Care: To reduce the risk of disease in child ...

  9. Prevention of infections associated with combat-related extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Obremskey, William T; Hsu, Joseph R; Andersen, Romney C; Calhoun, Jason H; Clasper, Jon C; Whitman, Timothy J; Curry, Thomas K; Fleming, Mark E; Wenke, Joseph C; Ficke, James R

    2011-08-01

    During combat operations, extremities continue to be the most common sites of injury with associated high rates of infectious complications. Overall, ∼ 15% of patients with extremity injuries develop osteomyelitis, and ∼ 17% of those infections relapse or recur. The bacteria infecting these wounds have included multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The goals of extremity injury care are to prevent infection, promote fracture healing, and restore function. In this review, we use a systematic assessment of military and civilian extremity trauma data to provide evidence-based recommendations for the varying management strategies to care for combat-related extremity injuries to decrease infection rates. We emphasize postinjury antimicrobial therapy, debridement and irrigation, and surgical wound management including addressing ongoing areas of controversy and needed research. In addition, we address adjuvants that are increasingly being examined, including local antimicrobial therapy, flap closure, oxygen therapy, negative pressure wound therapy, and wound effluent characterization. This evidence-based medicine review was produced to support the Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update contained in this supplement of Journal of Trauma.

  10. The Enough Abuse Campaign: building the movement to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Schober, Daniel J; Fawcett, Stephen B; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing a state-level infrastructure for child sexual abuse prevention, (b) assessing child sexual abuse perceptions and public opinion, (c) developing local infrastructures in three communities and implementing training programs focused on preventing perpetration of child sexual abuse, (d) facilitating changes in local communities to child-sexual-abuse-related systems, and (e) inviting Massachusetts residents to join an advocacy-based movement to prevent child sexual abuse. This case study concludes with future directions for the campaign and topics for future research related to child sexual abuse.

  11. Model Child Care Standards Act--Guidance to States to Prevent Child Abuse in Day Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    The document offers guidelines to states regarding review and revision of child care statutes, standards, and policies to address the prevention of child sexual abuse in day care facilities. General information is also provided on changes in state standards in recent years. Each of six sections examines findings of the 1981 Comparative Licensing…

  12. Preventing injuries in workers: the role of management practices in decreasing injuries reporting

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Researchers have found that management safety practices may predict occupational injuries and psychological distresses in the workplace. The present study examined the perception of management safety practices related to injuries reporting and its dimensions among workers of Isfahan Steel Company (ESCO). Methods: A self-administered anonymous survey was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, management safety perception, injuries reporting and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and injuries). The data were analyzed by Multivariate and correlation techniques. Results: The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations between management safety perception with injuries reporting and its two dimensions namely physical and psychological symptoms; 2) there was no significant relationship between management safety perception and injury; 3) in Multivariate analysis, management safety perception significantly predicted about 26%, 19%, and 28% of the variances of variables of injuries reporting, physical symptoms, and psychological symptoms respectively (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Improving employees’ perception of management safety practices can be important to prevent the development of job injuries and to promote workers’ safety and well-being. PMID:25279379

  13. A review of risk factors for child pedestrian injuries: are they modifiable?

    PubMed Central

    Wazana, A.; Krueger, P.; Raina, P.; Chambers, L.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify modifiable risk factors for child pedestrian injuries. DATA SOURCES: (1) MEDLINE search from 1985 to 1995; search term used was traffic accidents; (2) review of reference lists from retrieved articles and books; (3) review of reference lists from three systematic reviews on childhood injuries and (4) consultation with 'key informants'. STUDY SELECTION: All studies that examined the risk factors for child pedestrian injuries were targeted for retrieval. Seventy potentially relevant articles were identified using article titles, and, when available, abstracts. Of the 70 retrieved articles, 44 were later assessed as being relevant. QUALITY ASSESSMENT: Articles were classified on the basis of study design as being either descriptive (hypothesis generating) (26) or analytical (hypothesis testing) (18) studies. Consensus was used for difficult to classify articles. DATA EXTRACTION: Variables judged to be risk factors for child pedestrian injuries were extracted by one author. DATA SYNTHESIS: A qualitative summary of the information extracted from relevant articles is presented in tabular form. RESULTS: Risk factors for child pedestrian injuries were classified as: (1) child, (2) social and cultural, (3) physical environment, and (4) driver. Risk factors within each classification are summarized and discussed. PMID:9493628

  14. Preventing Child Death: Strategies for the Prevention of Child Death by Poisoning, Firearms, Drowning and Fires. A Special Report Commissioned by the Children's Trust Fund of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Kids Count Project, Austin.

    This report is designed to be used in conjunction with the Texas Child Fatality Review Team Annual Report, which provides a comprehensive analysis of the incidence of child death in Texas and examines the state's fatality response system. Four types of preventable death are the focus of this report: deaths by drowning, gunshot wounds, poisoning,…

  15. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  16. Partners in health: Injury prevention and the coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to solve many of the work-related problems and areas of concern that are present in the mining industry. An overview of concerns and how to attack the problems is discussed. Some of the worker`s injury problems, such as back pain syndromes, are by no means unique to the industry. However, other problems such as bolter shoulder syndrome problems, are job specific and need biomechanical investigation to determine specific causal relation of job task to injury. The goal would be defined as twofold. The primary goal is to identify the specific job contribution to high risk occupations, and secondly, to implement a total work force injury prevention program. These goals are discussed.

  17. The physician's role in preventing small arms injury.

    PubMed

    Hargarten, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The first step in defining a public health problem is to describe its scope and nature. For most diseases, this involves details on the victims, morbidity and mortality, and the agent of the disease. In the case of the small-arms 'disease', apart from data on the injuries caused, most other information resides with criminal justice agencies that are primarily concerned with criminal activity. In the United States, beginning in the state of Wisconsin, an approach based on the nation-wide data system of car crash deaths has been developed, linking medical examiners, coroners, police data and other information to provide a comprehensive picture of firearm-related deaths. The next step should be to develop standardized firearm-markings that would aid in controlling the illicit trade in small arms and more detailed information on the relationship between type of firearm and injury. Physicians can do much to aid prevention of small arms injury by advocating this public health approach.

  18. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-04-09

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  19. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  20. Wearable IMU for Shoulder Injury Prevention in Overhead Sports.

    PubMed

    Rawashdeh, Samir A; Rafeldt, Derek A; Uhl, Timothy L

    2016-11-03

    Body-worn inertial sensors have enabled motion capture outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, an inertial measurement unit was attached to the upper arm to track and discriminate between shoulder motion gestures in order to help prevent shoulder over-use injuries in athletics through real-time preventative feedback. We present a detection and classification approach that can be used to count the number of times certain motion gestures occur. The application presented involves tracking baseball throws and volleyball serves, which are common overhead movements that can lead to shoulder and elbow overuse injuries. Eleven subjects are recruited to collect training, testing, and randomized validation data, which include throws, serves, and seven other exercises that serve as a large null class of similar movements, which is analogous to a realistic usage scenario and requires a robust estimator.

  1. Wearable IMU for Shoulder Injury Prevention in Overhead Sports

    PubMed Central

    Rawashdeh, Samir A.; Rafeldt, Derek A.; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Body-worn inertial sensors have enabled motion capture outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, an inertial measurement unit was attached to the upper arm to track and discriminate between shoulder motion gestures in order to help prevent shoulder over-use injuries in athletics through real-time preventative feedback. We present a detection and classification approach that can be used to count the number of times certain motion gestures occur. The application presented involves tracking baseball throws and volleyball serves, which are common overhead movements that can lead to shoulder and elbow overuse injuries. Eleven subjects are recruited to collect training, testing, and randomized validation data, which include throws, serves, and seven other exercises that serve as a large null class of similar movements, which is analogous to a realistic usage scenario and requires a robust estimator. PMID:27827880

  2. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Regens, James L; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Rapid-Onset Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur. PMID:24783188

  4. Peripheral Vasodilation Responses to Prevent Local Cold Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Arteritis • Raynaud Syndrome • Vasospastic disorders • Anaemia • Sickle cell disease • Diabetes • Shock • Vasoconstrictors Another...SUBTITLE Peripheral Vasodilation Responses to Prevent Local Cold Injuries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division

  5. [Child victims of house fires in France. Mortality, morbidity, prevention].

    PubMed

    Leveque, B; Lareng, L; Julien, H; Lavaud, J; Wassermann, D; Latarjet, J

    1993-10-01

    Children injuries by house fires in France are the cause of a severe mortality (sixty deaths in average each year) and of a morbidity for the survival due to smoke toxicity (oxygen deprivation and inhalation of toxic gases--CO and HCN) and to thermal burns. Epidemiological studies show that young children (0 to 4) are specially concerned by this threat and that the deaths occurred more often in some part of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region). A special strategy for this prevention should be applied in France, the same available in USA, Sweden and UK, including information on the behavior one should have with children: never leave them alone and escape with them as soon as possible out of the smoke. The usefulness of smoke detectors should be confirmed by French administration and recommended to the public, since they have had effective results in other countries.

  6. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  8. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  9. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  10. An Alternative Approach to the Prevention of Child Abuse: Pre-Service Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paula M.; Burns, George E.

    1986-01-01

    Child abuse prevention expertise is sufficiently important to warrant its acquisition during pre-service teacher education training. Teacher training can address primary abuse prevention in the context of child growth and development or parenting courses. Such studies would lead to and necessitate the creation of non-punitive methods of classroom…

  11. Modification of the "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect" (PCAN) Curriculum for IDEA Part C Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, Janice E.; Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic workforce training of organizations that provide services to families of young children with special needs can help strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, but few curriculua are available for this purpose. One professional development curriculum, "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child…

  12. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

  14. Burn injuries caused by a hair-dryer--an unusual case of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Darok, M; Reischle, S

    2001-01-01

    About 1.4-26% burn injuries in children appear to be abusive in origin. A 2.5-year-old girl was referred to our institute because of suspected child abuse. Clinical examination and later interrogation of the mother revealed non-recent deep second degree burn injuries on both gluteal regions, caused by the partner of the mother by pressing a hand-held hair-dryer against the skin. The authors present the findings of this unusual method of child abuse.

  15. Is It Safe? Injury Prevention for Young Children. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Becky J.

    The United States has a higher child mortality rate than most other industrialized countries, but most childhood injuries, although called "accidents," are the result of predictable and preventable behavior. This book demonstrates how teachers, parents, and caregivers can provide and maintain safe environments while teaching children how to avoid…

  16. Biomechanical analysis of injury criterion for child and adult dummies.

    PubMed

    Sances, A

    2000-01-01

    The development of human injury tolerance is difficult because of the physical differences between humans and animals, the available dummies, and tissue of the cadaver. Furthermore, human volunteer testing can clearly only be done at subinjurious levels. While considerable biomechanical injury evidence exists for the adult human based on cadaveric studies, little information is available for the pediatric population. However, some material is available from skull bone modulus studies and from the fetal tendon strength and early pediatric studies of the newborn. A review of living human, animal, and human cadaveric studies, which forms the basis for head-neck injury criterion are given. Examples of the use of the Hybrid III dummy for injury prediction such as in the Malibu rollover tests and air bag mechanisms show neck injury levels are considerably above the proposed Malibu 2000 N level.

  17. A League Table of Child Deaths by Injury in Rich Nations. Innocenti Report Card, Issue No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter; Micklewright, John; Wright, Anna

    Noting that injuries are the leading cause of child death in all the world's more developed countries, this report is the second in a series of "Innocenti Report Cards" designed to monitor the performance of industrialized nations in meeting the needs of their children. The report focuses on child death by injury in the member countries…

  18. Peripheral nerve injuries in athletes. Treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Lorei, M P; Hershman, E B

    1993-08-01

    Peripheral nerve lesions are uncommon but serious injuries which may delay or preclude an athlete's safe return to sports. Early, accurate anatomical diagnosis is essential. Nerve lesions may be due to acute injury (e.g. from a direct blow) or chronic injury secondary to repetitive microtrauma (entrapment). Accurate diagnosis is based upon physical examination and a knowledge of the relative anatomy. Palpation, neurological testing and provocative manoeuvres are mainstays of physical diagnosis. Diagnostic suspicion can be confirmed by electrophysiological testing, including electromyography and nerve conduction studies. Proper equipment, technique and conditioning are the keys to prevention. Rest, anti-inflammatories, physical therapy and appropriate splinting are the mainstays of treatment. In the shoulder, spinal accessory nerve injury is caused by a blow to the neck and results in trapezius paralysis with sparing of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Scapular winging results from paralysis of the serratus anterior because of long thoracic nerve palsy. A lesion of the suprascapular nerve may mimic a rotator cuff tear with pain a weakness of the rotator cuff. Axillary nerve injury often follows anterior shoulder dislocation. In the elbow region, musculocutaneous nerve palsy is seen in weightlifters with weakness of the elbow flexors and dysesthesias of the lateral forearm. Pronator syndrome is a median nerve lesion occurring in the proximal forearm which is diagnosed by several provocative manoeuvres. Posterior interosseous nerve entrapment is common among tennis players and occurs at the Arcade of Froshe--it results in weakness of the wrist and metacarpophalangeal extensors. Ulnar neuritis at the elbow is common amongst baseball pitchers. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common neuropathy seen in sport and is caused by median nerve compression in the carpal tunnel. Paralysis of the ulnar nerve at the wrist is seen among bicyclists resulting in weakness of grip and

  19. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome following Head Injury in a Child Managed Successfully with Fludrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nagendra; Pathak, Santosh; Gupta, Murli Manohar; Agrawal, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.

  20. 76 FR 77537 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal..., National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  1. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11...

  2. America's Child Care Crisis: A Crime Prevention Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sanford; Brazelton, T. Berry; Zigler, Edward; Sherman, Lawrence W.; Bratton, William; Sanders, Jerry; Christeson, William

    This report presents findings relating the reduction of crime and violence with access to good educational child care programs. The report discusses the affordability of such programs, suggests that federal and state governments are not adequately funding educational child care programs, and argues that investing in high-quality child care and…

  3. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  4. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  5. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  6. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  7. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  8. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  9. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  10. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  11. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  12. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  13. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. Methods and analysis The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:27207621

  14. Evaluation of a ski and snowboard injury prevention program.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael; Luong, Wilson P; Faress, Ahmed; Leroux, Timothy; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effectiveness of a brochure and video at improving skiing and snowboarding knowledge. Sixty-nine Grade 7 students were randomised to an educational intervention (n = 35) or control (n = 34) group. The intervention group viewed an injury prevention video aimed at improving skiers and snowboarder's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about ski and snowboard safety and received a brochure. The control group participated in a teaching session and had a simple question and answer session about snow sports. Pre- and post-tests were administered and injuries during four trips were documented. Pre-test scores were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, there was a significantly greater improvement in post-test scores among the intervention group (WMD: 2.1; 95% CI: 0.19-4.01). There was no significant difference in injury rates (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.04, 3.39). All injuries were minor and did not require medical attention. The intervention aimed at youth skiers and snowboarders appears to be effective at improving knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of skiing and snowboarding safety.

  15. All-terrain vehicle injury in children: strategies for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, M; Graham, C; Killingsworth, J; Mullins, S; Parnell, D; Dick, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A variety of educational efforts, policies, and regulations have been adopted to reduce all-terrain vehicle (ATV) injury in children. Despite this, ATV use by children continues and serious injuries are common. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, practices, and beliefs of ATV users to help develop effective educational strategies to promote safer ATV use. Design: Focus groups were conducted to characterize participant ATV use and safety awareness as well as to explore avenues for prevention. Feedback on draft ATV safety public service announcements was elicited. Themes of transcribed focus group data were summarized. Setting: Rural state with high ATV use and injury rates. Subjects: Adult and adolescent ATV users. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures: Summaries of focus group discussions. Results: ATV riders frankly discussed current use and safety behaviors and were aware of some ATV risks. Youths felt that age specific regulation was unlikely to be a helpful strategy. Participants endorsed messages demonstrating graphic consequences as likely to get the attention of young riders regarding risks. Educational settings were suggested, including hunter and driver safety classes. Conclusions: Efforts to improve ATV safety awareness should clearly show pediatric ATV injury risk and safety practices. Campaigns must also show realistic understanding of current use practices to be credible for users. Messages emphasizing the consequences of ATV use were endorsed as most likely to have impact. Approaches based on age based restrictions were considered unrealistic and alternative strategies were suggested. PMID:15470012

  16. Preventive Effects of Carnosine on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Sugizaki, Toshifumi; Kanda, Yuki; Tamura, Fumiya; Niino, Tomomi; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a potentially devastating form of acute lung injury, which involves neutrophilic inflammation and pulmonary cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in ARDS development. New compounds for inhibiting the onset and progression of ARDS are required. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a small di-peptide with numerous activities, including antioxidant effects, metal chelation, proton buffering capacity and the inhibition of protein carbonylation and glycoxidation. We have examined the preventive effects of carnosine on tissue injury, oedema and inflammation in a murine model for ARDS. Oral administration of carnosine suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular permeability, tissue injury and inflammation in the lung. In vivo imaging analysis revealed that LPS administration increased the level of ROS and that this increase was inhibited by carnosine administration. Carnosine also suppressed LPS-induced neutrophilic inflammation (evaluated by activation of myeloperoxidase in the lung and increased extracellular DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). Furthermore, carnosine administration suppressed the LPS-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response in vivo. These results suggest that the oral administration of carnosine suppresses LPS-induced lung injury via carnosine’s ROS-reducing activity. Therefore, carnosine may be beneficial for suppressing the onset and progression of ARDS. PMID:28205623

  17. Sports injury to a bipartite medial cuneiform in a child.

    PubMed

    Eves, Timothy B; Ahmad, Mudussar A; Oddy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who had sustained a soccer injury to his mid-foot. Plain radiography did not reveal any fracture to account for the severity of his symptoms or his inability to bear weight. Magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken and demonstrated the medial cuneiform to be a bipartite bone consisting of 2 ossicles connected by a synchondrosis. No acute fracture or diastasis of the bipartite bone was demonstrated; however, significant bone marrow edema was noted, corresponding to the site of the injury and his clinical point bony tenderness. This anatomic variant should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the skeletally immature foot. The injury was treated nonoperatively with a non-weightbearing cast and pneumatic walker immobilization, with successful resolution of his symptoms and a return to sports activity by 4 months after injury.

  18. The Hormone Ghrelin Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Intestinal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vishal; Ryu, Seok Yong; Blow, Chelsea; Costantini, Todd; Loomis, William; Eliceiri, Brian; Baird, Andrew; Wolf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by increased intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation, and inflammation. The hormone ghrelin may prevent intestinal injury and have anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that exogenous ghrelin prevents intestinal injury following TBI. A weight-drop model created severe TBI in three groups of anesthetized Balb/c mice. Group TBI: animals underwent TBI only; Group TBI/ghrelin: animals were given 10 μg of ghrelin intraperitoneally prior and 1 h following TBI; Group sham: no TBI or ghrelin injection. Intestinal permeability was measured 6 h following TBI by detecting serum levels of FITC-Dextran after injection into the intact ileum. The terminal ileum was harvested for histology, expression of the tight junction protein MLCK and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Permeability increased in the TBI group compared to the sham group (109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL vs. 32.2 ± 10.1 μg/mL; p < 0.002). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced permeability (28.3 ± 4.2 μg/mL vs. 109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL; p < 0.001). The intestines of the TBI group showed blunting and necrosis of villi compared to the sham group, while ghrelin injection preserved intestinal architecture. Intestinal MLCK increased 73% compared to the sham group (p < 0.03). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced MLCK expression to sham levels. Intestinal TNF-α increased following TBI compared to the sham group (46.2 ± 7.1 pg/mL vs. 24.4 ± 2.2 pg/mL p < 0.001). Ghrelin reduced TNF-α to sham levels (29.2 ± 5.0 pg/mL; p = NS). We therefore conclude that ghrelin prevents TBI-induced injury, as determined by intestinal permeability, histology, and intestinal levels of TNF-α. The mechanism for ghrelin mediating intestinal protection is likely multifactorial, and further studies are needed to delineate these possibilities. PMID:20858122

  19. 75 FR 6675 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for...

  20. Rectus femoris muscle injuries in football: a clinically relevant review of mechanisms of injury, risk factors and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Idoate, Fernando; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-04-01

    Quadriceps muscle strains frequently occur in sports that require repetitive kicking and sprinting, and are common in football in its different forms around the world. This paper is a review of aetiology, mechanism of injury and the natural history of rectus femoris injury. Investigating the mechanism and risk factors for rectus femoris muscle injury aims to allow the development of a framework for future initiatives to prevent quadriceps injury in football players.

  1. Update: soccer injury and prevention, concussion, and chronic groin pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathaniel S

    2014-01-01

    Soccer, or football, as it is known in much of the world, is one of the most popular sports in the world. The purpose of this article was to provide a concise update on select soccer-specific medical issues published in the last year as they relate to soccer injury and prevention, concussions, and chronic groin pain. Both the Fédération Internationale de Football Association and the Union of European Football Associations published data from their longstanding injury tracking systems, providing foundation for further research. Concussion research continues to drive much interest, especially as it relates to heading and the controversy of subconcussive trauma. Lastly, our understanding of chronic groin pain continues to be refined as we try to understand the complexity of its pathophysiology and attempt to standardize a multispecialty approach of diagnosis and treatment.

  2. A rare case of penetrating brain injury by crossbow in a 22-month-old child.

    PubMed

    Hengzhu, Zhang; Enxi, Xu; Lei, She; Xiaodong, Wang; Lun, Dong

    2014-06-01

    Nonmissile penetrating brain injuries are exceedingly uncommon among civilian population and are most often associated with inflicted injury. They show specific characteristics different from that of missile wounds. In this article, we describe a rare case of a 22-month-old child who experienced accidental penetrating head trauma caused by a crossbow. We document neuroimaging studies and review the management concerning this pathology. To our knowledge, this is the youngest survived case of penetrating brain injury by a crossbow with such radiological findings reported in the literature.

  3. Immunotherapies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Hicar, Mark D

    2013-03-01

    Although pharmacological interventions have been successful in reducing prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, there is concern that complete elimination through this mode of transmission will require other measures. Immunotherapies in infants or pregnant mothers may be able to eradicate this form of transmission. A recent vaccine trial in adults showed encouraging results, but as in most HIV safety and efficacy vaccine trials, the question of MTCT was not addressed. Concentrating transmission studies and vaccine studies in the setting of MTCT offers several advantages. MTCT has a generally reproducible known transmission rate and has been successfully used to assess pharmacological interventions on decreasing transmission. Even in resource poor settings, the infrastructure for neonatal vaccination is already in place. Although rare, both passive and active vaccination trials have been successfully completed in pediatric populations. Unfortunately, little success in affecting MTCT has been shown. Largely, a correlate of protection in any type of transmission, including MTCT, is unknown. Data supports a role for antibodies in effecting strain and transmission during MTCT. The role of antibodies in MTCT is reviewed with a focus on recent passive immunization and considerations for future studies.

  4. Preventing Child and Adolescent Firearm Injuries. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie

    In an effort to reduce the current epidemic of gun violence among children and adolescents in the United States, this fact sheet presents various approaches to reducing access to and interest in carrying firearms. Suggested approaches to reducing access include: (1) urging parents to turn in their guns to police; (2) repealing anti-gun control…

  5. Cerebellar Mutism Following Closed Head Injury in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Kariyattil, Rajeev; Rahim, Mohamed I. A.; Muthukuttiparambil, Unnikrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar mutism is a rare occurrence following paediatric trauma. Although it is quite common after posterior fossa surgery in children, this phenomenon has rarely been reported following other insults, such as trauma, and its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We report a seven-year-old child who presented to the casualty department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in May 2013 with a traumatic right cerebellar contusion. The child presented with clinical features of cerebellar mutism but underwent a rapid and spontaneous recovery. The possible mechanism of this occurrence is discussed. PMID:25685374

  6. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  7. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  8. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  9. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  10. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  11. Distraction Injury of the Thoracic Spine With Spinal Cord Transection and Vascular Injury in a 5-Week-Old Infant Boy: A Case of Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Brink, Farah W; Gold, Delia L; Adler, Brent; Letson, Megan McGraw

    2017-03-01

    Distraction injury of the spine with spinal cord transection and adjacent vascular injury is rarely described in the setting of child physical abuse. We report a 5-week-old infant boy who sustained these injuries after an abusive event. The clinical presentation, imaging findings, and recommended evaluation modalities are discussed. An overview of pediatric spinal column and vascular injuries secondary to physical abuse is given.

  12. Facial Dog Bite Injuries of a 19-Month-Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Oueis, Hassan; Tann, Richard; Stenger, James

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that 4.5 million Americans are bitten by dogs each year, and half of those are children. One in five dog bites results in injuries that require some form of medical attention. Children between 5 and 9 years of age are the most affected age group for this type of injury. A 19-month-old boy was admitted to the emergency department of Children's Hospital of Michigan for treatment of injuries due to a dog attack. Injuries were limited to the face of the child. Dental injuries included avulsion of upper lateral incisors, severe luxation of upper central incisors, and fracture of the facial alveolus bone. Surgical management of facial wounds was accomplished through irrigation, debridement and suturing. Dental treatment included extraction of central incisors and suturing soft tissues.

  13. Choroidal rupture and optic nerve injury with equipment designated as 'child-safe'.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Robert; Saldana, Manuel

    2012-08-27

    Blunt ocular trauma from a child's plastic foam-covered toy baseball bat caused traumatic optic neuropathy and choroidal rupture in a 9-year-old child. The examination revealed a visual acuity of 6/60, a relative afferent pupillary defect, optic nerve swelling, commotio retinae and retinal haemorrhages. There was no orbital fracture or intraorbital haematoma on CT scanning. Optical coherence tomography showed macular oedema and disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. The child was admitted for intravenous methylprednisolone and discharged on topical steroid treatment. At 1 month follow-up, visual acuity had improved to 6/12. Optic nerve swelling had resolved and the fundus had two crescent-shaped choroidal rupture scars. Choroidal rupture and optic neuropathy can be secondary to indirect trauma, and even when the mechanism of injury is with a piece of equipment designated as suitable for children, serious ocular injury can occur.

  14. Socioeconomic inequality in child injury in Bangladesh – implication for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Giashuddin, Sheikh M; Rahman, Aminur; Rahman, Fazlur; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Chowdhury, Salim Mahmud; Linnan, Michael; Shafinaz, Shumona

    2009-01-01

    Background Child injury is an emerging public health issue in both developed and developing countries. It is the main cause of deaths and disabilities of children after infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic inequality in injury related morbidity and mortality among 1–4 years children. Materials and methods Data used for this study derived from Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey. A multistage cluster sampling technique was conducted for this survey. In this study quintiles of socioeconomic status were calculated on the basis of assets and wealth score by using principle component analysis. The numerical measures of inequality in mortality and morbidity were assessed by the concentration index. Results The poorest-richest quintile ratio of mortality due to injury was 6.0 whereas this ratio was 5.6 and 5.5 for the infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases. The values of mortality concentration indices for child mortality due to infection, non-communicable diseases and injury causes were -0.40, -0.32 and -0.26 respectively. Among the morbidity concentration indices, injury showed significantly greater inequality. All the concentration indices revealed that there were significant inequalities among the groups. The logistic regression analysis indicated that poor children were 2.8 times more likelihood to suffer from injury mortality than rich children, taking into account all the other factors. Conclusion Despite concentration indices used in this study, the analysis reflected the family's socioeconomic position in a Bangladesh context, showing a very strong statistical association with child mortality. Due to the existing socioeconomic situation in Bangladesh, the poor children were more vulnerable to injury occurrence. PMID:19309516

  15. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths, however, seems to have been achieved at the expense of children's walking and cycling activities. Changes in travel patterns may exact a considerable price in terms of future health problems. PMID:9116546

  16. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  17. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries.

    PubMed

    Caine, Dennis; Purcell, Laura; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury - are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete's vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is intended

  18. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  19. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  20. Self-reported worst injuries in women's Australian football identify lower limb injuries as a prevention priority

    PubMed Central

    Fortington, Lauren V; Donaldson, Alex; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing participation by women in Australian football (AF) has made understanding their specific injury prevention needs a priority. In other sports, men and women have different injury profiles. This study aims to provide the first overview of self-reported injuries in women's AF. Methods Nationwide survey of women aged 17+ years who played in an AF competition was conducted following the 2014 playing season. The players' self-reported worst injury from the 2014 season is presented according to injury type, body part injured, treatment sought and games/training missed. Results Three-quarters of 553 respondents (n=431, 78%) reported at least 1 injury. Over half (n=235, 55%) of injuries were to the lower limb. Ankle ligament tears/sprains (n=50, 12% of all injuries) and knee ligament tears/sprains (n=45, 10%) were most frequent lower limb injuries reported. Two-thirds (65%) of all lower limb injuries led to at least 1 missed game. Of 111 (26% of all injuries) upper limb injuries reported, over half (n=57, 62%) were to the hand/fingers/thumb, including fractures (n=28, 6% of all injuries), ligament tears/sprains (n=18, 4%) and dislocations (n=11, 3%). Half of the upper limb injuries (51%) resulted in players missing matches/training. Conclusions The most frequent self-reported worst injuries for women playing AF were joint damage to the ankle and knee. A prospective injury study is needed to confirm the causes and rate of these lower limb injuries to identify the most suitable prevention interventions. PMID:27900178

  1. Combating Child Homicide: Preventive Policing for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Monique C.; Lord, Wayne D.

    2005-01-01

    High-profile media coverage of crimes against children has heightened public awareness of critical child safety needs and issues. However, numerous research studies in the area of child homicide have illustrated the importance of the power of science to correct false perceptions and misinformation, improving how to best serve and protect our…

  2. The Role of Child Care Settings in Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M.; French, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that researchers and policymakers focused on childhood obesity have paid insufficient attention to child care. Although child care settings can be a major force in shaping children's dietary intake, physical activity, and energy balance--and thus in combating the childhood obesity…

  3. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... they need our support to thrive and grow into healthy, productive adults. During National Child Abuse..., promoting healthy families, and building a brighter future for all Americans. Every child deserves a nurturing family and a safe environment, free from fear, abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual,...

  4. Prevention of occupational musculo-skeletal injuries. Labour Inspectorate investigation.

    PubMed

    Kemmlert, K

    1996-01-01

    psychological symptoms in the study group compared to data from population groups. Activities in daily life were more restricted in the study group. 109 persons were in active employment. The association between the two effect measures improved ergonomic conditions and active employment, and both individual and work-related characteristics was analysed. The odds for improved working conditions were increased where the employer had given an informative injury description in the injury report, probably indicating that an understanding of the mechanisms of injury is a prerequisite for effective prevention. Sick-leaves for more than 6 months during the year following the report had a significant negative association with active employment, whereas male sex and higher education, respectively, had a positive association. The studied musculo-skeletal injuries were associated with a high prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms. Identification and investigation of ergonomic hazards, as appearing in informative reports on the origin of injuries and in inspection notices, seemed to have a positive influence on the process of prevention.

  5. The new trend in back injury prevention programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rummerfield, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    The reduction in Worker`s Compensation costs through lumbar strengthening programs is now a proven approach. This is the beginning of a new era in injury prevention. Imagine a test for muscle imbalance along with the strength of all the major muscle groups of every person on the mine site. Occupations, such as roof bolters, and operators of haul trucks, dozers, scrapers, continuous miners and shuttle cars could be tested for musculoskeletal strength of the spine and extremities. With this test data you could then compare your findings to the strength norms necessary for that person to perform his/her job task safely. Armed with this information, you could drastically reduce Workers` Compensation costs due to strains and sprains. Earl Hoerner, M.D. and Robert Wainwright, P.T. have consolidated these cutting-edge technologies that will produce the benchmark for industrial injury prevention for the next century. These technologies are available today, waiting to be used in an industrial setting by a management team with vision.

  6. Preventing Scars after Injury with Partial Irreversible Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Villiger, Martin; Khan, Saiqa; Quinn, Kyle P; Lo, William C Y; Bouma, Brett E; Mihm, Martin C; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin L

    2016-11-01

    Preventing the formation of hypertrophic scars, especially those that are a result of major trauma or burns, would have enormous impact in the fields of regenerative and trauma medicine. In this report, we introduce a noninvasive method to prevent scarring based on nonthermal partial irreversible electroporation. Contact burn injuries in rats were treated with varying treatment parameters to optimize the treatment protocol. Scar surface area and structural properties of the scar were assessed with histology and non-invasive, longitudinal imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. We found that partial irreversible electroporation using 200 pulses of 250 V and 70 μs duration, delivered at 3 Hz every 20 days during a total of five therapy sessions after the initial burn injury, resulted in a 57.9% reduction of the scar area compared with untreated scars and structural features approaching those of normal skin. Unlike humans, rats do not develop hypertrophic scars. Therefore, the use of a rat animal model is the limiting factor of this work.

  7. Acute kidney injury by radiographic contrast media: pathogenesis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24-72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both.

  8. Ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, H; Arteel, G E; Rusyn, I; Sies, H; Thurman, R G

    2001-02-15

    Oxidants have been shown to be involved in alcohol-induced liver injury. Moreover, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazole-3(2H)-one (ebselen), an organoselenium compound and glutathione peroxidase mimic, decreases oxidative stress and protects against stroke clinically. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ebselen protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat liquid diets with or without ethanol (10-16 g/kg/d) continuously for up to 4 weeks using the intragastric enteral feeding protocol developed by Tsukamoto and French. Ebselen (50 mg/kg twice daily, intragastrically) or vehicle (1% tylose) was administered throughout the experiment. Mean urine ethanol concentrations were not significantly different between treatment groups, and ebselen did not affect body weight gains or cyclic patterns of ethanol concentrations in urine. After 4 weeks, serum ALT levels were increased significantly about 4-fold over control values (37 +/- 5 IU/l) by enteral ethanol (112 +/- 7 IU/l); ebselen blunted this increase significantly (61 +/- 8 IU/l). Enteral ethanol also caused severe fatty accumulation, mild inflammation, and necrosis in the liver (pathology score: 4.3 +/- 0.3). In contrast, these pathological changes were blunted significantly by ebselen (pathology score: 2.5 +/- 0.4). While there were no significant effects of either ethanol or ebselen on glutathione peroxidase activity in serum or liver tissue, ebselen blocked the increase in serum nitrate/nitrite caused by ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol increased the activity of NF-kappaB over 5-fold, the number of infiltrating neutrophils 4-fold, and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal over 5-fold. Ebselen blunted all of these effects significantly. These results indicate that ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury, most likely by preventing oxidative stress, which decreases inflammation.

  9. The science of softball: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Flyger, Nicholas; Button, Chris; Rishiraj, Neetu

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the sport of softball has achieved worldwide popularity over the last 100 years, a consideration of the scientific principles underpinning softball is in its infancy. It is clear that the various motor skills associated with softball, such as pitching, batting and fielding, place considerable perceptual and physical demands upon players. Each of these skill categories are examined in more detail by reviewing the biomechanical principles associated with skilled performance. For pitching, a certain amount of information can be gleaned from baseball research; however, the underarm technique required by softball places the highest loads on the arm and shoulder during the accelerative, downward phase of the swing. Kinematic analyses of the bat swing suggest that elite batters have approximately 200 ms to decide whether to swing, and approximately the same duration to complete the swing (resulting in reported bat speeds of up to 40 m/sec). The research conducted on fielding has been limited to a consideration of throwing styles adopted in games. A variety of throwing techniques are adopted in the course of a typical game but elite players commonly adopt a sidearm technique when returning to base as quickly as possible. Data obtained from the National Athletic Training Association indicate a similar level of injury incidence in softball as in baseball. Approximately 17% of injuries are experienced by the pitcher and approximately 25% of all injuries are located in the forearm/wrist/hand joint segments. Sports science and sports medicine research have the potential to contribute significantly to performance enhancement and injury prevention in the future.

  10. Child and Parent Voices on a Community-Based Prevention Program (FAST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Hill, Patricia; Gore, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Families and Schools Together (FAST) is a collaborative program involving schools, families, and community-based partners in efforts to prevent substance use, juvenile delinquency, school failure, child abuse and neglect, mental health problems, and violence. Although evaluated extensively, there remains a dearth of qualitative data on child and…

  11. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  12. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  14. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  15. Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Christine; Brookes, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Although prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs are predicated on maternal behavior change, little is known about sociocultural factors affecting maternal-child care practices in this arena. The authors used narrative methods (key informant workshops, questionnaires, focus groups, and case study analysis) to explore how…

  16. 3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 2009, as National Child Abuse Prevention Month. I... United States of America A Proclamation When the child next door is maltreated, we all suffer....

  17. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  18. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  19. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  20. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…

  1. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury – are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete’s vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is

  2. Are we having fun yet? Fostering adherence to injury preventive exercise recommendations in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Keats, Melanie R; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-03-01

    Sport and recreational activities are the leading cause of injury in youth, yet there is increasing evidence that many sport-related injuries are preventable. For injury prevention strategies to be effective, individuals must understand, adopt and adhere to the recommended prevention strategy or programme. Despite the recognized importance of a behavioural approach, the inclusion of behavioural change strategies in sport injury prevention has been historically neglected. The purpose of this commentary is to outline the rationale for the inclusion and application of behavioural science in reducing the burden of injury by increasing adherence to proven prevention strategies. In an effort to provide an illustrative example of a behavioural change approach, the authors suggest a specific plan for the implementation of a neuromuscular training strategy to reduce the risk of lower limb injury in youth sport. Given the paucity of evidence in the sport injury prevention setting, and the lack of application of theoretical frameworks to predicting adoption and adherence to injury preventive exercise recommendations in youth sport, data from the related physical activity promotion domain is utilized to describe how sound, theory-based injury prevention exercise interventions in youth may be developed. While the question of how to facilitate behavioural change and optimize adherence to preventive exercise recommendations remains an ongoing challenge, the authors detail several strategies based on two prominent behavioural theories to aid the reader in conceptualizing, designing and implementing effective interventions. Despite the minimal application of behavioural theory within the field of sport injury prevention in youth, behavioural science has the potential to make a significant impact on the understanding and prevention of youth sport injury. Appropriate evaluation of adherence and maintenance components based on models of behavioural change should be a critical

  3. Child passenger injury risk in sibling versus non-sibling teen driver crashes: a US study.

    PubMed

    Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2007-06-01

    Several international jurisdictions allow family exemptions to graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions. The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers. Insurance claim and telephone survey data were collected on 16 233 child passengers (representing 289 329 children) in 17 US jurisdictions. There was a trend toward higher restraint non-use by child passengers in the non-sibling group than in the sibling group (9.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.08). Children in the sibling group had a 40% lower risk of injury than those in the non-sibling group (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90); however, injury risk was higher in the sibling group than in children traveling with adults (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26). Child passengers riding with sibling teen drivers may be safer than those riding with non-sibling teens, but not as safe as those riding with adult drivers.

  4. Preventing Workplace Injuries and Illnesses through Ergonomics. Listening to Our Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosskam, Ellen; Baichoo, Pavan

    1997-01-01

    Ergonomics focuses on the prevention of injuries through proper design of equipment, workstations, and products. The adoption of an ergonomic philosophy in the workplace has demonstrable benefits. (JOW)

  5. Utility of self-reported mental health measures for preventing unintentional injury: results from a cross-sectional study among French schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identify children at-risk of having mental health problems is of value to prevent injury. But the limited agreement between informants might jeopardize prevention initiatives. The aims of the present study were 1) to test the concordance between parents and children reports, and 2) to investigate their relationships with parental reports of children’ unintentional injuries. Methods In a population-based sample of 1258 children aged 6 to 11, the associations between child psychopathology (using the Dominic Interactive and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and unintentional injuries in the past 12 months were examined in univariate and multivariate models. Results As compared to children, parents tended to overestimate behavior problems and hyperactivity/inattention, and underestimate emotional symptoms. Unintentional injury in the last 12-month period was reported in 184 out of 1258 children (14.6%) and multivariate analyses showed that the risk of injury was twice as high in children self-reporting hyperactivity/inattention as compared to others. However this association was not retrieved with the parent-reported instrument. Conclusion Our findings support evidence that child-reported measures of psychopathology might provide relevant information for screening and injury prevention purposes, even at a young age. It could be used routinely in combination with others validated tools. PMID:24397489

  6. Firearm injury in a child: An uncommon case of penile trauma

    PubMed Central

    Dorterler, Mustafa Erman; Boleken, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary system injuries generally occur due to blunt and penetrating trauma. Approximately 10% of all injuries encountered in the emergency department are related to the genitourinary system. Male genital trauma is a urological emergency because of the high risk of infection and the priority of protecting the sexual, endocrine, and reproductive functions. Blunt injuries to the penis are more often seen due to the mobility and localization of the penis than due to penetrating injuries caused by firearms or cutting instruments. We aimed to present and discuss a case involving shrapnel that became lodged in the penis of a child in a war zone. After 2 weeks of medical treatment, the patient underwent surgery. Surgery includes primary repair to the penis and urethra. PMID:28149826

  7. Speak Up: Prevent Errors in Your Child's Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... information: • Your child’s medical history. Include vaccinations, allergies, current health problems, and the dates of any surgeries ... medicine? Tell the doctor or nurse your child’s current weight or ask them to weigh your child ( ...

  8. Preventing non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents: the signs of self-injury program.

    PubMed

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Walsh, Barent W; McDade, Moira

    2010-03-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continues to be a problem among youth and there is a great need for programming aimed at reducing NSSI in adolescents. The signs of self-injury program is the first known NSSI school-based prevention program for adolescents that attempts to increase knowledge, improve help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, and decrease acts of NSSI. A total of five schools implemented the program in selected classrooms (n = 274 adolescents; 51.5% female, mean age = 16.07 years) that consisted of predominantly Caucasian (73%) adolescents. Researchers collected pre-post evaluation surveys of the program and feasibility interviews were conducted with the school guidance personnel who ran the program. Results indicated the prevention program did not produce iatrogenic effects, increased accurate knowledge and improved help-seeking attitudes and intentions among students. No significant changes were found in regards to self-reported formal help-seeking actions. Feasibility responses indicate the program is user-friendly and well received by school personnel. The data offer preliminary evidence that the program may be an effective prevention program for schools.

  9. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using ...

  10. A public health response to data interoperability to prevent child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Loc H

    2014-11-01

    The sharing of data, particularly health data, has been an important tool for the public health community, especially in terms of data sharing across systems (i.e., interoperability). Child maltreatment is a serious public health issue that could be better mitigated if there were interoperability. There are challenges to addressing child maltreatment interoperability that include the current lack of data sharing among systems, the lack of laws that promote interoperability to address child maltreatment, and the lack of data sharing at the individual level. There are waivers in federal law that allow for interoperability to prevent communicable diseases at the individual level. Child maltreatment has a greater long-term impact than a number of communicable diseases combined, and interoperability should be leveraged to maximize public health strategies to prevent child maltreatment.

  11. A Public Health Response to Data Interoperability to Prevent Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The sharing of data, particularly health data, has been an important tool for the public health community, especially in terms of data sharing across systems (i.e., interoperability). Child maltreatment is a serious public health issue that could be better mitigated if there were interoperability. There are challenges to addressing child maltreatment interoperability that include the current lack of data sharing among systems, the lack of laws that promote interoperability to address child maltreatment, and the lack of data sharing at the individual level. There are waivers in federal law that allow for interoperability to prevent communicable diseases at the individual level. Child maltreatment has a greater long-term impact than a number of communicable diseases combined, and interoperability should be leveraged to maximize public health strategies to prevent child maltreatment. PMID:25211715

  12. Accidental Peno-Scrotal Degloving Injuries in a Child. A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Oseni, O G; Olaitan, P B; Badmus, T O; Olajide, A O

    2013-01-01

    Injury to male external genitalia is very rare because of some intrinsic factors like location, strong investing tunica albuginea and cremasteric muscles. However, when it occurs it is considered a urological emergency. Child labour with poor understanding of risks and safety precautions, especially under harsh supervision, surely poses major challenges. This case illustrates degloving injury of the penis and avulsion of the scrotum in a young boy while operating a roller type machine used in palm trees plantation. The penis was primarily regloved and avulsed skin primarily repaired. A good cosmetic outcome was observed from this treatment. This case also illustrates the importance of early presentation and emergency intervention in this condition.

  13. Common injuries of the foot and ankle in the child and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Ramirez-Del Toro, Jose A

    2008-05-01

    A myriad problems in the foot and ankle are specific to child and adolescent athletes. The anatomy of young athletes with respect to the presence of a growth plate makes their injury patterns different from those seen in adults. The main general injury patterns seen in the feet and ankles of children are related to growth and development or occur from overuse syndromes or acute trauma. In this article we outline in an anatomically oriented manner most of the common problems in this population.

  14. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  15. Franklin County, Ohio Deceased Child Review System. Working To Eliminate Preventable Child Deaths. 1992 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirner, Pamela; Griggs, Harry

    In 1988, Franklin County (Ohio) Children Services (FCCS) initiated the development of a bi-level, community-based, multi-disciplinary process to review all deaths of children in its open caseload, as well as child deaths in families with which FCCS had contact in the previous 12 months. This report examines the work of the Deceased Child Review…

  16. 77 FR 3269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Data... Review Officer, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE., Mailstop F-46, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, Telephone: (770)...

  17. 75 FR 46952 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral...

  18. Unexpected complication of oesophagoscopy: iatrogenic aortic injury in a child

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Orhan; Demirtas, Sinan; Yavuz, Celal; Oruc, Menduh; Karahan, Oguz; Kuyumcu, Mahir

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Oesophagoscopy is usually a safe procedure to localise and remove ingested foreign bodies, however, unexpected complications may develop during this procedure. In this case report we discuss iatrogenic aortic injury, which developed during oesophagoscopy, and its immediate treatment. Case report A six-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital with symptoms of having ingested a foreign body. Oesophagoscopy was carried out and the foreign body was visualised at the second constriction of the oesophagus. During this procedure, profuse bleeding occurred. Subsequently, a balloon dilator was placed to control bleeding in the oesophagus. Thoracic contrast tomography revealed thoracic aortic injury. Open surgical aortic repair was immediately carried out on the patient and the oesophageal hole was primarily repaired. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 15 with a total cure. Conclusion Although oesophagoscopy is a safe, easily applied method, it should be kept in mind that fatal complications may occur during the procedure. This procedure should be done in high-level medical centres, which have extra facilities for managing complications. PMID:27841896

  19. Clinical report—the pediatrician’s role in child maltreatment prevention.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Stirling, John

    2010-10-01

    It is the pediatrician’s role to promote the child’s well-being and to help parents raise healthy, well-adjusted children. Pediatricians, therefore, can play an important role in the prevention of child maltreatment. Previous clinical reports and policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics have focused on improving the identification and management of child maltreatment. This clinical report outlines how the pediatrician can help to strengthen families and promote safe, stable, nurturing relationships with the aim of preventing maltreatment. After describing some of the triggers and factors that place children at risk for maltreatment, the report describes how pediatricians can identify family strengths, recognize risk factors, provide helpful guidance, and refer families to programs and other resources with the goal of strengthening families, preventing child maltreatment, and enhancing child development.

  20. Firearms injury prevention and gun control in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Chapdelaine, A; Maurice, P

    1996-01-01

    Firearms cause more than three deaths daily in Canada. The rate of mortality from gunshot wounds varies among provinces and territories, ranging from 5.7 to 21.2 per 100,000 people. Most deaths from gunshot wounds occur in the home, with more occurring in rural areas than in cities, and are inflicted with legally acquired hunting guns. The cost of the consequences of the improper use of firearms in Canada has been estimated at $6.6 billion per year. There is a correlation between access to guns and risk of death. The mere presence of a firearm in a home increases the risk of suicide, homicide and "accidental" death. It is estimated that, in one third of all households in Quebec that have a firearm, it is not safely, or even legally, stored. To prevent deaths and injuries from firearms, education is not enough. Environmental, technological and legislative measures are also needed. In this spirit, the Quebec Public Health Network has taken a position supporting better controls on access to firearms, including the licensing and registration of all firearms and their ownership, to prevent deaths and injuries. The network believes that licensing and registration will reduce the problems related to firearms by making owners accountable for the use of their firearms, improving public safety, helping to control the import and circulation of firearms, reinforcing research and education, and reducing access to firearms in homes. Licensing and registration do not interfere with legitimate firearm use, their cost is acceptable in light of the advantages they provide, and they are desired by most Canadians. PMID:8911295

  1. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  2. Strategies for Playground Injury Prevention: An Overview of a Playground Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Preventing injuries to children, especially debilitating and life threatening, requires an awareness of where these types of injuries occur during the school days. This review examines falls from playground equipment, events that have been identified as the leading causes of nonfatal unintentional injuries for children. Thus, the issue of…

  3. Shoulder injuries from alpine skiing and snowboarding. Aetiology, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Kocher, M S; Dupré, M M; Feagin, J A

    1998-03-01

    There has been a decrease in the overall injury rate and the rate of lower extremity injuries for alpine skiing, with a resultant increase in the ratio of upper extremity to lower extremity injuries. Upper extremity injuries account for 20 to 35% of all injuries during alpine skiing and nearly 50% of all injuries during snowboarding. The most common upper extremity injuries during skiing are sprain of the thumb metacarpal-phalangeal joint ulnar collateral ligament, and the most common in snowboarding is wrist fracture. Shoulder injuries from skiing and snowboarding have been less well characterised. With the increased ratio of upper to lower extremity injuries during alpine skiing and the boom in popularity of snowboarding, shoulder injuries will be seen with increasing frequency by those who care for alpine sport injuries. Shoulder injuries account for 4 to 11% of all alpine skiing injuries and 22 to 41% of upper extremity injuries. The rate of shoulder injuries during alpine skiing is 0.2 to 0.5 injuries per thousand skier-days. During snowboarding, shoulder injuries account for 8 to 16% of all injuries and 20 to 34% of upper extremity injuries. Falls are the most common mechanism of shoulder injury, in addition to pole planting during skiing and aerial manoeuvres during snowboarding. Common shoulder injuries during skiing and snowboarding are glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff strains, acromioclavicular separations and clavicle fractures. Less common shoulder injuries include greater tuberosity fractures, trapezius strains, proximal humerus fractures, biceps strains, glenoid fractures, scapula fractures, humeral head fractures, sterno-clavicular separations, acromion fractures and biceps tendon dislocation. Prevention of shoulder injuries during skiing and snowboarding may be possible through interventions in education and technique, conditioning and equipment and environment.

  4. Palatal avulsion injury by a foreign body in a child

    PubMed Central

    Alabi, Sulyman Biodun; Aremu, Shuaib Kayode; Abdulkadir, A Y; Legbo, J N; Akande, Halima J

    2012-01-01

    A 6-year-old girl who claimed to have fallen while playing with metal rod that resulted in palatal avulsion injuries was presented. Neither of the parents was around when the incidence happened. She was brought to the hospital because of pain, bleeding from the mouth, drooling of saliva mixed with blood and inability to feed or phonate appropriately. Examinations of the oral cavity revealed a triangular area of avulsion in the posterior aspect of the hard palate extending to the soft palate. She had examination under anaesthesia and wound repaired with 3-0 vicryl interrupted sutures after thorough wound debridement. She did well and was discharged from the clinic. PMID:22605851

  5. A systematic literature review of the relationship between stretching and athletic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Athletic-related injuries are a major cause for healthcare visits and financial burden for an otherwise healthy population of adults. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of stretching on injury prevention and to determine whether current stretching guidelines are beneficial for athletes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted through searching MEDLINE and CINAHL on topics related to stretching and injury prevention. Current belief is that stretching reduces injury incidence and that it should be performed prior to athletic activities. An examination of 11 articles provided inconclusive outcomes regarding the positive effect of stretching on injury prevention. A sport or activity-specific tailored stretch and warm-up program yielded the best outcomes in relation to preventing injuries. Direct negative effects of stretching were not identified; therefore, the application of stretching should be performed on an individual basis.

  6. Injury and violence prevention policy: celebrating our successes, protecting our future.

    PubMed

    Koné, Rebecca Greco; Zurick, Elizabeth; Patterson, Sara; Peeples, Amy

    2012-09-01

    Policy strategies for injury and violence prevention influence systems development, organizational change, social norms, and individual behavior to improve the health and safety of a population. Injury and violence prevention professionals should consider how their issues resonate with various audiences, including policy makers, the public, and other decision makers. As the cost of healthcare continues to rise and greater demands are placed on the healthcare system, the use of public health policy becomes increasingly critical to protect the public's health and prevent injury and violence and its related morbidities and disabilities (Degutis, 2011). This article highlights some impactful policy successes from the field, allows us to reflect on the Injury Center's 20th anniversary, and describes steps to address injuries and violence into the future. The purpose of this paper is to discuss policy as a public health strategy and the critical role it plays in injury and violence prevention.

  7. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  8. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  9. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  10. Aging and Spinal Cord Injury: External Causes of Injury and Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying; Allen, Victoria; DeVivo, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a consistent trend toward older age at time of spinal cord injury (SCI), little is known about the external causes of SCI in the elderly. Objective: To examine environmental circumstances, documented by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, at time of SCI among older adults. Method: Data on individuals injured in 2005 or later were retrieved from the National SCI Database. Demographics, injury profiles, and external causes of injury were compared between the study group (age >60 years, n = 1,079) and reference group (age 16–45 years, n = 3,579) using chi-square and Student t tests. Results: Among the elderly, falls were the most common etiology of SCI (60%), followed by transport accidents (24%) and complications of medical and surgical care (12%). In the younger group, transport accidents were the most common etiology of SCI (49%), followed by falls (22%) and assault (21%). Falls on the same level (30%), from stairs and steps (22%), and other slipping, tripping, and stumbling (11%) were the most common mechanisms of falls in the elderly group. Among motor vehicle accidents, car occupant injured in a collision with another car was the most common mechanism of injury among the elderly (28%). Conclusion: There is an urgent need for effective fall prevention programs among the elderly to reduce SCI in this expanding population. Details on the mechanisms of falls and other major causes of SCI among the elderly provided in this study should inform the development of future interventions for high-risk persons, activities, and environments. PMID:26363588

  11. Development and Optimization of an Injury Prevention Intervention for Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vercruysse, Sien; De Clercq, Dirk; Goossens, Lennert; Aelterman, Nathalie; Haerens, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Injury prevention is highly needed in physically active populations, such as pre-service and in-service physical education teachers (PETs). As a lack of adherence to preventive strategies is problematic in injury, it seems crucial to develop and optimize interventions that correspond to the specific needs and wishes of PETs. Aim: The…

  12. Promoting Health and Preventing Injury in Preschool Children: The Role of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemagno, Sonia A.; Niles, Sheila A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy; Miller, William J.

    2008-01-01

    There is concern that parents under stress may not be effective in promoting health and preventing injury in young children, but research in this area has been limited. To explore this issue, a study was conducted to look at the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and actions taken to promote health and to prevent injury in…

  13. Child Maltreatment, Subsequent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and the Mediating Roles of Dissociation, Alexithymia and Self-Blame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Page, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Hazell, Philip; Taylor, Anne; Protani, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although child maltreatment is associated with later non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), the mechanism through which it might lead to NSSI is not well understood. The current retrospective case-control study examined associations between child maltreatment and later NSSI, and investigated the mediating roles of dissociation, alexithymia,…

  14. Toppled television sets and head injuries in the pediatric population: a framework for prevention.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Parker, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to children caused by falling televisions have become more frequent during the last decade. These injuries can be severe and even fatal and are likely to become even more common in the future as TVs increase in size and become more affordable. To formulate guidelines for the prevention of these injuries, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on injuries related to toppling televisions. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar according to the Cochrane guidelines for all studies involving children 0-18 years of age who were injured by toppled TVs. Factors contributing to injury were categorized using Haddon's Matrix, and the public health approach was used as a framework for developing strategies to prevent these injuries. The vast majority (84%) of the injuries occurred in homes and more than three-fourths were unwitnessed by adult caregivers. The TVs were most commonly large and elevated off the ground. Dressers and other furniture not designed to support TVs were commonly involved in the TV-toppling incident. The case fatality rate varies widely, but almost all deaths reported (96%) were due to brain injuries. Toddlers between the ages of 1 and 3 years most frequently suffer injuries to the head and neck, and they are most likely to suffer severe injuries. Many of these injuries require brain imaging and neurosurgical intervention. Prevention of these injuries will require changes in TV design and legislation as well as increases in public education and awareness. Television-toppling injuries can be easily prevented; however, the rates of injury do not reflect a sufficient level of awareness, nor do they reflect an acceptable effort from an injury prevention perspective.

  15. A three-phase analysis of the prevention of recreational softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Janda, D H; Wojtys, E M; Hankin, F M; Benedict, M E; Hensinger, R N

    1990-01-01

    Recreational sports injuries are expensive to society. Prevention of such injuries must be a major public health goal. In a previous retrospective study, base sliding was found to be responsible for 71% of recreational softball injuries. Because most injuries occurred during rapid deceleration against stationary bases, quick-release (break-away) bases were evaluated as a means to modify this mechanism of injury. In a prospective study, 633 softball games were played on a break-away base fields and 627 games were played on stationary base fields. Forty-five sliding injuries occurred on the stationary base diamonds (1 injury for every 13.9 games) and only two sliding injuries occurred on the break-away fields (1 injury for every 316.5 games). The medical costs for injuries on the stationary base fields was 79 times greater than that on the break-away fields. In a 1035 game follow-up study performed on all fields equipped with break-away bases, two sliding injuries occurred (1 injury for every 517.5 games). Installing break-away bases in fields used by recreational leagues would achieve a significant reduction of serious softball injuries (98%) and, therefore, should be mandatory. Based on our findings, the Centers for Disease Control has estimated 1.7 million injuries would be prevented nationally per year, saving $2.0 billion per year nationally in acute medical care costs.

  16. Evaluation of a Spiritually Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Louisa K.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors empirically evaluated a spiritually based 1-day child maltreatment training program. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results indicated that participants' recognition of hypothetical maltreatment did not increase after training. Furthermore, although participants decreased their use of items known to dissuade decisions to report, they…

  17. 76 FR 7217 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Enhanced Surveillance for New Vaccine Preventable Disease, Funding... for New Vaccine Preventable Disease, FOA IP11-010, initial review.'' CONTACT PERSON FOR...

  18. 76 FR 3908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  19. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Knowledge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...: Donald Blackman, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  20. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director, Extramural Research... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  1. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director, Extramural Research... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  2. 76 FR 4703 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: January 20,...

  3. 76 FR 12122 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: February 25,...

  4. 75 FR 78997 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion,...

  5. 76 FR 20355 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Developmental Disabilities, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ] Dated: March 31,...

  6. 76 FR 19995 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned... Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop...

  7. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  8. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  9. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K-92... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  10. 76 FR 20355 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K-92,...

  11. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Extramural Programs, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  12. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned... committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency...

  13. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  14. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP14-001, initial... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times And Dates 8...

  15. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop E-60, Atlanta... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: May 25, 2011. Elaine...

  16. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  17. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  18. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP14-001, initial... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates 8...

  19. 76 FR 19996 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  20. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11:00 a.m.-6:00... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting...

  1. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC..., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...

  2. 76 FR 49771 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway,...

  3. 76 FR 13414 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: March...

  4. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned... committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency...

  5. 76 FR 18555 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned... committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency...

  6. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., January... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: December...

  7. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Adults to Inform Future Public Health Policy Efforts to Prevent Skin Cancer, SIP12-054, Pilot Study to... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date 11:00 a.m.-5:30...

  8. A toothbrush impalement injury of the floor of mouth in autism child.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryo; Uchiyama, Hiroto; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Fukada, Kenji; Ogiuchi, Hideki; Ando, Tomohiro

    2013-12-01

    Penetrating injuries in the oral cavity are common in children. However, penetrating injuries with retained foreign bodies are rare. We report a case of a toothbrush impalement injury of the floor of the mouth in a child with autism. A 5-year-old boy with autism presented with an accidentally impaled toothbrush in the oral cavity. He was taken to the operation room and examined under general anesthesia. The handle of the toothbrush was cut off using rib scissors for mask ventilation, and intra-oral intubation was performed. The toothbrush was located approximately 2.5 cm into the floor of the mouth. The toothbrush was removed uneventfully. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was instituted during hospitalization, and discharge from the hospital occurred 4 days after the operation.

  9. The Role of Context in Risk for Pediatric Injury: Influences from the Home and Child Care Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of pediatric mortality among American children, but the role of environmental context remains poorly understood as a risk for child injury. Couched in Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological theory, this study analyzed data from a sample of almost 900 children to identify relations between the home and…

  10. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  11. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  12. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  13. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  14. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  15. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  16. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  17. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  18. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  19. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  20. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  1. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  2. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  3. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  4. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  5. The role of warmup in muscular injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Safran, M R; Garrett, W E; Seaber, A V; Glisson, R R; Ribbeck, B M

    1988-01-01

    This study is an attempt to provide biomechanical support for the athletic practice of warming up prior to an exercise task to reduce the incidence of injury. Tears in isometrically preconditioned (stimulated before stretching) muscle were compared to tears in control (nonstimulated) muscle by examining four parameters: 1) force and 2) change of length required to tear the muscle, 3) site of failure, and 4) length-tension deformation. The tibialis anterior (TA), the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and flexor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from both hindlimbs of rabbits comprised our experimental model. Isometrically preconditioned TA (P less than 0.001), EDL (P less than 0.005), and FDL (P less than 0.01) muscles required more force to fail than their contralateral controls. Preconditioned TA (P less than 0.05), EDL (P less than 0.001), and FDL (P less than 0.01) muscles also stretched to a greater length from rest before failing than their nonpreconditioned controls. The site of failure in all of the muscles was the musculotendinous junction; thus, the site of failure was not altered by condition. The length-tension deformation curves for all three muscle types showed that in every case the preconditioned muscles attained a lesser force at each given increase in length before failure, showing a relative increase in elasticity, although only the EDL showed a statistically significant difference. From our data, it may be inferred that physiologic warming (isometric preconditioning) is of benefit in preventing muscular injury by increasing the and length to failure and elasticity of the muscle-tendon unit.

  6. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  7. Child maltreatment as a global phenomenon: from trauma to prevention.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Chantal; Michel, Geneviève; Dumais, Marilyne

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have clearly showed the negative impact of neglect and abuse on child development at both the psychological and neurobiological levels. To date, many studies have focused on identifying risk and protective factors occurring at all levels of the ecology. However, more distal-level variables, such as culture and ethnicity, have not been studied as much as those of more proximal levels; yet studies in Western countries have consistently found an overrepresentation of child maltreatment reports among ethnic minority groups. In this commentary, we reflect on a series of articles examining maltreatment from a crosscultural perspective and using samples of diverse countries. Taken together, studies in this special section document the terrible fact that maltreatment is a global phenomenon. Through a summary of these studies' main findings and concerns, we highlight four key points that we believe are important to consider for future research and intervention efforts.

  8. Priorities for injury prevention in women's Australian football: a compilation of national data from different sources

    PubMed Central

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Participation in Australian football (AF) has traditionally been male dominated and current understanding of injury and priorities for prevention are based solely on reports of injuries in male players. There is evidence in other sports that indicates that injury types differ between males and females. With increasing participation in AF by females, it is important to consider their specific injury and prevention needs. This study aimed to provide a first injury profile from existing sources for female AF. Methods Compilation of injury data from four prospectively recorded data sets relating to female AF: (1) hospital admissions in Victoria, 2008/09–13/14, n=500 injuries; (2) emergency department (ED) presentations in Victoria, 2008/09–2012/13, n=1,879 injuries; (3) insurance claims across Australia 2004–2013, n=522 injuries; (4) West Australian Women's Football League (WAWFL), 2014 season club data, n=49 injuries. Descriptive results are presented as injury frequencies, injury types and injury to body parts. Results Hospital admissions and ED presentations were dominated by upper limb injuries, representing 47% and 51% of all injuries, respectively, primarily to the wrist/hand at 32% and 40%. Most (65%) insurance claim injuries involved the lower limb, 27% of which were for knee ligament damage. A high proportion of concussions (33%) were reported in the club-collected data. Conclusions The results provide the first compilation of existing data sets of women's AF injuries and highlight the need for a rigorous and systematic injury surveillance system to be instituted. PMID:27900171

  9. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... this page: About CDC.gov . Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion Basic Information Get the Facts Signs and Symptoms ...

  10. Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... also called labor and delivery), or breastfeeding (through breast milk). Mother-to-child transmission is the most ...

  11. Can child fatalities in house fires be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Squires, T.; Busuttil, A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse all child deaths in house fires in Scotland between 1980 and 1990. METHODS: Retrospective study of all child house fire fatalities based on the 'sudden death' investigation instigated by the procurator fiscal in whose jurisdiction the death occurred. The necropsy, toxicology, police, and fire brigade reports were examined in each case. RESULTS: There were 168 child deaths occurring in 118 house fires. In the 0-5 years age group 40% of deaths occurred in fires started as a direct result of the actions of children. The careless disposal of smoking materials was the most frequent cause of fatal fires killing older children. Upholstery and bedding were common materials of first ignition, accounting for over half the incidents. The majority of children were dead before the arrival of the emergency services and most died as a result of the inhalation of smoke. CONCLUSIONS: This survey emphasises the importance of 'self escape' which, particularly in the case of young children, requires the assistance of adult carers. The number of fires started as a result of children playing with sources of ignition raises important questions of supervision and the provision of a safe environment. There is, we contend, a need to highlight the importance of individual behaviour and responsibility while recognising the need to develop measures that are relevant to, and effective in, a particular socioeconomic context. PMID:9346071

  12. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: Intervention Model and Primary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a…

  13. Cause and Prevention of Playground Injuries and Litigation; Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.; Sweeney, Theodora B.

    This study examined 187 playground injuries and 13 fatalities that resulted in lawsuits between 1981 and 1995, taken from the files of two expert witnesses on playground safety who testified in the cases. The data are presented by geographic location, nature of injuries, cause of injuries/fatalities, playground equipment implicated, location of…

  14. Windsurfing Injuries: Added Awareness for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Dietz, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    With proper training and safety precautions, windsurfing is relatively safe, but its unique equipment and unpredictable environmental conditions can produce serious injuries. Clinicians may see fall-related ankle injuries, tarsometatarsal injuries, or anterior shoulder dislocations; chronic low-back pain from torso stress; skin lacerations; and…

  15. Locomotor Training Restores Walking in a Nonambulatory Child With Chronic, Severe, Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Andrea L; Nair, Preeti M; Bowden, Mark G; Dauser, Robert C; Herget, Benjamin R; Martin, Jennifer B; Phadke, Chetan P; Reier, Paul J; Senesac, Claudia R; Thompson, Floyd J; Howland, Dena R

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Locomotor training (LT) enhances walking in adult experimental animals and humans with mild-to-moderate spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The animal literature suggests that the effects of LT may be greater on an immature nervous system than on a mature nervous system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of LT in a child with chronic, incomplete SCI. Subject: The subject was a nonambulatory 4½-year-old boy with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) C Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS) of 4/50 who was deemed permanently wheelchair-dependent and was enrolled in an LT program 16 months after a severe cervical SCI. Methods: A pretest-posttest design was used in the study. Over 16 weeks, the child received 76 LT sessions using both treadmill and over-ground settings in which graded sensory cues were provided. The outcome measures were ASIA Impairment Scale score, gait speed, walking independence, and number of steps. Result: One month into LT, voluntary stepping began, and the child progressed from having no ability to use his legs to community ambulation with a rolling walker. By the end of LT, his walking independence score had increased from 0 to 13/20, despite no change in LEMS. The child's final self-selected gait speed was 0.29 m/s, with an average of 2,488 community-based steps per day and a maximum speed of 0.48 m/s. He then attended kindergarten using a walker full-time. Discussion and Conclusion: A simple, context-dependent stepping pattern sufficient for community ambulation was recovered in the absence of substantial voluntary isolated lower-extremity movement in a child with chronic, severe SCI. These novel data suggest that some children with severe, incomplete SCI may recover community ambulation after undergoing LT and that the LEMS cannot identify this subpopulation. PMID:18326054

  16. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Prevention of Pediatric Overuse Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Decoster, Laura C.; Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Parker, J. Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A.; White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6–18 years). Background: Participation in sports by the pediatric population has grown tremendously over the years. Although the health benefits of participation in competitive and recreational athletic events are numerous, one adverse consequence is sport-related injury. Overuse or repetitive trauma injuries represent approximately 50% of all pediatric sport-related injuries. It is speculated that more than half of these injuries may be preventable with simple approaches. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided based on current evidence regarding pediatric injury surveillance, identification of risk factors for injury, preparticipation physical examinations, proper supervision and education (coaching and medical), sport alterations, training and conditioning programs, and delayed specialization. PMID:21391806

  17. [Skiing and snowboarding trauma in children: epidemiology, physiopathology, prevention and main injuries].

    PubMed

    Dohin, B; Kohler, R

    2008-11-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are leading to a risk of injuries in children. Beginners and experienced have higher risk of injuries, however, the first have less severe injuries than the latest. Risk factors of injury are: ability and experience, binding adjustment, slope characteristics, speed, collisions with objects or jumping and risky behavior of the young skiers and snowboarders. Lower limb injuries are most common in skier, especially knee sprains, conversely snowboarders present more upper limb injuries, especially wrist fractures. The frequency of head injuries does not decrease while helmet use increases but severity decreases. Despite prevention and wearing protections, the frequency of trauma does not decrease significantly, which could be in relation with higher speed and increased risky behavior. Main prevention factors are safety knowledge and safety behavior, correct binding adjustment, and use of protections.

  18. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique.

  19. Effect of static stretching on prevention of injuries for military recruits.

    PubMed

    Amako, Masatoshi; Oda, Takaaki; Masuoka, Kazunori; Yokoi, Hiromichi; Campisi, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to evaluate whether static stretching can prevent training-related injuries in Japan Ground Self-Defense Force military recruits. A total of 901 recruits between 1996 and 1998 were divided into two groups. Of which, 518 recruits were assigned to the stretching group and practiced static stretching before and after each physical training session. The control subjects (383 recruits in the nonstretching group) did not stretch statically prior to exercise. The static stretching consisted of 18 exercises. We collected injury data from medical records and assessed the incidence and the location of injury. The total injury rate was almost the same between two groups; however, the incidences of muscle/tendon injury and low back pain were significantly lower in the stretching group (p < 0.05). Static stretching decreased the incidence of muscle-related injuries but did not prevent bone or joint injuries.

  20. [Repetitive strain injury (RSI): occurrence, etiology, therapy and prevention].

    PubMed

    Bongers, P M; de Vet, H C W; Blatter, B M

    2002-10-19

    In the Netherlands, work related upper-limb disorders are called Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI). RSI is not a diagnosis but a catch-all term for symptoms and signs located in the neck, upper back, shoulder, arm, elbow, hand, wrist and fingers. These symptoms may include pain, stiffness, tingling, clumsiness, loss of co-ordination, loss of strength, skin discoloration and temperature differences. Each year, 8% of working Dutch citizens take time off work due to RSI symptoms. Although the number of people claiming disability benefit due to RSI is limited, this figure has risen consecutively over the last three years. There is consensus that repetitive work at a high frequency and possibly accompanied by exertion of force is accompanied by RSI symptoms. There are indications of a relation between visual display unit use and these symptoms. However, these relations have not been established in a longitudinal study of adequate quality. High perceived job stress and a high workload are thought to be related to RSI, and women report more symptoms than men. There is insufficient information available on the role of different coping styles, perfectionism and dealing with symptoms. There is little information on the underlying mechanisms in the development of RSI, the diagnostics, therapy and prevention. In view of the lack of clear diagnostic criteria, suggestions have been made for a standardised description of the symptoms involved in the syndrome. A multidisciplinary treatment is likely to have the most effect. In terms of prevention, an integrated approach aimed at improving the working posture, reduction of static load and job stress and at individual factors is assumed to be the most effective.

  1. The status of legal authority for injury prevention practice in state health departments.

    PubMed

    Stier, Daniel D; Thombley, Melisa L; Kohn, Melvin A; Jesada, Rebecca A

    2012-06-01

    Despite the potential for public health strategies to decrease the substantial burden of injuries, injury prevention infrastructure in state health departments is underdeveloped. We sought to describe the legal support for injury prevention activities at state health departments. We searched the Lexis database for state laws providing authority for those activities, and categorized the scope of those laws. Only 10 states have authority that covers the full scope of injury prevention practice; in the others, legal authority is piecemeal, nonspecific, or nonexistent. More comprehensive legal authority could help health departments access data for surveillance, work with partners, address sensitive issues, and garner funding. Efforts should be undertaken to enhance legal support for injury prevention activities across the country.

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Do They Decrease the Occurrence of Child Sexual Abuse?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Laura E.; Leitenberg, Harold

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 825 female undergraduates found 62 percent participated in a "good touch-bad touch" sexual abuse prevention program in school. Eight percent who reported ever having had a prevention program also reported having been subsequently sexually abused, compared to 14 percent who did not ever have a prevention program. (Contains references.)…

  3. Youth injury data in the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: do they represent the Canadian experience?

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W.; Brison, R.; Mackenzie, S.; Garner, M.; King, M.; Greenberg, T; Boyce, W.

    2000-01-01

    Objective—Injuries to Canadian youth (11–15 years) identified from a population based health survey (World Health Organization—Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey, or WHO-HBSC) were compared with youth injuries from a national, emergency department based surveillance system. Comparisons focused on external causes of injury, and examined whether similar rankings of injury patterns and hence priorities for intervention were identified by the different systems. Setting—The Canadian version of the WHO-HBSC was conducted in 1998. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) is the national, emergency room based, surveillance program. Two hospitals involved in CHIRPP collectively provide population based data for Kingston, Ontario. Method—Numbers of injuries selected for study varied by data source: WHO-HBSC (n=3673); CHIRPP (n=20 133); Kingston CHIRPP (n=1944). WHO-HBSC and Kingston CHIRPP records were coded according to four variables in the draft International Classification of External Causes of Injury. Existing CHIRPP codes were available to compare Kingston and other CHIRPP data by five variables. Males and females in the three datasets were ranked according to the external causes. Data classified by source and sex were compared using Spearman's rank correlation statistic. Results—Rank orders of four variables describing external causes were remarkably similar between the WHO-HBSC and Kingston CHIRPP (ρ>0.78 p<0.004) for mechanism, object, location, and activity). The Kingston and other CHIRPP data were also similar (ρ>0.87; p<0.001) for the variables available to describe external causes of injury (including intent). Conclusion—The two subsets of the CHIRPP data and the WHO-HBSC data identified similar priorities for injury prevention among young people. These findings indicate that CHIRPP may be representative of general youth injury patterns in Canada. Our study provides a novel and practical model for the

  4. The Effects of the Family Foundations Prevention Program on Coparenting and Child Adjustment: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Solmeyer, Anna R.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Coffman, Donna L.; Jones, Damon E.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and emotional problems are common in early childhood and put children at risk for developing more serious problems. This study tested the mediating mechanisms through which a universal coparenting intervention implemented during the transition to parenthood led to reduced child adjustment problems at age 3, and explored child gender as a potential moderator. 169 heterosexual couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to a control condition or Family Foundations, a series of eight classes that targeted the coparenting relationship. Data were collected through videotaped triadic mother-father-child interaction tasks when the child was 1 and 3 years of age. Separate longitudinal path analyses for mothers and fathers tested coparenting competition and positivity as mediators of program effects on child adjustment problems. Significant mediated effects for coparenting competition were found for fathers with both sons and daughters and for mothers with sons, but not for mothers with daughters. These effects accounted for between 39 and 55% of the intervention’s impact on child adjustment problems. Coparenting positivity did not mediate program effects. These results support the use of a prevention approach to reduce coparenting competition and enhance child adjustment, and provide information that can be used to refine theory. PMID:23404669

  5. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Lino, Thiago Henrique de Araujo; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Oliveira, Thaisy Sarmento Batista; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; de Macedo, Rodrigo Feliciano; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral

    2014-01-01

    Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05). From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4%) reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%), males (73.7%), and motorcyclists (51.3%). More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3%) located in the head (20.7%) and face (21.6%). Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870) and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061), while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954). Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions. PMID:25574492

  6. Drinks to Prevent Dehydration in a Vomiting Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco ...

  7. Your Child and Good Health: Six Topics in Urban Preventive Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammonds, Karl E.

    This booklet is the first in a series providing practical information about major issues in the promotion of child health. Discussion is grouped into four parts. The first part, on health maintenance, discusses the features and significance of good checkups and addresses the need for parents to discuss menstruation as a normal, healthy part of…

  8. Child injury in Israel: emergency room visits to a children's medical center.

    PubMed

    Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Jinich-Aronowitz, Claudia; Endy-Findling, Liri; Molcho, Michal; Klein, Michal; Waisman, Yehezkel; Danon, Yehuda L; Merrick, Joav

    2005-03-28

    The object of this study was to provide data for policy making and prevention program planning in Israel. The study examined all visits to the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Schneider Children's Medical Center in 1996 (41,279 visits in total). Approximately 22.6% of the emergency room patients were admitted following injury. Most (97%) were unintentional injury. Approximately 42% of the patients were less than 4 years old and about 20% were 2 years old. In all age groups, the rate of boys was double. Approximately 92% were Jews. Despite this low rate of non-Jewish patients, however, they constituted 20% of later hospitalizations. The main injuries recorded were bruises and wounds from blunt objects, falls, motor vehicle-related accidents, and sport injuries. The most commonly injured body parts were the head and upper and lower limbs. In 82%, medical treatment was reported and 7% were hospitalized. In examining injuries over the year, there were no significant differences between the different months, but there were clusters of injuries around various holidays--bicycle and skateboard accidents at Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Succoth; pedestrian accidents around Lag BaOmer; burns on Purim, Hannukkah, and Passover; and accidental poisoning around Passover. The findings gave an indication of the nature of the injured population groups. These data could be useful for prevention strategy, both on the level of physical injury as well as on the level of the times of the year, when the risk was higher. The data collected very strongly raise the urgent need for establishing a national surveillance system, which would allow tracking injury-related data with respect to young people throughout the country.

  9. Responsibility for child and adolescent's psychosocial support associated with severe sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Hallquist, Charlotte; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communication as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordinator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibility for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be communicated to participants who are involved in children's and adolescent's sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not.

  10. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. Methods This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. ‘Policy triangle framework’ was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. Results The policies of “pupil liaisons” and “safety belt” were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For ‘pupil liaisons’ policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Conclusions Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is

  11. The science of fencing: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Roi, Giulio S; Bianchedi, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In this review we analyse the data from the literature on fencing with the aim of creating a psychobiological and multi-factorial model of fencing performance. Fencing is an open-skilled combat sport that was admitted to the first modern Olympic Games in Athens (1896). It is mainly practised indoors, with three different weapons: the foil, the sabre and the épée, each contested with different rules. A fencing international tournament may last between 9 and 11 hours. Bouts represent only 18% of total competition time, with an effective fight time of between 17 and 48 minutes. The physical demands of fencing competitions are high, involving the aerobic and anaerobic alactic and lactic metabolisms, and are also affected by age, sex, level of training and technical and tactical models utilized in relation to the adversary. The anthropometrical characteristics of fencers show a typical asymmetry of the limbs as a result of the practice of an asymmetrical sport activity. Fencing produces typical functional asymmetries that emphasize the very high level of specific function, strength and control required in this sport. Moreover, the physical demands of fencing are closely linked to the perceptual and psychological ones, and all are subjected to a continuous succession of changes during the bouts based on the behaviour of the opponent. For this reason it is difficult to identify a significant relationship between any one physiological characteristic and performance, and performance is more likely to be influenced by perceptual and neuro-physiological characteristics. Fencers need to anticipate the opponent and to mask their true intentions with a game of feints and counter-feints, which must be supported by an adequate psycho-physical condition to prevent central and peripheral fatigue. Fencing is not particularly dangerous; however, there is a fine line between a fatal lesion and a simple wound from a broken blade. The suggestions for injury prevention fall into three

  12. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of child-focused and parent-focused interventions in a child anxiety prevention program.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ellin; Dirksen, Carmen; Bögels, Susan; Bodden, Denise

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the cost-effectiveness of three indicated anxiety prevention strategies was examined from a societal perspective. Children (aged 8-12) were recruited via primary schools, selecting children scoring as high-anxious on an anxiety screening questionnaire. Participating children and their parents were randomized to a child--a parent-focused, or non-intervention group. All groups completed a diagnostic interview and standardized cost-diaries at pretest, and 1- and 2-year follow-up. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per 'ADIS improved' child (based on diagnostic information) were calculated and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and frontiers were plotted. The base-case and most secondary analyses showed it would be cost-effective to offer high-anxious children an intervention, and the parent-focused intervention to be the optimal strategy at lower monetary threshold values than the child-focused intervention and when parents were anxious. The child-focused intervention was dominant when analyses were performed from a healthcare perspective, for boys, and for children of grades 7-8 of primary school.

  14. Current Practices in Injury Prevention and Safety Helmet Use Among Head Injury Patients in an Army Outpatient Care Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    for which safety helmets or other protective head gear would also be appropriate. Biking 58% Wrestling 7% Karate 7% Rockclimbing 7% Kickboxing 7...activities: biking, rollerblading, baseball, kickboxing , rockclimbing, wrestling and karate. These Head Injury Prevention 36 activities all increase... Kickboxing , wrestling and karate were grouped into a contact collision group. This group was at the highest risk of head injury with any type of

  15. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  16. Stretching for prevention of Achilles tendon injuries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Park, Don Young; Chou, Loretta

    2006-12-01

    Professional and recreational athletes commonly perform pre-exercise stretching to prevent musculoskeletal injuries. Little definitive evidence exists that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of stretching in reducing injury. Achilles tendon injuries are among the most common injuries affecting active individuals in the United States today. Clinicians commonly recommend stretching the Achilles tendon without concrete scientific evidence to support such a claim. Few studies have addressed the effect of stretching in Achilles tendon injuries, and it is unclear if the conclusions made for musculoskeletal injuries can be applied to the Achilles tendon. Biomechanical studies of the Achilles tendon and measurements of the tendon's reflex activity have demonstrated possible mechanisms for the potential benefit of stretching, including load-induced hypertrophy and increased tendon tensile strength. Recent prospective studies have contended that reductions in plantarflexor strength and increases in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion from stretching the Achilles tendon may increase the risk of injury. Studies examining stretching in injury prevention, the biomechanical properties of injuries to the Achilles tendon were compiled and reviewed. Although many theories have been published regarding the potential benefits and limitations of stretching, few studies have been able to definitively demonstrate its utility in injury prevention.

  17. Effectiveness of foot orthoses for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries : a review.

    PubMed

    Hume, Patria; Hopkins, Will; Rome, Keith; Maulder, Peter; Coyle, Greg; Nigg, Benno

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare professionals prescribe foot orthoses (FOs) for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries, but previous reviews of the effectiveness of FOs have been inconclusive. We have therefore performed a review emphasizing the magnitude of treatment effects to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of FOs in the treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries.Qualifying studies were mainly controlled trials, but some uncontrolled clinical trials of patients with chronic injuries were analysed separately. Injuries included plantar fasciitis, tibial stress fractures and patellofemoral pain syndrome; these were included because of the large treatment costs for these frequent injuries in New Zealand. Outcomes were pain, comfort, function and injury status. Continuous measures were expressed as standardized differences using baseline between-subject standard deviations, and magnitudes were inferred from the intersection of 90% confidence intervals with thresholds of a modified Cohen scale. Effects based on frequencies were expressed as hazard ratios and their magnitudes were inferred from intersection of confidence intervals with a novel scale of thresholds.The effects of FOs for treatment of pain or injury prevention were mostly trivial. FOs were not effective in treating or preventing patellofemoral pain syndrome. Some studies showed moderate effects for treatment of plantar fasciitis. Only a few studies showed moderate or large beneficial effects of FOs in preventing injuries.Customized semi-rigid FOs have moderate to large beneficial effects in treating and preventing plantar fasciitis and posterior tibial stress fractures, and small to moderate effects in treating patellofemoral pain syndrome. Given the limited randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials available for the injuries of interest, it may be that more or less benefit can be derived from the use of FOs, but many studies did not provide enough information for the standardized effect

  18. Stretching to prevent musculoskeletal injuries. An approach to workplace wellness.

    PubMed

    Gartley, Rosanna M; Prosser, J Lynn

    2011-06-01

    A pre-shift stretching protocol to reduce employee injuries was initiated at a beverage company and a tin mill in the northeastern United States. The primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of a pre-shift stretching program on work-related musculoskeletal injuries. A secondary goal was to evaluate daily participation compliance during the 90-day program. Data on employee injuries during the stretching program were collected and compared to injury events during the same time period 1 year earlier. Comparison to injury events of the total eligible population during the study time frame was also included. Results of this pilot program in terms of injury rate reduction and participant compliance are promising. Study results may be useful for employers considering implementing similar programs and also suggest the need for further study in this area.

  19. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice concerns.... Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from October 1-16,...

  20. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Times and...

  1. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice concerns.... Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from October 1-16,...

  2. 75 FR 28261 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved Diagnostics for Lyme Borreliosis, Funding Opportunity... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  3. 76 FR 9785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young...

  4. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... No: 2010-12627] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural... Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the...

  5. 75 FR 78998 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Addressing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Addressing Global TB Prevention and Control in all Populations and Strengthening Health...

  6. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: Examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Kim, Judy C.; Chango, Joanna M.; Spiro, Westley J.; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13–18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754

  7. Inpatient hospital outcomes following injury in Suriname: lessons for prevention.

    PubMed

    Pracht, Etienne

    2014-03-01

    Traumatic injury is an important and indiscriminant contributor to mortality. Hypothesizing that outcomes from severe injuries do not vary by demographic factors or socioeconomic status, this research analyzed the relationship between race, ethnicity, injury characteristics, and fatality following hospitalization in Suriname. Data were obtained for all hospital episodes in 2008 from the only hospital within the greater Paramaribo area that provides emergency department services. A logistic regression was used to analyze the subset of 544 non-elderly adult trauma victims to assess the contribution of patient demographics and anatomic injury severity to outcome, which was defined as mortality during acute hospitalization. The specific demographics included were patient age, gender, race, and insurance status. Injury severity was measured using the International Classification Injury Severity Score. The results indicate that age, insurance status, injury type, and injury severity were significant predictors for survival. While the uninsured experienced a higher rate of mortality, the model suggests this result is not due to physiologic reasons but behavioral and socioeconomic. The higher mortality is driven by greater injury severity, which increases not only the mortality rate but also the cost of care. Injury severity itself, independent of all other factors, is the most important contributor. The results suggest that a reduction of 10% in injury severity, around the mean, would reduce the probability of mortality by 70%. This suggests that targeting risk-taking behavior, perhaps relating to compliance with safety practices (e.g. seat belt and helmet laws), driver education, and road safety measures can play important roles in reducing mortality and morbidity from injury in Suriname.

  8. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    PubMed Central

    Melbye, Elisabeth L.; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating. PMID:26380269

  9. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating.

    PubMed

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  10. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  11. Characteristics of auditory agnosia in a child with severe traumatic brain injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hattiangadi, Nina; Pillion, Joseph P; Slomine, Beth; Christensen, James; Trovato, Melissa K; Speedie, Lynn J

    2005-01-01

    We present a case that is unusual in many respects from other documented incidences of auditory agnosia, including the mechanism of injury, age of the individual, and location of neurological insult. The clinical presentation is one of disturbance in the perception of spoken language, music, pitch, emotional prosody, and temporal auditory processing in the absence of significant deficits in the comprehension of written language, expressive language production, or peripheral auditory function. Furthermore, the patient demonstrates relatively preserved function in other aspects of audition such as sound localization, voice recognition, and perception of animal noises and environmental sounds. This case study demonstrates that auditory agnosia is possible following traumatic brain injury in a child, and illustrates the necessity of assessment with a wide variety of auditory stimuli to fully characterize auditory agnosia in a single individual.

  12. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING STAKEHOLDERS’ ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS REGARDING NAIL GUN INJURY RISKS AND PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    ALBERS, JAMES T.; HUDOCK, STEPHEN D.; LOWE, BRIAN D.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants’ comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers’ behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented. PMID:24704813

  13. Prevention of iatrogenic inferior alveolar nerve injuries in relation to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Renton, T

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to review current hypotheses on the aetiology and prevention of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries in relation to dental procedures. The inferior alveolar nerve can be damaged during many dental procedures, including administration of local anaesthetic, implant bed preparation and placement, endodontics, third molar surgery and other surgical interventions. Damage to sensory nerves can result in anaesthesia, paraesthesia, pain, or a combination of the three. Pain is common in inferior alveolar nerve injuries, resulting in significant functional problems. The significant disability associated with these nerve injuries may also result in increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. Many of these iatrogenic nerve injuries can be avoided with careful patient assessment and planning. Furthermore, if the injury occurs there are emerging strategies that may facilitate recovery. The emphasis of this review is on how we may prevent these injuries and facilitate resolution in the early post surgical phase.

  14. Residential building stakeholders' attitudes and beliefs regarding nail gun injury risks and prevention.

    PubMed

    Albers, James T; Hudock, Stephen D; Lowe, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants' comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers' behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented.

  15. Distracted driving and implications for injury prevention in adults.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jane; Grell, Jennifer; Lohrman, Nicole; Stehly, Christy; Stoltzfus, Jill; Wainwright, Gail; Hoff, William S

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ≤ .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the

  16. Football injuries in children and adolescent players: are there clues for prevention?

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Rößler, Roland; Junge, Astrid

    2013-09-01

    Football (soccer) is the world's most popular sport with most players being younger than 18 years. Playing football can induce beneficial health effects, but there is also a high risk of injury. Therefore, it is necessary to implement measures for preventing injuries. The present review analyzes and summarizes published scientific information on the incidence and characteristics of football injuries in children and adolescent players to arrive at sound conclusions and valid considerations for the development of injury-prevention programs. A literature search was conducted up to November 2012. Fifty-three relevant scientific publications were detected. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for pooled analysis. Additional information from the remaining 21 studies was considered where appropriate to obtain a broader perspective on the injury problem in children and youth football. Training injury incidence was nearly constant for players aged 13-19 years, ranging from 1 to 5 injuries per 1,000 h training. Match injury incidence tended to increase with age through all age groups, with an average incidence of about 15 to 20 injuries per 1,000 match hours in players older than 15 years. Between 60 and 90 % of all football injuries were classified as traumatic and about 10-40 % were overuse injuries. Most injuries (60-90 %) were located at the lower extremities with the ankle, knee, and thigh being mostly affected. The frequency of upper-extremity and head/face injuries was higher in those studies that analyzed match injuries only. The most common injury types were strains, sprains, and contusions (10 up to 40 % each). There is some evidence that the risk of traumatic injuries and, in particular, of sustaining a fracture, contusion, or concussion was higher during match play than in practice sessions. Fractures were more frequent in children younger than 15 years than in older players. About half of all time-loss injuries led to an absence from sport of less

  17. The Cost of Childhood Unintentional Injuries and the Value of Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ted R.; Romano, Eduardo O.; Spicer, Rebecca S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines frequency, costs, and quality of life losses associated with unintentional childhood injuries in 1996, using analyses of national and state data sets. Summarizes the cost effectiveness of several child safety measures and discusses current federal funding patterns for health care research on the subject. An appendix presents methods of…

  18. Home delivery of an injury prevention kit for children in four French cities: a controlled randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Sznajder, M; Leduc, S; Janvrin, M; Bonnin, M; Aegerter, P; Baudier, F; Chevallier, B; Macarthur, C

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Home delivery of counselling and safety devices to prevent child injuries could help parents to adopt safe behaviour. The aim of this study was to test a safety kit designed and used in Quebec (Canada). Design and subjects: One hundred families from four towns in the Paris suburbs were visited at home by nurses or doctors when their child reached 6–9 months. Selection criteria were: primipara, medical problem, psychological, and/or socioeconomic difficulties. Interventions: During the first visit, 50 families (group 1) received counselling and a kit including preventive devices and pamphlets about indoor injuries and ways to avoid them. The other 50 families (group 2) received counselling but not the kit. A second home visit was made 6–8 weeks later. Main outcome measures: The number of safety improvements was calculated 6–8 weeks after a first home visit. Perceived usefulness of the kit was collected from families and from interviewers. Results: Between the first and the second visits, safety improvement was significantly higher in the group with the kit. This was mainly related to the risk of fall (p<0.02), fire and burns (p<0.001), poisoning (p<0.01), and suffocation (p<0.001). For improvement related to devices provided in the kit, the difference between the groups was significant: 64.4% improvement in group 1 versus 41.2% in group 2 (p<0.01). The relative risk (RR) of safety improvement between groups was 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 1.80). Even for improvements not related to the kit the difference remained significant: 31.2% in group 1 versus 20.2% in group 2 (p<0.05); RR = 1.54 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.93). Conclusion: Routine home visits by social services offer a good opportunity to tackle child injury prevention. Free delivery of prevention kits and counselling allow families to modify their behaviour and homes so as to reduce risks. PMID:12966017

  19. Efficacy of child abuse and neglect prevention messages in the Florida Winds of Change campaign.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Falconer, Mary Kay; Khan, Munziba; Ferris, Christie

    2012-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns have been included in universal, communitywide, and programmatic approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect. More evaluation of campaign effects is needed to identify their place on the continuum of evidence-based programs. This article reports on an efficacy study of the Florida Winds of Change campaign using a randomized experimental design. Investigators conducted an online survey of a web-based panel of Florida residents with children 18 years of age or younger living in the home. Six outcomes were measured at baseline and a 30-day follow-up. Three outcomes referred to knowledge of child development, child disciplinary techniques, and community resources for parents. Prevention attitudes or beliefs, motivation, and action were also assessed. Respondents were exposed to three public service announcements and a selection of parent resource material. Logistic regression models revealed that exposure to campaign messages was associated with significant increases in all but one of the campaign outcomes.

  20. Examination of Interventions to Prevent Common Lower-Limb Injuries in the New Zealand Defense Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Davidson, PhD*; Suzanne J. Wilson, MSc*; David J. Chalmers, PhD*; Barry D. Wilson, PhDf; Lt Col David McBnde, RNZAMCf ABSTRACT The biomechanical ...force. Stability training is low cost and has the ability to address the biomechanical mechanisms of several lower-limb injuries. However, it requires... biomechanical mechanism of the injury, an effective injury prevention strategy must take into account the particular requirements of the user group.’ In